Science.gov

Sample records for aerosol research group

  1. Near UV Aerosol Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar

    2013-01-01

    2012-13 Report of research on aerosol and cloud remote sensing using UV observations. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  2. Center for Aerosol Research (AEROCENTER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleidman, Richard; Kaufman, Yoram; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The newly established Center for Aerosol Research (AEROCENTER) located at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt MD is dedicated to fostering interdisciplinary research in all aspects of aerosol science. AEROCENTER will be an incubator for innovative new analysis of existing data and ideas for new space missions. The plan is to tap and harvest ideas from a broad international and interdisciplinary science community and to incorporate these ideas into NASA's aerosol research effort for understanding and predicting the aerosol effect on climate and the environment. In order to achieve this goal the center aims to host several established and developing scientists for a period of 3-6 months each year. AEROCENTER will also develop a new technical infrastructure that will integrate the present aerosol research activities and data resources of GSFC/Greenbelt and GSFC/GISS, increase efficiency in the use of NASA remote sensing data, and increase the involvement of a larger national and international scientific community. The center aims to institutionalize and extend the present knowledge base within NASA into a national resource for the education and research communities.

  3. FTIR Analysis of Functional Groups in Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, S. M.; McKenzie, G.; Dransfield, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are suspensions of particulate matter composed of compounds formed from chemical reactions of organic species in the atmosphere. Atmospheric particulate matter can have impacts on climate, the environment and human health. Standardized techniques to analyze the characteristics and composition of complex secondary organic aerosols are necessary to further investigate the formation of SOA and provide a better understanding of the reaction pathways of organic species in the atmosphere. While Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can provide detailed information about the elemental composition of a sample, it reveals little about the chemical moieties which make up the particles. This work probes aerosol particles deposited on Teflon filters using FTIR, based on the protocols of Russell, et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 114, 2009) and the spectral fitting algorithm of Takahama, et al (submitted, 2012). To validate the necessary calibration curves for the analysis of complex samples, primary aerosols of key compounds (e.g., citric acid, ammonium sulfate, sodium benzoate) were generated, and the accumulated masses of the aerosol samples were related to their IR absorption intensity. These validated calibration curves were then used to classify and quantify functional groups in SOA samples generated in chamber studies by MIT's Kroll group. The fitting algorithm currently quantifies the following functionalities: alcohols, alkanes, alkenes, amines, aromatics, carbonyls and carboxylic acids.

  4. Present role of PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, Willy

    2015-11-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s nearly half of the elemental analyses of atmospheric aerosol samples were performed by PIXE. Since then, other techniques for elemental analysis became available and there has been a steady increase in studies on organic aerosol constituents and other aspects of aerosols, especially in the areas of nucleation (new particle formation), optical properties, and the role of aerosol particles in cloud formation and properties. First, a brief overview and discussion is given of the developments and trends in atmospheric aerosol analysis and research of the past three decades. Subsequently, it is indicated that there is still invaluable work to be done by PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research, especially if one teams up with other aerosol researchers and performs complementary measurements, e.g., on small aerosol samples that are taken with high-time resolution. Fine examples of such research are the work done by the Lund group in the CARIBIC aircraft studies and the analysis of circular streaker samples by the Florence PIXE group. These and other examples are presented and other possibilities of PIXE are indicated.

  5. Small Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  6. DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) is a residential and personal exposure field monitoring study that is being conducted in Detroit MI over a three-year period from 2004 to 2007. The primary goal of the study is to evaluate and describe the relationship betw...

  7. National Melon Research Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Melon Research Group met with the Cucurbitaceae 2010 conference in Charleston, South Carolina at 7:00 P.M. on November 17. The discussion was focused solely on cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM). Several reported increased problem with CPM or apparent changes in race. Ales Lebeda (Palacký Un...

  8. Hydrolysis of organonitrate functional groups in aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shang; Shilling, John E.; Song, Chen; Hiranuma, Naruki; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Russell, Lynn M.

    2012-10-19

    Organonitrate (ON) groups are important substituents in secondary organic aerosols. Model simulations and laboratory studies indicate a large fraction of ON groups in aerosol particles, but much lower quantities are observed in the atmosphere. Hydrolysis of ON groups in aerosol particles has been proposed recently. To test this hypothesis, we simulated formation of ON molecules in a reaction chamber under a wide range of relative humidity (0% to 90%). The mass fraction of ON groups (5% to 20% for high-NOx experiments) consistently decreased with increasing relative humidity, which was best explained by hydrolysis of ON groups at a rate of 4 day-1 (lifetime of 6 hours) for reactions under relative humidity greater than 20%. In addition, we found that secondary nitrogen-containing molecules absorb light, with greater absorption under dry and high-NOx conditions. This work provides the first evidence for particle-phase hydrolysis of ON groups, a process that could substantially reduce ON group concentration in the atmosphere.

  9. Dynamics of Change in Research Work: Constructing a New Research Area in a Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saari, Eveliina; Miettinen, Reijo

    2001-01-01

    Studies how an aerosol technology research group constructed a research agenda for itself and how its activity was changed in the process. Analyzes the development of the production of ultrafine particles and employs the concept of mediated activity. (Contains 29 references.) (DDR)

  10. Group Work. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  11. Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups.

    PubMed Central

    Kitzinger, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. Focus groups have advantages for researchers in the field of health and medicine: they do not discriminate against people who cannot read or write and they can encourage participation from people reluctant to be interviewed on their own or who feel they have nothing to say. Images p301-a PMID:7633241

  12. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  13. Conducting Research With Community Groups.

    PubMed

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2015-10-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. Although several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This article presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African American women; (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women; and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research-intensive academic environments. PMID:25724557

  14. Conducting Research with Community Groups

    PubMed Central

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2016-01-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. While several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This manuscript presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of: (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African-American women, (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women, and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research intensive academic environments. PMID:25724557

  15. Development of Particulates and Aerosols Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Rivera, Monica

    2005-01-01

    shared her understanding of the aerosol technology with them. She also provided input for their end of the summer presentations. And attended the Aviation and Particle Emissions workshop. This workshop brought together experts in the aircraft particulate emissions field. As a result Ms. Rivera made two significant contacts with academia (UMR) and government (WPAFB) which could lead to future collaboration. She also attended the Aerosol and Particle Measurement Class held at the University of Minnesota. This class refreshed her particulate knowledge and introduced her to new aerosol applications and technology. Furthermore at the class contacts were made with private industry (TSI) and government (WPAFB). Ms. Rivera also enhanced her education by taking an in-house class on aircraft design and operation.

  16. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  17. (PORTUGAL)THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) represents an intensive examination of personal, residential and community-based particulate matter and related co-pollutant measurements in Detroit, Michigan. Data from the DEARS will be used as inputs into air quality, la...

  18. Implementation of a new aerosol module HAM within the community Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, R.; Irannejad, P.; Feichter, J.

    2009-04-01

    Realistic simulation of direct and indirect effects of aerosols requires models where aerosols, meteorology, radiation and chemistry are coupled in a fully interactive manner. The design of the Community Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF/Chem) permit such an interactive coupling. Over the last few years, various aerosol modules have been implemented into the chemistry version of the WRF model. In this study, a new aerosol module HAM has been incorporated into the WRF/Chem modeling system. The aerosol HAM model embedded into the global ECHAM5 model was developed by Stier et al. in 2005 at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. HAM differs from the previous WRF aerosol modules in terms of the size representation, chemical composition and numerical algorithms used. It is based on a pseudo-modal approach for representation of the particle size distribution by grouping aerosols into four geometrical size classes and two types of particles mixed and insoluble. In the current implementation, aerosol HAM is coupled to the Regional Acid Deposition model version 2 (RADM2 chemical mechanism). We also used a flux-resistance method for dry deposition of particles. A high concentration episode for PM10 particles in Tehran from 23 to 29 January 2007 has been chosen and has been compared to observed near surface measurements to test the performance of the coupled HAM/WRF model. We applied a horizontal spacing of 30-km. Preliminary results show that the model captures reasonably both magnitude and diurnal variation of measured PM10 mass concentration during this episode.

  19. The AERONET network: atmospheric aerosol research in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The AERONET network is one of the most developed ground-based networks for aerosol monitoring. Solar radiance extinction, aureole brightness and sky light polarization measurements are used by the AERONET inversion retrieval algorithm to derive a variety of aerosol particle properties and parameters that are important for estimations of aerosol influences on air quality and climate change. In 2008 the AERONET has been extended in Ukraine: in addition to Sevastopol site (operated since 2006) the sunphotometer CIMEL CE318-2 has been installed at Kyiv site. New generation of sunphotometer (CE318N) has been used widely since 2011 in various sites of Ukraine as mobile station together with portable sunphotometer Microtops II. This article presents a short description of the AERONET, its development in Ukraine and prospects for future atmospheric research.

  20. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dron, J.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2010-04-01

    The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA) is being investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS). The determinations of the three functional groups' contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups) and precursor ion (nitro groups) scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced through photo-oxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounted for 1.7% (vehicular) to 13.5% (o-xylene photo-oxidation) of the organic carbon. The diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively differentiate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France) during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalisation rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to distinguish the sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assesses a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60%. Finally, examples of functional group mass spectra of all

  1. AMALi - the Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar for Arctic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachlewska, I. S.; Neuber, R.; Lampert, A.; Ritter, C.; Wehrle, G.

    2010-03-01

    The Airborne Mobile Aerosol Lidar (AMALi) is an instrument developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research for reliable operation under the challenging weather conditions at the Earth's polar regions. Since 2003 the AMALi has been successfully deployed for measurements in ground-based installation and zenith- or nadir-pointing airborne configurations during several scientific campaigns in the Arctic. The lidar provides backscatter profiles at two wavelengths (355/532 nm or 1064/532 nm) together with the linear depolarization at 532 nm, from which aerosol and cloud properties can be derived. This paper presents the characteristics and capabilities of the AMALi system and gives examples of its usage for airborne and ground-based operations in the Arctic. As this backscatter lidar normally does not operate in aerosol-free layers special evaluation schemes are discussed, the nadir-pointing iterative inversion for the case of an unknown boundary condition and the two-stream approach for the extinction profile calculation if a second lidar system probes the same air mass. Also an intercomparison of the AMALi system with an established ground-based Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) is given.

  2. Clouds, Hazards, and Aerosols Survey for Earth Researchers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, N. O.; Rosenfeld, D.; Williams, E.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. Knowledge of these interactions is fundamental to our understanding of weather and climate. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Decadal Survey state that these interactions are the largest sources of uncertainties in our current understanding of the climate system. The Clouds, Hazards, and Aerosols Survey for Earth Researchers (CHASER) responds to the IPCC and Decadal Survey concerns by studying the activation of CCN and their interactions with clouds and storms. CHASER fulfills NASA Earth science research goals in two focus areas of the 2010 Science Plan: (1) Weather and (2) Climate Variability and Change. CHASER is the first satellite capable of measuring all the quantities necessary to determine the interactions of aerosols with clouds and storms. Measurements by current satellites allow the determination of crude profiles of cloud particle size but not of the activated CCN that seed these clouds. CHASER will use an innovative technique and high-heritage instruments to produce the first global maps of activated CCN and the properties of the clouds associated with them. CHASER makes important contributions to our understanding of climate and weather hazards. The high uncertainties of current climate predictions constrain their much-needed use in decision-making aiming at responding to climate change and variability. The CHASER team seeks to mitigate this problem by working with decision-makers. For example, CHASER data will be used to assess hurricane risk. This portion of the project involves social science research that focuses on societal applications as well as on understanding the best ways to transfer and communicate mission data to decision-makers.

  3. 76 FR 60530 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Plastic Aerosol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Plastic...''), Plastic Aerosol Research Group, L.L.C. (``PARG'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the... are: Aerofil Technology Inc, Sullivan, MO; Aptar Beauty & Home, Cary, IL; Berry Plastics...

  4. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group`s organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals.

  5. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dron, J.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2010-08-01

    The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA) is investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS). The determinations of three functional groups contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups, R-COOH and R-CO-Ŕ respectively) and precursor ion (nitro groups, R-NO2) scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced through photooxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounts for 1.7% (vehicular) to 13.5% (o-xylene photooxidation) of the organic carbon. Diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively discriminate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France) during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalisation rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to discriminate sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assess a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60%. Finally, examples of functional group mass

  6. Submicron aerosol organic functional groups, ions, and water content at the Centreville SEARCH site (Alabama), during SOAS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, G.; Ergin, G.; Modini, R. L.; Takahama, S.

    2013-12-01

    aerosol during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 110, n/a-n/a. [4]- Takahama, S., Johnson, A., Russell, L.M., 2013. Quantification of Carboxylic and Carbonyl Functional Groups in Organic Aerosol Infrared Absorbance Spectra. Aerosol Science and Technology 47, 310-325. [5]- Pankow, J.F., Asher, W.E., 2008. SIMPOL.1: a simple group contribution method for predicting vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of multifunctional organic compounds. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2773-2796. [6]- Clegg, S.L., Brimblecombe, P., Wexler, A.S., 1998. Thermodynamic Model of the System H+-NH4+-SO42--NO3--H2O at Tropospheric Temperatures. J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 2137-2154. [7]- Zuend, A., Marcolli, C., Booth, A.M., Lienhard, D.M., Soonsin, V., Krieger, U.K., Topping, D.O., McFiggans, G., Peter, T., Seinfeld, J.H., 2011. New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 9155-9206.

  7. Research on bio-aerosol monitoring based on normalized fluorescence voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Yongkai; Xiao, Yanfen; Cai, Shuyao; Huang, Huijie

    2011-12-01

    An optical detecting technique to identify bio-aerosol particles is proposed in this paper by normalized fluorescence value which correlates to its size and intrinsic fluorescence. With the bio-aerosol detecting system developed, we test and analyze three types of aerosols, while each of them contains fluorescent microspheres of a certain size. The result indicates that different fluorescent microspheres containing the same fluorescent substances have the same normalized fluorescence voltage to unit particle size in diameter. The normalized fluorescence value of other species aerosols is tested for comparing. The research results can be applied to identification of bio-aerosols preliminarily.

  8. AEROSOL RESEARCH BRANCH, ANNUAL REPORT FY 1976/76A FEDERAL INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program of the Aerosol Research Branch includes research grants and contracts at institutions in many parts of the United States, in addition to an intramural program. The purpose of these projects is to study the chemical and physical properties of aerosols, identif...

  9. Group marginalization: extending research on interpersonal rejection to small groups.

    PubMed

    Betts, Kevin R; Hinsz, Verlin B

    2013-11-01

    An extensive research literature has examined the reactions of individuals facing interpersonal rejection. Small groups can also be rejected, but current research tells us little about the experiences of groups and their members directly. We integrate findings from various literatures to gain insight into shared rejection experiences and their outcomes. Of most practical importance, we argue that groups can be expected to react with more hostility than individuals when rejected. Four existing models that account for how group processes might alter such reactions are examined: a need-threat model, a rejection-identification model, a multimotive model, and a dual attitudes model. Aspects of these models are then integrated into a unifying framework that is useful for understanding hostile reactions to group marginalization. Implications for natural groups such as terrorist cells, school cliques, racial and ethnic minorities, and gangs are discussed. PMID:23928559

  10. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  11. Identifying organic aerosol sources by comparing functional group composition in chamber and atmospheric particles

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Lynn M.; Bahadur, Ranjit; Ziemann, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of submicron particles by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in 14 campaigns in North America, Asia, South America, and Europe were used to identify characteristic organic functional group compositions of fuel combustion, terrestrial vegetation, and ocean bubble bursting sources, each of which often accounts for more than a third of organic mass (OM), and some of which is secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from gas-phase precursors. The majority of the OM consists of alkane, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups. The organic functional groups formed from combustion and vegetation emissions are similar to the secondary products identified in chamber studies. The near absence of carbonyl groups in the observed SOA associated with combustion is consistent with alkane rather than aromatic precursors, and the absence of organonitrate groups can be explained by their hydrolysis in humid ambient conditions. The remote forest observations have ratios of carboxylic acid, organic hydroxyl, and nonacid carbonyl groups similar to those observed for isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, but in biogenic aerosols transported downwind of urban areas the formation of esters replaces the acid and hydroxyl groups and leaves only nonacid carbonyl groups. The carbonyl groups in SOA associated with vegetation emissions provides striking evidence for the mechanism of esterification as the pathway for possible oligomerization reactions in the atmosphere. Forest fires include biogenic emissions that produce SOA with organic components similar to isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, also resulting in nonacid carbonyl groups in SOA. PMID:21317360

  12. Influence of functional groups on organic aerosol cloud condensation nucleus activity.

    PubMed

    Suda, Sarah R; Petters, Markus D; Yeh, Geoffrey K; Strollo, Christen; Matsunaga, Aiko; Faulhaber, Annelise; Ziemann, Paul J; Prenni, Anthony J; Carrico, Christian M; Sullivan, Ryan C; Kreidenweis, Sonia M

    2014-09-01

    Organic aerosols in the atmosphere are composed of a wide variety of species, reflecting the multitude of sources and growth processes of these particles. Especially challenging is predicting how these particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Previous studies have characterized the CCN efficiency for organic compounds in terms of a hygroscopicity parameter, κ. Here we extend these studies by systematically testing the influence of the number and location of molecular functional groups on the hygroscopicity of organic aerosols. Organic compounds synthesized via gas-phase and liquid-phase reactions were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with scanning flow CCN analysis and thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometry. These experiments quantified changes in κ with the addition of one or more functional groups to otherwise similar molecules. The increase in κ per group decreased in the following order: hydroxyl ≫ carboxyl > hydroperoxide > nitrate ≫ methylene (where nitrate and methylene produced negative effects, and hydroperoxide and nitrate groups produced the smallest absolute effects). Our results contribute to a mechanistic understanding of chemical aging and will help guide input and parametrization choices in models relying on simplified treatments such as the atomic oxygen:carbon ratio to predict the evolution of organic aerosol hygroscopicity. PMID:25118824

  13. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  14. Feminist Research Methodology Groups: Origins, Forms, Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinharz, Shulamit

    Feminist Research Methodology Groups (FRMGs) have developed as a specific type of women's group in which feminist academics can find supportive audiences for their work while contributing to a feminist redefinition of research methods. An analysis of two FRMGs reveals common characteristics, dynamics, and outcomes. Both were limited to small…

  15. [Nursing history research groups: a Brazilian reality].

    PubMed

    Padilha, Maria Itayra; Borenstein, Miriam Susskind; Carvalho, Maria Aline Lima; Ferreira, Aline Coelho

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the activities of Nursing History research groups in Brazil and their relationships with the nursing undergraduate and graduate courses. This exploratory, descriptive, qualitative documental study was performed from July 2008 to March 2010. We identified 34 research groups that had Nursing History as the focus of at least one of the lines of research. Results showed that the groups have produced a great amount of bibliographical material, research lines and broad participation of undergraduate and graduate students. It was also found that there is a communication network among groups working within the same line of research. In conclusion, there is a need to increase interdisciplinarity and also strengthen some lines of research in order to support knowledge of the history of Brazilian nursing. PMID:22441284

  16. Learning from Older Citizens' Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn-Giddings, Carol; McVicar, Andy; Boyce, Melanie; O'Brien, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to an ongoing conversation in gerontology about the importance of training and involving older people in research. Currently, the literature rarely distinguishes between the one-off involvement of older citizens in research projects and the development of research groups led by older people that sustain over time as well as the…

  17. Including Everyone in Research: The Burton Street Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Simon; Ashmore, Jackie; Wilson, Dorothy; Beart, Suzie; Brownley, Peter; Butcher, Adam; Clarke, Zara; Combes, Helen; Francis, Errol; Hayes, Stefan; Hemmingham, Ian; Hicks, Kerry; Ibraham, Amina; Kenyon, Elinor; Lee, Darren; McClimens, Alex; Collins, Michelle; Newton, John; Wilson, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    In our paper we talk about what it is like to be a group of people with and without learning disabilities researching together. We describe the process of starting and maintaining the research group and reflect on the obstacles that we have come across, and the rewards such research has brought us. Lastly we put forward some ideas about the role…

  18. A European research infrastructure for the aerosol study on a continental scale: EARLINET-ASOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amodeo, Aldo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Bösenberg, Jens; Ansmann, Albert; Apituley, Arnoud; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Balis, Dimitris; Böckmann, Christine; Chaikovsky, Anatoly; Comeron, Adolfo; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gustaffson, Ove; Hansen, Georg; Mitev, Valentin; Nicolae, Doina; Papayannis, Alexandros; Perrone, Maria Rita; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Pujadas, Manuel; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Ravetta, Francois; Rizi, Vincenzo; Simeonov, Valentin; Spinelli, Nicola; Stoyanov, Dimitar; Trickl, Thomas; Wiegner, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    The present knowledge of the aerosol distribution is not sufficient to estimate the aerosol influence on global and regional environmental conditions and climate. This observational gap can be closed by using advanced laser remote sensing. EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) is the first aerosol lidar network, established in 2000, with the main goal to provide a comprehensive, quantitative, and statistically significant database for the aerosol distribution on a continental scale. EARLINET is a coordinated network of European stations (25 at present) using advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The network activity is based on simultaneous scheduled measurements, a rigorous quality assurance program addressing both instruments and evaluation algorithms, and a standardised data exchange format. Further observations are performed to monitor special events. EARLINET-ASOS (Advanced Sustainable Observation System) is a five year EC Project started in 2006, based on the EARLINET infrastructure. The main objectives are: to make EARLINET a world-leading instrument for the observation of the 4-D aerosol distribution on continental scale; to foster aerosol-related process studies, validation of satellite sensors, model development and validation, assimilation of aerosol data into operational models; and to build a comprehensive climatology of the aerosol distribution.

  19. Guidelines for the aerosol climatic effects special study: An element of the NASA climate research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Research to help develop better understanding of the role of aerosols in the Earth's radiative balance is summarized. Natural volcanic injections of aerosols into the stratosphere to understand and model any resultant evidence of climate change are considered. The approach involves: (1) measurements from aircraft, balloon and ground based platforms which complement and enhance the aerosol information derived from satellite data; (2) development of instruments required for some of these measurements; (3) theoretical and laboratory work to aid in interpreting and utilizing space based and in situ data; and (4) preparation for and execution of concentrated observations of stratospheric aerosols following a future large volcanic eruption.

  20. Aerosol Profile Measurements from the NASA Langley Research Center Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obland, Michael D.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, John W.; Roers, Raymond R.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cook, Anthony L.; Harper, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Since achieving first light in December of 2005, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) has been involved in seven field campaigns, accumulating over 450 hours of science data across more than 120 flights. Data from the instrument have been used in a variety of studies including validation and comparison with the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite mission, aerosol property retrievals combining passive and active instrument measurements, aerosol type identification, aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud top and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height determinations. Measurements and lessons learned from the HSRL are leading towards next-generation HSRL instrument designs that will enable even further studies of aerosol intensive and extensive parameters and the effects of aerosols on the climate system. This paper will highlight several of the areas in which the NASA Airborne HSRL is making contributions to climate science.

  1. Researching Group Assessment: Jazz in the Conservatoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Elisabeth; Moore, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into methods and scorings for jazz assessment in Trinity College of Music, London, focusing on the possibility of introducing group assessment. It considers the advantages of group assessment methods, contrasting these with the more traditional approach, firmly established in conservatoires, of…

  2. Overview of Research on Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raze, Nasus

    Although over 77 percent of American school districts use ability grouping, or tracking, research overwhelmingly indicates that the practice benefits only the gifted. High schools commonly have two or three tracks. Regardless of the methods used to place students, the effects of ability grouping are uniform; furthermore, placement in low ability…

  3. MISR research-aerosol-algorithm refinements for dark water retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbacher, J. A.; Kahn, R. A.

    2014-11-01

    We explore systematically the cumulative effect of many assumptions made in the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) research aerosol retrieval algorithm with the aim of quantifying the main sources of uncertainty over ocean, and correcting them to the extent possible. A total of 1129 coincident, surface-based sun photometer spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements are used for validation. Based on comparisons between these data and our baseline case (similar to the MISR standard algorithm, but without the "modified linear mixing" approximation), for 558 nm AOD < 0.10, a high bias of 0.024 is reduced by about one-third when (1) ocean surface under-light is included and the assumed whitecap reflectance at 672 nm is increased, (2) physically based adjustments in particle microphysical properties and mixtures are made, (3) an adaptive pixel selection method is used, (4) spectral reflectance uncertainty is estimated from vicarious calibration, and (5) minor radiometric calibration changes are made for the 672 and 866 nm channels. Applying (6) more stringent cloud screening (setting the maximum fraction not-clear to 0.50) brings all median spectral biases to about 0.01. When all adjustments except more stringent cloud screening are applied, and a modified acceptance criterion is used, the Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE) decreases for all wavelengths by 8-27% for the research algorithm relative to the baseline, and is 12-36% lower than the RMSE for the Version 22 MISR standard algorithm (SA, with no adjustments applied). At 558 nm, 87% of AOD data falls within the greater of 0.05 or 20% of validation values; 62% of the 446 nm AOD data, and > 68% of 558, 672, and 866 nm AOD values fall within the greater of 0.03 or 10%. For the Ångström exponent (ANG), 67% of 1119 validation cases for AOD > 0.01 fall within 0.275 of the sun photometer values, compared to 49% for the SA. ANG RMSE decreases by 17% compared to the SA, and the median absolute error drops by

  4. The Research Libraries Group: Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalko, James; Haeger, John

    1994-01-01

    This overview of the Research Libraries Group (RLG) discusses historical background, collaboration, new needs and expectations, the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN), the CitaDel service, the ARIEL service, the Eureka service, the Zephyr server, and JACKPHY-Plus Script Development, and preservation. (JLB)

  5. Research on aerosol profiles and parameterization scheme in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Deng, Tao; Tan, Haobo; Liu, Xiantong; Yang, Honglong

    2016-09-01

    The vertical distribution of the aerosol extinction coefficient serves as a basis for evaluating aerosol radiative forcing and air quality modeling. In this study, MODIS AOD data and ground-based lidar extinction coefficients were employed to verify 6 years (2009-2014) aerosol extinction data obtained via CALIOP for Southeast China. The objective was mainly to provide the parameterization scheme of annual and seasonal aerosol extinction profiles. The results showed that the horizontal and vertical distributions of CALIOP extinction data were highly accurate in Southeast China. The annual average AOD below 2 km accounted for 64% of the total layer, with larger proportions observed in winter (80%) and autumn (80%) and lower proportions observed in summer (70%) and spring (59%). The AOD was maximum in the spring (0.58), followed by the autumn and winter (0.44), and reached a minimum in the summer (0.40). The near-surface extinction coefficient increased from summer, spring, autumn and winter, in that order. The Elterman profile is obviously lower than the profiles observed by CALIOP in Southeast China. The annual average and seasonal aerosol profiles showed an exponential distribution, and could be divided into two sections. Two sections exponential fitting was used in the parameterization scheme. In the first section, the aerosol scale height reached 2200 m with a maximum (3,500 m) in summer and a minimum (1,230 m) in winter, which meant that the aerosol extinction decrease with height slower in summer, but more rapidly in winter. In second section, the aerosol scale height was maximum in spring, which meant that the higher aerosol diffused in spring.

  6. Technical Note: Development of chemoinformatic tools to enumerate functional groups in molecules for organic aerosol characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Giulia; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Functional groups (FGs) can be used as a reduced representation of organic aerosol composition in both ambient and controlled chamber studies, as they retain a certain chemical specificity. Furthermore, FG composition has been informative for source apportionment, and various models based on a group contribution framework have been developed to calculate physicochemical properties of organic compounds. In this work, we provide a set of validated chemoinformatic patterns that correspond to (1) a complete set of functional groups that can entirely describe the molecules comprised in the α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene MCMv3.2 oxidation schemes, (2) FGs that are measurable by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (3) groups incorporated in the SIMPOL.1 vapor pressure estimation model, and (4) bonds necessary for the calculation of carbon oxidation state. We also provide example applications for this set of patterns. We compare available aerosol composition reported by chemical speciation measurements and FTIR for different emission sources, and calculate the FG contribution to the O : C ratio of simulated gas-phase composition generated from α-pinene photooxidation (using the MCMv3.2 oxidation scheme).

  7. Technical Note: Development of chemoinformatic tools to enumerate functional groups in molecules for organic aerosol characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, G.; Takahama, S.

    2015-11-01

    Functional groups (FGs) can be used as a reduced representation of organic aerosol composition in both ambient and environmental controlled chamber studies, as they retain a certain chemical specificity. Furthermore, FG composition has been informative for source apportionment, and various models based on a group contribution framework have been developed to calculate physicochemical properties of organic compounds. In this work, we provide a set of validated chemoinformatic patterns that correspond to: (1) groups incorporated in the SIMPOL.1 vapor pressure estimation model, (2) FGs that are measurable by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (3) a complete set of functional groups that can entirely describe the molecules comprised in the α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene MCMv3.2 oxidation schemes, and (4) bonds necessary for the calculation of carbon oxidation state. We also provide example applications for this set of patterns. We compare available aerosol composition reported by chemical speciation measurements and FTIR for different emission sources, and calculate the FG contribution to the O : C ratio of simulated gas phase composition generated from α-pinene photooxidation (using MCMv3.2 oxidation scheme).

  8. Functional Group Composition of Semivolatile Compounds Present in Submicron Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, G.; Modini, R. L.; Iannarelli, R.; Rossi, M. J.; Takahama, S.

    2014-12-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds can partition between gas and particle phase in atmospheric conditions and can be volatilized and lost when the aerosol sampling is performed onto PTFE filters (Eatough et al., 1993). In this work, semivolatile compounds are collected onto carbon impregnated glass fiber-cellulose filters placed in series after an activated carbon denuder and PTFE filter which collects submicron aerosol particles of low volatility (Subramanian et al., 2004). The semivolatile compounds accumulated on the cellulose-glass fiber filters are desorbed by vacuum and injected into a stainless steel chamber that enables cold-trapping. The vapors in this chamber are condensed onto a low-temperature silicon window, and the composition of deposited vapors are analysed by transmission-mode Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (Delval and Rossi, 2004). Functional group composition of semivolatile compounds that can be desorbed from the aerosol phase and its relationship with the apparent low-volatile fraction composition will be presented. Eatough, D.J., Wadsworth, A., Eatough, D.A., Crawford, J.W., Hansen, L.D., Lewis, E.A., 1993. A multiple-system, multi-channel diffusion denuder sampler for the determination of fine-particulate organic material in the atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment. Part A. General Topics 27, 1213-1219. Subramanian, R., Khlystov, A.Y., Cabada, J.C., Robinson, A.L., 2004. Positive and negative artifacts in particulate organic carbon measurements with denuded and undenuded sampler configurations. Aerosol Science and Technology 38, 27-48. Delval, C., Rossi, M.J., 2004. The kinetics of condensation and evaporation of H2O from pure ice in the range 173-223 K: a quartz crystal microbalance study. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 6, 4665-4676.

  9. ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKER ANALYSIS OF LOW VOLUME RESIDENTIAL SAMPLES FOR SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a poster on results for organic speciation analysis for Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) to be presented at the 2006 International Aerosol Conference sponsored by the American Association for Aerosol Research in St. Paul, Minnesota on Se...

  10. Using multidimensional gas chromatography to group secondary organic aerosol species by functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2014-10-01

    A carbon number-functionality grid (CNFG) for a complex mixture of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors and oxidation products was developed from the theoretical retention index diagram of a multidimensional gas chromatographic (GC × 2GC) analysis of a mixture of SOA precursors and derivatized oxidation products. In the GC × 2GC analysis, comprehensive separation of the complex mixture was achieved by diverting the modulated effluent from a polar primary column into 2 polar secondary columns. Column stationary phases spanned the widest range of selectivity of commercially available GC analytic columns. In general, separation of the species by the polar primary column was by the number of carbon atoms in the molecule (when the homologous series of reference compounds was selected to have molecular volumes and functionalities similar to the target analytes) and the polar secondary columns provided additional separation according to functionality. An algebraic transformation of the Abraham solvation parameter model was used to estimate linear retention indices of solutes relative to elution of a homologous series of methyl diesters on the primary and secondary columns to develop the theoretical GC × 2GC retention diagram. Retention indices of many of the oxidation products of SOA precursors were estimated for derivatized forms of the solutes. The GC stationary phases selected for the primary column [(50%-Trifluoropropyl)-methylpolysiloxane] and secondary columns (90% Cyanopropyl Polysilphenylene-siloxane and Polyethylene Glycol in a Sol-Gel matrix) provided a theoretical separation of 33 SOA precursors and 98 derivatized oxidation products into 35 groups by molecular volume and functionality. Comprehensive analysis of extracts of vapor and aerosol samples containing semivolatile SOA precursors and oxidation products, respectively, is best accomplished by (1) separating the complex mixture of the vapor and underivatized aerosol extracts with a (50

  11. THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS): BRIEFING TO THE MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

  12. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

  13. From Cradle to Grave: Research on Atmospheric Aerosols (Vilhelm Bjerknes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere. Generally, the sizes of aerosol particles are in the range 0.001 - 100 μm. Atmospheric aerosols are of interest mainly because of their effects on health and climate. Concerning health, many epidemiological studies have shown a link between increased mortality/morbidity and increased PM10 or PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 and 2.5 μm, respectively). Concerning climate, aerosol particles scatter and absorb light (known as the direct effect on climate), and modify cloud properties (with a variety of effects known as indirect effects). These effects are influenced by the chemical and physical properties of the aerosol particles, which makes these properties important to be measured. Atmospheric aerosol particles are produced by a large variety of sources, and are either emitted as primary particles (i.e., they are directly emitted as particles into the atmosphere) or formed by secondary processes (i.e., by transformation of emitted precursor gases). While the formation pathways of secondary inorganic aerosols such as nitrate and sulfate in general are reasonably well understood, the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is still an area of active research. A wide variety of gaseous precursors contribute to SOA, and their aerosol yields depend on a wide variety of conditions. In addition, it is still largely unknown to which extent and under which conditions oxidized organic molecules can contribute to nucleation, i.e., the formation of new particles. Elimination of aerosol particles from the atmosphere mostly occurs by wet deposition, where the ice phase plays an important role. Even though cloud glaciation augments precipitation formation and affects cloud radiative properties little is still known about mixed-phase cloud formation via heterogeneous nucleation. To elucidate some of the involved mechanisms in situ research in such

  14. The Joint Aerosol-Monsoon Experiment: A New Challenge to Monsoon Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol and monsoon related droughts and floods are two of the most serious environmental hazards confronting more than 60% of the population of the world living in the Asian monsoon countries. In recent years, thanks to improved satellite and in-situ observations, and better models, great strides have been made in aerosol, and monsoon research respectively. There is now a growing body of evidence suggesting that interaction of aerosol forcing with water cycle dynamics in monsoon regions may substantially alter the redistribution of energy at the earth surface and in the atmosphere, and therefore significantly impact monsoon rainfall variability and long term trends. In this talk, I will describe issues related to societal needs, scientific background, and challenges in studies of aerosol-water cycle interaction in Asian monsoon regions. As a first step towards addressing these issues, the authors call for an integrated observation and modeling research approach aimed at the interactions between aerosol chemistry and radiative effects and monsoon dynamics of the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system. A Joint Aerosol-Monsoon Experiment (JAMEX) is proposed for 2007-2011, with an enhanced observation period during 2008-09, encompassing diverse arrays of observations from surface, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and satellites of physical and chemical properties of aerosols, long range aerosol transport as well as meteorological and oceanographic parameters in the Indo-Pacific Asian monsoon region. JAMEX will leverage on coordination among many ongoing and planned national programs on aerosols and monsoon research in China, India, Japan, Nepal, Italy, US, as well as international research programs of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

  15. The Research Libraries Group's Multilingual Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Russell G.

    1984-01-01

    The Research Libraries group (headquartered at Stanford University) has a computer terminal that can be used to create and retrieve bibliographic information in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean vernacular scripts as well as in roman alphabet languages. The development, operation, and future of the system is described. (JN)

  16. Focus group research and "the patient's view".

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Pascale; Poland, Blake; Daudelin, Genevieve

    2006-10-01

    A clear emphasis on the patient's view is discernible in the health services research literature of the past decades. Such a switch to patients' perspectives has been greatly facilitated by a wider acceptance and use of qualitative methods. In particular, focus groups are often used to uncover the range and depth of experiences of health services users and chronically ill individuals. Although this method contributes to a better understanding of patients' perspectives and practices, a number of analytical considerations have been overlooked. The aim of this paper is to consider how to conceptualise and analyse interactions in focus group research. We argue that focus groups are social spaces in which participants co-construct the "patient's view" by sharing, contesting and acquiring knowledge. Focus groups conducted with home care patients in Quebec, Canada (on antibiotic intravenous therapy, parenteral nutrition, peritoneal dialysis and oxygen therapy) are used to illustrate three interactive processes at work in focus groups: (1) establishing oneself as experienced and knowledgeable; (2) establishing oneself as in search of information and advice; and (3) validating or challenging one another's knowledge claims. We develop an analytical template focused on the subtle dynamics underpinning the various and at times competing claims of patients. This template acknowledges the processes through which participants attribute authority to the claims of others, including the focus group moderator. We find that focus group research does not derive epistemological authority simply from the identity of its participants. Rather, an emerging consensus about what constitutes the patient's view is the result of context-dependent social interactions that need to be scrutinised. PMID:16797811

  17. Research of transport and deposition of aerosol in human airway replica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizal, Frantisek; Jedelsky, Jan; Elcner, Jakub; Durdina, Lukas; Halasova, Tereza; Mravec, Filip; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Growing concern about knowledge of aerosol transport in human lungs is caused by great potential of use of inhaled pharmaceuticals. Second substantial motive for the research is an effort to minimize adverse effects of particular matter emitted by traffic and industry on human health. We created model geometry of human lungs to 7th generation of branching. This model geometry was used for fabrication of two physical models. The first one is made from thin walled transparent silicone and it allows a measurement of velocity and size of aerosol particles by Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). The second one is fabricated by stereolithographic method and it is designed for aerosol deposition measurements. We provided a series of measurements of aerosol transport in the transparent model and we ascertained remarkable phenomena linked with lung flow. The results are presented in brief. To gather how this phenomena affects aerosol deposition in human lungs we used the second model and we developed a technique for deposition fraction and deposition efficiency assessment. The results confirmed that non-symmetric and complicated shape of human airways essentially affects transport and deposition of aerosol. The research will now focus on deeper insight in aerosol deposition.

  18. Current and Future Perspectives of Aerosol Research at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Toshihisa; Ichoku, Charles; Randles, Cynthia; Yuan, Tianle; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Colarco, Peter R.; Kim, Dongchul; Levy, Robert; Sayer, Andrew; Chin, Mian; Giles, David; Holben, Brent; Welton, Ellsworth; Eck, Thomas; Remer, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols are tiny atmospheric particles that are emitted from various natural and anthropogenic sources. They affect climate through direct and indirect interactions with solar and thermal radiation, clouds, and atmospheric circulation (Solomon et al. 2007). The launch of a variety of sophisticated satellite-based observing systems aboard the Terra, Aqua, Aura, SeaWiFS (see appendix for all acronym expansions), CALIPSO, and other satellites in the late 1990s to mid-2000s through the NASA EOS and other U.S. and non-U.S. programs ushered in a golden era in aerosol research. NASA has been a leader in providing global aerosol characterizations through observations from satellites, ground networks, and field campaigns, as well as from global and regional modeling. AeroCenter (http://aerocenter.gsfc.nasa.gov/), which was formed in 2002 to address the many facets of aerosol research in a collaborative manner, is an interdisciplinary union of researchers (200 members) at NASA GSFC and other nearby institutions, including NOAA, several universities, and research laboratories. AeroCenter hosts a web-accessible regular seminar series and an annual meeting to present up-to-date aerosol research, including measurement techniques; remote sensing algorithms; modeling development; field campaigns; and aerosol interactions with radiation, clouds, precipitation, climate, biosphere, atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and human health. The 2013 annual meeting was held at the NASA GSFC Visitor Center on 31 May 2013, which coincided with the seventh anniversary of the passing of Yoram Kaufman, a modern pioneer in satellite-based aerosol science and the founder of AeroCenter. The central theme of this year's meeting was "current and future perspectives" of NASA's aerosol science and satellite missions.

  19. Functional group composition of organic aerosol from combustion emissions and secondary processes at two contrasted urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haddad, Imad; Marchand, Nicolas; D'Anna, Barbara; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Wortham, Henri

    2013-08-01

    The quantification of major functional groups in atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) provides a constraint on the types of compounds emitted and formed in atmospheric conditions. This paper presents functional group composition of organic aerosol from two contrasted urban environments: Marseille during summer and Grenoble during winter. Functional groups were determined using a tandem mass spectrometry approach, enabling the quantification of carboxylic (RCOOH), carbonyl (RCOR‧), and nitro (RNO2) functional groups. Using a multiple regression analysis, absolute concentrations of functional groups were combined with those of organic carbon derived from different sources in order to infer the functional group contents of different organic aerosol fractions. These fractions include fossil fuel combustion emissions, biomass burning emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Results clearly highlight the differences between functional group fingerprints of primary and secondary OA fractions. OA emitted from primary sources is found to be moderately functionalized, as about 20 carbons per 1000 bear one of the functional groups determined here, whereas SOA is much more functionalized, as in average 94 carbons per 1000 bear a functional group under study. Aging processes appear to increase both RCOOH and RCOR‧ functional group contents by nearly one order of magnitude. Conversely, RNO2 content is found to decrease with photochemical processes. Finally, our results also suggest that other functional groups significantly contribute to biomass smoke and SOA. In particular, for SOA, the overall oxygen content, assessed using aerosol mass spectrometer measurements by an O:C ratio of 0.63, is significantly higher than the apparent O:C* ratio of 0.17 estimated based on functional groups measured here. A thorough examination of our data suggests that this remaining unexplained oxygen content can be most probably assigned to alcohol (ROH), organic peroxides (ROOH

  20. Prediction Of Organic Aerosol Volatility And Unidentified Functional Group Concentrations From Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, G.; Shipley, S.; Henderson, B. H.; Takahama, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is used to measure the functional group composition of organic aerosols (Russell et al., 2011). However, certain functional groups are not directly detected by FTIR spectroscopy, either due to fundamental limitations of the technique (e.g. tertiary carbons), or specific limitations of commonly employed methods of sample collection and analysis (e.g. ester and ether groups, Takahama et al., 2013). In addition, FTIR does not probe the size of molecules comprising an organic aerosol mixture, which prevents the direct calculation of organic aerosol volatility from FTIR measurements. In this study, primary organic aerosol concentrations in mixtures corresponding to different ambient scenarios have been extracted from previous GC-MS studies (Rogge et al., 1993). Secondary organic aerosol concentrations for different scenarios are simulated with an explicit chemistry model (Master Chemical Mechanism, http://mcm.leeds.ac.uk/MCM ; Jerkin et al. 1997; Saunders et al., 2003; Jerkin et al., 2003) and partitioning model (SIMPOL.1, Pankow et al., 2008). For each of the different scenarios the concentrations of functional groups that are typically accessible by FTIR are calculated and analyzed in relation to the extra information not easily accessible by FTIR (e.g. volatility, tertiary carbons, ester and ether). The ability to predict the unknown quantities from FTIR measurements and thereby reduce the uncertainty in OM concentrations and OM/OC ratios measured by FTIR is examined and discussed.

