Science.gov

Sample records for aerosol sampling program

  1. Mesospheric aerosol sampling spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappmiller, Scott; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kohnert, Rick

    . The Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer (MASS) instrument has been launched on two sounding rockets in August, 2007 from Andoya, Norway to detect charged sub-visible aerosol particles in the polar mesosphere. The MASS instrument is designed to collect charged aerosols, cluster ions, and electrons on four pairs of graphite electrodes, three of which are biased with increasing voltage. The design of the MASS instrument was complicated by the short mean free path in the mesosphere. The opening to MASS was deliberately built to increase the mean free path and to reduce the shock wave within the instrument. The design procedure began with aerodynamics simulations of the flow through the instrument using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) in 3-D. The electric fields within the instrument were calculated using a Laplace solver in 3-D. With the aerodynamic and electric field simulations completed, an algorithm was created to find the trajectories of charged aerosols including collisions within MASS. Using this algorithm the collection efficiencies for each electrode was calculated as a function of the charge to mass ratio of the incoming particle. The simulation results have been confirmed experimentally using an Argon RF ion beam. The data from the August launches have been analyzed and the initial results show the MASS instrument operated as expected. Additional studies are underway to determine if there were effects from payload charging or spurious charge generation within the instrument. This project is supported by NASA.

  2. Aerosol sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.

    2004-02-10

    A system for sampling air and collecting particulate of a predetermined particle size range. A low pass section has an opening of a preselected size for gathering the air but excluding particles larger than the sample particles. An impactor section is connected to the low pass section and separates the air flow into a bypass air flow that does not contain the sample particles and a product air flow that does contain the sample particles. A wetted-wall cyclone collector, connected to the impactor section, receives the product air flow and traps the sample particles in a liquid.

  3. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-07-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  4. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-07-15

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  5. Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.; Leptoukh, G.

    2011-01-01

    Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of aerosol products from multiple spacebome sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  6. Direct impact aerosol sampling by electrostatic precipitation

    DOEpatents

    Braden, Jason D.; Harter, Andrew G.; Stinson, Brad J.; Sullivan, Nicholas M.

    2016-02-02

    The present disclosure provides apparatuses for collecting aerosol samples by ionizing an air sample at different degrees. An air flow is generated through a cavity in which at least one corona wire is disposed and electrically charged to form a corona therearound. At least one grounded sample collection plate is provided downstream of the at least one corona wire so that aerosol ions generated within the corona are deposited on the at least one grounded sample collection plate. A plurality of aerosol samples ionized to different degrees can be generated. The at least one corona wire may be perpendicular to the direction of the flow, or may be parallel to the direction of the flow. The apparatus can include a serial connection of a plurality of stages such that each stage is capable of generating at least one aerosol sample, and the air flow passes through the plurality of stages serially.

  7. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, V; Subramanian, V; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B

    2015-07-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging. PMID:26233420

  8. Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, P.F.; Herceg, J.E.; Klocksieben, R.H.

    1984-04-11

    Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage t

  9. Hand calculations for transport of radioactive aerosols through sampling systems.

    PubMed

    Hogue, Mark; Thompson, Martha; Farfan, Eduardo; Hadlock, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Workplace air monitoring programs for sampling radioactive aerosols in nuclear facilities sometimes must rely on sampling systems to move the air to a sample filter in a safe and convenient location. These systems may consist of probes, straight tubing, bends, contractions and other components. Evaluation of these systems for potential loss of radioactive aerosols is important because significant losses can occur. However, it can be very difficult to find fully described equations to model a system manually for a single particle size and even more difficult to evaluate total system efficiency for a polydispersed particle distribution. Some software methods are available, but they may not be directly applicable to the components being evaluated and they may not be completely documented or validated per current software quality assurance requirements. This paper offers a method to model radioactive aerosol transport in sampling systems that is transparent and easily updated with the most applicable models. Calculations are shown with the R Programming Language, but the method is adaptable to other scripting languages. The method has the advantage of transparency and easy verifiability. This paper shows how a set of equations from published aerosol science models may be applied to aspiration and transport efficiency of aerosols in common air sampling system components. An example application using R calculation scripts is demonstrated. The R scripts are provided as electronic attachments.

  10. Hand calculations for transport of radioactive aerosols through sampling systems.

    PubMed

    Hogue, Mark; Thompson, Martha; Farfan, Eduardo; Hadlock, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Workplace air monitoring programs for sampling radioactive aerosols in nuclear facilities sometimes must rely on sampling systems to move the air to a sample filter in a safe and convenient location. These systems may consist of probes, straight tubing, bends, contractions and other components. Evaluation of these systems for potential loss of radioactive aerosols is important because significant losses can occur. However, it can be very difficult to find fully described equations to model a system manually for a single particle size and even more difficult to evaluate total system efficiency for a polydispersed particle distribution. Some software methods are available, but they may not be directly applicable to the components being evaluated and they may not be completely documented or validated per current software quality assurance requirements. This paper offers a method to model radioactive aerosol transport in sampling systems that is transparent and easily updated with the most applicable models. Calculations are shown with the R Programming Language, but the method is adaptable to other scripting languages. The method has the advantage of transparency and easy verifiability. This paper shows how a set of equations from published aerosol science models may be applied to aspiration and transport efficiency of aerosols in common air sampling system components. An example application using R calculation scripts is demonstrated. The R scripts are provided as electronic attachments. PMID:24667389

  11. Global atmospheric sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lezberg, E. A.; Perkins, P. J.; Englund, D. R.; Gauntner, D. J.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Automated instruments were installed on a commercial B-747 aircraft, during the program, to obtain baseline data and to monitor key atmospheric constituents associated with emissions of aircraft engines in order to determine if aircraft are contributing to pollution of the upper atmosphere. Data thus acquired on a global basis over the commercial air routes for 5 to 10 years will be analyzed. Ozone measurements in the 29,000 to 45,000 foot altitude were expanded over what has been available from ozonesondes. Limited aerosol composition measurements from filter samples show low levels of sulfates and nitrates in the upper troposphere. Recently installed instruments for measurement of carbon monoxide and condensation nuclei are beginning to return data.

  12. Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Patrick F.; Herceg, Joseph E.; Klocksieben, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage to the next. Mounted within each collection stage are one or more particle collection frames.

  13. TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOL PROGRAM, PROGRAM PLAN, MARCH 2001

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWARTZ,S.E.; LUNN,P.

    2001-03-01

    The goal of Tropospheric Aerosol Program (TAP) will be to develop the fundamental scientific understanding required to construct tools for simulating the life cycle of tropospheric aerosols--the processes controlling their mass loading, composition, and microphysical properties, all as a function of time, location, and altitude. The TAP approach to achieving this goal will be by conducting closely linked field, modeling, laboratory, and theoretical studies focused on the processes controlling formation, growth, transport, and deposition of tropospheric aerosols. This understanding will be represented in models suitable for describing these processes on a variety of geographical scales; evaluation of these models will be a key component of TAP field activities. In carrying out these tasks TAP will work closely with other programs in DOE and in other Federal and state agencies, and with the private sector. A forum to directly work with our counterparts in industry to ensure that the results of this research are translated into products that are useful to that community will be provided by NARSTO (formerly the North American Research Strategy on Tropospheric Ozone), a public/private partnership, whose membership spans government, the utilities, industry, and university researchers in Mexico, the US, and Canada.

  14. Sampling Submicron T1 Bacteriophage Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Harstad, J. Bruce

    1965-01-01

    Liquid impingers, filter papers, and fritted bubblers were partial viable collectors of radioactive submicron T1 bacteriophage aerosols at 30, 55, and 85% relative humidity. Sampler differences for viable collection were due to incomplete physical collection (slippage) and killing of phage by the samplers. Dynamic aerosols of a mass median diameter of 0.2 μ were produced with a Dautrebande generator from concentrated aqueous purified phage suspensions containing extracellular soluble radioactive phosphate as a physical tracer. There was considerable destruction of phage by the Dautrebande generator; phage titers of the Dautrebande suspension decreased exponentially, but there was a progressive (linear) increase in tracer titers. Liquid impingers recovered the most viable phage but allowed considerable (30 to 48%) slippage, which varies inversely with the aerosol relative humidity. Filter papers were virtually complete physical collectors of submicron particles but were the most destructive. Fritted bubbler slippage was more than 80%. With all samplers, phage kill was highest at 85% relative humidity and lowest at 55% relative humidity. An electrostatic precipitator was used to collect aerosol samples for particle sizing with an electron microscope. The particle size was slightly larger at 85% relative humidity than at 30 or 55% relative humidity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:5866038

  15. Aerosol Sampling with Low Wind Sensitivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalatoor, Suresh

    Occupational exposure to airborne particles is generally evaluated by wearing a personal sampler that collects aerosol particles from the worker's breathing zone during the work cycle. The overall sampling efficiency of most currently available samplers is sensitive to wind velocity and direction. In addition, most samplers have internal losses due to gravitational settling, electrostatic interactions, and internal turbulence. A new sampling technique has been developed, theoretically and experimentally evaluated, and compared to existing techniques. The overall sampling efficiency of the protoype sampler was compared to that of a commonly used sampler, 25 mm closed-face cassette. Uranine was used as the challange aerosol with particle physical diameters 13.5, 20 and 30 mum. The wind velocity ranged from 100 to 300 cm s^ {-1}. It was found to have less internal losses and less dependence on wind velocity and direction. It also yielded better uniformity in the distribution of large particles on the filter surface, an advantage for several types of analysis. A new general equation for sharp-edged inlets was developed that predicts the sampling efficiency of sharp-edged (or thin-walled) inlets in most occupational environments that are weakly disturbed with air motions that cannot be strictly classified as calm-air or fast -moving air. Computational analysis was carried out using the new general equation and was applied to situations when the wind velocity vector is not steady, but fluctuates around predominant average values of its magnitude and orientation. Two sampling environments, horizontal aerosol flow (ambient atmosphere) and vertical aerosol flow (industrial stacks) have been considered. It was found, that even for small fluctuations in wind direction the sampling efficiency may be significantly less than that obtained for the mean wind direction. Time variations in wind magnitude at a fixed wind direction were found to affect the sampling efficiency to a

  16. Metaproteomic analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fobang; Lai, Senchao; Reinmuth-Selzle, Kathrin; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Després, Viviane R; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kampf, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Metaproteomic analysis of air particulate matter provides information about the abundance and properties of bioaerosols in the atmosphere and their influence on climate and public health. We developed and applied efficient methods for the extraction and analysis of proteins from glass fiber filter samples of total, coarse, and fine particulate matter. Size exclusion chromatography was applied to remove matrix components, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied for protein fractionation according to molecular size, followed by in-gel digestion and LC-MS/MS analysis of peptides using a hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap MS. Maxquant software and the Swiss-Prot database were used for protein identification. In samples collected at a suburban location in central Europe, we found proteins that originated mainly from plants, fungi, and bacteria, which constitute a major fraction of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) in the atmosphere. Allergenic proteins were found in coarse and fine particle samples, and indications for atmospheric degradation of proteins were observed. Graphical abstract Workflow for the metaproteomic analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples. PMID:27411545

  17. Aerosol and vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Data report for in-tank OVS samples obtained December 2, 1993. Waste Tank Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.R.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-03-01

    Waste tank vapor space samples for a flammability analysis and characterization were obtained from Tank 241-C-103, referred to as C-103, in early December 1993. The purpose of this report is to describe the analytical results of these samples and the resulting concentration of nominal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) in the tank vapor space. Past reports of a thick fog in the vapor space of C-103 led to a concern that an NPH fog could supply fuel to the vapor space in a form that could not be resolved ability measurement procedures. The scope of this study was to utilize a previously validated method to determine actual NPH concentrations. In this method, NPH samples were collected in multi-layer aerosol/vapor sorbent tubes inserted into the tank vapor space and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  18. Historical Data from the NOAA WP-3D Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP) Flights: 1983, 1986, 1989 and 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, R. C.; Sheridan, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    A NOAA WP-3D instrumented for gas, aerosol and radiation measurements was flown 400 research hours over four periods (March-April: 1983, 1986, 1989 and 1992) covering large areas of the Arctic Basin from Alaska to Norway studying Arctic Haze and air chemistry. In 1986 the program included aircraft from the University of Washington; AES, Canada; and NILU, Norway. Profiles were conducted above the Barrow, Alert and Ny Alesund atmospheric baseline stations, and numerous profiles across the low level inversion layer over the ice cap to put surface, boundary layer and free troposphere measurements into perspective. Highlights from AGASP include observations of up to 6 stacked layers of air pollution >5,000 km from the nearest possible source regions; layers of air pollution containing high concentrations of black carbon and anthropogenic gases; photochemical ozone depletion in the Arctic boundary layer; intrusions of stratospheric air injecting stratospheric gases and aerosols deep into the Arctic troposphere; haze optical depths of up to 0.5; and data showing that heat and moisture from open leads in the Arctic ice pack can breach the boundary layer inversion and rise to near the tropopause. In most profiles,aerosol light scattering, and ozone, black carbon and condensation nucleus concentrations were much reduced beneath boundary layer temperature inversion (~1 km above the ice). Since most of the AGASP and related publications pre-date current easy electronic access, a file listing the titles and sources of 185 papers published in journals, books, and NOAA Technical Memos is available at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/obop/schnell/.

  19. Volcanic Aerosol Evolution: Model vs. In Situ Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, M. A.; Rietmeijer, F. J.; Brearley, A. J.; Fischer, T. P.

    2002-12-01

    Volcanoes are the most significant non-anthropogenic source of tropospheric aerosols. Aerosol samples were collected at different distances from 92°C fumarolic source at Poás Volcano. Aerosols were captured on TEM grids coated by a thin C-film using a specially designed collector. In the sampling, grids were exposed to the plume for 30-second intervals then sealed and frozen to prevent reaction before ATEM analysis to determine aerosol size and chemistry. Gas composition was established using gas chromatography, wet chemistry techniques, AAS and Ion Chromatography on samples collected directly from a fumarolic vent. SO2 flux was measured remotely by COSPEC. A Gaussian plume dispersion model was used to model concentrations of the gases at different distances down-wind. Calculated mixing ratios of air and the initial gas species were used as input to the thermo-chemical model GASWORKS (Symonds and Reed, Am. Jour. Sci., 1993). Modeled products were compared with measured aerosol compositions. Aerosols predicted to precipitate out of the plume one meter above the fumarole are [CaSO4, Fe2.3SO4, H2SO4, MgF2. Na2SO4, silica, water]. Where the plume leaves the confines of the crater, 380 meters distant, the predicted aerosols are the same, excepting FeF3 replacing Fe2.3SO4. Collected aerosols show considerable compositional differences between the sampling locations and are more complex than those predicted. Aerosols from the fumarole consist of [Fe +/- Si,S,Cl], [S +/- O] and [Si +/- O]. Aerosols collected on the crater rim consist of the same plus [O,Na,Mg,Ca], [O,Si,Cl +/- Fe], [Fe,O,F] and [S,O +/- Mg,Ca]. The comparison between results obtained by the equilibrium gas model and the actual aerosol compositions shows that an assumption of chemical and thermal equilibrium evolution is invalid. The complex aerosols collected contrast the simple formulae predicted. These findings show that complex, non-equilibrium chemical reactions take place immediately upon volcanic

  20. A direct method for e-cigarette aerosol sample collection.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Hess, Catherine; Jarmul, Stephanie; Rule, Ana

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing in populations around the world. Recent evidence has shown that the aerosol produced by e-cigarettes can contain a variety of toxicants. Published studies characterizing toxicants in e-cigarette aerosol have relied on filters, impingers or sorbent tubes, which are methods that require diluting or extracting the sample in a solution during collection. We have developed a collection system that directly condenses e-cigarette aerosol samples for chemical and toxicological analyses. The collection system consists of several cut pipette tips connected with short pieces of tubing. The pipette tip-based collection system can be connected to a peristaltic pump, a vacuum pump, or directly to an e-cigarette user for the e-cigarette aerosol to flow through the system. The pipette tip-based system condenses the aerosol produced by the e-cigarette and collects a liquid sample that is ready for analysis without the need of intermediate extraction solutions. We tested a total of 20 e-cigarettes from 5 different brands commercially available in Maryland. The pipette tip-based collection system condensed between 0.23 and 0.53mL of post-vaped e-liquid after 150 puffs. The proposed method is highly adaptable, can be used during field work and in experimental settings, and allows collecting aerosol samples from a wide variety of e-cigarette devices, yielding a condensate of the likely exact substance that is being delivered to the lungs.

  1. A direct method for e-cigarette aerosol sample collection.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Hess, Catherine; Jarmul, Stephanie; Rule, Ana

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing in populations around the world. Recent evidence has shown that the aerosol produced by e-cigarettes can contain a variety of toxicants. Published studies characterizing toxicants in e-cigarette aerosol have relied on filters, impingers or sorbent tubes, which are methods that require diluting or extracting the sample in a solution during collection. We have developed a collection system that directly condenses e-cigarette aerosol samples for chemical and toxicological analyses. The collection system consists of several cut pipette tips connected with short pieces of tubing. The pipette tip-based collection system can be connected to a peristaltic pump, a vacuum pump, or directly to an e-cigarette user for the e-cigarette aerosol to flow through the system. The pipette tip-based system condenses the aerosol produced by the e-cigarette and collects a liquid sample that is ready for analysis without the need of intermediate extraction solutions. We tested a total of 20 e-cigarettes from 5 different brands commercially available in Maryland. The pipette tip-based collection system condensed between 0.23 and 0.53mL of post-vaped e-liquid after 150 puffs. The proposed method is highly adaptable, can be used during field work and in experimental settings, and allows collecting aerosol samples from a wide variety of e-cigarette devices, yielding a condensate of the likely exact substance that is being delivered to the lungs. PMID:27200479

  2. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

  3. Aerosol measurements over the Pacific Ocean in support of the IR aerosol backscatter program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Savoie, Dennis L.

    1995-01-01

    The major efforts under NASA contract NAG8-841 included: (1) final analyses of the samples collected during the first GLOBE survey flight that occurred in November 1989 and collections and analysis of aerosol samples during the second GLOBE survey flight in May and June 1990. During the first GLOBE survey flight, daily samples were collected at four stations (Midway, Rarotonga, American Samoa, and Norfolk Island) throughout the month of November 1989. Weekly samples were collected at Shemya, Alaska, and at Karamea, New Zealand. During the second GLOBE survey flight, daily samples were collected at Midway, Oahu, American Samoa, Rarotonga, and Norfolk Island; weekly samples were collected at Shemya. These samples were all analyzed for sodium (sea-salt), chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and methanesulfonate at the University of Miami and for aluminum at the University of Rhode Island (under a subcontract). (2) Samples continued to be collected on a weekly basis at all stations during the periods between and after the survey flights. These weekly samples were also analyzed at the University of Miami for the suite of water-soluble species. (3) In August 1990, the results obtained from the above studies were submitted to the appropriate personnel at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to become part of the GLOBE data base for comparison with data from instruments used aboard the aircraft. In addition, the data will be compared with data previously obtained at these stations as part of the Sea-Air Exchange (SEAREX) Program. This comparison will provide valuable information on the representativeness of the periods in terms of the longer term aerosol climatology over the Pacific Ocean. (4) Several publications have been written using data from this grant. The data will continue to be used in the future as part of a continuing investigation of the long-term trends and interannual variations in aerosol species concentrations over the Pacific Ocean.

  4. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, A.K.

    1984-09-07

    This disclosure relates to separation of aerosol particles from gas samples withdrawn from within a contained atmosphere, such as containment vessels for nuclear reactors or other process equipment where remote gaseous sampling is required. It is specifically directed to separation of dense aerosols including particles of any size and at high mass loadings and high corrosivity. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract DE-AC06-76FF02170 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  5. Study on Dicarboxylic Acids in Aerosol Samples with Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Heidi; Sirén, Heli

    2014-01-01

    The research was performed to study the simultaneous detection of a homologous series of α, ω-dicarboxylic acids (C2–C10), oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic, suberic, azelaic, and sebacic acids, with capillary electrophoresis using indirect UV detection. Good separation efficiency in 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as background electrolyte modified with myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide was obtained. The dicarboxylic acids were ionised and separated within five minutes. For the study, authentic samples were collected onto dry cellulose membrane filters of a cascade impactor (12 stages) from outdoor spring aerosols in an urban area. Hot water and ultrasonication extraction methods were used to isolate the acids from membrane filters. Due to the low concentrations of acids in the aerosols, the extracts were concentrated with solid-phase extraction (SPE) before determination. The enrichment of the carboxylic acids was between 86 and 134% with sample pretreatment followed by 100-time increase by preparation of the sample to 50 μL. Inaccuracy was optimised for all the sample processing steps. The aerosols contained dicarboxylic acids C2–C10. Then, mostly they contained C2, C5, and C10. Only one sample contained succinic acid. In the study, the concentrations of the acids in aerosols were lower than 10 ng/m3. PMID:24729915

  6. On background subtraction in PIXE analysis of aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S. M.; Eldred, R. A.; Feeney, P. J.; Cahill, T. A.

    1987-03-01

    The technique of background evaluation by using the spectrum of a blank substrate can, in principle, only be applied to spectra of lightly loaded aerosol samples with substrates having the same thickness as the blank. In this paper we present and discuss experimental results to show the effects of thickness difference between the blank and the sample substrate on such background evaluation. Computational procedures for making corrections for these effects as well as for the effects of thick sample mass are suggested.

  7. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF SEMIVOLATILE AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Denuder based samplers can effectively separate semivolatile gases from particles and 'freeze' the partitioning in time. Conversely, samples collected on filters partition mass according to the conditions of the influent airstream, which may change over time. As a result thes...

  8. In-mask aerosol sampling for powered air purifying respirators

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.Y.U.; Sega, K.; Rubow, K.L.; Lenhart, S.W.; Myers, W.R.

    1984-04-01

    A system for sampling aerosols in the facepiece of a powered air purifying respirator has been described. The system consists of a sampling inlet mounted on the respiratory facepiece, a filter cassette and a personal sampling pump. The theoretical and practical considerations leading to the design of the sampling inlet have been discussed and experimental data presented showing the efficiency of the inlet as a function of particle size and sampling flow rate. The in-mask sampling system has been designed for powered air purifying respirators.

  9. Deposition of aerosols in sampling tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, J. B.; Bajura, R. A.

    1982-05-01

    The particulate loading in the process stream of coal conversion and gasification plants must be accurately determined for reasons of environmental health and safety and the protection of operating equipment such as gas turbines. A common method of obtaining these measurements is with aspiration probes. Deposition of particulate on the probe walls is a source of significant error in these measurements. Literature on deposition in sampling tubes for laminar and turbulent flows, the effects of the entrance region and bends in the sampling lines are reviewed. A research plan is proposed for additional work in the analysis of deposition. Experimental work is also proposed to verify the analytical studies. Methods to correct for the effects of deposition in sampling lines are developed.

  10. Artifact free denuder method for sampling of carbonaceous aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuška, P.; Vecera, Z.; Broškovicová, A.

    2003-04-01

    Over the past decade, a growing attention has been focused on the carbonaceous aerosols. Although they may account for 30--60% of the total fine aerosol mass, their concentration and formation mechanisms are not well understood, particularly in comparison with major fine particle inorganic species. The deficiency in knowledge of carbonaceous aerosols results from their complexity and because of problems associated with their collection. Conventional sampling techniques of the carbonaceous aerosols, which utilize filters/backup adsorbents suffer from sampling artefacts. Positive artifacts are mainly due to adsorption of gas-phase organic compounds by the filter material or by the already collected particles, whereas negative artifacts arise from the volatilisation of already collected organic compounds from the filter. Furthermore, in the course of the sampling, the composition of the collected organic compounds may be modified by oxidants (O_3, NO_2, PAN, peroxides) that are present in the air passing through the sampler. It is clear that new, artifact free, method for sampling of carbonaceous aerosols is needed. A combination of a diffusion denuder and a filter in series is very promising in this respect. The denuder is expected to collect gaseous oxidants and gas-phase organic compounds from sample air stream prior to collection of aerosol particles on filters, and eliminate thus both positive and negative sampling artifacts for carbonaceous aerosols. This combination is subject of the presentation. Several designs of diffusion denuders (cylindrical, annular, parallel plate, multi-channel) in combination with various types of wall coatings (dry, liquid) were examined. Special attention was given to preservation of the long-term collection efficiency. Different adsorbents (activated charcoal, molecular sieve, porous polymers) and sorbents coated with various chemical reagents (KI, Na_2SO_3, MnO_2, ascorbic acid) or chromatographic stationary phases (silicon oils

  11. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1986-01-01

    A method for separating gaseous samples from a contained atmosphere that includes aerosol particles uses the step of repelling particles from a gas permeable surface or membrane by heating the surface to a temperature greater than that of the surrounding atmosphere. The resulting thermophoretic forces maintain the gas permeable surface clear of aerosol particles. The disclosed apparatus utilizes a downwardly facing heated plate of gas permeable material to combine thermophoretic repulsion and gravity forces to prevent particles of any size from contacting the separating plate surfaces.

  12. Aerosol sampling and Transport Efficiency Calculation (ASTEC) and application to surtsey/DCH aerosol sampling system: Code version 1. 0: Code description and user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Yamano, N.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    This report describes the features and use of the Aerosol Sampling and Transport Efficiency Calculation (ASTEC) Code. The ASTEC code has been developed to assess aerosol transport efficiency source term experiments at Sandia National Laboratories. This code also has broad application for aerosol sampling and transport efficiency calculations in general as well as for aerosol transport considerations in nuclear reactor safety issues. 32 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Release of Free DNA by Membrane-Impaired Bacterial Aerosols Due to Aerosolization and Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Huajun; Han, Taewon; Fennell, Donna E.

    2013-01-01

    We report here that stress experienced by bacteria due to aerosolization and air sampling can result in severe membrane impairment, leading to the release of DNA as free molecules. Escherichia coli and Bacillus atrophaeus bacteria were aerosolized and then either collected directly into liquid or collected using other collection media and then transferred into liquid. The amount of DNA released was quantified as the cell membrane damage index (ID), i.e., the number of 16S rRNA gene copies in the supernatant liquid relative to the total number in the bioaerosol sample. During aerosolization by a Collison nebulizer, the ID of E. coli and B. atrophaeus in the nebulizer suspension gradually increased during 60 min of continuous aerosolization. We found that the ID of bacteria during aerosolization was statistically significantly affected by the material of the Collison jar (glass > polycarbonate; P < 0.001) and by the bacterial species (E. coli > B. atrophaeus; P < 0.001). When E. coli was collected for 5 min by filtration, impaction, and impingement, its ID values were within the following ranges: 0.051 to 0.085, 0.16 to 0.37, and 0.068 to 0.23, respectively; when it was collected by electrostatic precipitation, the ID values (0.011 to 0.034) were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those with other sampling methods. Air samples collected inside an equine facility for 2 h by filtration and impingement exhibited ID values in the range of 0.30 to 0.54. The data indicate that the amount of cell damage during bioaerosol sampling and the resulting release of DNA can be substantial and that this should be taken into account when analyzing bioaerosol samples. PMID:24096426

  14. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes: sampling criteria and aerosol characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Stone, Samuel; Cumpston, Jared L.; Friend, Sherri; Porter, Dale W.; Castranova, Vincent; Frazer, David G.

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to develop protocols for sampling and characterizing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) aerosols in workplaces or during inhalation studies. Manufactured dry powder containing MWCNT’s, combined with soot and metal catalysts, form complex morphologies and diverse shapes. The aerosols, examined in this study, were produced using an acoustical generator. Representative samples were collected from an exposure chamber using filters and a cascade impactor for microscopic and gravimetric analyses. Results from filters showed that a density of 0.008–0.10 particles per µm2 filter surface provided adequate samples for particle counting and sizing. Microscopic counting indicated that MWCNT’s, resuspended at a concentration of 10 mg/m3, contained 2.7 × 104 particles/cm3. Each particle structure contained an average of 18 nanotubes, resulting in a total of 4.9 × 105 nanotubes/cm3. In addition, fibrous particles within the aerosol had a count median length of 3.04 µm and a width of 100.3 nm, while the isometric particles had a count median diameter of 0.90 µm. A combination of impactor and microscopic measurements established that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the mixture was 1.5 µm. It was also determined that the mean effective density of well-defined isometric particles was between 0.71 and 0.88 g/cm3, and the mean shape factor of individual nanotubes was between 1.94 and 2.71. The information obtained from this study can be used for designing animal inhalation exposure studies and adopted as guidance for sampling and characterizing MWCNT aerosols in workplaces. The measurement scheme should be relevant for any carbon nanotube aerosol. PMID:23033994

  15. A method for sampling microbial aerosols using high altitude balloons.

    PubMed

    Bryan, N C; Stewart, M; Granger, D; Guzik, T G; Christner, B C

    2014-12-01

    Owing to the challenges posed to microbial aerosol sampling at high altitudes, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and extent of microbial taxa in the Earth-atmosphere system. To directly address this knowledge gap, we designed, constructed, and tested a system that passively samples aerosols during ascent through the atmosphere while tethered to a helium-filled latex sounding balloon. The sampling payload is ~ 2.7 kg and comprised of an electronics box and three sampling chambers (one serving as a procedural control). Each chamber is sealed with retractable doors that can be commanded to open and close at designated altitudes. The payload is deployed together with radio beacons that transmit GPS coordinates (latitude, longitude and altitude) in real time for tracking and recovery. A cut mechanism separates the payload string from the balloon at any desired altitude, returning all equipment safely to the ground on a parachute. When the chambers are opened, aerosol sampling is performed using the Rotorod® collection method (40 rods per chamber), with each rod passing through 0.035 m3 per km of altitude sampled. Based on quality control measurements, the collection of ~ 100 cells rod(-1) provided a 3-sigma confidence level of detection. The payload system described can be mated with any type of balloon platform and provides a tool for characterizing the vertical distribution of microorganisms in the troposphere and stratosphere. PMID:25455021

  16. Program Models A Laser Beam Focused In An Aerosol Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    Monte Carlo analysis performed on packets of light. Program for Analysis of Laser Beam Focused Within Aerosol Spray (FLSPRY) developed for theoretical analysis of propagation of laser pulse optically focused within aerosol spray. Applied for example, to analyze laser ignition arrangement in which focused laser pulse used to ignite liquid aerosol fuel spray. Scattering and absorption of laser light by individual aerosol droplets evaluated by use of electromagnetic Lorenz-Mie theory. Written in FORTRAN 77 for both UNIX-based computers and DEC VAX-series computers. VAX version of program (LEW-16051). UNIX version (LEW-16065).

  17. Rapid cleanup of bacterial DNA from samples containing aerosol contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menking, Darrell E.; Kracke, Suzanne K.; Emanuel, Peter A.; Valdes, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an in vitro enzymatic, synthetic method used to amplify specific DNA sequences from organisms. Detection of DNA using gene probes allows for absolute identification not only of specific organisms, but also of genetic material in recombinant organisms. PCR is an exquisite biological method for detecting bacteria in aerosol samples. A major challenge facing detection of DNA from field samples is that they are almost sure to contain impurities, especially impurities that inhibit amplification through PCR. DNA is being extracted from air, sewage/stool samples, food, sputum, a water and sediment; however, multi- step, time consuming methods are required to isolate the DNA from the surrounding contamination. This research focuses on developing a method for rapid cleanup of DNA which combines extraction and purification of DNA while, at the same time, removing inhibitors from 'dirty samples' to produce purified, PCR-ready DNA. GeneReleaser produces PCR-ready DNA in a rapid five-minute protocol. GeneReleaser resin was able to clean up sample contain micrograms of typical aerosol and water contaminants. The advantages of using GR are that it is rapid, inexpensive, requires one-step, uses no hazardous material and produces PCR-ready DNA.

  18. Detection of Paracoccidioides spp. in environmental aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Thales Domingos; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Da Graça Macoris, Severino Assis; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account that paracoccidioidomycosis infection occurs by inhalation of the asexual conidia produced by Paracoccidioides spp. in its saprobic phase, this work presents the collection of aerosol samples as an option for environmental detection of this pathogen, by positioning a cyclonic air sampler at the entrance of armadillo burrows. Methods included direct culture, extinction technique culture and Nested PCR of the rRNA coding sequence, comprising the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. In addition, we evaluated one armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) as a positive control for the studied area. Although the pathogen could not be isolated by the culturing strategies, the aerosol sampling associated with molecular detection through Nested PCR proved the best method for discovering Paracoccidioides spp. in the environment. Most of the ITS sequences obtained in this investigation proved to be highly similar with the homologous sequences of Paracoccidioides lutzii from the GenBank database, suggesting that this Paracoccidioides species may not be exclusive to mid-western Brazil as proposed so far. PMID:22762209

  19. Detection of Paracoccidioides spp. in environmental aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Thales Domingos; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Da Graça Macoris, Severino Assis; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account that paracoccidioidomycosis infection occurs by inhalation of the asexual conidia produced by Paracoccidioides spp. in its saprobic phase, this work presents the collection of aerosol samples as an option for environmental detection of this pathogen, by positioning a cyclonic air sampler at the entrance of armadillo burrows. Methods included direct culture, extinction technique culture and Nested PCR of the rRNA coding sequence, comprising the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. In addition, we evaluated one armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) as a positive control for the studied area. Although the pathogen could not be isolated by the culturing strategies, the aerosol sampling associated with molecular detection through Nested PCR proved the best method for discovering Paracoccidioides spp. in the environment. Most of the ITS sequences obtained in this investigation proved to be highly similar with the homologous sequences of Paracoccidioides lutzii from the GenBank database, suggesting that this Paracoccidioides species may not be exclusive to mid-western Brazil as proposed so far.

  20. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particles in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Microanalysis of Aerosol Impactor Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Herein is reported activities to support the characterization of the aerosol in the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) collected during the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (ASHOE/MAESA) missions in 1994. Through a companion proposal, another group was to measure the size distribution of aerosols in the 0.008 to 2 micrometer diameter range and to collect for us impactor samples of particles larger than about 0.02 gm. In the first year, we conducted laboratory studies related to particulate deposition patterns on our collection substrates, and have performed the analysis of many ASHOE/MAESA aerosol samples from 1994 using analytical electron microscopy (AEM). We have been building an "aerosol climatology" with these data that documents the types and relative abundances of particles observed at different latitudes and altitudes. The second year (and non-funded extension periods) saw continued analyses of impactor aerosol samples, including more ASHOE/MAESA samples, some northern hemisphere samples from the NASA Stratospheric Photochemistry Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) program for comparison, and a few aerosol samples from the NASA Stratospheric TRacers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT) program. A high-resolution field emission microscope was used for the analysis and re-analysis of a number of samples to determine if this instrument was superior in performance to our conventional electron microscope. In addition, some basic laboratory studies were conducted to determine the minimum detectable and analyzable particle size for different types of aerosols. In all, 61 aerosol samples were analyzed, with a total of over 30,000 individual particle analyses. In all analyzed samples, sulfate particles comprised the major aerosol number fraction. It must be stressed that particles composed of more than one species, for example sulfate and organic carbon, were classified

  1. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    2000-01-24

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through June 1999. A decontamination factor for the RMCS exhauster filter housing is calculated based on operation data.

  2. Validation of atmospheric aerosols parallel sampling in a multifold device.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C M; Camões, M F; Bigus, P; Fachado, A A; Silva, R B

    2015-06-01

    In this work, particulate matter was collected using an active sampling system consisting of a PM10 (<10 μm) inlet coupled to a multifold device containing six channels, connected to a vacuum pump. Each channel was equipped with a filter holder fitted with adequately chosen filters. The system was fixed on a metallic structure, which was placed on the roof of the laboratory building, at the Faculty of Sciences, in Lisbon. Sampling took place under flow-controlled conditions. Aerosols were extracted from the filters with water, in defined conditions, and the water-soluble fraction was quantified by ion chromatography (IC) for the determination of inorganic anions (Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-)). Equivalent sampling through the various channels was validated. Validation was based on the metrological compatibility of the content results for the various filters. Ion masses are metrologically equivalent when their absolute difference is smaller than the respective expanded uncertainty. When this condition is verified, the studied multifold device produces equivalent samples. PMID:26013655

  3. Naval biomedical research laboratory, programmed environment, aerosol facility.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L J

    1971-02-01

    Mathematical considerations of the behavior of aerosolized particles in a rotating drum are presented, and the rotating drum as an aerosol-holding device is compared with a stirred settling chamber. The basic overall design elements of a facility employing eight rotating drums are presented. This facility provides an environment in which temperature can be maintained within 0.5 F (0.25 C) of any set point over a range of 50 to 120 F (10 to 49 C); concomitantly the relative humidity within any selected drum may be controlled in a nominal range of 0 to 90%. Some of the major technical aspects of operating this facility are also presented, including handling of air support systems, aerosol production, animal exposure, aerosol monitoring, and sampling. PMID:5549701

  4. Naval Biomedical Research Laboratory, Programmed Environment, Aerosol Facility

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, L. J.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical considerations of the behavior of aerosolized particles in a rotating drum are presented, and the rotating drum as an aerosol-holding device is compared with a stirred settling chamber. The basic overall design elements of a facility employing eight rotating drums are presented. This facility provides an environment in which temperature can be maintained within 0.5 F (0.25 C) of any set point over a range of 50 to 120 F (10 to 49 C); concomitantly the relative humidity within any selected drum may be controlled in a nominal range of 0 to 90%. Some of the major technical aspects of operating this facility are also presented, including handling of air support systems, aerosol production, animal exposure, aerosol monitoring, and sampling. Images PMID:5549701

  5. Measurement of carbonaceous aerosol with different sampling configurations and frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; He, K.-B.

    2015-07-01

    A common approach for measuring the mass of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in airborne particulate matter involves collection on a quartz fiber filter and subsequent thermal-optical analysis. Although having been widely used in aerosol studies and in PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) chemical speciation monitoring networks in particular, this measurement approach is prone to several types of artifacts, such as the positive sampling artifact caused by the adsorption of gaseous organic compounds onto the quartz filter, the negative sampling artifact due to the evaporation of OC from the collected particles and the analytical artifact in the thermal-optical determination of OC and EC (which is strongly associated with the transformation of OC into char OC and typically results in an underestimation of EC). The presence of these artifacts introduces substantial uncertainties to observational data on OC and EC and consequently limits our ability to evaluate OC and EC estimations in air quality models. In this study, the influence of sampling frequency on the measurement of OC and EC was investigated based on PM2.5 samples collected in Beijing, China. Our results suggest that the negative sampling artifact of a bare quartz filter could be remarkably enhanced due to the uptake of water vapor by the filter medium. We also demonstrate that increasing sampling duration does not necessarily reduce the impact of positive sampling artifact, although it will enhance the analytical artifact. Due to the effect of the analytical artifact, EC concentrations of 48 h averaged samples were about 15 % lower than results from 24 h averaged ones. In addition, it was found that with the increase of sampling duration, EC results exhibited a stronger dependence on the charring correction method and, meanwhile, optical attenuation (ATN) of EC (retrieved from the carbon analyzer) was more significantly biased by the shadowing effect. Results from this study will be useful for the

  6. The Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) for Integrated Analysis of Satellite Retrieval Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Petrenko, Maksym; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Among the known atmospheric constituents, aerosols represent the greatest uncertainty in climate research. Although satellite-based aerosol retrieval has practically become routine, especially during the last decade, there is often disagreement between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors, leaving users confused as to which sensors to trust for answering important science questions about the distribution, properties, and impacts of aerosols. As long as there is no consensus and the inconsistencies are not well characterized and understood ', there will be no way of developing reliable climate data records from satellite aerosol measurements. Fortunately, the most globally representative well-calibrated ground-based aerosol measurements corresponding to the satellite-retrieved products are available from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). To adequately utilize the advantages offered by this vital resource,., an online Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) was recently developed. The aim of MAPSS is to facilitate detailed comparative analysis of satellite aerosol measurements from different sensors (Terra-MODIS, Aqua-MODIS, Terra-MISR, Aura-OMI, Parasol-POLDER, and Calipso-CALIOP) based on the collocation of these data products over AERONET stations. In this presentation, we will describe the strategy of the MAPSS system, its potential advantages for the aerosol community, and the preliminary results of an integrated comparative uncertainty analysis of aerosol products from multiple satellite sensors.