  1. Scientific investigations of the Space Research Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbay, J. S.; Lynn, K. J. W.

    The origin and charter of the Space Research Group of the American Projects Division is presented. Some of the achievements of the Very Long Base Interferometer (VLBI) team is traced through the deployment of outstanding personnel and facilities to which it had access. The pioneering work in charting the higher regions of the ionosphere to define features and trace progress over time are examined. The potential of the resources within the American Projects Division to determine VLF propagation characteristics are discussed.

  2. Instrumentations and projects of research groups in Switzerland related to the research on rocket and balloon carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogoli, Marianne; Kopp, Ernest

    2003-08-01

    In the past few years four very active Swiss groups involved in the research by means of rocket and balloon carriers have terminated their programmes. These groups were located at the University of Bern (Ernest Kopp), the World Radiation Center in Davos (Klaus Fröhlich), the ETH Zürich (Kurt Kneubühl) and the Observatoire de Genève (Daniel Huguenin). The remaining groups are the Space Biology Group in the field of Life Science in Space, the Applied Physics Institute in Bern with its observation of water vapor and ozone constituents using the microwave remote sensing technique, the meteorological soundings from the SMA balloon station in Payerne and the ozone soundings from the Institute of Atmosphere and Climate (IAC) at the ETH Zürich. In this report we will mainly present the activities of these groups in the past and in future. An addition three well known groups at the Laboratoire de Pollution Atmospherique (LPAS) at the EPFL in Lausanne, the IAC and the Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC) located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which is associated to the ETH in Zürich, are contributing lab- and field research for the diagnostics and research of aerosols. The LPAS Group of Michael Rossi in Lausanne is determining heterogeneous chemical reaction rates in the laboratory. The research group of Thomas Peter at the IAC in Zürich is investigating fundamental physical and chemical processes of aerosols and the interaction to the gas phase of the atmosphere. In addition these results are combined with field measurements and model calculations. The LAC under Urs Baltensberger is investigating the key processes determining the gas phase and aerosol composition in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer, and the identification of their sources and sinks.

  3. Crafting the group: Care in research management.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah R; Horst, Maja

    2015-06-01

    This article reports findings from an interview study with group leaders and principal investigators in Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Taking as our starting point current interest in the need to enhance 'responsible research and innovation', we suggest that these debates can be developed through attention to the talk and practices of scientists. Specifically, we chart the ways in which interview talk represented research management and leadership as processes of caring craftwork. Interviewees framed the group as the primary focus of their attention (and responsibilities), and as something to be tended and crafted; further, this process required a set of affective skills deployed flexibly in response to the needs of individuals. Through exploring the presence of notions of care in the talk of principal investigators and group leaders, we discuss the relation between care and craft, reflect on the potential implications of the promotion of a culture of care and suggest how mundane scientific understandings of responsibility might relate to a wider discussion of responsible research and innovation. PMID:26477197

  4. Research groups: How big should they be?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Isabelle; Grange, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between scientific productivity and research group size is important for deciding how science should be funded. We have investigated the relationship between these variables in the life sciences in the United Kingdom using data from 398 principle investigators (PIs). We show that three measures of productivity, the number of publications, the impact factor of the journals in which papers are published and the number of citations, are all positively correlated to group size, although they all show a pattern of diminishing returns—doubling group size leads to less than a doubling in productivity. The relationships for the impact factor and the number of citations are extremely weak. Our analyses suggest that an increase in productivity will be achieved by funding more PIs with small research groups, unless the cost of employing post-docs and PhD students is less than 20% the cost of a PI. We also provide evidence that post-docs are more productive than PhD students both in terms of the number of papers they produce and where those papers are published. PMID:26082872

  5. Direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols using the coupled system of aerosol HAM module and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, Rabab; Irannejad, Parviz; Feichter, Johann; Akbari Bidokhti, Abbas Ali Ali

    2010-05-01

    The fully coupled aerosol-cloud and radiation WRF-HAM modeling system is presented. The aerosol HAM model is implemented within the chemistry version of WRF modeling system. HAM is based on a "pseudo-modal" approach for representation of the particle size distribution. Aerosols are grouped into four geometrical size classes and two types of mixed and insoluble particles. The aerosol components considered are sulfate, black carbon, particulate organic matter, sea salt and mineral dust. Microphysical processes including nucleation, condensation and coagulation of aerosol particles are considered using the microphysics M7 scheme. Horizontal transport of the aerosol particles is simulated using the advection scheme in WRF. Convective transport and vertical mixing of aerosol particles are also considered in the coupled system. A flux-resistance method is used for dry deposition of aerosol particles. Aerosol sizes and chemical compositions are used to determine the aerosol optical properties. Direct effects of aerosols on incoming shortwave radiation flux are simulated by transferring the aerosol optical parameters to the Goddard shortwave radiation scheme. Indirect effects of aerosols are simulated by using a prognostic treatment of cloud droplet number and adding modules that activate aerosol particles to form cloud droplets. The first and second indirect effects, i.e. the interactions of clouds and incoming solar radiation are implemented in WRF-Chem by linking the simulated cloud droplet number with the Goddard shortwave radiation scheme and the Lin et al. microphysics scheme. The simulations are carried out for a 6-day period from 22 to 28 February 2006 in a domain with 30-km grid spacing, encompassing the south-western Asia, North Africa and some parts of Europe. The results show a negative radiative forcing over most parts of the domain, mainly due to the presence of mineral dust aerosols. The simulations are evaluated using the measured downward radiation in

  6. Aerosols

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... of data acquired on February 23, 2003, when most of the land area was still partially frozen. The right-hand group of panels portrays ... acquired during Terra orbits 16937 and 17403. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 1775 kilometers and use data from ...

  7. CLOUDS, AEROSOLS, RADIATION AND THE AIR-SEA INTERFACE OF THE SOUTHERN OCEAN: ESTABLISHING DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert; Bretherton, Chris; McFarquhar, Greg; Protat, Alain; Quinn, Patricia; Siems, Steven; Jakob, Christian; Alexander, Simon; Weller, Bob

    2014-09-29

    A workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy was convened at the University of Washington to discuss the state of knowledge of clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction over the Southern Ocean and to identify strategies for reducing uncertainties in their representation in global and regional models. The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system and is a unique pristine environment, yet other than from satellite, there have been sparse observations of clouds, aerosols, radiation and the air-sea interface in this region. Consequently, much is unknown about atmospheric and oceanographic processes and their linkage in this region. Approximately 60 scientists, including graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and senior researchers working in atmospheric and oceanic sciences at U.S. and foreign universities and government laboratories, attended the Southern Ocean Workshop. It began with a day of scientific talks, partly in plenary and partly in two parallel sessions, discussing the current state of the science for clouds, aerosols and air-sea interaction in the Southern Ocean. After the talks, attendees broke into two working groups; one focused on clouds and meteorology, and one focused on aerosols and their interactions with clouds. This was followed by more plenary discussion to synthesize the two working group discussions and to consider possible plans for organized activities to study clouds, aerosols and the air-sea interface in the Southern Ocean. The agenda and talk slides, including short summaries of the highlights of the parallel session talks developed by the session chars, are available at http://www.atmos.washington.edu/socrates/presentations/SouthernOceanPresentations/.

  8. Development of Multi-Wavelength Raman Lidar and its Application on Aerosol and Cloud Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Yingjian; Wang, Zhenzhu; Tao, Zongming; Wu, Decheng; Wang, Bangxin; Zhong, Zhiqing; Xie, Chenbo

    2016-06-01

    A movable multi-wavelength Raman lidar (TMPRL) was built in Hefei, China. Emitting with three wavelengths at 1064, 532, and 355nm, receiving three above Mie scattering signals and two nitrogen Raman signals at 386 and 607nm, and depolarization signal at 532nm, TMPRL has the capacity to investigate the height resolved optical and microphysical properties of aerosol and cloud. The retrieval algorithms of optical parameters base on Mie-Raman technique and the microphysical parameters based on Bayesian optimization method were also developed and applied to observed lidar data. Designing to make unattended operation and 24/7 continuous working, TMPRL has joined several field campaigns to study on the aerosol, cloud and their interaction researches. Some observed results of aerosol and cloud optical properties and the first attempt to validate the vertical aerosol size distribution retrieved by TMPRL and in-situ measurement by airplane are presented and discussed.

  9. Research highlights: laboratory studies of the formation and transformation of atmospheric organic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Borduas, Nadine; Lin, Vivian S

    2016-04-20

    Atmospheric particles are emitted from a variety of anthropogenic and natural precursors and have direct impacts on climate, by scattering solar irradiation and nucleating clouds, and on health, by causing oxidative stress in the lungs when inhaled. They may also form from gaseous precursors, creating complex mixtures of organic and inorganic material. The chemical composition and the physical properties of aerosols will evolve during their one-week lifetime which will consequently change their impact on climate and health. The heterogeneity of aerosols is difficult to model and thus atmospheric aerosol research strives to characterize the mechanisms involved in nucleating and transforming particles in the atmosphere. Recent advances in four laboratory studies of aerosol formation and aging are highlighted here. PMID:27050080

  10. A Decade of Field Changing Atmospheric Aerosol Research: Outcomes of EPA’s STAR Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conference: Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry, July 28 – August 2, 2013, VermontPresentation Type: PosterTitle: An Analysis of EPA’s STAR Program and a Decade of Field Changing Research in Atmospheric AerosolsAuthors: Kristina M. Wagstrom1,2, Sherri ...

  11. Carbonaceous aerosols observed at Ieodo Ocean Research Station and implication for the role of secondary aerosols in fog formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Shin, B.; Hwang, G.; Kim, J.; Lee, M.; Shim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonaceous components and soluble ions of PM2.5 were measured at Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS) from December 2004 to June 2008. IORS is a 40-m research tower and located in the East China Sea (32.07°N, 125.10°E). As IORS is distanced equally from South Korea, China, and Japan, it is an ideal place to monitor Asian outflows with the least influence of local emissions. The mean concentration of PM2.5 mass was 21.8 ± 14.9 μg/m3 with the maximum of 35.3 μg/m3 (March) and the minimum of 11.2 μg/m3 (September). The monthly variation of PM2.5 mass was similar to that of O3 due to meteorological conditions, which determines the degree of influence from nearby lands. Chinese outflows were mostly responsible for the enhancement of mass and major constituents of PM2.5 such as sulfate, OC, and EC. Their concentrations were the lowest in summer when aged marine air masses were dominant. It is noteworthy that sulfate was also enhanced when air mass passed through Japan, even though its concentration was not as high as that of Chinese outflows. In June, OC concentration was distinctively high with high OC/EC ratio of ~9.5. At IORS, June is characterized by the most frequent occurrence of fog and the lowest visibility with the highest relative humidity. In China, the clearing fire of agricultural residues is the major source of fine aerosols in June, leading to severe haze (e.g., Cheng et al., 2014). In addition, the aerosol optical depth was also observed to be the maximum over northeast Asia in June (Kim et al., 2007). Consequently, our results suggest that organic aerosol played a critical role in fog formation in the study region. References Cheng, Z., et al. (2014) Impact of biomass burning on haze pollution in the Yangtze River delta, China: a case study in summer 2011, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4573-4585, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4573-2014. Kim, S.-W., et al. (2007) Seasonal and monthly variations of columnar aerosol optical properties over east Asia determined from

  12. Oxidation of ketone groups in transported biomass burning aerosol from the 2008 Northern California Lightning Series fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Lelia N.; Russell, Lynn M.

    2010-11-01

    Submicron particles were collected from June to September 2008 in La Jolla, California to investigate the composition and sources of atmospheric aerosol in an anthropogenically-influenced coastal site. Factor analysis of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements revealed that the two largest sources of submicron organic mass (OM) at the sampling site were (1) fossil fuel combustion associated with ship and diesel truck emissions near the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach and (2) aged smoke from large wildfires burning in central and northern California. During non-fire periods, fossil fuel combustion contributed up to 95% of FTIR OM, correlated to sulfur, and consisted mostly of alkane (86%) and carboxylic acid groups (9%). During fire periods, biomass burning contributed up to 74% of FTIR OM, consisted mostly of alkane (48%), ketone (25%), and carboxylic acid groups (17%), and correlated to AMS-derived factors resembling brush fire smoke, wood smoldering and flaming particles, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol. The two AMS-derived biomass burning factors were identified as oxygenated and hydrocarbon biomass burning aerosol on the basis of spectral similarities to smoldering and flaming smoke particles, respectively. In addition, the ratio of oxygenated to hydrocarbon biomass burning OM shows a clear diurnal trend with an afternoon peak, consistent with photochemical oxidation. Back trajectory analysis indicates that 2-4-day old forest fire emissions include substantial ketone groups, which have both lower O/C and lower m/ z 44/OM fraction than carboxylic acid groups. Air masses with more than 4-day old emissions have higher carboxylic acid/ketone group ratios, showing that atmospheric processing of these ketone-containing organic aerosol particles results in increased m/ z 44 and O/C. These observations may provide functionally-specific evidence for the type of chemical processing that is responsible for

  13. Uncertainty Analysis And Synergy Of Aerosol Products From Multiple Satellite Sensors For Advanced Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Petrenko, M.

    2013-05-01

    Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the air, and can be made up of wind-blown dust, smoke from fires, and particulate emissions from automobiles, industries, and other natural and man-made sources. Aerosols can have significant impacts on the air quality, and can interact with clouds and solar radiation in such a way as to affect the water cycle and climate. However, the extent and scale of these impacts are still poorly understood, and this represents one of the greatest uncertainties in climate research to date. To fill this gap in our knowledge, the global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols are being extensively observed and measured, especially during the last decade, using both satellite and ground-based instruments, including such spaceborne sensors as MODIS on the Terra and Aqua satellites, MISR on Terra, OMI on Aura, POLDER on PARASOL, CALIOP on CALIPSO, SeaWiFS on SeaStar, and the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) of sunphotometers. The aerosol measurements collected by these instruments over the last decade contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. Still, to be able to utilize these measurements synergistically, they have to be carefully and uniformly analyzed and inter-compared, in order to understand the uncertainties and limitations of the products - a process that is greatly complicated by the diversity of differences that exist among them. In this presentation, we will show results of a coherent comparative uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from the above-named satellite sensors relative to AERONET. We use these results to demonstrate how these sensors perform in different parts of the world over different landcover types as well as their performance relative to one another, thereby facilitating product selection and integration for specific research and applications needs.

  14. Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Landulfo, Eduardo; Antuña, Juan Carlos; de Melo Jorge Barbosa, Henrique; Barja, Boris; Bastidas, Álvaro Efrain; Bedoya, Andrés Esteban; da Costa, Renata Facundes; Estevan, René; Forno, Ricardo; Gouveia, Diego Alvés; Jiménez, Cristofer; Larroza, Eliane Gonçalves; da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Montilla-Rosero, Elena; Arruda Moreira, Gregori de; Nakaema, Walker Morinobu; Nisperuza, Daniel; Alegria, Dairo; Múnera, Mauricio; Otero, Lidia; Papandrea, Sebastián; Pallota, Juan Vicente; Pawelko, Ezequiel; Quel, Eduardo Jaime; Ristori, Pablo; Rodrigues, Patricia Ferrini; Salvador, Jacobo; Sánchez, Maria Fernanda; Silva, Antonieta

    2016-02-01

    LALINET (Latin American Lidar Network), previously known as ALINE, is the first fully operative lidar network for aerosol research in South America, probing the atmosphere on regular basis since September 2013. The general purpose of this network is to attempt to fill the gap in the knowledge on aerosol vertical distribution over South America and its direct and indirect impact on weather and climate by the establishment of a vertically-resolved dataset of aerosol properties. Similarly to other lidar research networks, most of the LALINET instruments are not commercially produced and, consequently, configurations, capabilities and derived-products can be remarkably different among stations. It is a fact that such un-biased 4D dataset calls for a strict standardization from the instrumental and data processing point of view. This study has been envisaged to investigate the ongoing network configurations with the aim of highlighting the instrumental strengths and weaknesses of LALINET.

  15. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  16. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Study of Aerosol Sources and Processing at the GVAX Pantnagar Supersite

    SciTech Connect

    Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2014-07-28

    This project funded the participation of scientists from seven research groups, running more than thirty instruments, in the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 km southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo Winter IOP were, 1) what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area, and, 2) what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM? An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption. The following four key accomplishments have been identified so far: 1) Chemical, physical and optical characterization of PM from local and regional sources (Figures 2, 4, 5 and 6). 2) Measurement of urban increment in particulate matter and gases in London (Figure 3). 3) Measurement of optical properties and chemical composition of coatings on black carbon containing particles indicates absorption enhancement. 4) First deployment of chemical ionization instrument (MOVI-CI-TOFMS) to measure both particle-phase and gas-phase organic acids. (See final report from Joel Thornton, University of Washington, for details.) Analysis of the large dataset acquired in Detling is ongoing and will yield further key accomplishments. These measurements of urban and rural aerosol properties will contribute to improved modeling of regional aerosol emissions, and of atmospheric aging and removal. The measurement of absorption enhancement by coatings on black carbon will contribute to improved modeling of the direct radiative properties of PM.

  17. Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: A literature review with suggestions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David L.; Mead, Kenneth R.; Lynch, Robert A.; Hirst, Deborah V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential risks associated with “toilet plume” aerosols produced by flush toilets is a subject of continuing study. This review examines the evidence regarding toilet plume bioaerosol generation and infectious disease transmission. Methods The peer-reviewed scientific literature was searched to identify articles related to aerosol production during toilet flushing, as well as epidemiologic studies examining the potential role of toilets in infectious disease outbreaks. Results The studies demonstrate that potentially infectious aerosols may be produced in substantial quantities during flushing. Aerosolization can continue through multiple flushes to expose subsequent toilet users. Some of the aerosols desiccate to become droplet nuclei and remain adrift in the air currents. However, no studies have yet clearly demonstrated or refuted toilet plume-related disease transmission, and the significance of the risk remains largely uncharacterized. Conclusion Research suggests that toilet plume could play a contributory role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Additional research in multiple areas is warranted to assess the risks posed by toilet plume, especially within health care facilities. PMID:23040490

  18. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Identification and Quantification of Organic Functional Groups in Aqueous Phase Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, K.; Ruthenburg, T. C.; Smith, J.; Anastasio, C.; Dillner, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Particles in the atmosphere influence visibility, climate, and human health. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed from chemical reactions in the atmosphere constitute a portion of total organic particle mass. Most research on SOA has focused on gas phase reactions; however, reactions taking place in cloud and fog drops may be significant. One group of water-soluble compounds that participate in these reactions is phenols. Phenols, emitted from biomass burning, react in the aqueous phase to form low-volatility SOA products. The products formed from these reactions are currently poorly characterized. In order to characterize laboratory-generated samples, we are developing an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) technique to identify and quantify organic functional groups in SOA. Aqueous SOA is made in the laboratory by illuminating solutions of phenolic compounds with an oxidant. The illuminated solution is then blown to dryness in order to determine the mass of SOA produced. The dry SOA is reconstituted in water and drops of this solution are placed onto a single-reflection ATR accessory. In order to identify and quantify functional groups in the complex SOA samples, it is necessary to calibrate with compounds and mixtures of compounds containing bond types similar to those found in the laboratory-generated SOA. Initially, focus has been placed on multiple peaks located in the region between 1800 cm-1 and 800 cm-1, including peaks for C=O and C-O. We distinguish between characteristic absorbances to begin determining the organic functional group composition of the SOA samples. This ATR-FTIR technique complements information from mass spectrometry measurements and allows us to quantify organic mass for non-volatile SOA products.

  19. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which

  20. Atmospheric lidar research applying to H2O, O2 and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcilrath, T. J.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental research on a near infrared tunable dye laser was reported, and theoretical simulations were presented for various lidar configurations. The visible and nearinfrared wavelengths considered were suitable for observations of aerosols, water vapor, molecular oxygen pressure and temperature in the troposphere and above. The first phase of development work was described on a ruby pumped, tunable dye laser for the wavelength region 715 to 740 nanometers. Lidar simulations were summarized for measurements of H2O and for two color lidar observations of aerosols in the atmosphere.

  1. A review of research on human activity induced climate change I. Greenhouse gases and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingxing; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Xin

    2004-06-01

    Extensive research on the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, carbon cycle modeling, and the characterization of atmospheric aerosols has been carried out in China during the last 10 years or so. This paper presents the major achievements in the fields of emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural lands, carbon cycle modeling, the characterization of Asian mineral dust, source identification of the precursors of the tropospheric ozone, and observations of the concentrations of atmospheric organic compounds. Special, more detailed information on the emissions of methane from rice fields and the physical and chemical characteristics of mineral aerosols are presented.

  2. Development of the Ensemble Navy Aerosol Analysis Prediction System (ENAAPS) and its application of the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) in support of aerosol forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Juli I.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Hansen, James A.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Collins, Nancy; Hoar, Timothy J.; Hogan, Timothy; Lynch, Peng; McLay, Justin; Reynolds, Carolyn A.; Sessions, Walter R.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong

    2016-03-01

    An ensemble-based forecast and data assimilation system has been developed for use in Navy aerosol forecasting. The system makes use of an ensemble of the Navy Aerosol Analysis Prediction System (ENAAPS) at 1 × 1°, combined with an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter from NCAR's Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). The base ENAAPS-DART system discussed in this work utilizes the Navy Operational Global Analysis Prediction System (NOGAPS) meteorological ensemble to drive offline NAAPS simulations coupled with the DART ensemble Kalman filter architecture to assimilate bias-corrected MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals. This work outlines the optimization of the 20-member ensemble system, including consideration of meteorology and source-perturbed ensemble members as well as covariance inflation. Additional tests with 80 meteorological and source members were also performed. An important finding of this work is that an adaptive covariance inflation method, which has not been previously tested for aerosol applications, was found to perform better than a temporally and spatially constant covariance inflation. Problems were identified with the constant inflation in regions with limited observational coverage. The second major finding of this work is that combined meteorology and aerosol source ensembles are superior to either in isolation and that both are necessary to produce a robust system with sufficient spread in the ensemble members as well as realistic correlation fields for spreading observational information. The inclusion of aerosol source ensembles improves correlation fields for large aerosol source regions, such as smoke and dust in Africa, by statistically separating freshly emitted from transported aerosol species. However, the source ensembles have limited efficacy during long-range transport. Conversely, the meteorological ensemble generates sufficient spread at the synoptic scale to enable observational impact through the ensemble data

  3. Development of the Ensemble Navy Aerosol Analysis Prediction System (ENAAPS) and its application of the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) in support of aerosol forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, J. I.; Reid, J. S.; Hansen, J. A.; Anderson, J. L.; Collins, N.; Hoar, T. J.; Hogan, T.; Lynch, P.; McLay, J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Westphal, D. L.; Zhang, J.

    2015-10-01

    An ensemble-based forecast and data assimilation system has been developed for use in Navy aerosol forecasting. The system makes use of an ensemble of the Navy Aerosol Analysis Prediction System (ENAAPS) at 1° × 1°, combined with an Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter from NCAR's Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). The base ENAAPS-DART system discussed in this work utilizes the Navy Operational Global Analysis Prediction System (NOGAPS) meteorological ensemble to drive offline NAAPS simulations coupled with the DART Ensemble Kalman Filter architecture to assimilate bias-corrected MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) retrievals. This work outlines the optimization of the 20-member ensemble system, including consideration of meteorology and source-perturbed ensemble members as well as covariance inflation. Additional tests with 80 meteorological and source members were also performed. An important finding of this work is that an adaptive covariance inflation method, which has not been previously tested for aerosol applications, was found to perform better than a temporally and spatially constant covariance inflation. Problems were identified with the constant inflation in regions with limited observational coverage. The second major finding of this work is that combined meteorology and aerosol source ensembles are superior to either in isolation and that both are necessary to produce a robust system with sufficient spread in the ensemble members as well as realistic correlation fields for spreading observational information. The inclusion of aerosol source ensembles improves correlation fields for large aerosol source regions such as smoke and dust in Africa, by statistically separating freshly emitted from transported aerosol species. However, the source ensembles have limited efficacy during long range transport. Conversely, the meteorological ensemble produces sufficient spread at the synoptic scale to enable observational impact through the ensemble data

  4. Analysis of functional groups in atmospheric aerosols by infrared spectroscopy: sparse methods for statistical selection of relevant absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahama, Satoshi; Ruggeri, Giulia; Dillner, Ann M.

    2016-07-01

    Various vibrational modes present in molecular mixtures of laboratory and atmospheric aerosols give rise to complex Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectra. Such spectra can be chemically informative, but they often require sophisticated algorithms for quantitative characterization of aerosol composition. Naïve statistical calibration models developed for quantification employ the full suite of wavenumbers available from a set of spectra, leading to loss of mechanistic interpretation between chemical composition and the resulting changes in absorption patterns that underpin their predictive capability. Using sparse representations of the same set of spectra, alternative calibration models can be built in which only a select group of absorption bands are used to make quantitative prediction of various aerosol properties. Such models are desirable as they allow us to relate predicted properties to their underlying molecular structure. In this work, we present an evaluation of four algorithms for achieving sparsity in FT-IR spectroscopy calibration models. Sparse calibration models exclude unnecessary wavenumbers from infrared spectra during the model building process, permitting identification and evaluation of the most relevant vibrational modes of molecules in complex aerosol mixtures required to make quantitative predictions of various measures of aerosol composition. We study two types of models: one which predicts alcohol COH, carboxylic COH, alkane CH, and carbonyl CO functional group (FG) abundances in ambient samples based on laboratory calibration standards and another which predicts thermal optical reflectance (TOR) organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass in new ambient samples by direct calibration of infrared spectra to a set of ambient samples reserved for calibration. We describe the development and selection of each calibration model and evaluate the effect of sparsity on prediction performance. Finally, we ascribe

  5. The Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiology Study (ARIES): PM2.5 mass and aerosol component concentrations and sampler intercomparisons.

    PubMed

    Van Loy, M; Bahadori, T; Wyzga, R; Hartsell, B; Edgerton, E

    2000-08-01

    The Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiology Study (ARIES) was designed to provide high-quality measurements of PM2.5, its components, and co-varying pollutants for an air pollution epidemiology study in Atlanta, GA. Air pollution epidemiology studies have typically relied on available data on particle mass often collected using filter-based methods. Filter-based PM2.5 sampling is susceptible to both positive and negative errors in the measurement of aerosol mass and particle-phase component concentrations in the undisturbed atmosphere. These biases are introduced by collection of gas-phase aerosol components on the filter media or by volatilization of particle phase components from collected particles. As part of the ARIES, we collected daily 24-hr PM2.5 mass and speciation samples and continuous PM2.5 data at a mixed residential-light industrial site in Atlanta. These data facilitate analysis of the effects of a wide variety of factors on sampler performance. We assess the relative importance of PM2.5 components and consider associations and potential mechanistic linkages of PM2.5 mass concentrations with several PM2.5 components. For the 12 months of validated data collected to date (August 1, 1998-July 31, 1999), the monthly average Federal Reference Method (FRM) PM2.5 mass always exceeded the proposed annual average standard (12-month average = 20.3 +/- 9.5 micrograms/m3). The particulate SO4(2-) fraction (as (NH4)2SO4) was largest in the summer and exceeded 50% of the FRM mass. The contribution of (NH4)2SO4 to FRM PM2.5 mass dropped to less than 30% in winter. Particulate NO3- collected on a denuded nylon filter averaged 1.1 +/- 0.9 micrograms/m3. Particle-phase organic compounds (as organic carbon x 1.4) measured on a denuded quartz filter sampler averaged 6.4 +/- 3.1 micrograms/m3 (32% of FRM PM2.5 mass) with less seasonal variability than SO4(2-). PMID:11002607

  6. Productive Group Work for Students. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    There is clear evidence that students who are involved in productive collaborative groups outperform their peers. Cooperative group work also results in improved self-esteem, improved relationships and enhanced social and decision-making skills. Johnson and Johnson (1993) identified the elements of a successful collaborative activity. They include…

  7. The Effect of Methyl, Hydroxyl, and Ketone Functional Groups on the Heterogeneous Oxidation of Succinic Acid Aerosol by OH Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M.; Zhang, H.; Wilson, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    The heterogeneous oxidation of atmospheric organic aerosols can influence their effects on climate, human health, and visibility. During oxidation, functionalization occurs when an oxygenated functional group is added to a molecule, leaving the carbon skeleton intact. Fragmentation involves carbon-carbon bond cleavage and produces two products with smaller carbon numbers than the parent compound. To gain better insights into how the molecular structure of more oxygenated organic compounds affects heterogeneous reactivity, succinic acid aerosols are photo-oxidized in an aerosol flow tube reactor, and the reaction products are analyzed using Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry for online chemical analysis. The effect of various functional groups (CH3, OH, C=O) along the carbon backbone on the heterogeneous reaction mechanisms are also investigated using model compounds. For this series of compounds, the formation of more oxygenated products through functionalization can be explained by well-known condensation-phase reactions such as Russell and Bennett and Summers. The number of fragmentation products is found to increase with the presence of OH and CH3 groups. This can be attributed to the increased number of tertiary carbons, enhancing the fragmentation after multiple oxidation steps. Smaller dicaids (oxalic acid and malonic acid) can be formed through the fragmentation processes in the heterogeneous oxidation of succinic acid. The effect of molecular structure on reaction kinetics, volatilization, and the relative importance of functionalization and fragmentation pathways will be discussed.

  8. Development and application of a dichotomous vapor/aerosol sampler for HDI-derived total reactive isocyanate group.

    PubMed

    Rando, R J; Poovey, H G

    1999-01-01

    A dichotomous vapor/aerosol sampler was developed for measurement of HDI (1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate)-derived total reactive isocyanate group (TRIG). The sampler consisted of an impactor or cyclone inlet, followed by an annular diffusional denuder, and a glass-fiber filter backup. The denuder walls and backup filter were each coated with 20 mg tributylphosphate and 1 mg MAMA reagent (9-N-methylamino-methylanthracene). After collection, MAMA-derivatized isocyanates were desorbed from the sampler and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with dual-wavelength ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence detection. Test atmospheres of HDI vapor and of HDI/HDI-biuret aerosols were generated in the laboratory and sampled with the optimized dichotomous sampler. Vapor phase HDI was completely collected by the diffusional denuder. When a mixture of HDI-biuret and HDI (approximately 30 ppb) was nebulized and collected with the dichotomous sampler, approximately 78% of the HDI was in the vapor phase, whereas about 22% was associated with the aerosol fraction. The dichotomous sampler was then used to measure vapor and condensed phase TRIG in a paint spray booth during application of a polyurethane paint. Measured levels of TRIG during the spraying operation averaged 391 +/- 154 micrograms/m3. Concentrations of HDI monomer averaged only 14 +/- 6.5 micrograms/m3. HDI-biuret was the largest component of TRIG found in these samples and was completely in the condensed aerosol phase. In contrast, the majority of the HDI was in the vapor phase, but significant (15-26%) amounts were measured in the aerosol fraction of the paint overspray. Thus, significant partitioning of HDI between vapor and condensed phases was demonstrated in both the laboratory and field, even when its concentration was well below the vapor saturation point. PMID:10635539

  9. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  10. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  11. Estimating the importance of multi-phase processing on secondary organic aerosol based on a functional-group resolving volatility basis set approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knote, C. J.; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, B.; Madronich, S.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional understanding views secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere as continuous gas-phase oxidation of precursors such as isoprene, aromatics or alkanes. Recent research found that these oxidation products are also highly water soluble. It is further understood that the liquid-phase of cloud droplets as well as deliquesced particles could mediate SOA formation through chemistry in the aqueous-phase. While the effect of multi-phase processing has been studied in detailed for specific compounds like glyoxal or methylglyoxal, an integrated approach that considers the large number of individual compounds has been missing due to the complexity involved. In our work we explore the effects of multi-phase processing on secondary organic aerosol from an explicit modeling perspective.Volatility and solubility determine in which phase a given molecule will be found under given atmospheric conditions. Volatility has already been used to simplify the description of SOA formation in the gas-phase in what became known as the Volatility Basis Set approach (VBS). Compounds contributing to SOA formation are grouped by volatility and then treated as a whole. A number of studies extended the VBS by adding a second dimension like oxygen to carbon ratio or the mean oxidation state. In our work we use functional groups as second dimension.Using explicit oxidation chemistry modeling (GECKO-A) we derive SOA yields as well as their composition in terms of functional groups for commonly used precursors. We then investigate the effect of simply partitioning functional-group specific organic mass into cloud droplets and deliquesced aerosol based on their estimated solubility. Finally we apply simple chemistry in the aqueous-phase and relate changes in functional groups to changes in volatility and subsequent changes in partitioning between gas- and aerosol-phase.In our presentation we will explore the sensitivites of the multi-phase system in a box model setting with

  12. Design, demonstration and performance of a versatile electrospray aerosol generator for nanomaterial research and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennerjohn, Nancy; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu; Prikhodko, Sergey; Fung, David C.; Hirakawa, Karen S.; Zavala-Mendez, Jose D.; Hinds, William; Kennedy, Nola J.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes are difficult to aerosolize in a controlled manner. We present a method for generating aerosols not only of carbon nanotubes, but also of many reference and proprietary materials including quantum dots, diesel particulate matter, urban dust, and their mixtures, using electrospraying. This method can be used as a teaching tool, or as the starting point for advanced research, or to deliver nanomaterials in animal exposure studies. This electrospray system generates 180 µg of nanotubes per m3 of carrier gas, and thus aerosolizes an occupationally relevant mass concentration of nanotubes. The efficiency achievable for single-walled carbon nanotubes is 9.4%. This system is simple and quick to construct using ordinary lab techniques and affordable materials. Since it is easy to replace soiled parts with clean ones, experiments on different types of nanomaterial can be performed back to back without contamination from previous experiments. In this paper, the design, fabrication, operation and characterization of our versatile electrospray method are presented. Also, the morphological changes that carbon nanotubes undergo as they make the transition from dry powders to aerosol particles are presented.

  13. SELECT RESEARCH GROUP IN AIR POLLUTION METEOROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six individual investigators, who have conducted different but related meteorological research, present in-depth technical reviews of their work. Prime conclusions are that (1) a scale analysis shows that different models are necessary for meteorological processes on urban, regio...

  14. SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY AEROSOL HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH CENTER (SAHERC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    All studies in the SAHERC were being undertaken within the primary theme of ‘ambient particulate matter and resulting health effects in the San Joaquin Valley‘. Below is a chart outlining the relationship between the center’s five projects. All five research projects were...

  15. Theory Loves Practice: A Teacher Researcher Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Thulson, Anne; Delaney, Rachael; Dornbush, Talya; Shay, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Once a month, art educators from the Denver metro area have been gathering together in the spirit of inquiry to explore issues of the perceived theory and daily practice divide. The Theory Loves Practice (TLP) group was started in 2010 by Professors Rachael Delaney and Anne Thulson from Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU) and now has 40…

  16. Ideological Divergences in a Teacher Research Group. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schecter, Sandra R.; Parkhurst, Shawn

    Examining the role played by ideology in a teacher research group, a study focused on the differing ideologies on research, teaching/learning, and writing held and developed by the members of the group. Treatments of teacher research remain directed mainly at clarifying the content, the status, and the boundaries of the research practice engaged…

  17. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  18. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  19. Simulated Group Counseling for Group Work Training: A Four-Year Research Study of Group Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.; Sullivan, Brandon A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines Simulated Group Counseling (SGC), a training model for graduate-level group workers. During a four-year period, 98 graduate students participated in 12 role-played SGC groups. SGC followed a model of group development and was highly consistent with expected changes in non-role-played groups. Discusses SGC advantages, especially related to…

  20. Implementation of a new aerosol HAM model within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, R.; Irannejad, P.; Feichter, J.; Bidokhti, A. A.

    2009-07-01

    A new coupled system of aerosol HAM model and the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is presented in this paper. Unlike the current aerosol schemes used in WRF model, the HAM is using a "pseudomodal" approach for the representation of the particle size distribution. The aerosol components considered are sulfate, black carbon, particulate organic matter, sea salt and mineral dust. The preliminary model results are presented for two different 6-day simulation periods from 22 to 28 February 2006 as a winter period and 6 to 12 May 2006 as a mild period. The mean shortwave radiation and thermal forcing were calculated from the model simulations with and without aerosols feedback for two simulation periods. A negative radiative forcing and cooling of the atmosphere were found mainly over the regions of high emission of mineral dust. The absorption of shortwave radiation by black carbon caused warming effects in some regions with positive radiative forcing. The simulated daily mean sulfate mass concentration showed a rather good agreement with the measurements in the European EMEP network. The diurnal variation of the simulated hourly PM10 mass concentration at Tehran was also qualitatively close to the observations in both simulation periods. The model captured diurnal cycle and the magnitude of the observed PM10 concentration during most of the simulation periods. The differences between the observed and simulated PM10 concentration resulted mostly from limitation of the model in simulating the clouds and precipitation, transport errors and uncertainties in the particulate emission rates. The inclusion of aerosols feedback in shortwave radiation scheme improved the simulated daily mean shortwave radiation fluxes in Tehran for both simulation periods.

  1. Final Report for LDRD Project ''A New Era of Research in Aerosol/Cloud/Climate Interactions at LLNL''

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C; Bergman, D J; Dignon, J E; Connell, P S

    2002-01-31

    of aerosol/cloud interactions on climate forcing [Chuang and Penner, 1995]. Our research has been recognized as one of a few studies attempting to quantify the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on climate in the IPCC Third Assessment Report [IPCC, 2001]. Our previous assessments of aerosol climate effects were based on a general circulation model (NCAR CCM1) fully coupled to a global tropospheric chemistry model (GRANTOUR). Both models, however, were developed more than a decade ago. The lack of advanced physics representation and techniques in our current models limits us from further exploring the interrelationship between aerosol, cloud, and climate variation. Our objective is to move to a new era of aerosol/cloud/climate modeling at LLNL by coupling the most advanced chemistry and climate models and by incorporating an aerosol microphysics module. This modeling capability will enable us to identify and analyze the responsible processes in aerosol/cloud/climate interactions and therefore, to improve the level of scientific understanding for aerosol climate effects. This state-of-the-art coupled models will also be used to address the relative importance of anthropogenic and natural emissions in the spatial pattern of aerosol climate forcing in order to assess the potential of human induced climate change.

  2. Aerosol Observability and Predictability: From Research to Operations for Chemical Weather Forecasting. Lagrangian Displacement Ensembles for Aerosol Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    A challenge common to many constituent data assimilation applications is the fact that one observes a much smaller fraction of the phase space that one wishes to estimate. For example, remotely sensed estimates of the column average concentrations are available, while one is faced with the problem of estimating 3D concentrations for initializing a prognostic model. This problem is exacerbated in the case of aerosols because the observable Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is not only a column integrated quantity, but it also sums over a large number of species (dust, sea-salt, carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. An aerosol transport model when driven by high-resolution, state-of-the-art analysis of meteorological fields and realistic emissions can produce skillful forecasts even when no aerosol data is assimilated. The main task of aerosol data assimilation is to address the bias arising from inaccurate emissions, and Lagrangian misplacement of plumes induced by errors in the driving meteorological fields. As long as one decouples the meteorological and aerosol assimilation as we do here, the classic baroclinic growth of error is no longer the main order of business. We will describe an aerosol data assimilation scheme in which the analysis update step is conducted in observation space, using an adaptive maximum-likelihood scheme for estimating background errors in AOD space. This scheme includes e explicit sequential bias estimation as in Dee and da Silva. Unlikely existing aerosol data assimilation schemes we do not obtain analysis increments of the 3D concentrations by scaling the background profiles. Instead we explore the Lagrangian characteristics of the problem for generating local displacement ensembles. These high-resolution state-dependent ensembles are then used to parameterize the background errors and generate 3D aerosol increments. The algorithm has computational complexity running at a resolution of 1/4 degree, globally. We will present the result of

  3. Chemical characterization and physico-chemical properties of aerosols at Villum Research Station, Greenland during spring 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasius, M.; Iversen, L. S.; Svendsen, S. B.; Hansen, A. M. K.; Nielsen, I. E.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Zhang, H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Skov, H.; Massling, A.; Bilde, M.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aerosols on the radiation balance and climate are of special concern in Arctic areas, which have experienced warming at twice the rate of the global average. As future scenarios include increased emissions of air pollution, including sulfate aerosols, from ship traffic and oil exploration in the Arctic, there is an urgent need to obtain the fundamental scientific knowledge to accurately assess the consequences of pollutants to environment and climate. In this work, we studied the chemistry of aerosols at the new Villum Research Station (81°36' N, 16°40' W) in north-east Greenland during the "inauguration campaign" in spring 2015. The chemical composition of sub-micrometer Arctic aerosols was investigated using a Soot Particle Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-ToF-AMS). Aerosol samples were also collected on filters using both a high-volume sampler and a low-volume sampler equipped with a denuder for organic gases. Chemical analyses of filter samples include determination of inorganic anions and cations using ion-chromatography, and analysis of carboxylic acids and organosulfates of anthropogenic and biogenic origin using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). Previous studies found that organosulfates constitute a surprisingly high fraction of organic aerosols during the Arctic Haze period in winter and spring. Investigation of organic molecular tracers provides useful information on aerosol sources and atmospheric processes. The physico-chemical properties of Arctic aerosols are also under investigation. These measurements include particle number size distribution, water activity and surface tension of aerosol samples in order to deduct information on their hygroscopicity and cloud-forming potential. The results of this study are relevant to understanding aerosol sources and processes as well as climate effects in the Arctic, especially during the Arctic haze

  4. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  5. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.  The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  6. A Laboratory Group Model for Engaging Undergraduates in Faculty Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a laboratory group program for engaging large numbers of undergraduate psychology students in faculty research at small liberal arts colleges with limited research resources. Participating in the group enhances the students' interest in and understanding of research and improves their chances of being accepted into a graduate program.…

  7. Using a Professional Moderator in Library Focus Group Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoaf, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the use of a professional marketing and opinion research firm at Brown University Library to conduct focus group meetings with users and to provide data analysis. Highlights include a review of library literature on focus group use; focus group methodology; benefits of employing professionals; logistics of focus group preparation; and…

  8. Organic functional groups in aerosol particles from burning and non-burning forest emissions at a high-elevation mountain site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahama, S.; Schwartz, R. E.; Russell, L. M.; MacDonald, A. M.; Sharma, S.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2011-07-01

    Ambient particles collected on teflon filters at the Peak of Whistler Mountain, British Columbia (2182 m a.s.l.) during spring and summer 2009 were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for organic functional groups (OFG). The project mean and standard deviation of organic aerosol mass concentrations (OM) for all samples was 3.2±3.3 (μg m-3). Measurements of aerosol mass fragments, size, and number concentrations were used to separate fossil-fuel combustion and burning and non-burning forest sources of the measured organic aerosol. The OM was composed of the same anthropogenic and non-burning forest components observed at Whistler mid-valley in the spring of 2008; during the 2009 campaign, biomass burning aerosol was additionally observed from fire episodes occurring between June and September. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, carboxylic acid, ketone, and primary amine groups represented 31 %±11 %, 34 %±9 %, 23 %±6 %, 6 %±7 %, and 6 %±3 % of OM, respectively. Ketones in aerosols were associated with burning and non-burning forest origins, and represented up to 27 % of the OM. The organic aerosol fraction resided almost entirely in the submicron fraction without significant diurnal variations. OM/OC mass ratios ranged mostly between 2.0 and 2.2 and O/C atomic ratios between 0.57 and 0.76, indicating that the organic aerosol reaching the site was highly aged and possibly formed through secondary formation processes.

  9. (Re)searching Methods: Reading Fiction in Literary Response Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    The trouble with education research is that the research is burdened with trouble before it begins. Working as a poststructural education researcher and engaged in a recent research project that sought to engage with questions of teacher identity, I employed an alternative data elicitation method of literary response groups--similar to that of…

  10. Making the Most of Ability Grouping. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Laurie

    This summary presents the major findings of recent research carried out at the Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools at Johns Hopkins University and published in "Ability Grouping and Student Achievement in Elementary Schools: A Best-Evidence Synthesis." The center examined more than 100 studies of five ability-grouping plans…

  11. Focus Groups: A Practical and Applied Research Approach for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2007-01-01

    Focus groups are becoming a popular research approach that counselors can use as an efficient, practical, and applied method of gathering information to better serve clients. In this article, the authors describe focus groups and their potential usefulness to professional counselors and researchers. Practical implications related to the use of…

  12. Group Training Apprenticeships and Traineeships. Research at a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    A search of recent research on group training apprenticeships and traineeships in Australia found that group training companies (GTCs) are making a strong contribution to Australia's apprentice and trainee system. Key findings include the following: (1) group training apprentice and trainee numbers doubled over the period of 1995-2000; (2) over…

  13. FT-IR quantification of the carbonyl functional group in aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol from phenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Kathryn M.; Ruthenburg, Travis C.; Smith, Jeremy; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Qi; Anastasio, Cort; Dillner, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed from aqueous-phase reactions of some organic species, including phenols, contribute significantly to particulate mass in the atmosphere. In this study, we employ a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique to identify and quantify the functional group makeup of phenolic SOA. Solutions containing an oxidant (hydroxyl radical or 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde) and either one phenol (phenol, guaiacol, or syringol) or a mixture of phenols mimicking softwood or hardwood emissions were illuminated to make SOA, atomized, and collected on a filter. We produced laboratory standards of relevant organic compounds in order to develop calibrations for four functional groups: carbonyls (Cdbnd O), saturated C-H, unsaturated C-H and O-H. We analyzed the SOA samples with transmission FT-IR to identify and determine the amounts of the four functional groups. The carbonyl functional group accounts for 3-12% of the SOA sample mass in single phenolic SOA samples and 9-14% of the SOA sample mass in mixture samples. No carbonyl functional groups are present in the initial reactants. Varying amounts of each of the other functional groups are observed. Comparing carbonyls measured by FT-IR (which could include aldehydes, ketones, esters, and carboxylic acids) with eight small carboxylic acids measured by ion chromatography indicates that the acids only account for an average of 20% of the total carbonyl reported by FT-IR.

  14. Mediating Academic Research: The Assessment Reform Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The interface between education research and education policy in the UK has been discussed, explored and redefined over nearly two decades since the "Education Reform Act" of 1988. This contribution analyses how one group of researchers, in the field of assessment, has attempted to exploit the potential for evidence from research to influence…

  15. The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - Article in National Ambient Air Quality Status and Trends through 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research study that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted in Detroit, Michigan, named the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS), will help develop data that improves our understanding of human exposure to various air pollutants in our environment.

  16. Ability grouping and science education reform: Policy and research base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sharon

    This article reviews current policy trends concerning the practice of ability grouping in K-12 science education. Relevant statements of key policy-making, policy-influencing organizations such as the NSTA, AAAS, NSF, the National Research Council, the U.S. Office of Education Department of Civil Rights, NAACP, the National Governors' Association, programs related to the Jacob Javits Grants for the Gifted and Talented, and others are summarized. The author's interpretation of the various positions are presented herein. The article also explores the research base supporting the various policies on grouping by examining selected general research literature on grouping, followed by research that is science education specific. Methodological issues color the research findings. The ethical and pragmatic implications of developing research and policy are discussed. The conclusions are that there is a dearth of recent empirical research specifically related to ability grouping in science, and that the time is ripe for the concerted development of a research agenda by key players in science education reform. Moreover, as controversial and value-laden as the topic is, it should be noted that grouping practices alone are unlikely to influence science education reform unless considered in the context of comprehensive restructuring efforts at the local school level.Received: 10 April 1993; Revised: 26 August 1993;

  17. Organic functional groups in aerosol particles from burning and non-burning forest emissions at a high-elevation mountain site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahama, S.; Schwartz, R. E.; Russell, L. M.; MacDonald, A. M.; Sharma, S.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient particles collected on teflon filters at the Peak of Whistler Mountain, British Columbia (2182 m a.s.l.) during spring and summer 2009 were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for organic functional groups (OFG). The project mean and standard deviation of organic aerosol mass concentrations (OM) for all samples was 3.2±3.3 (μg m-3). The OM was dominated by regional forest sources, burning, and non-burning that occurred mostly during June-September. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, carboxylic acid, ketone, and amine, groups represented 31%±11%, 34%±9%, 23%±6%, 6%±7%, and 6%±3% of OM, respectively. Ketone groups were associated with the forest aerosols and represented up to 27% of the OM in these aerosols. Additional measurements of aerosol mass fragments, size, and number concentrations were used to separate fossil-fuel combustion and burning and non-burning forest sources of the measured organic aerosol. The OM concentrations observed at Whistler Peak during this campaign were higher than those measured during a shorter period in the spring of 2008 at a site in Whistler valley, over one km lower than the peak location. The 2009 campaign was largely influenced by the wildfire emissions that were absent during the 2008 campaign.

  18. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Russell, L. M.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Vlasenko, A.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; MacDonald, A. M.; Li, S. M.; Liggio, J.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2010-06-01

    Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 m a.s.l. during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques for organic functional groups (OFG) and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM) concentrations ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1 μg m-3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m-3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m-3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and <1% of the average organic aerosol composition, respectively. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC), including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC) emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone / methacrolein, MVK/MACR), were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 21% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups) was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional group composition and morphology of single particles

  19. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Russell, L. M.; Sjosted, S. J.; Vlasenko, A.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; MacDonald, A. M.; Li, S. M.; Liggio, J.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2010-02-01

    Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 masl during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques for organic functional groups (OFG) and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM) ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1μg m-3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m-3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m-3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and <1% of the average organic aerosol composition, respectively. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC), including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC) emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone/methacrolein, MVK/MACR), were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 2% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups) was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional group composition and morphology of single particles, which were analyzed

  20. ESA/ESTEC Meteor Research Group - behind the scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudawska, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ESA/ESTEC Meteor Research Group consists of a team people with one goal: understand the effects of meteoric phenomena on planetary atmospheres and surfaces, as well as on spacecraft. The team carries out observational and theoretical studies in order to increase our knowledge of the small particle complex in the solar system. This talk addresses a number of tasks within the group seen from a perspective of a research fellow.

  1. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  2. Formal Group Communication with Older Adults: A Research Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the "social interaction" of older adults as a communication phenomenon which influences self-concept. Explores older adult group processes, and gives specific applications of group methods. Suggests the importance of assessing and applying communication constructs to research on detection and prevention of social isolation through formal…

  3. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  4. Toward a New Era of Research in Aerosol/Cloud/Climate Interactions at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C,; Dignon, J.; Grant, K.; Connell, P.; Bergman, D.; Rotman, D.; Wright, D.; McGraw, R.; Schwartz, S.

    2000-09-27

    One of the largest uncertainties in simulations of climate change over the industrial period is the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the Earth's radiation budget. Much of this uncertainty arises from the limited capability for either precisely linking precursor gases to the formation and size distribution of the aerosols or quantitatively describing the existing levels of global aerosol loading. This project builds on our aerosol and chemistry expertise to address each of these uncertainties in a more quantitative fashion than is currently possible. With the current LDRD support, we are in the process to implement an aerosol microphysics module into our global chemistry model to more fundamentally and completely describe the processes that determine the distribution of atmospheric aerosols. Using this new modeling capability, in conjunction with the most current version of NCAR climate model, we will examine the influence of these processes on aerosol direct and indirect climate forcing.

  5. Offshore Wind Measurements Using Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The latest flight demonstration of Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is presented. The goal of the campaign was to demonstrate the improvement of DAWN system since the previous flight campaign in 2012 and the capabilities of DAWN and the latest airborne wind profiling algorithm APOLO (Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind Lidar) developed at LaRC. The comparisons of APOLO and another algorithm are discussed utilizing two and five line-of-sights (LOSs), respectively. Wind parameters from DAWN were compared with ground-based radar measurements for validation purposes. The campaign period was June - July in 2013 and the flight altitude was 8 km in inland toward Charlotte, NC, and offshores in Virginia Beach, VA and Ocean City, MD. The DAWN system was integrated into a UC12B with two operators onboard during the campaign.

  6. Group analytic psychotherapy (im)possibilities to research

    PubMed Central

    Vlastelica, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    In the course of group analytic psychotherapy, where we discovered the power of the therapeutic effects, there occurred the need of group analytic psychotherapy researches. Psychotherapeutic work in general, and group psychotherapy in particular, are hard to measure and put into some objective frames. Researches, i. e. measuring of changes in psychotherapy is a complex task, and there are large disagreements. For a long time, the empirical-descriptive method was the only way of research in the field of group psychotherapy. Problems of researches in group psychotherapy in general, and particularly in group analytic psychotherapy can be reviewed as methodology problems at first, especially due to unrepeatability of the therapeutic process. The basic polemics about measuring of changes in psychotherapy is based on the question whether a change is to be measured by means of open measuring of behaviour or whether it should be evaluated more finely by monitoring inner psychological dimensions. Following the therapy results up, besides providing additional information on the patient's improvement, strengthens the psychotherapist's self-respect, as well as his respectability and credibility as a scientist. PMID:25478094

  7. Retrieval of Aerosol Microphysical Properties from AERONET Photo-Polarimetric Measurements. 2: A New Research Algorithm and Case Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jun; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Dubovik, Oleg; Li, Li; Li, Zhengqiang; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Siniuk, Aliaksandr; Holben, Brent N.

    2015-01-01

    A new research algorithm is presented here as the second part of a two-part study to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties from the multispectral and multiangular photopolarimetric measurements taken by Aerosol Robotic Network's (AERONET's) new-generation Sun photometer. The algorithm uses an advanced UNified and Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model and incorporates a statistical optimization approach.While the new algorithmhas heritage from AERONET operational inversion algorithm in constraining a priori and retrieval smoothness, it has two new features. First, the new algorithmretrieves the effective radius, effective variance, and total volume of aerosols associated with a continuous bimodal particle size distribution (PSD) function, while the AERONET operational algorithm retrieves aerosol volume over 22 size bins. Second, our algorithm retrieves complex refractive indices for both fine and coarsemodes,while the AERONET operational algorithm assumes a size-independent aerosol refractive index. Mode-resolved refractive indices can improve the estimate of the single-scattering albedo (SSA) for each aerosol mode and thus facilitate the validation of satellite products and chemistry transport models. We applied the algorithm to a suite of real cases over Beijing_RADI site and found that our retrievals are overall consistent with AERONET operational inversions but can offer mode-resolved refractive index and SSA with acceptable accuracy for the aerosol composed by spherical particles. Along with the retrieval using both radiance and polarization, we also performed radiance-only retrieval to demonstrate the improvements by adding polarization in the inversion. Contrast analysis indicates that with polarization, retrieval error can be reduced by over 50% in PSD parameters, 10-30% in the refractive index, and 10-40% in SSA, which is consistent with theoretical analysis presented in the companion paper of this two-part study.

  8. Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections from a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiainen, Tarja; Koivunen, Emma-Reetta

    2006-01-01

    This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting,…

  9. Associations between personal exposures to VOCs and alterations in cardiovascular physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007...

  10. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Environmental Exposure Studies: Lessons from the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was a complex 3-year personal exposure study. The six geographically defined areas in the Detroit (Wayne County), Michigan, area used as study locations are ethnically diverse; the majority ...

  11. Associations between Personal Exposures to VOCs and Alterations in Cardiovascular Physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007 (5 seas...

  12. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field. PMID:25674353

  13. The focus group technique in library research: an introduction.

    PubMed Central

    Glitz, B

    1997-01-01

    The focus group technique is one example of a qualitative research methodology used to explore the opinions, knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of individuals in regard to a particular topic. The focus group typically involves six to ten individuals who have some knowledge of or experience with the topic. The group discussion is led by a moderator who guides participants through a series of open-ended questions. The information gathered can provide important clues to human attitudes and values as they relate to the topic. Such information can be extremely useful to libraries that are trying to gain a better understanding of their patrons' needs and thus make better management decisions to help satisfy those needs. The technique can also be used successfully in conjunction with other research tools, such as surveys, either to help develop a questionnaire or to explain specific survey results. This paper introduces the use of focus groups in library research, the skills needed to conduct groups, and their strengths and weaknesses. Examples of the use of focus groups in health sciences libraries are presented, including the results of a survey from these libraries. PMID:9431428

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis in aerosol research.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Jenia A M; Calfee, M Worth; Lee, Sang Don; Ryan, Shawn P

    2014-05-01

    Characterization of candidate surrogate spores prior to experimental use is critical to confirm that the surrogate characteristics are as closely similar as possible to those of the pathogenic agent of interest. This review compares the physical properties inherent to spores of Bacillus anthracis (Ba) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that impact their movement in air and interaction with surfaces, including size, shape, density, surface morphology, structure and hydrophobicity. Also evaluated is the impact of irradiation on the physical properties of both Bacillus species. Many physical features of Bt and Ba have been found to be similar and, while Bt is considered typically non-pathogenic, it is in the B. cereus group, as is Ba. When cultured and sporulated under similar conditions, both microorganisms share a similar cylindrical pellet shape, an aerodynamic diameter of approximately 1 μm (in the respirable size range), have an exosporium with a hairy nap, and have higher relative hydrophobicities than other Bacillus species. While spore size, morphology, and other physical properties can vary among strains of the same species, the variations can be due to growth/sporulation conditions and may, therefore, be controlled. Growth and sporulation conditions are likely among the most important factors that influence the representativeness of one species, or preparation, to another. All Bt spores may, therefore, not be representative of all Ba spores. Irradiated spores do not appear to be a good surrogate to predict the behavior of non-irradiated spores due to structural damage caused by the irradiation. While the use of Bt as a surrogate for Ba in aerosol testing appears to be well supported, this review does not attempt to narrow selection between Bt strains. Comparative studies should be performed to test the hypothesis that viable Ba and Bt spores will behave similarly when suspended in the air (as an aerosol) and to compare the known microscale characteristics

  15. [The virtual environment of a research group: the tutors' perspective].

    PubMed

    Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2012-02-01

    The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance. PMID:22441291

  16. Developing a physics expert identity in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of practice-based identity constructs of competencies characterize student expert membership. A microanalysis of speech, sound, tones, and gestures in video data characterize students' social competencies in the physics community of practice. Results provide evidence that students at different stages of their individual projects have opportunities to develop social competencies such as mutual engagement, negotiability of the repertoire, and accountability to the enterprises as they interact with group members. The biophysics research group purposefully designed a learning trajectory including conducting research and writing it for publication in the larger community of practice as a pathway to expertise. The students of the research group learn to become socially competent as specific experts of their project topic and methodology, ensuring acceptance, agency, and membership in their community of practice. This work expands research on physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and has implications for how to design graduate learning experiences to promote expert identity development.

  17. About the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Biomarkers Research Group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. Activities include development and validation of promising cancer biomarkers, collaborative databases and informatics systems, and new technologies or the refinement of existing technologies. NCI DCP News Note Consortium on Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) Created: Eight Grants Awarded to Improve Accuracy of Cancer Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis |

  18. Measurement, growth types and shrinkage of newly formed aerosol particles at an urban research platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salma, Imre; Németh, Zoltán; Weidinger, Tamás; Kovács, Boldizsár; Kristóf, Gergely

    2016-06-01

    Budapest platform for Aerosol Research and Training (BpART) was created for advancing long-term on-line atmospheric measurements and intensive aerosol sample collection campaigns in Budapest. A joint study including atmospheric chemistry or physics, meteorology, and fluid dynamics on several-year-long data sets obtained at the platform confirmed that the location represents a well-mixed, average atmospheric environment for the city centre. The air streamlines indicated that the host and neighbouring buildings together with the natural orography play an important role in the near-field dispersion processes. Details and features of the airflow structure were derived, and they can be readily utilised for further interpretations. An experimental method to determine particle diffusion losses in the differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) system of the BpART facility was proposed. It is based on CPC-CPC (condensation particle counter) and DMPS-CPC comparisons. Growth types of nucleated particles observed in 4 years of measurements were presented and discussed specifically for cities. Arch-shaped size distribution surface plots consisting of a growth phase followed by a shrinkage phase were characterised separately since they supply information on nucleated particles. They were observed in 4.5 % of quantifiable nucleation events. The shrinkage phase took 1 h 34 min in general, and the mean shrinkage rate with standard deviation was -3.8 ± 1.0 nm h-1. The shrinkage of particles was mostly linked to changes in local atmospheric conditions, especially in global radiation and the gas-phase H2SO4 concentration through its proxy, or to atmospheric mixing in few cases. Some indirect results indicate that variations in the formation and growth rates of nucleated particles during their atmospheric transport could be a driving force of shrinkage for particles of very small sizes and on specific occasions.

  19. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  20. Use of group-randomized trials in pet population research.

    PubMed

    Lord, L K; Wittum, T E; Scarlett, J M

    2007-12-14

    Communities invest considerable resources to address the animal welfare and public health concerns resulting from unwanted pet animals. Traditionally, research in this area has enumerated the pet-owning population, described pet population dynamics in individual communities, and estimated national euthanasia figures. Recent research has investigated the human-animal bond and explored the community implications of managed feral cat colonies. These reports have utilized traditional epidemiologic study designs to generate observational data to describe populations and measure associations. However, rigorous scientific evaluations of potential interventions at the group level have been lacking. Group-randomized trials have been used extensively in public health research to evaluate interventions that change a population's behavior, not just the behavior of selected individuals. We briefly describe the strengths and limitations of group-randomized trials as they are used to evaluate interventions that promote social and behavioral changes in the human public health field. We extend these examples to suggest the appropriate application of group-randomized trials for pet population dynamics research. PMID:17707934

  1. Engaging Research Groups: Rethinking Information Literacy for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Bonnie L.; Hansen, Darren B.

    2012-01-01

    Librarians have traditionally taught information literacy skills to science graduate students in separate courses dedicated to information-seeking, during assignment(s)-based library sessions for other courses, or through workshops. There is little mention in the professional literature of teaching graduate students within their research groups.…

  2. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  3. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  4. Developing a Physics Expert Identity in a Biophysics Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of…

  5. Aerosol Interdisciplinary Research Program Workshop October 30 - November 1, 1995 Columbia, MD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. J.; Chou, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    The Aerosol Interdisciplinary Program (AIP) was established by NASA in 1992 to address the suggestion that the direct and indirect radiative effects of sulfate and other aerosols in the troposphere, including those from biomass burning, may be sufficient, on a global basis to offset the radiative effects of increases in greenhouse gases.

  6. Collaborative research. Study of aerosol sources and processing at the GVAX Pantnagar Supersite

    SciTech Connect

    Worsnop, Doug; Volkamer, Rainer

    2012-08-13

    The Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) investigated uncertainties in the aerosol direct effect in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes. The University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS and LED-CE-DOAS instruments were collocated with DOE’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) during the TCAP-1 campaign at Cape Cod, MA (1 July to 13 August 2012). We have performed atmospheric radiation closure studies to evaluate the use of a novel parameter, i.e., the Raman Scattering Probability (RSP). We have performed first measurements of RSP almucantar scans, and measure RSP in spectra of scattered solar photons at 350nm and 430nm. Radiative Transfer Modelling of RSP demonstrate that the RSP measurement is maximally sensitive to infer even extremely low aerosol optical depth (AOD < 0.01) reliably by DOAS at low solar relative azimuth angles. We further assess the role of elevated aerosol layers on near surface observations of oxygen collision complexes, O 2-O2. Elevated aerosol layers modify the near surface absorption of O2-O2 and RSP. The combination of RSP and O2-O2 holds largely unexplored potential to better constrain elevated aerosol layers and measure column aerosol optical properties such as aerosol effective radius, extinction, aerosol phase functions and refractive indices. The TCAP deployment also provides a time series of reactive trace gas vertical profiles, i.e., nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and glyoxal (C2H2O2), which are measured simultaneously with the aerosol optical properties by DOAS. NO2 is an important precursor for ozone (O3) that modifies oxidative capacity. Glyoxal modifies oxidative capacity and is a source for brown carbon by forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via multiphase reactions in aerosol and cloud water. We have performed field measurements of these gases

  7. A Coupled Programme of Aerosol Research Within the OP3 and ACES Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFiggans, G.; Aces Aerosol Teams, P A

    2008-12-01

    The oxidation of organic compounds in the troposphere plays a central role in the generation of ozone, and leads to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and other secondary pollutants. Approximately 90% of organic material emitted globally is estimated to originate from biogenic sources, with almost half of all reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) being emitted from tropical and sub-tropical forests. It is becoming increasingly clear from observational studies that biogenic SOA (BSOA) is the dominant source of aerosol organic carbon concentrations in remote environments. This provides part of the motivation for the OP3 project. Ground-based aerosol measurements at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) site in Danum Valley Conservation Area in OP3 were provided by a suite of instrumentation for full composition and physical property characterisation (size distribution, hygroscopicity and CCN activation). To further enhance our understanding of aerosol processes in the Borneo rainforest, additional capability was assembled within the UK NERC funded "Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System" (ACES) programme. Field component enhancements to the OP3 aerosol payload by ACES included a deployment of aerosol and precursor flux measurements within the forest canopy to characterise primary bioaerosol sources and in-canopy chemistry leading to formation of secondary aerosol components. In addition, measurements of VOCs and aerosol composition were made above an oil palm plantation to assess the impact of land-use change on aerosol processes. ACES is a coupled programme of field, chamber, mechanism development and modelling investigations aiming to reduce uncertainties in our fundamental understanding of BSOA formation and the subsequent impact on atmospheric composition. In addition to summarising aerosol field measurements within ACES / OP3, we will present an overview of the status of the ACES chamber and modelling results with the overall aim to: i

  8. The NASA-Ames Research Center stratospheric aerosol model. 2. Sensitivity studies and comparison with observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Hamill, P.; Kiang, C. S.; Whitten, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Sensitivity tests were performed on a one-dimensional, physical-chemical model of the unperturbed stratospheric aerosols, and model calculations were compared with observations. The tests and comparisons suggest that coagulation controls the particle number mixing ratio, although the number of condensation nuclei at the tropopause and the diffusion coefficient at high altitudes are also important. The sulfur gas source strength and the aerosol residence time are much more important than the supply of condensation nuclei in establishing mass and large particle concentrations. The particle size is also controlled mainly by gas supply and residence time. In situ observations of the aerosols and laboratory measurements of aerosols, parameters that can provide further information about the physics and chemistry of the stratosphere and the aerosols found there are provided.

  9. Progress and Understanding Spatial and Temporal Variability of PM2.5 and its Components in the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) measured personal exposures, ambient, residential indoor and residential outdoor concentrations of select PM2.5 aerosol components (SO4, NO3, Fe, Si, Ca, K, Mn, Pb, Zn, EC and OC) over a thr...

  10. Being Researchers for the First Time: Reflections on the Development of an Inclusive Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet was an inclusive research project; it enabled a group of people with a learning disability who do not receive specialist support services to explore their own lives. This group are often labelled as having a mild learning disability. The research project focused on the strategies they used to cope with day to…

  11. Aerosols and Particulates Workshop Sampling Procedures and Venues Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter; Howard, Robert

    1999-01-01

    downstream of the nozzle). Actual locations with potential for extractive or non-intrusive measurements depend upon the test article and test configuration. Committee members expressed the importance of making investigators aware of various ports that could allow access to various stages of the existing engines. Port locations are engine si)ecific and might allow extractive sampling or innovative hybrid optical-probe access. The turbine stage region was one the most desirable locations for obtaining samples and might be accessed through boroscope ports available in some engine designs. Discussions of probes and sampling systems quickly identified issues dependent on particular measurement quantities. With general consensus, the group recommends SAE procedures for measurements and data analyses of currently regulated exhaust species (CO2, CO, THC, NO(x),) using conventional gas sampling techniques. Special procedures following sound scientific practices must be developed as required for species and/or measurement conditions not covered by SAE standards. Several issues arose concerning short lived radicals and highly reactive species. For conventional sampling, there are concerns of perturbing the sample during extraction, line losses, line-wall reactions, and chemical reactions during the sample transport to the analyzers. Sample lines coated with quartz.or other materials should be investigated for minimization of such effects. The group advocates the development of innovative probe techniques and non-intrusive optical techniques for measurement of short lived radicals and highly reactive species that cannot be sampled accurately otherwise. Two innovative probe concepts were discussed. One concept uses specially designed probes to transfer optical beams to and from a region of flow inaccessible by traditional ports or windows. The probe can perturb the flow field but must have a negligible impact on the region to be optically sampled. Such probes are referred to as hybrid

  12. Aerosols and Particulates Workshop Sampling Procedures and Venues Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter; Howard, Robert

    1999-01-01

    downstream of the nozzle). Actual locations with potential for extractive or non-intrusive measurements depend upon the test article and test configuration. Committee members expressed the importance of making investigators aware of various ports that could allow access to various stages of the existing engines. Port locations are engine si)ecific and might allow extractive sampling or innovative hybrid optical-probe access. The turbine stage region was one the most desirable locations for obtaining samples and might be accessed through boroscope ports available in some engine designs. Discussions of probes and sampling systems quickly identified issues dependent on particular measurement quantities. With general consensus, the group recommends SAE procedures for measurements and data analyses of currently regulated exhaust species (CO2, CO, THC, NO(x),) using conventional gas sampling techniques. Special procedures following sound scientific practices must be developed as required for species and/or measurement conditions not covered by SAE standards. Several issues arose concerning short lived radicals and highly reactive species. For conventional sampling, there are concerns of perturbing the sample during extraction, line losses, line-wall reactions, and chemical reactions during the sample transport to the analyzers. Sample lines coated with quartz.or other materials should be investigated for minimization of such effects. The group advocates the development of innovative probe techniques and non-intrusive optical techniques for measurement of short lived radicals and highly reactive species that cannot be sampled accurately otherwise. Two innovative probe concepts were discussed. One concept uses specially designed probes to transfer optical beams to and from a region of flow inaccessible by traditional ports or windows. The probe can perturb the flow field but must have a negligible impact on the region to be optically sampled. Such probes are referred to as hybrid

  13. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}, and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4{pi} acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us.

  14. Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

  15. Aerosol-Water Cycle Interaction: A New Challenge in Monsoon Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2006-01-01

    Long recognized as a major environmental hazard, aerosol is now known to have strong impacts on both regional and global climate. It has been estimated that aerosol may reduce by up to 10% of the seasonal mean solar radiation reaching the earth surface, producing a global cooling effect that opposes global warming (Climate Change 2001). This means that the potential perils that humans have committed to global warming may be far greater than what we can detect at the present. As a key component of the Earth climate system, the water cycle is profoundly affected by the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. Through the so-called direct effect , aerosol scatters and/or absorbs solar radiation, thus cooling the earth surface and changing the horizontal and vertical radiational heating contrast in the atmosphere. The heating contrast drives anomalous atmospheric circulation, resulting in changes in convection, clouds, and rainfall. Another way aerosol can affect the water cycle is through the so-called indirect effects, whereby aerosol increases the number of cloud condensation nuclei, prolongs life time of clouds, and inhibits the growth of cloud drops to raindrops. This leads to more clouds, and increased reflection of solar radiation, and further cooling at the earth surface. In monsoon regions, the response of the water cycle to aerosol forcing is especially complex, not only because of presence of diverse mix of aerosol species with vastly different radiative properties, but also because the monsoon is strongly influenced by ocean and land surface processes, land use, land change, as well as regional and global greenhouse warming effects. Thus, sorting out the impacts of aerosol forcing, and interaction with the monsoon water cycle is a very challenging problem. In this talk, I will offer some insights into how aerosols may impact the Asian monsoon based on preliminary results from satellite observations and climate model experiments. Specifically, I will discuss

  16. Aerosol-Water Cycle Interaction: A New Challenge in Monsoon Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2006-01-01

    Long recognized as a major environmental hazard, aerosol is now known to have strong impacts on both regional and global climate. It has been estimated that aerosol may reduce by up to 10% of the seasonal mean solar radiation reaching the earth surface, producing a global cooling effect that opposes global warming (Climate Change 2001). This means that the potential perils that humans have committed to global warming may be far greater than what we can detect at the present. As a key component of the Earth climate system, the water cycle is profoundly affected by the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. Through the so-called "direct effect", aerosol scatters and/or absorbs solar radiation, thus cooling the earth surface and changing the horizontal and vertical radiational heating contrast in the atmosphere. The heating contrast drives anomalous atmospheric circulation, resulting in changes in convection, clouds, and rainfall. Another way aerosol can affect the water cycle is through the so-called "indirect effects", whereby aerosol increases the number of cloud condensation nuclei, prolongs life time of clouds, and inhibits the growth of cloud drops to raindrops. This leads to more clouds, and increased reflection of solar radiation, and further cooling at the earth surface. In monsoon regions, the response of the water cycle to aerosol forcing is especially complex, not only because of presence of diverse mix of aerosol species with vastly different radiative properties, but also because the monsoon is strongly influenced by ocean and land surface processes, land use, land change, as well as regional and global greenhouse warming effects. Thus, sorting out the impacts of aerosol forcing, and interaction with the monsoon water cycle is a very challenging problem. In this talk, I will offer some insights into how aerosols may impact the Asian monsoon based on preliminary results from satellite observations and climate model experiments. Specifically, I will

  17. Research Spotlight: Is there a relationship between aerosol and cloud properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi; Ofori, Leslie; Tretkoff, Ernie

    The interaction of aerosols and clouds is a significant uncertainty in studies of anthropogenic forcing of climate. To learn more about the effects of fine aerosols on cloud microphysics, Costantino and Bréon performed a multisensor analysis of the atmosphere off the southwest coast of Africa. They chose this particular area because it is often affected by smoke from biomass burning. The aerosol particles from this smoke are transported by trade winds into the atmosphere, where they come in contact with low-level stratocumulus clouds.

  18. The NASA-AMES Research Center Stratospheric Aerosol Model. 1. Physical Processes and Computational Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Hamill, P.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Kiang, C. S.

    1979-01-01

    A time-dependent one-dimensional model of the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer is presented. In constructing the model, a wide range of basic physical and chemical processes are incorporated in order to avoid predetermining or biasing the model predictions. The simulation, which extends from the surface to an altitude of 58 km, includes the troposphere as a source of gases and condensation nuclei and as a sink for aerosol droplets. The size distribution of aerosol particles is resolved into 25 categories with particle radii increasing geometrically from 0.01 to 2.56 microns such that particle volume doubles between categories.

  19. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  20. Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-10-01

    Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.

  1. Using Research Cruise Data to Improve Group Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Group activities can be used to create an interactive classroom learning environment. POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) is a pedagogical approach that uses group activities to teach content and process skills. In these group activities an initial model and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to new content. These activities have primarily been developed for chemistry courses, using general information in the model. New activities have been developed for an environmental chemistry course using real-world data as the model. The data used for one of these activities were collected during a research cruise in the Pacific Ocean. Halocarbons were measured in surface seawater and the overlying atmosphere as part of a research study on the natural cycling of compounds involved in ozone depletion. The coupled air and water measurements are used to help students learn about the solubility of gases in water. Students are first given a graph of atmospheric mixing ratios as a function of latitude for several halocarbons and then asked to predict what the corresponding graph of seawater concentrations will look like. The students are then guided through the interpretation of the seawater concentration graph. Plotting the data as a function of latitude enables the discussion of the temperature dependence of the solubility. This activity will be presented as an example of how research data can be incorporated into a classroom module. The effectiveness of this approach will be discussed.

  2. Improving animal research with an institutional electronic discussion group.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Norman C

    2005-09-01

    To remain at the forefront of scientific discovery, investigators continually are challenged to apply new approaches, instruments, and models to their work. Research institutions work to foster the exchange of ideas and resources, but this objective becomes more difficult to meet as the organization's size and complexity increase. To facilitate communication among researchers that use mice in their work and to provide increased opportunities for resource sharing, an electronic discussion group was formed at The Johns Hopkins University. The discussion group (jhu-mousers) is restricted to individuals within the institution's three campuses, and its 145 subscribers comprise faculty (including veterinarians), postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and technicians. During its beginning 2 1/2-year period, jhu-mousers has received 207 postings that include seminar announcements; resource information; requests for mice, equipment, biological reagents, and technical assistance; and responses to these requests. The value of the electronic mailing list is evidenced by the fact that 70% of requests for resources or technical help have received at least one response, and this figure is likely to be underestimated because off-line responses are not included. Because the mailing list provides opportunities for tissue sharing and is conducive to refining experimental procedures used in mice, its application promotes the use of alternatives in animal research. To promote and assist the development of animal-user discussion groups at other institutions, the administration, applications, and benefits of an electronic mailing list for mouse users are discussed here. PMID:16138783

  3. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma. PMID:26305520

  4. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.

    2011-01-20

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) combines x-ray microscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). This combination provides spatially resolved bonding and oxidation state information. While there are reviews relevant to STXM/NEXAFS applications in other environmental fields (and magnetic materials) this chapter focuses on atmospheric aerosols. It provides an introduction to this technique in a manner approachable to non-experts. It begins with relevant background information on synchrotron radiation sources and a description of NEXAFS spectroscopy. The bulk of the chapter provides a survey of STXM/NEXAFS aerosol studies and is organized according to the type of aerosol investigated. The purpose is to illustrate the current range and recent growth of scientific investigations employing STXM-NEXAFS to probe atmospheric aerosol morphology, surface coatings, mixing states, and atmospheric processing.

  5. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication. PMID:26101911

  6. Implementation of the Missing Aerosol Physics into LLNL IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C

    2005-02-09

    In recent assessments of climate forcing, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change lists aerosol as one o f the most important anthropogenic agents that influence climate. Atmospheric aerosols directly affect the radiative fluxes at the surface and top of the Earth's atmosphere by scattering and/or absorbing radiation. Further, aerosols indirectly change cloud microphysical properties (such as cloud drop effective radius) that also affect the radiative fluxes. However, the estimate of the magnitude of aerosol climatic effect varies widely, and aerosol/cloud interactions remain one of the most uncertain aspects of climate models today. The Atmospheric Sciences Division has formulated a plan to enhance and expand our modeling expertise in aerosol/cloud/climate interactions. Under previous LDRD support, we successfully developed a computationally efficient version of IMPACT to simulate aerosol climatology. This new version contains a compact chemical mechanism for the prediction of sulfate and also predicts the distributions of organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), dust, and sea salt. Furthermore, we implemented a radiation package into IMPACT to calculate the radiative forcing and heating/cooling rates by aerosols. This accomplishment built the foundation of our currently funded projects under the NASA Global Modeling and Analysis Program as well as the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Program. Despite the fact that our research is being recognized as an important effort to quantify the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on climate, the major shortcoming of our previous simulations on aerosol climatic effects is the over simplification of spatial and temporal variations of aerosol size distributions that are shaped by complicated nucleation, growth, transport and removal processes. Virtually all properties of atmospheric aerosols and clouds depend strongly on aerosol size distribution. Moreover, molecular processing on aerosol surfaces alters the hygroscopic

  7. Fostering Undergraduate Research Experiences in Management Information Systems through the "Research Group" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartkus, Ken; Mills, Robert; Olsen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative approach to engaged learning. Founded on the principles of a scholarly think-tank and administered along the lines of a consulting organization, the proposed "Research Group" framework is designed to facilitate effective and efficient undergraduate research experiences in Management…

  8. Where and What Is Pristine Marine Aerosol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, L. M.; Frossard, A. A.; Long, M. S.; Burrows, S. M.; Elliott, S.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.

    2014-12-01

    The sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles have been measured by functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) to identify the organic composition of the pristine primary marine (ocean-derived) particles as 65% hydroxyl, 21% alkane, 6% amine, and 7% carboxylic acid functional groups [Frossard et al., 2014a,b]. Pristine but non-primary components from photochemical reactions (likely from biogenic marine vapor emissions) add carboxylic acid groups. Non-pristine contributions include shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions, which add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal or continental emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups. The pristine primary marine (ocean-derived) organic aerosol composition is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles from bubbled seawater, indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied and the ratio of organic carbon to sodium (OC/Na+) in the generated primary marine aerosol particles remained nearly constant over a broad range of chlorophyll-a concentrations, the generated primary marine aerosol particle alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations. In addition, the generated primary marine aerosol particles have a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. References Cited Frossard, Amanda A., Lynn M. Russell, Paola Massoli, Timothy S. Bates, and Patricia K. Quinn, "Side-by-Side Comparison of Four Techniques Explains the Apparent Differences in the Organic Composition of Generated and Ambient Marine Aerosol Particles," Aerosol Science and Technology - Aerosol Research Letter

  9. IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF AEROSOL POLAR OXYGENATED COMPOUNDS BEARING CARBOXYLIC OR HYDROXYL GROUPS. 2. ORGANIC TRACER COMPOUNDS FROM MONOTERPENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison was made of polar organic compounds found in the field with those produced in secondary organic aerosol from laboratory irradiations of natural hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. The field samples comprised atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) collect...

  10. [The research on remote sensing dust aerosol by using split window emissivity].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Gu, Xing-Fa; Cheng, Tian-Hai; Xie, Dong-Hai; Liu, Qian

    2013-05-01

    Dust aerosol can cause the change in the land surface emissivity in split window by radiative forcing (RF). Firstly, the present paper explained from the microscopic point of view the extinction properties of dust aerosols in the 11 and 12 microm channels, and their influence on the land surface emissivity. Secondly, on April 29, 2011, in the northern region of Inner Mongolia a strong sandstorm outbroke, and based on the analysis of the changes in land surface emissivity, this paper proposed a dust identification method by using the variation of emissivity. At last, the dust identification result was evaluated by the dust monitoring product provided by the National Satellite Meteorological Center. The result shows that under the assumption that the 12 microm emissivity equals to 1, using 11 microm relative emissivity could identify dust cover region effectively, and the 11 microm relative emissivity to a certain extent represented the intensity information of dust aerosol. PMID:23905316

  11. Group-effort Applied Research: Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with…

  12. Atmospheric Aerosols in a Changing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere impact human and environmental health, visibility, and climate. Exposure to air pollution is the leading environmental cause of premature mortality world-wide. The role of aerosols on the Earth's climate represents the single largest source of uncertainty in our understanding of global radiative forcing. Tremendous strides have been made to clean up the air in recent decades, and yet poor air quality continues to plague many regions of the world, and our understanding of how global change will feedback on to aerosol sources, formation, and impacts is limited. In this talk, I will use recent results from my research group to highlight some of the key uncertainties and research topics in global aerosol lifecycle.

  13. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    classification. The harmonization of the aerosol typing procedures is a fundamental need in aerosol studies for long-term perspectives, satellite validation, and accuracy. However, the possibilities and limits in defining a common set of aerosol types for satellite missions and ground-based measurements depends on different information content among measurement techniques and for different retrieval conditions (e.g. for low aerosol content there is smaller satellite aerosol type retrieval sensitivity), as well as different historical choices. The concept of aReference database for aerosol typing (REDAT) is developed with the specific purpose of providing a dataset suitable for the comparison of typing procedures (from ground-based, and satellite measurements) and to be used as reference dataset for the modelling community. It will also allow the definition of translating rules between the different aerosol typing nomenclature, information strongly needed for the more and more increased audience of scientific data with no scientific background, as well as policy and decision makers. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results is partially funded by ACTRIS2 Research Infrastructure Project by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the grant agreement n. 654169.

  14. Validation of aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles from routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Flynn, Connor J.; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Ferrare, Richard; Clayton, Marian F.; Ogren, John A.; Russell, P. B.; Gore, W.; Dominguez, Roseanne

    2009-11-26

    The accuracy with which vertical profiles of aerosol extinction σep(λ) can be retrieved from ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) routine measurements was assessed using data from two airborne field campaigns, the ARM Aerosol Intensive Operation Period (AIOP, May 2003), and the Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE, September 2005). This assessment pertains to the aerosol at its ambient concentration and thermodynamic state (i.e. σep(λ) either free of or corrected for sampling artifacts) and includes the following ACRF routine methods: Raman Lidar, Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and in-situ aerosol profiles (IAP) with a small aircraft. Profiles of aerosol optical depth τp(λ), from which the profiles of σep(λ)are derived through vertical differentiation, were measured by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-14); these data were used as truth in this evaluation. The ACRF IAP σep(550 nm) were lower by 16% (during AIOP) and higher by 10% (during ALIVE) when compared to AATS-14. The ACRF MPL σep(523 nm) were higher by 24% (AIOP) and 19%-21% (ALIVE) compared to AATS-14 but the correlation improved significantly during ALIVE. In the AIOP a second MPL operated by NASA showed a smaller positive bias (13%) with respect to AATS-14. The ACRF Raman Lidar σep(355 nm) were higher by 54% (AIOP) and higher by 6% (ALIVE) compared to AATS-14. The large bias in AIOP stemmed from a gradual loss of the sensitivity of the Raman Lidar starting about the end of 2001 going unnoticed until after AIOP. A major refurbishment and upgrade of the instrument and improvements to a data-processing algorithm led to the significant improvement and very small bias in ALIVE. Finally we find that during ALIVE the Raman Lidar water vapor densities ρw are higher by 8% when compared to AATS-14, whereas comparisons between AATS-14 and in-situ measured ρw aboard two different aircraft showed small negative biases (0 to

  15. Tropospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  16. UCM Meteor and Fireball Research group: Results 2012--2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Izquierdo, J.; Pascual, S.; Palos, M. F.; Oré, S.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Zamora, S.; Lorenzo, C.; San Juan, R.; Muñoz-Ibáñez, B.; Vázquez, C.; Alonso-Moragón, A.; Gallego, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Madiedo, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Most of the activity of the group is based on the Fireball Detection Station located at the Observatorio UCM, a system consisting of 6 high-sensitivity videocameras covering the whole sky with wide-angle lenses during nighttime. Another 15 cameras have been placed by the researchers between 10 and 200 km away from Madrid for multiple station observations. It works as a node in the SPanish Meteor and Fireball Network (SPMN), a network of similar stations covering the atmosphere over Spain. Besides the continuous monitoring, the group has worked on the recording and analysis of some meteor showers. Most of the attention was focused on the Draconids 2011 campaign at Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M., Madiedo, J. M., Williams, I. P., et al. 2013, MNRAS, 433, 560; Ocaña, F., Palos, M. F., Zamorano, J., et al. 2013, Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference, 31st IMC, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, 2012, 70), and the 2012 Geminids balloon-borne mission over Spain (Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Madiedo, J. M., et al. 2013, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 44, 2202). The products of the station have been used for undergraduate thesis projects at the Physics Faculty (Ocaña, F., 2011, UCM e-prints, 13292) and other undergraduate projects. In 2013 the station received new equipment thanks to the Certamen Arquímedes award, complementing the detection with spectroscopic and frame-integrating devices.