  7. Aerosol Sample Inhomogeneity with Debris from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Reynaido; Biegalski, Steven R.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-09-01

    Radionuclide aerosol sampling is a vital component in the detection of nuclear explosions, nuclear accidents, and other radiation releases. This was proven by the detection and tracking of emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi incident across the globe by IMS stations. Two separate aerosol samplers were operated in Richland, WA following the event and debris from the accident were measured at levels well above detection limits. While the atmospheric activity concentration of radionuclides generally compared well between the two stations, they did not agree within uncertainties. This paper includes a detailed study of the aerosol sample homogeneity of 134Cs and 137Cs, then relates it to the overall uncertainty of the original measurement. Our results show that sample inhomogeneity adds an additional 5–10% uncertainty to each aerosol measurement and that this uncertainty is in the same range as the discrepancies between the two aerosol sample measurements from Richland, WA.

  8. Size selective isocyanate aerosols personal air sampling using porous plastic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Huynh, Cong; Duc, Trinh Vu

    2009-02-01

    As part of a European project (SMT4-CT96-2137), various European institutions specialized in occupational hygiene (BGIA, HSL, IOM, INRS, IST, Ambiente e Lavoro) have established a program of scientific collaboration to develop one or more prototypes of European personal samplers for the collection of simultaneous three dust fractions: inhalable, thoracic and respirable. These samplers based on existing sampling heads (IOM, GSP and cassettes) use Polyurethane Plastic Foam (PUF) according to their porosity to support sampling and separator size of the particles. In this study, the authors present an original application of size selective personal air sampling using chemical impregnated PUF to perform isocyanate aerosols capturing and derivatizing in industrial spray-painting shops.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN RH -DENUDED MIE ACTIVE SAMPLING SYSTEM AND TARGETED AEROSOL CALIBRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MIE pDR 1200 nephelometer provides time resolved aerosol concentrations during personal and fixed-site sampling. Active (pumped) operation allows defining an upper PM2.5 particle size, however, this dramatically increases the aerosol mass passing through the phot...

  10. TRU waste-sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1985-08-01

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of /sup 238/Pu- and /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T.; Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence

  12. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry of Seasonal Aerosol Samples From an Urban Location in the Italian Po Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahon, Brendan; Giorio, Chiara; Gallimore, Peter J.; Zielinski, Arthur T.; Tapparo, Andrea; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The Po Valley in Northern Italy represents one of the most polluted environments in Europe, with PM2.5 and ozone concentrations regularly exceeding 100μg/m3 and 50ppb respectively. Particularly during winter, prolonged inversion conditions together with biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions regularly lead to severe air pollution events. Over the course of several months in 2013-14, we carried out a sampling program at a city-centre site in Padova, Italy, collecting 24-hour high-volume aerosol filter samples, 18 in winter (mid December - mid March) and 20 in summer (late May - late July). Utilising high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques, we have characterised these sample sets to examine the long-term variation in aerosol composition over the sampling campaign and to determine the effect of anthropogenic gaseous pollutants such as NOx and SO2 on the composition of organic particle components. The results showed that between ca. 450-700 ions were measured in each sample in both the summer and winter sample sets, however the majority (90%) of ions in the winter samples were below 300m/z and below 380m/z in the summer samples. A much higher percentage of CHO-only ions were found in winter (ca. 27%) compared to the summer samples (ca. 6%), indicating a higher degree of photochemical reactions taking place involving pollutants such as NOx and SO2 in summer. Our results represent the first long term data set of high-resolution measurements of aerosol composition and demonstrate that this technique is an important tool in evaluating the composition of aerosol particles in complex polluted urban areas.

  13. Comparison of methods for the quantification of the different carbon fractions in atmospheric aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Teresa; Mirante, Fátima; Almeida, Elza; Pio, Casimiro

    2010-05-01

    to evaluate the possibility of continue using, for trend analysis, the historical data set, we performed an inter-comparison between our method and an adaptation of EUSAAR-2 protocol, taking into account that this last protocol will possibly be recommended for analysing carbonaceous aerosols at European sites. In this inter-comparison we tested different types of samples (PM2,5, PM2,5-10, PM10) with large spectra of carbon loadings, with and without pre-treatment acidification. For a reduced number of samples, five replicates of each one were analysed by each method for statistical purposes. The inter-comparison study revealed that when the sample analysis were performed in similar room conditions, the two thermo-optic methods give similar results for TC, OC and EC, without significant differences at a 95% confidence level. The correlation between the methods, DAO and EUSAAR-2 for EC is smaller than for TC and OC, although showing a coefficient correlation over 0,95, with a slope close to one. For samples performed in different periods, room temperatures seem to have a significant effect over OC quantification. The sample pre-treatment with HCl fumigation tends to decrease TC quantification, mainly due to the more volatile organic fraction release during the first heating step. For a set of 20 domestic biomass burning samples analyzed by the DAO method we observed an average decrease in TC quantification of 3,7 % in relation to non-acidified samples, even though this decrease is accompanied by an average increase in the less volatile organic fraction. The indirect measurement of carbon carbonate, usually a minor carbon component in the carbonaceous aerosol, based on the difference between TC measured by TOM of acidified and non-acidified samples is not a robust measurement, considering the biases affecting his quantification. The present study show that the two thermo-optic temperature program used for OC and EC quantification give similar results, and if in the

  14. Production of aerosols by optical catapulting: Imaging, performance parameters and laser-induced plasma sampling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhamid, M.; Fortes, F. J.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Harith, M. A.; Laserna, J. J.

    2013-11-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) is a sampling and manipulation method that has been extensively studied in applications ranging from single cells in heterogeneous tissue samples to analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints. Specifically, analysis of the catapulted material by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a promising approach for the inspection of solid particulate matter. In this work, we focus our attention in the experimental parameters to be optimized for a proper aerosol generation while increasing the particle density in the focal region sampled by LIBS. For this purpose we use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. Shadowgraphic images were acquired for studying the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. Aluminum silicate particles (0.2-8 μm) were ejected from the substrate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, while time-resolved images recorded the propagation of the generated aerosol. For LIBS analysis and shadowgraphy visualization, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm was employed, respectively. Several parameters such as the time delay between pulses and the effect of laser fluence on the aerosol production have been also investigated. After optimization, the particle density in the sampling focal volume increases while improving the aerosol sampling rate till ca. 90%.

  15. On the validity of the Poisson assumption in sampling nanometer-sized aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Damit, Brian E; Wu, Dr. Chang-Yu; Cheng, Mengdawn

    2014-01-01

    A Poisson process is traditionally believed to apply to the sampling of aerosols. For a constant aerosol concentration, it is assumed that a Poisson process describes the fluctuation in the measured concentration because aerosols are stochastically distributed in space. Recent studies, however, have shown that sampling of micrometer-sized aerosols has non-Poissonian behavior with positive correlations. The validity of the Poisson assumption for nanometer-sized aerosols has not been examined and thus was tested in this study. Its validity was tested for four particle sizes - 10 nm, 25 nm, 50 nm and 100 nm - by sampling from indoor air with a DMA- CPC setup to obtain a time series of particle counts. Five metrics were calculated from the data: pair-correlation function (PCF), time-averaged PCF, coefficient of variation, probability of measuring a concentration at least 25% greater than average, and posterior distributions from Bayesian inference. To identify departures from Poissonian behavior, these metrics were also calculated for 1,000 computer-generated Poisson time series with the same mean as the experimental data. For nearly all comparisons, the experimental data fell within the range of 80% of the Poisson-simulation values. Essentially, the metrics for the experimental data were indistinguishable from a simulated Poisson process. The greater influence of Brownian motion for nanometer-sized aerosols may explain the Poissonian behavior observed for smaller aerosols. Although the Poisson assumption was found to be valid in this study, it must be carefully applied as the results here do not definitively prove applicability in all sampling situations.

  16. Aerosol sampling from stacks and ducts at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, A.R.; Anand, N.K.; Ortiz, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    While the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, CO is being decommissioned; there is air flow through the ventilation systems in the buildings. Although the air is HEPA filtered, under the requirements of both the U.S. EPA and the U.S. DOE, several of the stacks and ducts must be continuously monitored for radionuclide aerosol particles, where plutonium is the principal radionuclide of concern. The air sampling effort for compliance with EPA requirements is focussed on the acquisition of representative aerosol samples, which are collected on filters and subsequently analyzed in a laboratory. The goal of the DOE sampling is to acquire representative samples that can be analyzed with near-real-time monitors for alarming purposes, where the alarms are used to warn workers that may be affected by elevated concentrations of radionuclides. The air sampling at RFP is based on single point representative sampling with a shrouded probe. For stacks and ducts that are under the cognizance of EPA, the approach is embodied in a set of Alternate Reference Methodologies that EPA has approved for use at DOE facilities. Shrouded probes were designed based on numerical predictions of performance and the efficacy of the probes was verified by wind tunnel tests. Aerosol transport lines were designed using a code, DEPOSITION that provides optimization of aerosol penetration. Adequacy of a location for single point sampling was based on numerical criteria for mixing of both contaminant mass and fluid momentum as manifested by the uniformity of the velocity profile and the profiles of tracer gas and aerosol particles. Scale models were constructed of key ducts and these were tested in the laboratory to determine the proper locations. For ducts and stacks that fall under DOE, but not EPA requirements, similar methodology was used; however, the single point sampling location is based on alarming considerations.

  17. Quality assurance and quality control for thermal/optical analysis of aerosol samples for organic and elemental carbon.

    PubMed

    Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Robles, Jerome; Wang, Xiaoliang; Chen, L-W Antony; Trimble, Dana L; Kohl, Steven D; Tropp, Richard J; Fung, Kochy K

    2011-12-01

    Accurate, precise, and valid organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC, respectively) measurements require more effort than the routine analysis of ambient aerosol and source samples. This paper documents the quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures that should be implemented to ensure consistency of OC and EC measurements. Prior to field sampling, the appropriate filter substrate must be selected and tested for sampling effectiveness. Unexposed filters are pre-fired to remove contaminants and acceptance tested. After sampling, filters must be stored in the laboratory in clean, labeled containers under refrigeration (<4 °C) to minimize loss of semi-volatile OC. QA activities include participation in laboratory accreditation programs, external system audits, and interlaboratory comparisons. For thermal/optical carbon analyses, periodic QC tests include calibration of the flame ionization detector with different types of carbon standards, thermogram inspection, replicate analyses, quantification of trace oxygen concentrations (<100 ppmv) in the helium atmosphere, and calibration of the sample temperature sensor. These established QA/QC procedures are applicable to aerosol sampling and analysis for carbon and other chemical components. PMID:21626190

  18. Program Evaluation: Two Management-Oriented Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Kenneth Ray

    2010-01-01

    Two Management-Oriented Samples details two examples of the management-oriented approach to program evaluation. Kenneth Alford, a doctorate candidate at the University of the Cumberlands, details two separate program evaluations conducted in his school district and seeks to compare and contrast the two evaluations based upon the characteristics of…

  19. Metagenomic Detection of Viruses in Aerosol Samples from Workers in Animal Slaughterhouses

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Richard J.; Leblanc-Maridor, Mily; Wang, Jing; Ren, Xiaoyun; Moore, Nicole E.; Brooks, Collin R.; Peacey, Matthew; Douwes, Jeroen; McLean, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Published studies have shown that workers in animal slaughterhouses are at a higher risk of lung cancers as compared to the general population. No specific causal agents have been identified, and exposures to several chemicals have been examined and found to be unrelated. Evidence suggests a biological aetiology as the risk is highest for workers who are exposed to live animals or to biological material containing animal faeces, urine or blood. To investigate possible biological exposures in animal slaughterhouses, we used a metagenomic approach to characterise the profile of organisms present within an aerosol sample. An assessment of aerosol exposures for individual workers was achieved by the collection of personal samples that represent the inhalable fraction of dust/bioaerosol in workplace air in both cattle and sheep slaughterhouses. Two sets of nine personal aerosol samples were pooled for the cattle processing and sheep processing areas respectively, with a total of 332,677,346 sequence reads and 250,144,492 sequence reads of 85 bp in length produced for each. Eukaryotic genome sequence was found in both sampling locations, and bovine, ovine and human sequences were common. Sequences from WU polyomavirus and human papillomavirus 120 were detected in the metagenomic dataset from the cattle processing area, and these sequences were confirmed as being present in the original personal aerosol samples. This study presents the first metagenomic description of personal aerosol exposure and this methodology could be applied to a variety of environments. Also, the detection of two candidate viruses warrants further investigation in the setting of occupational exposures in animal slaughterhouses. PMID:23967289

  20. Influenza virus survival in aerosols and estimates of viable virus loss resulting from aerosolization and air-sampling.

    PubMed

    Brown, J R; Tang, J W; Pankhurst, L; Klein, N; Gant, V; Lai, K M; McCauley, J; Breuer, J

    2015-11-01

    Using a Collison nebulizer, aerosols of influenza (A/Udorn/307/72 H3N2) were generated within a controlled experimental chamber, from known starting virus concentrations. Air samples collected after variable suspension times were tested quantitatively using both plaque and polymerase chain reaction assays, to compare the proportion of viable virus against the amount of detectable viral RNA. These experiments showed that whereas influenza RNA copies were well preserved, the number of viable viruses decreased by a factor of 10(4)-10(5). This suggests that air-sampling studies for assessing infection control risks that detect only influenza RNA may greatly overestimate the amount of viable virus available to cause infection.

  1. Improved stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles from SCIAMACHY: validation and sample results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Savigny, C.; Ernst, F.; Rozanov, A.; Hommel, R.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Rozanov, V.; Burrows, J. P.; Thomason, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles have been retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat measurements of limb-scattered solar radiation. The retrieval is an improved version of an algorithm presented earlier. The retrieved aerosol extinction profiles are compared to co-located aerosol profile measurements from the SAGE II solar occultation instrument at a wavelength of 525 nm. Comparisons were carried out with two versions of the SAGE II data set (version 6.2 and the new version 7.0). In a global average sense the SCIAMACHY and the SAGE II version 7.0 extinction profiles agree to within about 10 % for altitudes above 15 km. Larger relative differences (up to 40 %) are observed at specific latitudes and altitudes. We also find differences between the two SAGE II data versions of up to 40 % for specific latitudes and altitudes, consistent with earlier reports. Sample results on the latitudinal and temporal variability of stratospheric aerosol extinction and optical depth during the SCIAMACHY mission period are presented. The results confirm earlier reports that a series of volcanic eruptions is responsible for the increase in stratospheric aerosol optical depth from 2002 to 2012. Above about an altitude of 28 km, volcanic eruptions are found to have negligible impact in the period 2002-2012.

  2. Single point aerosol sampling: Evaluation of mixing and probe performance in a nuclear stack

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, J.C.; Fairchild, C.I.; Wood, G.O.; Ortiz, C.A.; Muyshondt, A.; McFarland, A.R. |

    1994-12-31

    Alternative Reference Methodologies (ARMS) have been developed for sampling of radionuclide; from stacks and ducts that differ from the methods required by the US EPA. The EPA methods are prescriptive in selection of sampling locations and in design of sampling probes whereas the alternative methods are performance driven. Tests were conducted in a stack at Los Alamos National Laboratory to demonstrate the efficacy of the ARMS. Coefficients of variation of the velocity tracer gas, and aerosol particle profiles were determined at three sampling locations. Results showed numerical criteria placed upon the coefficients of variation by the ARMs were met at sampling stations located 9 and 14 stack diameters from flow entrance, but not at a location that is 1.5 diameters downstream from the inlet. Experiments were conducted to characterize the transmission of 10 {mu}m aerodynamic equivalent diameter liquid aerosol particles through three types of sampling probes. The transmission ratio (ratio of aerosol concentration at the probe exit plane to the concentration in the free stream) was 107% for a 113 L/min (4-cfm) an isokinetic shrouded probe, but only 20% for an isokinetic probe that follows the EPA requirements. A specially designed isokinetic probe showed a transmission ratio of 63%. The shrouded probe performance would conform to the ARM criteria; however, the isokinetic probes would not.

  3. Single point aerosol sampling: Evaluation of mixing and probe performance in a nuclear stack

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, J.C.; Fairchild, C.I.; Wood, G.O.

    1995-02-01

    Alternative Reference Methodologies (ARMs) have been developed for sampling of radionuclides from stacks and ducts that differ from the methods required by the U.S. EPA. The EPA methods are prescriptive in selection of sampling locations and in design of sampling probes whereas the alternative methods are performance driven. Tests were conducted in a stack at Los Alamos National Laboratory to demonstrate the efficacy of the ARMs. Coefficients of variation of the velocity tracer gas, and aerosol particle profiles were determined at three sampling locations. Results showed numerical criteria placed upon the coefficients of variation by the ARMs were met at sampling stations located 9 and 14 stack diameters from flow entrance, but not at a location that is 1.5 diameters downstream from the inlet. Experiments were conducted to characterize the transmission of 10 {mu}m aerodynamic equivalent diameter liquid aerosol particles through three types of sampling probes. The transmission ratio (ratio of aerosol concentration at the probe exit plane to the concentration in the free stream) was 107% for a 113 L/min (4-cfm) anisokinetic shrouded probe, but only 20% for an isokinetic probe that follows the EPA requirements. A specially designed isokinetic probe showed a transmission ratio of 63%. The shrouded probe performance would conform to the ARM criteria; however, the isokinetic probes would not.

  4. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  5. Sampling port for real time analysis of bioaerosol in whole body exposure system for animal aerosol model development

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Divey; Hopkins, Gregory W.; Chen, Ching-ju; Seay, Sarah A.; Click, Eva M.; Lee, Sunhee; Hartings, Justin M.; Frothingham, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Multiple factors influence the viability of aerosolized bacteria. The delivery of aerosols is affected by chamber conditions (humidity, temperature, and pressure) and bioaerosol characteristics (particle number, particle size distribution, and viable aerosol concentration). Measurement of viable aerosol concentration and particle size is essential to optimize viability and lung delivery. The Madison chamber is widely used to expose small animals to infectious aerosols. Methods A multiplex sampling port was added to the Madison chamber to measure the chamber conditions and bioaerosol characteristics. Aerosols of three pathogens (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) were generated under constant conditions and their bioaerosol characteristics were analyzed. Airborne microbes were captured using an impinger or BioSampler. The particle size distribution of airborne microbes was determined using an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). Viable aerosol concentration, spray factor (viable aerosol concentration/inoculum concentration), and dose presented to the mouse were calculated. Dose retention efficiency and viable aerosol retention rate were calculated from the sampler titers to determine the efficiency of microbe retention in lungs of mice. Results B. anthracis, Y. pestis, and M. tuberculosis aerosols were sampled through the port. The count mean aerodynamic sizes were 0.98, 0.77, and 0.78 μm with geometric standard deviations of 1.60, 1.90, and 2.37, and viable aerosol concentrations in the chamber were 211, 57, and 1 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL, respectively. Based on the aerosol concentrations, the doses presented to mice for the three pathogens were 2.5e5, 2.2e4 and 464 CFU. Discussion Using the multiplex sampling port we determined whether the animals were challenged with an optimum bioaerosol based on dose presented and respirable particle size. PMID:20849964

  6. Physicochemical Characterization of Lake Spray Aerosol Generated from Great Lakes Water Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, A. P.; Axson, J. L.; May, N.; Pratt, K.

    2014-12-01

    Wave breaking across bodies of water releases particles into the air which can impact climate and human health. Similar to sea spray aerosols formed through marine wave breaking, freshwater lakes generate lake spray aerosol (LSA). LSA can impact climate directly through scattering/absorption and indirectly through cloud nucleation. In addition, these LSA are suggested to impact human health through inhalation of these particles during algal bloom periods characterized by toxic cyanobacteria. Few studies have been conducted to assess the physical and chemical properties of freshwater LSA. Herein, we discuss constructing a LSA generation system and preliminary physical and chemical characterization of aerosol generated from water samples collected at various sites across Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Superior, and Lake Michigan. Information on aerosol size distributions, number concentrations, and chemical composition will be discussed as a function of lake water blue-green algae concentration, dissolved organic carbon concentration, temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen concentration. These studies represent a first step towards evaluating the potential for LSA to impact climate and health in the Great Lakes region.

  7. Ion balances of size-resolved tropospheric aerosol samples: implications for the acidity and atmospheric processing of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Hillamo, Risto; Teinilä, Kimmo; Pakkanen, Tuomo; Allegrini, Ivo; Sparapani, Roberto

    A large set of size-resolved aerosol samples was inspected with regard to their ion balance to shed light on how the aerosol acidity changes with particle size in the lower troposphere and what implications this might have for the atmospheric processing of aerosols. Quite different behaviour between the remote and more polluted environments could be observed. At the remote sites, practically the whole accumulation mode had cation-to-anion ratios clearly below unity, indicating that these particles were quite acidic. The supermicron size range was considerably less acidic and may in some cases have been close to neutral or even alkaline. An interesting feature common to the remote sites was a clear jump in the cation-to-anion ratio when going from the accumulation to the Aitken mode. The most likely reason for this was cloud processing which, via in-cloud sulphate production, makes the smallest accumulation-mode particles more acidic than the non-activated Aitken-mode particles. A direct consequence of the less acidic nature of the Aitken mode is that it can take up semi-volatile, water-soluble gases much easier than the accumulation mode. This feature may have significant implications for atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei production in remote environments. In rural and urban locations, the cation-to-anion ratio was close to unity over most of the accumulation mode, but increased significantly when going to either larger or smaller particle sizes. The high cation-to-anion ratios in the supermicron size range were ascribed to carbonate associated with mineral dust. The ubiquitous presence of carbonate in these particles indicates that they were neutral or alkaline, making them good sites for heterogeneous reactions involving acidic trace gases. The high cation-to-anion ratios in the Aitken mode suggest that these particles contained some water-soluble anions not detected by our chemical analysis. This is worth keeping in mind when investigating the hygroscopic

  8. Surrogate/spent fuel sabotage : aerosol ratio test program and Phase 2 test results.

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III; Thompson, N. Slater; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Hibbs, R.S.; Nolte, Oliver; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno; Young, F. I.; Koch, Wolfgang; Brochard, Didier; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Lange, Florentin

    2004-05-01

    A multinational test program is in progress to quantify the aerosol particulates produced when a high energy density device, HEDD, impacts surrogate material and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This program provides needed data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments; the program also provides significant political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the spent fuel ratio, SFR, the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are crucial for predicting radiological impacts. This document includes a thorough description of the test program, including the current, detailed test plan, concept and design, plus a description of all test components, and requirements for future components and related nuclear facility needs. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2003. All available test results, observations, and analyses - primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. This spent fuel sabotage - aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC, and supported by both the U.S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  9. Program Implements Variable-Sampling Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Zhaofeng

    1995-01-01

    MIL-STD-414 Variable Sampling Procedures (M414) computer program developed to automate calculations and acceptance/rejection procedures of MIL-STD-414, "Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Variables for Percent Defective." M414 automates entire calculation-and-decision process by use of computational algorithms determining threshold acceptability values for lots. Menu-driven and user-friendly. Reduces burden of manual operations, promoting variable-sampling practice in industry in lieu of "go/no-go" inspection. Written in BASIC.

  10. An intercomparison study of analytical methods used for quantification of levoglucosan in ambient aerosol filter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Abbaszade, G.; Alves, C.; Bjerke, A.; Bonnier, N.; Bossi, R.; Claeys, M.; Dye, C.; Evtyugina, M.; García-Gacio, D.; Hillamo, R.; Hoffer, A.; Hyder, M.; Iinuma, Y.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kiss, G.; López-Mahia, P. L.; Pio, C.; Piot, C.; Ramirez-Santa-Cruz, C.; Sciare, J.; Teinilä, K.; Vermeylen, R.; Vicente, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2015-01-01

    The monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan are products of incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, and are found to be major constituents of biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Hence, ambient aerosol particle concentrations of levoglucosan are commonly used to study the influence of residential wood burning, agricultural waste burning and wildfire emissions on ambient air quality. A European-wide intercomparison on the analysis of the three monosaccharide anhydrides was conducted based on ambient aerosol quartz fiber filter samples collected at a Norwegian urban background site during winter. Thus, the samples' content of MAs is representative for BB particles originating from residential wood burning. The purpose of the intercomparison was to examine the comparability of the great diversity of analytical methods used for analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan in ambient aerosol filter samples. Thirteen laboratories participated, of which three applied high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC), four used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and six resorted to gas chromatography (GC). The analytical methods used were of such diversity that they should be considered as thirteen different analytical methods. All of the thirteen laboratories reported levels of levoglucosan, whereas nine reported data for mannosan and/or galactosan. Eight of the thirteen laboratories reported levels for all three isomers. The accuracy for levoglucosan, presented as the mean percentage error (PE) for each participating laboratory, varied from -63 to 20%; however, for 62% of the laboratories the mean PE was within ±10%, and for 85% the mean PE was within ±20%. For mannosan, the corresponding range was -60 to 69%, but as for levoglucosan, the range was substantially smaller for a subselection of the laboratories; i.e. for 33% of the

  11. An intercomparison study of analytical methods used for quantification of levoglucosan in ambient aerosol filter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Schnelle-Kreiss, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Alves, C.; Bossi, R.; Bjerke, A.; Claeys, M.; Dye, C.; Evtyugina, M.; García-Gacio, D.; Gülcin, A.; Hillamo, R.; Hoffer, A.; Hyder, M.; Iinuma, Y.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kiss, G.; López-Mahia, P. L.; Pio, C.; Piot, C.; Ramirez-Santa-Cruz, C.; Sciare, J.; Teinilä, K.; Vermeylen, R.; Vicente, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2014-07-01

    The monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan are products of incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, and are found to be major constituents of biomass burning aerosol particles. Hence, ambient aerosol particle concentrations of levoglucosan are commonly used to study the influence of residential wood burning, agricultural waste burning and wild fire emissions on ambient air quality. A European-wide intercomparison on the analysis of the three monosaccharide anhydrides was conducted based on ambient aerosol quartz fiber filter samples collected at a Norwegian urban background site during winter. Thus, the samples' content of MAs is representative for biomass burning particles originating from residential wood burning. The purpose of the intercomparison was to examine the comparability of the great diversity of analytical methods used for analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan in ambient aerosol filter samples. Thirteen laboratories participated, of which three applied High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography (HPAEC), four used High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) or Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and six resorted to Gas Chromatography (GC). The analytical methods used were of such diversity that they should be considered as thirteen different analytical methods. All of the thirteen laboratories reported levels of levoglucosan, whereas nine reported data for mannosan and/or galactosan. Eight of the thirteen laboratories reported levels for all three isomers. The accuracy for levoglucosan, presented as the mean percentage error (PE) for each participating laboratory, varied from -63 to 23%; however, for 62% of the laboratories the mean PE was within ±10%, and for 85% the mean PE was within ±20%. For mannosan, the corresponding range was -60 to 69%, but as for levoglucosan, the range was substantially smaller for a subselection of the laboratories; i.e., for 33% of

  12. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  13. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples in an Urban Area in Upstate NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadareski, Benjamin; Ali, Salina; Yoskowitz, Josh; Vineyard, Michael; Labrake, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Extremely fine particles (PM2.5) are found to penetrate deep into the lungs and hence, are found to have harmful health effects on humans. Atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady, NY were analyzed for evidence for air pollution; specifically lead pollution over the past 12 months. Air samples were collected on 7 μm Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic size. A 2.2 MeV proton beam impacts the target samples. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra was produced using an Amptek silicon drift detector. Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to analyze the energy spectra and we determined a range of 16 elements present in the aerosol samples including, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb. The elemental composition and concentrations of these elements were determined using GUPIX. Many of the elements suggest airborne soils, however we see trace amounts of lead concentrations only at the minimal level of detection around 1 ng / m3. Preliminary results suggest that lead pollution is not significant however; we believe that the trace amounts of lead detected are due to fuel emissions from small aircraft due to the sampling site near an airport. Extremely fine particles (PM2.5) are found to penetrate deep into the lungs and hence, are found to have harmful health effects on humans. Atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady, NY were analyzed for evidence for air pollution; specifically lead pollution over the past 12 months. Air samples were collected on 7 μm Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic size. A 2.2 MeV proton beam impacts the target samples. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra was produced using an Amptek silicon drift detector. Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to analyze the energy spectra and we determined a range of 16 elements present in

  14. Health-related aerosol measurement: a review of existing sampling criteria and proposals for new ones.

    PubMed

    Vincent, James H

    2005-11-01

    Interest in particle size-selective sampling for aerosols in working and ambient living environments began in the early 1900s when it became apparent that the penetration into-and deposition in-the respiratory tract of aerosol-exposed humans of inhaled particles was dependent on particle size. Coarse particles tended to be filtered out during inhalation and in the upper parts of the respiratory tract, so only progressively smaller particles penetrated down to the deep regions of the lung. Over time, following experimental studies with 'breathing' mannequins in wind tunnels and with human volunteer subjects in the laboratory, a clear picture has emerged of the physical, physiological and anatomical factors that control the extent to which particles may or may not reach certain parts of the respiratory tract. Such understanding has increasingly been the subject of discussions about aerosol standards, in particular the criteria by which exposure might be defined in relation to given classes of aerosol-related health effect-and in to turn aerosol monitoring. The ultimate goal has been to develop a set of criteria by which exposure standards are scientifically relevant to the health effects in question. This paper reviews the scientific basis for such criteria. It discusses the criteria that have already been widely discussed and so are either being applied or are on the threshold of practical application in standards. It also discusses how new advanced knowledge may allow us to extend the list of particle size-selective criteria to fractions that have not yet been widely discussed but which may be of importance in the future. PMID:16252051

  15. Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Submicronic Aerosol Particles Sampled at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland (CLACE-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobéty, B.; Lorenzo, R.

    2007-05-01

    Submicronic aerosol particles were collected in two sampling campaigns during CLACE-4 and -5 ("the Cloud and Aerosol Characterisation Experiment in the Free Troposphere") at the high alpine research station on top of Jungfraujoch (altitude: 3580 m.a.s.l.). The particles were deposited directly on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids placed in a home-made, calibrated thermophoretic sampling device. The samples were taken during periods of clear skies and temperatures below 0°C. Average sampling time was two days. The primary state of the particles was either solid, mixed solid-liquid or completely liquid. EDS spectra of solid particles without visible traces of a liquid coating contain only carbon and oxygen peaks. Mixed solid-fluid particles, however, have either carbon (C), mixed carbon-silicate (CS) or silicate (S) (probably SiO2) nuclei. The condensates remaining after evaporation of the liquid components contain sulfate (sulfur and oxygen peaks in EDS spectra), but no nitrate was found. The fraction > 500 nm is dominated by C and CS particles, the silicate particles have a narrow size distribution around 100 nm and contain, if at all, only faint sulfur peaks in their EDS spectra. The results are qualitatively consistent with analyses of samples collected during the same campaign (Weinbruch et al., 2005), but during mixed cloud events. There seem to be, however a differrence in the amount of particles with sulfate coatings, which is higher for samples taken under clear sky conditions. Weinbruch, S., Ebert, S., Worringen, A., and Brenker (2005), Identification of the ice forming fraction of the atmospheric aerosol in mixed-phase clouds by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Activity report 2005, International Foundation HFSJG.

  16. Real-Time Investigation of Tuberculosis Transmission: Developing the Respiratory Aerosol Sampling Chamber (RASC)

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Robin; Morrow, Carl; Barry, Clifton E.; Bryden, Wayne A.; Call, Charles J.; Hickey, Anthony J.; Rodes, Charles E.; Scriba, Thomas J.; Blackburn, Jonathan; Issarow, Chacha; Mulder, Nicola; Woodward, Jeremy; Moosa, Atica; Singh, Vinayak; Mizrahi, Valerie; Warner, Digby F.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the airborne nature of respiratory disease transmission owes much to the pioneering experiments of Wells and Riley over half a century ago. However, the mechanical, physiological, and immunopathological processes which drive the production of infectious aerosols by a diseased host remain poorly understood. Similarly, very little is known about the specific physiological, metabolic and morphological adaptations which enable pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to exit the infected host, survive exposure to the external environment during airborne carriage, and adopt a form that is able to enter the respiratory tract of a new host, avoiding innate immune and physical defenses to establish a nascent infection. As a first step towards addressing these fundamental knowledge gaps which are central to any efforts to interrupt disease transmission, we developed and characterized a small personal clean room comprising an array of sampling devices which enable isolation and representative sampling of airborne particles and organic matter from tuberculosis (TB) patients. The complete unit, termed the Respiratory Aerosol Sampling Chamber (RASC), is instrumented to provide real-time information about the particulate output of a single patient, and to capture samples via a suite of particulate impingers, impactors and filters. Applying the RASC in a clinical setting, we demonstrate that a combination of molecular and microbiological assays, as well as imaging by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy, can be applied to investigate the identity, viability, and morphology of isolated aerosolized particles. Importantly, from a preliminary panel of active TB patients, we observed the real-time production of large numbers of airborne particles including Mtb, as confirmed by microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping. Moreover, direct imaging of captured samples revealed the presence of multiple rod-like Mtb organisms whose

  17. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program : FY 2004 test and data summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Brucher, Wenzel; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Loiseau, Olivier; Mo, Tin; Billone, Michael C.; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Young, F. I.; Coats, Richard Lee; Burtseva, Tatiana; Luna, Robert Earl; Dickey, Roy R.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Nolte, Oliver; Thompson, Nancy Slater; Hibbs, Russell S.; Gregson, Michael Warren; Lange, Florentin; Molecke, Martin Alan; Tsai, Han-Chung

    2005-07-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. The program also provides significant technical and political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are the input for follow-on modeling studies to quantify respirable hazards, associated radiological risk assessments, vulnerability assessments, and potential cask physical protection design modifications. This document includes an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, during FY 2004. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2004. All available test results, observations, and aerosol analyses plus interpretations--primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests, series 2/5A through 2/9B, using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. Advanced plans and progress are described for upcoming tests with unirradiated, depleted uranium oxide and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of

  18. Solid versus Liquid Particle Sampling Efficiency of Three Personal Aerosol Samplers when Facing the Wind

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kirsten A.; Anthony, T. Renee; Van Dyke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the facing-the-wind sampling efficiency of three personal aerosol samplers as a function of particle phase (solid versus liquid). Samplers examined were the IOM, Button, and a prototype personal high-flow inhalable sampler head (PHISH). The prototype PHISH was designed to interface with the 37-mm closed-face cassette and provide an inhalable sample at 10 l min−1 of flow. Increased flow rate increases the amount of mass collected during a typical work shift and helps to ensure that limits of detection are met, particularly for well-controlled but highly toxic species. Two PHISH prototypes were tested: one with a screened inlet and one with a single-pore open-face inlet. Personal aerosol samplers were tested on a bluff-body disc that was rotated along the facing-the-wind axis to reduce spatiotemporal variability associated with sampling supermicron aerosol in low-velocity wind tunnels. When compared to published data for facing-wind aspiration efficiency for a mouth-breathing mannequin, the IOM oversampled relative to mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency for all sizes and particle types (solid and liquid). The sampling efficiency of the Button sampler was closer to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency than the IOM for solid particles, but the screened inlet removed most liquid particles, resulting in a large underestimation compared to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency. The open-face PHISH results showed overestimation for solid particles and underestimation for liquid particles when compared to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency. Substantial (and statistically significant) differences in sampling efficiency were observed between liquid and solid particles, particularly for the Button and screened-PHISH, with a majority of aerosol mass depositing on the screened inlets of these samplers. Our results suggest that large droplets have low penetration efficiencies

  19. Comparison of aerosol backscatter and wind field estimates from the REAL and the SAMPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Shane D.; Dérian, Pierre; Mauzey, Christopher F.; Spuler, Scott M.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Pruitt, Jeff; Ramsey, Darrell; Higdon, Noah S.

    2015-09-01

    Although operating at the same near-infrared 1.5- m wavelength, the Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) and the Scanning Aerosol Micro-Pulse Lidar-Eye-safe (SAMPLE) are very different in how they generate and detect laser radiation. We present results from an experiment where the REAL and the SAMPLE were operated side-by-side in Chico, California, in March of 2015. During the non-continuous, eleven day test period, the SAMPLE instrument was operated at maximum pulse repetition frequency (15 kHz) and integrated over the interpulse period of the REAL (0.1 s). Operation at the high pulse repetition frequency resulted in second trip echoes which contaminated portions of the data. The performance of the SAMPLE instrument varied with background brightness--as expected with a photon counting receiver|--yet showed equal or larger backscatter intensity signal to noise ratio throughout the intercomparison experiment. We show that a modest low-pass filter or smooth applied to the REAL raw waveforms (that have 5x higher range resolution) results in significant increases in raw signal-to-noise ratio and image signal-to-noise ratio--a measure of coherent aerosol feature content in the images resulting from the scans. Examples of wind fields and time series of wind estimates from both systems are presented. We conclude by reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of each system and sketch a plan for future research and development activities to optimize the design of future systems.

  20. Technical note: An improved approach to determining background aerosol concentrations with PILS sampling on aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukami, Christine S.; Sullivan, Amy P.; Ryan Fulgham, S.; Murschell, Trey; Borch, Thomas; Smith, James N.; Farmer, Delphine K.

    2016-07-01

    Particle-into-Liquid Samplers (PILS) have become a standard aerosol collection technique, and are widely used in both ground and aircraft measurements in conjunction with off-line ion chromatography (IC) measurements. Accurate and precise background samples are essential to account for gas-phase components not efficiently removed and any interference in the instrument lines, collection vials or off-line analysis procedures. For aircraft sampling with PILS, backgrounds are typically taken with in-line filters to remove particles prior to sample collection once or twice per flight with more numerous backgrounds taken on the ground. Here, we use data collected during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) to demonstrate that not only are multiple background filter samples are essential to attain a representative background, but that the chemical background signals do not follow the Gaussian statistics typically assumed. Instead, the background signals for all chemical components analyzed from 137 background samples (taken from ∼78 total sampling hours over 18 flights) follow a log-normal distribution, meaning that the typical approaches of averaging background samples and/or assuming a Gaussian distribution cause an over-estimation of background samples - and thus an underestimation of sample concentrations. Our approach of deriving backgrounds from the peak of the log-normal distribution results in detection limits of 0.25, 0.32, 3.9, 0.17, 0.75 and 0.57 μg m-3 for sub-micron aerosol nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), ammonium (NH4+), sulfate (SO42-), potassium (K+) and calcium (Ca2+), respectively. The difference in backgrounds calculated from assuming a Gaussian distribution versus a log-normal distribution were most extreme for NH4+, resulting in a background that was 1.58× that determined from fitting a log-normal distribution.

  1. Application of Aerosol Hygroscopicity Measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains Site to Examine Composition and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Runjun, Li; Collins, Don R.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Brackett, Vincent G.

    2006-01-01

    A Differential Mobility Analyzer/Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA/TDMA) was used to measure submicron aerosol size distributions, hygroscopicity, and occasionally volatility during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operational Period (IOP) at the Central Facility of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) site. Hygroscopic growth factor distributions for particles at eight dry diameters ranging from 0.012 micrometers to 0.600 micrometers were measured throughout the study. For a subset of particle sizes, more detailed measurements were occasionally made in which the relative humidity or temperature to which the aerosol was exposed was varied over a wide range. These measurements, in conjunction with backtrajectory clustering, were used to infer aerosol composition and to gain insight into the processes responsible for evolution. The hygroscopic growth of both the smallest and largest particles analyzed was typically less than that of particles with dry diameters of about 0.100 micrometers. It is speculated that condensation of secondary organic aerosol on nucleation mode particles is largely responsible for the minimal hygroscopic growth observed at the smallest sizes considered. Growth factor distributions of the largest particles characterized typically contained a nonhygroscopic mode believed to be composed primarily of dust. A model was developed to characterize the hygroscopic properties of particles within a size distribution mode through analysis of the fixed size hygroscopic growth measurements. The performance of this model was quantified through comparison of the measured fixed size hygroscopic growth factor distributions with those simulated through convolution of the size-resolved concentration contributed by each of the size modes and the mode-resolved hygroscopicity. This transformation from sizeresolved hygroscopicity to mode-resolved hygroscopicity facilitated examination of changes in the hygroscopic

  2. X-ray analysis of aerosol samples from a therapeutic cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alföldy, B.; Török, Sz.; Kocsonya, A.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Balla, Md. I.

    2001-04-01

    Cave therapy is an efficient therapeutic method to cure asthma, the exact healing effect, however, is not clarified, yet. This study is motivated by the basic assumption that aerosols do play the key role in the cave therapy. This study is based on measurements of single aerosol particles originating from a therapeutic cave of Budapest, Hungary (Szemlőhegyi cave). Aerosol particles have been collected in the regions arranged for the therapeutic treatment. Samples were further analysed for chemical and morphological aspects, determining the particle size distribution and classifying them according to elemental composition. Three particle classes have been detected based on major element concentration: alumino-silicate, quartz and calcium carbonate. Calcium ions have well-known physiological influence: anti-spastic, anti-inflammation and excretion reducing effects. Inflammation, accompanying spasm and extreme excretion production cause the smothering stigma, the so-called asthma. Therefore it could be assumed that calcium ions present in high concentration in the cave's atmosphere is the major cause of the healing effect.

  3. Characterization of an aerosol sample from the auxiliary building of the Three Mile Island reactor.

    PubMed

    Kanapilly, G M; Stanley, J A; Newton, G J; Wong, B A; DeNee, P B

    1983-11-01

    Analyses for radioisotopic composition and dissolution characteristics were performed on an aerosol filter sample collected for a week by an air sampler located in the auxiliary building of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor. The major radioisotopes found on the filter were 89Sr, 90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs. Greater than 90% of both 89-90Sr and 134-137Cs dissolved within 48 hr in an in vitro test system. Scanning electron microscopic analyses showed the presence of respirable size particles as well as larger particles ranging up to 10 micron in diameter. The major matrix components were Fe, Ca, S, Mg, Al and Si. Although the radionuclides were present in a heterogeneous matrix, they were in a soluble form. This information enables a better evaluation of bioassay data and predictions of dose distribution resulting from an inhalation exposure to this aerosol. Further, the combination of techniques used in this study may be applicable to the characterization of other aerosols of unknown composition. PMID:6643066

  4. Characterization of an aerosol sample from the auxiliary building of the Three Mile Island reactor.

    PubMed

    Kanapilly, G M; Stanley, J A; Newton, G J; Wong, B A; DeNee, P B

    1983-11-01

    Analyses for radioisotopic composition and dissolution characteristics were performed on an aerosol filter sample collected for a week by an air sampler located in the auxiliary building of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor. The major radioisotopes found on the filter were 89Sr, 90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs. Greater than 90% of both 89-90Sr and 134-137Cs dissolved within 48 hr in an in vitro test system. Scanning electron microscopic analyses showed the presence of respirable size particles as well as larger particles ranging up to 10 micron in diameter. The major matrix components were Fe, Ca, S, Mg, Al and Si. Although the radionuclides were present in a heterogeneous matrix, they were in a soluble form. This information enables a better evaluation of bioassay data and predictions of dose distribution resulting from an inhalation exposure to this aerosol. Further, the combination of techniques used in this study may be applicable to the characterization of other aerosols of unknown composition.

  5. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning.

  6. Simultaneous measurement of optical scattering and extinction on dispersed aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Dial, Kathy D; Hiemstra, Scott; Thompson, Jonathan E

    2010-10-01

    Accurate and precise measurements of light scattering and extinction by atmospheric particulate matter aid understanding of tropospheric photochemistry and are required for estimates of the direct climate effects of aerosols. In this work, we report on a second generation instrument to simultaneously measure light scattering (b(scat)) and extinction (b(ext)) coefficient by dispersed aerosols. The ratio of scattering to extinction is known as the single scatter albedo (SSA); thus, the instrument is referred to as the albedometer. Extinction is measured with the well-established cavity ring-down (CRD) technique, and the scattering coefficient is determined through collection of light scattered from the CRD beam. The improved instrument allows reduction in sample volume to <1% of the original design, and a reduction in response time by a factor of >30. Through using a commercially available condensation particle counter (CPC), we have measured scattering (σ(scat)) and extinction (σ(ext)) cross sections for size-selected ammonium sulfate and nigrosin aerosols. In most cases, the measured scattering and extinction cross section were within 1 standard deviation of the accepted values generated from Mie theory suggesting accurate measurements are made. While measurement standard deviations for b(ext) and b(scat) were generally <1 Mm(-1) when the measurement cell was sealed or purged with filtered air, relative standard deviations >0.1 for these variables were observed when the particle number density was low. It is inferred that statistical fluctuations of the absolute number of particles within the probe beam leads to this effect. However, measured relative precision in albedo is always superior to that which would be mathematically propagated assuming independent measurements of b(scat) and b(ext). Thus, this report characterizes the measurement precision achieved, evaluates the potential for systematic error to be introduced through light absorption by gases

  7. Atmospheric Sampling of Aerosols to Stratospheric Altitudes using High Altitude Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerde, E. A.; Thomas, E.

    2010-12-01

    Although carbon dioxide represents a long-lived atmospheric component relevant to global climate change, it is also understood that many additional contributors influence the overall climate of Earth. Among these, short-lived components are more difficult to incorporate into models due to uncertainties in the abundances of these both spatially and temporally. Possibly the most significant of these short-lived components falls under the heading of “black carbon” (BC). There are numerous overlapping definitions of BC, but it is basically carbonaceous in nature and light absorbing. Due to its potential as a climate forcer, an understanding of the BC population in the atmosphere is critical for modeling of radiative forcing. Prior measurements of atmospheric BC generally consist of airplane- and ground-based sampling, typically below 5000 m and restricted in time and space. Given that BC has a residence time on the order of days, short-term variability is easily missed. Further, since the radiative forcing is a result of BC distributed through the entire atmospheric column, aircraft sampling is by definition incomplete. We are in the process of planning a more comprehensive sampling of the atmosphere for BC using high-altitude balloons. Balloon-borne sampling is a highly reliable means to sample air through the entire troposphere and into the lower stratosphere. Our system will incorporate a balloon and a flight train of two modules. One module will house an atmospheric sampler. This sampler will be single-stage (samples all particle sizes together), and will place particles directly on an SEM sample stub for analysis. The nozzle depositing the sample will be offset from the center of the stub, placing the aerosol particles toward the edge. At various altitudes, the stub will be rotated 45 degrees, providing 6-8 sample “cuts” of particle populations through the atmospheric column. The flights will reach approximately 27 km altitude, above which the balloons

  8. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    1999-08-31

    This document presents information on aerosol formation in tank head spaces during rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) from November 1994 through April 1999 in single shell waste tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. The average tank head space mass concentration during RMCS has been 2.1E-5 g waste/m{sup 3}. The average mass of suspended solids present in a tank head space during RMCS has been 5.6E-2 g waste. The mass of waste sent to an exhauster during RMCS has averaged 5.3E-1 g waste per RMCS core and 8.3E-2 g waste per RMCS segment.

  9. Design of an Unattended Environmental Aerosol Sampling and Analysis System for Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Munley, John T.; Alexander, M. L.

    2011-07-19

    The resources of the IAEA continue to be challenged by the rapid, worldwide expansion of nuclear energy production. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) represent an especially formidable dilemma to the application of safeguard measures, as the size and enrichment capacity of GCEPs continue to escalate. During the early part of the 1990's, the IAEA began to lay the foundation to strengthen and make cost-effective its future safeguard regime. Measures under Part II of 'Programme 93+2' specifically sanctioned access to nuclear fuel production facilities and environmental sampling by IAEA inspectors. Today, the Additional Protocol grants inspection and environmental sample collection authority to IAEA inspectors at GCEPs during announced and low frequency unannounced (LFUA) inspections. During inspections, IAEA inspectors collect environmental swipe samples that are then shipped offsite to an analytical laboratory for enrichment assay. This approach has proven to be an effective deterrence to GCEP misuse, but this method has never achieved the timeliness of detection goals set forth by IAEA. Furthermore it is questionable whether the IAEA will have the resources to even maintain pace with the expansive production capacity of the modern GCEP, let alone improve the timeliness in reaching current safeguards conclusions. New safeguards propositions, outside of familiar mainstream safeguard measures, may therefore be required that counteract the changing landscape of nuclear energy fuel production. A new concept is proposed that offers rapid, cost effective GCEP misuse detection, without increasing LFUA inspection access or introducing intrusive access demands on GCEP operations. Our approach is based on continuous onsite aerosol collection and laser enrichment analysis. This approach mitigates many of the constraints imposed by the LFUA protocol, reduces the demand for onsite sample collection and offsite analysis, and overcomes current limitations associated with

  10. Aerosol release and transport program. Semiannual progress report, October 1985-March 1986. Volume 3, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.

    1986-06-01

    This report summarizes progress for the Aerosol Release and Transport Program sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Accident Evaluation, for the period October 1985-March 1986. Topics discussed include (1) Aerosol-Moisture Interaction Test (AMIT) experiments 5002 through 5006; (2) efforts to measure the aerodynamic shape factor chi during these experiments; (3) a development test for determining parameters for generating concrete aerosols; (4) data concerning water-vapor generation during plasma torch operation; (5) the use of the ideal gas law in calculating relative humidity; (6) initial comparisons of CONTAIN code results with experimental data for an iron oxide aerosol-steam experiment in the NSPP Facility; (7) pretest predictions using the CONTAIN code for LACE experiment LA-2.

  11. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  12. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  13. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Reports: Aerosol Properties and Their Impacts on Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decola, P.; Moss, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is developing and extending its research activities to support policymaking and adaptive management. The program includes a set of "Synthesis and Assessment Products," active participation in international assessments such as those of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, improvements in modeling and other resources to facilitate comparison of response options, and development, with users, of tools to support adaptive management and planning. These efforts are building on substantial ongoing efforts of agencies and departments participating in the CCSP. One of the products focuses on aerosol properties and their impact on climate. The very complex mixture of aerosol types and their spatial distributions provide diverse warming and cooling influences on climate, and impact the formation of both water droplets and ice crystals in clouds. Our poor understanding of aerosol properties and distributions results in large uncertainties about the net impact of aerosols on climate and impairs our ability to project climate changes. The product will be produced in two phases: Phase-I aims for a few explicit and focused scientific "review nuggets" in the near term that would be not only stand alone as CCSP-facilitated products, but that would also be useful input to community-wide activities like the IPCC and Phase-II that would connect and focus the new (2006/7) level of community-wide understanding of climate change (and aerosol-climate inclusively) to explicit decision-support information and tools. In this light, we have embarked on Phase I of a synthesis product entitled, "Aerosol properties and their impacts on climate," which addresses Goal 2, "Improve quantification of the forces bringing about changes in the Earth's climate and related systems," under the Strategic Plan of the CCSP. We present here the status of this first phase of work, which is focused on new assessment and synthesis information stimulated by the

  14. Aerosol Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production: Mobile Direct-Reading Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Douglas E.; Ku, Bon Ki; Birch, M. Eileen; Dunn, Kevin H.

    2010-01-01

    Detailed investigations were conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Presented research summarizes the direct-reading monitoring aspects of the study. A mobile aerosol sampling platform, equipped with an aerosol instrument array, was used to characterize emissions at different locations within the facility. Particle number, respirable mass, active surface area, and photoelectric response were monitored with a condensation particle counter (CPC), a photometer, a diffusion charger, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, respectively. CO and CO2 were additionally monitored. Combined simultaneous monitoring of these metrics can be utilized to determine source and relative contribution of airborne particles (CNFs and others) within a workplace. Elevated particle number concentrations, up to 1.15 × 106 cm−3, were found within the facility but were not due to CNFs. Ultrafine particle emissions, released during thermal treatment of CNFs, were primarily responsible. In contrast, transient increases in respirable particle mass concentration, with a maximum of 1.1 mg m−3, were due to CNF release through uncontrolled transfer and bagging. Of the applied metrics, our findings suggest that particle mass was probably the most useful and practical metric for monitoring CNF emissions in this facility. Through chemical means, CNFs may be selectively distinguished from other workplace contaminants (Birch et al., in preparation), and for direct-reading monitoring applications, the photometer was found to provide a reasonable estimate of respirable CNF mass concentration. Particle size distribution measurements were conducted with an electrical low-pressure impactor and a fast particle size spectrometer. Results suggest that the dominant CNF mode by particle number lies between 200 and 250 nm for both aerodynamic and mobility equivalent diameters. Significant emissions of CO were also evident in this facility. Exposure control recommendations

  15. Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling.

    PubMed

    Evans, Douglas E; Ku, Bon Ki; Birch, M Eileen; Dunn, Kevin H

    2010-07-01

    Detailed investigations were conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Presented research summarizes the direct-reading monitoring aspects of the study. A mobile aerosol sampling platform, equipped with an aerosol instrument array, was used to characterize emissions at different locations within the facility. Particle number, respirable mass, active surface area, and photoelectric response were monitored with a condensation particle counter (CPC), a photometer, a diffusion charger, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, respectively. CO and CO(2) were additionally monitored. Combined simultaneous monitoring of these metrics can be utilized to determine source and relative contribution of airborne particles (CNFs and others) within a workplace. Elevated particle number concentrations, up to 1.15 x 10(6) cm(-3), were found within the facility but were not due to CNFs. Ultrafine particle emissions, released during thermal treatment of CNFs, were primarily responsible. In contrast, transient increases in respirable particle mass concentration, with a maximum of 1.1 mg m(-3), were due to CNF release through uncontrolled transfer and bagging. Of the applied metrics, our findings suggest that particle mass was probably the most useful and practical metric for monitoring CNF emissions in this facility. Through chemical means, CNFs may be selectively distinguished from other workplace contaminants (Birch et al., in preparation), and for direct-reading monitoring applications, the photometer was found to provide a reasonable estimate of respirable CNF mass concentration. Particle size distribution measurements were conducted with an electrical low-pressure impactor and a fast particle size spectrometer. Results suggest that the dominant CNF mode by particle number lies between 200 and 250 nm for both aerodynamic and mobility equivalent diameters. Significant emissions of CO were also evident in this facility. Exposure control

  16. Fungal Spore Concentrations and Ergosterol Content in Aerosol Samples in the Caribbean During African Dust Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Figueroa, G.; Bolaños-Rosero, B.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Fungal spores are a major component of primary biogenic aerosol particles that are emitted to the atmosphere, are ubiquitous, and play an important role in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, climate, and public health. Every year, during summer months, African dust (AD) particles are transported to the Caribbean region causing an increase in the concentrations of particulate matter in the atmosphere. AD is one of the most important natural sources of mineral particulate matter at the global scale, and many investigations suggest that it has the ability to transport dust-associated biological particles through long distances. The relationship between AD incursions and the concentration of fungal spores in the Caribbean region is poorly understood. In order to investigate the effects of AD incursions on fungal spore's emissions, fungal spore concentrations were monitored using a Burkard spore trap at the tropical montane cloud forest of Pico del Este at El Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico. The presence of AD was supported with satellite images of aerosol optical thickness, and with the results from the air masses backward trajectories calculated with the NOAA HYSPLIT model. Basidiospores and Ascospores comprised the major components of the total spore's concentrations, up to a maximum of 98%, during both AD incursions and background days. A considerably decrease in the concentration of fungal spores during AD events was observed. Ergosterol, biomarker for measuring fungal biomass, concentrations were determined in aerosols that were sampled at a marine site, Cabezas de San Juan Nature Reserve, in Fajardo Puerto Rico, and at an urban site, Facundo Bueso building at the University of Puerto Rico. Additional efforts to understand the relationship between the arrival of AD to the Caribbean and a decrease in spore's concentrations are needed in order to investigate changes in local spore's vs the contribution of long-range spores transported within the AD.

  17. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  18. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier; Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Brucher, Wenzel; Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-03-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively

  19. Stratospheric CCN sampling program. [volcanology, Mount Saint Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. F.; Hudson, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Two one liter grab samples of stratospheric aerosol were returned from each of six U-2 sampling missions. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra from each sample were obtained. Interest was centered on the effects of volcanic activity. Spurious particle generation was found to be a serious problem in container 9 LFT and a much smaller problem in container 9 RT. Initial studies of an option for improved sample containers and values were completed. A CCN spectrometer, able to operate at an internal pressure of 300 mb, was designed.

  20. A Decade of Field Changing Atmospheric Aerosol Research: Outcomes of EPA’s STAR Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conference: Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry, July 28 – August 2, 2013, VermontPresentation Type: PosterTitle: An Analysis of EPA’s STAR Program and a Decade of Field Changing Research in Atmospheric AerosolsAuthors: Kristina M. Wagstrom1,2, Sherri ...

  1. Recovery efficiency and limit of detection of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne from environmental surface samples.

    PubMed

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Baron, Paul A; Beard, Jeremy K; Hein, Misty J; Larsen, Lloyd D; Rose, Laura; Schaefer, Frank W; Noble-Wang, Judith; Hodges, Lisa; Lindquist, H D Alan; Deye, Gregory J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2009-07-01

    After the 2001 anthrax incidents, surface sampling techniques for biological agents were found to be inadequately validated, especially at low surface loadings. We aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores within a chamber to achieve very low surface loading (ca. 3, 30, and 200 CFU per 100 cm(2)). Steel and carpet coupons seeded in the chamber were sampled with swab (103 cm(2)) or wipe or vacuum (929 cm(2)) surface sampling methods and analyzed at three laboratories. Agar settle plates (60 cm(2)) were the reference for determining recovery efficiency (RE). The minimum estimated surface concentrations to achieve a 95% response rate based on probit regression were 190, 15, and 44 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling steel surfaces and 40, 9.2, and 28 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling carpet surfaces with swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively; however, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of high observed variability. Mean REs at the highest surface loading were 5.0%, 18%, and 3.7% on steel and 12%, 23%, and 4.7% on carpet for the swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively. Precision (coefficient of variation) was poor at the lower surface concentrations but improved with increasing surface concentration. The best precision was obtained with wipe samples on carpet, achieving 38% at the highest surface concentration. The wipe sampling method detected B. anthracis at lower estimated surface concentrations and had higher RE and better precision than the other methods. These results may guide investigators to more meaningfully conduct environmental sampling, quantify contamination levels, and conduct risk assessment for humans.

  2. Aerosols concentration in the Candiota area applying different gravimetric methods of sampling and numeric modelling.

    PubMed

    Braga, C F; Alves, R C M; Teixeira, E C; Pire, M

    2002-12-01

    The main purpose of the present work is to study the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Candiota region, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, where the Presidente Médici coal power plant is located. Aerosol samples were collected at the studied locations between December 2000 and December 2001 during 24 h periods at 15 day intervals using HV PM10 and dichotomous samplers. Then, the values obtained with the ISCST (Industrial Source Complex Term) model, with the HV PM10 sampler at all studied stations, and with the dichotomous sampler at the 8 de Agosto station were compared with each other. The results show that the values for the model had been underestimated in relation to the HV PM10 data for the studied stations, but agreed with the values obtained with the dichotomous sampler.

  3. Sampling microbial aerosols. Summary report, 1 October 1985-30 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Chatigny, M.A.

    1986-09-01

    Collecting microbial aerosols is not substantially different from collecting any other airborne particulates. After collection, however, the processing of the sample is all important. These particles have life and the capacity to grow, multiply, and as parasites - cause undesirable effects in the multiplicity of hosts. No chemical or physical measurement(s) available today can assess all these characteristics. Even detection of their presence often requires the bio-amplification provided by the growth characteristics. Both indoor and outdoor air are seas of microbial particles. Depending on local conditions, concentrations of viable particles will range from a few per ft. to many thousands or even millions. Particles are nearly indistinguishable so that detecting a specific viable and infective type is a little like selecting a specific raindrop in a rainstorm. Only by careful choice of growth and assay procedures, can the microbes of interest be selected out of the collectate.

  4. Chemical speciation of chlorine in atmospheric aerosol samples by high-resolution proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zsófia; Furu, Enikő; Kavčič, Matjaž

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine is a main elemental component of atmospheric particulate matter (APM). The knowledge of the chemical form of chlorine is of primary importance for source apportionment and for estimation of health effects of APM. In this work the applicability of high-resolution wavelength dispersive proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy for chemical speciation of chlorine in fine fraction atmospheric aerosols is studied. A Johansson-type crystal spectrometer with energy resolution below the natural linewidth of Cl K lines was used to record the high-resolution Kα and Kβ proton induced spectra of several reference Cl compounds and two atmospheric aerosol samples, which were collected for conventional PIXE analysis. The Kα spectra which refers to the oxidation state, showed very minor differences due to the high electronegativity of Cl. However, the Kβ spectra exhibited pronounced chemical effects which were significant enough to perform chemical speciation. The major chlorine component in two fine fraction aerosol samples collected during a 2010 winter campaign in Budapest was clearly identified as NaCl by comparing the high-resolution Cl Kβ spectra from the aerosol samples with the corresponding reference spectra. This work demonstrates the feasibility of high-resolution PIXE method for chemical speciation of Cl in aerosols.

  5. Aqueous photooxidation of ambient Po Valley Italy air samples: Insights into secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Sullivan, A. P.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, C.; Collett, J. L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Turpin, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we conducted aqueous photooxidation experiments with ambient samples in order to develop insights concerning the formation of secondary organic aerosol through gas followed by aqueous chemistry (SOAaq). Water-soluble organics (e.g., glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone) are formed through gas phase oxidation of alkene and aromatic emissions of anthropogenic and biogenic origin. Their further oxidation in clouds, fogs and wet aerosols can form lower volatility products (e.g., oligomers, organic acids) that remain in the particle phase after water evaporation, thus producing SOA. The aqueous OH radical oxidation of several individual potentially important precursors has been studied in the laboratory. In this work, we used a mist-chamber apparatus to collect atmospheric mixtures of water-soluble gases from the ambient air at San Pietro Capofiume, Italy during the PEGASOS field campaign. We measured the concentration dynamics after addition of OH radicals, in order to develop new insights regarding formation of SOA through aqueous chemistry. Specifically, batch aqueous reactions were conducted with 33 ml mist-chamber samples (TOC ~ 50-100μM) and OH radicals (~10-12M) in a new low-volume aqueous reaction vessel. OH radicals were formed in-situ, continuously by H2O2 photolysis. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS +/-), and ESI-MS with IC pre-separation (IC/ESI-MS-). Reproducible formation of pyruvate and oxalate were observed both by IC and ESI-MS. These compounds are known to form from aldehyde oxidation in the aqueous phase. New insights regarding the aqueous chemistry of these "more atmospherically-realistic" experiments will be discussed.

  6. Carbon-specific analysis of humic-like substances in atmospheric aerosol and precipitation samples.

    PubMed

    Limbeck, Andreas; Handler, Markus; Neuberger, Bernhard; Klatzer, Barbara; Puxbaum, Hans

    2005-11-15

    A new approach for the carbon-specific determination of humic-like substances (HULIS) in atmospheric aerosols is presented. The method is based on a two-step isolation procedure of HULIS and the determination of HULIS carbon with a dissolved organic carbon analyzer. In the first step, a C18 solid-phase extraction is performed to separate HULIS from inorganic and hydrophilic organic sample constituents in aqueous sample solutions. The second isolation step is conducted on a strong anion exchanger to separate HULIS from remaining carbonaceous compounds. This ion chromatographic separation step including the subsequent on-line detection of HULIS carbon was performed fully automated to avoid the risk of sample contamination and to enhance the reproducibility of the method. With a 5-mL sample volume, a limit of detection of 1.0 mg C/L was obtained; this corresponds to an absolute amount of 5 microg of HULIS carbon. The reproducibility of the method given as the relative standard deviation was 4.3% (n = 10). The method was applied for the determination of water-soluble HULIS in airborne particulate matter. PM10 concentrations at an urban site in Vienna, Austria, ranged from around 0.1 to 1.8 microg of C/m(3) (n = 49); the fraction of water-soluble HULIS in OC was 12.1 +/- 7.2% (n = 49).

  7. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence.

  8. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence.

  9. Field Study of Filter Sampling Artifacts for Inorganic and Organic Aerosol Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Wang, W.; Chi, X.

    2009-12-01

    It is well-known that the collection of carbonaceous aerosols on quartz fibre filters is prone to both positive and negative artifacts (e.g., Turpin et al., 2000). In studies on these artifacts, one normally concentrates on organic carbon (OC) as a whole or occasionally on water-soluble OC (WSOC). It is rare that studies are carried on individual organic species. Examples of the latter type of study are those by Limbeck et al. (2001; 2005), who used a low-volume tandem filter set-up at a rural background site in South Africa and at the urban site Vienna in Austria, and measured dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) on the front and back filters. We conducted a similar study as those of Limbeck et al. (2001; 2005). For our study we collected high-volume PM2.5 samples during summer field campaigns at three European forested sites, i.e., in Hungary, Belgium, and Finland. The front and back filters of our samples were analysed for OC with a thermal-optical transmission technique (Birch & Cary, 1996), for WSOC as described by Viana et al. (2006), and for water-soluble inorganic cationic and anionic species and organic anionic species by suppressed ion chromatography with conductometric detection. The organic species measured included methanesulphonic acid (MSA) and the four major DCAs, i.e., oxalic, malonic, succinic, and glutaric. The median back/front percentage ratios for ammonium and sulphate were low, below 5% and 1%, respectively, but for nitrate they were around 25-30%. That undenuded filter samplings for nitrate are prone to artifacts is well-documented (e.g., Schaap et al., 2004). For OC the median back/front percentage ratios were around 15% and for WSOC around 20%. For MSA and the four DCAs, they increased in the following order: oxalic (1.5%), succinic (3%), MSA (4%), malonic (2-9%), glutaric (7-26%). Our back/front ratios for three of the four DCAs are lower to much lower than these found by Limbeck et al. (2001; 2005); for malonic, however, we found higher back

  10. Comparison of methods for the quantification of carbonate carbon in atmospheric PM10 aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, Nicole; Schmidl, Christoph; Marr, Iain L.; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    Carbonate carbon (CC) represents an important fraction of atmospheric PM10 along with organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), if specific sources (e.g. street abrasion, construction sites, desert dust) contribute to its composition. However, analytical methods for an easy and unambiguous determination of CC in atmospheric aerosols collected on filter matrices are scarce. We propose here a method for the determination of CC based on a heating pretreatment of the sample to remove OC and EC, followed by a total carbon determination to measure CC. This procedure is used for the correction of EC also determined by a heating pretreatment (Cachier, H., Bremond, M.P., Buat-Ménard, P., 1989. Determination of atmospheric soot carbon with a simple thermal method. Tellus 41B, 379-390) but without previous HCl fumigation, as proposed. Comparison of the carbon remaining after the proposed thermal treatment at 460 °C for 60 min in an oxygen stream showed good correlation for the carbonate carbon derived by calculation from the ionic balance for ambient air and street dust samples. Using the "three step" combustion technique it is now possible to determine OC, EC and CC by the use of a TC analyser in the concentration range of 2-200 μg carbon per sample aliquot, with good precision (3-5% RSD for TC and 5-10% for CC) and accuracy. In ambient air samples from a sampling site in Vienna with elevated PM10 levels ("Liesing") CC values as high as 25% of TC and 27% CO 32-; for street dust samples 32% of TC and 25% CO 32- of total PM10 mass were observed.

  11. Determination of the organic aerosol mass to organic carbon ratio in IMPROVE samples.

    PubMed

    El-Zanan, Hazem S; Lowenthal, Douglas H; Zielinska, Barbara; Chow, Judith C; Kumar, Naresh

    2005-07-01

    The ratio of organic mass (OM) to organic carbon (OC) in PM(2.5) aerosols at US national parks in the IMPROVE network was estimated experimentally from solvent extraction of sample filters and from the difference between PM(2.5) mass and chemical constituents other than OC (mass balance) in IMPROVE samples from 1988 to 2003. Archived IMPROVE filters from five IMPROVE sites were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), acetone and water. The extract residues were weighed to determine OM and analyzed for OC by thermal optical reflectance (TOR). On average, successive extracts of DCM, acetone, and water contained 64%, 21%, and 15%, respectively, of the extractable OC, respectively. On average, the non-blank-corrected recovery of the OC initially measured in these samples by TOR was 115+/-42%. OM/OC ratios from the combined DCM and acetone extracts averaged 1.92 and ranged from 1.58 at Indian Gardens, AZ in the Grand Canyon to 2.58 at Mount Rainier, WA. The average OM/OC ratio determined by mass balance was 2.07 across the IMPROVE network. The sensitivity of this ratio to assumptions concerning sulfate neutralization, water uptake by hygroscopic species, soil mass, and nitrate volatilization were evaluated. These results suggest that the value of 1.4 for the OM/OC ratio commonly used for mass and light extinction reconstruction in IMPROVE is too low.

  12. Determination of the organic aerosol mass to organic carbon ratio in IMPROVE samples.

    PubMed

    El-Zanan, Hazem S; Lowenthal, Douglas H; Zielinska, Barbara; Chow, Judith C; Kumar, Naresh

    2005-07-01

    The ratio of organic mass (OM) to organic carbon (OC) in PM(2.5) aerosols at US national parks in the IMPROVE network was estimated experimentally from solvent extraction of sample filters and from the difference between PM(2.5) mass and chemical constituents other than OC (mass balance) in IMPROVE samples from 1988 to 2003. Archived IMPROVE filters from five IMPROVE sites were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), acetone and water. The extract residues were weighed to determine OM and analyzed for OC by thermal optical reflectance (TOR). On average, successive extracts of DCM, acetone, and water contained 64%, 21%, and 15%, respectively, of the extractable OC, respectively. On average, the non-blank-corrected recovery of the OC initially measured in these samples by TOR was 115+/-42%. OM/OC ratios from the combined DCM and acetone extracts averaged 1.92 and ranged from 1.58 at Indian Gardens, AZ in the Grand Canyon to 2.58 at Mount Rainier, WA. The average OM/OC ratio determined by mass balance was 2.07 across the IMPROVE network. The sensitivity of this ratio to assumptions concerning sulfate neutralization, water uptake by hygroscopic species, soil mass, and nitrate volatilization were evaluated. These results suggest that the value of 1.4 for the OM/OC ratio commonly used for mass and light extinction reconstruction in IMPROVE is too low. PMID:15950041

  13. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of H1N1/2009 Virus from Aerosol Samples with a Microfluidic Immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuck-Jin; Fronczek, Christopher F; Angus, Scott V; Nicolini, Ariana M; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2014-06-01

    Influenza A H1N1/2009 is a highly infectious, rapidly spreading airborne disease that needs to be monitored in near real time, preferably in a microfluidic format. However, such demonstration is difficult to find as H1N1 concentration in aerosol samples is extremely low, with interference from dust particles. In this work, we measured Mie scatter intensities from a microfluidic device with optical waveguide channels, where the antibody-conjugated latex beads immunoagglutinated with the target H1N1 antigens. Through careful optimizations of optical parameters, we were able to maximize the Mie scatter increase from the latex immunoagglutinations while minimizing the background scatter from the dust particles. The aerosol samples were collected from a 1:10 mock classroom using a button air sampler, where a nebulizer generated aerosols, simulating human coughing. The detection limits with real aerosol samples were 1 and 10 pg/mL, using a spectrometer or a cell phone camera as an optical detector, respectively. These are several orders of magnitudes more sensitive than the other methods. The microfluidic immunosensor readings are in concordance with the results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The assay time was 30 s for sampling and 5 min for the microfluidic assay.

  14. Treatment of losses of ultrafine aerosol particles in long sampling tubes during ambient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Fennell, Paul; Symonds, Jonathan; Britter, Rex

    Long sampling tubes are often required for particle measurements in street canyons. This may lead to significant losses of the number of ultrafine (those below 100 nm) particles within the sampling tubes. Inappropriate treatment of these losses may significantly change the measured particle number distributions (PND), because most of the ambient particles, by number, exist in the ultrafine size range. Based on the Reynolds number (Re) in the sampling tubes, most studies treat the particle losses using the Gormley and Kennedy laminar flow model (Gormley, P.G., Kennedy, M., 1949. Diffusion from a stream following through a cylinderical tube. Proceedings of Royal Irish Academy 52, 163-169.) or the Wells and Chamberlain turbulent flow model (Wells, A.C., Chamberlain, A.C., 1967. Transport of small particles to vertical surfaces. British Journal of Applied Physics 18, 1793-1799.). Our experiments used a particle spectrometer with various lengths (1.00, 5.47, 5.55, 8.90 and 13.40 m) of sampling tube to measure the PNDs in the 5-2738 nm range. Experiments were performed under different operating conditions to measure the particle losses through silicone rubber tubes of circular cross-section (7.85 mm internal diameter). Sources of particles included emissions from an idling diesel engine car in a street canyon, emissions from a burning candle and those from the generation of salt aerosols using a nebuliser in the laboratory. Results showed that losses for particles below ≈20 nm were important and were largest for the smallest size range (5-10 nm), but were modest for particles above ≈20 nm. In our experiments the laminar flow model did not reflect the observations for small Re. This may be due to the sampling tubes not being kept straight or other complications. In situ calibration or comparison appears to be required.

  15. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for high throughput analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples: The benefits of synchrotron X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Lienemann, Peter; Zwicky, Christoph N.; Furger, Markus; Richard, Agnes; Falkenberg, Gerald; Rickers, Karen; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Hill, Matthias; Gehrig, Robert; Baltensperger, Urs

    2008-09-01

    The determination of trace element mass concentrations in ambient air with a time resolution higher than one day represents an urgent need in atmospheric research. It involves the application of a specific technique both for the aerosol sampling and the subsequent analysis of the collected particles. Beside the intrinsic sensitivity of the analytical method, the sampling interval and thus the quantity of collected material that is available for subsequent analysis is a major factor driving the overall trace element detection power. This is demonstrated for synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) of aerosol samples collected with a rotating drum impactor (RDI) in hourly intervals and three particle size ranges. The total aerosol mass on the 1-h samples is in the range of 10 µg. An experimental detection of the nanogram amounts of trace elements with the help of synchrotron X-rays was only achievable by the design of a fit-for-purpose sample holder system, which considered the boundary conditions both from particle sampling and analysis. A 6-µm polypropylene substrate film has evolved as substrate of choice, due to its practical applicability during sampling and its suitable spectroscopic behavior. In contrast to monochromatic excitation conditions, the application of a 'white' beam led to a better spectral signal-to-background ratio. Despite the low sample mass, a counting time of less than 30 s per 1-h aerosol sample led to sufficient counting statistics. Therefore the RDI-SR-XRF method represents a high-throughput analysis procedure without the need for any sample preparation. The analysis of a multielemental mass standard film by SR-XRF, laboratory-based wavelength-dispersive XRF spectrometry and laboratory-based micro XRF spectrometry showed that the laboratory-based methods were no alternatives to the SR-XRF method with respect to sensitivity and efficiency of analysis.

  16. Organic Carbon and Light Absorption Analysis of Los Angeles Aerosols through an Online Sampling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, M. K.; Hawkins, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    Brown carbon is a comprehensive term for organic compounds with wavelength dependent light absorption. Common sources of brown carbon include fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and aqueous reactions in cloud and fog water. Nitrophenols have been proposed as one source of brown carbon in the Los Angeles area. In this work, we are interested in the relative strengths of each of these sources within Los Angeles. We have implemented a continuous online system of collection and analysis within our lab. The system consists of a particle into liquid sampler (PILS), a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) and a total organic carbon analyzer (TOC). Online analysis of organic carbon content and UV-Vis absorption has allowed us to study the ratio of the two as an intrinsic property of the aerosol particles, called the 'absorption coefficient.' Using a rearrangement of Beer's Law, we have analyzed the relationship: ɛ = A / C (where ɛ is the absorption coefficient, A is the light absorption of the sample and C is the concentration of organic carbon in the sample). Using our continuous online system, we have collected absorption spectra and total organic carbon measurements over several weeks and in varying environmental conditions. Our work has shown that different weather conditions, along with fog or cloud formation, can affect the absorption coefficient of the brown carbon compounds in the air.

  17. Micro-scale (μg) radiocarbon analysis of water-soluble organic carbon in aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-lin; Liu, Jun-wen; Salazar, Gary A.; Li, Jun; Zotter, Peter; Zhang, Gan; Shen, Rong-rong; Schäfer, Klaus; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Prévôt, André S. H.; Szidat, Sönke

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurement of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in ambient aerosols is a quantitative tool for unambiguously distinguishing fossil and non-fossil sources. In this study, a fast and reliable method for measuring 14C in micro-scale (μg) WSOC aerosol samples is successfully developed, which includes three steps: (1) extraction (2) freeze drying, and (3) online 14C analysis of CO2 from WSOC combustion. Procedure blanks are carefully assessed by measuring high-purity water and reference materials. Accurate 14C results could be obtained for WSOC with only 10 μg C, and thus the potential applications are substantially broadened because much less filter material is needed compared to previous reported methods. This method is applied to aerosols samples collected during winter from Switzerland and China. The results demonstrate that non-fossil sources are important if not dominant contributors of WSOC. These non-fossil components are consistently enriched in WSOC compared to bulk OC and water-insoluble OC for all samples, due to high water solubility of primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols. However, the presence of fossil WSOC is still considerable indicating a substantial contribution of secondary OC (SOC) formed from precursors emitted by fossil emissions. Larger fossil contributions to WSOC is found in China than in Switzerland and previously reported values in Europe, USA and South Asia, which may be attributed to higher fossil-derived SOC formation in China.

  18. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Requirement § 222.404 Observer program sampling. (a) During the program design, NMFS would be guided by...

  19. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Requirement § 222.404 Observer program sampling. (a) During the program design, NMFS would be guided by...