  17. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program.

  18. Cohort Profile: The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!)

    PubMed Central

    Carsley, Sarah; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian; Macarthur, Colin; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) is an ongoing open longitudinal cohort study enrolling healthy children (from birth to 5 years of age) and following them into adolescence. The aim of the TARGet Kids! cohort is to link early life exposures to health problems including obesity, micronutrient deficiencies and developmental problems. The overarching goal is to improve the health of Canadians by optimizing growth and developmental trajectories through preventive interventions in early childhood. TARGet Kids!, the only child health research network embedded in primary care practices in Canada, leverages the unique relationship between children and families and their trusted primary care practitioners, with whom they have at least seven health supervision visits in the first 5 years of life. Children are enrolled during regularly scheduled well-child visits. To date, we have enrolled 5062 children. In addition to demographic information, we collect physical measurements (e.g. height, weight), lifestyle factors (nutrition, screen time and physical activity), child behaviour and developmental screening and a blood sample (providing measures of cardiometabolic, iron and vitamin D status, and trace metals). All data are collected at each well-child visit: twice a year until age 2 and every year until age 10. Information can be found at: http://www.targetkids.ca/contact-us/. PMID:24982016

  19. Citing Dynamic Data - Research Data Alliance working group recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Ari; Rauber, Andreas; Pröll, Stefan; van Uytvanck, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Geosciences research data sets are typically dynamic: changing over time as new records are added, errors are corrected and obsolete records are deleted from the data sets. Researchers often use only parts of the data sets or data stream, creating specific subsets tailored to their experiments. In order to keep such experiments reproducible and to share and cite the particular data used in a study, researchers need means of identifying the exact version of a subset as it was used during a specific execution of a workflow, even if the data source is continuously evolving. Some geosciences data services have tried to approach this problem by creating static versions of their data sets, and some have simply ignored this issue. The RDA Working Group on Dynamic Data Citation (WGDC) has instead approached the issue with a set of recommendations based upon versioned data, timestamping and a query based subsetting mechanism. The 14 RDA WGDC recommendations on how to adapt a data source for providing identifiable subsets for the long term are: Preparing the Data and the Query Store R1 - Data Versioning R2 - Timestamping R3 - Query Store Facilities Persistently Identifying Specific Data Sets R4 - Query Uniqueness R5 - Stable Sorting R6 - Result Set Verification R7 - Query Timestamping R8 - Query PID R9 - Store the Query R10 - Automated Citation Texts Resolving PIDs and Retrieving the Data - R11 - Landing Page R12 - Machine Actionability Upon modifications to the Data Infrastructure R13 - Technology Migration R14 - Migration Verification We present a detailed discussion of the recommendations, the rationale behind them, and give examples of how to implement them.

  20. Study of aerosol hygroscopic events over the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) using the multi-wavelength Raman lidar Caeli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, A. J.; Apituley, A.; Veselovskii, I.; Suvorina, A.; Henzing, J.; Pujadas, M.; Artíñano, B.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a study of aerosol optical and microphysical properties under different relative humidity (RH) but well mixed layer conditions using optical and microphysical aerosol properties from multi-wavelength (MW) Raman lidar and in-situ aerosol observations collected at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR). Two hygroscopic events are described through 3 backscatter (β) and 2 extinction (α) coefficients which in turn provide intensive parameters such as the backscatter-related Ångström exponent (åβ) and the lidar ratio (LR). Along with it, profiles of RH were inferred from Raman lidar observations and therefore, as a result of varying humidity conditions, a shift on the aerosol optical properties can be described. Thus, it is observed that as RH increases, aerosols uptake water vapour, augment their size and consequently the åβ diminishes whereas the LR increases. The enhancement factor based on the backscatter coefficient at 532 nm, which characterizes the aerosol from hygroscopic standpoint, is also estimated. Finally, microphysical properties that are necessary for aerosol radiative forcing estimates - such as volume, effective radii, refractive index and size distribution, all vertically resolved - are retrieved using the inversion with regularization. Using this method, two hygroscopic events are described in detail.

  1. The Shortwave Solar Spectroradiometer - Hemispheric: A New ARM Instrument for Aerosol and Cloud Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J.; Flynn, C.; Ermold, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer - Hemispheric (SAS-He) is a ground-based, shadowband instrument that measures all three components of the shortwave irradiance: the total irradiance, the diffuse irradiance, and the direct normal irradiance. In this regard, the instrument is similar to the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) - an instrument that has been in the ACRF stable for more than 15 years. However, the two instruments differ significantly in wavelength resolution and range. In particular, the SAS measures the shortwave spectrum, from about 325 nm to 1700 nm at a wavelength resolution of about 1 to several nanometers, while the MFRSR only observes the spectrum in six discrete wavelength channels of about 10 nm in width. The markedly enhanced wavelength resolution and range of the SAS-He opens a new window of opportunity for studies that will significantly improve our understanding of cloud and aerosol optical properties in the shortwave spectrum. Additionally, the shadowband of the SAS-He is able to sweep across the irradiance sensor in small steps, and this permits the applications of new algorithms (Yin et al., 2011) that use the shape of the forward scattering lobe to infer the properties of aerosols and clouds. More specifically, these algorithms can remotely determine liquid/ice water path (LWP/IWP). Ground-based retrievals of LWP/IWP are particularly difficult for the important case of clouds with low optical thickness (Turner et al., 2007), and any advance in this area is significant. Moreover, the extended wavelength range of the SAS-He facilitates, for example, more reliable retrievals of aerosol size distributions, including the coarse mode. This is particularly important because the coarse mode is now gaining more prominence as an important factor in direct aerosol radiative forcing (Kassianov et al., 2012). Here we describe the key optical features of the SAS-He and data processing, including calibration of the instrument using

  2. Becoming Researchers: The Participation of Undergraduate and Graduate Students in Scientific Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Allan; Divoll, Kent A.; Rogan-Klyve, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to understand how graduate and undergraduate students learn to do science by participating in research groups. A phenomenological approach was used to illuminate the experiences of the students. The results provide evidence that the students were in the role of apprentices, although this was not made explicit. As apprentices they…

  3. Group-Effort Applied Research (GEAR): Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research Through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student - one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-Effort Applied Research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's lab. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student - one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this paper, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience. PMID:24898007

  4. Environmental research program: FY 1987, annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. The Program's Annual Report contains summaries of research performed during FY 1987 in the areas of atmospheric aerosols, flue gas chemistry, combustion, membrane bioenergetics, and analytical chemistry. The main research interests of the Atmospheric Aerosol Research group concern the chemical and physical processes that occur in haze, clouds, and fogs. For their studies, the group is developing novel analytical and research methods for characterizing aerosol species. Aerosol research is performed in the laboratory and in the field. Studies of smoke emissions from fires and their possible effects on climatic change, especially as related to nuclear winter, are an example of the collaboration between the Atmospheric Aerosol Research and Combustion Research Groups.

  5. A State-of-the-Art Experimental Laboratory for Cloud and Cloud-Aerosol Interaction Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fremaux, Charles M.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    The state of the art for predicting climate changes due to increasing greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere with high accuracy is problematic. Confidence intervals on current long-term predictions (on the order of 100 years) are so large that the ability to make informed decisions with regard to optimum strategies for mitigating both the causes of climate change and its effects is in doubt. There is ample evidence in the literature that large sources of uncertainty in current climate models are various aerosol effects. One approach to furthering discovery as well as modeling, and verification and validation (V&V) for cloud-aerosol interactions is use of a large "cloud chamber" in a complimentary role to in-situ and remote sensing measurement approaches. Reproducing all of the complex interactions is not feasible, but it is suggested that the physics of certain key processes can be established in a laboratory setting so that relevant fluid-dynamic and cloud-aerosol phenomena can be experimentally simulated and studied in a controlled environment. This report presents a high-level argument for significantly improved laboratory capability, and is meant to serve as a starting point for stimulating discussion within the climate science and other interested communities.

  6. Nuclear decay data files of the Dosimetry Research Group

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Westfall, R.J.; Ryman, J.C.; Cristy, M.

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the nuclear decay data files used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the utility DEXRAX which provides access to the files. The files are accessed, by nuclide, to extract information on the intensities and energies of the radiations associated with spontaneous nuclear transformation of the radionuclides. In addition, beta spectral data are available for all beta-emitting nuclides. Two collections of nuclear decay data are discussed. The larger collection contains data for 838 radionuclides, which includes the 825 radionuclides assembled during the preparation of Publications 30 and 38 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and 13 additional nuclides evaluated in preparing a monograph for the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The second collection is composed of data from the MIRD monograph and contains information for 242 radionuclides. Abridged tabulations of these data have been published by the ICRP in Publication 38 and by the Society of Nuclear Medicine in a monograph entitled ``MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes.`` The beta spectral data reported here have not been published by either organization. Electronic copies of the files and the utility, along with this report, are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to develop economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.

  8. A case study of single hygroscopicity parameter and its link to the functional groups and phase transition for urban aerosols in Taipei City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hui-Ming; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yu-Quan

    2016-05-01

    The hygroscopicity, functional groups and phase transitions of urban aerosol particles in Taipei City were studied using a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNc) with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an attenuated total reflectance with infrared (ATR-IR) detection technique. With the assumption of larger particles being activated first, the derived single hygroscopicity parameter (κ) exhibited an increasing trend with particle size, i.e., from 0.022 ± 0.01 at 87 ± 10 nm to 0.13 ± 0.03 at 240 ± 20 nm. The collected size-selected particles were characterized using ATR-IR for the functional groups of alkyl, carbonyl, ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, which showed various size dependence patterns, linked to different formation mechanisms. The hygroscopic response based on the ratio (xW_solute) for sample film of absorption by the enhanced water-stretching peak to that by the selected solute showed a better consistency with pure ammonium sulfate for sub-micron size particles. Based on the derived ammonium sulfate volume fraction from IR analysis, the κ received from CCNc measurements was concluded mainly contributed by ammonium sulfate for sub-micrometer particles. The increasing trend of sodium nitrate absorbance at aerosol diameter ≥1 μm was due to a reaction of nitric acid with sea salt particles. The micrometer sized particles were apparent not only in a significantly higher xW_solute than pure sodium nitrate but also had a deliquescence RH of 69 ± 1%, similar to that of sodium nitrate-sodium chloride mixtures. Overall, the organic species in this study exhibited a low hygroscopicity with less than 0.036 of contribution for the overall κ, and the major hygroscopic material of urban aerosols consisted primarily of ammonium sulfate in the sub-micrometer particles and sodium nitrate with sea salt in the coarse particles.

  9. Growing Researchers from the Historically Disadvantaged Groups through Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mda, Thobeka

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the nature and quality of research supervision and mentorship practices employed by supervisors and mentors of interns in a South African research council in an attempt to increase the pool and change the face of researchers in the country. Through a series of studies conducted by the research council, the…

  10. Model-measurement comparison of functional group abundance in α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Giulia; Bernhard, Fabian A.; Henderson, Barron H.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene photooxidation under different NOx regimes is simulated using the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2 (MCM) coupled with an absorptive gas-particle partitioning module. Vapor pressures for individual compounds are estimated with the SIMPOL.1 group contribution model for determining apportionment of reaction products to each phase. We apply chemoinformatic tools to harvest functional group (FG) composition from the simulations and estimate their contributions to the overall oxygen to carbon ratio. Furthermore, we compare FG abundances in simulated SOA to measurements of FGs reported in previous chamber studies using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These simulations qualitatively capture the dynamics of FG composition of SOA formed from both α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in low-NOx conditions, especially in the first hours after start of photooxidation. Higher discrepancies are found after several hours of simulation; the nature of these discrepancies indicates sources of uncertainty or types of reactions in the condensed or gas phase missing from current model implementation. Higher discrepancies are found in the case of α-pinene photooxidation under different NOx concentration regimes, which are reasoned through the domination by a few polyfunctional compounds that disproportionately impact the simulated FG abundance in the aerosol phase. This manuscript illustrates the usefulness of FG analysis to complement existing methods for model-measurement evaluation.

  11. Research Group Introduction : Motor Drive System Research Group, Dept. of Electrical and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    井上, 征則; 真田, 雅之; 森本, 茂雄

    Our research focuses on electrical machine design, controls, drives and power generation systems with respect to permanent magnet synchronous machines and reluctance machines. Three faculty members, a support staff and 20 students are with the research group.

  12. Auto Pollution: Research Group Charged with Conflict of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Deborah

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the possible conflict of interest resulting from the Environmental Protection Agency's participation with the automobile and oil industries in the Coordinating Research Council - Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, an organization which has sponsored much of the research important to federal regulation of clean air. (JR)

  13. Focus Groups: An Important Research Technique for Internal Evaluation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Barbara Poitras

    1993-01-01

    The use of focus groups by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a tool of internal evaluation is described. Focus groups are used in an environment where credibility is key to achieving meaningful cooperation. Issues for consideration by other evaluators interested in the approach are summarized. (SLD)

  14. Evolution and Social Dynamics of Acknowledged Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Changes in higher education institutions characteristic of a knowledge society are strongly affecting academic life, scientists' working conditions and the social dynamics of scientific groups. In such situations, it is important to understand the different ways in which these groups are tackling the structural dilemmas posed by the changes…

  15. Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing in the Southern Appalachian Mountains: Initial Results from the Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research (AppalAIR) Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubman, B.; Sherman, J.; Sheridan, P. J.; Perry, L. B.; Neufeld, H.; Emanuel, R. E.; Tashakkori, R.; Bowman, D.; Long, C.

    2009-12-01

    AppalAIR (Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research, http://appalair.appstate.edu/) is a new interdisciplinary, atmospheric research facility located on the campus of Appalachian State University (1076 m; 36.2° N, 81.7° W) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The facility was designed to investigate air pollution formation and transport, the relationships among biogenic and anthropogenic inputs to a changing climate, and the effects of these factors on regional ecosystems. AppalAIR is a collaborating member of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division (NOAA/ESRL GMD) Collaborative Global Aerosol Network (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aero/net/app/index.html). Measurements are made from a 34 m tower and include aerosol light scattering (3-λ nephelometer) and absorption (3-λ PSAP, 7-λ aethalometer, 6-λ UV aethalometer), particle number concentration (CPC), and aerosol chemistry, size, and morphology using SPME/GC-MS and SEM analyses on 24 h filter samples. Initial results indicate alternating periods of small, highly absorptive (ssa < 0.90) fractal agglomerates and large, highly scattering (ssa > 0.95) spherical particles that are strongly dependent upon the highly variably meteorological patterns that have occurred over the summertime (JJA) in the southeastern U.S. By quantifying the aerosol direct radiative forcing during discrete meteorological patterns as defined by statistical cluster analysis as well as from specific aerosol chemical sources, we are able to extrapolate the results beyond the immediate region.

  16. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Sebastian P; Ellenbroek, Stéfan Ph; Meijer, Ingeborg; van Ark, Gerrit; Klasen, Eduard C

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research). For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC)) was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre.The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research) outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector). For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity). These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance), after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles.Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms of learning for the

  17. Effect of the Keto Group on Yields and Composition of Organic Aerosol Formed from OH Radical-Initiated Reactions of Ketones in the Presence of NOx.

    PubMed

    Algrim, Lucas B; Ziemann, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    Yields of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were measured for OH radical-initiated reactions of the 2- through 6-dodecanone positional isomers and also n-dodecane and n-tetradecane in the presence of NOx. Yields decreased in the order n-tetradecane > dodecanone isomer average > n-dodecane, and the dodecanone isomer yields decreased as the keto group moved toward the center of the molecule, with 6-dodecanone being an exception. Trends in the yields can be explained by the effect of carbon number and keto group presence and position on product vapor pressures, and by the isomer-specific effects of the keto group on branching ratios for keto alkoxy radical isomerization, decomposition, and reaction with O2. Most importantly, results indicate that isomerization of keto alkoxy radicals via 1,5- and 1,6-H shifts are significantly hindered by the presence of a keto group whereas decomposition is enhanced. Analysis of particle composition indicates that the SOA products are similar for all isomers, and that compared to those formed from the corresponding reactions of alkanes the presence of a pre-existing keto group opens up additional heterogeneous/multiphase reaction pathways that can lead to the formation of new products. The results demonstrate that the presence of a keto group alters gas and particle phase chemistry and provide new insights into the potential effects of molecular structure on the products of the atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds and subsequent formation of SOA. PMID:27508315

  18. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, year four

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    The needs of the remote sensing research and application community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and space station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms are examined. Research conducted was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing research activities in the areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. Projects are discussed in detail.

  19. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Marcia; Hopson, Laura; House, Joseph B.; Fischer, Jonathan P.; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Hauff, Samantha; Wolff, Margaret S.; Sozener, Cemal; Nypaver, Michele; Moll, Joel; Losman, Eve D.; Carney, Michele; Santen, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG) of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a work-study graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education. PMID:26594297

  20. Gas-grain simulation facility: Aerosol and particle research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, Judith L. (Editor); Greenwald, Ken (Editor); Rogers, C. Fred (Editor); Stratton, David M. (Editor); Simmons, Brenda (Editor); Fonda, Mark L. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document reports on the proceedings of the Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF) Science Workshop which was co-hosted by NASA Ames Research Center and Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, and held in Las Vegas, Nevada, on May 4-6, 1992. The intent of the workshop was to bring together the science community of potential GGSF experimenters, Science Working Group and staff members, and the Phase A contractor to review the Phase A design with the science participants and to facilitate communication between the science community and the hardware developers. The purpose of this report is to document the information disseminated at the workshop, to record the participants' review of the Phase A GGSF design concept and the current science and technical requirements for the Facility, and to respond to any questions or concerns that were raised at the Workshop. Recommendations for the future based on numerous discussions with the participants are documented, as well as science presentations and poster sessions that were given at the Workshop and a summary of 21 candidate experiments.

  1. Long-term safety of a non-chlorofluorocarbon-containing triamcinolone acetonide inhalation aerosol in patients with asthma. Azmacort HFA Study Group.

    PubMed

    Nelson, H S; Kane, R E; Petillo, J; Banerji, D

    2000-04-01

    In response to environmental concerns regarding chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), two new triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) inhalation aerosol (Azmacort Inhalation Aerosol) formulations have been developed using a more environmentally favorable propellant, HFA-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane). This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the safety of switching asthma patients from TAA-CFC to one of two TAA-HFA formulations. After a 2- or 4-week baseline period during which patients received only CFC-containing TAA Inhaler, 552 patients were randomized to receive TAA-HFA 75 or 225 microg for 6 or 12 months. A total of 493 patients completed treatment. Seven patients discontinued because of adverse events and two because of ineffective asthma control. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two treatment groups, and most events were mild to moderate in severity and were not considered related to study medication. No clinically relevant suppression of the hypophyseal-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was observed. Pulmonary function tests were not adversely affected by use of either study medication, and improvements were noted in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25%-75%) throughout the course of treatment. This study confirms that TAA-HFA provides effective, long-term asthma control and can safely be substituted for the currently marketed CFC-containing TAA product. PMID:10805203

  2. AAAS Report IX: Research & Development, FY 1985. Intersociety Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this report consists of the American Association for the Advancement of Science overview of research and development (R&D) in the fiscal year (FY) 1985 budget and its associated policy issues, together with special analyses of several important topics, such as funding for basic research. A set of overview tables is included. Part II…

  3. The alcohol hangover research group consensus statement on best practice in alcohol hangover research.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M; Adan, Ana; Batty, G David; Fliervoet, Lies A L; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J L; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies. PMID:20712593

  4. The Alcohol Hangover Research Group Consensus Statement on Best Practice in Alcohol Hangover Research

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C.; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Adan, Ana; Batty, G. David; Fliervoet, Lies A.L.; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L. Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J.L.; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S.; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies. PMID:20712593

  5. IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF AEROSOL POLAR OXYGENATED COMPOUNDS BEARING CARBOXYLIC AND/OR HYDROXYL GROUPS. 1. METHOD DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, a new analytical technique was developed for the identification and quantification of multi-functional compounds containing simultaneously at least one hydroxyl or one carboxylic group, or both. This technique is based on derivatizing first the carboxylic group(s) ...

  6. What Research Says about Ability Grouping and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, James A.

    Ability grouping and the tracking of students have become traditional in the U.S. education system. In 1893 the National Education Association (NEA) demanded that every subject taught in secondary school be taught in the same way; but by 1918, the NEA supported academic tracks for some students and vocational tracks for others. Since then, the…

  7. A Simple Apparatus for the Injection of Lithium Aerosol into the Scrape-Off Layer of Fusion Research Devices

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Mansfield, A.L Roquemore, H. Schneider, J. Timberlake, H. Kugel, M.G. Bell and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-10-11

    A simple device has been developed to deposit elemental lithium onto plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Deposition is accomplished by dropping lithium powder into the plasma column. Once introduced, lithium particles quickly become entrained in scrape-off layer flow as an evaporating aerosol. Particles are delivered through a small central aperture in a computer-controlled resonating piezoelectric disk on which the powder is supported. The device has been used to deposit lithium both during discharges as well as prior to plasma breakdown. Clear improvements to plasma performance have been demonstrated. The use of this apparatus provides flexibility in the amount and timing of lithium deposition and, therefore, may benefit future fusion research devices.

  8. A case study of single hygroscopicity parameter and its link to the functional groups and phase transition for urban aerosols in Taipei City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hui-Ming; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yu-Quan

    2016-05-01

    The hygroscopicity, functional groups and phase transitions of urban aerosol particles in Taipei City were studied using a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNc) with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an attenuated total reflectance with infrared (ATR-IR) detection technique. With the assumption of larger particles being activated first, the derived single hygroscopicity parameter (κ) exhibited an increasing trend with particle size, i.e., from 0.022 ± 0.01 at 87 ± 10 nm to 0.13 ± 0.03 at 240 ± 20 nm. The collected size-selected particles were characterized using ATR-IR for the functional groups of alkyl, carbonyl, ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, which showed various size dependence patterns, linked to different formation mechanisms. The hygroscopic response based on the ratio (xW_solute) for sample film of absorption by the enhanced water-stretching peak to that by the selected solute showed a better consistency with pure ammonium sulfate for sub-micron size particles. Based on the derived ammonium sulfate volume fraction from IR analysis, the κ received from CCNc measurements was concluded mainly contributed by ammonium sulfate for sub-micrometer particles. The increasing trend of sodium nitrate absorbance at aerosol diameter ≥1 μm was due to a reaction of nitric acid with sea salt particles. The micrometer sized particles were apparent not only in a significantly higher xW_solute than pure sodium nitrate but also had a deliquescence RH of 69 ± 1%, similar to that of sodium nitrate-sodium chloride mixtures. Overall, the organic species in this study exhibited a low hygroscopicity with less than 0.036 of contribution for the overall κ, and the major hygroscopic material of urban aerosols consisted primarily of ammonium sulfate in the sub-micrometer particles and sodium nitrate with sea salt in the coarse particles.

  9. Reflections on Focus Group Sessions Regarding Inclusive Education: Reconsidering Focus Group Research Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South…

  10. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Outdoor Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations Measured with a New Coarse Particulate Sampler during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) provided data to compare outdoor residential coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) concentrations in six different areas of Detroit with data from a central monitoring site. Daily and seasonal influences on the spa...

  11. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  12. Cross-Cultural Approaches to Research on Minority Group Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, John

    Comparative studies of education, discrimination, and poverty in cross-cultural context are held as contributing towards a better understanding of the social nature of poverty and the complex processes of cultural transmission, continuity, and change. Seven strategies or models of research are suggested: (1) study of secondary and tertiary…

  13. Long-term MAX-DOAS measurement of trace gases and aerosol in the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuoru; Hao, Nan; Hendrick, François; Van Roozendael, Michel; Holla, Robert; Valks, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    The Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (Umwelt Forschungsstation Schneefernerhaus, UFS) is located immediately under the summit of Zugspitze (2962 m), the highest mountain of Germany, at a height of 2650 m. The UFS is a rare observation site in Germany with mostly clean and unpolluted air. It is ideal for both stratospheric composition measurements and trace gas measurements in the free-troposphere. It is optimal for detecting pollution events in the free-troposphere, which are indications of short- or long-range transport of air pollutants. A MAX-DOAS instrument has been working in the UFS since February 2011. With the zenith spectrum of each cycle used as the reference, the differential slant column densities (DSCDs) of trace gases are calculated from the spectra with Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. The DSCDs of both O4 and NO2 are calculated in two different wavelength intervals, 338-370 nm in the UV region and 440-490 nm in the VIS region. For HCHO and HONO, optimal fitting windows have been determined in the UV region. A retrieval algorithm, based on the radiative transfer model LIDORT and the optimal estimation technique, is used to provide information on the vertical profiles and vertical column densities (VCDs) of aerosol and trace gases. Meanwhile, zenith-sky radiance spectra during twilight hours are analyzed using DOAS method to derive the total vertical column densities (VCDs) of O3 and NO2. A zenith spectrum measured in the noon of a summer day was chosen as the reference spectrum. The slant column densities (SCDs) of O3 and NO2, which are the direct product of the DOAS analysis, are then converted into VCDs using the air mass factors (AMFs) derived by radiative transfer calculations. This work presents the results of the MAX-DOAS measurement in the UFS from 2012 to 2015, including aerosol (derived from O4 measurement), NO2, HCHO, and HONO, etc. The vertical profiles as well as the seasonal and diurnal variation

  14. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...? (a)(1) A group research or study project is designed to permit a group of faculty of an institution... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  15. Aerosol delivery and safety of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease in young children with cystic fibrosis: a bronchoscopic study. Pulmozyme Pediatric Broncoscopy Study Group.

    PubMed

    Wagener, J S; Rock, M J; McCubbin, M M; Hamilton, S D; Johnson, C A; Ahrens, R C

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the delivery to the lungs and the short-term safety of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase, Pulmozyme) in children with cystic fibrosis younger than 5 years of age compared with older children. Patients between the ages of 3 months and 10 years had bronchoscopic examination with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after administration of an aerosol dose of 2.5 mg of rhDNase. After recovery from the procedure, patients were discharged home for an additional 13 days of rhDNase therapy. During this time adverse events were recorded to assess short-term safety. A total of 98 patients were enrolled, 65 (66%) aged 3 months to 5 years and 33 (34%) aged 5 years to 10 years. Deoxyribonuclease concentrations in BAL fluid were variable (interquartile range, 752 to 3943 micrograms/mL epithelial lining fluid [ELF]) and did not depend on patient age, weight, or height or differ when delivered through a mouthpiece or mask. The median value for the BAL DNA concentration in the younger group was 432 micrograms/mL ELF compared with 703 micrograms/mL ELF in the older patients. This study demonstrates the value of bronchoscopy and BAL for assessing nebulized medication delivery in young children and shows that aerosolized medications can be delivered to and are present in comparable amounts in the lower airways of younger and older children. Exposure to rhDNase appears to be safe over 2 weeks in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis. PMID:9787685

  16. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  17. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  18. Cerulean Warbler Technical Group: Coordinating international research and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Wigley, T.B.; Keyser, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation for species of concern requires interchange and collaboration among conservationists and stakeholders. The Cerulean Warbler Technical Group (CWTG) is a consortium of biologists and managers from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia, and industry, who are dedicated to finding pro-active, science-based solutions for conservation of the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea). Formed in the United States in 2001, CWTG’s scope soon broadened to address the species’ ecology and conservation on both the breeding and non-breeding ranges, in partnership with biologists from South and Central America. In 2004, CWTG launched the Cerulean Warbler Conservation Initiative, a set of activities aimed at addressing information and conservation needs for the species. These include (1) studies in the core breeding range to assess Cerulean Warbler response to forest management practices and to identify mined lands that could be reforested to benefit the species, (2) ecological and demographic studies on the winter range, and (3) surveys of Cerulean Warbler distribution on the breeding and winter ranges and during migration. A rangewide conservation action plan has been completed, along with a more detailed conservation plan for the non-breeding range. CWTG and partners now move forward with on-the-ground conservation, while still addressing unmet information needs.

  19. Ndt in Civil Engineering: Experience and Results of the for 384 Research Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggenhauser, H.; Reinhardt, H. W.

    2010-02-01

    The FOR 384 research group in Germany was funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG) from 2001 to 2007 for research in Non-destructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures using Acoustic and Electro-Magnetic Echo-Methods. Seven institutes in Germany submitted a research proposal and a work plan in the areas Ultrasonics, Impact-Echo, Ground Penetrating Radar, Signal Processing and Validation. Laboratory studies, site tests and simulation and modelling were equally important research areas of this research group. A few selected results of this research group are summarized in this presentation.

  20. An Analysis of EPA’s STAR Program and a Decade of Field Changing Research in Atmospheric Aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of studies in the past decade have transformed the way we think about atmospheric aerosols. The advances include, but are not limited to, source apportionment of organics using aerosol mass spectrometer data, the volatility basis set approach, quantifying isoprene oxida...

  1. Thirty-One Years of Group Research in "Social Psychology Quarterly" (1975-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrod, Wendy J.; Welch, Bridget K.; Kushkowski, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    We examined trends in group research published in Social Psychology Quarterly (SPQ) from 1975 to 2005. We identified a total of 332 papers about groups published during the time period. Following Moreland, Hogg, and Hains (1994), we created an index of interest in groups by dividing the number of pages in papers about groups by the total number of…

  2. Membership Composition of Open and Closed Therapeutic Groups: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruner, LeRoy

    1984-01-01

    Contrasts open and closed therapeutic groups in the context of group development research, and reanalyzes data applying the Hill Interaction Matrix. Results supported the existence of a discernable process of development in the closed groups, while open groups with residual members showed counterproductive activity. (LLL)

  3. Organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN.

  4. Initial Assessment of the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR)-Based Aerosol Retrieval: Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Sinyuk, Alexander

    2012-10-24

    The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) being developed for airborne measurements will offer retrievals of aerosol microphysical and optical properties from multi-angular and multi-spectral measurements of sky radiance and direct-beam sun transmittance. In this study, we assess the expected accuracy of the 4STAR-based aerosol retrieval and its sensitivity to major sources of anticipated perturbations in the 4STAR measurements by adapting a theoretical approach previously developed for the AERONET measurements. The major anticipated perturbations are (1) an apparent enhancement of sky radiance at small scattering angles associated with the necessarily compact design of the 4STAR and (2) and an offset (i.e. uncertainty) of sky radiance calibration independent of scattering angle. The assessment is performed through application of the operational AERONET aerosol retrieval and constructed synthetic 4STAR-like data. Particular attention is given to the impact of these perturbations on the upwelling and downwelling broadband fluxes and the direct aerosol radiative forcing at the bottom and top of the atmosphere. The results from this study suggest that limitations in the accuracy of 4STAR-retrieved particle size distributions and scattering phase functions have diminished impact on the accuracy of retrieved bulk microphysical parameters, permitting quite accurate retrievals of properties including the effective radius (up to 10%, or 0.03), and the radiatively important optical properties, such as the asymmetry factor (up to 4%, or ±0.02) and single-scattering albedo (up to 6%, or ±0.04). Also, the obtained results indicate that the uncertainties in the retrieved aerosol optical properties are quite small in the context of the calculated fluxes and direct aerosol radiative forcing (up to 15%, or 3 Wm-2).

  5. Statistics of Statisticians: Critical Mass of Statistics and Operational Research Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, Ralph; Berche, Bertrand

    Using a recently developed model, inspired by mean field theory in statistical physics, and data from the UK's Research Assessment Exercise, we analyse the relationship between the qualities of statistics and operational research groups and the quantities of researchers in them. Similar to other academic disciplines, we provide evidence for a linear dependency of quality on quantity up to an upper critical mass, which is interpreted as the average maximum number of colleagues with whom a researcher can communicate meaningfully within a research group. The model also predicts a lower critical mass, which research groups should strive to achieve to avoid extinction. For statistics and operational research, the lower critical mass is estimated to be 9 ± 3. The upper critical mass, beyond which research quality does not significantly depend on group size, is 17 ± 6.

  6. About the Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group conducts and supports prevention and early detection research on colorectal, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, and hematolymphoid cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. |

  7. MISR Aerosol Typing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    AeroCom is an open international initiative of scientists interested in the advancement of the understanding of global aerosol properties and aerosol impacts on climate. A central goal is to more strongly tie and constrain modeling efforts to observational data. A major element for exchanges between data and modeling groups are annual meetings. The meeting was held September 20 through October 2, 1014 and the organizers would like to post the presentations.

  8. Charactering biomass burning aerosol in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), with evaluation against SAMBBA flight data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lowe, D.; Darbyshire, E.; Morgan, W.; Freitas, S. R.; Longo, K.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.

    2014-12-01

    The burning of forests in the Amazonia region is a globally significant source of carbonaceous aerosol, containing both absorbing and scattering components. Biomass burning aerosol (BBA) are efficient CCN, modifying cloud properties and influencing atmospheric circulation and precipitation tendencies. The impacts of BBA are highly dependent on their size distribution and composition. Studies in this region can therefore benefit greatly from the use of state-of-the-art sectional aerosol representations. A bottom-up fire emissions inventory, 3BEM, has been developed by Longo et al.1. It uses satellite products to identify fire locations, applying the emissions factors of Andrei and Merlot3 to generate daily emission maps. Flaming emissions are very buoyant, and a method for injecting emissions at altitude is needed to accurately describe the vertical profile of BBA. A parameterisation has been developed to simulate this sub-grid process4, and previously implemented in WRF-Chem using a modal aerosol scheme5. For this work we have modified the WRF-Chem model to simulate 3BEM emissions using the MOSAIC sectional aerosol scheme6. This modified version of WRF-Chem v3.4.1 has been run for September 2012 over South America (25km grid-spacing). We will present model results evaluating the modelled aerosol vertical distribution, size distribution, composition and optical properties against measurements taken by the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the SAMBBA field campaign. The plume-rise parameterisation was found to inject flaming emissions too high over most fires, resulting in high modelled aerosol loadings at high altitude. We probed the behaviour of the parameterisation by developing a new SAMBBA-tuned 3BEM emissions scenario, which uses more realistic estimates of fire size. Results from high-resolution (5 and 1km) nested simulations will also be presented, in order to evaluate the impacts of explicit aerosol-cloud interactions in non-parameterised clouds. 1. K

  9. Observations of fluorescent aerosol-cloud interactions in the free troposphere at the High-Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I.; Lloyd, G.; Herrmann, E.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bower, K. N.; Connolly, P. J.; Flynn, M. J.; Kaye, P. H.; Choularton, T. W.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2016-02-01

    The fluorescent nature of aerosol at a high-altitude Alpine site was studied using a wide-band integrated bioaerosol (WIBS-4) single particle multi-channel ultraviolet - light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectrometer. This was supported by comprehensive cloud microphysics and meteorological measurements with the aims of cataloguing concentrations of bio-fluorescent aerosols at this high-altitude site and also investigating possible influences of UV-fluorescent particle types on cloud-aerosol processes. Analysis of background free tropospheric air masses, using a total aerosol inlet, showed there to be a minor increase in the fluorescent aerosol fraction during in-cloud cases compared to out-of-cloud cases. The size dependence of the fluorescent aerosol fraction showed the larger aerosol to be more likely to be fluorescent with 80 % of 10 μm particles being fluorescent. Whilst the fluorescent particles were in the minority (NFl/NAll = 0.27 ± 0.19), a new hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis approach, Crawford et al. (2015) revealed the majority of the fluorescent aerosols were likely to be representative of fluorescent mineral dust. A minor episodic contribution from a cluster likely to be representative of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) was also observed with a wintertime baseline concentration of 0.1 ± 0.4 L-1. Given the low concentration of this cluster and the typically low ice-active fraction of studied PBAP (e.g. pseudomonas syringae), we suggest that the contribution to the observed ice crystal concentration at this location is not significant during the wintertime.

  10. Observations of fluorescent aerosol-cloud interactions in the free troposphere at the Sphinx high Alpine research station, Jungfraujoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I.; Lloyd, G.; Bower, K. N.; Connolly, P. J.; Flynn, M. J.; Kaye, P. H.; Choularton, T. W.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2015-09-01

    The fluorescent nature of aerosol at a high Alpine site was studied using a wide-band integrated bioaerosol (WIBS-4) single particle multi-channel ultra violet-light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectrometer. This was supported by comprehensive cloud microphysics and meteorological measurements with the aims of cataloguing concentrations of bio-fluorescent aerosols at this high altitude site and also investigating possible influences of UV-fluorescent particle types on cloud-aerosol processes. Analysis of background free tropospheric air masses, using a total aerosol inlet, showed there to be a minor but statistically insignificant increase in the fluorescent aerosol fraction during in-cloud cases compared to out of cloud cases. The size dependence of the fluorescent aerosol fraction showed the larger aerosol to be more likely to be fluorescent with 80 % of 10 μm particles being fluorescent. Whilst the fluorescent particles were in the minority (NFl/NAll = 0.27±0.19), a new hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis approach, Crawford et al. (2015) revealed the majority of the fluorescent aerosol were likely to be representative of fluorescent mineral dust. A minor episodic contribution from a cluster likely to be representative of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) was also observed with a wintertime baseline concentration of 0.1±0.4 L-1. Given the low concentration of this cluster and the typically low ice active fraction of studied PBAP (e.g. pseudomonas syringae) we suggest that the contribution to the observed ice crystal concentration at this location is not significant during the wintertime.

  11. Measurements of Hygroscopicity- and Size-Resolved Sea Spray Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.; Royalty, T. M.; Reed, R. E.; Petters, M.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a central role in many environmental processes by influencing the Earth's radiative balance, tropospheric chemistry, clouds, biogeochemical cycles, and visibility as well as adversely impacting human health. Based on their origin, atmospheric aerosols can be defined as anthropogenic or natural. Recent studies have shown that a large fraction of uncertainty in the radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosols is related to uncertainty in natural—background—aerosols. Marine aerosols are of particular interest due to the abundance of oceans covering the Earth's surface. Despite their importance, limited information is currently available for size- and composition-resolved marine aerosol emission fluxes. Our group has designed and built an instrument for measuring the size- and hygroscopicity-resolved sea spray aerosol fluxes. The instrument was first deployed during spring 2015 at the end of the 560 m pier of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility in Duck, NC. Measurements include 200 nm-sized diameter growth factor (hygroscopicity) distributions, sea spray particle flux measurements, and total sub-micron sized aerosol concentration. Ancillary ocean data includes salinity, pH, sea surface temperature, dissolved oxygen content, and relative fluorescence (proxy for [Chl-a]). Hygroscopicity distribution measurements show two broad peaks, one indicative of organics and sulfates and another suggestive of sea salt. The fraction of 200 nm-sized salt particles having hygroscopicity similar to that of sea-spray aerosol contributes up to ~24% of the distribution on days with high-speed onshore winds and up to ~3% on calm days with winds blowing from the continent. However, the total concentration of sea-spray-like particles originating from offshore versus onshore winds was relatively similar. Changes in the relative contribution of sea-salt to number concentration were caused by a concomitant changes in total aerosol concentration

  12. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  13. 75 FR 57768 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified... contractor, Eastern Research Group (ERG) of Lexington, MA and subcontractor Avanti Corporation of Alexandria... Protection Manual. Access to TSCA data, including CBI, will continue until August 9, 2015. If the contract...

  14. Report on Focus Groups: Research and Practice--Reading Instruction. ERIC/OSEP Special Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaunstein, Phyllis; And Others

    This report summarizes results of three focus groups which examined teachers' ideas and attitudes about the utility of research on the practice of teaching reading to students with learning disabilities and about forms of communication that would make research information more useful. The focus groups were part of a larger project designed to…

  15. From Darkness into Light: A Group Process Approach to the Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelhalder, Glenn

    A description is provided of the use of a group process approach to the Freshman English research paper at El Paso Community College. After highlighting problems associated with traditional approaches to freshman research papers, an overview of the group process approach is provided, along with warnings for instructors who might view the approach…

  16. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  17. A Proposed Model for the Analysis and Interpretation of Focus Groups in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Oliver T.

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups have an established history in applied research and evaluation. The fundamental methods of the focus group technique have been well discussed, as have their potential advantages. Less guidance tends to be provided regarding the analysis of data resulting from focus groups or how to organize and defend conclusions drawn from the…

  18. Academic Procrastination and the Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group…

  19. "Who Did What?": A Participatory Action Research Project to Increase Group Capacity for Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Iriarte, E.; Kramer, J. C.; Kramer, J. M.; Hammel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods: This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and…

  20. An Approach for Group, Undergraduate Research Experiences in Courses Across the Geology Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    At Western Carolina University, a past NSF CCLI grant helped embed project-based learning throughout the geology curriculum, including a senior capstone seminar in which groups of students conduct authentic undergraduate research (UR). These curricular changes showed many high-level educational benefits to the group senior capstone research and the benefits of complex, technical projects at all levels of the curriculum if project goals and guidance for students is appropriate for their level, skills, and experiences. A current NSF TUES grant, now in its 3rd year, is formally assessing the impact of students participating in group UR experiences embedded in traditional courses at all curricular levels to determine if they have similar benefits to students conducting individually-mentored research. An ancillary goal is to develop a transferable, sustainable model for this approach, so UR experiences can formally broaden to more students at more levels. At this time, we have taught about 100 students in five research-based courses at all levels of the curriculum. Student's perceived strong benefits of their UR experience, and have been evaluated with quantitative (URSSA) and qualitative (focus groups) data. Benefits of their experiences are high related to personal growth and the scientific process and relatively low in research skills. Qualitative data shows students value 1) the open-ended nature of the authentic research questions, 2) group collaboration, and 3) hands-on learning. Similarity of student results across different courses reflect a now stable approach we have developed for courses with group UR experiences. Key elements to our approach are 1) an ongoing, broad research program (in our case, an on-campus hydrologic research station), 2) strategically assigned student groups (no. 3-6), group responsibilities that include a mix of individual and group assignments, and peer assessments, 3) student research fellows that help run the research station and

  1. An ethnographic study: Becoming a physics expert in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis

    Expertise in physics has been traditionally studied in cognitive science, where physics expertise is understood through the difference between novice and expert problem solving skills. The cognitive perspective of physics experts only create a partial model of physics expertise and does not take into account the development of physics experts in the natural context of research. This dissertation takes a social and cultural perspective of learning through apprenticeship to model the development of physics expertise of physics graduate students in a research group. I use a qualitative methodological approach of an ethnographic case study to observe and video record the common practices of graduate students in their biophysics weekly research group meetings. I recorded notes on observations and conduct interviews with all participants of the biophysics research group for a period of eight months. I apply the theoretical framework of Communities of Practice to distinguish the cultural norms of the group that cultivate physics expert practices. Results indicate that physics expertise is specific to a topic or subfield and it is established through effectively publishing research in the larger biophysics research community. The participant biophysics research group follows a learning trajectory for its students to contribute to research and learn to communicate their research in the larger biophysics community. In this learning trajectory students develop expert member competencies to learn to communicate their research and to learn the standards and trends of research in the larger research community. Findings from this dissertation expand the model of physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and add the social and cultural nature of physics expertise development. This research also addresses ways to increase physics graduate student success towards their PhD. and decrease the 48% attrition rate of physics graduate students. Cultivating effective research

  2. Variability of fine and coarse aerosol over the Western Mediterranean Basin during the Minerva 2015 research cruise campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagna, Jessica; Carbone, Francesco; Naccarato, Attilio; Moretti, Sacha; Esposito, Giulio; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Basin, due to its semi-enclosed configuration, is heavily affected by air pollution and it is becoming, in the last years, a region of particular interest of study for its implications regarding both health effects and environmental impacts. The area is surrounded by a densely populated as well as industrialized coast, and even affected by natural sources. So, it is important to know how the various sources contributes to increase air pollution levels and discriminate among them. With special regard to aerosol pollution, natural sources, like Saharan dust, volcanoes, and fires, as well as anthropogenic sources, such as industry, road and marine traffic, and fuel combustion from heating, can equally increase the values of this dangerous pollutant. While on the land we can find numerous monitoring sites, there are not continuous measurements on the sea. For this reason, since 2000 the Institute of Atmospheric Pollution of the National Research Council (CNR-IIA) is conducting regular oceanographic campaigns of measurements in the Mediterranean Sea. In this context, here we report the results obtained during the last cruise campaign, which took place in the Western Mediterranean sector and was conducted on-board the Italian research vessel Minerva during summer 2015 (from June 27th to July 13th). Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate size fractions were collected on PTFE membrane filters (Advantec MFS) and their mass concentrations determined gravimetrically. Successively, all the filters were digested with a mixture of HNO3/H2O2 in an microwaves digestion system and then analyzed by ICP-MS for the determination of the major and trace elements. Outcomes regarding the particulate mass concentration, the content and the distribution of the analyzed elements over both PM size fractions will be discussed taking into account potential contributing sources as well as different meteorological conditions.