  20. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Requirement § 222.404 Observer program sampling. (a) During the program design, NMFS would be guided by...

  1. A sample postapproval monitoring program in academia.

    PubMed

    Banks, Ron E; Norton, John N

    2008-01-01

    The primary goal of an animal care and use program (ACUP) should be to ensure animal well-being while fostering progressive science. Both the Animal Welfare Act (and associated regulations) and the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy require the institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) to provide oversight of the animal program through continuing reviews to ensure that procedures are performed as approved by the committee. But for many committees the semiannual assessment does not provide an opportunity to observe research procedures being performed. Furthermore, IACUC members are typically volunteers with other full-time commitments and may not be able to dedicate sufficient time to observe protocol performance. Postapproval monitoring (PAM) is a tool that the IACUC can use to ensure that the institution fulfills its regulatory obligation for animal program oversight. When performed by attentive and observant individuals, PAM can extend the IACUC's oversight, management, training, and communication resources, regardless of program size or complexity. No defined PAM process fits all institutions or all situations; rather, the monitoring must match the program under review. Nonetheless, certain concepts, concerns, and conditions affect all PAM processes; they are described in this article. Regardless of the style or depth of PAM chosen for a given program, one thing is sure: failure of the IACUC to engage all available and effective oversight methods to ensure humane, compassionate, efficient, and progressive animal care and use is a disservice to the institution, to the research community and to the animals used for biomedical research, testing, or teaching.

  2. Annular diffusion denuder for simultaneous removal of gaseous organic compounds and air oxidants during sampling of carbonaceous aerosols.

    PubMed

    Mikuška, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Bartošíková, Anna; Maenhaut, Willy

    2012-02-10

    A specially designed annular diffusion denuder for simultaneous removal of organic gaseous compounds and atmospheric oxidants in carbonaceous aerosol sampling is presented. Various kinds of denuder coatings were compared with respect to the collection efficiency of both organic gaseous compounds and NO(2) and ozone. The optimum sorbent is a mixture of activated charcoal and sulfite on molecular sieve. To ensure high collection efficiency over long-term field operation, two annular diffusion denuders are combined in series. The first half of the first denuder is filled with Na(2)SO(3) on molecular sieve (23 cm long layer) while the second half of the first denuder and the whole second denuder are filled with activated charcoal (the total length of the charcoal section is 67 cm). At a flow rate of 16.6 L min(-1), the collection efficiency of organic gaseous compounds and atmospheric oxidants in the annular diffusion denuder is better than 95%. Only small losses of aerosol particles (<3.6% in number concentration) were observed in the size range 0.12-2.26 μm. The annular diffusion denuder is compatible with the collection of aerosols on 47-mm diameter quartz fiber filters at a flow rate of 16.6 L min(-1). The use of this denuder enables one to sample carbonaceous aerosols on filters without positive sampling artefacts from volatile organic compounds and interferences from atmospheric oxidants. The annular diffusion denuder has been applied successfully for the sampling of carbonaceous aerosols during field campaigns of typically 1 month each at urban and forested sites in Europe.

  3. Face Mask Sampling for the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Expelled Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Malkin, Joanne; Patel, Hemu; Otu, Jacob; Mlaga, Kodjovi; Sutherland, Jayne S.; Antonio, Martin; Perera, Nelun; Woltmann, Gerrit; Haldar, Pranabashis; Garton, Natalie J.; Barer, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although tuberculosis is transmitted by the airborne route, direct information on the natural output of bacilli into air by source cases is very limited. We sought to address this through sampling of expelled aerosols in face masks that were subsequently analyzed for mycobacterial contamination. Methods In series 1, 17 smear microscopy positive patients wore standard surgical face masks once or twice for periods between 10 minutes and 5 hours; mycobacterial contamination was detected using a bacteriophage assay. In series 2, 19 patients with suspected tuberculosis were studied in Leicester UK and 10 patients with at least one positive smear were studied in The Gambia. These subjects wore one FFP30 mask modified to contain a gelatin filter for one hour; this was subsequently analyzed by the Xpert MTB/RIF system. Results In series 1, the bacteriophage assay detected live mycobacteria in 11/17 patients with wearing times between 10 and 120 minutes. Variation was seen in mask positivity and the level of contamination detected in multiple samples from the same patient. Two patients had non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. In series 2, 13/20 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis produced positive masks and 0/9 patients with extrapulmonary or non-tuberculous diagnoses were mask positive. Overall, 65% of patients with confirmed pulmonary mycobacterial infection gave positive masks and this included 3/6 patients who received diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavages. Conclusion Mask sampling provides a simple means of assessing mycobacterial output in non-sputum expectorant. The approach shows potential for application to the study of airborne transmission and to diagnosis. PMID:25122163

  4. Testing of an automated online EA-IRMS method for fast and simultaneous carbon content and stable isotope measurement of aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, István; Gyökös, Brigitta; Túri, Marianna; Futó, István; Filep, Ágnes; Hoffer, András; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive atmospheric studies have demonstrated that carbonaceous aerosol is one of the main components of atmospheric particulate matter over Europe. Various methods, considering optical or thermal properties, have been developed for quantification of the accurate amount of both organic and elemental carbon constituents of atmospheric aerosol. The aim of our work was to develop an alternative fast and easy method for determination of the total carbon content of individual aerosol samples collected on prebaked quartz filters whereby the mass and surface concentration becomes simply computable. We applied the conventional "elemental analyzer (EA) coupled online with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS)" technique which is ubiquitously used in mass spectrometry. Using this technique we are able to measure simultaneously the carbon stable isotope ratio of the samples, as well. During the developing process, we compared the EA-IRMS technique with an off-line catalytic combustion method worked out previously at Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies (HEKAL). We tested the combined online total carbon content and stable isotope ratio measurement both on standard materials and real aerosol samples. Regarding the test results the novel method assures, on the one hand, at least 95% of carbon recovery yield in a broad total carbon mass range (between 100 and 3000 ug) and, on the other hand, a good reproducibility of stable isotope measurements with an uncertainty of ± 0.2 per mill. Comparing the total carbon results obtained by the EA-IRMS and the off-line catalytic combustion method we found a very good correlation (R2=0.94) that proves the applicability of both preparation method. Advantages of the novel method are the fast and simplified sample preparation steps and the fully automated, simultaneous carbon stable isotope ratio measurement processes. Furthermore stable isotope ratio results can effectively be applied in the source apportionment

  5. Organic Composition of Size-Segregated Aerosols Sampled During the 2002 Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, R. T.; Zika, R. G.

    2003-04-01

    Aerosol samples were collected for the analysis of organic source markers using non-rotating Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactors (MOUDI) as part of the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Tampa, FL, USA. Daily samples were collected 12 m above ground at a flow rate of 30 lpm throughout the month of May 2002. Aluminum foil discs were used to sample aerosol size fractions with aerodynamic cut diameter of 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.17 and 0.093 um. Samples were solvent extracted using a mixture of dichloromethane/acetone/hexane, concentrated and then analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Low detection limits were achieved using a HP Programmable Temperature Vaporizing inlet (PTV) and large volume injections (80ul). Excellent chromatographic resolution was obtained using a 60 m long RTX-5MS, 0.25 mm I.D. column. A quantification method was built for over 90 organic compounds chosen as source markers including straight/iso/anteiso alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The investigation of potential aerosol sources for different particle sizes using known organic markers and source profiles will be presented. Size distributions of carbon preference indices (CPI), percent wax n-alkanes (%WNA) and concentration of selected compounds will be discussed. Also, results will be compared with samples acquired in different environments including the 1999 Atlanta SuperSite Experiment, GA, USA.

  6. Model-Based Estimation of Sampling-Caused Uncertainty in Aerosol Remote Sensing for Climate Research Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Noije, Twan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of sampling frequency on the global monthly mean aerosol optical thickness (AOT), we use 6 years of geographical coordinates of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) L2 aerosol data, daily global aerosol fields generated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model and the chemical transport models Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport, Spectral Radiationtransport Model for Aerosol Species and Transport Model 5, at a spatial resolution between 1.125 deg × 1.125 deg and 2 deg × 3?: the analysis is restricted to 60 deg S-60 deg N geographical latitude. We found that, in general, the MODIS coverage causes an underestimate of the global mean AOT over the ocean. The long-term mean absolute monthly difference between all and dark target (DT) pixels was 0.01-0.02 over the ocean and 0.03-0.09 over the land, depending on the model dataset. Negative DT biases peak during boreal summers, reaching 0.07-0.12 (30-45% of the global long-term mean AOT). Addition of the Deep Blue pixels tempers the seasonal dependence of the DT biases and reduces the mean AOT difference over land by 0.01-0.02. These results provide a quantitative measure of the effect the pixel exclusion due to cloud contamination, ocean sun-glint and land type has on the MODIS estimates of the global monthly mean AOT. We also simulate global monthly mean AOT estimates from measurements provided by pixel-wide along-track instruments such as the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor and the Cloud-Aerosol LiDAR with Orthogonal Polarization. We estimate the probable range of the global AOT standard error for an along-track sensor to be 0.0005-0.0015 (ocean) and 0.0029-0.01 (land) or 0.5-1.2% and 1.1-4% of the corresponding global means. These estimates represent errors due to sampling only and do not include potential retrieval errors. They are smaller than or comparable to the published estimate of 0.01 as being a climatologically significant

  7. EVALUATION OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY APPLIED TO AN AMBIENT URBAN AEROSOL SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns about the environmental and public health effects of particulate matter (PM) have stimulated interest in analytical techniques capable of measuring the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles. Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSE...

  8. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas), in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic) media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone). The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

  9. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  10. Aerosols released during large-scale integral MCCI tests in the ACE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.; Spencer, B.W.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the internationally sponsored Advanced Containment Experiments (ACE) program, seven large-scale experiments on molten core concrete interactions (MCCIs) have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. One of the objectives of these experiments is to collect and characterize all the aerosols released from the MCCIs. Aerosols released from experiments using four types of concrete (siliceous, limestone/common sand, serpentine, and limestone/limestone) and a range of metal oxidation for both BWR and PWR reactor core material have been collected and characterized. Release fractions were determined for UO{sup 2}, Zr, the fission-products: BaO, SrO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, MoO{sub 2}, Te, Ru, and control materials: Ag, In, and B{sub 4}C. Release fractions of UO{sub 2} and the fission products other than Te were small in all tests. However, release of control materials was significant.

  11. Aerosols released during large-scale integral MCCI tests in the ACE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.; Spencer, B.W. ); Sehgal, B.R. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the internationally sponsored Advanced Containment Experiments (ACE) program, seven large-scale experiments on molten core concrete interactions (MCCIs) have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. One of the objectives of these experiments is to collect and characterize all the aerosols released from the MCCIs. Aerosols released from experiments using four types of concrete (siliceous, limestone/common sand, serpentine, and limestone/limestone) and a range of metal oxidation for both BWR and PWR reactor core material have been collected and characterized. Release fractions were determined for UO{sup 2}, Zr, the fission-products: BaO, SrO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, MoO{sub 2}, Te, Ru, and control materials: Ag, In, and B{sub 4}C. Release fractions of UO{sub 2} and the fission products other than Te were small in all tests. However, release of control materials was significant.

  12. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  13. Beryllium 7 and lead 210 in the Western Hemisphere Arctic atmosphere - Observations from three recent aircraft-based sampling programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibb, Jack E.; Talbot, Robert W.; Gregory, Gerald L.

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of the natural radionuclides Be-7 and Pb-210 in the Western Hemisphere Arctic atmosphere were determined during the recent NOAA Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP 3) and NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Arctic Boundary Layer Expeditions (GTE/ABLE 3A and ABLE 3B) missions. Be-7 concentrations measured during the AGASP 3 mission north and west of Norway are in accord with previous results for high northern latitudes, but suggest that the 'stratospheric' air masses sampled at the highest elevations reached were significantly diluted with tropospheric air. Higher resolution sampling in the free troposphere of the North American Arctic during ABLE 3B revealed a layer of elevated Be-7 concentrations near 5 km. The distribution of Pb-210 in the high-altitude troposphere of North America during the summer was quite similar to distributions of more frequently measured aerosol species.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.

    2012-06-06

    Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office

  15. A comparison of Teflon slides and the Army Insecticide Measuring System for sampling aerosol clouds.

    PubMed

    Brown, J R; Dukes, J C; Beidler, E J; Chew, V; Ruff, J

    1993-03-01

    The effects of method of droplet analysis, reader of Teflon slides and distance on mass median diameter of a Cythion aerosol cloud were examined in the calibration of an Army Insecticide Measuring System (AIMS). There were no significant differences in results among readers and between the AIMS and readers. There were slight but statistically significant differences between readers of Teflon slides and between the methods of analysis. Data supports the manufacturer's recommendation that, for the AIMS, the distance at which an aerosol generator air blast is between 3 and 7 m3 s-1 must be determined.

  16. Multi-Modal Spatial Analysis of Metals within Individual Aerosol Particles Sampled from the Asian Continental Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffet, R.; Harder, T.; Williams, G.; Chen-Wiegart, Y. C. K.; Furutani, H.; Gilles, M. K.; Laskin, A.; Schoonen, M. A.; Thieme, J.; Uematsu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols represent an important source of iron and other metals into oceanic surface waters. In some regions of the ocean, the productivity is limited by iron. Thus, iron is an important variable in the carbon cycles of both marine and atmospheric environments. Here, we build upon previous work characterizing the source and oxidation state of iron in atmospheric particles to provide more information on the mineralogy of the iron phases using the newly built Sub-Micron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy (SRX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS II). The SRX beamline covers energies from 4.6 to 24 keV, allowing mapping of elements from Z=15 (P) to Z=95 (Am) at a sub-micrometer and a sub-100 nm spatial scale. This new method of aerosol analysis will provide outstanding performance for the spectromicroscopy of trace elements. Moreover, this technique will provide multiple modes of detection (fluorescence, absorption, diffraction, and tomographic imaging) to allow for a more complete characterization of the molecular nature of natural samples having nanometer scale structural features. Simultaneously measured X-ray absorption and fluorescence spectra from Asian mineral dust standards and deposited atmospheric particles will be presented. Application of this technique to atmospheric particle samples will broaden the scope of elements over which detailed spectral information can be obtained at a high spatial resolution and will complement existing imaging methods used to determine aerosol chemical and physical properties.

  17. Diversity of bacteria producing pigmented colonies in aerosol, snow and soil samples from remote glacial areas (Antarctica, Alps and Andes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

    2008-04-01

    Four different communities and one culture of pigmented microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation in mineral medium of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas). Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. The phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed the identification of sequences belonging to Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the maritime Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clone). The only microorganism identified in the maritime Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. The two snow samples from the Alps only shared one common microorganism. Most of the identified microorganisms have been detected previously in cold environments (Dietzia kujamenisi, Pseudonocardia Antarctica, Hydrogenophaga palleronii and Brebundimonas sp.), marine sediments (Aquiflexus balticus, Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes, Pseudomonas sp. and one uncultured Alphaproteobacteria), and soils and rocks (Pseudonocardia sp., Agrobactrium sp., Limnobacter sp. and two uncultured Alphaproteobacetria clones). Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those

  18. Regional PIXE facility at Chandigarh (India) and Trace Element Analysis of Aerosol and Bio-medical Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govil, I. M.

    2009-03-01

    A regional Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility is newly developed using 3 Mev Proton beam from Variable Energy Cyclotron, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India). A new target chamber has been designed to cater for Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) along with PIXE measurements. The HPGe x-ray detector, the Ge (Li) gamma-ray detector and a silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector can be mounted simultaneously in the chamber for this purpose. A remotely controlled stepper motor is provided to move the target wheel holding 12/24 samples at a time. This facility is now routinely used for the detection of trace elements in the aerosol, medical and forensic science samples. The paper presents the analysis of Aerosol samples collected from highly polluted steel city of Mandi Govindgarh in Punjab state and relatively clean city of Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir region. The results from the analysis of these samples show some basic differences in the trace element profile of the two cities. The paper also describes the trace element analysis of fly ash in the vicinity of Ropar Thermal Power plant in Punjab. The scope of this study was to determine the concentration and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the vicinity of coal-fired thermal power plants in India. The data taken for the Bio-medical samples are also discussed.

  19. CIP10 optimization for 4,4-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate aerosol sampling and field comparison with impinger method.

    PubMed

    Puscasu, Silvia; Aubin, Simon; Cloutier, Yves; Sarazin, Philippe; Tra, Huu V; Gagné, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    4,4-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) aerosol exposure evaluation in spray foam insulation application is known as being a challenge because the spray foam application actually involves a fast-curing process. Available techniques are either not user-friendly or are inaccurate or not validated for this application. To address these issues, a new approach using a CIP10M was developed to appropriately collect MDI aerosol in spray foam insulation while being suitable for personal sampling. The CIP10M is a commercially available personal aerosol sampler that has been validated for the collection of microbial spores into a liquid medium. Tributylphosphate with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MOPIP) was introduced into the CIP10M to collect and stabilize the MDI aerosols. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method were 0.007 and 0.024 μg ml(-1), respectively. The dynamic range was from 0.024 to 0.787 μg ml(-1) (with R (2) ≥ 0.990), which corresponds to concentrations in the air from 0.04 to 1.3 µg m(-3), assuming 60 min of sampling at 10 l min(-1). The intraday and interday analytical precisions were <2% for all of the concentration levels tested, and the accuracy was within an appropriate range of 98 ± 1%. No matrix effect was observed, and a total recovery of 99% was obtained. Parallel sampling was performed in a real MDI foam spraying environment with a CIP10M and impingers containing toluene/MOPIP (reference method). The results obtained show that the CIP10M provides levels of MDI monomer in the same range as the impingers, and higher levels of MDI oligomers. The negative bias observed for MDI monomer was between 2 and 26%, whereas the positive bias observed for MDI oligomers was between 76 and 113%, with both biases calculated with a confidence level of 95%. The CIP10M seems to be a promising approach for MDI aerosol exposure evaluation in spray foam applications.

  20. Size-separated sampling and analysis of isocyanates in workplace aerosols. Part I. Denuder--cascade impactor sampler.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Jakob; Spanne, Mårten; Karlsson, Daniel; Dalene, Marianne; Skarping, Gunnar

    2008-07-01

    Isocyanates in the workplace atmosphere are typically present both in gas and particle phase. The health effects of exposure to isocyanates in gas phase and different particle size fractions are likely to be different due to their ability to reach different parts in the respiratory system. To reveal more details regarding the exposure to isocyanate aerosols, a denuder-impactor (DI) sampler for airborne isocyanates was designed. The sampler consists of a channel-plate denuder for collection of gaseous isocyanates, in series with three-cascade impactor stages with cut-off diameters (d(50)) of 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 mum. An end filter was connected in series after the impactor for collection of particles smaller than 0.5 mum. The denuder, impactor plates and the end filter were impregnated with a mixture of di-n-butylamine (DBA) and acetic acid for derivatization of the isocyanates. During sampling, the reagent on the impactor plates and the end filter is continuously refreshed, due to the DBA release from the impregnated denuder plates. This secures efficient derivatization of all isocyanate particles. The airflow through the sampler was 5 l min(-1). After sampling, the samples containing the different size fractions were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. The DBA impregnation was stable in the sampler for at least 1 week. After sampling, the DBA derivatives were stable for at least 3 weeks. Air sampling was performed in a test chamber (300 l). Isocyanate aerosols studied were thermal degradation products of different polyurethane polymers, spraying of isocyanate coating compounds and pure gas-phase isocyanates. Sampling with impinger flasks, containing DBA in toluene, with a glass fiber filter in series was used as a reference method. The DI sampler showed good compliance with the reference method, regarding total air levels. For the different aerosols studied, vast differences were revealed in the distribution of isocyanate in gas and

  1. RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System for detection of Bacillus anthracis spores from aerosol collection samples: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Ted; Ryan, Valorie; Spaulding, Usha K; Clemens, Kristine M; Ota, Irene M; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2013-01-01

    The RAZOR EX Anthrax Air Detection System was validated in a collaborative study for the detection of Bacillus anthracis in aerosol collection buffer. Phosphate-buffered saline was charged with 1 mg/mL standardized dust to simulate an authentic aerosol collection sample. The dust-charged buffer was spiked with either B. anthracis Ames at 2000 spores/mL or Bacillus cereus at 20 000 spores/mL. Twelve collaborators participated in the study, with four collaborators at each of three sites. Each collaborator tested 12 replicates of B. anthracis in dust-charged buffer and 12 replicates of B. cereus in dust-charged buffer. All samples sets were randomized and blind-coded. All collaborators produced valid data sets (no collaborators displayed systematic errors) and there was only one invalid data point. After unblinding, the analysis revealed a cross-collaborator probability of detection (CPOD) of 1.00 (144 positive results from 144 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.975-1.00) for the B. anthracis samples and a CPOD of 0.00 (0 positive results from 143 replicates, 95% confidence interval 0.00-0.0262) for the B. cereus samples. These data meet the requirements of AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2010.003, developed by the Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays. PMID:23767365

  2. Composition of microbial communities in aerosol, snow and ice samples from remote glaciated areas (Antarctica, Alps, Andes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elster, J.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Řeháková, K.

    2007-06-01

    Taxonomical and ecological analyses were performed on micro-autotrophs (cyanobacteria and algae together with remnants of diatom valves), micro-fungi (hyphae and spores), bacteria (rod, cocci and red clusters), yeast, and plant pollen extracted from various samples: Alps snow (Mt. Blank area), Andean snow (Illimani, Bolivia), Antarctic aerosol filters (Dumont d'Urville, Terre Adélie), and Antarctic inland ice (Terre Adélie). Three methods for ice and snow sample's pre-concentration were tested (filtration, centrifugation and lyophilisation). Afterwards, cultivation methods for terrestrial, freshwater and marine microorganisms (micro-autotrophs and micro-fungi) were used in combination with liquid and solid media. The main goal of the study was to find out if micro-autotrophs are commonly transported by air masses, and later stored in snow and icecaps around the world. The most striking result of this study was the absence of culturable micro-autotrophs in all studied samples. However, an unusual culturable pigmented prokaryote was found in both alpine snow and aerosol samples. Analyses of many samples and proper statistical analyses (PCA, RDA- Monte Carlo permutation tests) showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in both microbial community and biotic remnants composition F=9.33, p=0.001. In addition, GLM showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in numbers of categories of microorganisms and remnants of biological material F=11.45, p=0.00005. The Antarctic aerosol samples were characterised by having red clusters of bacteria, the unusual prokaryote and yeasts. The high mountain snow from the Alps and Andes contained much more culturable heterotrophs. The unusual prokaryote was very abundant, as were coccoid bacteria, red clusters of bacteria, as well as yeasts. The Antarctic ice samples were quite different. These samples had higher numbers of rod bacteria and fungal hyphae. The microbial communities and biological remnants of

  3. An Evaluation of Sharp Cut Cyclones for Sampling Diesel Particulate Matter Aerosol in the Presence of Respirable Dust

    PubMed Central

    Cauda, Emanuele; Sheehan, Maura; Gussman, Robert; Kenny, Lee; Volkwein, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Two prototype cyclones were the subjects of a comparative research campaign with a diesel particulate matter sampler (DPMS) that consists of a respirable cyclone combined with a downstream impactor. The DPMS is currently used in mining environments to separate dust from the diesel particulate matter and to avoid interferences in the analysis of integrated samples and direct-reading monitoring in occupational environments. The sampling characteristics of all three devices were compared using ammonium fluorescein, diesel, and coal dust aerosols. With solid spherical test aerosols at low particle loadings, the aerodynamic size-selection characteristics of all three devices were found to be similar, with 50% penetration efficiencies (d50) close to the design value of 0.8 µm, as required by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration for monitoring occupational exposure to diesel particulate matter in US mining operations. The prototype cyclones were shown to have ‘sharp cut’ size-selection characteristics that equaled or exceeded the sharpness of the DPMS. The penetration of diesel aerosols was optimal for all three samplers, while the results of the tests with coal dust induced the exclusion of one of the prototypes from subsequent testing. The sampling characteristics of the remaining prototype sharp cut cyclone (SCC) and the DPMS were tested with different loading of coal dust. While the characteristics of the SCC remained constant, the deposited respirable coal dust particles altered the size-selection performance of the currently used sampler. This study demonstrates that the SCC performed better overall than the DPMS. PMID:25060240

  4. Latin hypercube sampling (program user's guide). [LHC, in FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Iman, R.L.; Davenport, J.M.; Zeigler, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    This document is designed for users of the program developed at Sandia Laboratories by the authors to generate Latin hypercube samples. Latin hypercube sampling is a recently developed sampling technique for generating input vectors into computer models for purposes of sensitivity analysis studies. In addition to providing a cost-effective and reliable sampling scheme, the Latin hypercube sampling technique also provides the user with the flexibility efficiently to study effects of distributional assumptions on key input variables without rerunning the computer model. 5 figures, 2 tables.

  5. A computer program for sample size computations for banding studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Sample sizes necessary for estimating survival rates of banded birds, adults and young, are derived based on specified levels of precision. The banding study can be new or ongoing. The desired coefficient of variation (CV) for annual survival estimates, the CV for mean annual survival estimates, and the length of the study must be specified to compute sample sizes. A computer program is available for computation of the sample sizes, and a description of the input and output is provided.

  6. A method and fortran program for quantitative sampling in paleontology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tipper, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The Unit Sampling Method is a binomial sampling method applicable to the study of fauna preserved in rocks too well cemented to be disaggregated. Preliminary estimates of the probability of detecting each group in a single sampling unit can be converted to estimates of the group's volumetric abundance by means of correction curves obtained by a computer simulation technique. This paper describes the technique and gives the FORTRAN program. ?? 1976.

  7. Intercomparison of elemental concentrations in total and size-fractionated aerosol samples collected during the mace head experiment, April 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Filip; Maenhaut, Willy; Colin, Jean-Louis; Losno, Remi; Schulz, Michael; Stahlschmidt, Thomas; Spokes, Lucinda; Jickells, Timothy

    During an intercomparison field experiment, organized at the Atlantic coast station of Mace Head, Ireland, in April 1991, aerosol samples were collected by four research groups. A variety of samplers was used, combining both high- and low-volume devices, with different types of collection substrates: Hi-Vol Whatman 41 filter holders, single Nuclepore filters and stacked filter units, as well as PIXE cascade impactors. The samples were analyzed by each participating group, using in-house analytical techniques and procedures. The intercomparison of the daily concentrations for 15 elements, measured by two or more participants, revealed a good agreement for the low-volume samplers for the majority of the elements, but also indicated some specific analytical problems, owing to the very low concentrations of the non-sea-salt elements at the sampling site. With the Hi-Vol Whatman 41 filter sampler, on the other hand, much higher results were obtained in particular for the sea-salt and crustal elements. The discrepancy was dependent upon the wind speed and was attributed to a higher collection efficiency of the Hi-Vol sampler for the very coarse particles, as compared to the low-volume devices under high wind speed conditions. The elemental mass size distribution, as derived from parallel cascade impactor samplings by two groups, showed discrepancies in the submicrometer aerosol fraction, which were tentatively attributed to differences in stage cut-off diameters and/or to bounce-off or splintering effects on the quartz impactor slides used by one of the groups. However, the atmospheric concentrations (sums over all stages) were rather similar in the parallel impactor samples and were only slightly lower than those derived from stacked filter unit samples taken in parallel.

  8. Composition and major sources of organic compounds of aerosol particulate matter sampled during the ACE-Asia campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Kobayashi, Minoru; Mochida, Michihiro; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Meehye; Lim, Ho-Jin; Turpin, Barbara J.; Komazaki, Yuichi

    2004-10-01

    The organic compound tracers of atmospheric particulate matter, as well as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), have been characterized for samples acquired during the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) from Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, from Sapporo, Japan, and from Chichi-jima Island in the western North Pacific, as well as on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration R/V Ronald H. Brown. Total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine both polar and aliphatic compounds. Total particles, organic matter, and lipid and saccharide compounds were high during the Asian dust episode (early April 2001) compared to levels at other times. The organic matter can be apportioned to seven emission sources and to significant oxidation-producing secondary products during long-range transport. Terrestrial natural background compounds are vascular plant wax lipids derived from direct emission and as part of desert sand dust. Fossil fuel utilization is obvious and derives from petroleum product and coal combustion emissions. Saccharides are a major polar (water-soluble) carbonaceous fraction derived from soil resuspension (agricultural activities). Biomass-burning smoke is evident in all samples and seasons. It contributes up to 13% of the total compound mass as water-soluble constituents. Burning of refuse is another source of organic particles. Varying levels of marine-derived lipids are superimposed during aerosol transport over the ocean. Secondary oxidation products increase with increasing transport distance and time. The ACE-Asia aerosols are composed not only of desert dust but also of soil dust, smoke from biomass and refuse burning, and emissions from fossil fuel use in urban areas.

  9. Concentrations of iodine isotopes ((129)I and (127)I) and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Riebe, B; Walther, C; Wershofen, H; Schlosser, C; Vockenhuber, C; Synal, H-A

    2016-04-01

    New data about (129)I, (127)I concentrations and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from the trace survey station of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Northern Germany, are presented and discussed in this paper. The investigated samples were collected on a weekly basis during the years 2011 to 2013. Iodine was extracted from aerosol filters using a strong basic solution and was separated from the matrix elements with chloroform and was analysed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for (129)I and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for (127)I. The concentrations of (127)I and (129)I in aerosol filters ranged from 0.31 to 3.71 ng m(-3) and from 0.06 to 0.75 fg m(-3), respectively. The results of (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios were in the order 10(-8) to 10(-7). The (129)I originated directly from gaseous emissions and indirectly from liquid emissions (via sea spray) from the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and La Hague. In comparison with the results of (131)I after the Fukushima accident, no contribution of (129)I from this accident was detectable in Central Europe due to the high background originating from the (129)I releases of the European reprocessing plants. (129)I atmospheric activity concentrations were compared with those of an anthropogenic radionuclide ((85)Kr). We did not find any correlation between (129)I and (85)Kr, both having nuclear reprocessing plant as the main source. PMID:26867099

  10. Water Soluble Organic Nitrogen in atmospheric aerosol samples from urban, sub-urban and pristine areas of Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canelon, R.; Giuliante, A.; Aguiar, G.; Ghneim, T.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    Concentrations of water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) were determined in atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) collected between September of 2005 and May of 2006, in an urban continental (Caracas, 10° 29' 09'' N, 66° 53' 48'' W), an urban coastal (Catia la mar, 10° 35' 47'' N, 67° 01' 45'' W), a sub-urban coastal (Osma, 10° 32' N, 67° 28' W), a suburban continental (Altos de Pipe, 10° 23' 41'' N, 63° 59' 10'' W), a pristine coastal (Isla de Aves, 15° 40' N, 63° 36' W) and a pristine continental (La Gran Sabana National Park, 5° 41' 30'' N, 61° 34' 20'' W) areas of Venezuela. TSP samples were collected using a Hi-Vol airborne particle sampler. TSP were impacted on a fiberglass filter pretreated under 400° C for 4 hours to minimize organic nitrogen contamination. Ultra sound water extractions of the sample filters were performed and their NH4+, NO2- and NO3- concentrations were determined by ion exchange liquid chromatography. The water extracts were UV digested and the nitrogen inorganic ions were analyzed after the UV exposure. WSON concentrations were calculated by the difference between the inorganic nitrogen concentrations before and after UV digestion. Ninety five percent of the aerosol samples collected in the suburban and pristine areas showed a WSON concentration range from 0.03 to 0.6 μg/m3 whereas in urban areas the range was 0.21 to 1.09 μg/m3. These concentration values are on the same order of magnitude than the previously found in other tropical and subtropical areas. The contribution of aerosol WSON to the total soluble nitrogen in the coastal urban, sub-urban and pristine areas ranged from 23 to 67%, while in Caracas was smaller (38±8%, n=5). Therefore, aerosol WSON provides an important source of nitrogen to these pristine and suburban ecosystems, which could potentially have implications on the nutrient cycling. There was a statistically significant linear correlation between the aerosol WSON and the water soluble inorganic

  11. The upgraded external-beam PIXE/PIGE set-up at LABEC for very fast measurements on aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Mochi, D.; Nava, S.; Carraresi, L.

    2014-01-01

    At the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence, an external beam facility is fully dedicated to measurements of elemental composition of atmospheric aerosol. The experimental set-up hitherto used for this kind of applications has been upgraded with the replacement of a traditional Si(Li) detector for the detection of medium-high Z elements with a silicon drift detector (SDD) with a big active area (80 mm2) and 450 μm thickness, with the aim of obtaining better minimum detection limits (MDL) and reduce measuring times. The Upilex extraction window has been replaced by a more resistant one (Si3N4). A comparison between the old Si(Li) and the new SDD for aerosol samples collected on different substrata like Teflon, Kapton and Nuclepore evidenced the better performances of the SDD. It allows obtaining better results (higher counting statistics, lower MDLs) even in shorter measuring times, thus allowing very fast analysis of both daily and hourly samples.

  12. WIPP waste characterization program sampling and analysis guidance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Characterization Program Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Guidance Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Guidance Manual includes all of the sampling and testing methodologies accepted by the WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO) for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP. This includes methods for characterizing representative samples of transuranic (TRU) wastes at DOE generator sites with respect to the gas generation controlling variables defined in the WIPP bin-scale and alcove test plans, as well as waste container headspace gas sampling and analytical procedures to support waste characterization requirements under the WIPP test program and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The procedures in this Guidance Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site specific procedures. The use of these procedures is intended to provide the necessary sensitivity, specificity, precision, and comparability of analyses and test results. The solutions to achieving specific program objectives will depend upon facility constraints, compliance with DOE Orders and DOE facilities' operating contractor requirements, and the knowledge and experience of the TRU waste handlers and analysts. With some analytical methods, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the Guidance Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive/destructive characterization, the Guidance Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure.

  13. A study of workers' exposures to the inhalable and 'total' aerosol fractions in the primary nickel production industry using mannequins to simulate personal sampling.

    PubMed

    Tsai, P J; Vincent, J H

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes a study that was carried out at work sites in the primary nickel production industry to investigate the difference between inhalable and 'total' aerosol exposures by using the mannequin sampling method, and to compare the results with those from an earlier study where actual workers' personal exposures were assessed in the same way. Experiments were carried out at 21 work sites located in mining, milling, smelting, and refining works of two primary nickel production companies. During sampling, mannequins were used to simulate the physical presence of workers and the 'exposures' of these were obtained for strategic positions at selected work sites. The orientations of each mannequin with respect to the wind were rotated through 90 degrees every hour in order to simulate the approximate orientation-averaging corresponding to actual workers. Two samplers were placed side-by-side on each mannequin: the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable aerosol sampler, and the 37-mm plastic cassette widely used as a personal sampler for 'total' aerosol. Each collected sample was analyzed to obtain both overall dust and overall nickel content. A total of 116 such sample pairs were collected. The results show that inhalable aerosol exposure levels-for both overall dust and for total nickel content-were consistently and significantly higher than the corresponding total aerosol exposure levels. Weighted least squares linear regression yielded (inhalable/'total') aerosol ratios ranging from 1.38 to 3.90 and 1.20 to 4.01, respectively, for overall dust and for total nickel content for different work sites. Comparison of these results with those from the earlier study of actual workers' personal exposures were in good agreement for most of the work sites studies. However, the actual intensities of exposure using the mannequin sampling method were consistently lower than those obtained from actual workers' personal sampling in our earlier study. The

  14. A study of workers' exposures to the inhalable and 'total' aerosol fractions in the primary nickel production industry using mannequins to simulate personal sampling.

    PubMed

    Tsai, P J; Vincent, J H

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes a study that was carried out at work sites in the primary nickel production industry to investigate the difference between inhalable and 'total' aerosol exposures by using the mannequin sampling method, and to compare the results with those from an earlier study where actual workers' personal exposures were assessed in the same way. Experiments were carried out at 21 work sites located in mining, milling, smelting, and refining works of two primary nickel production companies. During sampling, mannequins were used to simulate the physical presence of workers and the 'exposures' of these were obtained for strategic positions at selected work sites. The orientations of each mannequin with respect to the wind were rotated through 90 degrees every hour in order to simulate the approximate orientation-averaging corresponding to actual workers. Two samplers were placed side-by-side on each mannequin: the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable aerosol sampler, and the 37-mm plastic cassette widely used as a personal sampler for 'total' aerosol. Each collected sample was analyzed to obtain both overall dust and overall nickel content. A total of 116 such sample pairs were collected. The results show that inhalable aerosol exposure levels-for both overall dust and for total nickel content-were consistently and significantly higher than the corresponding total aerosol exposure levels. Weighted least squares linear regression yielded (inhalable/'total') aerosol ratios ranging from 1.38 to 3.90 and 1.20 to 4.01, respectively, for overall dust and for total nickel content for different work sites. Comparison of these results with those from the earlier study of actual workers' personal exposures were in good agreement for most of the work sites studies. However, the actual intensities of exposure using the mannequin sampling method were consistently lower than those obtained from actual workers' personal sampling in our earlier study. The

  15. Determination of Trace Cadmium in Geological Samples by Aerosol Dilution ICP-MS with Inverse Aqua Regia Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Guo, W.; Jin, L.; Hu, S.; Chai, X.

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element that occurs at ppb level in most terrestrial materials. The determination of Cd in geological samples by ICP-MS is subject to Zr and/or Mo based oxide/hydroxide interference. This study developed a valid method for the determination of Cd by Ar aerosol dilution ICP-MS with inverse aqua regia extraction (in a water bath at 95℃ for 2h). An Agilent 7700x ICP-MS (Agilent Technologies, USA) with an aerosol dilution system was used. The extraction procedure separated most of the Zr matrix (>90%) from the analyte, and the residual Zr- hydroxides and Mo-oxides or hydroxides were successfully eliminated by adding an amount of Ar to the sample aerosol prior to the plasma. Compared to the conventional operation, the amounts of oxide and hydroxide ions formed in the plasma were reduced by up to 10 times. The relative yields of the interfering oxides and hydroxides were as low as 0.012% ((94Mo16OH++95Mo16O+)/(94Mo++95Mo+)) and 0.007% (94Zr16OH+/94Zr+). Under the optimized dilution gas flow rate (0.85 L min-1) and carrier gas flow rate (0.24 L min-1), the limit of detection (LOD, 3s) for 111Cd was 1.3 ng g-1. The accuracy of the method was assessed by using two USGS SRMs (andesite AGV-2 and basalt BCR-2). The Cd contents determined for AGV-2 and BCR-2 are 0.058±0.004μg g-1 and 0.148±0.007μg g-1 (N=10), which are in good agreement with the USGS reference values (0.061μg g-1 and 0.14μg g-1). The proposed method was also applied to determine Cd contents in 65 IGGE SRMs (28 soils, 28 sediments and 9 rocks). The measured Cd levels in these samples agree well with their certified values. The developed method shows great potential for the direct determination of trace levels of Cd in geological samples.

  16. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  17. Measurement assurance program for LSC analyses of tritium samples

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, G.D. Jr.; Clark, J.P.

    1997-05-01

    Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) for Tritium is done on 600 to 800 samples daily as part of a contamination control program at the Savannah River Site`s Tritium Facilities. The tritium results from the LSCs are used: to release items as radiologically clean; to establish radiological control measures for workers; and to characterize waste. The following is a list of the sample matrices that are analyzed for tritium: filter paper smears, aqueous, oil, oily rags, ethylene glycol, ethyl alcohol, freon and mercury. Routine and special causes of variation in standards, counting equipment, environment, operators, counting times, samples, activity levels, etc. produce uncertainty in the LSC measurements. A comprehensive analytical process measurement assurance program such as JTIPMAP{trademark} has been implemented. The process measurement assurance program is being used to quantify and control many of the sources of variation and provide accurate estimates of the overall measurement uncertainty associated with the LSC measurements. The paper will describe LSC operations, process improvements, quality control and quality assurance programs along with future improvements associated with the implementation of the process measurement assurance program.

  18. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  19. 50 CFR 222.404 - Observer program sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Observer program sampling. 222.404 Section 222.404 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES...

  20. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    PubMed

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. PMID:24633656

  1. Direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved aerosol impactor samples using laser induced fluorescence spectra excited at 263 and 351 nm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuji; Pan, Yong-Le; James, Deryck; Wetmore, Alan E; Redding, Brandon

    2014-04-11

    We report a novel atmospheric aerosol characterization technique, in which dual wavelength UV laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometry marries an eight-stage rotating drum impactor (RDI), namely UV-LIF-RDI, to achieve size- and time-resolved analysis of aerosol particles on-strip. The UV-LIF-RDI technique measured LIF spectra via direct laser beam illumination onto the particles that were impacted on a RDI strip with a spatial resolution of 1.2mm, equivalent to an averaged time resolution in the aerosol sampling of 3.6 h. Excited by a 263 nm or 351 nm laser, more than 2000 LIF spectra within a 3-week aerosol collection time period were obtained from the eight individual RDI strips that collected particles in eight different sizes ranging from 0.09 to 10 μm in Djibouti. Based on the known fluorescence database from atmospheric aerosols in the US, the LIF spectra obtained from the Djibouti aerosol samples were found to be dominated by fluorescence clusters 2, 5, and 8 (peaked at 330, 370, and 475 nm) when excited at 263 nm and by fluorescence clusters 1, 2, 5, and 6 (peaked at 390 and 460 nm) when excited at 351 nm. Size- and time-dependent variations of the fluorescence spectra revealed some size and time evolution behavior of organic and biological aerosols from the atmosphere in Djibouti. Moreover, this analytical technique could locate the possible sources and chemical compositions contributing to these fluorescence clusters. Advantages, limitations, and future developments of this new aerosol analysis technique are also discussed.

  2. Direct on-strip analysis of size- and time-resolved aerosol impactor samples using laser induced fluorescence spectra excited at 263 and 351 nm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuji; Pan, Yong-Le; James, Deryck; Wetmore, Alan E; Redding, Brandon

    2014-04-11

    We report a novel atmospheric aerosol characterization technique, in which dual wavelength UV laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometry marries an eight-stage rotating drum impactor (RDI), namely UV-LIF-RDI, to achieve size- and time-resolved analysis of aerosol particles on-strip. The UV-LIF-RDI technique measured LIF spectra via direct laser beam illumination onto the particles that were impacted on a RDI strip with a spatial resolution of 1.2mm, equivalent to an averaged time resolution in the aerosol sampling of 3.6 h. Excited by a 263 nm or 351 nm laser, more than 2000 LIF spectra within a 3-week aerosol collection time period were obtained from the eight individual RDI strips that collected particles in eight different sizes ranging from 0.09 to 10 μm in Djibouti. Based on the known fluorescence database from atmospheric aerosols in the US, the LIF spectra obtained from the Djibouti aerosol samples were found to be dominated by fluorescence clusters 2, 5, and 8 (peaked at 330, 370, and 475 nm) when excited at 263 nm and by fluorescence clusters 1, 2, 5, and 6 (peaked at 390 and 460 nm) when excited at 351 nm. Size- and time-dependent variations of the fluorescence spectra revealed some size and time evolution behavior of organic and biological aerosols from the atmosphere in Djibouti. Moreover, this analytical technique could locate the possible sources and chemical compositions contributing to these fluorescence clusters. Advantages, limitations, and future developments of this new aerosol analysis technique are also discussed. PMID:24745745

  3. Bacterial Communities in Aerosols and Manure Samples from Two Different Dairies in Central and Sonoma Valleys of California

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosols have been suspected to transport food pathogens and contaminate fruits and vegetables grown in close proximity to concentrated animal feeding operations, but studies are lacking that substantiate such transport. To monitor the potential transport of bacteria originated from fresh or dry manure through aerosols on a dairy, we identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, bacteria in aerosols collected within 2 to 3 meters from dairy cows at two dairies. Gram-positive Firmicutes were predominant in aerosols from a dairy in Sonoma, California, and surrounded by vineyards, in contrast to sequences of Gram-negative Proteobacteria predominant in aerosols from a dairy in Modesto, California, also surrounded by other dairies. Although Firmicutes represented approximately 50% of the 10 most abundant sequences, aerosols from the Sonoma dairy also contained sequences of Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria, identified previously with animal feces. While none of the top 10 sequences from fresh or dry manure from Modesto dairy were detected in aerosols, two of the sequences from the phylum Bacteriodetes and one from class Clostridia from fresh manure were detected in aerosols from Sonoma. Interestingly, none of the sequences from dry manure were in the top 10 sequences in aerosols from both dairies. The 10 most abundant sequences in aerosols from the Modesto dairy were all from Proteobacteria and nearly half of them were from genus Massilia, which have been isolated previously from immune-compromised people and aerosols. We conclude that the predominant bacteria in aerosols are diverse among locations and that they do not reflect the predominant species of bacteria present in cow feces and/or in close proximity to cows. These results suggest that the aerosol sequences did not originate from manure. Large volumes of aerosols would be required to determine if bacterial sequences from aerosols could be used to track bacteria in manure to crops grown in proximity. PMID:21364996

  4. The french involvement in Mars sample return program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counil, J.; Bonneville, R.; Rocard, F.

    The French scientific community is involved in planetary exploration for more than thirty years, at the beginning mainly in cooperation with the former USSR (e.g. missions Phobos 1 and 2 in the 80's), then through ESA (Mars - Express). In 97, following the success of the US Pathfinder mission, NASA proposed to CNES to participate to the first Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. This idea created a tremendous excitation in the French scientific community and CNES took the decision to contribute to the MSR program. Conscious that only the very best laboratories will be selected to analyse Mars samples, the French ministry of Research has created in May 99, the CSEEM (Comité Scientifique pour l'Etude des Echantillons Martiens). This Committee mandated to coordinate the national endeavour, has released late 99 an AO aimed at implementing a national preparatory program to Mars samples analysis. More than 40 proposals have been submitted involving more than 450 scientists from around 60 French labs. Most of these proposals are interdisciplinarity jointly submitted by planetologists, mineralogists, geochemists, astrobiologists and biologists. The first stage of this preparatory program is on going and will last until mid-2003. Amongst the priorities of the preparatory program are development of dedicated instrumentation, capability of analysing as small as possible samples, measurements integration; rock-macromolecule interaction; bacteria behaviour under Martian conditions; sample transportation under quarantine conditions, etc In the late 90's, the French participation to the NASA led 2003-2005 MSR mission was mainly consisting in a sample return orbiter to be launched by an Ariane V rocket. This contribution to MSR was one of the two priorities of the CNES Mars Exploration Program named PREMIER together with the NetLander network. Unfortunately late 99, due the failure of the two NASA missions MPL and MCO, a rearchitecture of the program has been decided and the first

  5. Comparison of Computer Programs Which Compute Sampling Errors for Complex Samples. Technical Report 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, David A.

    This report describes and evaluates the major computer software packages capable of computing standard errors for statistics estimated from complex samples. It first describes the problem and the proposed solutions. The two major programs presently available, SUPER CARP and OSIRIS, are described in general terms. The kinds of statistics available…

  6. Sampling strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of organic aerosol measurements requiring long sample-collection times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modini, Rob L.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    The composition and properties of atmospheric organic aerosols (OAs) change on timescales of minutes to hours. However, some important OA characterization techniques typically require greater than a few hours of sample-collection time (e.g., Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy). In this study we have performed numerical modeling to investigate and compare sample-collection strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of OA measurements requiring long sample-collection times. Specifically, we modeled the measurement of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) concentrations at a polluted urban site in Mexico City, and investigated how to construct hourly resolved time series from samples collected for 4, 6, and 8 h. We modeled two sampling strategies - sequential and staggered sampling - and a range of post-processing methods including interpolation and deconvolution. The results indicated that relative to the more sophisticated and costly staggered sampling methods, linear interpolation between sequential measurements is a surprisingly effective method for increasing time resolution. Additional error can be added to a time series constructed in this manner if a suboptimal sequential sampling schedule is chosen. Staggering measurements is one way to avoid this effect. There is little to be gained from deconvolving staggered measurements, except at very low values of random measurement error (< 5 %). Assuming 20 % random measurement error, one can expect average recovery errors of 1.33-2.81 µg m-3 when using 4-8 h-long sequential and staggered samples to measure time series of concentration values ranging from 0.13-29.16 µg m-3. For 4 h samples, 19-47 % of this total error can be attributed to the process of increasing time resolution alone, depending on the method used, meaning that measurement precision would only be improved by 0.30-0.75 µg m-3 if samples could be collected over 1 h instead of 4 h. Devising a

  7. Radial diffusion and penetration of gas molecules and aerosol particles through laminar flow reactors, denuders, and sampling tubes.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Daniel A; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2015-04-01

    Flow reactors, denuders, and sampling tubes are essential tools for many applications in analytical and physical chemistry and engineering. We derive a new method for determining radial diffusion effects and the penetration or transmission of gas molecules and aerosol particles through cylindrical tubes under laminar flow conditions using explicit analytical equations. In contrast to the traditional Brown method [Brown, R. L. J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) 1978, 83, 1-8] and CKD method (Cooney, D. O.; Kim, S. S.; Davis, E. J. Chem. Eng. Sci. 1974, 29, 1731-1738), the new approximation developed in this study (known as the KPS method) does not require interpolation or numerical techniques. The KPS method agrees well with the CKD method under all experimental conditions and also with the Brown method at low Sherwood numbers. At high Sherwood numbers corresponding to high uptake on the wall, flow entry effects become relevant and are considered in the KPS and CKD methods but not in the Brown method. The practical applicability of the KPS method is demonstrated by analysis of measurement data from experimental studies of rapid OH, intermediate NO3, and slow O3 uptake on various organic substrates. The KPS method also allows determination of the penetration of aerosol particles through a tube, using a single equation to cover both the limiting cases of high and low deposition described by Gormley and Kennedy (Proc. R. Ir. Acad., Sect. A. 1949, 52A, 163-169). We demonstrate that the treatment of gas and particle diffusion converges in the KPS method, thus facilitating prediction of diffusional loss and penetration of gases and particles, analysis of chemical kinetics data, and design of fluid reactors, denuders, and sampling lines. PMID:25744622

  8. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  9. Skylab program payload integration. TO27 sample array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.; Westcott, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the TO27 sample array was to determine the change in optical properties of various transmissive windows, mirrors, and diffraction gratings caused by the deposition of contaminants found about the orbital assembly. The expected information to be obtained from the total TO27 sample array program is as follows: (1) effect of space contaminants on transmittance, reflectance, grating efficiency, and polarization; (2) variations in deposition of contaminants due to substrate, solar radiation, period of exposure, direction of exposure, and geometry effects; (3) identification of contaminants and source of evolution; (4) time of contaminant evolution and lingering time; and (5) guidelines for a model of spacecraft contamination.

  10. Guidelines for the aerosol climatic effects special study: An element of the NASA climate research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Research to help develop better understanding of the role of aerosols in the Earth's radiative balance is summarized. Natural volcanic injections of aerosols into the stratosphere to understand and model any resultant evidence of climate change are considered. The approach involves: (1) measurements from aircraft, balloon and ground based platforms which complement and enhance the aerosol information derived from satellite data; (2) development of instruments required for some of these measurements; (3) theoretical and laboratory work to aid in interpreting and utilizing space based and in situ data; and (4) preparation for and execution of concentrated observations of stratospheric aerosols following a future large volcanic eruption.

  11. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  12. Development of a sampling method for carbonyl compounds released due to the use of electronic cigarettes and quantitation of their conversion from liquid to aerosol.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-15

    In this study, an experimental method for the collection and analysis of carbonyl compounds (CCs) released due to the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or ECs) was developed and validated through a series of laboratory experiments. As part of this work, the conversion of CCs from a refill solution (e-solution) to aerosol also was investigated based on mass change tracking (MCT) approach. Aerosol samples generated from an e-cigarette were collected manually using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges at a constant sampling (puffing) velocity of 1 L min(-1) with the following puff conditions: puff duration (2s), interpuff interval (10s), and puff number (5, 10, and 15 times). The MCT approach allowed us to improve the sampling of CCs through critical evaluation of the puff conditions in relation to the consumed quantities of refill solution. The emission concentrations of CCs remained constant when e-cigarettes were sampled at or above 10 puff. Upon aerosolization, the concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased 6.23- and 58.4-fold, respectively, relative to their concentrations in e-solution. Furthermore, a number of CCs were found to be present in the aerosol samples which were not detected in the initial e-solution (e.g., acetone, butyraldehyde, and o-tolualdehyde).

  13. A PCR assay used to study aerosol transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from samples of live pigs under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Savoye, C; Jobert, J L; Berthelot-Hérault, F; Keribin, A M; Cariolet, R; Morvan, H; Madec, F; Kobisch, M

    2000-05-11

    The study describes a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The test is based on the amplification of the omlA gene coding for an outer membrane protein of A. pleuropneumoniae. To test the specificity of the reaction, 19 other bacterial species related to A. pleuropneumoniae or isolated from pigs were assayed. They were all found negative in the PCR assay. The detection threshold of the test was 10(2) A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/assay. The test was then applied to the detection of A. pleuropneumoniae from tonsillar biopsies and tracheobronchial lavage fluids of pigs without a culture step. The detection of A. pleuropneumoniae in these samples was performed by PCR, by conventional culture and by bacteriology with immunomagnetic beads. The number of samples that were found positive by PCR was almost three times higher than the number of samples from which A. pleuropneumoniae was isolated by both bacteriological techniques. The detection of A. pleuropneumoniae in these samples allowed us to demonstrate its aerosol transmission to pigs under experimental conditions. The trial involved 18 specific pathogen free pigs. Six pigs, infected with A. pleuropneumoniae, were located in a unit A, together with four non-infected animals (contact pigs). Eight non-infected pigs (reporter pigs) were located in a unit B, adjacent to A. We detected A. pleuropneumoniae in samples from infected animals but also from 'contact' (unit A) and 'reporter' (unit B) pigs. The results of this study show that the simple preparation of the samples followed by the PCR assay may be a useful tool for epidemiological studies. PMID:10781732

  14. An evaluation of the "GGP" personal samplers under semi-volatile aerosols: sampling losses and their implication on occupational risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Dragan, George C; Breuer, Dietmar; Blaskowitz, Morten; Karg, Erwin; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Arteaga-Salas, Jose M; Nordsieck, Hermann; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Semi-volatile (SV) aerosols still represent an important challenge to occupational hygienists due to toxicological and sampling issues. Particularly problematic is the sampling of hazardous SV that are present in both particulate and vapour phases at a workplace. In this study we investigate the potential evaporation losses of SV aerosols when using off-line filter-adsorber personal samplers. Furthermore, we provide experimental data showing the extent of the evaporation loss that can bias the workplace risk assessment. An experimental apparatus consisting of an aerosol generator, a flow tube and an aerosol monitoring and sampling system was set up inside a temperature controlled chamber. Aerosols from three n-alkanes were generated, diluted with nitrogen and sampled using on-line and off-line filter-adsorber methods. Parallel measurements using the on-line and off-line methods were conducted to quantify the bias induced by filter sampling. Additionally, two mineral oils of different volatility were spiked on filters and monitored for evaporation depending on the samplers flow rate. No significant differences between the on-line and off-line methods were detected for the sum of particles and vapour. The filter-adsorber method however tended to underestimate up to 100% of the particle mass, especially for the more volatile compounds and lower concentrations. The off-line sampling method systematically returned lower particle and higher vapour values, an indication for particle evaporation losses. We conclude that using only filter sampling for the assessment of semi-volatiles may considerably underestimate the presence of the particulate phase due to evaporation. Thus, this underestimation can have a negative impact on the occupational risk assessment if the evaporated particle mass is no longer quantified.

  15. Calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for the quantitative analysis of solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, J.

    1999-02-12

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has become the method of choice for elemental and isotopic analysis. Several factors contribute to its success. Modern instruments are capable of routine analysis at part per trillion levels with relative detection limits in part per quadrillion levels. Sensitivities in these instruments can be as high as 200 million counts per second per part per million with linear dynamic ranges up to eight orders of magnitude. With standards for only a few elements, rapid semiquantitative analysis of over 70 elements in an individual sample can be performed. Less than 20 years after its inception ICP-MS has shown to be applicable to several areas of science. These include geochemistry, the nuclear industry, environmental chemistry, clinical chemistry, the semiconductor industry, and forensic chemistry. In this introduction, the general attributes of ICP-MS will be discussed in terms of instrumentation and sample introduction. The advantages and disadvantages of current systems are presented. A detailed description of one method of sample introduction, laser ablation, is given. The paper also gives conclusions and suggestions for future work. Chapter 2, Quantitative analysis of solids by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for calibration, has been removed for separate processing.

  16. Daytime resolved analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban aerosol samples - impact of sources and meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Sklorz, Martin; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Liu, Yongbo; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2007-03-01

    Urban aerosol was collected in a summer and a winter campaign for 7 and 3 days, respectively. Low volume samples were taken with a time resolution of 160 min using a filter/sorption cartridge system extended by an ozone scrubber. Concentrations of mainly particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxidised PAH (O-PAH) were determined by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The sampling site was located in the city centre of Augsburg, Germany, near major roads with high traffic volume. The daily concentrations and profiles were mainly governed by local emissions from traffic and domestic heating, as well as by the meteorological conditions. During the winter campaign, concentrations were more than 10 fold higher than during the summer campaign. Highest concentrations were found concurrent with low boundary layer heights and low wind speeds. Significant diurnal variation of the PAH profiles was observed. Enhanced influences of traffic related PAH on the PAH profiles were evident during daytime in summer, whereas emissions from hot water generation and domestic heating were obvious during the night time of both seasons. A general idea about the global meteorological situation was acquired using back trajectory calculations (NOAA ARL HYSPLIT4). Due to high local emissions in combination with low air exchange during the two sampling campaigns, effects of mesoscale transport were not clearly observable.

  17. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  18. FIELD EVALUATION OF A SAMPLING APPROACH FOR PM-COARSE AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subsequent to a 1997 revision of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM), the US Environmental Protection Agency is investigating the development of sampling methodology for a possible new coarse particle standard. When developed, this me...

  19. Modeling of Aerosols in Post-Combustor Flow Path and Sampling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Thomas; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2006-01-01

    The development and application of a multi-dimensional capability for modeling and simulation of aviation-sourced particle emissions and their precursors are elucidated. Current focus is on the role of the flow and thermal environments. The cases investigated include a film cooled turbine blade, the first-stage of a high-pressure turbine, the sampling probes, the sampling lines, and a pressure reduction chamber.

  20. Characterization of radicals and high-molecular weight species from alpha-pinene/ozone reaction and ambient aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Jelica

    Secondary organic aerosol formed during oxidation of different volatile organic compounds is composed from a number of final and intermediate reaction products. The final products include compounds in both low and high molecular weight range called also oligomer species. These compounds can be highly volatile, as well as being semi- or low-volatility compounds. This study characterized intermediate reactive radical products formed from previously often studied alpha-pinene/ozone reaction. In order to passivate those radical species nitrone spin traps were used. 5,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-3H-pyrrole-N-oxide (DMPO), and 5-dietoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO) traps were able to successfully trap oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals produced from alpha-pinene/ozone reaction. Electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode with mass spectrometry (MS) detection was used to scan spectra of formed spin trap adducts and the tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) to elucidate its structures as well as structures of captured radicals. The same method was applied to analyze radical species present in ambient PM2.5 samples. Few carbon- (alkyl) and oxygen- (alkoxyl) centered radicals were captured with DMPO and DEPMPO traps. The second part of this study was focused on high molecular weight (high-MW) species formed from the same reaction (alpha-pinene/ozone), but found also in fine particulate matter fractions of ambient samples. LC/MS/MS analysis of dimer species from chamber study revealed fragments that can originate from peroxide structures. Proposed reaction for these peroxide dimer formation is self reaction of two peroxyl radicals, followed by the loss of oxygen molecule. These findings emphasize the role of peroxyl (ROO) radicals in formation of high-MW products and are in line with the high O:C ratio results reported in other studies. Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) extracts of three size fractions of the ambient aerosol, PM1--2.5, PM0.1--1, and PM<0

  1. How We Can Constrain Aerosol Type Globally

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    In addition to aerosol number concentration, aerosol size and composition are essential attributes needed to adequately represent aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) in models. As the nature of ACI varies enormously with environmental conditions, global-scale constraints on particle properties are indicated. And although advanced satellite remote-sensing instruments can provide categorical aerosol-type classification globally, detailed particle microphysical properties are unobtainable from space with currently available or planned technologies. For the foreseeable future, only in situ measurements can constrain particle properties at the level-of-detail required for ACI, as well as to reduce uncertainties in regional-to-global-scale direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF). The limitation of in situ measurements for this application is sampling. However, there is a simplifying factor: for a given aerosol source, in a given season, particle microphysical properties tend to be repeatable, even if the amount varies from day-to-day and year-to-year, because the physical nature of the particles is determined primarily by the regional environment. So, if the PDFs of particle properties from major aerosol sources can be adequately characterized, they can be used to add the missing microphysical detail the better sampled satellite aerosol-type maps. This calls for Systematic Aircraft Measurements to Characterize Aerosol Air Masses (SAM-CAAM). We are defining a relatively modest and readily deployable, operational aircraft payload capable of measuring key aerosol absorption, scattering, and chemical properties in situ, and a program for characterizing statistically these properties for the major aerosol air mass types, at a level-of-detail unobtainable from space. It is aimed at: (1) enhancing satellite aerosol-type retrieval products with better aerosol climatology assumptions, and (2) improving the translation between satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties and

  2. Aerosols and Particulates Workshop Sampling Procedures and Venues Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter; Howard, Robert

    1999-01-01

    The Sampling Procedures and Venues Workgroup discussed the potential venues available and issues associated with obtaining measurements. Some of the issues included Incoming Air Quality, Sampling Locations, Probes and Sample Systems. The following is a summary of the discussion of the issues and venues. The influence of inlet air to the measurement of exhaust species, especially trace chemical species, must be considered. Analysis procedures for current engine exhaust emissions regulatory measurements require adjustments for air inlet humidity. As a matter of course in scientific investigations, it is recommended that "background" measurements for any species, particulate or chemical, be performed during inlet air flow before initiation of combustion, if possible, and during the engine test period as feasible and practical. For current regulatory measurements, this would be equivalent to setting the "zero" level for conventional gas analyzers. As a minimum, it is recommended that measurements of the humidity and particulates in the incoming air be taken at the start and end of each test run. Additional measurement points taken during the run are desirable if they can be practically obtained. It was felt that the presence of trace gases in the incoming air is not a significant problem. However, investigators should consider the ambient levels and influences of local air pollution for species of interest. Desired measurement locations depend upon the investigation requirements. A complete investigation of phenomenology of particulate formation and growth requires measurements at a number of locations both within the engine and in the exhaust field downstream of the nozzle exit plane. Desirable locations for both extractive and in situ measurements include: (1) Combustion Zone (Multiple axial locations); (2) Combustor Exit (Multiple radial locations for annular combustors); (3) Turbine Stage (Inlet and exit of the stage); (4) Exit Nozzle (Multiple axial locations

  3. Dry sampling of gas-phase isocyanates and isocyanate aerosols from thermal degradation of polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Gylestam, Daniel; Riddar, Jakob B; Karlsson, Daniel; Dahlin, Jakob; Dalene, Marianne; Skarping, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a dry sampler, with an impregnated denuder in series with a glass fibre filter, using di-n-butylamine (DBA) for airborne isocyanates (200ml min(-1)) is investigated and compared with an impinger flask with a glass fibre filter in series (1 l min(-1)). An exposure chamber containing 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), and 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in the concentration range of 5-205 μg m(-3) [0.7-33 p.p.b.; relative humidity (RH) 50%], generated by gas- and liquid-phase permeation, was used for the investigation. The precision for the dry sampling for five series with eight samplers were in the range of 2.0-6.1% with an average of 3.8%. During 120-min sampling (n = 4), no breakthrough was observed when analysing samplers in series. Sixty-four exposed samplers were analysed after storage for 0, 7, 14, and 21 days. No breakdown of isocyanate derivatives was observed. Twenty-eight samplers in groups of eight were collecting isocyanates during 0.5-32h. Virtually linear relationships were obtained with regard to sampling time and collected isocyanates with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.998-0.999 with the intercept close to the origin. Pre- or post-exposure to ambient air did not affect the result. Dry sampling (n = 48) with impinger-filter sampling (n = 48) of thermal decomposition product of polyurethane polymers, at RH 20, 40, 60, and 90%, was compared for 11 isocyanate compounds. The ratio between the different isocyanates collected with dry samplers and impinger-filter samplers was in the range of 0.80-1.14 for RH = 20%, 0.8-1.25 for RH = 40%, 0.76-1.4 for RH = 60%, and 0.72-3.7 for RH = 90%. Taking into account experimental errors, it seems clear that isocyanic acid DBA derivatives are found at higher levels in the dry samples compared with impinger-filter samplers at elevated humidity. The dry sampling using DBA as the reagent enables easy and robust sampling without the need of field

  4. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 4 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H to qualify them for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 4 processing. All sample results agree with expectations based on prior analyses where available. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 4 strategy are identified. This revision includes additional data points that were not available in the original issue of the document, such as additional plutonium results, the results of the monosodium titanate (MST) sorption test and the extraction, scrub strip (ESS) test. This report covers the revision to the Tank 21H qualification sample results for Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 4 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). A previous document covers initial characterization which includes results for a number of non-radiological analytes. These results were used to perform aluminum solubility modeling to determine the hydroxide needs for Salt Batch 4 to prevent the precipitation of solids. Sodium hydroxide was then added to Tank 21 and additional samples were pulled for the analyses discussed in this report. This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP).

  5. Aerosols and Particulates Workshop Sampling Procedures and Venues Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter; Howard, Robert

    1999-01-01

    The Sampling Procedures and Venues Workgroup discussed the potential venues available and issues associated with obtaining measurements. Some of the issues included Incoming Air Quality, Sampling Locations, Probes and Sample Systems. The following is a summary of the discussion of the issues and venues. The influence of inlet air to the measurement of exhaust species, especially trace chemical species, must be considered. Analysis procedures for current engine exhaust emissions regulatory measurements require adjustments for air inlet humidity. As a matter of course in scientific investigations, it is recommended that "background" measurements for any species, particulate or chemical, be performed during inlet air flow before initiation of combustion, if possible, and during the engine test period as feasible and practical. For current regulatory measurements, this would be equivalent to setting the "zero" level for conventional gas analyzers. As a minimum, it is recommended that measurements of the humidity and particulates in the incoming air be taken at the start and end of each test run. Additional measurement points taken during the run are desirable if they can be practically obtained. It was felt that the presence of trace gases in the incoming air is not a significant problem. However, investigators should consider the ambient levels and influences of local air pollution for species of interest. Desired measurement locations depend upon the investigation requirements. A complete investigation of phenomenology of particulate formation and growth requires measurements at a number of locations both within the engine and in the exhaust field downstream of the nozzle exit plane. Desirable locations for both extractive and in situ measurements include: (1) Combustion Zone (Multiple axial locations); (2) Combustor Exit (Multiple radial locations for annular combustors); (3) Turbine Stage (Inlet and exit of the stage); (4) Exit Nozzle (Multiple axial locations

  6. Fumonisin measurement from maize samples by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with corona charged aerosol detector.

    PubMed

    Szekeres, András; Budai, Andrea; Bencsik, Ottó; Németh, László; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Arpád; Mesterházy, Akos; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Fumonisins are a class of mycotoxins produced mainly by Fusarium species, which is primary fungal contaminant of the maize and maize-derived products around the world. The B-series fumonisins (FB1, FB2 and FB3) are the most abundant and toxic constituent; thus, their levels are regulated generally worldwide. In this study, we developed a reliable method for the measurement of fumonisin FB1, FB2 and FB3 mycotoxins from maize samples without the time-consuming derivatization step using a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with corona charged aerosol detector. The detection and quantitation limit of the whole method were 0.02 and 0.04 mg/kg for each fumonisins, respectively. The detection linearity was tested in the calibration range of 2 orders of magnitude and the recoveries from the spiked samples were determined. The developed method proved to be sufficient to measure the maximum residue levels of fumonisins, which are specified in European Union and United States in maize and maize-based products.

  7. Comparison of Aerosol Properties within and above the ABL at the ARM Program's SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Monache, L.D.; Perry, K.D.; Cederwall, R.T.

    2002-02-26

    The goal of this study was to determine under what conditions, if any, measurements of aerosol properties made at the Earth's surface are representative of the aerosol properties within the column of air above the surface. This project used data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site (Stokes and Schwartz 1994), which is one of the only locations in the world where ground-based and in situ airborne measurements of atmospheric aerosol are made on a routine basis. All flight legs in the one-year period from March 2000 to March 2001 were categorized as either within or above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) using an objective mixing height determination technique. The correlations between the aerosol properties measured at the surface and those measured within and above the ABL were then computed. The conclusion of this comparison is that the aerosol extensive properties (those that depend upon the amount of aerosol that is present in the atmosphere, i.e., either the number or mass concentrations), and intensive properties (those that do not depend upon the amount of aerosol present) measured at the surface are representative of values within the ABL, but not within the free atmosphere.

  8. Particle size distribution of workplace aerosols in manganese alloy smelters applying a personal sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Berlinger, B; Bugge, M D; Ulvestad, B; Kjuus, H; Kandler, K; Ellingsen, D G

    2015-12-01

    Air samples were collected by personal sampling with five stage Sioutas cascade impactors and respirable cyclones in parallel among tappers and crane operators in two manganese (Mn) alloy smelters in Norway to investigate PM fractions. The mass concentrations of PM collected by using the impactors and the respirable cyclones were critically evaluated by comparing the results of the parallel measurements. The geometric mean (GM) mass concentrations of the respirable fraction and the <10 μm PM fraction were 0.18 and 0.39 mg m(-3), respectively. Particle size distributions were determined using the impactor data in the range from 0 to 10 μm and by stationary measurements by using a scanning mobility particle sizer in the range from 10 to 487 nm. On average 50% of the particulate mass in the Mn alloy smelters was in the range from 2.5 to 10 μm, while the rest was distributed between the lower stages of the impactors. On average 15% of the particulate mass was found in the <0.25 μm PM fraction. The comparisons of the different PM fraction mass concentrations related to different work tasks or different workplaces, showed in many cases statistically significant differences, however, the particle size distribution of PM in the fraction <10 μm d(ae) was independent of the plant, furnace or work task. PMID:26498986

  9. Comparison of Aerosol Properties Within and Above the ABL at the ARM Program's SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Delle Monache, L

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this thesis is to determine under what conditions, if any, measurements of aerosol properties made at the Earth's surface are representative of aerosol properties within the column of air above the surface. This thesis will use data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) which is the only location in the world where ground-based and in situ airborne measurements are made on a routine basis. All flight legs in the one-year period from March 2000-March 2001 were categorized as either within or above the atmospheric boundary layer using an objective mixing height determination technique. The correlations between the aerosol properties measured at the surface and the measured within and above the ABL were then computed. The conclusion of this comparison is that the aerosol extensive and intensive properties measured at the surface are representative of values within the ABL, but not within the free atmosphere.

  10. Aerosol measurements at the Southern Great Plains Site: Design and surface installation

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R.; Knuth, R.H.; Guggenheim, S.F.; Albert, B.

    1996-04-01

    To impropve the predictive capabilities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program radiation models, measurements of awserosol size distributions, condensation particle concentrations, aerosol scattering coefficients at a number of wavelenghts, and the aerosol absorption coefficients are needed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Alos, continuous measurements of ozone concnetrations are needed for model validation. The environmental Measuremenr Laboratory (EMK) has the responsibility to establish the surface aerosol measurements program at the SGP site. EML has designed a special sampling manifold.

  11. ACE-Asia: Size/Time/Compositionally Resolved Aerosols During ACE-Asia Using Continuously Sampling DRUM Technology and Synchrotron-XRF Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, T. A.; Cliff, S. S.; Jimenez-Cruz, M.; Perry, K. D.

    2001-12-01

    The adaptation of focused beam technology to continuously sampling drum impactors (DRUMs) has allowed for an unprecedented number of size/time/compositional analyses of aerosols during the Spring, 2001 ACE-Asia study and a summer follow-on. While continuously sampling and sizing inertial drum impactors have been available for aerosol monitoring and research for the past 30 years, cost and sensitivity considerations have generally limited their use, even in research studies. These constraints have been greatly relaxed by our application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) analysis for elemental analysis of aerosols, both increasing sensitivity and decreasing cost. The intense polarized x-ray beams of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (ALS) allows us to eliminate 99% of all the background normally present in x-ray analysis while matching the x-ray beam spot to the 0.2 mm "footprint" of our DRUM impactors. This combination allows non-destructive analyses of elements from sodium to uranium (with some minor elements masked by interferences) with a time resolution set during analysis, not during sampling. The DELTA Group and its many collaborators executed a 21 site network of continuously sampling 3 and 8 stage DRUM impactors for the 6 weeks of ACE-Asia. Fewer than 5% of the potential 80,000 samples were lost due to sampling problems. During S-XRF analysis, a nominal time resolution of 6 hrs was chosen, with 2 hrs available as needed during aerosol episodes. The 168 mm drum strips were mounted in frames and exposed to the "white" polarized x-ray beam of ALS Beam Line 10.3.1 for 30 seconds, yielding quantitative elemental determinations from sodium through molybdenum plus heavy elements, certified by 80 analytical standards and NIST SRMs. Minimum detectable limits ranged from 0.1 ng/m3 for sulfur to 0.005 ng/m3 for transition metals such as zinc, allowing scores of positive elemental determinations in each spectrum. During ACE

  12. Hourly elemental concentrations in PM2.5 aerosols sampled simultaneously at urban background and road site during SAPUSS - diurnal variations and PMF receptor modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.

    2013-04-01

    Hourly-resolved aerosol chemical speciation data can be a highly powerful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. Aerosol mass concentrations of seventeen elements (Na, Mg, Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb) were obtained by time (1 h) and size (PM2.5 particulate matter < 2.5 μm) resolved aerosol samples analysed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements. In the Marie Curie European Union framework of SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies), the approach used is the simultaneous sampling at two monitoring sites in Barcelona (Spain) during September-October 2010: an urban background site (UB) and a street canyon traffic road site (RS). Elements related to primary non-exhaust traffic emission (Fe, Cu), dust resuspension (Ca) and anthropogenic Cl were found enhanced at the RS, whereas industrial related trace metals (Zn, Pb, Mn) were found at higher concentrations at the more ventilated UB site. When receptor modelling was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF), nine different aerosol sources were identified at both sites: three types of regional aerosols (regional sulphate (S) - 27%, biomass burning (K) - 5%, sea salt (Na-Mg) - 17%), three types of dust aerosols (soil dust (Al-Ti) - 17%, urban crustal dust (Ca) - 6%, and primary traffic non-exhaust brake dust (Fe-Cu) - 7%), and three types of industrial aerosol plumes-like events (shipping oil combustion (V-Ni) - 17%, industrial smelters (Zn-Mn) - 3%, and industrial combustion (Pb-Cl) - 5%, percentages presented are average source contributions to the total elemental mass measured). The validity of the PMF solution of the PIXE data is supported by very good correlations with external single particle mass spectrometry measurements. Some important conclusions can be drawn about the PM2.5 mass fraction simultaneously measured at the UB and RS sites: (1) the regional aerosol sources impact both

  13. Aerosol Property Comparison Within and Above the ABL at the ARM Program SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Delle Monache, L

    2002-05-01

    This thesis determines what, if any, measurements of aerosol properties made at the Earth surface are representative of those within the entire air column. Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site at the Southern Great Plains, the only location in the world where ground-based and in situ airborne measurements are routinely made. Flight legs during the one-year period from March 2000 were categorized as either within or above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) by use of an objective mixing height determination technique. Correlations between aerosol properties measured at the surface and those within and above the ABL were computed. Aerosol extensive and intensive properties measured at the surface were found representative of values within the ABL, but not of within the free atmosphere.

  14. Overview of aerosol properties associated with air masses sampled by the ATR-42 during the EUCAARI campaign (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumeyrolle, S.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Roger, J. C.; Sellegri, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Stohl, A.; Gomes, L.; Quennehen, B.; Roberts, G.; Weigel, R.; Villani, P.; Pichon, J. M.; Bourrianne, T.; Laj, P.

    2013-05-01

    Within the frame of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) project, the Météo-France aircraft ATR-42 performed 22 research flights over central Europe and the North Sea during the intensive observation period in May 2008. For the campaign, the ATR-42 was equipped to study the aerosol physical, chemical, hygroscopic and optical properties, as well as cloud microphysics. For the 22 research flights, retroplume analyses along the flight tracks were performed with FLEXPART in order to classify air masses into five sectors of origin, allowing for a qualitative evaluation of emission influence on the respective air parcel. This study shows that the extensive aerosol parameters (aerosol mass and number concentrations) show vertical decreasing gradients and in some air masses maximum mass concentrations (mainly organics) in an intermediate layer (1-3 km). The observed mass concentrations (in the boundary layer (BL): between 10 and 30 μg m-3; lower free troposphere (LFT): 0.8 and 14 μg m-3) are high especially in comparison with the 2015 European norms for PM2.5 (25 μg m-3) and with previous airborne studies performed over England (Morgan et al., 2009; McMeeking et al., 2012). Particle number size distributions show a larger fraction of particles in the accumulation size range in the LFT compared to BL. The chemical composition of submicron aerosol particles is dominated by organics in the BL, while ammonium sulphate dominates the submicron aerosols in the LFT, especially in the aerosol particles originated from north-eastern Europe (~ 80%), also experiencing nucleation events along the transport. As a consequence, first the particle CCN acting ability, shown by the CCN/CN ratio, and second the average values of the scattering cross sections of optically active particles (i.e. scattering coefficient divided by the optical active particle concentration) are increased in the LFT compared to BL.

  15. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, II, A. L.

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  16. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  17. Hygroscopic growth of size-resolved, emission-source classified, aerosol particles sampled across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingler, T.; Crosbie, E. C.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Mikoviny, T.; Wisthaler, A.; Sorooshian, A.