  3. Research on/as Violence: Reflections on Injurious Moments in Research with Friendship Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of harm in the research process. While researchers seek to conduct research that minimises harm, this paper argues that approaches adopted often create new forms of harm. This proposition is examined through drawing on Bourdieu's ideas about symbolic violence and poststructural theories of identity, to critically…

  4. Research Data Storage: A Framework for Success. ECAR Working Group Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Douglas; Dawson, Barbara E.; Fary, Michael; Hillegas, Curtis W.; Hopkins, Brian W.; Lyons, Yolanda; McCullough, Heather; McMullen, Donald F.; Owen, Kim; Ratliff, Mark; Williams, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research Data Management Working Group (ECAR-DM) has created a framework for research data storage as an aid for higher education institutions establishing and evaluating their institution's research data storage efforts. This paper describes areas for consideration and suggests graduated criteria to assist in…

  5. Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR): A Metamorphosis of Mentorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thea M.; Smith, Barbara K.; Watts, Danielle L.; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C.; Roark, Alison M.; Bybee, Seth M.; Cox, Clayton E.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We describe Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR), a yearlong structured program at the University of Florida that guided graduate student mentors and their undergraduate mentees through the mentored research process. Using the national Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences for an academic year, we found that outcomes for our…

  6. Implications of Feedback Research for Group Facilitation and the Design of Experiential Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Kennard T.

    1990-01-01

    Claims, despite extensive research on the role of feedback in learning, there is little theoretical understanding of the concept of feedback, because of overly broad definitions which favor certain explanations and lines of research over others. Discusses implications of feedback research for group facilitation and design of experiential learning…

  7. Group of Eight Response to DIISR Consultation Paper: "Meeting Australia's Research Workforce Needs"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Group of Eight (Go8) welcomes the Government's commitment to developing a comprehensive research workforce strategy. Australia's research capacity and the continuing translation of research into policy, products and services is directly linked to the future productivity of the economy, social wellbeing, environmental outcomes and the nation's…

  8. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  9. Critical Masses for Academic Research Groups and Consequences for Higher Education Research Policy and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Ralph; Berche, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Smaller universities may produce research which is on a par with larger, elite establishments. This is confirmed by a recently developed mathematical model, supported by data from British and French higher education research-evaluation exercises. The detailed nature of the UK system, in particular, allows quantification of the notion of critical…

  10. Transforming Catholic Education through Research: The American Educational Research Association Catholic Education Special Interest Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Catholic schools in the United States and abroad face numerous financial, cultural, and structural challenges due to contemporary education policies and economic trends. Within this climate, research about Catholic education is often conducted and leveraged in efforts to serve schools' most immediate needs. To be certain, research aimed at…

  11. Control Group Design: Enhancing Rigor in Research of Mind-Body Therapies for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research. PMID:23662111

  12. The Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Study, Part 3: Continuous measurements of fine particulate matter mass and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Edgerton, E.S.; Hartsell, B.E.; Saylor, R.D.; Jansen, J.J.; Hansen, D.A.; Hidy, G.M.

    2006-09-15

    Deployment of continuous analyzers in the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Study (SEARCH) network began in 1998 and continues today as new technologies are developed. Measurement of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass is performed using a dried, 30 {sup o}C tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). TEOM measurements are complemented by observations of light scattering by nephelometry. Measurements of major constituents include: (1) SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} via reduction to SO{sub 2}; (2) NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} via respective catalytic oxidation and reduction to NO, (3) black carbon (BC) by optical absorption,(4) total carbon by combustion to CO{sup 2}, and (5) organic carbon by difference between the latter two measurements. Several illustrative examples of continuous data from the SEARCH network are presented. A distinctive composite annual average diurnal pattern is observed for PM2.5 mass, nitrate, and BC, likely indicating the influence of traffic-related emissions, growth, and break up of the boundary layer and formation of ammonium nitrate. Examination of PM2.5 components indicates the need to better understand the continuous composition of the unmeasured 'other' category, because it contributes a significant fraction to total mass during periods of high PM2.5 loading. Selected episodes are presented to illustrate applications of SEARCH data. An SO{sub 2} conversion rate of 0.2%/hr is derived from an observation of a plume from a coal-fired power plant during early spring, and the importance of local, rural sources of NH{sub 3} to the formation of ammonium nitrate in particulate matter (PM) is demonstrated. 41 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Development of a Unified Reference System for a Multi-personnel Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D.; Fitzpaynes, J. Y. L.

    1973-01-01

    The establishment of a reference filing system, based on optical coincidence retrieval, for an eight-man research group studying gas reactions is described. The complete system is simple to use and gives rapid, precise reference retrieval. (1 reference) (Author)

  14. Using Focus Groups in Community-Based Participatory Research: Challenges and Resolutions

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Christine Makosky; James, Aimee S.; Ulrey, Ezekiel; Joseph, Stephanie; Talawyma, Angelia; Choi, Won S.; Greiner, K. Allen; Coe, M. Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A community-based participatory approach requires that community members be involved in all phases of the research process. We describe three focus group studies with American Indians in Kansas and Missouri, using a newly developed method of conducting and analyzing focus groups with community input (72 focus groups, 519 participants). We conducted two needs assessment studies focused on barriers to breast and colorectal cancer screening and one study focused on Internet use for gathering health information. Community members and researchers collaborated to develop guides for the focus group moderators. Community organizations and our community advisory board conducted recruitment, and we trained and employed community members as moderators, assistant moderators, and analysts. Our community partners also helped with dissemination of research findings to their constituents. The methodologic approach and data from these three studies will allow us to more appropriately address health disparities in the American Indian community, with full community support for our research. PMID:20154299

  15. Fast Airborne Size Distribution Measurements of an Aerosol Processes and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; Zhou, J.; Brekhovskikh, V.; McNaughton, C. S.; Howell, S.

    2009-12-01

    During MILAGRO/INTEX experiment the Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research (HIGEAR) deployed a wide range of aerosol instrumentation aboard NSF C-130 and NASA DC-8. These were designed to provide rapid information on aerosol composition, state of mixing (internal or external), spectral optical properties (scattering and absorption), the humidity dependence of light scattering - f(RH), and the role of condensed species in changing the absorption properties of black carbon (BC) and inferred properties of organic carbon (OC). We also flew the Fast Mobility Particle Spectrometer (FMPS, TSI Inc.) to measure aerosol size distributions in a range 5.6 - 560 nm. For all our flights around Mexico City, an aerosol number concentration usually was well above the nominal FMPS sensitivity (from ~100 particles/cc @ Dp = 5.6 nm to 1 part/cc @ 560nm), providing us with reliable size distributions even at 1 sec resolution. FMPS measurements revealed small scale structure of an aerosol and allowed us to examine size distributions varying over space and time associated with mixing processes previously unresolved. These 1-Hz measurements during aircraft profiles captured variations in size distributions within shallow layers. Other dynamic processes observed included orography induced aerosol layers and evolution of the nanoparticles formed by nucleation. We put FMPS high resolution size distribution data in a context of aerosol evolution and aging, using a range of established (for MIRAGE/INTEX) chemical, aerosol and transport aging parameters.

  16. Aerosol Properties From Multi-angle Satellite Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, R. A.; Martonchik, J. V.; Diner, D. J.; Chen, W. A.; Gaitley, B. J.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Liu, Y.; Team, T.

    2005-12-01

    Based on pre-launch simulations, we expected that data from the multi-angle, multi-spectral MISR instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite would contain, in addition to aerosol optical depth (AOT), information about particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA). Such information would add a great deal to the global aerosol picture that satellites provide, allowing more meaningful assessments of aerosol direct radiative impact, source attribution, material fluxes, and possibly indirect effects of aerosols on clouds. But particle micro-physical property retrievals are much more difficult to validate than AOT, since there are significant uncertainties in aerosol size, and especially shape and SSA, retrieved from surface-based sun photometers, whereas instrumented aircraft must fly complex patterns to adequately sample all aerosol layers in the entire column seen simultaneously by MISR. Our multi-faceted validation effort, which makes use of ground-based AERONET sun photometers as well as coincident satellite and intensive field observations, has allowed us to quantify MISR data sensitivity to these aerosol micro-physical properties over dark water, and in a few situations, over land. In broad terms, over dark water MISR can distinguish three-to-five aerosol size bins between about 0.1 and 2.5 microns effective diameter, spherical vs. non-spherical particle shapes, plates from grains from spheroids at least in some cases, and two-to-four SSA groupings between 0.75 and 1.0. MISR can also identify several aerosol modes within the column, provided each contributes more than about 20% to the total column mid-visible AOT. These sensitivities diminish for column AOT below about 0.15, and for brighter underlying surfaces. This talk will summarize the current status of the MISR Standard Aerosol Product, the latest MISR Research Aerosol Retrieval validation study results, and our plans for completing aerosol micro-physical property formal validation for the MISR

  17. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  18. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM What Kinds of Projects Does the Secretary Assist...

  19. Theorising Dyslexic Student Discussion/Action Groups in UK Higher Education: Research in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Jenny; Herrington, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This "research in practice" analyses the experience of operating discussion/action groups with dyslexic students in higher education in three British universities which reflects a shift from the practice of developing "support groups" to a more developmental, proactive stance. It does so in the current UK legislative context which requires higher…

  20. RACORO aerosol data processing

    SciTech Connect

    Elisabeth Andrews

    2011-10-31

    The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

  1. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL

  2. The International Research Training Group (GRK532): Practicing Cross-Border Postgraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehses, Markus; Veith, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the International Research Training Group "GRK532" was founded as a pilot project for cross-border European postgraduate education along the German/French/Luxembourg borders. The project consists of an interdisciplinary research programme on synthesis, isolation and characterization of new materials accompanied by an ambitious continuous…

  3. Focus Groups with Young People: A Participatory Approach to Research Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnoli, Anna; Clark, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present our experiences of conducting focus groups with young people as part of a participatory approach to research design and participant recruitment. The research is a prospective, 10-year, qualitative, longitudinal project investigating young people's daily lives, relationships, and identities, and the ways these change over…

  4. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  5. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  6. Implementation and Outcomes of Online Self and Peer Assessment on Group Based Honours Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chengqing; Chanda, Emmanuel; Willison, John

    2014-01-01

    Honours research projects in the School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering at the University of Adelaide are run with small groups of students working with an academic supervisor in a chosen area for one year. The research project is mainly self-directed study, which makes it very difficult to fairly assess the contribution of…

  7. Use of a Wiki-Based Software to Manage Research Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; Vezenov, Dmitri V.; Simboli, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses use of the wiki software Confluence to organize research group activities and lab resources. Confluence can serve as an electronic lab notebook (ELN), as well as an information management and collaboration tool. The article provides a case study in how researchers can use wiki software in "home-grown" fashion to…

  8. Collaborative Group Action Research: A Constructivist Approach to Developing an Integrated Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saurino, Penny L.; Saurino, Dan R.

    Elementary teachers collaborated on a research project that investigated how a constructivist approach to gifted and talented integrated curriculum strategies and techniques could be developed and implemented. The collaborative group action research cycle involved planning, collecting baseline data, intervening strategies/modifying interventions,…

  9. Small Group Communication Research of the 1970's: A Synthesis and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Wright, David W.

    One hundred studies on small group communication that were published in speech communication journals from 1969 to 1978 are summarized and critiqued in this paper. The literature is classified into three new lines of research (critical variable, process, and tangential) and three continuing lines of research (leadership, discussion, and pedagogy).…

  10. IGORR-IV -- Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbalm, K.F.

    1995-12-31

    The International Group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions and written versions of the papers or hard copies of the vugraphs used are published in these proceedings. The five sessions were: (1) Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; (2) Research Reactors in Design and Construction; (3) ANS Closeout Activities; (4) and (5) Research, Development, and Analysis Results.

  11. An online monogenic diabetes discussion group: supporting families and fueling new research.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Marie E; Carmody, David; Philipson, Louis H; Greeley, Siri Atma W

    2015-11-01

    Many online support groups are available for patients with rare disorders, but scant evidence is available on how effectively such groups provide useful information or valuable psychosocial support to their participants. It is also unclear to what extent physicians and researchers may learn more about these disorders by participating in such groups. To formally assess the utility of the Kovler Monogenic Diabetes Registry online discussion group for patients and families affected by KATP channel-related monogenic neonatal diabetes in providing psychosocial and informational support and in identifying concerns unique to patients with this rare form of diabetes. We qualitatively analyzed all 1,410 messages from the online group that consisted of 64 participants affected by KATP channel monogenic diabetes and 11 researchers. We utilized the Social Behavior Support Code to assign each message to a support category and deductive thematic analysis to identify discussion topics addressed by each message. 44% of messages provided/requested informational support, whereas 31.4% of the messages contained psychosocial/emotional support. The most popular topics of postings to the forums were diabetes treatment (503 messages) and neurodevelopmental concerns (472 messages). Participation in the discussion led researchers to modify survey instruments and design new studies focusing on specific topics of concern, such as sleep. We demonstrate that an online support group for a monogenic form of diabetes is an effective informational tool that also provides psychosocial support. Participation by researchers and care providers can inform future research directions and highlight issues of patient concern. PMID:26184072

  12. Model-Based Estimation of Sampling-Caused Uncertainty in Aerosol Remote Sensing for Climate Research Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Noije, Twan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of sampling frequency on the global monthly mean aerosol optical thickness (AOT), we use 6 years of geographical coordinates of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) L2 aerosol data, daily global aerosol fields generated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model and the chemical transport models Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport, Spectral Radiationtransport Model for Aerosol Species and Transport Model 5, at a spatial resolution between 1.125 deg × 1.125 deg and 2 deg × 3?: the analysis is restricted to 60 deg S-60 deg N geographical latitude. We found that, in general, the MODIS coverage causes an underestimate of the global mean AOT over the ocean. The long-term mean absolute monthly difference between all and dark target (DT) pixels was 0.01-0.02 over the ocean and 0.03-0.09 over the land, depending on the model dataset. Negative DT biases peak during boreal summers, reaching 0.07-0.12 (30-45% of the global long-term mean AOT). Addition of the Deep Blue pixels tempers the seasonal dependence of the DT biases and reduces the mean AOT difference over land by 0.01-0.02. These results provide a quantitative measure of the effect the pixel exclusion due to cloud contamination, ocean sun-glint and land type has on the MODIS estimates of the global monthly mean AOT. We also simulate global monthly mean AOT estimates from measurements provided by pixel-wide along-track instruments such as the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor and the Cloud-Aerosol LiDAR with Orthogonal Polarization. We estimate the probable range of the global AOT standard error for an along-track sensor to be 0.0005-0.0015 (ocean) and 0.0029-0.01 (land) or 0.5-1.2% and 1.1-4% of the corresponding global means. These estimates represent errors due to sampling only and do not include potential retrieval errors. They are smaller than or comparable to the published estimate of 0.01 as being a climatologically significant

  13. A compilation of research working groups on drug utilisation across Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups. Findings Google and bibliographic searches (PubMed) of articles containing information on databases and other sources of drug consumption data were conducted. For each working group the main characteristics were recorded. Nineteen selected groups were identified, focusing on: a) general drug utilisation (DU) research (EuroDURG, CNC, ISPE’S SIG-DUR, EURO-MED-STAT, PIPERSKA Group, NorPEN, ENCePP, DURQUIM), b) specific DU research: b.1) antimicrobial drugs (ARPAC, ESAC, ARPEC, ESGAP, HAPPY AUDIT), b.2) cardiovascular disease (ARITMO, EUROASPIRE), b.3) paediatrics (TEDDY), and b.4) mental health/central nervous system effects (ESEMeD, DRUID, TUPP/EUPoMMe). Information on their aims, methods and activities is presented. Conclusions We assembled and updated information on European working groups in DU research and in the utilisation of five selected groups of drugs for the PROTECT project. This information should be useful for academic researchers, regulatory and health authorities, and pharmaceutical companies conducting and interpreting post-authorisation and safety studies. European health authorities should encourage national research and collaborations in this important field for public health. PMID:24625054

  14. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  15. Capacity Building through Focus Group Training in Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Amico, KL; Wieland, ML; Weis, JA; Sullivan, SM; Nigon, JA; Sia, IG

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) emphasizes collaborative efforts among communities and academics where all members are equitable contributors. Capacity building through training in research methodology is a potentially important outcome for CBPR partnerships. Objectives To describe the logistics and lessons learned from building community research capacity for focus group moderation in the context of a CBPR partnership. Methods After orientation to CBPR principles, members of a US suburban community underwent twelve hours of interactive learning in focus group moderation by a national focus group expert. An additional eight-hour workshop promoted advanced proficiency and built on identified strengths and weaknesses. Ten focus groups were conducted at an adult education center addressing a health concern previously identified by the center’s largely immigrant and refugee population. Program evaluation was achieved through multiple observations by community and academic-based observers. Results Twenty-seven community and academic members were recruited through established relationships for training in focus group moderation, note-taking, and report compilation. Focus group training led to increased trust among community and research partners while empowering individual community members and increasing research capacity for CBPR. Conclusions Community members were trained in focus group moderation and successfully applied these skills to a CBPR project addressing a health concern in the community. This approach of equipping community members with skills in a qualitative research method promoted capacity building within a socio-culturally diverse community, while strengthening community-academic partnership. In this setting, capacity building efforts may help to ensure the success and sustainability for continued health interventions through CBPR. PMID:22267359

  16. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  17. CASPER's New Educational Research Group: The Physical Environment and Educational Interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Wang, Li; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    CASPER research has long included the area of STEM science education, which grew out of its history in educational intervention and curriculum development and its NSF funded REU summer program, which has been active since 1994. Recently CASPER's Educational Research group entered into a partnership with the Region 12 Educational Service Center and Huckabee, Inc. to examine the role the physical environment plays in educational intervention and the impact this combination has on student engagement and learning. This talk introduces the partnership, explains the framework guiding the research and presents the roles each partner plays in the research.

  18. Global Aerosols

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... sizes and from multiple sources, including biomass burning, mineral dust, sea salt and regional industrial pollution. A color scale is ... desert source region. Deserts are the main sources of mineral dust, and MISR obtains aerosol optical depth at visible wavelengths ...

  19. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  20. The biochemistry and nutrition group: 30 years of research in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Levy Benshimol, A

    1996-12-01

    The most relevant results of 30 years of research from the Group of Biochemistry and Nutrition are presented. Research was focused mainly around the identification and detection of the heatlabile toxic factors present in legume seeds of human consumption, namely protease inhibitors and lectins with special emphasis on their isolation, molecular characterization, mechanistic and nutritional relevance of both protein groups. The antinutritional effect of the polyphenols, thermolabile compounds present in colored seeds, has also been studied as well as the impact of seed complex carbohydrates on the digestive process. PMID:9137631

  1. ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

  2. Gas and aerosol fluxes. [emphasizing sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The development of remote sensing techniques to address the global need for accurate distribution and flux determinations of both man made and natural materials which affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere, the heat budget of the Earth, and the depletion, of stratospheric ozone is considered. Specifically, trace gas fluxes, sea salt aerosol production, and the effect of sea surface microlayer on gas and aerosol fluxes are examined. Volatile sulfur, carbon, nitrogen, and halocarbon compounds are discussed including a statement of the problem associated with each compound or group of compounds, a brief summary of current understanding, and suggestions for needed research.

  3. Final Project Report - ARM CLASIC CIRPAS Twin Otter Aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Ogren

    2010-04-05

    The NOAA/ESRL/GMD aerosol group made three types of contributions related to airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering and absorption for the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) in June 2007 on the Twin Otter research airplane operated by the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS). GMD scientists served as the instrument mentor for the integrating nephelometer and particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) on the Twin Otter during CLASIC, and were responsible for (1) instrument checks/comparisons; (2) instrument trouble shooting/repair; and (3) data quality control (QC) and submittal to the archive.

  4. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  5. Effective small group teaching strategies for research supervision - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathirana, Assela

    2010-05-01

    UNESCO-IHE's students are unique in several aspects: they are mid-career professionals separated from their last university experience by a number of years in the profession, they are from diverse social and cultural backgrounds, and they often have relatively clear understanding on the diverse problems in the practice of engineering in their respective countries and are focused on solving those. As a result of the diversity in many forms, managing effective groups during the research phase of the UNESCO-IHE master's course pose considerable challenge. In this paper, we present a unique combination of tools and approaches that are employed in managing a small group of students (between five and ten) in one study area, who were working on diverse research topics that had the common denominator of mathematical modelling. We blend a number of traditional (e.g. seminars, group discussions, focused training sessions) and non-traditional (e.g. Using collaboration platforms like WIKI, peer-learning) approaches so that the cohesion of the group in maintained and every member benefits from being a part of the group. Four years of experience with employing this blend of tools on a six-month long master's research programme showed us: The approach motivates the students to perform focusing not only on the end-goal of their research study, but on the process of day to day work that lead to that goal. The students' self-confidence is often enhanced by being a part of close-knit group. Initial workload of the teacher increases significantly by this approach, but later this is more than compensated by the fact that the teacher has to do little maintain the momentum. Both strong and not so-strong students equally benefit from the approach. A significant number of students develop a keen interest in being involved in research further. (e.g. engaging in doctoral studies.)

  6. Alcohol and inflammatory responses: summary of the 2013 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Morris, Niya L; Ippolito, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Chen, Michael M; Friedman, Scott L; Hines, Ian N; Haddad, Georges E; Chang, Sulie L; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2015-02-01

    Loyola University Chicago, Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois hosted the 18th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting on November 22, 2013. This year's meeting emphasized alcohol's effect on inflammatory responses in diverse disease states and injury conditions. The meeting consisted of three plenary sessions demonstrating the adverse effects of alcohol, specifically, liver inflammation, adverse systemic effects, and alcohol's role in infection and immunology. Researchers also presented insight on modulation of microRNAs and stress proteins following alcohol consumption. Additionally, researchers revealed sex- and concentration-dependent differences in alcohol-mediated pathologies. PMID:25468277

  7. Training in Business and Industry. Selected Research Papers, 1995. AERA Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin, Ed.

    This document contains 7 of the 10 papers presented at the 1995 program of the American Educational Research Association's special interest group, Training in Business and Industry. The following papers are included: "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Evaluation and Training" (Jo D. Gallagher); "Comparing Managers and Employees in Team…

  8. Realising Graduate Attributes in the Research Degree: The Role of Peer Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stracke, Elke; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of peer support groups (PSGs) in realising graduate attributes in the research degree. The literature indicates that top-down embedding of graduate attributes has met with only limited success. By taking a bottom-up approach, this paper shows that PSGs offer an opportunity to improve the graduate attribute outcomes of…

  9. Grounded Theory and Focus Groups: Reconciling Methodologies in Indigenous Australian Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper captures an ideological moment in time in which I contemplated the methodological approach I was embarking upon. In my search for a more appropriate approach for conducting research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tertiary students at the University of Queensland, I chose focus groups set within the qualitative process of…

  10. University and Science Groups Develop Guidelines for Handling Incidents of Research Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services has proposed new regulations on scientific misconduct and requested ideas on what the government should do about the problem. Guidelines proposed by eight university groups and two science organizations are intended to help institutions draw up their own research-fraud procedures. (MLW)

  11. Research & Consultation on: Access and Transition into Ontario Teacher Education for Under-Represented Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John R.; And Others

    This research project analyzed results of data collection from surveys of and interviews with a population of underrepresented groups at three Canadian university sites: Windsor, London, and Thunder Bay (Ontario). The project designed a program for transition from secondary and/or undergraduate university level education or concurrent or…

  12. The Importance of Bonding to School for Healthy Development: Findings from the Social Development Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Richard F.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Fleming, Charles B.; Hawkins, J. David

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations of school connectedness completed by the Social Development Research Group in two longitudinal studies, the Seattle Social Development Project and Raising Healthy Children. The theoretical importance of school connectedness, empirical support for the theoretical propositions of the impact of school…

  13. Ability Grouping, Segregation and Civic Competences among Adolescents. Research Briefing No. 76

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the linkages between ability grouping, classroom social and ethnic segregation, and civic competences (understood here as referring to attitudes and behaviours as well as knowledge and skills). It does so by analysing data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education…

  14. Promoting a Message on Vision Loss to Diverse Groups of Adults: Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia; Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    Visual impairment is the second most prevalent disability among older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993), affecting about 2.9 million Americans aged 65 and older (Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, 2004). As the population ages, the number of individuals who will experience age-related vision loss will also increase.…

  15. Evaluation of Using Course-Management Software: Supplementing a Course that Requires a Group Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Gump, Nathaniel W.

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of course-management software (CMS) will not be realized if it is underused. The authors investigated one possible barrier to CMS use, students' perceptions of using CMS. After taking a course requiring a group research project, college students reported their perceptions of the use of CMS for the course. Overall, students did not…

  16. Group Psychotherapy for Women with a History of Incest: The Research Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…

  17. Perspective on the Status of Research and Development Concerning Minority Groups in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W.

    The most pressing problems of research on minority groups have not received adequate attention. One such problem is that of identification and understanding of the mechanisms of learning facility and learning dysfunction and the implications of both for the optimum development of heterogeneous populations. Secondly, in contrast to the body of…

  18. College Students' Interpretation of Research Reports on Group Differences: The Tall-Tale Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Zaboski, Brian A.; Perry, Tiffany R.

    2015-01-01

    How does the student untrained in advanced statistics interpret results of research that reports a group difference? In two studies, statistically untrained college students were presented with abstracts or professional associations' reports and asked for estimates of scores obtained by the original participants in the studies. These estimates…

  19. Supervision of School and Youth Groups on Lift-Served Ski Slopes: A Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew; Holmes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Supervised practice is a common feature of many snow sports excursions to downhill ski resorts by school or youth groups, often in combination with lessons from a ski school. What is the role of supervision in preventing mishaps, injury, or fatalities? This article presents results of a search of published snow sports safety research for evidence…

  20. 77 FR 44224 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group, Incorporated

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... will authorize its contractor Eastern Research Group, Incorporated (ERG) to access Confidential... INFORMATION: 1. Access to Confidential Business Information Under EPA Contract No. EP-W-10-055, ERG... Security Manuals. ERG, Incorporated shall protect from unauthorized disclosure all information...

  1. 78 FR 75905 - Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... similar provisions of the Code. See, e.g., Prop. Reg. Sec. 1.199-1, 70 FR 67220, 67236 (November 4, 2005...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BE14 Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice...

  2. Considering Community Literacies in the Secondary Classroom: A Collaborative Teacher and Researcher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Paula M.; Reynolds, Rema E.

    2013-01-01

    A year long study group brought teachers and researchers working in urban contexts in US public schools together to examine literacy practices incorporating students' community literacies into schooled tasks. The goal was to provide teacher development in making connections across their students' community literacies and the academic…

  3. Aerosol-halogen interaction: Change of physico-chemical properties of SOA by naturally released halogen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofner, J.; Balzer, N.; Buxmann, J.; Grothe, H.; Krüger, H.; Platt, U.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Zetzsch, C.

    2011-12-01

    Reactive halogen species are released by various sources like photo-activated sea-salt aerosol or salt pans and salt lakes. These heterogeneous release mechanisms have been overlooked so far, although their potential of interaction with organic aerosols like Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA), Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA) or Atmospheric Humic LIke Substances (HULIS) is completely unknown. Such reactions can constitute sources of gaseous organo-halogen compounds or halogenated organic particles in the atmospheric boundary layer. To study the interaction of organic aerosols with reactive halogen species (RHS), SOA was produced from α-pinene, catechol and guaiacol using an aerosol smog-chamber. The model SOAs were characterized in detail using a variety of physico-chemical methods (Ofner et al., 2011). Those aerosols were exposed to molecular halogens in the presence of UV/VIS irradiation and to halogens, released from simulated natural halogen sources like salt pans, in order to study the complex aerosol-halogen interaction. The heterogeneous reaction of RHS with those model aerosols leads to different gaseous species like CO2, CO and small reactive/toxic molecules like phosgene (COCl2). Hydrogen containing groups on the aerosol particles are destroyed to form HCl or HBr, and a significant formation of C-Br bonds could be verified in the particle phase. Carbonyl containing functional groups of the aerosol are strongly affected by the halogenation process. While changes of functional groups and gaseous species were visible using FTIR spectroscopy, optical properties were studied using Diffuse Reflectance UV/VIS spectroscopy. Overall, the optical properties of the processed organic aerosols are significantly changed. While chlorine causes a "bleaching" of the aerosol particles, bromine shifts the maximum of UV/VIS absorption to the red end of the UV/VIS spectrum. Further physico-chemical changes were recognized according to the aerosol size-distributions or the

  4. Time Series of Aerosol Column Optical Depth at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Climate Research Facility for 2008 Fourth Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect

    C Flynn; AS Koontz; JH Mather

    2009-09-01

    The uncertainties in current estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are dominated by the effects of aerosols, both in relation to the direct absorption and scattering of radiation by aerosols and also with respect to aerosol-related changes in cloud formation, longevity, and microphysics (See Figure 1; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Assessment Report 4, 2008). Moreover, the Arctic region in particular is especially sensitive to changes in climate with the magnitude of temperature changes (both observed and predicted) being several times larger than global averages (Kaufman et al. 2009). Recent studies confirm that aerosol-cloud interactions in the arctic generate climatologically significant radiative effects equivalent in magnitude to that of green house gases (Lubin and Vogelmann 2006, 2007). The aerosol optical depth is the most immediate representation of the aerosol direct effect and is also important for consideration of aerosol-cloud interactions, and thus this quantity is essential for studies of aerosol radiative forcing.

  5. Patient Informed Governance of Distributed Research Networks: Results and Discussion from Six Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Laura A.; Browe, Dennis K.; Logan, Holly C.; Kim, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients’ views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes. PMID:24551383

  6. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation. PMID:22382800

  7. Smoke and Pollution Aerosol Effect on Cloud Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Koren, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Pollution and smoke aerosols can increase or decrease the cloud cover. This duality in the effects of aerosols forms one of the largest uncertainties in climate research. Using solar measurements from Aerosol Robotic Network sites around the globe, we show an increase in cloud cover with an increase in the aerosol column concentration and an inverse dependence on the aerosol absorption of sunlight. The emerging rule appears to be independent of geographical location or aerosol type, thus increasing our confidence in the understanding of these aerosol effects on the clouds and climate. Preliminary estimates suggest an increase of 5% in cloud cover.

  8. Biology of the Coarse Aerosol Mode: Insights Into Urban Aerosol Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Montero, A.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial aerosols have been understudied, despite implications for climate studies, public health, and biogeochemical cycling. Because viable bacterial aerosols are often associated with coarse aerosol particles, our limited understanding of the coarse aerosol mode further impedes our ability to develop models of viable bacterial aerosol production, transport, and fate in the outdoor environment, particularly in crowded urban centers. To address this knowledge gap, we studied aerosol particle biology and size distributions in a broad range of urban and rural settings. Our previously published findings suggest a link between microbial viability and local production of coarse aerosols from waterways, waste treatment facilities, and terrestrial systems in urban and rural environments. Both in coastal Maine and in New York Harbor, coarse aerosols and viable bacterial aerosols increased with increasing wind speeds above 4 m s-1, a dynamic that was observed over time scales ranging from minutes to hours. At a New York City superfund-designated waterway regularly contaminated with raw sewage, aeration remediation efforts resulted in significant increases of coarse aerosols and bacterial aerosols above that waterway. Our current research indicates that bacterial communities in aerosols at this superfund site have a greater similarity to bacterial communities in the contaminated waterway with wind speeds above 4 m s-1. Size-fractionated sampling of viable microbial aerosols along the urban waterfront has also revealed significant shifts in bacterial aerosols, and specifically bacteria associated with coarse aerosols, when wind direction changes from onshore to offshore. This research highlights the key connections between bacterial aerosol viability and the coarse aerosol fraction, which is important in assessments of production, transport, and fate of bacterial contamination in the urban environment.

  9. Global oral health inequalities: dental caries task group--research agenda.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N; Amaechi, B; Niederman, R; Acevedo, A-M; Vianna, R; Ganss, C; Ismail, A; Honkala, E

    2011-05-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science. PMID:21490233

  10. Empirical research on attachment in group psychotherapy: moving the field forward.

    PubMed

    Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2014-03-01

    Despite a large literature applying attachment to individual, family, and couple psychotherapy, it has taken much longer for clinicians to apply attachment theory to group psychotherapy. The lack of research attention in this area makes these three studies in this special section even more important to the field. They contribute significant findings that have the potential to help group leaders facilitate more cohesive and effective treatments for patients as well as move the field forward. Not only do we see the long-term impact of group treatment for those with insecure attachments, but we also learn how attachment anxiety impacts the group process, and how the attachment to the therapy group itself relates to changes in group member's personal attachment styles. The greatest contribution is the drawing of our attention to the many future studies that are needed to fully understand how group therapy facilitates change and how attachment theory plays a critical role in this process. Clinical implications are presented. PMID:24059737

  11. The role of multiple-group measurement invariance in family psychology research.

    PubMed

    Kern, Justin L; McBride, Brent A; Laxman, Daniel J; Dyer, W Justin; Santos, Rosa M; Jeans, Laurie M

    2016-04-01

    Measurement invariance (MI) is a property of measurement that is often implicitly assumed, but in many cases, not tested. When the assumption of MI is tested, it generally involves determining if the measurement holds longitudinally or cross-culturally. A growing literature shows that other groupings can, and should, be considered as well. Additionally, it is noted that the standard techniques for investigating MI have been focused almost exclusively on the case of 2 groups, with very little work on the case of more than 2 groups, even though the need for such techniques is apparent in many fields of research. This paper introduces and illustrates a model building technique to investigating MI for more than 2 groups. This technique is an extension of the already-existing hierarchy for testing MI introduced by Meredith (1993). An example using data on father involvement in 5 different groups of families of children with and without developmental disabilities from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort dataset will be given. We show that without considering the possible differential functioning of the measurements on multiple developmental groups, the differences present between the groups in terms of the measurements may be obscured. This could lead to incorrect conclusions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26796321

  12. International Cooperative for Aerosol Prediction Workshop on Aerosol Forecast Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to reinforce the working partnership between centers who are actively involved in global aerosol forecasting, and to discuss issues related to forecast verification. Participants included representatives from operational centers with global aerosol forecasting requirements, a panel of experts on Numerical Weather Prediction and Air Quality forecast verification, data providers, and several observers from the research community. The presentations centered on a review of current NWP and AQ practices with subsequent discussion focused on the challenges in defining appropriate verification measures for the next generation of aerosol forecast systems.

  13. Sensitivity of Multiangle Imaging to the Optical and Microphysical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Kahn, Ralph A.; Nelson, David; Yau, Kevin; Seinfeld, John H.

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of biomass burning (BB) carbonaceous particles in the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Standard Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm is assessed, and algorithm refinements are suggested, based on a theoretical sensitivity analysis and comparisons with near-coincident AERONET measurements at representative BB sites. Over the natural ranges of BB aerosol microphysical and optical properties observed in past field campaigns, patterns of retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), particle size, and single scattering albedo (SSA) are evaluated. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, assuming total column AOD of 0.2, over a dark, uniform surface, MISR can distinguish two to three groups in each of size and SSA, except when the assumed atmospheric particles are significantly absorbing (mid-visible SSA approx.0.84), or of medium sizes (mean radius approx.0.13 pin); sensitivity to absorbing, medium-large size particles increases considerably when the assumed column AOD is raised to 0.5. MISR Research Aerosol Retrievals confirm the theoretical results, based on coincident AERONET inversions under BB-dominated conditions. When BB is externally mixed with dust in the atmosphere, dust optical model and surface reflection uncertainties, along with spatial variability, contribute to differences between the Research Retrievals and AERONET. These results suggest specific refinements to the MISR Standard Aerosol Algorithm complement of component particles and mixtures. They also highlight the importance for satellite aerosol retrievals of surface reflectance characterization, with accuracies that can be difficult to achieve with coupled surface-aerosol algorithms in some higher AOD situations.

  14. An overview of the Ice Nuclei Research Unit Jungfraujoch/Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment 2013 (INUIT-JFJ/CLACE-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Ice formation in mixed phase tropospheric clouds is an essential prerequisite for the formation of precipitation at mid-latitudes. Ice formation at temperatures warmer than -35°C is only possible via heterogeneous ice nucleation, but up to now the exact pathways of heterogeneous ice formation are not sufficiently well understood. The research unit INUIT (Ice NUcleation research unIT), funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG FOR 1525) has been established in 2012 with the objective to investigate heterogeneous ice nucleation by combination of laboratory studies, model calculation and field experiments. The main field campaign of the INUIT project (INUIT-JFJ) was conducted at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 3580 m asl) during January and February 2013, in collaboration with several international partners in the framework of CLACE2013. The instrumentation included a large set of aerosol chemical and physical analysis instruments (particle counters, particle sizers, particle mass spectrometers, cloud condensation nuclei counters, ice nucleus counters etc.), that were operated inside the Sphinx laboratory and sampled in mixed phase clouds through two ice selective inlets (Ice-CVI, ISI) as well as through a total aerosol inlet that was used for out-of-cloud aerosol measurements. Besides the on-line measurements, also samples for off-line analysis (ESEM, STXM) have been taken in and out of clouds. Furthermore, several cloud microphysics instruments were operated outside the Sphinx laboratory. First results indicate that a large fraction of ice residues sampled from mixed phase clouds contain organic material, but also mineral dust. Soot and lead were not found to be enriched in ice residues. The concentration of heterogeneous ice nuclei was found to be variable (ranging between < 1 and > 100 per liter) and to be strongly dependent on the operating conditions of the respective IN counter. The number size distribution of ice residues

  15. Aerosol radiative effects over BIMSTEC regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumit; Kar, S. C.; Mupparthy, Raghavendra S.

    Aerosols can have variety of shapes, composition, sizes and other properties that influence their optical characteristics and thus the radiative impact. The visible impact of aerosol is the formation of haze, a layer of particles from vehicular, industrial emissions and biomass burning. The characterization of these fine particles is important for regulators and researchers because of their potential impact on human health, their ability to travel thousands of kilometers crossing international borders, and their influence on climate forcing and global warming. The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) with Member Countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand has emerged as an important regional group for technical and economic Cooperation. Continuing the quest for a deeper understanding of BIMSTEC countries weather and climate, in this paper we focused on aerosols and their direct radiative effects. Because of various contrasts like geophysical, agricultural practices, heterogeneous land/ocean surface, population etc these regions present an excellent natural laboratory for studying aerosol-meteorology interactions in tropical to sub-tropical environments. We exploited data available on multiple platforms (such as MISR, MODIS etc) and models (OPAC, SBDART etc) to compute the results. Ten regions were selected with different surface characteristics, also having considerable differences in the long-term trends and seasonal distribution of aerosols. In a preliminary analysis pertaining to pre-monsoon (March-April-May) of 2013, AOD _{555nm} is found to be maximum over Bangladesh (>0.52) and minimum over Bhutan (0.22), whereas other regions have intermediate values. Concurrent to these variability of AOD we found a strong reduction in incoming flux at surface of all the regions (> -25 Wm (-2) ), except Bhutan and Sri Lanka (< -18Wm (-2) ). The top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing values are

  16. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

  17. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75 000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research. PMID:26492224

  18. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-11-17

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75,000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research. PMID:26492224

  19. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    SciTech Connect

    Venzie, J.