    2014-12-01

    The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosol particles is a key air quality parameter, impacting the radiation budget, visibility, and cloud formation. During the DC3 and SEAC4RS field campaigns (>300 total flight hours), measurements were made over 32 US states, Canada, the Pacific Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico, between the surface and 41,000 feet ASL. The aircraft research payloads included a suite of in-situ aerosol and gas phase instruments. The Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe (DASH-SP) and the Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) humidified nephelometer instrument applied different techniques to measure water uptake by aerosol particles at prescribed relative humidity values. Size-resolved growth factor (GF ≡ Dp,wet/Dp,dry) measurements by the DASH-SP are compared to bulk scattering measurements (f(RH) ≡ σscat,wet/σscat,dry) by the LARGE instrument. Spatial location and volatile organic compound tracers such as isoprene and acetonitrile are used to classify the origin of distinct air masses, including: forest fires, biogenic-emitting forests, agricultural use lands, marine boundary layer, urban, and rural background. Analyses of GF results by air mass origin are reported and results are compared with f(RH) measurements. A parameterization between the f(RH) and GF measurements and its potential uses are discussed.

  18. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An ARP and several ESS tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP/MCU. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable 4 hour average decontamination factors for Pu and Sr of 3.22 and 18.4, respectively. The Four ESS tests also showed acceptable behavior with distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 15.96, 57.1, 58.6, and 65.6 for the MCU, cold blend, hot blend, and Next Generation Solvent (NGS), respectively. The predicted value for the MCU solvent was 13.2. Currently, there are no models that would allow a prediction of extraction behavior for the other three solvents. SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed. While no outstanding issues were noted, the presence of solids in the samples should be investigated in future work. It is possible that the solids may represent a potential reservoir of material (such as potassium) that could have an impact on MCU performance if they were to dissolve back into the feed solution. This salt batch is intended to be the first batch to be processed through MCU entirely using the new NGS-MCU solvent.

  19. Fingerprinting El Nino Southern Ocean events using oxygen triple isotopic composition of aerosol sulfate from the South Pole snow pit samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemens, M. H.; Abaunza Quintero, M. M.; Shaheen, R.; Jackson, T. L.; McCabe, J.; Savarino, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th assessment report [IPCC 2007], aerosols are the largest source of uncertainty in modeling the earth's radiative budget. Sulfate aerosols contributes to global cooling that may mask warming effect by greenhouse gases, therefore, high resolution record of aerosol sulfate can help to understand the impact of anthropogenic activities and natural variations on climate change. Sulfate aerosols were extracted from the ice pit samples obtained from the South Pole (1979-2002) at a high resolution temporal record of the winter and summer seasons. To insure highest measurement ability of very small samples (few nano moles) a hydrogen peroxide cleaning method was developed to remove organic impurities from aerosols which otherwise significantly affect O-triple isotopic measurement of the sulfates. Preliminary data indicated non sea salt contributions of 70-95% with a range in δ18OVSMOW = -1.86 -12% and Δ17O = 0.8-3.7% for the years 1990-2001. The positive Δ17O of sulfate derives from aqueous phase oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 and O3 and involves transfer of the isotopic anomaly from the oxidant to the product sulfate. All other sulfate sources (sea salt sulfates and primary sulfates from fossil fuel combustion), including gas-phase oxidation by OH in the troposphere, metal catalyzed oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI), are strictly mass dependent (Δ17O = 0%). The magnitude of the transfer of the Δ17O varies according to the relative contribution from H2O2 at pH < 6 (Δ17O = 1%) and O3 at pH > 6 (Δ17O = 8%). Seasonal variations of these oxidants and their contribution to S(IV) oxidation will be discussed. Since our samples include the time period 1977-2002, each year divided into two parts (winter and summer season's aerosols), in addition to seasonal variation in sulfate oxidation pathways, we may also be able to assess if the oxidation cycle of sulfate changes during El Niño years.

  20. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : technical review and analysis supplement.

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2009-07-01

    This project seeks to provide vital data required to assess the consequences of a terrorist attack on a spent fuel transportation cask. One such attack scenario involves the use of conical shaped charges (CSC), which are capable of damaging a spent fuel transportation cask. In the event of such an attack, the amount of radioactivity that may be released as respirable aerosols is not known with great certainty. Research to date has focused on measuring the aerosol release from single short surrogate fuel rodlets subjected to attack by a small CSC device in various aerosol chamber designs. The last series of three experiments tested surrogate fuel rodlets made with depleted uranium oxide ceramic pellets in a specially designed double chamber aerosol containment apparatus. This robust testing apparatus was designed to prevent any radioactive release and allow high level radioactive waste disposal of the entire apparatus following testing of actual spent fuel rodlets as proposed. DOE and Sandia reviews of the project to date identified a number of issues. The purpose of this supplemental report is to address and document the DOE review comments and to resolve the issues identified in the Sandia technical review.

  1. Thermoluminescent aerosol analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Long, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for detecting and measuring trace amounts of aerosols when reacted with ozone in a gaseous environment was examined. A sample aerosol was exposed to a fixed ozone concentration for a fixed period of time, and a fluorescer was added to the exposed sample. The sample was heated in a 30 C/minute linear temperature profile to 200 C. The trace peak was measured and recorded as a function of the test aerosol and the recorded thermoluminescence trace peak of the fluorescer is specific to the aerosol being tested.

  2. Note: A portable laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument for rapid sampling and analysis of silicon-containing aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, R. P.; Mason, G. S.; Miller, A. L.; Stipe, C. B.; Kearns, J. D.; Prier, M. W.; Rarick, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    A portable instrument has been developed for measuring silicon-containing aerosols in near real-time using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The instrument uses a vacuum system to collect and deposit airborne particulate matter onto a translatable reel of filter tape. LIBS is used to analyze the deposited material, determining the amount of silicon-containing compounds present. In laboratory testing with pure silica (SiO2), the correlation between LIBS intensity for a characteristic silicon emission and the concentration of silica in a model aerosol was determined for a range of concentrations, demonstrating the instrument's plausibility for identifying hazardous levels of silicon-containing compounds.

  3. Note: A portable laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument for rapid sampling and analysis of silicon-containing aerosols.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, R P; Mason, G S; Miller, A L; Stipe, C B; Kearns, J D; Prier, M W; Rarick, J D

    2016-05-01

    A portable instrument has been developed for measuring silicon-containing aerosols in near real-time using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The instrument uses a vacuum system to collect and deposit airborne particulate matter onto a translatable reel of filter tape. LIBS is used to analyze the deposited material, determining the amount of silicon-containing compounds present. In laboratory testing with pure silica (SiO2), the correlation between LIBS intensity for a characteristic silicon emission and the concentration of silica in a model aerosol was determined for a range of concentrations, demonstrating the instrument's plausibility for identifying hazardous levels of silicon-containing compounds. PMID:27250478

  4. Hourly elemental concentrations in PM2.5 aerosols sampled simultaneously at urban background and road site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.

    2012-08-01

    Hourly-resolved aerosol chemical speciation data can be a highly powerful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban Environments. Aerosol mass concentrations of seventeen elements (Na, Mg, Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb) were obtained by time (1 h) and size (PM2.5 particulate matter <2.5 μm) resolved Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements. In the Marie Curie FP7-EU framework of SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies), the unique approach used is the simultaneous PIXE measurements at two monitoring sites: urban background (UB) and a street canyon traffic road site (RS). Elements related to primary non exhaust traffic emission (Fe, Cu), dust resuspension (Ca) and anthropogenic Cl were found enhanced at the RS, whereas industrial related trace metals (Zn, Pb, Mn) were found at higher concentrations at the more ventilated UB site. When receptor modelling was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF), nine different aerosol sources were identified at both sites: three types of regional aerosols (secondary sulphate (S) - 27%, biomass burning (K) - 5%, sea salt (Na-Mg) - 17%), three types of dust aerosols (soil dust (Al-Ti) - 17%, urban crustal dust (Ca) - 6%, and primary traffic non exhaust brake dust (Fe-Cu) - 7%), and three types industrial aerosol plumes-like events (shipping oil combustion (V-Ni) - 17%, industrial smelters (Zn-Mn) - 3%, and industrial combustion (Pb-Cl) - 5%). The validity of the PMF solution of the PIXE data is supported by strong correlations with external single particle mass spectrometry measurements. Beside apportioning the aerosol sources, some important air quality related conclusions can be drawn about the PM2.5 fraction simultaneously measured at the UB and RS sites: (1) the regional aerosol sources impact both monitoring sites at similar concentrations regardless their different ventilation conditions; (2) by contrast, local industrial

  5. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  6. Evaluation of 1047-nm photoacoustic instruments and photoelectric aerosol sensors in source-sampling of black carbon aerosol and particle-bound PAHs from gasoline and diesel powered vehicles.

    PubMed

    Arnott, W P; Zielinska, B; Rogers, C F; Sagebiel, J; Park, Kihong; Chow, Judith; Moosmüller, Hans; Watson, John G; Kelly, K; Wagner, D; Sarofim, A; Lighty, J; Palmer, G

    2005-07-15

    A series of measurements have been performed at Hill Air Force Base to evaluate real-time instruments for measurements of black carbon aerosol and particle-bound PAHs emitted from spark and ignition compression vehicles. Vehicles were operated at idle or fast idle in one set of measurements and were placed under load on a dynamometer during the second series. Photoacoustic instruments were developed that operated at a wavelength of 1047 nm where gaseous interference is negligible, although sensitivity to black carbon is good. Compact, efficient, solid-state lasers with direct electronic modulation capabilities are used in these instruments. Black carbon measurements are compared with samples collected on quartz fiber filters that were evaluated using the thermal optical reflectance method. A measure of total particle-bound PAH was provided by photoelectric aerosol sensors (PAS) and is evaluated against a sum of PAH mass concentrations obtained with a filter-denuder combination. The PAS had to be operated with a dilution system held at approximately 150 degrees C for most of the source sampling to prevent spurious behavior, thus perhaps compromising detection of lighter PAHs. PA and PAS measurements were found to have a high degree of correlation, perhaps suggesting that the PAS can respond to the polycyclic nature of the black carbon aerosol. The PAS to PA ratio for ambient air in Fresno, CA is 3.7 times as large in winter than in summer months, suggesting that the PAS clearly does respond to compounds other than BC when the instrument is used without the heated inlet. PMID:16082972

  7. Development of a method for fast and automatic radiocarbon measurement of aerosol samples by online coupling of an elemental analyzer with a MICADAS AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, G.; Zhang, Y. L.; Agrios, K.; Szidat, S.

    2015-10-01

    A fast and automatic method for radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples is presented. This type of analysis requires high number of sample measurements of low carbon masses, but accepts precisions lower than for carbon dating analysis. The method is based on online Trapping CO2 and coupling an elemental analyzer with a MICADAS AMS by means of a gas interface. It gives similar results to a previously validated reference method for the same set of samples. This method is fast and automatic and typically provides uncertainties of 1.5-5% for representative aerosol samples. It proves to be robust and reliable and allows for overnight and unattended measurements. A constant and cross contamination correction is included, which indicates a constant contamination of 1.4 ± 0.2 μg C with 70 ± 7 pMC and a cross contamination of (0.2 ± 0.1)% from the previous sample. A Real-time online coupling version of the method was also investigated. It shows promising results for standard materials with slightly higher uncertainties than the Trapping online approach.

  8. Recent Rainfall and Aerosol Chemistry From Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landing, W. M.; Shelley, R.; Kadko, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    This project was devoted to testing the use of Be-7 as a tracer for quantifying trace element fluxes from the atmosphere to the oceans. Rainfall and aerosol samples were collected between June 15, 2011 and July 27, 2013 at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS) located near the eastern end of the island of Bermuda. Collectors were situated near ground level, clear of surrounding vegetation, at a meteorological monitoring station in front of the BIOS laboratory, about 10 m above sea level. This is a Bermuda Air Quality Program site used for ambient air quality monitoring. To quantify the atmospheric deposition of Be-7, plastic buckets were deployed for collection of fallout over ~3 week periods. Wet deposition was collected for trace element analysis using a specially modified "GEOTRACES" N-CON automated wet deposition collector. Aerosol samples were collected with a Tisch TE-5170V-BL high volume aerosol sampler, modified to collect 12 replicate samples on acid-washed 47mm diameter Whatman-41 filters, using procedures identical to those used for the US GEOTRACES aerosol program (Morton et al., 2013). Aerosol and rainfall samples were analyzed for total Na, Mg, Al, P, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Pb, Th, and U using ICPMS. Confirming earlier data from Bermuda, strong seasonality in rainfall and aerosol loading and chemistry was observed, particularly for aerosol and rainfall Fe concentrations when Saharan dust arrives in July/August with SE trajectories.

  9. Diurnal Variation and Spatial Distribution Effects on Sulfur Speciation in Aerosol Samples as Assessed by X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES)

    PubMed Central

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Thumanu, Kanjana; Na Pattalung, Warangkana; Hirunyatrakul, Phoosak; Kittikoon, Itthipon; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Junji

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on providing new results relating to the impacts of Diurnal variation, Vertical distribution, and Emission source on sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum of aerosol samples. All aerosol samples used in the diurnal variation experiment were preserved using anoxic preservation stainless cylinders (APSCs) and pressure-controlled glove boxes (PCGBs), which were specially designed to prevent oxidation of the sulfur states in PM10. Further investigation of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra revealed that PM10 samples were dominated by S(VI), even when preserved in anoxic conditions. The “Emission source effect” on the sulfur oxidation state of PM10 was examined by comparing sulfur K-edge XANES spectra collected from various emission sources in southern Thailand, while “Vertical distribution effects” on the sulfur oxidation state of PM10 were made with samples collected from three different altitudes from rooftops of the highest buildings in three major cities in Thailand. The analytical results have demonstrated that neither “Emission source” nor “Vertical distribution” appreciably contribute to the characteristic fingerprint of sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum in PM10. PMID:22988545

  10. Development, evaluation and comparison of two independent sampling and analytical methods for ortho-phthalaldehyde vapors and condensation aerosols in air† ‡

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two independent sampling and analytical methods for ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) in air have been developed, evaluated and compared (1) a reagent-coated solid sorbent HPLC-UV method and (2) an impinger-fluorescence method. In the first method, air sampling is conducted at 1.0 L min−1 with a sampler containing 350 mg of silica gel coated with 1 mg of acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). After sampling, excess DNPH in ethyl acetate is added to the sampler prior to storage for 68 hours. The OPA-DNPH derivative is eluted with 4.0 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for measurement by HPLC with a UV detector set at 3S5 nm. The estimated detection limit is 0.016 µg per sample or 0.067 µg m−3 (0.012 ppb) for a 240 L air sample. Recoveries of vapor spikes at levels of 1.2 to 6.2 µg were 96 to 101%. Recoveries of spikes as mixtures of vapor and condensation aerosols were 97 to 100%. In the second method, air sampling is conducted at 1.0 L mm−1 with a midget impinger containing 10 mL of DMSO solution containing N-acetyl-l-cysteine and ethylenediamine. The fluorescence reading is taken 80 min after the completion of air sampling. Since the time of taking the fluorescence reading is critical, the reading is taken with a portable fluorometer. The estimated detection limit is 0.024 µg per sample or 0.1 µg m−3 (0.018 ppb) for a 240 L air sample. Recoveries of OPA vapor spikes at levels of 1.4 to 5.0 µg per sample were 97 to 105%. Recoveries of spikes as mixtures of vapors and condensation aerosols were 95 to 99%. The collection efficiency for a mixture of vapor and condensation aerosol was 99.4%. The two methods were compared side-by-side in a generation system constructed for producing controlled atmospheres of OPA vapor in air. Average air concentrations of OPA vapor found by both methods agreed within ±10%. PMID:26346658

  11. Corn blight review: Sampling model and ground data measurements program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The sampling plan involved the selection of the study area, determination of the flightline and segment sample design within the study area, and determination of a field sample design. Initial interview survey data consisting of crop species acreage and land use were collected. On all corn fields, additional information such as seed type, row direction, population, planting date, ect. were also collected. From this information, sample corn fields were selected to be observed through the growing season on a biweekly basis by county extension personnel.

  12. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. PREFACE OF SPECIAL ISSUE OF AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article is the preface or editors note to a dedicated issue of Aerosol Science and Technology, journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research. It includes a selection of scientific papers from the specialty conference entitled, "Particulate Matter Supersites ...

  14. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION MST, ESS AND PODD SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-04-24

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 5 processing. This qualification material was a composite created from recent samples from Tank 21H and archived samples from Tank 49H to match the projected blend from these two tanks. Additionally, samples of the composite were used in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and extraction-scrub-strip (ESS) tests. ARP and ESS test results met expectations. A sample from Tank 21H was also analyzed for the Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) requirements. SRNL was able to meet all of the requirements, including the desired detection limits for all the PODD analytes. This report details the results of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP), Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) and Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) samples of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 5 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP).

  15. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  16. Aerosol delivery of programmed cell death protein 4 using polysorbitol-based gene delivery system for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Kyoung; Xing, Lei; Chen, Bao-An; Xu, Fengguo; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Zhang, Can

    2014-11-01

    The development of a safe and effective gene delivery system is the most challenging obstacle to the broad application of gene therapy in the clinic. In this study, we report the development of a polysorbitol-based gene delivery system as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy. The copolymer was prepared by a Michael addition reaction between sorbitol diacrylate (SD) and spermine (SPE); the SD-SPE copolymer effectively condenses with DNA on the nanoscale and protects it from nucleases. SD-SPE/DNA complexes showed excellent transfection with low toxicity both in vitro and in vivo, and aerosol delivery of SD-SPE complexes with programmed cell death protein 4 DNA significantly suppressed lung tumorigenesis in K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice. These results demonstrate that SD-SPE has great potential as a gene delivery system based on its excellent biocompatibility and high gene delivery efficiency for lung cancer gene therapy. PMID:24983766

  17. Provision of Hepatitis C Education in a Nationwide Sample of Drug Treatment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astone, Janetta; Strauss, Shiela M.; Vassilev, Zdravko P.; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a nationwide sample of drug treatment programs, reports the results of an analysis that differentiates programs providing Hepatitis C virus (HCV) education to all of their patients versus programs that do not. Fifty-four percent of the programs provide HCV education to all of their patients. Findings indicate a need to increase HCV…

  18. Light Absorbing Aerosols in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Kelley, K. L.; Kilaparty, P. S.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    The direct effects of aerosol radiative forcing has been identified by the IPCC as a major uncertainty in climate modeling. The DOE Megacity Aerosol Experiment-Mexico City (MAX-Mex), as part of the MILAGRO study in March of 2006, was undertaken to reduce these uncertainties by characterization of the optical, chemical, and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols emitted from this megacity environment. Aerosol samples collected during this study using quartz filters were characterized in the uv-visible-infrared by using surface spectroscopic techniques. These included the use of an integrating sphere approach combined with the use of Kubelka-Munk theory to obtain aerosol absorption spectra. In past work black carbon has been assumed to be the only major absorbing species in atmospheric aerosols with an broad band spectral profile that follows a simple inverse wavelength dependence. Recent work has also identified a number of other absorbing species that can also add to the overall aerosol absorption. These include primary organics from biomass and trash burning and secondary organic aerosols including nitrated PAHs and humic-like substances, or HULIS. By using surface diffuse reflection spectroscopy we have also obtained spectra in the infrared that indicate significant IR absorption in the atmospheric window-region. These data will be presented and compared to spectra of model compounds that allow for evaluation of the potential importance of these species in adding strength to the direct radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols. This work was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64327 as part of the Atmospheric Science Program.

  19. 76 FR 41186 - Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service Salmonella Verification Sampling Program... Program (SIP) AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; response to comments; reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responding...

  20. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-20

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  1. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-11

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  2. A ``Limited First Sample'' Approach to Mars Sample Return — Lessons from the Apollo Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, D. B.; Draper, D.; Gruener, J.

    2012-06-01

    Complex, multi-opportunity Mars sample return approaches have failed to be selected as a new start twice since 1985. We advocate adopting a simpler strategy of "grab-and-go" for the initial sample return, similar to the approach taken on Apollo 11.

  3. Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Samples provides the recipients of those samples with information that will enhance the value of the samples, to permit greater opportunities to compare their work with that of others, and aid in correlations that can improve the value to all users. It is hoped that this document will foster a spirit of cooperation and collaboration such that the field of basic coal chemistry may be a more efficient and rewarding endeavor for all who participate. The different sections are intended to stand alone. For this reason some of the information may be found in several places. The handbook is also intended to be a dynamic document, constantly subject to change through additions and improvements. Please feel free to write to the editor with your comments and suggestions.

  4. NASA GES DISC Level 2 Aerosol Analysis and Visualization Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jennifer; Petrenko, Maksym; Ichoku, Charles; Yang, Wenli; Johnson, James; Zhao, Peisheng; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Overview of NASA GES DISC Level 2 aerosol analysis and visualization services: DQViz (Data Quality Visualization)MAPSS (Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System), and MAPSS_Explorer (Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System Explorer).

  5. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-03-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 5 for the Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 5 strategy are identified. Results of the analyses of the Tank 21H samples from this report in conjunction with the findings of the previous report, indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics.

  6. Comparison between the ASSET EZ4 NCO and Impinger Sampling Devices for Aerosol Sampling of 4,4'-Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate in Spray Foam Application.

    PubMed

    Puscasu, Silvia; Aubin, Simon; Cloutier, Yves; Sarazin, Philippe; Van Tra, Huu; Gagné, Sébastien

    2015-08-01

    4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) aerosol exposure evaluation in spray foam insulation application is known to be a challenge. Current available techniques are either not user-friendly or are inaccurate or are not validated for this application. A new sampler has recently been developed to address the user-friendliness issues with other samplers: the ASSET EZ4-NCO, but the use of this sampler in spray foam insulation applications has not been demonstrated or validated. Because of this, the current work was undertaken to provide a comparison of the ASSET sampler with an impinger method, considered to be the best available method in the context of spray foam insulation, and hence the pertinence of comparing this sampler to an impinger method, considered to be the best available method for measuring MDI monomer and oligomers for this particular application. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for MDI monomer and oligomer analysis was implemented based on the Supelco literature. It allows the analysis of MDI-dibutylamine (DBA) and MDI 3-ring-DBA with a minimum reported value of 5ng ml(-1), a dynamic range of 5-140ng ml(-1), precision <15% and accuracy >80%. This method was used to quantify MDI aerosols collected with the ASSET sampler in an MDI spray foam environment in parallel with the toluene/MOPIP impinger reference method. The ASSET sampler significantly underestimated the levels of MDI monomer and oligomers when compared to the reference method. The estimated bias was 72% (95% confidence interval [CI] 54-89%) for the monomer and 96% (95% CI 76-115%) for the oligomers. These results demonstrate the importance of evaluating each new sampler for each isocyanate application prior to a formal worker exposure evaluation.

  7. Urine fingerprinting: detection of sample tampering in an opiate dependency program.

    PubMed

    Kapur, B; Hershkop, S; Koren, G; Gaughan, V

    1999-04-01

    Methadone treatment programs commonly monitor patient compliance by screening urine samples for drugs of abuse. Our experience suggests that re-submission of urine samples (for example, providing a urine sample that is either not that of the patient or was previously submitted) is often used as a method of sample tampering. We have developed an algorithm that combines urine sodium, chloride, creatinine and pH values with urine drug screening results to effectively detect resubmitted samples. Given the widespread use of urine drug screening in drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs, we believe this technique has significant practical benefits. This technique may also have an application in forensic identification of duplicate samples.

  8. A model for estimating the value of sampling programs and the optimal number of samples for contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Pär-Erik

    2007-04-01

    A model is presented for estimating the value of information of sampling programs for contaminated soil. The purpose is to calculate the optimal number of samples when the objective is to estimate the mean concentration. A Bayesian risk-cost-benefit decision analysis framework is applied and the approach is design-based. The model explicitly includes sample uncertainty at a complexity level that can be applied to practical contaminated land problems with limited amount of data. Prior information about the contamination level is modelled by probability density functions. The value of information is expressed in monetary terms. The most cost-effective sampling program is the one with the highest expected net value. The model was applied to a contaminated scrap yard in Göteborg, Sweden, contaminated by metals. The optimal number of samples was determined to be in the range of 16-18 for a remediation unit of 100 m2. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the perspective of the decision-maker is important, and that the cost of failure and the future land use are the most important factors to consider. The model can also be applied for other sampling problems, for example, sampling and testing of wastes to meet landfill waste acceptance procedures.

  9. Computer program for sample sizes required to determine disease incidence in fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ossiander, Frank J.; Wedemeyer, Gary

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is described for generating the sample size tables required in fish hatchery disease inspection and certification. The program was designed to aid in detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in salmonids, but it is applicable to any fish disease inspection when the sampling plan follows the hypergeometric distribution.

  10. Hanford Environmental Monitoring Program schedule for samples, analyses, and measurements for calendar year 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1984-12-01

    This report provides the CY 1985 schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford Surface Environmental Monitoring and Ground-Water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples scheduled to be collected during FY 1985 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results.

  11. XAFSmass: a program for calculating the optimal mass of XAFS samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementiev, K.; Chernikov, R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new implementation of the XAFSmass program that calculates the optimal mass of XAFS samples. It has several improvements as compared to the old Windows based program XAFSmass: 1) it is truly platform independent, as provided by Python language, 2) it has an improved parser of chemical formulas that enables parentheses and nested inclusion-to-matrix weight percentages. The program calculates the absorption edge height given the total optical thickness, operates with differently determined sample amounts (mass, pressure, density or sample area) depending on the aggregate state of the sample and solves the inverse problem of finding the elemental composition given the experimental absorption edge jump and the chemical formula.

  12. Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Nakamura, Shota; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-06-15

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a promising method for analysing polar gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosols due to its ability to obtain spectral fingerprints of rotational transition and immunity to aerosol scattering. In this article, dynamic THz spectroscopy of acetonitrile (CH3CN) gas was performed in the presence of smoke under the atmospheric pressure using a fibre-based, asynchronous-optical-sampling THz time-domain spectrometer. To match THz spectral signatures of gas molecules at atmospheric pressure, the spectral resolution was optimized to 1 GHz with a measurement rate of 1 Hz. The spectral overlapping of closely packed absorption lines significantly boosted the detection limit to 200 ppm when considering all the spectral contributions of the numerous absorption lines from 0.2 THz to 1 THz. Temporal changes of the CH3CN gas concentration were monitored under the smoky condition at the atmospheric pressure during volatilization of CH3CN droplets and the following diffusion of the volatilized CH3CN gas without the influence of scattering or absorption by the smoke. This system will be a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of target gases in practical applications of gas analysis in the atmospheric pressure, such as combustion processes or fire accident.

  13. Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Nakamura, Shota; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a promising method for analysing polar gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosols due to its ability to obtain spectral fingerprints of rotational transition and immunity to aerosol scattering. In this article, dynamic THz spectroscopy of acetonitrile (CH3CN) gas was performed in the presence of smoke under the atmospheric pressure using a fibre-based, asynchronous-optical-sampling THz time-domain spectrometer. To match THz spectral signatures of gas molecules at atmospheric pressure, the spectral resolution was optimized to 1 GHz with a measurement rate of 1 Hz. The spectral overlapping of closely packed absorption lines significantly boosted the detection limit to 200 ppm when considering all the spectral contributions of the numerous absorption lines from 0.2 THz to 1 THz. Temporal changes of the CH3CN gas concentration were monitored under the smoky condition at the atmospheric pressure during volatilization of CH3CN droplets and the following diffusion of the volatilized CH3CN gas without the influence of scattering or absorption by the smoke. This system will be a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of target gases in practical applications of gas analysis in the atmospheric pressure, such as combustion processes or fire accident. PMID:27301319

  14. Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Nakamura, Shota; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a promising method for analysing polar gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosols due to its ability to obtain spectral fingerprints of rotational transition and immunity to aerosol scattering. In this article, dynamic THz spectroscopy of acetonitrile (CH3CN) gas was performed in the presence of smoke under the atmospheric pressure using a fibre-based, asynchronous-optical-sampling THz time-domain spectrometer. To match THz spectral signatures of gas molecules at atmospheric pressure, the spectral resolution was optimized to 1 GHz with a measurement rate of 1 Hz. The spectral overlapping of closely packed absorption lines significantly boosted the detection limit to 200 ppm when considering all the spectral contributions of the numerous absorption lines from 0.2 THz to 1 THz. Temporal changes of the CH3CN gas concentration were monitored under the smoky condition at the atmospheric pressure during volatilization of CH3CN droplets and the following diffusion of the volatilized CH3CN gas without the influence of scattering or absorption by the smoke. This system will be a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of target gases in practical applications of gas analysis in the atmospheric pressure, such as combustion processes or fire accident. PMID:27301319

  15. Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Nakamura, Shota; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a promising method for analysing polar gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosols due to its ability to obtain spectral fingerprints of rotational transition and immunity to aerosol scattering. In this article, dynamic THz spectroscopy of acetonitrile (CH3CN) gas was performed in the presence of smoke under the atmospheric pressure using a fibre-based, asynchronous-optical-sampling THz time-domain spectrometer. To match THz spectral signatures of gas molecules at atmospheric pressure, the spectral resolution was optimized to 1 GHz with a measurement rate of 1 Hz. The spectral overlapping of closely packed absorption lines significantly boosted the detection limit to 200 ppm when considering all the spectral contributions of the numerous absorption lines from 0.2 THz to 1 THz. Temporal changes of the CH3CN gas concentration were monitored under the smoky condition at the atmospheric pressure during volatilization of CH3CN droplets and the following diffusion of the volatilized CH3CN gas without the influence of scattering or absorption by the smoke. This system will be a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of target gases in practical applications of gas analysis in the atmospheric pressure, such as combustion processes or fire accident.

  16. Probing Molecular Associations of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) Samples from CalNex 2010 with Nano-DESI High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, R. E.; Nguyen, T. B.; Laskin, A.; Laskin, J.; Hayes, P. L.; Liu, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Russell, L. M.; Nizkorodov, S.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    This project focuses on analyzing the identities of molecules that comprise oligomers in size resolved aerosol fractions. Since oligomers are generally too large and polar to be measured by typical GC/MS analysis, soft ionization with high resolution mass spectrometry is used to extend the range of observable compounds. Samples collected during CalNex 2010 in Bakersfield and Los Angeles and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in a photochemical chamber by photooxidation of diesel (DSL) fuel and isoprene (ISO) under humid, high-NOx conditions have been analyzed with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and a high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The nano-DESI is a soft ionization technique that allows molecular ions to be observed and the Orbitrap has sufficient resolution to determine the elemental composition of almost all species above the detection limit. A large fraction of SOA is made up of high molecular weight oligomers which are thought to form through acid catalyzed reactions of photo-chemically processed volatile organic compounds (VOC). The formation of oligomers is influenced by the VOCs available, the amount of atmospheric sulfate and nitrate, and the magnitude of photo-chemical processing, among other potential influences. We present the elemental composition of chemical species in size resolved SOA samples with six-hour time resolution, providing the first time resolved data set for the study of these oligomers in atmospheric samples. We present a comparison of the degree of overlap between the ambient and chamber experiments as a novel method to examine sources for this fraction of SOA. Possible formation pathways and sources of observed compounds are analyzed by comparison to other concurrent measurements at the site.

  17. Comparison of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosol samples collected in Xi'an, China during haze and clean periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chunlei; Wang, Gehui; Zhou, Bianhong; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Jianjun; Cao, Junji; Xiao, Shun

    2013-12-01

    PM10 aerosols from Xi'an, a mega city of China in winter and summer, 2009 were measured for secondary organic aerosols (SOA) (i.e., dicarboxylic acids (DCA), keto-carboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls), water-soluble organic (WSOC) and inorganic carbon (WSIC), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Molecular compositions of SOA on haze and clean days in both seasons were compared to investigate their sources and formation mechanisms. DCA in the samples were 1843 ± 810 ng m-3 in winter and 1259 ± 781 ng m-3 in summer, respectively, which is similar and even higher than those measured in 2003. Oxalic acid (C2, 1162 ± 570 ng m-3 in winter and 1907 ± 707 ng m-3 in summer) is the predominant species of DCA, followed by t-phthalic (tPh) in winter and phthalic (Ph) in summer. Such a molecular composition is different from those in other Asian cities where succinic acid (C4) or malonic acid (C3) is the second highest species, which is mostly due to significant emissions from household combustion of coal and open burning of waste material in Xi'an. Mass ratios of C2/diacids, diacids/WSOC, WSOC/OC and individual diacid-C/WSOC are higher on the haze days than on the clean days in both seasons, suggesting an enhanced SOA production under the haze condition. We also found that the haze samples are acidic while the clean samples are almost neutral. Such a difference in particle acidity is consistent with the enhanced SOA production, because acid-catalysis is an important aqueous-phase formation pathway of SOA. Gly/mGly mass ratio showed higher values on haze days than on clean day in both seasons. We comprehensively investigated the ratio in literature and found a consistent pattern. Based on our observation results and those documented data we proposed for the first time that concentration ratio of Gly/mGly can be taken as an indicator of aerosol ageing.

  18. Spruce budworm sampling program for Husky Hunter Field data recorders. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, F.H.

    1993-07-01

    A program for receiving sampling data for all immature stages of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneua occidentalis Freeman) is described. Versions were designed to be used on field data recorders with either CP/M or DOS operating systems, such as the HUSKY HUNTER (Models 1, 2, and 16), but they also may be used on personal computers with compatible operating systems. The program allows the user to review the current plot statistics, including sampling precision, at any time while still sampling the plot. It also allows the user to determine how many more trees need to be sampled to arrive at a sampling precision specified by the user.

  19. An Analysis of EPA’s STAR Program and a Decade of Field Changing Research in Atmospheric Aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of studies in the past decade have transformed the way we think about atmospheric aerosols. The advances include, but are not limited to, source apportionment of organics using aerosol mass spectrometer data, the volatility basis set approach, quantifying isoprene oxida...

  20. Ground Based Aerosol Measurements: Applications, Methods and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hume, E. E.; Cahill, C. F.; Carr, S. S.

    2004-05-01

    Anthropogenic and naturally occurring aerosols are linked to visibility degradation, changes in the earth's radiative balance, human health issues, acid rain, and the introduction of pollutants and/or nutrients to sensitive ecosystems. Understanding aerosols requires knowledge of the chemical constituents, sizes, the location and strength of sources, and the transport of the generated aerosols. Remote sensing techniques are used to study aerosols on large scales but are unable to retrieve the exact size distributions and chemical compositions of the observed aerosols. In situ measurements are required to interpret and understand the remotely sensed data. Details of a developing program for in situ aerosol measurement will be presented. A brief description of new aerosol sampling equipment being acquired for use in field campaigns will be given. The equipment being acquired for field campaigns are improved 8-stage rotating drum impactors designed and manufactured at the University of California, Davis. Results from previous measurement programs involving similar instruments will be presented to illustrate how these data can be utilized. Initial plans for using the instruments in measurement campaigns will be discussed.

  1. Comparison of aerosol optical depth of UV-B monitoring and research program (UVMRP), AERONET and MODIS over continental united states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hongzhao; Chen, Maosi; Davis, John; Gao, Wei

    2013-06-01

    The concern about the role of aerosols as to their effect in the Earth-Atmosphere system requires observation at multiple temporal and spatial scales. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS) is the main aerosol optical depth (AOD) monitoring satellite instrument, and its accuracy and uncertainty need to be validated against ground based measurements routinely. The comparison between two ground AOD measurement programs, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ultraviolet-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program, confirms the consistency between them. The intercomparison between the MODIS AOD, the AERONET AOD, and the UVMRP AOD suggests that the UVMRP AOD measurements are suited to be an alternative ground-based validation source for satellite AOD products. The experiments show that the spatial-temporal dependency between the MODIS AOD and the UVMRP AOD is positive in the sense that the MODIS AOD compare more favorably with the UVMRP AOD as the spatial and temporal intervals are increased. However, the analysis shows that the optimal spatial interval for all time windows is defined by an angular subtense of around 1° to 1.25°, while the optimal time window is around 423 to 483 minutes at most spatial intervals. The spatial-temporal approach around 1.25° & 423 minutes shows better agreement than the prevalent strategy of 0.25° & 60 minutes found in other similar investigations.

  2. 77 FR 27177 - Notice of Funds Availability; Inviting Applications for the Quality Samples Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    .... Suzanne E. Heinen, Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service, and Vice President, Commodity Credit... for the Quality Samples Program; Correction AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Foreign Agricultural Service published a document in...

  3. A novel approach to Lagrangian sampling of marine boundary layer cloud and aerosol in the northeast Pacific: case studies from CSET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrmann, J.; Albrecht, B. A.; Bretherton, C. S.; Ghate, V. P.; Zuidema, P.; Wood, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET) field campaign took place during July/August 2015 with the purpose of characterizing the cloud, aerosol and thermodynamic properties of the northeast Pacific marine boundary layer. One major science goal of the campaign was to observe a Lagrangian transition from thin stratocumulus (Sc) upwind near California to trade cumulus (Cu) nearer to Hawaii. Cloud properties were observed from the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V research plane (GV) using the HIAPER Cloud Radar (HCR) and the HIAPER Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), among other instrumentation. Aircraft observations were complemented by a suite of satellite-derived products. To observe a the evolution of airmasses over the course of two days, upwind regions were sampled on an outbound flight to from Sacramento, CA, to Kona, HI. The sampled airmasses were then tracked using HYSPLIT trajectories based on GFS model forecasts, and the return flight to California was planned to intercept those airmasses, using satellite observation to track cloud evolution in the interim. This approach required that trajectories were reasonably stable up to 3 days prior to final sampling, and also that forecast trajectories were in agreement with post-flight analysis and visual cloud feature tracking. The extent to which this was realised, and hence the validity of this new approach to Lagrangian airmass observation, is assessed here. We also present results showing that a Sc-Cu airmass transition was consistently observed during the CSET study using measurements from research flights and satellite.

  4. CABFAC/USGS, a FORTRAN program for Q-mode factor analysis of stratigraphically ordered samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, David P.

    1976-01-01

    This program is a revision of the CABFAC program of Kovan and Imbrie (1971) which incorporates the following improvements: each factor is plotted against depth on the printer; samples are ordered stratigraphically by the program, so that input data need not be ordered stratigraphically; an option has been added to transform all variables to zero means before calculating the cosine-theta matrix; and all subroutines are variable-dimensioned, so that the size of .the program may be changed by simply altering the main program.

  5. Master schedule for CY-1984 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1983-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples that are planned to be collected during FY-1984 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes.

  6. Analyses of turbulent flow fields and aerosol dynamics of diesel engine exhaust inside two dilution sampling tunnels using the CTAG model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan Jason; Yang, Bo; Lipsky, Eric M; Robinson, Allen L; Zhang, K Max

    2013-01-15

    Experimental results from laboratory emission testing have indicated that particulate emission measurements are sensitive to the dilution process of exhaust using fabricated dilution systems. In this paper, we first categorize the dilution parameters into two groups: (1) aerodynamics (e.g., mixing types, mixing enhancers, dilution ratios, residence time); and (2) mixture properties (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, particle size distributions of both raw exhaust and dilution gas). Then we employ the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model to investigate the effects of those parameters on a set of particulate emission measurements comparing two dilution tunnels, i.e., a T-mixing lab dilution tunnel and a portable field dilution tunnel with a type of coaxial mixing. The turbulent flow fields and aerosol dynamics of particles are simulated inside two dilution tunnels. Particle size distributions under various dilution conditions predicted by CTAG are evaluated against the experimental data. It is found that in the area adjacent to the injection of exhaust, turbulence plays a crucial role in mixing the exhaust with the dilution air, and the strength of nucleation dominates the level of particle number concentrations. Further downstream, nucleation terminates and the growth of particles by condensation and coagulation continues. Sensitivity studies reveal that a potential unifying parameter for aerodynamics, i.e., the dilution rate of exhaust, plays an important role in new particle formation. The T-mixing lab tunnel tends to favor the nucleation due to a larger dilution rate of the exhaust than the coaxial mixing field tunnel. Our study indicates that numerical simulation tools can be potentially utilized to develop strategies to reduce the uncertainties associated with dilution samplings of emission sources.

  7. Produce and fish sampling program of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Surveillance Group

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, J.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes produce and fish sampling procedures of the Environmental Surveillance Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The program monitors foodstuffs and fish for possible radioactive contamination from Laboratory operations. Data gathered in this program on radionuclide concentrations help to estimate radiation doses to Laboratory personnel and the public. 3 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  8. MINSIZE: A Computer Program for Obtaining Minimum Sample Size as an Indicator of Effect Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David T.

    1998-01-01

    Describes MINSIZE, an MS-DOS computer program that permits the user to determine the minimum sample size needed for the results of a given analysis to be statistically significant. Program applications for statistical significance tests are presented and illustrated. (SLD)

  9. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  10. Organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN.

  11. Cross-institute evaluations of inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for direct testing of aerosol and blood samples containing biological warfare agent DNA.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Timothy D; Rachwal, Phillip A; Trombley Hall, Adrienne; Koehler, Jeffery W; Weller, Simon A

    2014-02-01

    Rapid pathogen detection is crucial for the timely introduction of therapeutics. Two groups (one in the United Kingdom and one in the United States) independently evaluated inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for the direct testing of substrates. In the United Kingdom, a multiplexed Bacillus anthracis (target) and Bacillus subtilis (internal-control) PCR was used to evaluate 4 reagents against 5 PCR inhibitors and down-selected the TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step master mix (Life Technologies Inc.). In the United States, four real-time PCR assays (targeting B. anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], and Orthopoxvirus spp.) were used to evaluate 5 reagents (plus the Fast Virus master mix) against buffer, blood, and soil samples and down-selected the KAPA Blood Direct master mix (KAPA Biosystems Inc.) with added Platinum Taq (Life Technologies). The down-selected reagents underwent further testing. In the United Kingdom experiments, both reagents were tested against seven contrived aerosol collector samples containing B. anthracis Ames DNA and B. subtilis spores from a commercial formulation (BioBall). In PCR assays with reaction mixtures containing 40% crude sample, an airfield-collected sample induced inhibition of the B. subtilis PCR with the KAPA reagent and complete failure of both PCRs with the Fast Virus reagent. However, both reagents allowed successful PCR for all other samples-which inhibited PCRs with a non-inhibitor-resistant reagent. In the United States, a cross-assay limit-of-detection (LoD) study in blood was conducted. The KAPA Blood Direct reagent allowed the detection of agent DNA (by four PCRs) at higher concentrations of blood in the reaction mixture (2.5%) than the Fast Virus reagent (0.5%), although LoDs differed between assays and reagent combinations. Across both groups, the KAPA Blood Direct reagent was determined to be the optimal reagent for inhibition relief in PCR.

  12. Nondestructive and rapid determination of nitrate in soil, dry deposits and aerosol samples using KBr-matrix with diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS).

    PubMed

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Deb, Manas Kanti

    2007-01-23

    This paper presents the development of a new, rapid and precise analytical method for submicrogram levels of nitrate (NO3-) in environmental samples like soil, dry deposit samples, and coarse and fine aerosol particles. The determination of submicrogram levels of nitrate is based on the selection of a quantitative analytical peak at 1385 cm(-1) among the three observed vibrational peaks and preparing calibration curves using different known concentrations of nitrate by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infra red spectrometric (DRIFTS) technique. Pre-weighed and ground infrared (IR) grade KBr was used as substrate over which remarkably wide range of known concentration of nitrate was sprayed and dried. The dried sample was analyzed by DRIFTS and absorbance was measured. Eight calibration curves for four different concentration ranges of nitrate for absorbance as well as peak area were prepared for samples containing lower and relatively higher values of nitrate. The relative standard deviation (n=8) for the nitrate concentration ranges, 0.05-40, 0.05-1.5, 1.5-25, 5-40 microg/0.1 g KBr were in the range 1.6-2.3% for the above calibration curves. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method is 0.07 microg g(-1) NO3-. The F- and t-tests were performed to check the analytical quality assurance test. The noteworthy feature of the reported method is the noninterference of any of the associated cations. The results were compared with that of ion-chromatographic method with high degree of acceptability. The method can be applied in wide concentration ranges. The method is reagent less, nondestructive, very fast, repeatable, and accurate and has high sample throughput value.

  13. CERCLA Site discharges to POTWs CERCLA site sampling program: Detailed data report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The document contains wastewater data obtained from sampling at seventeen CERCLA sites during a study of wastewater discharges from CERCLA sites to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). The document serves as an appendix to the report summarizing the findings of the CERCLA site sampling program in Section 3 (CERCLA Site Data Report) in the USEPA CERCLA Site Discharges to POTWs Treatability Manual.

  14. Mount Saint Helens aerosol evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Farlow, N. H.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Ferry, G. V.; Fong, W.; Hayes, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  15. Comprehensive sampling program for the Y-12 Plant area source pollution assessment and control plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kingrea, R.H.; Arniella, E.F.; Roesner, L.A.; Quasebarth, T.

    1987-10-15

    The Y-12 Plant has begun an aggressive program for identifying and controlling nonpoint pollution discharges to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Nonpoint source discharges, also referred to as area source discharges, result when surface water or ground water flows though contaminated surfaces resulting in the transport of pollutants to a receiving stream. This paper presents the approach undertaken by the project team to implement a comprehensive sampling program of the EFPC drainage area. The results of the comprehensive sampling program will be used to establish best management practices for the control of nonpoint sources in the EFPC drainage area. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression over the entire UV-visible spectral range. These results are compared to results obtained from the absorbance measurements obtained in the field. The differences in calculated Angstrom absorption exponents between the field and laboratory measurements are attributed partly to the differences in time resolution of the sample collection resulting in heavier particle pileup on the filter surface of the 12-hour samples. Some differences in calculated results can also be attributed to the presence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm that do not fall in the wavelengths covered by the 7 wavelengths of the aethalometer. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, "The determination of scattering and absorption coefficients of size-fractionated aerosols for radiative transfer calculations." Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  17. Sampling for evaluation. Issues and strategies for community-based HIV prevention programs.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, A A

    2000-06-01

    Sampling methods are an important issue in the evaluation of community-based HIV prevention initiatives because it is through responsible sampling procedures that a valid model of the population is produced and reliable estimates of behavior change determined. This article provides an overview on sampling with particular focus on the needs of community-based organizations (CBOs). As these organizations continue to improve their capacity for sampling and program evaluation activities, comparisons across CBOs can become more rigorous, resulting in valuable information collectively regarding the effectiveness of particular HIV prevention initiatives. The author reviews several probability and non-probability sampling designs; discusses bias, cost, and feasibility factors in design selection; and presents six guidelines designed to encourage community organizations to consider these important sampling issues as they plan their program evaluations.

  18. Coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis program manual. Volume 2: Sample input and output listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassarino, S.; Sopher, R.

    1982-01-01

    Sample input and output listings obtained with the base program (SIMVIB) of the coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis and the external programs, G400/F389 and E927 are presented. Results for five of the base program test cases are shown. They represent different applications of the SIMVIB program to study the vibration characteristics of various dynamic configurations. Input and output listings obtained for one cycle of the G400/F389 coupled program are presented. Results from the rotor aeroelastic analysis E927 also appear. A brief description of the check cases is provided. A summary of the check cases for all the external programs interacting with the SIMVIB program is illustrated.

  19. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: Aerosol experiments ABCOVE AB5, AB6, AB7, and LACE LA2

    SciTech Connect

    Souto, F.J.; Haskin, F.E.; Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-10-01

    The MELCOR computer code has been used to model four of the large-scale aerosol behavior experiments conducted in the Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) vessel. Tests AB5, AB6 and AB7 of the ABCOVE program simulate the dry aerosol conditions during a hypothetical severe accident in an LMFBR. Test LA2 of the LACE program simulates aerosol behavior in a condensing steam environment during a postulated severe accident in an LWR with failure to isolate the containment. The comparison of code results to experimental data show that MELCOR is able to correctly predict most of the thermal-hydraulic results in the four tests. MELCOR predicts reasonably well the dry aerosol behavior of the ABCOVE tests, but significant disagreements are found in the aerosol behavior modelling for the LA2 experiment. These results tend to support some of the concerns about the MELCOR modelling of steam condensation onto aerosols expressed in previous works. During these analyses, a limitation in the MELCOR input was detected for the specification of the aerosol parameters for more than one component. A Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) sensitivity study of the aerosol dynamic constants is presented for test AB6. The study shows the importance of the aerosol shape factors in the aerosol deposition behavior, and reveals that MELCOR input/output processing is highly labor intensive for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses based on LHS.

  20. Rio Blanco, Colorado, Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site, for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 13 and 14, 2009. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  1. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 10 and 11, 2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, analyzed the samples. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and for tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  2. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 11 and 12, 2009. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and for tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  3. Environmental sampling program for a solar evaporation pond for liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Gunderson, T.C.; Talley, A.D.

    1980-04-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is evaluating solar evaporation as a method for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes. This report describes a sampling program designed to monitor possible escape of radioactivity to the environment from a solar evaporation pond prototype constructed at LASL. Background radioactivity levels at the pond site were determined from soil and vegetation analyses before construction. When the pond is operative, the sampling program will qualitatively and quantitatively detect the transport of radioactivity to the soil, air, and vegetation in the vicinity. Possible correlation of meteorological data with sampling results is being investigated and measures to control export of radioactivity by biological vectors are being assessed.

  4. Cross-Institute Evaluations of Inhibitor-Resistant PCR Reagents for Direct Testing of Aerosol and Blood Samples Containing Biological Warfare Agent DNA

    PubMed Central

    Minogue, Timothy D.; Rachwal, Phillip A.; Trombley Hall, Adrienne; Koehler, Jeffery W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid pathogen detection is crucial for the timely introduction of therapeutics. Two groups (one in the United Kingdom and one in the United States) independently evaluated inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for the direct testing of substrates. In the United Kingdom, a multiplexed Bacillus anthracis (target) and Bacillus subtilis (internal-control) PCR was used to evaluate 4 reagents against 5 PCR inhibitors and down-selected the TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step master mix (Life Technologies Inc.). In the United States, four real-time PCR assays (targeting B. anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], and Orthopoxvirus spp.) were used to evaluate 5 reagents (plus the Fast Virus master mix) against buffer, blood, and soil samples and down-selected the KAPA Blood Direct master mix (KAPA Biosystems Inc.) with added Platinum Taq (Life Technologies). The down-selected reagents underwent further testing. In the United Kingdom experiments, both reagents were tested against seven contrived aerosol collector samples containing B. anthracis Ames DNA and B. subtilis spores from a commercial formulation (BioBall). In PCR assays with reaction mixtures containing 40% crude sample, an airfield-collected sample induced inhibition of the B. subtilis PCR with the KAPA reagent and complete failure of both PCRs with the Fast Virus reagent. However, both reagents allowed successful PCR for all other samples—which inhibited PCRs with a non-inhibitor-resistant reagent. In the United States, a cross-assay limit-of-detection (LoD) study in blood was conducted. The KAPA Blood Direct reagent allowed the detection of agent DNA (by four PCRs) at higher concentrations of blood in the reaction mixture (2.5%) than the Fast Virus reagent (0.5%), although LoDs differed between assays and reagent combinations. Across both groups, the KAPA Blood Direct reagent was determined to be the optimal reagent for inhibition relief in PCR. PMID:24334660

  5. Leukopak PBMC Sample Processing for Preparing Quality Control Material to Support Proficiency Testing Programs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ambrosia; Keinonen, Sarah; Sanchez, Ana M.; Ferrari, Guido; Denny, Thomas N.; Moody, M. Anthony

    2014-01-01

    External proficiency testing programs designed to evaluate the performance of end-point laboratories involved in vaccine and therapeutic clinical trials form an important part of clinical trial quality assurance. Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines recommend both assay validation and proficiency testing for assays being used in clinical trials, and such testing is facilitated by the availability of large numbers of well-characterized test samples. These samples can be distributed to laboratories participating in these programs and allow monitoring of laboratory performance over time and among participating sites when results are obtained with samples derived from a large master set. The leukapheresis procedure provides an ideal way to collect samples from participants that can meet the required number of cells to support these activities. The collection and processing of leukapheresis samples requires tight coordination between the clinical and laboratory teams to collect, process, and cryopreserve large number of samples within the established ideal time of ≤8 hours. Here, we describe our experience with a leukapheresis cryopreseration program that has been able to preserve the functionality of cellular subsets and that provides the sample numbers necessary to run an external proficiency testing program. PMID:24928650

  6. Total-Reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of elements in size-fractionated particulate matter sampled on polycarbonate filters — Composition and sources of aerosol particles in Göteborg, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Annemarie; Mages, Margarete

    2010-06-01

    This is the first study applying the technique of cold plasma ashing on polycarbonate filters as a preparative step for subsequent elemental analysis of aerosol particles by Total-Reflection X-ray fluorescence. The procedure has been validated by analyzing blanks of the filter material, chemicals used as additives as well as certified standard reference material. The results showed that cold plasma ashing is superior to conventional digestion methods with regard to the ease of sample preparation and contamination. A PIXE cascade impactor was used to collect size-fractionated aerosol particles in 9 size classes ranging from 16 to 0.06 µm aerodynamic diameter at an urban and a suburban site in Göteborg, Sweden. Filter segments loaded with the aerosol particles were cut out and fixed on Quartz carriers. After adding 10 ng of Ga as internal standard the samples were dried, digested by cold plasma ashing and analyzed by Total-Reflection X-ray fluorescence. The analysis of aerosol particles showed that elemental concentrations at both the urban and the suburban site in Göteborg were low compared to central Europe. More and concurrent sampling of size-fractionated particles is required to identify local sources of trace elements in the urban area of Göteborg.

  7. A Novel Quantitative Approach for Eliminating Sample-To-Sample Variation Using a Hue Saturation Value Analysis Program

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, Eri; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Aikawa, Masanori; Aikawa, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Objectives As computing technology and image analysis techniques have advanced, the practice of histology has grown from a purely qualitative method to one that is highly quantified. Current image analysis software is imprecise and prone to wide variation due to common artifacts and histological limitations. In order to minimize the impact of these artifacts, a more robust method for quantitative image analysis is required. Methods and Results Here we present a novel image analysis software, based on the hue saturation value color space, to be applied to a wide variety of histological stains and tissue types. By using hue, saturation, and value variables instead of the more common red, green, and blue variables, our software offers some distinct advantages over other commercially available programs. We tested the program by analyzing several common histological stains, performed on tissue sections that ranged from 4 µm to 10 µm in thickness, using both a red green blue color space and a hue saturation value color space. Conclusion We demonstrated that our new software is a simple method for quantitative analysis of histological sections, which is highly robust to variations in section thickness, sectioning artifacts, and stain quality, eliminating sample-to-sample variation. PMID:24595280

  8. Use of analytical electron microscopy for the individual particle analysis of the Arctic haze aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of the analytical electron microscope for the analysis and source apportionment of individual aerosol particles, aerosol samples amenable to individual particle analysis were collected from a remote region. These samples were from the Arctic haze aerosol, and were collected on board a research aircraft during the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program in spring 1983. Before elemental analysis by analytical electron microscopy (AEM) could be performed, an extensive relative sensitivity factor study was undertaken to calibrate the microscope/detector system for quanitative x-ray microanalysis. Subsequently determined elemental data, along with morphological information, were used to group the particles into classes with similar characteristics. Forty-seven classes of particles were found in the Arctic samples, the most populous classes containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ droplets, carbonaceous particles, lithophilic particles, CaSO/sub 4/ or NaCl. Several classes containing anthropogenic particles were also identified.

  9. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  10. Propulsion Technology Development for Sample Return Missions Under NASA's ISPT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Vento, Daniel; Dankanich, John W.; Munk, Michelle M.; Hahne, David

    2011-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program was tasked in 2009 to start development of propulsion technologies that would enable future sample return missions. Sample return missions could be quite varied, from collecting and bringing back samples of comets or asteroids, to soil, rocks, or atmosphere from planets or moons. The paper will describe the ISPT Program s propulsion technology development activities relevant to future sample return missions. The sample return propulsion technology development areas for ISPT are: 1) Sample Return Propulsion (SRP), 2) Planetary Ascent Vehicles (PAV), 3) Entry Vehicle Technologies (EVT), and 4) Systems/mission analysis and tools that focuses on sample return propulsion. The Sample Return Propulsion area is subdivided into: a) Electric propulsion for sample return and low cost Discovery-class missions, b) Propulsion systems for Earth Return Vehicles (ERV) including transfer stages to the destination, and c) Low TRL advanced propulsion technologies. The SRP effort will continue work on HIVHAC thruster development in FY2011 and then transitions into developing a HIVHAC system under future Electric Propulsion for sample return (ERV and transfer stages) and low-cost missions. Previous work on the lightweight propellant-tanks will continue under advanced propulsion technologies for sample return with direct applicability to a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission and with general applicability to all future planetary spacecraft. A major effort under the EVT area is multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV), which will leverage and build upon previous work related to Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV). The major effort under the PAV area is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The MAV is a new development area to ISPT, and builds upon and leverages the past MAV analysis and technology developments from the Mars Technology Program (MTP) and previous MSR studies.

  11. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    to carbonyl- and nitro- functional groups on conjugated and aromatic organic structures (e.g. PAH, and terpene derived products). Using 12-hour fine (0.1-1.0 micron) aerosol samples collected in the field on quartz filters, uv/vis and infrared spectra were obtained in the laboratory using integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. An inter-comparison of the "real-time" measurements made by the photo-acoustic, aethalometer and MAAP techniques have been described. In addition, the in situ aethalometer (seven-channel) results are compared with continuous integrating sphere uv-visible spectra to examine the angstrom absorption coefficient variance. These results will be briefly overviewed and the specific posters detailing these results will be highlighted highlighted. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. "This researchwas supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329.

  12. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM FOR WET DEPOSITION SAMPLING AND CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR THE NATIONAL TRENDS NETWORK.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, LeRoy J.; Malo, Bernard A.; ,

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the National Trends Network is to delineate the major inorganic constituents in the wet deposition in the United States. The approach chosen to monitor the Nation's wet deposition is to install approximately 150 automatic sampling devices with at least one collector in each state. Samples are collected at one week intervals, removed from collectors, and transported to an analytical laboratory for chemical analysis. The quality assurance program has divided wet deposition monitoring into 5 parts: (1) Sampling site selection, (2) sampling device, (3) sample container, (4) sample handling, and (5) laboratory analysis. Each of these five components is being examined using existing designs or new designs. Each existing or proposed sampling site is visited and a criteria audit is performed.

  13. Pulse Stripping Analysis: A Technique for Determination of Some Metals in Aerosols and Other Limited Size Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parry, Edward P.; Hern, Don H.

    1971-01-01

    A technique for determining lead with a detection limit down to a nanogram on limited size samples is described. The technique is an electrochemical one and involves pre-concentration of the metal species in a mercury drop. Although the emphasis in this paper is on the determination of lead, many metal ion species which are reducible to the metal at an electrode are equally determinable. A technique called pulse polarography is proposed to determine the metals in the drop and this technique is discussed and is compared with other techniques. Other approaches for determination of lead are also compared. Some data are also reported for the lead content of Ventura County particulates. The characterization of lead species by solubility parameters is discussed.

  14. A sample theory-based logic model to improve program development, implementation, and sustainability of Farm to School programs.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Michelle M

    2012-08-01

    Farm to School programs hold promise to address childhood obesity. These programs may increase students’ access to healthier foods, increase students’ knowledge of and desire to eat these foods, and increase their consumption of them. Implementing Farm to School programs requires the involvement of multiple people, including nutrition services, educators, and food producers. Because these groups have not traditionally worked together and each has different goals, it is important to demonstrate how Farm to School programs that are designed to decrease childhood obesity may also address others’ objectives, such as academic achievement and economic development. A logic model is an effective tool to help articulate a shared vision for how Farm to School programs may work to accomplish multiple goals. Furthermore, there is evidence that programs based on theory are more likely to be effective at changing individuals’ behaviors. Logic models based on theory may help to explain how a program works, aid in efficient and sustained implementation, and support the development of a coherent evaluation plan. This article presents a sample theory-based logic model for Farm to School programs. The presented logic model is informed by the polytheoretical model for food and garden-based education in school settings (PMFGBE). The logic model has been applied to multiple settings, including Farm to School program development and evaluation in urban and rural school districts. This article also includes a brief discussion on the development of the PMFGBE, a detailed explanation of how Farm to School programs may enhance the curricular, physical, and social learning environments of schools, and suggestions for the applicability of the logic model for practitioners, researchers, and policy makers.

  15. Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Christopher J.; Turner, David D. ); Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, III, V. S.; Hwang, I. H.

    2002-04-01

    Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involve knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, has constructed four long-term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, Barrow, Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of nearly all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM MPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for ARM cloud and aerosol research.

  16. Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Connor J.; Turner, David D.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Hwang, I. H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involves a knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through I the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has constructed four long- term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, In Barrow. Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing Pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM NIPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. A multiple cloud boundary detection algorithm is also described. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for Cloud and aerosol research and the historical ARM data archive.

  17. Demonstration of multi- and single-reader sample size program for diagnostic studies software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillis, Stephen L.; Schartz, Kevin M.

    2015-03-01

    The recently released software Multi- and Single-Reader Sample Size Sample Size Program for Diagnostic Studies, written by Kevin Schartz and Stephen Hillis, performs sample size computations for diagnostic reader-performance studies. The program computes the sample size needed to detect a specified difference in a reader performance measure between two modalities, when using the analysis methods initially proposed by Dorfman, Berbaum, and Metz (DBM) and Obuchowski and Rockette (OR), and later unified and improved by Hillis and colleagues. A commonly used reader performance measure is the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve. The program can be used with typical common reader-performance measures which can be estimated parametrically or nonparametrically. The program has an easy-to-use step-by-step intuitive interface that walks the user through the entry of the needed information. Features of the software include the following: (1) choice of several study designs; (2) choice of inputs obtained from either OR or DBM analyses; (3) choice of three different inference situations: both readers and cases random, readers fixed and cases random, and readers random and cases fixed; (4) choice of two types of hypotheses: equivalence or noninferiority; (6) choice of two output formats: power for specified case and reader sample sizes, or a listing of case-reader combinations that provide a specified power; (7) choice of single or multi-reader analyses; and (8) functionality in Windows, Mac OS, and Linux.

  18. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification MST Solids Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2013-09-19

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 7 processing. The Marcrobatch 7 material was received with visible fine particulate solids, atypical for these samples. The as received material was allowed to settle for a period greater than 24 hours. The supernatant was then decanted and utilized as our clarified feed material. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) test using the clarified feed material. From this test, the residual monosodium titanate (MST) was analyzed for radionuclide uptake after filtration from H-Tank Farm (HTF) feed salt solution. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  19. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program — Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-03-01

    NASA’s Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program has Lucite disks containing Apollo lunar samples and meteorite samples that are available for trained educators to borrow for use in classrooms, museums, science center, and libraries.

  20. ADEPT: a program to estimate depth to magnetic basement from sampled magnetic profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.

    1978-01-01

    A fortran program computes depth to magnetic basement from the spatially varying autocorrelation function of a sampled magnetic profile. The depth calculation assumes a particular form for the autocorrelation function, and this assumption is tested against the measured autocorrelation function in order to reject invalid depth estimates.

  1. 76 FR 21318 - Notice of Funds Availability; Inviting Applications for the Quality Samples Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... specific company or brand; Projects should develop a new market for a U.S. product, promote a new U.S. product, or promote a new use for a U.S. product, rather than promote the substitution of one established... for the Quality Samples Program Announcement Type: New. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance...

  2. Status of Sample Return Propulsion Technology Development Under NASA's ISPT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Glaab, Louis J.; Munk, Michelle M.; Pencil, Eric; Dankanich, John; Peterson, Todd T.

    2012-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program was tasked in 2009 to start development of propulsion technologies that would enable future sample return missions. ISPT s sample return technology development areas are diverse. Sample Return Propulsion (SRP) addresses electric propulsion for sample return and low cost Discovery-class missions, propulsion systems for Earth Return Vehicles (ERV) including transfer stages to the destination, and low technology readiness level (TRL) advanced propulsion technologies. The SRP effort continues work on HIVHAC thruster development to transition into developing a Hall-effect propulsion system for sample return (ERV and transfer stages) and low-cost missions. Previous work on the lightweight propellant-tanks continues for sample return with direct applicability to a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission with general applicability to all future planetary spacecraft. The Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) work focuses on building a fundamental base of multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV). The main focus of the Planetary Ascent Vehicles (PAV) area is technology development for the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), which builds upon and leverages the past MAV analysis and technology developments from the Mars Technology Program (MTP) and previous MSR studies

  3. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  4. Joint air pollution sampling program in twin cities on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Dávila, G H

    1976-01-01

    Ciudad Juárez (Chihuahua) and El Paso (Texas), two cities on the U.S.-Mexico border, form a single environmental system in which the same natural resources, especially air and water, are shared. It also constitutes a single metropolitan area which is characterized by high rates of pipulation growth, economic development, and urban expansion, all these factors mitigating against air quality. Early in 1972 the health authorities in El Paso and Ciudad Juárez initiated a joint air pollution sampling program with assistance from the Pan American Health Organization. The nearby city of Las Cruces (New Mexico) was later included in the program as well. Activities are carried out in accordance with a document entitled "Bases of Cooperation." The guiding criteria of the program are: functional simplicity, operational economy, and complementarity with other sampling programs conducted by the participating services. An Air Pollution Control Subcommittee is responsible for execution coordination of the program. Three studies are currently underway to determine levels of dust pollution in the air. A fourth study is aimed at measuring sulfur dioxide levels through the use of sulfation plates. The results collected reveal concentrations of particulates in the ambient air levels higher than the U.S. Federal primary standards. The program should be expanded to include the study of other pollutants and a joint inventory of emissions. In this way criteria on air quality may be established and joint plans of action and strategies drawn up for the control of air pollution in this important area.

  5. Physical properties of repressurized samples recovered during the 2006 National Gas Hydrate Program expedition offshore India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, William J.; Waite, William F.; Mason, David H.; Kumar, P.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an international cooperative research program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and researchers from the National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) of India are studying the physical properties of sediment recovered during the NGHP-01 cruise conducted offshore India during 2006. Here we report on index property, acoustic velocity, and triaxial shear test results for samples recovered from the Krishna-Godavari Basin. In addition, we discuss the effects of sample storage temperature, handling, and change in structure of fine-grained sediment. Although complex, sub-vertical planar gas-hydrate structures were observed in the silty clay to clayey silt samples prior to entering the Gas Hydrate And Sediment Test Laboratory Instrument (GHASTLI), the samples yielded little gas post test. This suggests most, if not all, gas hydrate dissociated during sample transfer. Mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing marine sediment are best measured by avoiding sample depressurization. By contrast, mechanical properties of hydrate-free sediments, that are shipped and stored at atmospheric pressure can be approximated by consolidating core material to the original in situ effective stress.

  6. Efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program in a sample of schizophrenic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Gil-Sanz, David; Fernández-Modamio, Mar; Bengochea-Seco, Rosario; Arrieta-Rodríguez, Marta; Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela

    2014-02-01

    Objective: Social cognition is recognized to be a deficit in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between social cognition and social functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia through the use of different social cognition training programs. This study examines the efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program (PECS in Spanish) in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Methods: Data were derived from a sample of 44 non-hospitalized adult patients, who presented with a DSM-IV-R Axis I diagnosis of schizophrenia, and 39 healthy controls. Patients were divided into an experimental group and a control task group, that received cognitive training. Healthy controls did not receive any treatment. Sociodemographic and clinic variables correlates were computed. 2-way ANOVA was conducted to examine differences between groups in pre and post-treatment measures. Intragroup differences were explores using the paired-samples t-test. Results: At the end of the training, patients in the experimental group showed a higher performance compared to patients in the control task group, in the Hinting Task Test and in the emotion recognition of sadness, anger, fear, and disgust. Conclusions: The PECS proved to be effective in the improvement of some areas of theory of mind and emotion recognition, in outpatients with schizophrenia. The PECS is one of the first programs developed in Spanish to train social cognition, and the data obtained support the importance of expand the social cognition programs to non-English language samples.

  7. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program May 2003 Intensive Operations Period Examining Aerosol Properties and Radiative Influences: Preface to Special Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Feingold, Graham; Ghan, Steven; Ogren, John; Schmid, Beat; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Sheridan, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate by scattering and absorbing radiation in clear air (direct effects) and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei, modifying the microphysical properties of clouds, influencing radiation and precipitation development (indirect effects). Much of present uncertainty in forcing of climate change is due to uncertainty in the relations between aerosol microphysical and optical properties and their radiative influences (direct effects) and between microphysical properties and their ability to serve as cloud condensation nuclei at given supersaturations (indirect effects). This paper introduces a special section that reports on a field campaign conducted at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in North Central Oklahoma in May, 2003, examining these relations using in situ airborne measurements and surface-, airborne-, and space-based remote sensing.

  8. Scientific Infrastructure to Support Atmospheric Science and Aerosol Science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs at Barrow, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Dexheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific infrastructure to support atmospheric science and aerosol science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs at Barrow, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's located at Barrow, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Barrow has been in place since 1998, with many improvements since then. Barrow instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Doppler Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Manual and state-of-art automatic Balloon sounding systems, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at Barrow and the challenges of maintaining these instruments in an Arctic site.

  9. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Selection of plants for sampling program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, J.N.

    1988-03-01

    This report is one of a series of reports in the EPRI Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) program. This study was performed to provide the selection basis for plants to be included in the BRC sampling program. This final report describes the evaluations performed using 10CFR61 data and current fuel performance data to identify those plants with larger quantities of tramp or exposed fuel and correspondingly higher transuranic levels in the plant waste streams. Plants were ranked from the highest level to the lowest level of exposed or tramp fuel in the core. 10 tabs.

  10. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2012 at Rulison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 8, 2012. The samples were shipped to GEL Laboratories in Charleston, South Carolina, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry; tritium was analyzed using two methods. The conventional tritium method has a detection limit on the order of 400 pCi/L, and a select set of samples was analyzed for tritium using the enriched method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  11. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, D. J.; Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 245 flights of a Qantas Airways of Australia B-747 and two Pan American World Airways B-747s from July 1976 through September 1976. In addition, whole air samples, obtained during three flights, were analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples, obtained during four flights, were analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, fluorides, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed.

  12. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, water vapor, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 139 flights of a United Airlines B-747 and a Pan American World Airways B-747 from December 1975 through March 1976. In addition, sample bottles were exposed during three flights and analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples were exposed during five flights and analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed.

  13. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  14. Condensation-nuclei (Aitken Particle) measurement system used in NASA global atmospheric sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyland, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The condensation-nuclei (Aitken particle) measuring system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program is described. Included in the paper is a description of the condensation-nuclei monitor sensor, the pressurization system, and the Pollack-counter calibration system used to support the CN measurement. The monitor has a measurement range to 1000 CN/cm cubed and a noise level equivalent to 5 CN/cm cubed at flight altitudes between 6 and 13 km.

  15. Review of geochemical reference sample programs since G-1 and W-1: progress to date and remaining challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    A brief history of programs to develop geochemical reference samples and certified reference samples for use in geochemical analysis is presented. While progress has been made since G-1 and W-1 were issued, many challenges remain. ?? 1991.

  16. Characterization of Florida red tide aerosol and the temporal profile of aerosol concentration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Zhou, Yue; Pierce, Richard H; Henry, Mike; Baden, Daniel G

    2010-05-01

    Red tide aerosols containing aerosolized brevetoxins are produced during the red tide bloom and transported by wind to coastal areas of Florida. This study reports the characterization of Florida red tide aerosols in human volunteer studies, in which an asthma cohort spent 1h on Siesta Beach (Sarasota, Florida) during aerosolized red tide events and non-exposure periods. Aerosol concentrations, brevetoxin levels, and particle size distribution were measured. Hourly filter samples were taken and analyzed for brevetoxin and NaCl concentrations. In addition, the aerosol mass concentration was monitored in real time. The results indicated that during a non-exposure period in October 2004, no brevetoxin was detected in the water, resulting in non-detectable levels of brevetoxin in the aerosol. In March 2005, the time-averaged concentrations of brevetoxins in water samples were moderate, in the range of 5-10 microg/L, and the corresponding brevetoxin level of Florida red tide aerosol ranged between 21 and 39 ng/m(3). The temporal profiles of red tide aerosol concentration in terms of mass, NaCl, and brevetoxin were in good agreement, indicating that NaCl and brevetoxins are components of the red tide aerosol. By continuously monitoring the marine aerosol and wind direction at Siesta Beach, we observed that the marine aerosol concentration varied as the wind direction changed. The temporal profile of the Florida red tide aerosol during a sampling period could be explained generally with the variation of wind direction.

  17. Characterization of Florida red tide aerosol and the temporal profile of aerosol concentration

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Zhou, Yue; Pierce, Richard H.; Henry, Mike; Baden, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    Red tide aerosols containing aerosolized brevetoxins are produced during the red tide bloom and transported by wind to coastal areas of Florida. This study reports the characterization of Florida red tide aerosols in human volunteer studies, in which an asthma cohort spent 1 h on Siesta Beach (Sarasota, Florida) during aerosolized red tide events and non-exposure periods. Aerosol concentrations, brevetoxin levels, and particle size distribution were measured. Hourly filter samples were taken and analyzed for brevetoxin and NaCl concentrations. In addition, the aerosol mass concentration was monitored in real time. The results indicated that during a non-exposure period in October 2004, no brevetoxin was detected in the water, resulting in non-detectable levels of brevetoxin in the aerosol. In March 2005, the time-averaged concentrations of brevetoxins in water samples were moderate, in the range of 5–10 μg/L, and the corresponding brevetoxin level of Florida red tide aerosol ranged between 21 and 39 ng/m3. The temporal profiles of red tide aerosol concentration in terms of mass, NaCl, and brevetoxin were in good agreement, indicating that NaCl and brevetoxins are components of the red tide aerosol. By continuously monitoring the marine aerosol and wind direction at Siesta Beach, we observed that the marine aerosol concentration varied as the wind direction changed. The temporal profile of the Florida red tide aerosol during a sampling period could be explained generally with the variation of wind direction. PMID:19879288

  18. Active tracking of rejected dried blood samples in a large program in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Inalegwu, Auchi; Phillips, Sunny; Datir, Rawlings; Chime, Christopher; Ozumba, Petronilla; Peters, Samuel; Ogbanufe, Obinna; Mensah, Charles; Abimiku, Alash’Le; Dakum, Patrick; Ndembi, Nicaise

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the impact of rejection at different levels of health care by retrospectively reviewing records of dried blood spot samples received at the molecular laboratory for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) early infant diagnosis (EID) between January 2008 and December 2012. METHODS: The specimen rejection rate, reasons for rejection and the impact of rejection at different levels of health care was examined. The extracted data were cleaned and checked for consistency and then de-duplicated using the unique patient and clinic identifiers. The cleaned data were ciphered and exported to SPSS version 19 (SPSS 2010 IBM Corp, New York, United States) for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Sample rejection rate of 2.4% (n = 786/32552) and repeat rate of 8.8% (n = 69/786) were established. The mean age of infants presenting for first HIV molecular test among accepted valid samples was 17.83 wk (95%CI: 17.65-18.01) vs 20.30 wk (95%CI: 16.53-24.06) for repeated samples. HIV infection rate was 9.8% vs 15.9% for accepted and repeated samples. Compared to tertiary healthcare clinics, secondary and primary clinics had two-fold and three-fold higher likelihood of sample rejection, respectively (P < 0.05). We observed a significant increase in sample rejection rate with increasing number of EID clinics (r = 0.893, P = 0.041). The major reasons for rejection were improper sample collection (26.3%), improper labeling (16.4%) and insufficient blood (14.8%). CONCLUSION: Programs should monitor pre-analytical variables and incorporate continuous quality improvement interventions to reduce errors associated with sample rejection and improve patient retention. PMID:27175352

  19. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  20. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

  1. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions.

  2. Time Series of Aerosol Column Optical Depth at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Climate Research Facility for 2008 Fourth Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect

    C Flynn; AS Koontz; JH Mather

    2009-09-01

    The uncertainties in current estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are dominated by the effects of aerosols, both in relation to the direct absorption and scattering of radiation by aerosols and also with respect to aerosol-related changes in cloud formation, longevity, and microphysics (See Figure 1; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Assessment Report 4, 2008). Moreover, the Arctic region in particular is especially sensitive to changes in climate with the magnitude of temperature changes (both observed and predicted) being several times larger than global averages (Kaufman et al. 2009). Recent studies confirm that aerosol-cloud interactions in the arctic generate climatologically significant radiative effects equivalent in magnitude to that of green house gases (Lubin and Vogelmann 2006, 2007). The aerosol optical depth is the most immediate representation of the aerosol direct effect and is also important for consideration of aerosol-cloud interactions, and thus this quantity is essential for studies of aerosol radiative forcing.

  3. Temperature programmed desorption studies of water interactions with Apollo lunar samples 12001 and 72501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, Michael J.; Grieves, Gregory A.; Aleksandrov, Alexandr B.; Hibbitts, Charles A.; Dyar, M. Darby; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2015-07-01

    The desorption activation energies for water molecules chemisorbed on Apollo lunar samples 72501 (highlands soil) and 12001 (mare soil) were determined by temperature programmed desorption experiments in ultra-high vacuum. A significant difference in both the energies and abundance of chemisorption sites was observed, with 72501 retaining up to 40 times more water (by mass) and with much stronger adsorption interactions, possibly approaching 1.5 eV. The dramatic difference between the samples may be due to differences in mineralogy and surface exposure age. The distribution function of water desorption activation energies for sample 72501 was used as an initial condition to simulate water persistence through a temperature profile matching the lunar day.

  4. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011 at Rulison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 18, 2011. The samples were shipped to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed, with the exception of the determination of tritium concentration by the enrichment method. The laboratory no longer provides that service. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional method. Starting in 2012, DOE will retain a different laboratory that provides the enriched tritium analysis service.

  5. Methods for sampling fish communities as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Fish community structure is characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. The objective of the National Water-Quality Assessment characterization of fish community structure is to relate fish community characteristics to physical, chemical, and other biological factors to assess water-quality conditions. To accomplish this, fish community structure is described at sites representing selected environmental settings. In addition, spatial and temporal patterns in fish community structure are examined at local, regional, and national levels. A representative sample of the fish community is collected by sampling a stream reach using two complementary methods. The primary collection method is electrofishing using backpack, towed, or boat-operated electrofishing gear; seining is a secondary technique. Other secondary techniques may be substituted after careful consideration of sampling efficiency and consultation with local fish ecologists. Before fish sampling is conducted, careful consideration must be given to collecting permits; protecting endangered, threatened, and special-concern species; and coordinating sampling efforts with other fish ecologists. After the sample is collected, individual fish are identified to species by ichthyologists. Length and weight measurements are taken, and the presence of external anomalies are recorded.