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Research on Formal Computer-Mediated Support Groups: Examining Group Characteristics and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Stephen A.; Young, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a meta-analysis of 28 studies examining the health-related outcomes associated with participation in a formal computer-mediated support group (CMSG) intervention. In particular, health outcomes related to social support were assessed and four group-level characteristics of CMSGs were tested as potential moderators of…

  1. Historical note: How bringing women's health advocacy groups to WHO helped change the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, Jane

    2015-05-01

    The politics of population control and its sometimes coercive methods in developing countries documented during the 1960s, 70s and 80s, gave rise to strong opposition by women's groups, and put into question the safety of contraceptive methods that were being developed and introduced into countries. In 1991, the Special Programme on Human Reproduction at the World Health Organization, a research programme focused on development of new methods and safety assessments of existing fertility regulation methods, started a process of "dialogue" meetings between scientists and women's health advocacy groups which lasted for nearly a decade. This paper describes the process of these meetings and what they achieved in terms of bringing new or different research topics into the agenda, and some of the actions taken as a result. PMID:26278829

  2. An Action Research Process on University Tutorial Sessions with Small Groups: Presentational Tutorial Sessions and Online Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz-Salarirche, Noelia; Gallardo-Gil, Monsalud; Herrera-Pastor, David; Servan-Nunez, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    We describe and analyse the action research process carried out by us as teachers in a general didactics course in the University of Malaga (Spain). The course methodology combined lectures to the whole class and small-group work. We were in charge of guiding small-group work. In the small groups, students researched on an educational innovation…

  3. A call for research: the need to better understand the impact of support groups for suicide survivors.

    PubMed

    Cerel, Julie; Padgett, Jason H; Conwell, Yeates; Reed, Gerald A

    2009-06-01

    Support groups for suicide survivors (those individuals bereaved following a suicide) are widely used, but little research evidence is available to determine their efficacy. This paper outlines the pressing public health need to conduct research and determine effective ways to identify and meet the needs of suicide survivors, particularly through survivor support groups. After describing the various approaches to survivor support groups, we explain the need for further research, despite the inherent challenges. Finally, we pose several questions for researchers to consider as they work with survivors to develop a research agenda that sheds more light on the experiences of survivors and the help provided by survivor support groups. PMID:19606919

  4. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R

  5. Exploring group dynamics for integrating scientific and experiential knowledge in Community Advisory Boards for HIV research

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Spector, Anya Y.; Valera, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate how Community Advisory Boards (CABs) can best integrate community perspectives with scientific knowledge and involve community in disseminating HIV knowledge, this paper provides a case study exploring the structure and dynamic process of a “Community Collaborative Board” (CCB). We use the term CCB to emphasize collaboration over advisement. The CCB membership, structure and dynamics are informed by theory and research. The CCB is affiliated with Columbia University School of Social Work and its original membership included 30 members. CCB was built using six systematized steps meant to engage members in procedural and substantive research roles. Steps: (1) Engaging membership, (2) Developing relationships, (3) Exchanging information, (4) Negotiation and decision-making, (5) Retaining membership, and (6) Studying dynamic process. This model requires that all meetings be audio-taped to capture CCB dynamics. Using transcribed meeting data, we have identified group dynamics that help the CCB accomplish its objectives: 1) dialectic process helps exchange of information; 2) mutual support helps members work together despite social and professional differences; and 3) problem solving helps members achieve consensus. These dynamics also help members attain knowledge about HIV treatment and prevention and disseminate HIV-related knowledge. CABs can be purposeful in their use of group dynamics, narrow the knowledge gap between researchers and community partners, prepare members for procedural and substantive research roles, and retain community partners. PMID:21390878

  6. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  7. Academic research groups: evaluation of their quality and quality of their evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, Bertrand; Holovatch, Yuri; Kenna, Ralph; Mryglod, Olesya

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, evaluation of the quality of academic research has become an increasingly important and influential business. It determines, often to a large extent, the amount of research funding flowing into universities and similar institutes from governmental agencies and it impacts upon academic careers. Policy makers are becoming increasingly reliant upon, and influenced by, the outcomes of such evaluations. In response, university managers are increasingly attracted to simple metrics as guides to the dynamics of the positions of their various institutions in league tables. However, these league tables are invariably drawn up by inexpert bodies such as newspapers and magazines, using arbitrary measures and criteria. Terms such as “critical mass” and “h-index” are bandied about without understanding of what they actually mean. Rather than accepting the rise and fall of universities, departments and individuals on a turbulent sea of arbitrary measures, we suggest it is incumbent upon the scientific community itself to clarify their nature. Here we report on recent attempts to do that by properly defining critical mass and showing how group size influences research quality. We also examine currently predominant metrics and show that these fail as reliable indicators of group research quality.

  8. Technical note: Harmonising metocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, Richard P.; Camossi, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  9. Manufacturing individual opinions: market research focus groups and the discursive psychology of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Puchta, Claudia; Potter, Jonathan

    2002-09-01

    This article addresses a paradox. On the one hand, discourse and rhetorical studies have provided evidence that evaluative talk is both variable and rhetorically organized. On the other hand, a wide range of social psychological research is produced that both presupposes and finds evidence of enduring underlying attitudes. One explanation for this may be that, on some occasions at least, the results of attitude research are a consequence of procedures that restrict and refine from everyday evaluative practices in a way that ensures the 'discovery' of underlying attitudes. The article explores this explanation in one domain where there is a major practical concern with attitudes and opinions, namely market research focus groups. Detailed analysis of transcripts of eight market research focus groups identifies three procedures that moderators use to produce freestanding opinion packages: (a). they display rhetorically embedded evaluations as inconsequential; (b). they provide formal guidance for participants to produce freestanding opinions; and (c). they formulate participants' talk as freestanding opinions, stripping off rhetorical elements. The findings are supported by considering deviant cases. This illustrates one way in which evaluations are transformed into freestanding attitudes. More broadly, it contributes to a body of work that studies how social science methods work in practice. PMID:12419007

  10. Technical note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, R. P.; Camossi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardized web-services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by: (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using technology that is free, and that is easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing tools to communicate with web services that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modelers continue producing custom data, but virtually aggregates and standardizes the data using NetCDF Markup Language. The THREDDS Data Server is used for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (Matlab®1) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Ocean Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.1 Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the US Government.

  11. Exploring group dynamics for integrating scientific and experiential knowledge in Community Advisory Boards for HIV research.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rogério M; Spector, Anya Y; Valera, Pamela A

    2011-08-01

    To demonstrate how Community Advisory Boards (CABs) can best integrate community perspectives with scientific knowledge and involve community in disseminating HIV knowledge, this paper provides a case study exploring the structure and dynamic process of a "Community Collaborative Board" (CCB). We use the term CCB to emphasize collaboration over advisement. The CCB membership, structure, and dynamics are informed by theory and research. The CCB is affiliated with Columbia University School of Social Work and its original membership included 30 members. CCB was built using six systematized steps meant to engage members in procedural and substantive research roles: (1) engaging membership; (2) developing relationships; (3) exchanging information; (4) negotiation and decision-making; (5) retaining membership; and (6) studying dynamic process. This model requires that all meetings be audio-taped to capture CCB dynamics. Using transcribed meeting data, we have identified group dynamics that help the CCB accomplish its objectives: (1) dialectic process helps exchange of information; (2) mutual support helps members work together despite social and professional differences; and (3) problem solving helps members achieve consensus. These dynamics also help members attain knowledge about HIV treatment and prevention and disseminate HIV-related knowledge. CABs can be purposeful in their use of group dynamics, narrow the knowledge gap between researchers and community partners, prepare members for procedural and substantive research roles, and retain community partners. PMID:21390878

  12. AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) program is a federation of ground-based remote sensing aerosol networks established by NASA and LOA-PHOTONS (CNRS) and is greatly expanded by collaborators from national agencies, institutes, universities, individual scientists, and partners. The program provides a long-term, continuous and readily accessible public domain database of aerosol optical, mircrophysical and radiative properties for aerosol research and characterization, validation of satellite retrievals, and synergism with other databases. The network imposes standardization of instruments, calibration, processing and distribution. AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

  13. PREVALENCE OF SCIENTIFIC MISCONDUCT AMONG A GROUP OF RESEARCHERS IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    OKONTA, PATRICK; ROSSOUW, THERESA

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of information on the prevalence of scientific misconduct from Nigeria. Objectives This study aimed at determining the prevalence of scientific misconduct in a group of researchers in Nigeria. Factors associated with the prevalence were ascertained. Method A descriptive study of researchers who attended a scientific conference in 2010 was conducted using the adapted Scientific Misconduct Questionnaire- Revised (SMQ-R). Results Ninety-one researchers (68.9%) admitted having committed at least one of the eight listed forms of scientific misconduct. Disagreement about authorship was the most common form of misconduct committed (36.4%) while plagiarism was the least (9.2%). About 42% of researchers had committed falsification of data or plagiarism. Analysis of specific acts of misconduct showed that committing plagiarism was inversely associated with years in research (Fisher exact p-value = 0.02); falsifying data was related to perceived low effectiveness of the institution’s rules and procedures for reducing scientific misconduct (X2 = 6.44, p-value = 0.01); and succumbing to pressure from study sponsor to engage in unethical practice was related to sex of researcher (Fisher exact p-value = 0.02). Conclusions The emergent data from this study is a cause for serious concern and calls for prompt intervention. The best response to reducing scientific misconduct will proceed from measures that contain both elements of prevention and enforcement. Training on research ethics has to be integrated into the curriculum of undergraduate and postgraduate students while provision should be made for in-service training of researchers. Penalties against acts of scientific misconduct should be enforced at institutional and national levels. PMID:22994914

  14. Aerosol and nucleation research in support of NASA cloud physics experiments in space. [ice nuclei generator for the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory on Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.; Rogers, D.; Gordon, G.; Saunders, C. P. R.; Reischel, M.; Black, R.

    1978-01-01

    Tasks performed in the development of an ice nucleus generator which, within the facility concept of the ACPL, would provide a test aerosol suitable for a large number and variety of potential experiments are described. The impact of Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory scientific functional requirements on ice nuclei generation and characterization subsystems was established. Potential aerosol generating systems were evaluated with special emphasis on reliability, repeatability and general suitability for application in Spacelab. Possible contamination problems associated with aerosol generation techniques were examined. The ice nucleating abilities of candidate test aerosols were examined and the possible impact of impurities on the nucleating abilities of those aerosols were assessed as well as the relative merits of various methods of aerosol size and number density measurements.

  15. Use of analytical electron microscopy for the individual particle analysis of the Arctic haze aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of the analytical electron microscope for the analysis and source apportionment of individual aerosol particles, aerosol samples amenable to individual particle analysis were collected from a remote region. These samples were from the Arctic haze aerosol, and were collected on board a research aircraft during the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program in spring 1983. Before elemental analysis by analytical electron microscopy (AEM) could be performed, an extensive relative sensitivity factor study was undertaken to calibrate the microscope/detector system for quanitative x-ray microanalysis. Subsequently determined elemental data, along with morphological information, were used to group the particles into classes with similar characteristics. Forty-seven classes of particles were found in the Arctic samples, the most populous classes containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ droplets, carbonaceous particles, lithophilic particles, CaSO/sub 4/ or NaCl. Several classes containing anthropogenic particles were also identified.

  16. Inspired by Fieldwork: A Teacher Research Experience Energizes and Ignites a Group of Elementary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    Through involvement in authentic research experiences teachers improve their content knowledge, deepen their understanding of the research process, and rejuvenate their interest in science. These positive results of fieldwork transfer into the classroom, directly benefiting students. The ARMADA project provided me with a three week research experience aboard the Amundsen (Canadian Coast Guard science vessel) which enriched and strengthened me professionally. Guided by master and early career scientists, I took part in specific research techniques and deep scientific discourse. My immersion in ocean science was so stimulating that I was inspired to share that excitement with my students. The fascination my students showed for basic experiments and ocean related activities fueled my interest further and I began to research more deeply which led to Climate Literacy and Polar Studies as essentials in my science curriculum. Over the following years I continued to expand and refine the workshops and activities students take part in. Three years after the research experience students still love the science explorations we embark upon together. This past year a group of students became so excited about Polar Science and Climate that they authored a 36 page non fiction book for upper elementary and middle school students entitled, "Changing Poles, Changing Planet: Climate Change vs. The Earth". Seven of the authors decided to continue their science outreach work by creating an educational video focusing on the basics of climate science and what children can do to lower carbon emissions. The book and video were distributed to educators as well as scientists at the International Polar Year Science Conference in June, 2010. In August some of these students presented their work at a Sustainability festival that was organized by M-CAN a local climate action group. Two of these students (who have left my class and started 6th grade at the middle school)recently decided to form a

  17. Aerosol Lidar and MODIS Satellite Comparisons for Future Aerosol Loading Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, Russell; Szykman, James; Severance, Kurt; Chu, D. Allen; Rosen, Rebecca; Al-Saadi, Jassim

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the concentration and distribution of atmospheric aerosols using both airborne lidar and satellite instruments is a field of active research. An aircraft based aerosol lidar has been used to study the distribution of atmospheric aerosols in the California Central Valley and eastern US coast. Concurrently, satellite aerosol retrievals, from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, were take over the Central Valley. The MODIS Level 2 aerosol data product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical depth (AOD) and size distribution) globally over ocean and land at a spatial resolution of 10 km. The Central Valley topography was overlaid with MODIS AOD (5x5 sq km resolution) and the aerosol scattering vertical profiles from a lidar flight. Backward air parcel trajectories for the lidar data show that air from the Pacific and northern part of the Central Valley converge confining the aerosols to the lower valley region and below the mixed layer. Below an altitude of 1 km, the lidar aerosol and MODIS AOD exhibit good agreement. Both data sets indicate a high presence of aerosols near Bakersfield and the Tehachapi Mountains. These and other results to be presented indicate that the majority of the aerosols are below the mixed layer such that the MODIS AOD should correspond well with surface measurements. Lidar measurements will help interpret satellite AOD retrievals so that one day they can be used on a routine basis for prediction of boundary layer aerosol pollution events.

  18. Plan for a research program on aerosol radiative forcing and climate change. Final report, 1 December 1993-17 April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-17

    The panel`s main findings are that (1) anthropogenic aerosols reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth`s surface, (2) anthropogenic aerosols provide a negative climate forcing function for large regions, (3) global models suggest that sulfate aerosols produce a direct forcing in the Northern Hemisphere of the same order of magnitude as that from anthropogenic greenhouse gases, but opposite in sign, and (4) there is substantial uncertainty about the magnitude and spatial distribution of the radiative forcing by aerosols.

  19. Meteorological Influences on SE U.S. Background Aerosol Variability: Multi-Year Measurements from the Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research Facility (AppalAIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, J. P.; Krintz, I. A.; Zhou, Y. C.; Madison, B. F.; Link, M. F.; Morrow, H. A.; Perry, B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate models, satellite-based aerosol retrieval algorithms, and radiative transfer code require prescribed aerosol extensive and intensive properties and (often) vertical distributions on regional and sub-regional scales. Aerosol loading, composition, and intensive properties in the SE U.S depend strongly on local and synoptic meteorology, which contribute to large seasonal aerosol variability and also significant inter-annual variability. As such, long-term continuous measurements of aerosol loading, properties, vertical distributions and their meteorological dependence made from regionally-representative sites are necessary to provide context for field campaigns such as SAS and SEAC4RS and to better understand the factors influencing aerosol trends and variability. Established in June 2009, the high-elevation, semi-rural AppalAIR facility at Appalachian State University in Boone, NC (1090m ASL, 36.210N, 81.690W) is home to the only co-located NOAA-ESRL / NASA AERONET monitoring sites in the eastern U.S., in addition to a micro-pulsed lidar(MPL), a surface MET station, meteorological radiosonde launching system, size-resolved aerosol chemistry, and trace gas chemistry (VOCs, O3, CO2). Aerosol loading, vertical distributions, and properties measured at AppalAIR vary predominantly on seasonal scales and to a lesser extent on inter-annual scales. Monthly-averaged summer aerosol optical depth (AOD) exceeds that in winter by a factor of 6-7. Summer aerosols measured at AppalAIR are mostly sub-micron and are larger and less absorbing than winter aerosols, giving rise to seasonal variability in direct radiative forcing (DRF) governed primarily by variations in aerosol loading (AOD). Summer aerosols are also less hygroscopic, consistent with the high (~70%) organic fraction of the summer dry, non-refractory aerosol mass, which in turn varies with T and RH. Aerosol number densities are highest during fall and spring and under clear, dry meteorological regimes and are

  20. The Alsep Data Recovery Focus Group of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Kiefer, W. S.; Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 deployed instruments on the Moon for 14 geophysical experiments (passive & active seismic, heat flow, magnetics, etc.) from 1969 to 1972. These instruments were called Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs). ALSEPs kept transmitting data to the Earth until September 1977. When the observation program ended in 1977, a large portion of these data were not delivered to the National Space Science Data Center for permanent archive. In 2010, for the purpose of searching, recovering, preserving, and analyzing the data that were not previously archived, NASA's then Lunar Science Institute formed the ALSEP Data Recovery Focus Group. The group consists of current lunar researchers and those involved in the ALSEP design and data analysis in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the data not previously archived were the 5000+ 7-track open-reel tapes that recorded raw data from all the ALSEP instruments from April 1973 to February 1976 ('ARCSAV tapes'). These tapes went missing in the decades after Apollo. One of the major achievements of the group so far is that we have found 450 ARCSAV tapes from April to June 1975 and that we are extracting data from them. There are 3 other major achievements by the group. First, we have established a web portal at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, where ~700 ALSEP-related documents, totaling ~40,000 pages, have been digitally scanned and cataloged. Researchers can search and download these documents at www.lpi.usra.edu/ lunar/ALSEP/. Second, we have been retrieving notes and reports left behind by the now deceased/retired ALSEP investigators at their home institutions. Third, we have been re-analyzing the ALSEP data using the information from the recently recovered metadata (instrument calibration data, operation logs, etc.). Efforts are ongoing to get these data permanently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  1. Aerosol-Based Cell Therapy for Treatment of Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kardia, Egi; Halim, Nur Shuhaidatul Sarmiza Abdul; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol-based cell delivery technique via intratracheal is an effective route for delivering transplant cells directly into the lungs. An aerosol device known as the MicroSprayer(®) Aerosolizer is invented to transform liquid into an aerosol form, which then can be applied via intratracheal administration for drug delivery. The device produces a uniform and concentrated distribution of aerosolized liquid. Using the capability of MicroSprayer(®) Aerosolizer to transform liquid into aerosol form, our group has designed a novel method of cell delivery using an aerosol-based technique. We have successfully delivered skin-derived fibroblast cells and airway epithelial cells into the airway of a rabbit with minimum risk of cell loss and have uniformly distributed the cells into the airway. This chapter illustrates the application of aerosol device to deliver any type of cells for future treatment of lung diseases. PMID:27062596

  2. Aerosol optical absorption measurements with photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    Many parameters related to radiative forcing in climate research are known only with large uncertainties. And one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing is the contribution from aerosols. Aerosols can scatter or absorb the electromagnetic radiation, thus may have negative or positive effects on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, respectively [1]. And the magnitude of the effect is directly related to the quantity of light absorbed by aerosols [2,3]. Thus, sensitivity and precision measurement of aerosol optical absorption is crucial for climate research. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the light absorption of aerosols [4]. A PAS based sensor for aerosol optical absorption measurement was developed. A 532 nm semiconductor laser with an effective power of 160 mW was used as a light source of the PAS sensor. The PAS sensor was calibrated by using known concentration NO2. The minimum detectable optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosol was determined to be 1 Mm-1. 24 hours continues measurement of OAC of aerosol in the ambient air was carried out. And a novel three wavelength PAS aerosol OAC sensor is in development for analysis of aerosol wavelength-dependent absorption Angstrom coefficient. Reference [1] U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715-737 (2005) [2] M. Z. Jacobson, Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature 409, 695-697 (2001) [3] V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichae, Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, nature geoscience 1, 221-227 (2008) [4] W.P Arnott, H. Moosmuller, C. F. Rogers, T. Jin, and R. Bruch, Photoacoustic spectrometer for measuring light absorption by aerosol: instrument description. Atmos. Environ. 33, 2845-2852 (1999).

  3. Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aerosols, defined as particles and droplets suspended in air, are always present in the atmosphere. They are part of the earth-atmosphere climate system, because they interact with both incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial radiation. They do this directly through scattering and absorption, and indirectly through effects on clouds. Submicrometer aerosols usually predominate in terms of number of particles per unit volume of air. They have dimensions close to the wavelengths of visible light, and thus scatter radiation from the sun very effectively. They are produced in the atmosphere by chemical reactions of sulfur-, nitrogen- and carbon-containing gases of both natural and anthropogenic origins. Light absorption is dominated by particles containing elemental carbon (soot), produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and by biomass burning. Light-scattering dominates globally, although absorption can be significant at high latitudes, particularly over highly reflective snow- or ice-covered surfaces. Other aerosol substances that may be locally important are those from volcanic eruptions, wildfires and windblown dust.

  4. Repackaging prostate cancer support group research findings: an e-KT case study.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S; Lohan, Maria; Bottorff, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of psychosocial oncology research, disseminating study findings to a range of knowledge "end-users" can advance the well-being of diverse patient subgroups and their families. This article details how findings drawn from a study of prostate cancer support groups were repackaged in a knowledge translation website--www.prostatecancerhelpyourself.ubc.ca--using Web 2.0 features. Detailed are five lessons learned from developing the website: the importance of pitching a winning but feasible idea, keeping a focus on interactivity and minimizing text, negotiating with the supplier, building in formal pretests or a pilot test with end-users, and completing formative evaluations based on data collected through Google™ and YouTube™ Analytics. The details are shared to guide the e-knowledge translation efforts of other psychosocial oncology researchers and clinicians. PMID:24713522

  5. Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Data Sets and Application of Radiative Transfer Models to Compute Aerosol Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat

    2005-01-01

    The Bay Area Environmental Research Institute (BAER) scientists have worked with the NASA Ames Research Center sunphotometer group led by Dr. Philip Russell for many years researching the climatic effects of aerosol particles in the stratosphere and troposphere. We have continued to work with the NASA Ames sunphotometer group in research activities representing funded, peer-reviewed proposals to NASA, NOAA and DOE. The activities are described in those proposals and also in the documents provided to the Grants Office earlier. This is the final report from January 1,2002 - June 30, 2005. The report consists of a compilation of 41 peer-reviewed publications (published, in press or submitted) produced under this Cooperative Agreement and 43 first-authored conference presentations. To save paper, reprints are not included but will, of course, be provided upon request.

  6. Using the OMI Aerosol Index and Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth to Evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Govindaraju, R.

    2014-12-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV Aerosol Index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). In this presentation we show comparisons of model produced AI with the corresponding OMI measurements during several months of 2007 characterized by a good sampling of dust and biomass burning events. In parallel, model produced Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AAOD) were compared to OMI AAOD for the same period, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols were deficient. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors, aerosol retrievals from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain misplacement of plume height by the model.

  7. Aerosol optical properties observed during Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006): Characteristic differences between the inflow and outflow of Beijing city air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, R. M.; Schmid, O.; Nowak, A.; Achtert, P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Gunthe, S. S.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hu, M.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Zhu, T.; Andreae, M. O.; PöSchl, U.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical properties were conducted during Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006) (11 August to 9 September 2006) at a suburban site ˜30 km south of Beijing. Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation), the total scattering coefficients (σs) were 469 ± 374 Mm-1 (450 nm), 361 ± 295 Mm-1 (550 nm), and 249 ± 206 Mm-1 (700 nm) and the absorption coefficient (σa) was 51.8 ± 36.5 Mm-1 (532 nm). The average Ångström exponent was 1.42 ± 0.19 (450 nm/700 nm) and the average single scattering albedo (ω532) was 0.86 ± 0.07 (532 nm) with minimum values as low as 0.5. Pronounced diurnal cycles were observed in σs, σa, and ω532 and can be explained by boundary layer mixing effects. Additionally, an enhancement of absorbing particles in the early morning (0500-0800 local time) was observed; this may be attributed to soot emissions from traffic activity. When the measured air masses originated in the north and passed over Beijing, the single scattering albedo was generally low (ω532 < 0.8), which indicates that the local emissions of particulate matter in Beijing were dominated by primary particles from combustion sources (soot). The southerly inflow to Beijing had typically very high σs and higher than average ω532 values, suggesting a large amount of secondary aerosol (e.g., sulfate and oxidized organics). Overall, the results suggest that a majority of the particle pollution in Beijing is transported into the city from the south.

  8. Using focus groups to assess presentation methods in a research seminar.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K Jackson; Lancaster, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to examine preferences between presentation methods among graduate students enrolled in a research seminar course. Participants consisted of 34 second year students enrolled in the Master of Science degree program in physical therapy in the College of Health Professions at the Medical University of South Carolina. All were required to present a published research article on the general topic of exercise in elderly individuals. However, before the student presentations took place, the instructor presented two different published research papers, both of which were done in sequential time segments during a single class period. For Time Segment 1, the instructor/author used a formal, "lecture," or "platform" type presentation, embellished by power point slides with textual information and graphs. For Time Segment 2, the instructor conducted an informal discussion of the background, methods, and findings of the research paper. After the presentations were completed, students were assigned to focus groups for the purpose of providing verbal and written feedback. Examination of the findings using content analysis revealed a variety of opinions regarding presentation techniques, but showed a general preference for the method employed in Time Segment 1. Among the reasons cited were the structure, the visual aids, and past familiarity and comfort with formal, "lecture" type presentations. Also noted was the predominant view that presenter style was a major factor in judging effectiveness. These findings merit further exploration of presentation styles and teaching methodologies for augmenting teaching effectiveness and enhancing the scholarship of teaching. PMID:19759997

  9. Building Trust: The History and Ongoing Relationships Amongst DSD Clinicians, Researchers, and Patient Advocacy Groups.

    PubMed

    Lossie, A C; Green, J

    2015-05-01

    Individuals born with differences or disorders of sex development (DSD) have been marginalized by society and the health care system. Standards of care in the mid-20(th) century were based on fixing the child with a DSD, using hormonal and surgical interventions; these treatments and the diagnoses were almost never disclosed to the child, and sometimes they were not disclosed to the parents. This led to secrecy, shame, and stigma. When these children became adults and demanded access to their medical records, the realization of the depth of secrecy led to the formation of activism groups that shook the medical community. Despite precarious beginnings, advocates, health care professionals, and researchers were able to elicit changes in the standard of care. The 2006 Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders called for a multidisciplinary approach to care and questioned the evidence for many of the standard procedures. Standard of care moved from a concealment model to a patient-centered paradigm, and funding agencies put resources into determining the future paths of research on DSD. Recognition of the need to address patient priorities led to changing international standards for including patients in research design. Some challenges that remain include: the findings from the Institute of Medicine that sexual and gender minorities experience poor health outcomes; establishing trust across all parties; developing a common language and creating venues where individuals can participate in dialogue that addresses personal experiences, research design, clinical practices and intervention strategies. PMID:25868122

  10. An update to returning genetic research results to individuals: perspectives of the industry pharmacogenomics working group.

    PubMed

    Prucka, Sandra K; Arnold, Lester J; Brandt, John E; Gilardi, Sandra; Harty, Lea C; Hong, Feng; Malia, Joanne; Pulford, David J

    2015-02-01

    The ease with which genotyping technologies generate tremendous amounts of data on research participants has been well chronicled, a feat that continues to become both faster and cheaper to perform. In parallel to these advances come additional ethical considerations and debates, one of which centers on providing individual research results and incidental findings back to research participants taking part in genetic research efforts. In 2006 the Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group (I-PWG) offered some 'Points-to-Consider' on this topic within the context of the drug development process from those who are affiliated to pharmaceutical companies. Today many of these points remain applicable to the discussion but will be expanded upon in this updated viewpoint from the I-PWG. The exploratory nature of pharmacogenomic work in the pharmaceutical industry is discussed to provide context for why these results typically are not best suited for return. Operational challenges unique to this industry which cause barriers to returning this information are also explained. PMID:24471556

  11. Classroom management of situated group learning: A research study of two teaching strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeh, Kathy; Fawns, Rod

    2000-06-01

    Although peer-based work is encouraged by theories in developmental psychology and although classroom interventions suggest it is effective, there are grounds for recognising that young pupils find collaborative learning hard to sustain. Discontinuities in collaborative skill during development have been suggested as one interpretation. Theory and research have neglected situational continuities that the teacher may provide in management of formal and informal collaborations. This experimental study, with the collaboration of the science faculty in one urban secondary college, investigated the effect of two role attribution strategies on communication in peer groups of different gender composition in three parallel Year 8 science classes. The group were set a problem that required them to design an experiment to compare the thermal insulating properties of two different materials. This presents the data collected and key findings, and reviews the findings from previous parallel studies that have employed the same research design in different school settings. The results confirm the effectiveness of social role attribution strategies in teacher management of communication in peer-based work.

  12. IGORR-1: Proceedings of the first meeting of the international group on research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1990-05-01

    Many organizations, in several countries, are planning or implementing new or upgraded research reactor projects, but there has been no organized forum devoted entirely to discussion and exchange of information in this field. Over the past year or so, informal discussions resulted in widespread agreement that such a forum would serve a useful purpose. Accordingly, a proposal to form a group was submitted to the leading organizations known to be involved in projects to build or upgrade reactor facilities. Essentially all agreed to join in the formation of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR) and nominated a senior staff member to serve on its international organizing committee. The first IGORR meeting took place on February 28--March 2, 1990. It was very successful and well attended; some 52 scientists and engineers from 25 organizations in 10 countries participated in 2-1/2 days of open and informative presentations and discussions. Two workshop sessions offered opportunities for more detailed interaction among participants and resulted in identification of common R D needs, sources of data, and planned new facilities. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  13. Applications of UV Scattering and Absorbing Aerosol Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penning de Vries, M.; Beirle, S.; Wagner, T.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosols cause a substantial amount of radiative forcing, but quantifying this amount is difficult: determining aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere and, especially, characterizing their (optical) properties, has proved to be quite a challenge. A good way to monitor aerosol characteristics on a global scale is to perform satellite remote sensing. Most satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms are based on fitting of aerosol-induced changes in earth reflectance, which are usually subtle and have a smooth wavelength dependence. In such algorithms certain aerosol models are assumed, where optical parameters such as single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter and size parameter (or Angstrom exponent) are defined. Another, semi-quantitative technique for detecting aerosols is the calculation of UV Aerosol Indices (UVAI). The Absorbing and Scattering Aerosol Indices detect "UV-absorbing" aerosols (most notably mineral dust, black and brown carbon particles) and "scattering" aerosols (sulfate and secondary organic aerosol particles), respectively. UVAI are essentially a measure of the contrast between two wavelengths in the UV range. The advantages of UVAI are: they can be determined in the presence of clouds, they are rather insensitive to surface type, and they are very sensitive to aerosols. The Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) has been in use for over a decade, and the Scattering Aerosol Index (SAI) was recently introduced by our group. Whereas the AAI is mainly used to detect desert dust and biomass burning plumes, the SAI can be used to study regions with high concentrations of non-absorbing aerosols, either anthropogenic (e.g. sulfate aerosols in eastern China) or biogenic (e.g. secondary organic aerosols formed from VOCs emitted by plants). Here we will present our recent UVAI results from SCIAMACHY: we will discuss the seasonal trend of SAI, and correlate our UVAI data with other datasets such as trace gases (HCHO, NO2, CO) and fire counts from the (A

  14. Toward Solutions: The Work of the Chemistry Action-Research Group. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Roger; And Others

    In the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, four groups of people worked on problems identified in the project's second (in-depth) phase. The Chemistry Action-Research Group considered problems related to the teaching and learning of ideas associated with particles and physical/chemical changes. Based on findings during the…

  15. The Start-Up, Evolution and Impact of a Research Group in a University Developing Its Knowledge Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Hugo; Martins, Rui

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the understudied role of research groups contributing to develop the knowledge base of developing universities in regions lagging behind in human, financial and scientific resources. We analyse the evolution of a research group that, in less than 10 years, achieved worldwide recognition in the field of microelectronics,…

  16. Literacy, Text, Practice, and Culture: Major Trends in the Umea History of Education Research Group, 1972-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindmark, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This article presents some major research themes and findings of the leading Swedish research group in the field of literacy in history. The informal and encouraging leadership of Professor Egil Johansson was of vital importance to the creativity and productivity of the group. Prior to 1985, a few large projects on Swedish alphabetization were…

  17. Toward Solutions: The Work of the Physics Action-Research Group. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Roger; Schollum, Brendan

    In the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, four groups of people worked on problems identified in the project's second (in-depth) phase. The Physics action-research group considered problems related to the teaching and learning of ideas associated with force and motion, suggesting that children's ideas of these concepts might…

  18. Water Providers and Trade Groups Wake Up to Climate Change: Implications for the Research Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2008-12-01

    In just the last two years, U.S. water providers and water trade groups have begun to take notice of the impacts of climate change on their water systems and many now realize that they can no longer rely on climate stationarity for operations or for planning. In addition, many of these providers are facing additional stress from rapid population growth, aging infrastructure, emerging pollutants, required environmental flow releases, already allocated water supplies, and the need to mitigate their own, frequently significant, greenhouse gases. They are asking difficult questions of the scientific community about the quality and suitability of current climate theory, data and projections, especially in their region, for the purpose of decision making. Given the potentially very expensive adaptations such as constructing sea walls, building new reservoirs, or acquiring new water, they need answers sooner rather than later and are not about to wait while the normal pace of scientific discourse occurs. Some have already taken matters into their own hands: the American Water Works Research Foundation (soon to become the Water Research Foundation) has established a multi-year strategic initiative at $1m year to identify and fund research projects and is seeking at Congressional authorization for more funding. These entities have significant political resources and clout - the Water Utility Climate Alliance represents over 30m consumers in 5 key states and the Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies serves more than 130m customers. These entities are very likely to demand more and higher quality results from the research and consulting communities in the very near future. How can and how should the scientific community engage with this critical set of stakeholders? How will research be impacted by these new players and demands? And what might the nation do to meet this critical need?

  19. A Synthesis and Application Teaching Approach for Group Projects in an Undergraduate Business Course: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Laurena E.

    2009-01-01

    Scholars proposed it would be possible to enhance group effectiveness and functioning if people could develop a better appreciation of the processes surrounding group development (M. K. Smith, 2005). The action research study explored the facilitation of a synthesis and application teaching approach for group projects in the practice of two…

  20. Science Research Group Leader's Power and Members' Compliance and Satisfaction with Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Yi; He, Jia; Luo, Changkun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the correlations between science research group members' perceptions of power bases used by their group (lab, team) leader (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and referent) and the effect of those perceptions on group members' attitudinal compliance, behavioral compliance, and satisfaction with supervision.…

  1. Recent Advances in Sarcopenia Research in Asia: 2016 Update From the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Liu, Li-Kuo; Arai, Hidenori; Akishita, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Sarcopenia was recently classified a geriatric syndrome and is a major challenge to healthy aging. Affected patients tend to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality than those without sarcopenia. Although there is general agreement on the principal diagnostic characteristics, initial thresholds for muscle mass, strength, and physical performance were based on data from populations of predominantly Europid ancestry and may not apply worldwide. The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) issued regional consensus guidelines in 2014, and many more research studies from Asia have since been published; this review summarizes recent progress. The prevalence of sarcopenia estimated by the AWGS criteria ranges between 4.1% and 11.5% of the general older population; however, prevalence rates were higher in Asian studies that used European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People cut-offs. Risk factors include age, sex, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, daily alcohol consumption, and low protein or vitamin intake; physical activity is protective. Adjusting skeletal muscle mass by weight rather than height is better in showing the effect of older age in sarcopenia and identifying sarcopenic obesity; however, some Asian studies found no significant skeletal muscle loss, and muscle strength might be a better indicator. Although AWGS 2014 diagnostic cut-offs were generally well accepted, some may require further revision in light of conflicting evidence from some studies. The importance of sarcopenia in diverse therapeutic areas is increasingly evident, with strong research interest in sarcopenic obesity and the setting of malignancy. Pharmacologic interventions have been unsatisfactory, and the core management strategies remain physical exercise and nutritional supplementation; however, further research is required to determine the most beneficial approaches. PMID:27372539

  2. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Ali, Elsayed S M; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo; Boone, John M; Kyprianou, Iacovos S; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McMillan, Kyle L; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Rogers, D W O; Samei, Ehsan; Turner, Adam C

    2015-10-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type and degree of validation required depends on the goals of the research project, but, typically, such validation involves either comparison of simulation results to physical measurements or to previously published results obtained with established Monte Carlo codes. The former is complicated due to nuances of experimental conditions and uncertainty, while the latter is challenging due to typical graphical presentation and lack of simulation details in previous publications. In addition, entering the field of Monte Carlo simulations in general involves a steep learning curve. It is not a simple task to learn how to program and interpret a Monte Carlo simulation, even when using one of the publicly available code packages. This Task Group report provides a common reference for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations across a range of Monte Carlo codes and simulation scenarios. In the report, all simulation conditions are provided for six different Monte Carlo simulation cases that involve common x-ray based imaging research areas. The results obtained for the six cases using four publicly available Monte Carlo software packages are included in tabular form. In addition to a full description of all simulation conditions and results, a discussion and comparison of results among the Monte Carlo packages and the lessons learned during the compilation of these results are included. This abridged version of the report includes only an introductory description of the six cases and a brief example of the results of one of the cases. This work provides an investigator the necessary information to benchmark his/her Monte Carlo simulation software against the reference cases included here

  3. Aerosol Models for the CALIPSO Lidar Inversion Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Ali H.; Winker, David M.; Won, Jae-Gwang

    2003-01-01

    We use measurements and models to develop aerosol models for use in the inversion algorithms for the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Imager Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO). Radiance measurements and inversions of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET1, 2) are used to group global atmospheric aerosols using optical and microphysical parameters. This study uses more than 105 records of radiance measurements, aerosol size distributions, and complex refractive indices to generate the optical properties of the aerosol at more 200 sites worldwide. These properties together with the radiance measurements are then classified using classical clustering methods to group the sites according to the type of aerosol with the greatest frequency of occurrence at each site. Six significant clusters are identified: desert dust, biomass burning, urban industrial pollution, rural background, marine, and dirty pollution. Three of these are used in the CALIPSO aerosol models to characterize desert dust, biomass burning, and polluted continental aerosols. The CALIPSO aerosol model also uses the coarse mode of desert dust and the fine mode of biomass burning to build a polluted dust model. For marine aerosol, the CALIPSO aerosol model uses measurements from the SEAS experiment 3. In addition to categorizing the aerosol types, the cluster analysis provides all the column optical and microphysical properties for each cluster.

  4. Profile of heating rate due to aerosols using lidar and skyradiometer in SKYNET Hefei site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Liu, D.; Xie, C.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a significant impact on climate due to their important role in modifying atmosphere energy budget. On global scale, the direct radiative forcing is estimated to be in the range of -0.9 to -0.1 Wm-2 for aerosols [1]. Yet, these estimates are subject to very large uncertainties because of uncertainties in spatial and temporal variations of aerosols. At local scales, as aerosol properties can vary spatially and temporally, radiative forcing due to aerosols can be also very different and it can exceed the global value by an order of magnitude. Hence, it is very important to investigate aerosol loading, properties, and radiative forcing due to them in detail on local regions of climate significance. Haze and dust events in Hefei, China are explored by Lidar and Skyradiometer. Aerosol optical properties including the AOD, SSA, AAE and size distribution are analysed by using the SKYRAD.PACK [2] and presented in this paper. Furthermore, the radiative forcing due to aerosols and the heating rate in the ATM are also calculated using SBDART model [3]. The results are shown that the vertical heating rate is tightly related to aerosol profile. References: 1. IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basic. Contribution of Working Group I Contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Solomon S, Qing D H, Manning M, et al. eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, N Y, USA. 2. Nakajima, T., G. Tonna, R. Rao, Y. Kaufman, and B. Holben, 1996: Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particulate poly dispersions, Appl. Opt., 35, 2672-2686. 3. Ricchiazzi et al 1998. SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the Earth's atmosphere,Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,79,2101-2114.

  5. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  6. Glyoxal contribution to aerosols over Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have indicated that glyoxal (chemical formula OCHCHO), an atmospheric oxidation product of isoprene and aromatic compounds, may contribute to secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere, which can block sunlight and affect atmospheric chemistry. Some aerosols are primary aerosols, emitted directly into the atmosphere, while others are secondary, formed through chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Washenfelder et al. describe in situ glyoxal measurements from Pasadena, Calif., near Los Angeles, made during summer 2010. They used three different methods to calculate the contribution of glyoxal to secondary atmospheric aerosol and found that it is responsible for 0-0.2 microgram per cubic meter, or 0-4%, of the secondary organic aerosol mass. The researchers also compared their results to those of a previous study that calculated the glyoxal contribution to aerosol for Mexico City. Mexico City had higher levels of organic aerosol mass from glyoxal. They suggest that the lower contribution of glyoxal to aerosol concentrations for Los Angeles may be due to differences in the composition or water content of the aerosols above the two cities. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2011JD016314, 2011)

  7. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  8. Atmospheric station Křešín u Pacova, Czech Republic - a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Sedlák, P.; Schwarz, J.; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, V.; Vodička, P.; Trusina, J.

    2015-05-01

    Long-lasting research infrastructures covering the research areas of atmospheric chemistry, meteorology and climatology are of highest importance. The Atmospheric Station (AS) Křešín u Pacova, central Czech Republic, is focused on monitoring of the occurence and long-range transport of greenhouse gases, atmospheric aerosols, selected gaseous atmospheric pollutants and basic meteorological characteristics. The AS and its 250 m tall tower was built according to the recommendations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) and cooperates with numerous national and international projects and monitoring programmes. First measurements conducted at ground started in 2012, vertical profile measurements were added in 2013. A seasonal variability with slightly higher autumn and winter concentrations of elemental and organic carbon was revealed. The suitability of the doubly left-censored Weibull distribution for modelling and interpretation of elemental carbon concentrations, which are often lower than instrumental quantification limits, was verified. Initial data analysis also suggests that in summer, the tower top at 250 m is frequently above the nocturnal surface inversions, thus being decoupled from local influences.

  9. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols.

    PubMed

    Charlson, R J; Schwartz, S E; Hales, J M; Cess, R D; Coakley, J A; Hansen, J E; Hofmann, D J

    1992-01-24

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of shortwavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes. PMID:17842894

  10. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlson, R. J.; Schwartz, S. E.; Hales, J. M.; Cess, R. D.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Hansen, J. E.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, in particular, has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short-wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes.

  11. Expanding the scope of medical mission volunteer groups to include a research component

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serving on volunteer groups undertaking medical mission trips is a common activity for health care professionals and students. Although volunteers hope such work will assist underserved populations, medical mission groups have been criticized for not providing sustainable health services that focus on underlying health problems. As members of a volunteer medical mission group, we performed a bed net indicator study in rural Mali. We undertook this project to demonstrate that volunteers are capable of undertaking small-scale research, the results of which offer locally relevant results useful for disease prevention programs. The results of such projects are potentially sustainable beyond the duration of a mission trip. Methods Volunteers with Medicine for Mali interviewed 108 households in Nana Kenieba, Mali during a routine two-week medical mission trip. Interviewees were asked structured questions about family demographics, use of insecticide treated bed nets the previous evening, as well as about benefits of net use and knowledge of malaria. Survey results were analyzed using logistic regression. Results We found that 43.7% of households had any family member sleep under a bed net the previous evening. Eighty seven percent of households owned at least one ITN and the average household owned 1.95 nets. The regression model showed that paying for a net was significantly correlated with its use, while low perceived mosquito density, obtaining the net from the public sector and more than four years of education in the male head of the household were negatively correlated with net use. These results differ from national Malian data and peer-reviewed studies of bed net use. Conclusions We completed a bed net study that provided results that were specific to our service area. Since these results were dissimilar to peer-reviewed literature and Malian national level data on bed net use, the results will be useful to develop locally specific teaching materials

  12. Fuel cells and university research: the report of the energy committee's working group on fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Callagher-Daggitt, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    A SERC reassessment of fuel cells was prompted by a letter in early August 1981 to Sir Geoffrey Allen, then Chairman of SERC, from the Chief Engineer and Scientist of DoI, Dr Duncan Davies. A copy of the Davies letter was passed on to ERSU with a request for information about university research activity within the UK in this field. The consensus of opinion at these meetings was that the UK should not attempt to repeat the work on first-generation fuel cells being carried out in the USA, Japan, Belgium, and Germany. However, it was felt that universities should be encouraged to strengthen their research efforts in a few fundamental areas that were identified as essential for the materials breakthroughs needed to develop a viable second-generation fuel-cell technology, and it was decided to recommend that the Energy Committee of SERC give ERSU a watching brief with a mandate to review the situation in 18 months. Having considered the recommendations arising out of the Fuel-Cell Appraisal Meeting and the follow-on meeting between SERC and government departments, the Energy Committee set up a Working Group on Fuel Cells and asked it: to identify problems and those areas where work could usefully be carried out in the universities, to consider how university research into identified areas can be initiated and supported, and to prepare a report for the Energy Committee of SERC containing recommendations relating to university research in this field. This report has been prepared in response to that request.

  13. Integration of Research and Practice in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Findings from Focus Groups of Clinicians, Researchers, Educators, Administrators, and Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd C.; Daood, Christopher; Catlin, Lynn; Abelson, Alissa

    2005-01-01

    Clinicians, researchers, educators, administrators, and policy makers, who represented stakeholders in the substance abuse treatment field, participated in 5 focus groups. Four general areas regarding integration of research and practice were investigated: definition of research, training/education, current integration, and future integration.…

  14. Mathematics: Essential Research, Essential Practice. Volumes 1 and 2. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane, Ed.; Beswick, Kim, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This is a record of the proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA). The theme of the conference is "Mathematics: Essential research, essential practice." The theme draws attention to the importance of developing and maintaining links between research and practice and ties in with…

  15. Didactic Patterns for Electronic Materials in the Teaching of Interculturalism through Literature: The Experience of the Research Group LEETHi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azcarate, Asuncion Lopez-Varela

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a descriptive summary of a research project on blended learning in the Faculty of Arts at the University Complutense Madrid. The project was conducted as action research in 2002-06 by the research group LEETHi. LEETHi's projects focus on the teaching of literature from an intercultural perspective while helping to develop new media…

  16. Quantifying greenhouse gas mitigation potential of cropland management practices: A review of the GRA croplands research group greenhouse gas network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-national greenhouse gas (GHG) flux networks play a central role facilitating model development and verification while concurrently identifying critical research needs. In 2012, a network was established within Component 1 of the Global Research Alliance (GRA) Croplands Research Group. The ne...

  17. Results of the Survey of RP Group Members: An Element in Strategic Planning for the Research & Planning Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard

    This document focuses on a stakeholder survey for a research unit. Although it covers just one part of the overall planning process that the Research & Planning (RP) Unit at the California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office, the researchers did survey other groups in the strategic planning effort. The stakeholder survey focused on four general…

  18. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNIQUES FOR CHARACTERIZING TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter generally includes dust, smoke, soot, or aerosol particles. Environmental research addresses the origin, size, chemical composition, and the formation mechanics of aerosols. In the troposphere, fine aerosols (e.g. with diameters < 2.5 um) remain suspended until...

  19. Production Mechanisms, Number Concentration, Size Distribution. Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Petters, Markus; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bates. Tim; O'Dowd, Colin; Reid, Jeff; Lewis, Ernie R.; Gantt, Brett; Anguelova, Magdalena D.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Bird, James; Callaghan, Adrian H.; Ceburnis, Darius; Chang, Rachel; Clark, Antony; deLeeuw, Gerrit; Deane, Grant; DeMott, Paul J.; Elliot, Scott; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fairall, Chris W.; Hawkins, Lelia; Hu, Yongxiang; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Over forty scientists from six countries convened in Raleigh, NC on June 4-6 2012 to review the status and prospects of sea spray aerosol research. Participants were researchers from the oceanography and atmospheric science communities, including academia, private industry, and government agencies. The recommendations from the working groups are summarized in a science prioritization matrix that is meant to prioritize the research agenda and identify areas of investigation by the magnitude of their impact on proposed science questions. Str

  20. Validation of the General Practitioner Clinical Research Group 11-item depression scale.

    PubMed

    Gringras, M

    1980-01-01

    In trials performed by the General Practitioner Clinical Research Group two rating scales have been employed extensively to measure depression. One includes some 17 target symptoms whilst the second is a shorter scale of 11 items. Although extensively used, neither scale has been validated against other measures of depression. An attempt was made to validate the 11-item scale, completed by the physician, against the Zung self-rating depression scale and the Wakefield Inventory, both patient-completed scales. Using thirty depressed patients the correlation between the 11-item scale and the Zung was 0.59 and between the 11-item scale and the Wakefield it was 0.5. Surprisingly, although the two scales are patient-completed and purport to measure the same thing, the correlation between the Zung and the Wakefield scales was only 0.69. All the correlations were statistically significant at the 1% level. PMID:7202817

  1. Summary of the 2014 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Adam M; Morris, Niya L; Cannon, Abigail R; Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda; Casey, Carol A; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Persidsky, Yuri; Nixon, Kimberly; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2015-12-01

    On November 21, 2014 the 19th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois. The meeting focused broadly on inflammatory cell signaling responses in the context of alcohol and alcohol-use disorders, and was divided into four plenary sessions focusing on the gut and liver, lung infections, general systemic effects of alcohol, and neuro-inflammation. One common theme among many talks was the differential roles of macrophages following both chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. Macrophages were shown to play significant roles in regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and viral infection following alcohol exposure in the liver, lungs, adipose tissue, and brain. Other work examined the role of alcohol on disease progression in a variety of pathologies including psoriasis, advanced stage lung disease, and cancer. PMID:26520175

  2. Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan

    2013-04-01

    ). Satellite data from the A-train formation, including the Aqua, CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) are used to analyze aerosol-cloud-interactions in detail, along with re-analysis data to constrain by meteorological conditions. Information about the vertical and geographical distribution of different aerosol types and cloud parameters will lead to a process-oriented understanding of these issues on a regional scale. Ackerman, A., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., & Toon, O. (2004). The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432(December), 1014-1017. doi:10.1038/nature03137.1. Feingold, G. (2003). First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(6), 1287. doi:10.1029/2002GL016633 IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Interfovernmental Panel on climate Change. Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanré, D., Ginoux, P., & Fan, S. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), 1-16. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436 McFiggans, G., Artaxo, P., Baltensperger, U., Coe, H., Facchini, M. C., Feingold, G., Fuzzi, S., et al. (2006). The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(9), 2593-2649. doi:10.5194/acp-6-2593-2006

  3. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  4. The use of control groups in music therapy research: a content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer D

    2006-01-01

    The use of a control group is fundamental to experimental research design, though the use with clinical populations must be carefully considered. The purpose of this research was to examine the use of control groups in research with clinical and nonclinical populations published in Journal of Musical Therapy from 1964 through 2004. Criteria for inclusion were music or music therapy as an independent variable applied to one or more groups and at least one control group that did not receive a music treatment. Control groups were qualified as alternative treatment, placebo, no contact, and treatment as usual. Of the 692 articles, 94 met these criteria, 62 clinical and 32 nonclinical, representing 13.5% of the publications. Results indicated that research with clinical populations involved a mean of 38.1 subjects typically divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. The pretest-posttest design was the most common (55%) as was a treatment as usual control group (45%). These design methods maximized the impact of the experimental music treatment on outcome. Experimental music groups significantly improved over control groups in the vast majority of studies identified. Undoubtedly, the foundation for evidence-based clinical practice is firm. PMID:17348759

  5. Can Research Assessments Themselves Cause Bias in Behaviour Change Trials? A Systematic Review of Evidence from Solomon 4-Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; Butor-Bhavsar, Kaanan; Witton, John; Elbourne, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Background The possible effects of research assessments on participant behaviour have attracted research interest, especially in studies with behavioural interventions and/or outcomes. Assessments may introduce bias in randomised controlled trials by altering receptivity to intervention in experimental groups and differentially impacting on the behaviour of control groups. In a Solomon 4-group design, participants are randomly allocated to one of four arms: (1) assessed experimental group; (2) unassessed experimental group (3) assessed control group; or (4) unassessed control group. This design provides a test of the internal validity of effect sizes obtained in conventional two-group trials by controlling for the effects of baseline assessment, and assessing interactions between the intervention and baseline assessment. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate evidence from Solomon 4-group studies with behavioural outcomes that baseline research assessments themselves can introduce bias into trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Electronic databases were searched, supplemented by citation searching. Studies were eligible if they reported appropriately analysed results in peer-reviewed journals and used Solomon 4-group designs in non-laboratory settings with behavioural outcome measures and sample sizes of 20 per group or greater. Ten studies from a range of applied areas were included. There was inconsistent evidence of main effects of assessment, sparse evidence of interactions with behavioural interventions, and a lack of convincing data in relation to the research question for this review. Conclusions/Significance There were too few high quality completed studies to infer conclusively that biases stemming from baseline research assessments do or do not exist. There is, therefore a need for new rigorous Solomon 4-group studies that are purposively designed to evaluate the potential for research assessments to cause bias in behaviour change trials. PMID

  6. Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

    2004-02-01

    Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the atmosphere from condensable vapors. This secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can result from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In rural areas of the United States, organic aerosols can be a significant part of the aerosol load in the atmosphere. However, the extent to which gas-phase biogenic emissions contribute to this organic load is poorly understood. Such an understanding is crucial to properly apportion the effect of anthropogenic emissions in these rural areas that are sometimes dominated by biogenic sources. To help gain insight on the effect of biogenic emissions on particle concentrations in rural areas, we have been conducting a field measurement program at the University of California Blodgett Forest Research Facility. The field location includes has been used to acquire an extensive suite of measurements resulting in a rich data set, containing a combination of aerosol, organic, and nitrogenous species concentration and meteorological data with a long time record. The field location was established in 1997 by Allen Goldstein, a professor in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California at Berkeley to study interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The Goldstein group focuses on measurements of concentrations and whole ecosystem biosphere-atmosphere fluxes for volatile organic compounds (VOC's), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC's), ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy. Another important collaborator at the Blodgett field location is Ronald Cohen, a professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley. At the Blodgett field location, his group his group performs measurements of the

  7. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in the Captive Aerosol Growth and Evolution (CAGE) Chambers during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in Centreville, AL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Y.; Karakurt Cevik, B.; Hernandez, C.; Griffin, R. J.; Taylor, N.; Matus, J.; Collins, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    reversibility and the sensitivity of SOA reactions to oxidant or NOx enhancement and aerosol liquid water content. Available ambient trace gas concentrations include VOCs, NOx, SO2, ozone, peroxyaxyl nitrates, and ammonia. Chamber data will also be compared to ambient aerosol measurements collected by the instruments mentioned above as well as those from other research groups.

  8. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  9. Air ions and aerosol science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammet, Hannes

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4-1.8 nm.

  10. ‘Putting Life in Years’ (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Methods Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. Results We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a

  11. Type of Aerosols Determination Over Malaysia by AERONET Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Tan, F.; Abdullah, K.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols are one of the most interesting studies by the researchers due to the complicated of their characteristic and are not yet well quantified. Besides that there still have huge uncertainties associated with changes in Earth's radiation budget. The previous study by other researchers shown a lot of difficulties and challenges in quantifying aerosol influences arise. As well as the heterogeneity from the aerosol loading and properties: spatial, temporal, size, and composition. In this study, we were investigated the aerosol characteristics over two regions with different environmental conditions and aerosol sources contributed. The study sites are Penang and Kuching, Malaysia where ground-based AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun-photometer was deployed. The types of the aerosols for both study sites were identified by analyzing aerosol optical depth, angstrom parameter and spectral de-convolution algorithm product from sun-photometer. The analysis was carried out associated with the in-situ meteorological data of relative humidity, visibility and air pollution index. The major aerosol type over Penang found in this study was hydrophobic aerosols. Whereas the hydrophilic type of the aerosols was highly distributed in Kuching. The major aerosol size distributions for both regions were identified in this study. The result also shows that the aerosol optical properties were affected by the types and characteristic of aerosols. Therefore, in this study we generated an algorithm to determine the aerosols in Malaysia by considered the environmental factors. From this study we found that the source of aerosols should always being consider in to retrieve the accurate information of aerosol for air quality study.

  12. Photoacoustic insight for aerosol light absorption aloft from meteorological aircraft and comparison with particle soot absorption photometer measurements: DOE Southern Great Plains climate research facility and the coastal stratocumulus imposed perturbation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. Patrick; Walker, John W.; Moosmüller, Hans; Elleman, Robert A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Buzorius, Gintautas; Conant, William C.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2006-03-01

    Aerosol light absorption can be intense close to local sources such as wildland and oil fires, with smoke that disperses into the boundary layer and, with enough lift, into the upper atmosphere where it may be transported around the globe. Filter-based methods such as the Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) are most commonly used to quantify aerosol light absorption aloft. This paper reports first measurements of aerosol light absorption aloft with photoacoustic instrumentation (PA). Three examples of aerosol light absorption are presented. The first one illustrates a case of detached layers aloft arising from intercontinental, interoceanic transport of smoke from wildland fires in Siberia to the North American continent and the measurement campaign held at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility in north central Oklahoma. Then, two examples of intense local fire smoke light absorption from the Coastal Stratocumulus Imposed Perturbation Experiment near Marina, California, USA, are presented. The first local fire was an oil fire burning in a storage tank near Moss Landing, California, USA, and smoke from this fire was very dark, indicating a low single scattering albedo. By contrast, the second local fire was predominantly burning wood, vegetation, and structures near Fort Ord in Marina, California, USA, and the smoke was very bright, indicating a high single scattering albedo. In all examples, PA measurements at 676 nm were compared with those from a PSAP modified to measure at three wavelengths, including 660 nm.

  13. The Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.

  14. Impact of aerosol vertical distribution on aerosol direct radiative effect and heating rate in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, Vasileios; Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos; Matsoukas, Christos; Koras Carracca, Mario; Kinne, Stefan; Vardavas, Ilias

    2015-04-01

    It is now well-established that aerosols cause an overall cooling effect at the surface and a warming effect within the atmosphere. At the top of the atmosphere (TOA), both positive and negative forcing can be found, depending on a number of other factors, such as surface albedo and relative position of clouds and aerosols. Whilst aerosol surface cooling is important due to its relation with surface temperature and other bio-environmental reasons, atmospheric heating is of special interest as well having significant impacts on atmospheric dynamics, such as formation of clouds and subsequent precipitation. The actual position of aerosols and their altitude relative to clouds is of major importance as certain types of aerosol, such as black carbon (BC) above clouds can have a significant impact on planetary albedo. The vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds has recently drawn the attention of the aerosol community, because partially can account for the differences between simulated aerosol radiative forcing with various models, and therefore decrease the level of our uncertainty regarding aerosol forcing, which is one of our priorities set by IPCC. The vertical profiles of aerosol optical and physical properties have been studied by various research groups around the world, following different methodologies and using various indices in order to present the impact of aerosols on radiation on different altitudes above the surface. However, there is still variability between the published results as to the actual effect of aerosols on shortwave radiation and on heating rate within the atmosphere. This study uses vertical information on aerosols from the Max Planck Aerosol Climatology (MAC-v1) global dataset, which is a combination of model output with quality ground-based measurements, in order to provide useful insight into the vertical profile of atmospheric heating for the Mediterranean region. MAC-v1 and the science behind this aerosol dataset have already

  15. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  16. Contributions of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Hydrocarbons to Secondary Organic Aerosol during 2006 in Research Triangle Park, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, organic tracer-based method was used to estimate the secondary contributions of biogenic and anthropogenic precursor hydrocarbons to ambient organic carbon concentrations in PM2.5 during 2006 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. Forty-s...

  17. Final Technical Report for Collaborative Research: CRI-EaSM Multiscale Modeling Aerosol Indirect Effects on Decadal Timescales

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sungsu

    2015-11-29

    Originally, the main role of the P.I. (Sungsu Park) in this project was to improve the treatment of cloud microphysics in the CAM5 shallow and deep convection scheme. During the progress of the project, however, the main research theme was changed to develop a new unified convection scheme (so called, UNICON) with the permission of the program manager.

  18. SAGE II aerosol data validation based on retrieved aerosol model size distribution from SAGE II aerosol measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, P H; McCormick, M P; McMaster, L R; Chu, W P; Swissler, T J; Osborn, M T; Russell, P B; Oberbeck, V R; Livingston, J; Rosen, J M; Hofmann, D J; Grams, G W; Fuller, W H; Yue, G K

    1989-06-20

    This paper describes an investigation of the comprehensive aerosol correlative measurement experiments conducted between November 1984 and July 1986 for satellite measurement program of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II). The correlative sensors involved in the experiments consist of the NASA Ames Research Center impactor/laser probe, the University of Wyoming dustsonde, and the NASA Langley Research Center airborne 14-inch (36 cm) lidar system. The approach of the analysis is to compare the primary aerosol quantities measured by the ground-based instruments with the calculated ones based on the aerosol size distributions retrieved from the SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements. The analysis shows that the aerosol size distributions derived from the SAGE II observations agree qualitatively with the in situ measurements made by the impactor/laser probe. The SAGE II-derived vertical distributions of the ratio N0.15/N0.25 (where Nr is the cumulative aerosol concentration for particle radii greater than r, in micrometers) and the aerosol backscatter profiles at 0.532- and 0.6943-micrometer lidar wavelengths are shown to agree with the dustsonde and the 14-inch (36-cm) lidar observations, with the differences being within the respective uncertainties of the SAGE II and the other instruments. PMID:11539801

  19. Focus Group Interview: An Underutilized Research Technique for Improving Theory and Practice in Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses using focus group interviews to advance the state of the art of education and learning about health. Also examines small group process in health education, features of focus group interviews, and a theoretical framework for planning a focus group study. A literature review is included. (CT)

  20. Aerosol gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  1. Researching the mental health needs of hard-to-reach groups: managing multiple sources of evidence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Common mental health problems impose substantial challenges to patients, carers, and health care systems. A range of interventions have demonstrable efficacy in improving the lives of people experiencing such problems. However many people are disadvantaged, either because they are unable to access primary care, or because access does not lead to adequate help. New methods are needed to understand the problems of access and generate solutions. In this paper we describe our methodological approach to managing multiple and diverse sources of evidence, within a research programme to increase equity of access to high quality mental health services in primary care. Methods We began with a scoping review to identify the range and extent of relevant published material, and establish key concepts related to access. We then devised a strategy to collect - in parallel - evidence from six separate sources: a systematic review of published quantitative data on access-related studies; a meta-synthesis of published qualitative data on patient perspectives; dialogues with local stakeholders; a review of grey literature from statutory and voluntary service providers; secondary analysis of patient transcripts from previous qualitative studies; and primary data from interviews with service users and carers. We synthesised the findings from these diverse sources, made judgements on key emerging issues in relation to needs and services, and proposed a range of potential interventions. These proposals were debated and refined using iterative electronic and focus group consultation procedures involving international experts, local stakeholders and service users. Conclusions Our methods break new ground by generating and synthesising multiple sources of evidence, connecting scientific understanding with the perspectives of users, in order to develop innovative ways to meet the mental health needs of under-served groups. PMID:20003275

  2. Fine Aerosol Bulk Composition Measured on WP-3D Research Aircraft in Vicinity of the Northeastern United States - Results from NEAQS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peltier, R. E.; Sullivan, A. P.; Weber, R. J.; Brock, C. A.; Wollny, A. G.; Holloway, J. S.; deGouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.

    2007-01-01

    During the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) in the summer of 2004, airborne measurements were made of the major inorganic ions and the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of the submicron (PM(sub 1.0)) aerosol. These and ancillary data are used to describe the overall aerosol chemical characteristics encountered during the study. Fine particle mass was estimated from particle volume and a calculated density based on measured particle composition. Fine particle organic matter (OM) was estimated from WSOC and a mass balance analysis. The aerosol over the northeastern United States (U.S.) and Canada was predominantly sulfate and associated ammonium, and organic components, although in unique plumes additional ionic components were also periodically above detection limits. In power generation regions, and especially in the Ohio River Valley region, the aerosol tended to be predominantly sulfate (approximately 60% micro gram /micro gram) and apparently acidic, based on an excess of measured anions compared to cations. In all other regions where sulfate concentrations were lower and a smaller fraction of overall mass, the cations and anions were balanced suggesting a more neutral aerosol. In contrast, the WSOC and estimated OM were more spatially uniform and the fraction of OM relative to PM mass was largely influenced by sources of sulfate. The study median OM mass fraction was 40%. Throughout the study region, sulfate and organic aerosol mass were highest near the surface and decreased rapidly with increasing altitude. The relative fraction of organic mass to sulfate was similar throughout all altitudes within the boundary layer (altitude less than 2.5 km), but was significantly higher at altitude layers in the free troposphere (above 2.5 km). A number of distinct biomass burning plumes from fires in Alaska and the Yukon were periodically intercepted, mostly at altitudes between 3 and 4 km. These plumes were associated with highest aerosol concentrations of the

  3. Aerosol volatility in a boreal forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häkkinen, S. A. K.; ńijälä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Riipinen, I.

    2012-04-01

    during spring and autumn 2008. Results from the aerosol mass spectrometry indicate that the non-volatile residual consists of nitrate and organic compounds, especially during autumn. These compounds may be low-volatile organic nitrates or salts. During winter and spring the non-volatile core (black carbon removed) correlated markedly with carbon monoxide, which is a tracer of anthropogenic emissions. Due to this, the non-volatile residual may also contain other pollutants in addition to black carbon. Thus, it seems that the amount of different compounds in submicron aerosol particles varies with season and as a result the chemical composition of the non-volatile residual changes within a year. This work was supported by University of Helsinki three-year research grant No 490082 and Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation grant No 2010143. Aalto et al., (2001). Physical characterization of aerosol particles during nucleation events. Tellus B, 53, 344-358. Jayne, et al., (2000). Development of an aerosol mass spectrometer for size and composition analysis of submicron particles. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 33(1-2), 49-70. Kalberer et al., (2004). Identification of Polymers as Major Components of Atmospheric Organic Aerosols. Science, 303, 1659-1662. Smith et al., (2010). Observations of aminium salts in atmospheric nanoparticles and possible climatic implications. P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 107(15). Vesala et al., (1998). Long-term field measurements of atmosphere-surface interactions in boreal forest combining forest ecology, micrometeorology, aerosol physics and atmospheric chemistry. Trends Heat, Mass Mom. Trans., 4, 17-35. Wehner et al., (2002). Design and calibration of a thermodenuder with an improved heating unit to measure the size-dependent volatile fraction of aerosol particles. J. Aerosol Sci., 33, 1087-1093.

  4. Global Distribution of Tropospheric Aerosols: A 3-D Model Analysis of Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian

    2002-01-01

    This report describes objectives completed for the GACP (Global Climatology Aerosol Project). The objectives included the analysis of satellite aerosol data, including the optical properties and global distributions of major aerosol types, and human contributions to major aerosol types. The researchers have conducted simulations and field work.

  5. An Australasian perspective on sarcoma research, translational biology and clinical trials: the Australasian Sarcoma Study Group (ASSG).

    PubMed

    Bae, Susie; Caruso, Denise; Desai, Jayesh

    2014-02-01

    Each year approximately 800 Australians are diagnosed with sarcoma, accounting for less than 1% of cancer diagnoses overall. A significant proportion of these sarcoma cases are in children and adolescents. The rarity and heterogeneity of this group of tumours, coupled with Australasia's relative geographical isolation, pose significant challenges in developing locoregional basic, translational and clinical research. The Australasian Sarcoma Study Group (ASSG) was established in 2008 as a Cooperative Cancer Clinical Research Group and is now the peak body for sarcoma research in Australasia, providing a mechanism to drive and coordinate collaborative research, promote education and assist with advocating for sarcoma within the region. This paper describes the development of ASSG and examines the current state of play with regard to sarcoma research in Australasia. PMID:24378392

  6. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John; Benyamini, Yael; Burkert, Silke; Chamberland, Pier-Eric; Chater, Angel; Dombrowski, Stephan U; van Dongen, Anne; French, David P; Gauchet, Aurelie; Hankonen, Nelli; Karekla, Maria; Kinney, Anita Y; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Hing Lo, Siu; López-Roig, Sofía; Meslot, Carine; Marques, Marta Moreira; Neter, Efrat; Plass, Anne Marie; Potthoff, Sebastian; Rennie, Laura; Scholz, Urte; Stadler, Gertraud; Stolte, Elske; Ten Hoor, Gill; Verhoeven, Aukje; Wagner, Monika; Oettingen, Gabriele; Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural medicine who convened to discuss priority issues in planning interventions in health contexts and develop a set of recommendations for future research and practice. The expert group adopted a nominal groups approach and voting system to elicit and structure priority issues in planning interventions and implementation intentions research. Forty-two priority issues identified in initial discussions were further condensed to 18 key issues, including definitions of planning and implementation intentions and 17 priority research areas. Each issue was subjected to voting for consensus among group members and formed the basis of the position statement and recommendations. Specifically, the expert group endorsed statements and recommendations in the following areas: generic definition of planning and specific definition of implementation intentions, recommendations for better testing of mechanisms, guidance on testing the effects of moderators of planning interventions, recommendations on the social aspects of planning interventions, identification of the preconditions that moderate effectiveness of planning interventions and recommendations for research on how people use plans. PMID:26892502

  7. Real-time characterization of the size and chemical composition of individual particles in ambient aerosol systems in Riverside, California

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C.A.; Prather, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric aerosols, although ubiquitous, are highly diverse and continually fluctuating systems. A typical aerosol system may consist of particles with diameters between {approximately}0.002 {mu}m and {approximately}200 {mu}m. Even in rural or pristine areas, atmospheric particle concentration is significant, with concentrations up to 10{sup 8} particles/cm{sup 3} not being uncommon. Chemical composition of atmospheric particles vary from simple water droplets or acidic ices to soot particles and cigarette smoke. Due to changes in atmospheric conditions, processes such as nucleation, coagulation or heterogeneous chemistry may effect both physical and chemical properties of individual particles over relatively short time intervals. Recently, aerosol measurement techniques are focusing on determining the size and/or chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. This research group has recently developed aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), a technique which allows for real-time determination of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. Single particle measurements are performed in one instrument using dual laser aerodynamic particle sizing and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Aerosol-time-of-flight mass spectrometry is briefly described in several other abstracts in this publication.

  8. TOMS Validation Based on Profiles of Aerosol Properties in the Lower Troposphere as Obtained with Light Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Maring, Hal; Savoie, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the University of Miami Aerosol Group (UMAG) in this project was to make measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol properties and aerosol optical depth using a light aircraft. The UMAG developed a light aircraft aerosol package (LAAP) that was used in light aircraft (Cessna 172) during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). This field campaign took place on Puerto Rico during July 2000. Design details and results from the use of the LAAP were presented at TOMS Science team meetings on April 1998, April 1999, and May 2000. Results from the LAAP collected during the PRIDE Experiment were presented at the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, December 2000. Some of the results from the LAAP collected during the PRIDE Experiment have been accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research in a "topical section" made up of papers from the PRIDE Program.

  9. Translating patient self-management research into primary care: challenges and successes with group medical visits.

    PubMed

    Sieber, William J; Newsome, Alita; Fiorella, Melanie; Mantila, Helen

    2012-12-01

    Essential to the implementation of a patient-centered medical home is use of evidence-based interventions by a well-coordinated team of providers in a cost-effective manner. Group Medical Visits (GMVs), designed to increase self-management behaviors in patients with chronic illness, have shown inconsistently to be efficacious. Despite the modest results reported thus far in the literature, GMVs have been promoted by the American Academy of Family Physicians as an important component in the patient-centered medical home. This paper describes the challenges of translating GMVs into clinical practice when research support is not available. A review of 5+ years experience in conducting GMVs in clinical practice, including the numerous barriers, is presented through a "three-world view" model utilized by collaborative care leaders. This review is followed by a comparison of variables extracted from patients' electronic health records of those who participated in GMVs to similar patients who did not participate in GMVs. Results suggest that outcomes often reported in efficacy trials are not easily obtained in real clinical practice. Overcoming the operational and financial obstacles to offering GMVs is necessary before they can be promoted as essential elements in a patient-centered medical home. PMID:24073154

  10. Arts and Learning Research, 1994. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, Louisiana, April 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Lorrie, Ed.; Morbey, Mary Leigh, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The research papers gathered in this volume were presented at the 1994 meeting of the American Educational Research Association as part of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group program. Papers collected in the volume represent an eclectic view of arts education and include music education. Following an editorial, papers are: "Arts and…

  11. Digitization as a Method of Preservation? Final Report of a Working Group of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Hartmut; Dorr, Marianne

    The German Research Association (DFG) is actively involved in preservation of research materials; it takes the view that in preservation, the enormous potential of digitization for access should be combined with the stability of microfilm for long-term storage. A working group was convened to investigate the technical state of digitization of…

  12. Having Friends--They Help You when You Are Stuck from Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the lived experiences and friendships of a small group of people with a learning disability who live without support in one of the most deprived areas in the UK. The findings are from an inclusive research project, that was named "Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet" and the participants who researched their own lives become…

  13. Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) - Korea 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W. V.; Choi, M.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, B.; Kim, S.; Ghim, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Park, R.; Seo, M.; Song, C.; Yum, S.; Woo, J.; Yoon, S.; Lee, K.; Lee, M.; Lim, J.; Chang, I.; Jeong, M. J.; Bae, M.; Sorokin, M.; Giles, D. M.; Schafer, J.; Herman, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the main objectives of Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) campaign in Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission is to understand the relationship between the column optical properties of the atmosphere and the surface level air quality in terms of aerosols and gases. Recently, with the cooperative efforts with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) / GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center), Korean University research groups, and KME (Korea Ministry of Environment) / NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), DRAGON-Korea 2012 campaign was successfully performed from March to May 2012. The campaign sites were divided into two groups, the National scale sites and Seoul metropolitan sites. Thirteen Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at National scale sites including two metropolitan cities and several remote sites. Nine Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at Seoul Metropolitan sites including several residential sites and traffic source areas. The measured datasets are being analyzed in diverse fields of air quality communities including in-situ measurement groups, satellite remote sensing groups, chemical modeling groups, and airplane measurement groups. We will introduce several preliminary results of the analysis and discuss the future planes and corporations in Korea.

  14. The Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR): A Statewide, Collaborative, Multi-disciplinary, Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Howard; Agger, William; Baumgardner, Dennis; Burmester, James K.; Cisler, Ron A.; Evertsen, Jennifer; Glurich, Ingrid; Hartman, David; Yale, Steven H.; DeMets, David

    2010-01-01

    In response to the goals of the Wisconsin Partnership Program and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Initiatives to Improve Healthcare, the Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR) was formed. As a collaborative, multi-disciplinary statewide research network, WiNHR encourages and fosters the discovery and application of scientific knowledge for researchers and practitioners throughout Wisconsin. The 4 founding institutions—Aurora Health Care/Center for Urban Population Health (CUPH), Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison—representing geographically diverse areas of the state, are optimistic and committed to WiNHR’s success. This optimism is based on the relevance of its goals to public health, the quality of statewide health care research, and, most importantly, the residents of Wisconsin who recognize the value of health research. PMID:20131687

  15. Radiative Effects of Aerosol in the Marine Environment: Tales from the Two-Column Aerosol Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, L. K.; Fast, J. D.; Barnard, J.; Chand, D.; Chapman, E. G.; Comstock, J. M.; Ferrare, R. A.; Flynn, C. J.; Hair, J. W.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hubbe, J.; Johnson, R.; Kassianov, E.; Kluzek, C.; Laskin, A.; Lee, Y.; Mei, F.; Michalsky, J. J.; Redemann, J.; Rogers, R. R.; Russell, P. B.; Sedlacek, A. J.; Schmid, B.; Shilling, J. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Springston, S. R.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.; Berkowitz, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    There is still uncertainty associated with the direct radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosol and its representation in atmospheric models. This is particularly true in marine environments near the coast where the aerosol loading is a function of both naturally occurring and anthropogenic aerosol. These regions are also subject to variable synoptic and thermally driven flows (land-sea breezes) that transport aerosol between the continental and marine environments. The situation is made more complicated due to seasonal changes in aerosol emissions. Given these differences in emissions, we expect significant differences in the aerosol intensive and extensive properties between summer and winter and data is needed to evaluate models over the wide range of conditions. To address this issue, the recently completed Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) was designed to measure the key aerosol parameters in two atmospheric columns, one located over Cape Cod, Massachusetts and another approximately 200 km from the coast over the Atlantic Ocean. Measurements included aerosol size distribution, chemical composition, optical properties and vertical distribution. Several aspects make TCAP unique, including the year-long deployment of a suite of surface-based instruments by the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and two aircraft intensive operations periods supported by the ARM Airborne Facility, one conducted in July 2012 and a second in February 2013. The presentation will include a discussion of the impact of the aerosol optical properties and their uncertainty on simulations of the radiation budget within the TCAP domain in the context of both single column and regional scale models. Data from TCAP will be used to highlight a number of important factors, including diurnal variation in aerosol optical depth measured at the surface site, systematic changes in aerosol optical properties (including scattering, absorption, and

  16. Diversity in Collaborative Research Communities: A Multicultural, Multidisciplinary Thesis Writing Group in Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Cally; Xafis, Vicki; Doda, Diana V.; Gillam, Marianne H.; Larg, Allison J.; Luckner, Helene; Jahan, Nasreen; Widayati, Aris; Xu, Chuangzhou

    2013-01-01

    Writing groups for doctoral students are generally agreed to provide valuable learning spaces for Ph.D. candidates. Here an academic developer and the eight members of a writing group formed in a Discipline of Public Health provide an account of their experiences of collaborating in a multicultural, multidisciplinary thesis writing group. We…

  17. Collective Form: An Exploration of Large-Group Writing. 1998 Outstanding Researcher Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Geoffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on whether a collective mind forms in large-group writing in the workplace. Discusses "collective form" in two senses. Describes how group leaders prominently displayed a task completion check-off chart that, in a downsizing environment, helped both to coordinate group activity and to encourage completion. Discusses pedagogical…

  18. An Innovative Lab-Based Training Program to Help Patient Groups Understand Their Disease and the Research Process

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Marion; Hammond, Constance; Karlin, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow “trainees” to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French patients, with the participation of over 60 researchers and clinicians. PMID:25668201

  19. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sophia K.; Selig, Wendy; Harker, Matthew; Roberts, Jamie N.; Hesterlee, Sharon; Leventhal, David; Klein, Richard; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed. Methods Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions. Results Survey respondents (n = 179) valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p < .001). Patient group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non–patient group respondents (all p < .05). Industry and academic respondents more often cited internal bureaucratic processes and reluctance to share information as engagement barriers than did patient group respondents (all p < .01). Patient groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non–patient group respondents (all p< .01). Conclusions Despite reported similarities among approaches to engagement by the three stakeholder groups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with

  20. The NASA/NSERC Student Airborne Research Program Land Focus Group - a Paid Training Program in Multi-Disciplinary STEM Research for Terrestrial Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Ustin, S.; Davey, S. W.; Furey, B. J.; Gartner, A.; Kurzweil, D.; Siebach, K. L.; Slawsky, L.; Snyder, E.; Trammell, J.; Young, J.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Suborbital Education and Research Center (NSERC) is a unique six week multidisciplinary paid training program which directly integrates students into the forefront of airborne remote sensing science. Students were briefly trained with one week of lectures and laboratory exercises and then immediately incorporated into ongoing research projects which benefit from access to the DC-8 airborne platform and the MODIS-ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensor. Students were split into three major topical categories of Land, Ocean, and Air for the data collection and project portions of the program. This poster details the techniques and structure used for the student integration into ongoing research, professional development, hypothesis building and results as developed by the professor and mentor of the Land focus group. Upon assignment to the Land group, students were issued official research field protocols and split into four field specialty groups with additional specialty reading assignments. In the field each group spent more time in their respective specialty, but also participated in all field techniques through pairings with UC Davis research team members using midday rotations. After the field campaign, each specialty group then gave summary presentations on the techniques, preliminary results, and significance to overall group objectives of their specialty. Then students were required to submit project proposals within the bounds of Land airborne remote sensing science and encouraging, but not requiring the use of the field campaign data. These proposals are then reviewed by the professor and mentor and students are met with one by one to discuss the skills of each student and objectives of the proposed research project. The students then work under the supervision of the mentor and benefit again from professor feedback in a formal

  1. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as "individual publications"). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, P<0.0001), and publicly viewed (11.1% vs 1.3%, P=0.05) than individual publications. These results support the importance of multidisciplinary research groups in the impact of scientific literature; the interaction and synergy among the research participants allowed the obtainment of high impact-literature in the field of personalized pain medicine. Finally, our findings demonstrate the potential of altmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group. PMID:27358575

  2. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, P<0.0001), and publicly viewed (11.1% vs 1.3%, P=0.05) than individual publications. These results support the importance of multidisciplinary research groups in the impact of scientific literature; the interaction and synergy among the research participants allowed the obtainment of high impact-literature in the field of personalized pain medicine. Finally, our findings demonstrate the potential of altmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group. PMID:27358575

  3. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  4. A preliminary analysis of the surface chemistry of atmospheric aerosol particles in a typical urban area of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengzheng; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyan; Ni, Runxiang; Li, Jinjuan; Deng, Liqun; Lu, Defeng; Cheng, Xueli; Duan, Pengli; Li, Wenjun

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle samples were collected using an Ambient Eight Stage (Non-Viable) Cascade Impactor Sampler in a typical urban area of Beijing from 27th Sep. to 5th Oct., 2009. The surface chemistry of these aerosol particles was analyzed using Static Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static TOF-SIMS). The factors influencing surface compositions were evaluated in conjunction with the air pollution levels, meteorological factors, and air mass transport for the sampling period. The results show that a variety of organic ion groups and inorganic ions/ion groups were accumulated on the surfaces of aerosol particles in urban areas of Beijing; and hydrophobic organic compounds with short- or middle-chain alkyl as well as hydrophilic secondary inorganic compounds were observed. All these compounds have the potential to affect the atmospheric behavior of urban aerosol particles. PM1.1-2.1 and PM3.3-4.7 had similar elements on their surfaces, but some molecules and ionic groups demonstrated differences in Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry spectra. This suggests that the quantities of elements varied between PM1.1-2.1 and PM3.3-4.7. In particular, more intense research efforts into fluoride pollution are required, because the fluorides on aerosol surfaces have the potential to harm human health. The levels of air pollution had the most significant influence on the surface compositions of aerosol particles in our study. Hence, heavier air pollution was associated with more complex surface compositions on aerosol particles. In addition, wind, rainfall, and air masses from the south also greatly influenced the surface compositions of these urban aerosol particles. PMID:27593274

  5. The research priorities of patients attending UK cancer treatment centres: findings from a modified nominal group study

    PubMed Central

    Corner, J; Wright, D; Hopkinson, J; Gunaratnam, Y; McDonald, J W; Foster, C

    2007-01-01

    Members of the public are increasingly consulted over health care and research priorities. Patient involvement in determining cancer research priorities, however, has remained underdeveloped. This paper presents the findings of the first consultation to be conducted with UK cancer patients concerning research priorities. The study adopted a participatory approach using a collaborative model that sought joint ownership of the study with people affected by cancer. An exploratory, qualitative approach was used. Consultation groups were the main method, combining focus group and nominal group techniques. Seventeen groups were held with a total of 105 patients broadly representative of the UK cancer population. Fifteen areas for research were identified. Top priority areas included the impact cancer has on life, how to live with cancer and related support issues; risk factors and causes of cancer; early detection and prevention. Although biological and treatment related aspects of science were identified as important, patients rated the management of practical, social and emotional issues as a higher priority. There is a mismatch between the research priorities identified by participants and the current UK research portfolio. Current research activity should be broadened to reflect the priorities of people affected by the disease. PMID:17342090

  6. Simulations of Aerosol Microphysics in the NASA GEOS-5 Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter; Smith; Randles; daSilva

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol-cloud-chemistry interactions have potentially large but uncertain impacts on Earth's climate. One path to addressing these uncertainties is to construct models that incorporate various components of the Earth system and to test these models against data. To that end, we have previously incorporated the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module online in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5). GEOS-5 provides a platform for Earth system modeling, incorporating atmospheric and ocean general circulation models, a land surface model, a data assimilation system, and treatments of atmospheric chemistry and hydrologic cycle. Including GOCART online in this framework has provided a path for interactive aerosol-climate studies; however, GOCART only tracks the mass of aerosols as external mixtures and does not include the detailed treatments of aerosol size distribution and composition (internal mixtures) needed for aerosol-cloud-chemistry-climate studies. To address that need we have incorporated the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) online in GEOS-5. CARMA is a sectional aerosol-cloud microphysical model, capable of treating both aerosol size and composition explicitly be resolving the aerosol distribution into a variable number of size and composition groupings. Here we present first simulations of dust, sea salt, and smoke aerosols in GEOS-5 as treated by CARMA. These simulations are compared to available aerosol satellite, ground, and aircraft data and as well compared to the simulated distributions in our current GOCART based system.

  7. In situ submicron organic aerosol characterization at a boreal forest research station during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 using soft and hard ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, A. L.; Äijälä, M.; Corrigan, A. L.; Junninen, H.; Ehn, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Russell, L. M.; Williams, J.; Hoffmann, T.

    2013-11-01

    The chemical composition of submicron aerosol during the comprehensive field campaign HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 at Hyytiälä, Finland, is presented. The focus lies on online measurements of organic acids, which were achieved by using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). These measurements were accompanied by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of filter samples, all showing a high degree of correlation. The soft ionization mass spectrometer alternated between gas-phase measurements solely and measuring the sum of gas and particle phase. The AMS measurements of C, H and O elemental composition show that the aerosol during the campaign was highly oxidized, which appears reasonable due to high and prolonged radiation during the boreal summer measurement period as well as the long transport times of some of the aerosol. In order to contrast ambient and laboratory aerosol, an average organic acid pattern, measured by APCI-IT-MS during the campaign, was compared to terpene ozonolysis products in a laboratory reaction chamber. Identification of single organic acid species remains a major challenge due to the complexity of the boreal forest aerosol. Unambiguous online species identification was attempted by the combinatorial approach of identifying unique fragments in the MS2 mode of standards, and then comparing these results with MS2 field spectra. During the campaign, unique fragments of limonene-derived organic acids (limonic acid and ketolimononic acid) and of the biomass burning tracer vanillic acid were detected. Other specific fragments (neutral loss of 28 Da) in the MS2 suggest the occurrence of semialdehydes. Furthermore, an approach to determine the average molecular weight of the aerosol is presented. The campaign average organic molecular weight was determined to be 300 g mol-1. However, a plume of aged biomass burning aerosol, arriving at Hyytiälä from Russia

  8. In-situ submicron organic aerosol characterization at a boreal forest research station during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 using soft and hard ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, A. L.; Äijälä, M.; Corrigan, A. L.; Junninen, H.; Ehn, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Russell, L. M.; Williams, J.; Hoffmann, T.

    2013-07-01

    The chemical composition of submicron aerosol during the comprehensive field campaign HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 at Hyytiälä, Finland is presented. The focus lies on online measurements of organic acids, which was achieved by using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). These measurements were accompanied by Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of filter samples, all showing a high degree of correlation. The soft ionization mass spectrometer alternated between gas phase measurements solely and measuring the sum of gas- and particle-phase. The AMS measurements of C, H and O elemental composition show that the aerosol during the campaign was highly oxidized, which appears reasonable due to high and prolonged radiation during the boreal summer measurement period as well as the long transport times of some of the aerosol. In order to contrast ambient and laboratory aerosol, an average organic acid pattern, measured by APCI-IT-MS during the campaign, was compared to terpene ozonolysis products in a laboratory reaction chamber. Identification of single organic acid species remains a major challenge due to the complexity of the boreal forest aerosol. Unambiguous online species identification was attempted by the combinatorial approach of identifying unique fragments in the MS2-mode of standards, and then comparing these results with MS2 field spectra. During the campaign, unique fragments of limonene derived organic acids (limonic acid and ketolimononic acid) and of the biomass burning tracer vanillic acid were detected. Other specific fragments (neutral loss of 28 Da) in the MS2 suggest the occurrence of semialdehydes. Furthermore, an approach to determine the average molecular weight of the aerosol is presented. The campaign average organic molecular weight was determined to be 300 g mol-1. However, a plume of aged biomass burning aerosol, arriving at Hyytiälä from Russia

  9. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  10. Uptake of glyoxal by organic and Inorganic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Ashley L; Hanley, Sean W; De Haan, David O

    2008-06-15

    The uptake of glyoxal by a variety of organic and inorganic aerosol types was examined in a Teflon chamber. Rapid glyoxal uptake was observed for all liquid-phase aerosols at all relative humidity levels tested (< 5 to 50% RH). Even for aerosol with known water content, Henry's Law cannot predict glyoxal uptake: H* > (3 +/- 1.5) x 10(8) mol kg(-1) atm(-1) for l-tartaric acid, H* > (1 +/- 0.5) x 10(8) for dl-malic acid and H* = (2 +/- 1) x 10(7) for malonic acid aerosol. Other liquid-phase aerosol particles containing amine functional groups (arginine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid) took up even more glyoxal (H* > 3 x 10(8)). The trend of higher glyoxal uptake onto aerosol containing more nucleophilic organic compounds suggests that glyoxal is reacting with organic compounds in the aerosol phase. Solid-phase aerosol showed RH-dependent glyoxal uptake, likely due to the existence of surface water layers. However, particle growth rates were the highestfor sodium sulfate aerosol. For organic aerosol, growth rates correlated with the acidity of the carboxylic acid groups of the aerosol material, suggesting that glyoxal uptake is enhanced by mildly acidic conditions. PMID:18605566

  11. SEAC4RS Aerosol Radiative Effects and Heating Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, S.; Schmidt, S.; Redemann, J.; Hair, J. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; LeBlanc, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    We will present (a) aerosol optical properties, (b) aerosol radiative forcing, (c) aerosol and gas absorption and heating rates, and (d) spectral surface albedo for cases from August 19th and 26th of the SEAC4RS mission. This analysis is based on irradiance data from the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR), spectral aerosol optical depth from the Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR), and extinction profiles from the DIAL/High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). We derive spectrally resolved values of single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and surface albedo from the data, and determine profiles of absorption and heating rate segregated by absorber (aerosol and gas).

  12. Enhanced research program on the long-range climatic effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and sulfate aerosols. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, W.M.; Meehl, G.A.

    1997-04-01

    Consistent with the objectives to extract as much as possible from existing models on the role of the oceans in the greenhouse effect and to improve various aspects of the coupled system, the authors made significant progress in three areas. (1) In a series of manuscripts, they documented how the El Nino-Southern Oscillation operates in the model and how it is enhanced with increased carbon dioxide. (2) In studies with collaborators Branstator, Karoly, and Karl, they explored the possible carbon dioxide ``fingerprint`` in zonal mean temperatures, the effects of changes in extratropical teleconnections, and the regional effects of low-frequency variability and climate change. (3) They experimented with an advanced version of the NCAR community climate model (CCM0) that also includes the Ramanathan and Collins cirrus albedo feedback mechanism. This model was run with a mixed layer and was tested with the 1{degree} 20-level Semtner and Chervin ocean model. The latter includes the Arctic Ocean and dynamic sea ice, both showing realistic results. The authors completed the coupling of the advanced models. The dynamic ocean model was a 1{degree}x1{degree} version of the Semtner-Chervin 1/2{degree}x1/2{degree} ocean model with 20 vertical levels. The 1{degree}x1{degree} version of the Semtner-Chervin model used in this research explicitly resolved some aspects of the mesoscale eddies as did the parent model. The new coupled model system for greenhouse gas simulations on climate change was tested on multidecadal runs.

  13. Ensembles of satellite aerosol retrievals based on three AATSR algorithms within aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmale, Miriam; Popp, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Ensemble techniques are widely used in the modelling community, combining different modelling results in order to reduce uncertainties. This approach could be also adapted to satellite measurements. Aerosol_cci is an ESA funded project, where most of the European aerosol retrieval groups work together. The different algorithms are homogenized as far as it makes sense, but remain essentially different. Datasets are compared with ground based measurements and between each other. Three AATSR algorithms (Swansea university aerosol retrieval, ADV aerosol retrieval by FMI and Oxford aerosol retrieval ORAC) provide within this project 17 year global aerosol records. Each of these algorithms provides also uncertainty information on pixel level. Within the presented work, an ensembles of the three AATSR algorithms is performed. The advantage over each single algorithm is the higher spatial coverage due to more measurement pixels per gridbox. A validation to ground based AERONET measurements shows still a good correlation of the ensemble, compared to the single algorithms. Annual mean maps show the global aerosol distribution, based on a combination of the three aerosol algorithms. In addition, pixel level uncertainties of each algorithm are used for weighting the contributions, in order to reduce the uncertainty of the ensemble. Results of different versions of the ensembles for aerosol optical depth will be presented and discussed. The results are validated against ground based AERONET measurements. A higher spatial coverage on daily basis allows better results in annual mean maps. The benefit of using pixel level uncertainties is analysed.

  14. Talking Science: The research evidence on the use of small group discussions in science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Judith; Hogarth, Sylvia; Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Robinson, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two systematic reviews of the use and effects of small group discussions in high school science teaching. Ninety-four studies were included in an overview (systematic map) of work in the area, and 24 studies formed the basis of the in-depth reviews. The reviews indicate that there is considerable diversity in the topics used to promote small group discussions. They also demonstrate that students often struggle to formulate and express coherent arguments, and demonstrate a low level of engagement with tasks. The reviews suggest that groups function more purposefully, and understanding improves most, when specifically constituted such that differing views are represented, when some form of training is provided for students on effective group work, and when help in structuring discussions is provided in the form of "cues". Single-sex groups function more purposefully than mixed-sex groups, though improvements in understanding are independent of gender composition of groups. Finally, the reviews demonstrate very clearly that, for small group discussions to be effective, teachers and students need to be given explicit teaching in the skills associated with the development of arguments and the characteristics associated with effective group discussions. In addition to the substantive findings, the paper also reports on key features of the methods employed to gather and analyse data. Of particular note are the two contrasting approaches to data analysis, one adopting a grounded theory approach and the other drawing on established methods of discourse analysis.

  15. Reference, or Advisory, Groups Involving Disabled People: Reflections from Three Contrasting Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah; Robertson, Christopher; Feiler, Anthony; Tarleton, Beth; Watson, Debby; Byers, Richard; Davies, Jill; Fergusson, Ann; Marvin, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly in recent years, the involvement of disabled people as co-researchers has been regarded as "good practice." This has been informed by growing participatory and emancipatory research paradigms as well as user-focused policy imperatives. The benefits of these shifts apply to the research itself (improved definition, direction,…

  16. Development of Innovative Group Work Practice Using the Intervention Research Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Edna; Meier, Andrea; Galinsky, Maeda J.

    2004-01-01

    Rothman and Thomas' intervention research (IR) paradigm provides an alternative, developmental research method that is appropriate for practice research, especially at the early stages. It is more flexible than conventional experimental designs, capitalizes on the availability of small samples, accommodates the dynamism and variation in practice…

  17. Understanding the impact of saharan dust aerosols on tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeger, Aaron

    Genesis of Tropical Cyclones (TCs) in the main development region for Atlantic hurricanes is tied to convection initiated by African easterly waves (AEWs) during Northern hemisphere summer and fall seasons. The main development region is also impacted by dust aerosols transported from the Sahara. It has been hypothesized that dust aerosols can modulate the development of TCs through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interaction processes. In this study, we investigate the impact of dust aerosols on TC development using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We first develop a technique to constrain the WRF-Chem model with a realistic three-dimensional spatial distribution of dust aerosols. The horizontal distribution of dust is specified using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived aerosol products and output from the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. The vertical distribution of dust is constrained using the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). We validate our technique through in situ aircraft measurements where both showed aerosol number concentrations from 20-30 cm-3 in the atmosphere for Saharan dust moving over the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Then, we use the satellite data constraint technique to nudge the WRF-Chem aerosol fields throughout the simulation of TC Florence developing over the eastern Atlantic Ocean during September 2006. Three different experiments are conducted where the aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interaction processes are either activated or deactivated in the model while all other model options are identical between the experiments. By comparing the model experiment results, the impact of the aerosol interaction processes on TC development can be understood. The results indicate that dust aerosols can delay or prevent the development of a TC as the minimum sea level pressure of TC Florence was 13 h

  18. Infrared Absorption by Atmospheric Aerosols in Mexico City during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    Past research in our group using cylindrical internal reflectance spectroscopy has indicated that aqueous aerosols could contribute to the radiative warming as greenhouse species (1,2). Although aerosol radiative effects have been known for sometime and are considered one of the major uncertainties in climate change modeling, most of the studies have focused on the forcing due to scattering and absorption of radiation in the uv- visible region (3). Infrared spectral information also allows the confirmation of key functional groups that are responsible for enhanced absorption observations from secondary organics in the uv-visible region. This work extends our efforts to evaluate the infrared absorption by aerosols, particularly organics, that are now found to be a major fraction of urban and regional aerosols in the 0.1 to 1.0 micron size range and to help identify key types of organics that can contribute to aerosol absorption. During the MILAGRO campaign, quartz filter samples were taken at 12-hour intervals from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. These samples were taken at the two super-sites, T-0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) and T-1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico). The samples have been characterized for total carbon content (stable isotope mass spectroscopy) and natural radionuclide tracers, as well as for their UV-visible spectroscopic properties by using integrating sphere diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). These same samples have been characterized in the mid and near infrared spectral ranges using diffuse reflection spectroscopy (Nicolet 6700 FTIR with a Smart Collector accessory). Aerosol samples were removed from the surfaces of the aerosol filters by using Si-Carb sampler. The samples clearly indicate the presence of carbonyl organic constituents and the spectra are quite similar to those observed for humic and fulvic acids

  19. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  20. Aerosols and environmental pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth’s radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  1. ISA-MIP: A co-ordinated intercomparison of Interactive Stratospheric Aerosol models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmreck, Claudia; Mann, Graham; Aquila, Valentina; Bruehl, Christoph; Chin, Mian; Dohmse, Sandip; English, Jason; Lee, Lindsay; Mills, Michael; Hommel, Rene; Neely, Ryan; Schmidt, Anja; Sheng, Jianxiong; Toohey, Matthew; Weisenstein, Debra

    2016-04-01

    The SPARC activity, "Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate" (SSiRC) was initiated to coordinate international research activities on modelling and observation of stratospheric sulphate aerosols (and precursor gases) in order to assess its climate forcing and feedback. With several international activities to extend and improve observational stratospheric aerosol capabilities and data sets, and a growing number of global models treating stratospheric aerosol interactively, a new model intercomparison activity "ISA-MIP" has been established in the frame of SSIRC. ISA-MIP will compare interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA) models using a range of observations to constrain and improve the models and to provide a sound scientific basis for future work. Four ISA-MIP experiments have been designed to assess different periods of the obervational stratospheric aerosol record, and to explore key processes which influence the formation and temporal development of stratospheric aerosol. The "Background" experiment will focus on the role of microphysical and transport processes under volcanically quiescent conditions, where the stratospheric aerosol size distribution is only modulated by seasonal circulations. The "Model intercomparison of Transient Aerosol Record" (MiTAR) experiment will focus on addressing the role of small- to moderate-magnitude volcanic eruptions and transport processes in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) aerosols loading over the period 1998-2011. Background and MiTAR simulations will be compared to recent in-situ and satellite observations to evaluate the performances of the model and understand their strengths and weaknesses. Two further experiments investigate the radiative forcing from historical major eruptions. The Historical Eruptions SO2 Emission Assessment (HErSEA) will involve models carrying out mini-ensembles of the stratospheric aerosol perturbations from each of the 1963 Agung, 1982 El Chichon and 1991 Pinatubo

  2. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter-over-groups

  3. Sex and gender traps and springboards: a focus group study among gender researchers in medicine and health sciences.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Monica; Alex, Lena; Wiklund, Anncristine Fjellman; Hammarström, Anne; Lundman, Berit

    2012-01-01

    We explored the difficulties that gender researchers encounter in their research and the strategies they use for solving these problems. Sixteen Swedish researchers, all women, took part in focus group discussions; the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The problems reported fell into four main categories: the ambiguity of the concepts of sex and gender; traps associated with dichotomization; difficulties with communication; and issues around publication. Categories of suggested problem-solving strategies were adaptation, pragmatism, addressing the complexities, and definition of terms. Here the specific views of gender researchers in medicine and health sciences-"medical insiders"-bring new challenges into focus. PMID:22827730

  4. Dust in the Sky: Atmospheric Composition. Modeling of Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Kinne, Stefan; Torres, Omar; Holben, Brent; Duncan, Bryan; Martin, Randall; Logan, Jennifer; Higurashi, Akiko; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol is any small particle of matter that rests suspended in the atmosphere. Natural sources, such as deserts, create some aerosols; consumption of fossil fuels and industrial activity create other aerosols. All the microscopic aerosol particles add up to a large amount of material floating in the atmosphere. You can see the particles in the haze that floats over polluted cities. Beyond this visible effect, aerosols can actually lower temperatures. They do this by blocking, or scattering, a portion of the sun's energy from reaching the surface. Because of this influence, scientists study the physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Reliable numerical models for atmospheric aerosols play an important role in research.

  5. Disaster Day! Integrating Speech Skills though Impromptu Group Research and Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruim, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Disaster Day (DD) is a single-class activity designed for public speaking classrooms, but could also be applied to courses addressing small group communication. Objectives: DD integrates fundamental skills of the basic speech course, fosters participation through group work, and introduces new concepts and skills. By the end of the…

  6. Evidence-Based Practice in Group Care: The Effects of Policy, Research, and Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Carol; Sanders, Larry; Gurevich, Maria; Fulton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effect of a province-wide vision of evidence-based and outcome-based services for children and youth and the challenges of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) and evidence-based treatment (EBT) approaches within group care settings. The paper is based on the results of a survey of group care settings in the…

  7. Patterns of Ability Factors among Four Ethnic Groups. Project Access Research Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaugher, Ronald L.; Rock, Donald A.

    Differing patterns of abilities among high school males of four ethnic groups were investigated, as reflected in the interrelationships of scores on a multi-test aptitude battery. If such differences in patterns of ability exist among these groups, their existence and nature should be revealed in the interrelationships of the various test scores…

  8. A Mentor, Peer Group, Incentive Model for Helping Underclass Youth. Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B.; Wiener, Susan J.

    This document describes the Mentors, Peer Groups, and Incentives (MPI) demonstration project, a model for helping early adolescent underclass males to improve academic performance and reduce the probability of premature fatherhood. A first section discusses the working definition of the underclass as a group where dysfunctional behaviors are…

  9. Community Voice: Focus Group Research with Adult Learners in Worcestershire and Herefordshire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsdale, Julia

    Focus groups of adult learners and some nonlearners in the English counties of Worcestershire and Herefordshire were convened to gather information about local adults' attitudes toward and experiences of further education courses. The focus groups examined how people hear about courses, why they join courses, what factors prevent people from…

  10. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  11. Item Response Theory at Subject- and Group-Level. Research Report 90-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobi, Hilde

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California Assessment Program. In the Netherlands, these…

  12. Focus Groups in Qualitative Research: Culturally Sensitive Methodology for the Arabian Gulf?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article explores whether focus groups can constitute a culturally sensitive method of data gathering for educational leadership, management and related areas in a Gulf-Arab cultural context. Reviewing the literature on focus groups and cross-cultural psychology for the Arab region, it identifies key notions related to societal values such as…

  13. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  14. The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups on Student Progress: Evidence from a National Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul; Whitebread, David

    2007-01-01

    Nurture groups (NGs) are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. Although the first groups were established over 30 years ago, growth in the number of NGs in the UK has been exponential over the past ten years. This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of NGs in promoting positive…

  15. Genetic modifiers of ambulation in the cooperative international Neuromuscular research group Duchenne natural history study

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Luca; Kesari, Akanchha; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cnaan, Avital; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Punetha, Jaya; Duong, Tina; Henricson, Erik K; Pegoraro, Elena; McDonald, Craig M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied the effects of LTBP4 and SPP1 polymorphisms on age at loss of ambulation (LoA) in a multiethnic Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cohort. Methods We genotyped SPP1 rs28357094 and LTBP4 haplotype in 283 of 340 participants in the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study (CINRG-DNHS). Median ages at LoA were compared by Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test. We controlled polymorphism analyses for concurrent effects of glucocorticoid corticosteroid (GC) treatment (time-varying Cox regression) and for population stratification (multidimensional scaling of genome-wide markers). Results Hispanic and South Asian participants (n = 18, 41) lost ambulation 2.7 and 2 years earlier than Caucasian subjects (p = 0.003, <0.001). The TG/GG genotype at SPP1 rs28357094 was associated to 1.2-year-earlier median LoA (p = 0.048). This difference was greater (1.9 years, p = 0.038) in GC-treated participants, whereas no difference was observed in untreated subjects. Cox regression confirmed a significant effect of SPP1 genotype in GC-treated participants (hazard ratio = 1.61, p = 0.016). LTBP4 genotype showed a direction of association with age at LoA as previously reported, but it was not statistically significant. After controlling for population stratification, we confirmed a strong effect of LTBP4 genotype in Caucasians (2.4 years, p = 0.024). Median age at LoA with the protective LTBP4 genotype in this cohort was 15.0 years, 16.0 for those who were treated with GC. Interpretation SPP1 rs28357094 acts as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of GC response, and LTBP4 haplotype modifies age at LoA in the CINRG-DNHS cohort. Adjustment for GC treatment and population stratification appears crucial in assessing genetic modifiers in DMD. PMID:25641372

  16. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  17. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  18. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  19. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  20. How to Research People's First Impressions of Websites? Eye-Tracking as a Usability Inspection Method and Online Focus Group Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herendy, Csilla

    The visual surface of the Hungarian governmental portal - magyarorszag.hu - was inspected in 2007 with two different inspection methods: Eye tacking research and Online focus group research. Both methods help to understand and to chart not only the usability of different websites but also the affective imp ressions associated with the websites. In this study, an Experimental and a Control-group were tested to assess the usability of the site and the emotional re actions to it. The results reveal that the Hungarian government website is too complicated, dull and difficult to apprehend at a glance.

  1. “It takes a village” to raise research productivity: Impact of a Trauma Interdisciplinary Group for Research (TIGR) at an urban, Level 1 trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Regina S.; Ferdinand, Colville H.B.; Hawkins, Michael L.; Holsten, Steven B.; Dong, Yanbin; Zhu, Haidong

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few interdisciplinary research groups include basic scientists, pharmacists, therapists, nutritionists, lab technicians, as well as trauma patients and families, in addition to clinicians. Increasing interprofessional diversity within scientific teams working to improve trauma care is a goal of national organizations and federal funding agencies like the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This paper describes the design, implementation, and outcomes of a Trauma Interdisciplinary Group for Research (TIGR) at a Level 1 trauma center as it relates to increasing research productivity, with specific examples excerpted from an on-going NIH-funded study. METHODS We utilized a pre-test/post-test design with objectives aimed at measuring increases in research productivity following a targeted intervention. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis was used to develop the intervention which included research skill-building activities, accomplished by adding multidisciplinary investigators to an existing NIH-funded project. The NIH project aimed to test the hypothesis that accelerated biologic aging from chronic stress increases baseline inflammation and reduces inflammatory response to trauma (projected N=150). Pre/Post-TIGR data related to participant screening, recruitment, consent, and research processes were compared. Research productivity was measured through abstracts, publications, and investigator-initiated projects. RESULTS Research products increased from N =12 to N=42; (~ 400%). Research proposals for federal funding increased from N=0 to N=3, with success rate of 66%. Participant screenings for the NIH-funded study increased from N=40 to N=313. Consents increased from N=14 to N=70. Lab service fees were reduced from $300/participant to $5/participant. CONCLUSIONS Adding diversity to our scientific team via TIGR was exponentially successful in 1) improving research productivity, 2) reducing research costs, and 3) increasing

  2. Research Skills Projects. Unit I. Learning On Your Own! Individual, Group, and Classroom Research Projects for Gifted and Motivated Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlemmer, Phil

    Created for use with motivated learners (meaning all those who enjoy the adventure and challenge of learning) as well as for gifted and talented upper elementary and junior high children, the 15 student research projects in this book were designed to teach children in these grades how to become independent learners; hence they emphasize the use of…

  3. Thermal Infrared Radiative Forcing By Atmospheric Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Narayan

    the aerosol constituents. We have also demonstrated that LW aerosol radiative forcing is somewhat sensitive to the water vapor content in the atmosphere, and increases with the dryness of the atmosphere. This evidence supports our argument that the Great Basin area of the USA, which usually has extremely dry atmospheric conditions, can be an appropriate place to study the dry-desert aerosol climate forcing in a regional scale. An analysis of aerosol IR backscattering shows that the effect significantly contributes to both the BOA and TOA IR forcings, even if the aerosols do not exhibit absorption at all in the thermal IR. The general LW radiative forcing is, therefore, associated with both the absorption and scattering effects of the aerosols. Neglecting LW scattering will result in an underestimation of LW radiative forcing by aerosols. Finally, the discrepancy between the FTIR-observed and modeled radiance with aerosols indicates a significant uncertainty, which demands further research on the LW optical properties of fine and coarse mode aerosol.

  4. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on research in adult congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roberta G; Pearson, Gail D; Barst, Robyn J; Child, John S; del Nido, Pedro; Gersony, Welton M; Kuehl, Karen S; Landzberg, Michael J; Myerson, Merle; Neish, Steven R; Sahn, David J; Verstappen, Amy; Warnes, Carole A; Webb, Catherine L

    2006-02-21

    The Working Group on research in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) was convened in September 2004 under the sponsorship of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the Office of Rare Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, to make recommendations on research needs. The purpose of the Working Group was to advise the NHLBI on the current state of the science in ACHD and barriers to optimal clinical care, and to make specific recommendations for overcoming those barriers. The members of the Working Group were chosen to provide expert input on a broad range of research issues from both scientific and lay perspectives. The Working Group reviewed data on the epidemiology of ACHD, long-term outcomes of complex cardiovascular malformations, issues in assessing morphology and function with current imaging techniques, surgical and catheter-based interventions, management of related conditions including pregnancy and arrhythmias, quality of life, and informatics. After research and training barriers were discussed, the Working Group recommended outreach and educational programs for adults with congenital heart disease, a network of specialized adult congenital heart disease regional centers, technology development to support advances in imaging and modeling of abnormal structure and function, and a consensus on appropriate training for physicians to provide care for adults with congenital heart disease. PMID:16487831

  5. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from the Top Group's Top Quark Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Top group studies the properties of the top quark, the heaviest known fundamental particle. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  6. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from Supersymmetry, New Phenomena Research of the CDF Exotics Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Exotics group searches for Supersymmetry and other New Phenomena. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  7. Tropopsheric Aerosol Chemistry via Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsnop, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    A broad overview of size resolved aerosol chemistry in urban, rural and remote regions is evolving from deployment of aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) throughout the northern hemisphere. Using thermal vaporization and electron impact ionization as universal detector of non-refractory inorganic and organic composition, the accumulation of AMS results represent a library of mass spectral signatures of aerosol chemistry. For organics in particular, mass spectral factor analysis provides a procedure for classifying (and simplifying) complex mixtures composed of the hundreds or thousands of individual compounds. Correlations with parallel gas and aerosol measurements (e.g. GC/MS, HNMR, FTIR) supply additional chemical information needed to interpret mass spectra. The challenge is to separate primary and secondary; anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning sources - and subsequent - transformations of aerosol chemistry and microphysics.

  8. Comparison of Toxicity and Deposition of Nano-Sized Carbon Black Aerosol Prepared With or Without Dispersing Sonication

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mingu; Han, Jeong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Nanotoxicological research has shown toxicity of nanomaterials to be inversely related to particle size. However, the contribution of agglomeration to the toxicity of nanomaterials has not been sufficiently studied, although it is known that agglomeration is associated with increased nanomaterial size. In this study, we prepared aerosols of nano-sized carbon black by 2 different ways to verify the effects of agglomeration on the toxicity and deposition of nano-sized carbon black. The 2 methods of preparation included the carbon black dispersion method that facilitated clustering without sonication and the carbon black dispersion method involving sonication to achieve scattering and deagglomeration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to carbon black aerosols 6 hr a day for 3 days or for 2 weeks. The median mass aerodynamic diameter of carbon black aerosols averaged 2.08 μm (for aerosol prepared without sonication; group N) and 1.79 μm (for aerosol prepared without sonication; group S). The average concentration of carbon black during the exposure period for group N and group S was 13.08 ± 3.18 mg/m3 and 13.67 ± 3.54 mg/ m3, respectively, in the 3-day experiment. The average concentration during the 2-week experiment was 9.83 ± 3.42 mg/m3 and 9.08 ± 4.49 mg/m3 for group N and group S, respectively. The amount of carbon black deposition in the lungs was significantly higher in group S than in group N in both 3-day and 2-week experiments. The number of total cells, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and the number of total white blood cells and neutrophils in the blood in the 2- week experiment were significantly higher in group S than in normal control. However, differences were not found in the inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, etc.) and protein indicators of cell damage (albumin and lactate dehydrogenase) in the BAL fluid of both group N and group S as compared to the normal control. In

  9. Improving Participation Rates for Women of Color in Health Research: The Role of Group Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N=310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD=9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD=7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs—attraction to the group’s task (SE=0.096, CI: −0.599 to −0.221) and group integration around the task (SE=0.060, CI: −0.092 to −0.328)—and social constructs—attraction to the group’s social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366)—significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color. PMID:21826476

  10. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  11. Methodological Considerations in Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Research with Intact Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; Salvia, John

    1980-01-01

    The paper cites difficulties in aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) research which investigates relationships between test performance and the extent of profiting from instruction. Two methods for ATI research (regression analysis and analysis of variance) are described, assumptions and potential mininterpretations are noted, and correct…

  12. Current Issues in Self-Regulation Research and Their Significance for Therapeutic Intervention in Offender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, theory and research on human self-regulation has made significant progress. While self-regulation may be understood as a generic term comprising a range of different cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes, most research pertains to a subcomponent of self-regulation, namely emotional self-regulation, or emotional…

  13. Group Peer Review as an Active Learning Strategy in a Research Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Sue; Glenn, Betty; Sanner, Susan; Cannella, Kathleen A. S.

    2009-01-01

    The faculty of an undergraduate research course with a diverse student body recognized that many students struggled with the concept of how to critique a research article. The traditional assignment method used to teach the critique process did not maximize student learning outcomes. The active learning strategy of peer review was used to enhance…

  14. Small Group Dynamics in Cross-Cultural Collaborative Field Research: Voices from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Karen A.; Gahungu, Athanase

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) factors that influence effective cross-cultural collaboration, and (b) challenges and issues that face researchers in cross-cultural collaboration. During the summer of 2010, 20 researchers and student interns from Ghana Education Service, Chicago State University (CSU-USA), Winneba University of…

  15. External Group Coaching and Mentoring: Building a Research Community of Practice at a University of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maritz, Jeanette; Visagie, Retha; Johnson, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Globally, a clarion call has been made for higher education institutions to establish creative and effective research capacity-building systems with the purpose of developing a next generation of scholars. The training and skills development of a researcher entail a process of increasing levels of participation in diverse communities of practice.…

  16. The Benefits of Peer-Mentoring in Undergraduate Group Research Projects at The University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; McGraw, A. M.; Towner, A. P.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Robertson, A.; Smith, C.; Turner, J.; Biddle, L. I.; Thompson, R.

    2013-06-01

    According to the American Institute of Physics, the number of graduate students enrolled in astronomy programs in the US has been steadily increasing in the past 15 years. Research experience is one of the key factors graduate admissions committees look for when choosing students. The University of Arizona Astronomy Club is setting a new precedent in research by having students introduce other students to research. This eases the transition to research projects, and allows students to work in a comfortable setting without the sometimes-overwhelming cognitive disconnect between a professor and their students. The University of Arizona's research projects have many benefits to all students involved. It is well established that people learn a subject best when they have to teach it to others. Students leading the projects learn alongside their peers in a peer-mentoring setting. When project leaders move on in their academic career, other project members can easily take the lead. Students learn how to work in teams, practice effective communication skills, and begin the processes of conducting a full research project, which are essential skills for all budding scientists. These research projects also give students hands-on research experience that supplement and greatly expand on concepts taught in the classroom, and make them more attractive to graduate schools and REU programs.

  17. Relationships Matter: Some Benefits, Challenges and Tensions Associated with Forming a Collaborative Educational Researcher Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Sandie; Murray, E.; Rivalland, C.; Monk, H.; Piazza-McFarland, L.; Daniel, G.

    2014-01-01

    Growing recognition of the complexity of children's lives has led to strong advocacy in education research literature for greater collaboration between researchers from different paradigms to address the "wicked" problems that face contemporary children and families. There is little literature, however, exploring how collaboration…

  18. AEROSOLS: RESEARCH, RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL STRATEGIES. PROCEEDINGS OF THE U.S.-DUTCH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, WILLIAMSBURG, VIRGINIA, MAY 19-25, 1985 (2ND)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Second U.S.-Dutch International Symposium on Aerosols was one of many cooperative activities in environmental protection called for in a Memorandum of Understanding signed in 1980 between the U.S. and the Netherlands. The symposium focused on a wide range of topics concerning...

  19. Generation and characterization of biological aerosols for laser measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Concerns for proliferation of biological weapons including bacteria, fungi, and viruses have prompted research and development on methods for the rapid detection of biological aerosols in the field. Real-time instruments that can distinguish biological aerosols from background dust would be especially useful. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a laser-based, real-time instrument for rapid detection of biological aerosols, and ITRI is working with SNL scientists and engineers to evaluate this technology for a wide range of biological aerosols. This paper describes methods being used to generate the characterize the biological aerosols for these tests. In summary, a biosafe system has been developed for generating and characterizing biological aerosols and using those aerosols to test the SNL laser-based real-time instrument. Such tests are essential in studying methods for rapid detection of airborne biological materials.

  20. Identification of aerosol composition from multi-wavelength lidar measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop the potential of lidar for the identification of the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols. Available numerical computations suggest that aerosols can be identified by the wavelength dependence of aerosol optical properties. Since lidar can derive the volume backscatter coefficient as a function of wavelength, a multi-wavelength lidar system may be able to provide valuable information on the composition of aerosols. This research theoretically investigates the volume backscatter coefficients for the aerosol classes, sea-salts, and sulfates, as a function of wavelength. The results show that these aerosol compositions can be characterized and identified by their backscatter wavelength dependence. A method to utilize multi-wavelength lidar measurements to discriminate between compositionally different thin aerosol layers is discussed.

  1. Arts and Learning Research, 1998-1999. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, Illinois, April 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Liora, Ed.; Ellis, Nancy C., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This volume highlights thought-provoking issues in visual arts, drama, and music education presented at the 1998 meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Following a message from the Special Interest Group Chair, Larry Kantner, and an editorial, articles in section 1 are: "Art Beginnings" (L. A. Kantner); "Teachers' Conceptions of…

  2. Understanding the role of gender in body image research settings: participant gender preferences for researchers and co-participants in interviews, focus groups and interventions.

    PubMed

    Yager, Zali; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Drummond, Murray

    2013-09-01

    Participant gender preferences for body image researchers, interventionists and focus group and intervention co-participants have been largely ignored, despite recognition that such characteristics can influence the nature and quality of data collected and intervention effects. To address this, Australian women (n=505) and men (n=220) completed a questionnaire about their preferences for interviewers and focus group facilitators, for teachers delivering school-based interventions, and for co-participants in these settings. Women predominantly preferred female interviewers and teachers, and mixed-sex co-participants, but most had no preference for focus group facilitators. Body dissatisfied women were more likely to prefer female researchers and single-sex co-participants. Most men did not have specific preferences, however, body dissatisfied men were more likely to report a gender preference for interviewers and teachers. Professional capabilities, personal qualities and appearance were regarded as important researcher characteristics. These findings have important implications for body image research, particularly among high-risk groups. PMID:23876877

  3. Evaluating Aerosol Process Modules within the Framework of the Aerosol Modeling Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, J. D.; Velu, V.; Gustafson, W. I.; Chapman, E.; Easter, R. C.; Shrivastava, M.; Singh, B.

    2012-12-01

    Factors that influence predictions of aerosol direct and indirect forcing, such as aerosol mass, composition, size distribution, hygroscopicity, and optical properties, still contain large uncertainties in both regional and global models. New aerosol treatments are usually implemented into a 3-D atmospheric model and evaluated using a limited number of measurements from a specific case study. Under this modeling paradigm, the performance and computational efficiency of several treatments for a specific aerosol process cannot be adequately quantified because many other processes among various modeling studies (e.g. grid configuration, meteorology, emission rates) are different as well. The scientific community needs to know the advantages and disadvantages of specific aerosol treatments when the meteorology, chemistry, and other aerosol processes are identical in order to reduce the uncertainties associated with aerosols predictions. To address these issues, an Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) has been developed that systematically and objectively evaluates new aerosol treatments for use in regional and global models. The AMT consists of the modular Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a series testbed cases for which extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties are available, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of meteorological, chemical, aerosol process modules. WRF contains various parameterizations of meteorological, chemical, and aerosol processes and includes interactive aerosol-cloud-radiation treatments similar to those employed by climate models. In addition, the physics suite from the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) have also been ported to WRF so that they can be tested at various spatial scales and compared directly with field campaign data and other parameterizations commonly used by the mesoscale modeling community. Data from several campaigns, including the 2006

  4. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Translational Research Program Stem Cell Symposium: Incorporating Stem Cell Hypotheses into Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, Wendy A. Bristow, Robert G.; Clarke, Michael F.; Coppes, Robert P.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Duda, Dan G.; Fike, John R.; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Hill, Richard P.; Jordan, Craig T.; Milas, Luka; Pajonk, Frank; Curran, Walter J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Chen Yuhchyau

    2009-08-01

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease sites. This report summarizes the major topics discussed and the future directions that research should take. Major conclusions of the symposium were that the flow cytometry of multiple markers in fresh tissue would remain the standard technique of evaluating cancer-initiating cells and that surrogates need to be developed for both experimental and clinical use.

  5. The Origin and Advancement of Cardiovascular Physiology in Brazil: The Contribution of Eduardo Krieger to Research Groups

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Elisardo C.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1996, symposia devoted to the discussion of advances in cardiovascular physiology have been alternately organized by Brazilian research groups, most of which were created or joined by Ph.D. trainees of Eduardo M Krieger. Therefore, as Frontiers in Physiology is publishing a topic devoted to the celebration of the 20th edition of the Brazilian Symposium of Cardiovascular Physiology, it is a great opportunity to talk about the contributions of Eduardo Krieger to the development of cardiovascular physiology. In this historical mini-review, first, the influence of the Argentinian group of Bernardo Houssay and Braun Menéndez on cardiovascular physiology in Brazil is discussed. Second, the contribution of Eduardo Krieger to the creation of several of those groups and to the development of science and technology is reviewed. Finally, the origin and consolidation of the group of Vitoria is highlighted as an example of a research group that was influenced by the University of Sao Paulo-Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto and has trained hundreds of Master and Ph.D. students in the area of cardiovascular research. PMID:27148073

  6. Real Apprenticeships: Creating a Revolution in English Skills. Research by The Boston Consulting Group for the Sutton Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian; Jones, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This research by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) for Sutton Trust examined the English education system and its apprenticeship programs. BCG reported that the UK is failing nearly half its young people by providing inadequate vocational opportunities. BSG presents key findings that include: (1) more than four in ten people have only low level…

  7. Utilizing Visual/Spatial Techniques and Strategies To Develop an Integrated Curriculum: A Collaborative Group Action Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saurino, Dan R.; Saurino, Penny L.; See, Desiree

    A research group was interested in how an understanding of multiple intelligences might translate into a variety of teaching techniques and strategies directed toward specific intelligences they found in their eighth-grade science classroom. Because of the tremendous effect of mass media and other visual/spatial influences on students, the study…

  8. Promoting Access to Higher Education and Identifying Access Students: How Useful Is Research on Participation by Socio-Economic Group?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Research conducted by Patrick Clancy and by Fitzpatrick Associates and Philip O'Connell on the level of representation of socio-economic groups amongst higher education entrants has been a key element in the development of access policy and practice in Ireland. This article reviews the context for the development of access and explores the…

  9. Research with Young Children: The Use of an Affinity Group Approach To Explore the Social Dynamics of Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the research approach of a case study ethnography. The study sought to explore the peer group understandings of five male friends aged between six and eight years. In exploring the social dynamics of peer culture, and in particular how these dynamics interacted to define, regulate and maintain particular understandings of…

  10. Research on Group Decision-Making Mechanism of Internet Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Kefan; Chen, Gang; Qian, Wu; Shi, Zhao

    With the development of information technology, internet has become a popular term and internet emergency has an intensive influence on people's life. This article offers a short history of internet emergency management. It discusses the definition, characteristics, and factor of internet emergency management. A group decision-making mechanism of internet emergency is presented based on the discussion. The authors establish a so-called Rough Set Scenario Flow Graphs (RSSFG) of group decision-making mechanism of internet emergency management and make an empirical analysis based on the RSSFG approach. The experimental results confirm that this approach is effective in internet emergency decision-making.

  11. Research on same-gender grouping in eighth-grade science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Jennifer Ingrid

    This study examined two hypotheses related to same-gender grouping of eighth-grade science classes in a public middle-school setting in suburban Kansas City. The first hypothesis, male and female students enrolled in same-gender eighth-grade science classes demonstrate more positive science academic achievement than their male and female peers enrolled in mixed-gender science classes. The second hypothesis, same-gender grouping of students in eighth-grade science has a positive effect on classroom climate. The participants in this study were randomly assigned to class sections of eighth-grade science. The first experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-male students (n = 20) taught by a male science teacher. The control group used for comparison to the male same-gender class consisted of the male students (n = 42) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same male teacher. The second experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-female students (n = 23) taught by a female science teacher. The control group for the female same-gender class consisted of female students (n = 61) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same female teacher. The male teacher and the female teacher did not vary instruction for the same-gender and mixed-gender classes. Science academic achievement was measured for both groups through a quantitative analysis using grades on science classroom assessment and overall science course grades. Classroom climate was measured through qualitative observations and through qualitative and quantitative analysis of a twenty-question student survey administered at the end of each trimester grading period. The results of this study did not indicate support for either hypothesis. Data led to the conclusions that same-gender grouping did not produce significant differences in student science academic achievement, and that same-gender classes did not create a more positive

  12. Using focus groups to improve the validity of cross-national survey research: a study of physician decision making.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Amy B; Lutfey, Karen E; Marceau, Lisa D; McKinlay, John B

    2007-09-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how qualitative methods can form a foundation for quantitative research by improving instrument validity, informing the data collection process, and improving cost-effectiveness in a study of physician decision making. To test terminology, applicability, and comprehension of a quantitative questionnaire for doctors in the United States and United Kingdom, each country's researchers conducted physician focus groups with questions organized around the experiment, including (a) validity of video vignettes of actor "patients," (b) population accessibility, (c) level of remuneration, (d) appropriate endorsement figure, and (e) question comprehension. Focus group data collected during instrument development and fieldwork planning streamlined processes and achieved cost efficiencies and effectiveness for the overall study. Beyond simply adding a post hoc qualitative component to an already free-standing quantitative methodology, focus groups were used in the study formulation, where the qualitative methodology was integrated into the process of developing a valid survey instrument. PMID:17724109

  13. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  14. Geoscience Research at Storm Peak (GRASP), a year-long program providing exceptional field research for a diverse group of undergraduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.; Hallar, B. L.; Stockwell, W.; Kittelson, J.; Lopez, J.

    2008-12-01

    Geoscience Research at Storm Peak (GRASP) was designed to engage students from underrepresented groups through a partnership between Minority Serving Institutions and the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR). The program exposed the GRASP participants to potential careers in the geosciences, provided them with an authentic research experience at Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), and gave them an opportunity to explore dynamic scenery. Undergraduate students from Howard University, Colorado State at Pueblo, Leman College, and SUNY Oneonta, gathered at SPL in June of 2008 via funding from the National Science Foundation Opportunity for Enhancing Diversity. The students reunited at Howard University in November to present the results of their research project. Throughout the year-long GRASP program students encountered the scientific process-creating a hypothesis, collecting and analyzing data, and presenting their results. Results from surveys, focus groups, and individual interviews will be discussed in this presentation.

  15. Being scientifical: Popularity, purpose and promotion of amateur research and investigation groups in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Sharon A.

    21st century television and the Internet are awash in content regarding amateur paranormal investigators and research groups. These groups proliferated after reality investigation programs appeared on television. Exactly how many groups are active in the U.S. at any time is not known. The Internet provides an ideal means for people with niche interests to find each other and organize activities. This study collected information from 1000 websites of amateur research and investigation groups (ARIGs) to determine their location, area of inquiry, methodology and, particularly, to determine if they state that they use science as part of their mission, methods or goals. 57.3% of the ARIGs examined specifically noted or suggested use of science as part of the groups' approach to investigation and research. Even when not explicit, ARIGs often used science-like language, symbols and methods to describe their groups' views or activities. Yet, non-scientific and subjective methods were described as employed in conjunction with objective methods. Furthermore, what were considered scientific processes by ARIGs did not match with established methods and the ethos of the scientific research community or scientific processes of investigation. ARIGs failed to display fundamental understanding regarding objectivity, methodological naturalism, peer review, critical thought and theoretical plausibility. The processes of science appear to be mimicked to present a serious and credible reputation to the non-scientific public. These processes are also actively promoted in the media and directly to the local public as "scientific". These results highlight the gap between the scientific community and the lay public regarding the understanding of what it means to do science and what criteria are necessary to establish reliable knowledge about the world.

  16. Talking Science: The Research Evidence on the Use of Small Group Discussions in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Judith; Hogarth, Sylvia; Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Robinson, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two systematic reviews of the use and effects of small group discussions in high school science teaching. Ninety-four studies were included in an overview (systematic map) of work in the area, and 24 studies formed the basis of the in-depth reviews. The reviews indicate that there is considerable diversity in the…

  17. Research on Same-Gender Grouping in Eighth Grade Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    This study examined two hypotheses related to same-gender grouping of eighth grade science classes in a public middle school setting. The hypotheses were (a) male and female students enrolled in same-gender science classes demonstrate more positive science academic achievement than their peers enrolled in mixed-gender classes, and (b) same-gender…

  18. Comparative Research on Mixed-Age Groups in Swedish Nursery and Compulsory Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    1994-01-01

    Reviews recent studies on the effects of mixed-age grouping (MAG) in Swedish nursery and elementary schools. Although studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that MAG was beneficial to children's learning and socioemotional development and to teachers' work satisfaction, studies conducted in the 1990s suggest that MAG does not promote…

  19. Adolescent Girls' Assessment and Management of Sexual Risks: Insights from Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women's understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) "types of sexual risk," (b) "factors…

  20. Research and Teaching: Aligning Assessment to Instruction--Collaborative Group Testing in Large- Enrollment Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Marcelle; Roberts, Tina M.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Izci, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a collaborative group-testing strategy implemented and studied in undergraduate science classes. This project investigated how the assessment strategy relates to student performance and perceptions about collaboration and focused on two sections of an undergraduate biotechnology course taught in separate semesters.