  6. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  7. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a ``Deliberate Operating`` mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a ``Use Every Time`` (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  8. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a Deliberate Operating'' mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a Use Every Time'' (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  9. Aerosolized Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Marcos I; Keyt, Holly; Reyes, Luis F

    2015-06-01

    Administration of medications via aerosolization is potentially an ideal strategy to treat airway diseases. This delivery method ensures high concentrations of the medication in the targeted tissues, the airways, with generally lower systemic absorption and systemic adverse effects. Aerosolized antibiotics have been tested as treatment for bacterial infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The most successful application of this to date is treatment of infections in patients with CF. It has been hypothesized that similar success would be seen in NCFB and in difficult-to-treat hospital-acquired infections such as VAP. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of aerosolized antibiotics and addresses the specific considerations that clinicians should recognize when prescribing an aerosolized antibiotic for patients with CF, NCFB, and VAP.

  10. Global Aerosols

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... sizes and from multiple sources, including biomass burning, mineral dust, sea salt and regional industrial pollution. A color scale is ... desert source region. Deserts are the main sources of mineral dust, and MISR obtains aerosol optical depth at visible wavelengths ...

  11. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkin formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.

  12. Aerosol in the Pacific troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Antony D.

    1989-01-01

    The use of near real-time optical techniques is emphasized for the measurement of mid-tropospheric aerosol over the Central Pacific. The primary focus is on measurement of the aerosol size distribution over the range of particle diameters from 0.15 to 5.0 microns that are essential for modeling CO2 backscatter values in support of the laser atmospheric wind sounder (LAWS) program. The measurement system employs a LAS-X (Laser Aerosol Spectrometer-PMS, Boulder, CO) with a custom 256 channel pulse height analyzer and software for detailed measurement and analysis of aerosol size distributions. A thermal preheater system (Thermo Optic Aerosol Descriminator (TOAD) conditions the aerosol in a manner that allows the discrimination of the size distribution of individual aerosol components such as sulfuric acid, sulfates and refractory species. This allows assessment of the relative contribution of each component to the BCO2 signal. This is necessary since the different components have different sources, exhibit independent variability and provide different BCO2 signals for a given mass and particle size. Field activities involve experiments designed to examine both temporal and spatial variability of these aerosol components from ground based and aircraft platforms.

  13. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Analysis of postulated energetic reactions and resultant aerosol generation in Hanford Site Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Dickinson, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report reviews work done to estimate the possible consequences of postulated energetic reactions in ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The issue of explosive reactions was raised in the 1987 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), where a detonation-like explosion was postulated for the purpose of defining an upper bound on dose consequences for various disposal options. A review of the explosion scenario by the General Accounting Office (GAO) indicated that the aerosol generation and consequent radioactive doses projected for the explosion postulated in the EIS were understated by one to two orders of magnitude. The US DOE has sponsored an extensive study of the hazard posed by uncontrolled exothermic reactions in ferrocyanide waste, and results obtained during the past three years have allowed this hazard to be more realistically assessed. The objective of this report is to summarize the improved knowledge base that now indicates that explosive or vigorous chemical reactions are not credible in the ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks. This improved understanding supports the decision not to proceed with further analyses or predictions of the consequences of such an event or with aerosol tests in support of such predictions. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Description of a computer program to calculate reacting supersonic internal flow fields with shock waves using viscous characteristics: Program manual and sample calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalleri, R. J.; Agnone, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program for calculating internal supersonic flow fields with chemical reactions and shock waves typical of supersonic combustion chambers with either wall or mid-stream injectors is described. The usefulness and limitations of the program are indicated. The program manual and listing are presented along with a sample calculation.

  15. Fatty acids on continental sulfate aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Vaida, V.; Tuck, A. F.; Niemi, J. V.; Kupiainen, K.; Kulmala, M.; VehkamäKi, H.

    2005-03-01

    Surface analyses of atmospheric aerosols from different continental sources, such as forest fires and coal and straw burning, show that organic surfactants are found on such aerosols. The predominant organic species detected by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry on the sulfate aerosols are fatty acids of different carbon chain length up to the C32 acid. These observations are consistent with literature accounts of functional group analysis of bulk samples, but this is the first direct evidence of fatty acid films on the surface of sulfate aerosols. Surface analysis leads to the conclusion that fatty acid films on continental aerosols may be more common than has been previously suggested.

  16. A Fortran IV Program for Estimating Parameters through Multiple Matrix Sampling with Standard Errors of Estimate Approximated by the Jackknife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, David M.

    Described and listed herein with concomitant sample input and output is the Fortran IV program which estimates parameters and standard errors of estimate per parameters for parameters estimated through multiple matrix sampling. The specific program is an improved and expanded version of an earlier version. (Author/BJG)

  17. The Effect of Aerosol Hygroscopicity and Volatility on Aerosol Optical Properties During Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystov, A.; Grieshop, A. P.; Saha, P.; Subramanian, R.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic sources can influence optical properties of ambient aerosol by altering its hygroscopicity and contributing to light absorption directly via formation of brown carbon and indirectly by enhancing light absorption by black carbon ("lensing effect"). The magnitude of these effects remains highly uncertain. A set of state-of-the-art instruments was deployed at the SEARCH site near Centerville, AL during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign in summer 2013 to measure the effect of relative humidity and temperature on aerosol size distribution, composition and optical properties. Light scattering and absorption by temperature- and humidity-conditioned aerosols was measured using three photo-acoustic extinctiometers (PAX) at three wavelengths (405 nm, 532 nm, and 870 nm). The sample-conditioning system provided measurements at ambient RH, 10%RH ("dry"), 85%RH ("wet"), and 200 C ("TD"). In parallel to these measurements, a long residence time temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD) and a variable residence time constant temperature TD in combination with three SMPS systems and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) were used to assess aerosol volatility and kinetics of aerosol evaporation. We will present results of the on-going analysis of the collected data set. We will show that both temperature and relative humidity have a strong effect on aerosol optical properties. SOA appears to increase aerosol light absorption by about 10%. TD measurements suggest that aerosol equilibrated fairly quickly, within 2 s. Evaporation varied substantially with ambient aerosol loading and composition and meteorology.

  18. AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) program is a federation of ground-based remote sensing aerosol networks established by NASA and LOA-PHOTONS (CNRS) and is greatly expanded by collaborators from national agencies, institutes, universities, individual scientists, and partners. The program provides a long-term, continuous and readily accessible public domain database of aerosol optical, mircrophysical and radiative properties for aerosol research and characterization, validation of satellite retrievals, and synergism with other databases. The network imposes standardization of instruments, calibration, processing and distribution. AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

  19. a Study of the Origin of Atmospheric Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildemann, Lynn Mary

    1990-01-01

    The sources of ambient organic particulate matter in urban areas are investigated through a program of emission source measurements, atmospheric measurements, and mathematical modeling of source/receptor relationships. A dilution sampler intended to collect fine organic aerosol from combustion sources is designed to simulate atmospheric cooling and dilution processes, so that organic vapors which condense under ambient conditions will be collected as particulate matter. This system is used to measure the emissions from a boiler burning distillate oil, a home fireplace, catalyst and noncatalyst automobiles, heavy-duty diesel trucks, natural gas home appliances, and meat cooking operations. Alternate techniques are used to sample the particulate matter emitted from cigarette smoking, a roofing tar pot, paved road dust, brake lining wear, tire wear, and vegetative detritus. The bulk chemical characteristics of the fine aerosol fraction are presented for each source. Over half of the fine aerosol mass emitted from automobiles, wood burning, meat cooking, home appliances, cigarettes, and tar pots is shown to consist of organic compounds. The organic material collected from these sources is analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography. Using a simple analytical protocol, a quantitative, 50-parameter characterization of the elutable fine organic aerosol emitted from each source type is obtained, which proves to be a unique fingerprint that can be used to distinguish most sources from each other. A mathematical model is used to predict the characteristics of fine ambient organic aerosol in the Los Angeles area that would prevail if the primary organic emissions are transported without chemical reaction. The model is found to track the seasonal variations observed in the ambient aerosol at the three sites studied. Emissions from vehicles and fireplaces are identified as significant sources of solvent-extractable organic aerosol. Differences between the model

  20. Deriving simple empirical relationships between aerodynamic and optical aerosol measurements and their application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different measurement techniques for aerosol characterization and quantification either directly or indirectly measure different aerosol properties (i.e. count, mass, speciation, etc.). Comparisons and combinations of multiple measurement techniques sampling the same aerosol can provide insight into...

  1. Design of a program in Matlab environment for gamma spectrum analysis of geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, M.; Correa, R.

    2016-05-01

    In this work we present the analysis of gamma ray spectra Ammonites found in different places. One of the fossils was found near the city of Cusco (Perú) and the other in “Cajón del Maipo” in Santiago (Chile). Spectra were taken with a hyperpure germanium detector (HPGe) in an environment cooled with liquid nitrogen, with the technique of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. A program for automatic detection and classifying of the samples was developed in Matlab. It program has the advantage of being able to make direct interventions or generalize it even more, or make it automate for specific spectra and make comparison between them. For example it can calibrate the spectrum automatically, only by giving the calibration spectrum, without the necessity of putting them. Finally, it also erases the external noise.

  2. Tropospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  3. Final Technical Report. Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar measurement of atmospheric aerosols for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard A.

    2002-08-19

    Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are required for determination of the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux. Since recent studies have demonstrated the inability to compute these profiles on surface aerosol measurements alone, vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties must be acquired to compute aerosol radiative effects throughout the entire atmospheric column. Following the recommendation of the ARM Aerosol Working Group, the investigator developed, evaluated, and implemented algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering. By virtue of its ability to measure vertical profiles of both aerosol extinction and water vapor simultaneously in the same scattering volume, we used the resulting profiles from the CART Raman Lidar to investigate the impact of water vapor and relative humidity on aerosol extinction throughout the column on a continuous and routine basis. The investigator used these the CART Raman Lidar aerosol extinction and backscattering profiles to evaluate the vertical variability of aerosol extinction and the extinction/backscatter ratio over the ARM SGP site.

  4. A FORTRAN program for the analysis of linear continuous and sample-data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN digital computer program which performs the general analysis of linearized control systems is described. State variable techniques are used to analyze continuous, discrete, and sampled data systems. Analysis options include the calculation of system eigenvalues, transfer functions, root loci, root contours, frequency responses, power spectra, and transient responses for open- and closed-loop systems. A flexible data input format allows the user to define systems in a variety of representations. Data may be entered by inputing explicit data matrices or matrices constructed in user written subroutines, by specifying transfer function block diagrams, or by using a combination of these methods.

  5. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tapes VL0007 and VL0008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Gauntner, D. J.; Humenik, F. M.; Briehl, D.

    1977-01-01

    The Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board the NASA CV-990 research aircraft and four commerical B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. In-situ measurements of atmospheric ozone and water vapor, data from laboratory analysis of filters exposed in flight, and related flight and meteorological data obtained from September 1976 through January 1977 are reported. These data are now available on GASP tapes VL0007 & VL0008 from the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina. In addition to the GASP data, tropopause pressure fields obtained from NMC archives for the dates of the GASP flights are included on the data tape. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, and data tape specifications are described.

  6. The Application of Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Program (ASAP) Techniques to NORM Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert; Smith, Karen P.; Quinn, John

    1999-10-29

    The results from the Michigan demonstration establish that this type of approach can be very effective for NORM sites. The advantages include (1) greatly reduced per sample analytical costs; (2) a reduced reliance on soil sampling and ex situ gamma spectroscopy analyses; (3) the ability to combine characterization with remediation activities in one fieldwork cycle; (4) improved documentation; and (5) ultimately better remediation, as measured by greater precision in delineating soils that are not in compliance with requirements from soils that are in compliance. In addition, the demonstration showed that the use of real-time technologies, such as the RadInSoil, can facilitate the implementation of a Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM)-based final status survey program

  7. Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, R. E.; Wu, M.-F.

    1985-01-01

    It is noted that the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) was intended to establish global baseline values of selected atmospheric constituents that could be used for studies of the dynamics of the sampled region as well as for modeling purposes. Instrument packages were carried on four Boeing 747 aircraft in routine commercial service. Carbon monoxide and ozone data were collected simultaneously from early 1977 to early 1979 when GASP terminated. CO was measured with an infrared absorption analyzer using dual isotope fluorescence. Ozone was measured via absorption of UV light. Correlations between the CO and the O3 are tabulated; they are clearly negative for both troposphere and stratosphere in middle latitudes, indicating that transport processes between the stratosphere and troposphere (discussed) dominate. But in the low latitude troposphere the correlations are positive, indicating the possible influence of photochemical effects.

  8. Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

  9. PREFACE: SPECIAL ISSUE OF AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ON FINDINGS FROM THE FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This collection of papers, which is the first coordinated publication of results from the Phase II Supersites Program, reflects the objectives of the program - to characterize particulate matter, to provide information, such as source-receptor relationships, that support health...

  10. Aerosol Behavior Log-Normal Distribution Model.

    2001-10-22

    HAARM3, an acronym for Heterogeneous Aerosol Agglomeration Revised Model 3, is the third program in the HAARM series developed to predict the time-dependent behavior of radioactive aerosols under postulated LMFBR accident conditions. HAARM3 was developed to include mechanisms of aerosol growth and removal which had not been accounted for in the earlier models. In addition, experimental measurements obtained on sodium oxide aerosols have been incorporated in the code. As in HAARM2, containment gas temperature, pressure,more » and temperature gradients normal to interior surfaces are permitted to vary with time. The effects of reduced density on sodium oxide agglomerate behavior and of nonspherical shape of particles on aerosol behavior mechanisms are taken into account, and aerosol agglomeration due to turbulent air motion is considered. Also included is a capability to calculate aerosol concentration attenuation factors and to restart problems requiring long computing times.« less

  11. In Situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997-2000): Protocols, and and Data QC and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; Barnes, Robert; McClain, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide current documentation of the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project Office activities on in situ aerosol optical thickness (i.e., protocols, and data QC and analysis). This documentation is necessary to ensure that critical information is related to the scientific community and NASA management. This critical information includes the technical difficulties and challenges of validating and combining ocean color data from an array of independent satellite systems to form consistent and accurate global bio-optical time series products. This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational project.

  12. Approach to molecular characterization of partially and completely untyped samples in an Indian rotavirus surveillance program.

    PubMed

    Babji, Sudhir; Arumugam, Rajesh; Sarvanabhavan, Anuradha; Gentsch, Jon R; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-08-11

    Surveillance networks for rotavirus document the burden of the disease using the proportion of children hospitalized with gastroenteritis positive for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay. They also describe genotypes of circulating viruses by polymerase chain reaction for the VP7 and VP4 genes, which determine G and P types, respectively. A proportion of samples cannot be genotyped based on initial testing and laboratories need to assess further testing strategies based on resources and feasibility. To 365 samples obtained from an Indian rotavirus strain surveillance program, we applied an approach to determine the G and P types in antigen positive samples that failed to type initially with the standard laboratory protocol. Fifty-eight samples (19%) were negative for the VP6 gene, indicating that the antigen test was likely to have been false positive. Alternative extraction and priming approaches resulted in the identification of G and P types for 264 strains. The identity of one strain was determined by sequencing the first-round amplicons. Thirty-five strains were partially typed and seven strains could not be typed at all. The distribution of G and P types among strains that had initially failed to type, except one strain, did not differ from that in strains that were typed using the standard laboratory protocol.

  13. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results Report for Project Rulison, Co

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–22 and 27, 2015. Several of the land owners were not available to allow access to their respective properties, which created the need for several sample collection trips. This report documents the analytical results of the Rulison monitoring event and includes the trip report and the data validation package (Appendix A). The groundwater and surface water monitoring were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high- resolution gamma spectrometry. Tritium was analyzed using two methods, the conventional tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the enriched method (for selected samples), which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  14. Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection Instrumentation Development and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich

    2008-01-01

    Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight instrumentation and for the development of advanced instrumentation technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight instrumentation including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instruments on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer instruments under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help calibrate current spaceflight instrumentation, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.

  15. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1999-01-01

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  16. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  17. Asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design study. Volume 4: Sampled data stability analysis program (SADSAP) user's guide. [space shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    A users guide to the Sampled Data Stability Analysis Program (SADSAP) is provided. This program is a general purpose sampled data Stability Analysis Program capable of providing frequency response on root locus data.

  18. Growing up MODIS: Towards a mature aerosol climate data record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Robert C.

    2013-05-01

    Aerosols are major players within the Earth's climate system, affecting the radiation budget, clouds and the hydrological cycle. In high concentrations near the surface, aerosols (or particulate matter, PM) affect visibility, impact air quality, and can contribute to poor health. Among others, Yoram Kaufman recognized the importance of aerosols to climate, and helped to design new instrumentation and algorithms to retrieve and quantify global aerosol properties. One instrument, known as the Moderate Imaging Resolution Spectro-radiometer (MODIS), was deployed on the AM-1 satellite (later known as Terra), part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). In 1998, armed with an M.S. and job experience in neither aerosols nor satellites, I was looking for a new job. I somehow found my way to the MODIS Aerosol team. It was only a year before Terra launch, and most major decisions about the MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithms had been finalized. Since then, we worked through launch, initial evaluation of the product with AERONET and field deployments, and continued efforts to understand the product and refine retrieval algorithms. I have had opportunities to participate in field experiments, write papers, and earn my PhD. The "second generation" algorithm for aerosol retrieval over land has been hugely successful. We have collected nearly a half-million collocations with AERONET and other dataseis, made new discoveries, and have contributed to research and operational projects globally. Due to the dedication of the entire team, the MODIS aerosol product now is one of the highlights of NASA's EOS program. It is used for climate research and air quality forecasting, as well for applications not even considered before the MODIS era. More recently, a focus is on stitching the MODIS aerosol product into the "climate data record" (CDR) for global aerosol, determining whether the product has sufficient length, consistency and continuity to determine climate variability and change

  19. Easy Volcanic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toohey, Matthew; Stevens, Bjorn; Schmidt, Hauke; Timmreck, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Radiative forcing by stratospheric sulfate aerosol of volcanic origin is one of the strongest drivers of natural climate variability. Transient model simulations attempting to match observed climate variability, such as the CMIP historical simulations, rely on volcanic forcing reconstructions based on observations of a small sample of recent eruptions and coarse proxy data for eruptions before the satellite era. Volcanic forcing data sets used in CMIP5 were provided either in terms of optical properties, or in terms of sulfate aerosol mass, leading to significant inter-model spread in the actual volcanic radiative forcing produced by models and in their resulting climate responses. It remains therefore unclear to what degree inter-model spread in response to volcanic forcing represents model differences or variations in the forcing. In order to isolate model differences, Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA) provides an analytic representation of volcanic stratospheric aerosol forcing, based on available observations and aerosol model results, prescribing the aerosol's radiative properties and primary modes of spatial and temporal variability. In contrast to regriddings of observational data, EVA allows for the production of physically consistent forcing for historic and hypothetical eruptions of varying magnitude, source latitude, and season. Within CMIP6, EVA will be used to reconstruct volcanic forcing over the past 2000 years for use in the Paleo-Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), and will provide forcing sets for VolMIP experiments aiming to quantify model uncertainty in the response to volcanic forcing. Here, the functional form of EVA will be introduced, along with illustrative examples including the EVA-based reconstruction of volcanic forcing over the historical period, and that of the 1815 Tambora eruption.

  20. Describing weight status and fitness in a community sample of children attending after-school programming.

    PubMed

    Huberty, J L; Rosenkranz, R R; Balluff, M A; High, R

    2010-06-01

    Although the body of research on public-health aspects of after-school programs is growing, little is known with regard to physical fitness levels of attending children. The purpose of this study was to describe the health-related fitness in a community sample (N.=826) of under-served children attending after-school programming. Health-related fitness was assessed via Fitnessgram(R) and body mass index. In this population, numerous children failed to meet national standards for the push-up (54%), curl-up (24%) and pacer (47%) tests. Many of those failing to meet national standards were unable to perform a single push-up (32%), or curl-up (12%), and over half (51%) of the children were overweight or obese. Significant differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and weight status emerged for some fitness measures. Based on these data, fitness aspects beyond weight status should be considered when designing PA programs for children, especially those in communities of underserved youth.

  1. Sample results from the integrated salt disposition program macrobatch 6 tank 21H qualifications MST solids sample

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2013-02-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 6 processing. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) test. From this test, the residual monosodium titanate (MST) was analyzed for radionuclide uptake. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  2. Results and code predictions for ABCOVE (aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation) aerosol code validation: Test AB6 with two aerosol species. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R K; McCormack, J C; Muhlestein, L D

    1984-12-01

    A program for aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The second large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB6, was performed in the 850-m/sup 3/ CSTF vessel with a two-species test aerosol. The test conditions simulated the release of a fission product aerosol, NaI, in the presence of a sodium spray fire. Five organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using seven computer codes. Three of the codes (QUICKM, MAEROS and CONTAIN) were discrete, multiple species codes, while four (HAA-3, HAA-4, HAARM-3 and SOFIA) were log-normal codes which assume uniform coagglomeration of different aerosol species. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for seven key aerosol behavior parameters.

  3. Biology of the Coarse Aerosol Mode: Insights Into Urban Aerosol Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Montero, A.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial aerosols have been understudied, despite implications for climate studies, public health, and biogeochemical cycling. Because viable bacterial aerosols are often associated with coarse aerosol particles, our limited understanding of the coarse aerosol mode further impedes our ability to develop models of viable bacterial aerosol production, transport, and fate in the outdoor environment, particularly in crowded urban centers. To address this knowledge gap, we studied aerosol particle biology and size distributions in a broad range of urban and rural settings. Our previously published findings suggest a link between microbial viability and local production of coarse aerosols from waterways, waste treatment facilities, and terrestrial systems in urban and rural environments. Both in coastal Maine and in New York Harbor, coarse aerosols and viable bacterial aerosols increased with increasing wind speeds above 4 m s-1, a dynamic that was observed over time scales ranging from minutes to hours. At a New York City superfund-designated waterway regularly contaminated with raw sewage, aeration remediation efforts resulted in significant increases of coarse aerosols and bacterial aerosols above that waterway. Our current research indicates that bacterial communities in aerosols at this superfund site have a greater similarity to bacterial communities in the contaminated waterway with wind speeds above 4 m s-1. Size-fractionated sampling of viable microbial aerosols along the urban waterfront has also revealed significant shifts in bacterial aerosols, and specifically bacteria associated with coarse aerosols, when wind direction changes from onshore to offshore. This research highlights the key connections between bacterial aerosol viability and the coarse aerosol fraction, which is important in assessments of production, transport, and fate of bacterial contamination in the urban environment.

  4. Aerosol Chemistry over a High Altitude Station at Northeastern Himalayas, India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Adak, Anandamay; Singh, Ajay K.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Tiwari, Suresh; Devara, Panuganti C. S.; Raha, Sibaji

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of the sources, distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosol in order to control the atmospheric pollution over northeastern Himalayas where rising anthropogenic interferences from rapid urbanization and development is becoming an increasing concern. Methodology/Principal Findings An extensive aerosol sampling program was conducted in Darjeeling (altitude ∼2200 meter above sea level (masl), latitude 27°01′N and longitude 88°15′E), a high altitude station in northeastern Himalayas, during January–December 2005. Samples were collected using a respirable dust sampler and a fine dust sampler simultaneously. Ion chromatograph was used to analyze the water soluble ionic species of aerosol. The average concentrations of fine and coarse mode aerosol were found to be 29.5±20.8 µg m−3 and 19.6±11.1 µg m−3 respectively. Fine mode aerosol dominated during dry seasons and coarse mode aerosol dominated during monsoon. Nitrate existed as NH4NO3 in fine mode aerosol during winter and as NaNO3 in coarse mode aerosol during monsoon. Gas phase photochemical oxidation of SO2 during premonsoon and aqueous phase oxidation during winter and postmonsoon were the major pathways for the formation of SO42− in the atmosphere. Long range transport of dust aerosol from arid regions of western India was observed during premonsoon. The acidity of fine mode aerosol was higher in dry seasons compared to monsoon whereas the coarse mode acidity was higher in monsoon compared to dry seasons. Biomass burning, vehicular emissions and dust particles were the major types of aerosol from local and continental regions whereas sea salt particles were the major types of aerosol from marine source regions. Conclusions/Significance The year-long data presented in this paper provide substantial improvements to the heretofore poor knowledge regarding aerosol chemistry over northeastern Himalayas, and should be useful to

  5. Hospital washbasin water: risk of Legionella-contaminated aerosol inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cassier, P; Landelle, C; Reyrolle, M; Nicolle, M C; Slimani, S; Etienne, J; Vanhems, P; Jarraud, S

    2013-12-01

    The contamination of aerosols by washbasin water colonized by Legionella in a hospital was evaluated. Aerosol samples were collected by two impingement technologies. Legionella was never detected by culture in all the (aerosol) samples. However, 45% (18/40) of aerosol samples were positive for Legionella spp. by polymerase chain reaction, with measurable concentrations in 10% of samples (4/40). Moreover, immunoassay detected Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and L. anisa, and potentially viable bacteria were seen on viability testing. These data suggest that colonized hospital washbasins could represent risks of exposure to Legionella aerosol inhalation, especially by immunocompromised patients.

  6. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David K.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Lopes, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The data-quality objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of chemical analyses of surface-water samples. The quality-control samples used to make these estimates include field blanks, field matrix spikes, and replicates. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples in National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey's national data base.

  7. [Aerosol therapy].

    PubMed

    Wildhaber, J H

    1998-08-15

    Aerosol therapy plays a major role in the diagnosis and treatment of various lung diseases. The aim of inhalation therapy is to deposit a reproducible and adequate dose of a specific drug to the airways, in order to achieve a high, local, clinical effect while avoiding serious systemic side effects. To achieve this goal, it is therefore important to have an efficient inhalation device to deliver different medications. However, the currently available therapeutic inhalation devices (nebuliser, pressurised metered-dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler) are not very efficient in aerosol delivery and have several disadvantages. Inhalation devices can be assessed by in vitro studies, filter studies and radiolabelled deposition studies. Several radiolabelled deposition studies have shown that nebulisers and pressurised metered-dose inhalers are not very efficient in aerosol delivery. In children, before 1997, only 0.5% to 15% of the total nebulised or actuated dose from a nebuliser or pressurised metered-dose inhaler actually reached the lungs. These numbers were somewhat improved in adults, 30% of the total nebulised or actuated dose reaching the airways. Aerosol therapy with dry powder inhalers was the most efficient before 1997, 30% of the total dose being deposited in the lungs of adults and children. In 1997, new developments in pressurised metered-dose inhalers much improved their efficiency in aerosol delivery. Lung deposition can be increased by up to 60% with use of a non-electrostatic holding chamber and/or a pressurised metered-dose inhaler with a hydrofluoroalkane propellant possessing superior aerosol characteristics. Several studies comparing the clinical efficiency of different inhalation devices have shown that the choice of an optimal inhalation device is crucial. In addition to the aerosol characteristics, ventilation parameters and airway morphology have an important bearing on deposition patterns. These parameters may be greatly influenced by the

  8. Groundwater baseline sampling programs designed to identify potential leakage from unconventional gas plays in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Humez, P.; Ing, J.; Nightingale, M.

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid expansion of natural gas exploitation from unconventional reservoirs including coalbed methane and shale gas plays, there is significant public concern about potential future contamination of shallow potable groundwater with stray gases, formation waters or chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. In order to enable a scientifically sound assessment of potential future deterioration of freshwater resources in shallow aquifers, it is essential to first establish and understand the current baseline of groundwater quality including its dissolved or free gases. Since 2006, we have conducted monitoring programs determining the chemical and isotopic compositions of water, its dissolved constituents, and of gases obtained from shallow groundwater and formation fluids collected from coalbed methane and shale gas plays in Western Canada. For groundwater samples, we placed special emphasis on determining the sources of dissolved and free gases using isotope techniques to assess whether gases produced from shale gas plays or potentially leaking from the intermediate zone are isotopically distinct from those in shallow aquifers. Methane and ethane in free gas samples obtained from shallow aquifers (n = 24) were found to have mean δ13C values of -72.4 ‰ and -50.2 ‰, respectively. These values are markedly different from the much higher δ13C values of methane and ethane in deeper portions of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and in shale gas plays. Therefore, it appears highly feasible to identify potential gas leakage from unconventional gas plays provided that baseline data for shallow groundwater have been determined. Repeat baseline sampling of free gas from selected wells revealed a comparatively low variability of δ13C values of methane and ethane of usually < 2 ‰ over periods of several years, suggesting that it is not necessary to conduct baseline analyses more than three times. Also, δ13C values of methane in free gas samples and

  9. A Study of Program Management Procedures in the Campus-Based and Basic Grant Programs. Technical Report No. 1: Sample Design, Student Survey Yield and Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; Ellis, Richard

    Part of a study of program management procedures in the campus-based and Basic Educational Opportunity Grant programs reports on the design of the site visit component of the study and the results of the student survey, both in terms of the yield obtained and the quality of the data. Chapter 2 describes the design of sampling methodology employed…

  10. Flight summaries and temperature climatology at airliner cruise altitudes from GASP (Global Atmospheric Sampling Program) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Jasperson, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature data obtained by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) during the period March 1975 to July 1979 are compiled to form flight summaries of static air temperature and a geographic temperature climatology. The flight summaries include the height and location of the coldest observed temperature and the mean flight level, temperature and the standard deviation of temperature for each flight as well as for flight segments. These summaries are ordered by route and month. The temperature climatology was computed for all statistically independent temperture data for each flight. The grid used consists of 5 deg latitude, 30 deg longitude and 2000 feet vertical resolution from FL270 to FL430 for each month of the year. The number of statistically independent observations, their mean, standard deviation and the empirical 98, 50, 16, 2 and .3 probability percentiles are presented.

  11. An analysis of the first two years of GASP data. [Global Atmospheric Sampling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Nastrom, G. D.; Falconer, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    Distributions of mean ozone levels from the first two years of data from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) show spatial and temporal variations in agreement with previous measurements. The standard deviations of these distributions reflect the large natural variability of ozone levels in the altitude range of the GASP measurements. Monthly mean levels of ozone below the tropopause show an annual cycle with a spring maximum which is believed to result from transport from the stratosphere. Correlations of ozone with independent meteorological parameters, and meteorological parameters obtained by the GASP systems show that this transport occurs primarily through cyclogenesis at mid-latitudes. The GASP water vapor data, analyzed with respect to the location of the tropopause, correlates well with the simultaneously obtained ozone and cloud data.

  12. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential in enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biom...

  13. Causes and consequences of continental breakup in the South Atlantic: lessons learned from the SAMPLE program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbull, Robert B.

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009 the SAMPLE program (www.spp-sample.de) provides a platform for research into the causes and effects of continental breakup and the evolution of passive margins. SAMPLE encompasses 28 projects from 13 German institutions and many international partnerships. The 6-year program will run through 2015. At the core of the program are observational studies that are interlinked by modelling projects examining the interplay of deep mantle dynamics, lithospheric stress fields, pre-rift fabric and melt-weaking on localizing rifting. Geophysics teams collect and integrate existing data from wide-angle seismic profiles, reprocessed multichannel seismics, as well as gravity, magnetics and heat-flow studies to construct self-consistent lithospheric-scale 3-D models along the conjugate margins. Key interests are variations in margin architecture, distribution of magmatic features and the evolution of sedimentary basins (subsidence and thermal histories). An exciting new contribution of SAMPLE geophysics is a linked set of seismic, seismologic and magnetotelluric experiments along the Walvis Ridge, including onshore NW Namibia and the Tristan da Cunha hotspot. In the deep mantle, we examine evidence from global seismic tomography for dramatic low seismic-velocity regions near the core-mantle boundary beneath southern Africa and their implications for dynamics in the deep Earth and the thermo-chemical nature of plumes. Petrologic studies focus on near-primary mantle melts represented by Mg-rich mafic dikes. Projects address the origin of magmas and crust-mantle interaction, and the environmental impact of mega-scale volcanism during breakup. Thermobarometry results from the African margin reveal a N-to-S decrease in mantle potential temperatures from 1520°C (N) to 1380° (S), which supports a thermal plume origin for excessive melt production in the north. Thermochronology data from both conjugate margins reveal complex and puzzling patterns in the denudation history

  14. Microanalysis of the aerosol collected over south-central New Mexico during the alive field experiment, May-December 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Patrick J.; Schnell, Russel C.; Kahl, Jonathan D.; Boatman, Joe F.; Garvey, Dennis M.

    Thirty-eight size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in the lower troposphere over the high desert of south-central New Mexico, using cascade impactors mounted onboard two research aircraft. Four of these samples were collected in early May, sixteen in mid-July, and the remaining ones in December 1989, during three segments of the ALIVE field initiative. Analytical electron microscope analyses of aerosol deposits and individual particles from these samples were performed to physically and chemically characterize the major particulate species present in the aerosol. Air-mass trajectories arriving at the sampling area in the May program were quite different from those calculated for the July period. In general, the May trajectories showed strong westerly winds, while the July winds were weaker and southerly, consistently passing over or very near the border cities of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Aerosol samples collected during the May period were predominantly fine (0.1-0.5 μm dia.), liquid H 2SO 4 droplets. Samples from the July experiment were comprised mostly of fine, solid (NH 4) 2SO 4 or mostly neutralized sulfate particles. In both sampling periods, numerous other particle classes were observed, including many types with probable terrestrial or anthropogenic sources. The numbers of these particles, however, were small when compared with the sulfates. Composite particle types, including sulfate/crustal and sulfate/carbonaceous, were also found to be present. The major differences in aerosol composition between the May and July samples (i.e. the extensive neutralization of sulfates in the July samples) can be explained by considering the different aerosol transport pathways and the proximity of the July aerosol to the El Paso/Juarez urban plume. Winds during the December experiment were quite variable, and may have contributed to the widely varying aerosol compositions observed in these samples. When the aircraft sampled the El Paso

  15. Mars Sample Return in the Context of the Mars Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, J. B.

    2002-05-01

    The scientific priorities developed for the scientific exploration of Mars by the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group [MEPAG, 2001] and as part of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) recent assessment of the NASA Mars Exploration Program [COMPLEX, 2001] all involve a campaign of Mars Sample Return (MSR) missions. Such MSR missions are required to address in a definitive manner most of the highest priority investigations within overarching science themes which include: (1) biological potential (past or present); (2) climate (past or present); (3) solid planet (surface and interior, past and present); (4) knowledge necessary to prepare for eventual human exploration of Mars. NASA's current Mars Exploration Program (MEP) contains specific flight mission developments and plans only for the present decade (2002-2010), including a cascade of missions designed to set the stage for an inevitable campaign of MSR missions sometime in the second decade (2011-2020). Studies are presently underway to examine implementation options for a first MSR mission in which at least 500g of martian materials (including lithic fragments) would be returned to Earth from a landing vicinity carefully selected on the basis of the comprehensive orbital and surface-based remote sensing campaign that is ongoing (MGS, ODYSSEY) and planned (MER, MRO, 2009 MSL). Key to the first of several MSR's is attention to risk, cost, and enabling technologies that facilitate access to most scientifically-compelling martian materials at very local scales. The context for MSR's in the upcoming decade remains a vital part of NASA's scientific strategy for Mars exploration.

  16. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data interpretation report for tank 241-T-107 core samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, L.M.; Valenzuela, B.D.

    1994-08-01

    Between November 1992 and March 1993, three core samples were obtained from tank 241-T-107. Analyses were performed on these core samples to support the Ferrocyanide Safety Program and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1994) Milestone M-10-00. This document summarizes and evaluates those analytical results that are pertinent to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue. This document compares the analytical results with the data requirements for ferrocyanide tanks as documented in Data Requirements of the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue Developed Through the Data Quality Objectives Process (Meacham et al. 1994) and provides an assessment of the safety condition of the tank. Analytes not listed in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document (Meacham et al. 1994) or not pertinent to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue are not discussed in this report. Complete documentation of the analytical results can be found in the data package for the tank 241-T-107 cores (Svancara and Pool 1993). A more complete evaluation of the analytical results and an estimate of the tank inventory will be provided in a forthcoming tank characterization report for tank 241-T-107.

  17. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  18. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    PubMed

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10).

  19. Incorporating precision, accuracy and alternative sampling designs into a continental monitoring program for colonial waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkamp, M.J.; Peterjohn, B.G.; Keisman, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive monitoring program for colonial waterbirds in North America has never existed. At smaller geographic scales, many states and provinces conduct surveys of colonial waterbird populations. Periodic regional surveys are conducted at varying times during the breeding season using a variety of survey methods, which complicates attempts to estimate population trends for most species. The US Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has recently started to coordinate colonial waterbird monitoring efforts throughout North America. A centralized database has been developed with an Internet-based data entry and retrieval page. The extent of existing colonial waterbird surveys has been defined, allowing gaps in coverage to be identified and basic inventories completed where desirable. To enable analyses of comparable data at regional or larger geographic scales, sampling populations through statistically sound sampling designs should supersede obtaining counts at every colony. Standardized breeding season survey techniques have been agreed upon and documented in a monitoring manual. Each survey in the manual has associated with it recommendations for bias estimation, and includes specific instructions on measuring detectability. The methods proposed in the manual are for developing reliable, comparable indices of population size to establish trend information at multiple spatial and temporal scales, but they will not result in robust estimates of total population numbers.

  20. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    PubMed

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  1. RESIN, a FORTRAN IV program for determining the area of influence of samples or drill holes in resource target search

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program that calculates the area of influence of drill holes or samples with respect to the size and shape of elliptical or circular resource targets is presented. Program options include determination of the degree to which areas within a region have been explored and estimation of probabilities that points are centers of undiscovered deposits. Errors of recognition can be utilized in the program input. ?? 1976.

  2. Analytical Results for Agricultural Soils Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District, MWRD), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream bed sediment. Soils for this study were defined as the plow zone of the dry land agricultural fields - the top twelve inches of the soil column. This report presents analytical results for the soil samples collected at the Metro District farm land near Deer Trail, Colorado, during three separate sampling events during 1999, 2000, and 2002. Soil samples taken in 1999 were to be a representation of the original baseline of the agricultural soils prior to any biosolids application. The soil samples taken in 2000 represent the soils after one application of biosolids to the middle field at each site and those taken in 2002 represent the soils after two applications. There have been no biosolids applied to any of the four control fields. The next soil sampling is scheduled for the spring of 2010. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross

  3. Development and Use of Particle into Liquid Sampling Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PILS-ToF) for Characterization of Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Christopher Holmes

    This dissertation introduces and makes use of the Particle-into-Liquid-Sampler coupled to a Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (PILS-ToF), a new instrumental method used here to provide new chemical characterization information on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The PILS-ToF instrument improves upon drawbacks found in current state-of-the-art mass spectral chemical characterization methods to include lack of time resolution and ion fragmentation by electron impact ionization in the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The functionality of the PILS-ToF for collection and response to SOA particle formation is validated against a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), a widely accepted and standardized physical chemical characterization instrument, for a well characterized SOA formation experiment, dark ozonolysis of α-pinene. The PILS-ToF is also used to lend insight into oligomer growth during the NO photo-oxidation of isoprene. It is of atmospheric importance to study SOA formation from isoprene as it is globally the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon in the ambient. SOA from isoprene is further studied using the PILS-ToF as part of the suite instrumentation at the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) atmospheric chamber providing a complete chemical and physical characterization of SOA formed by isoprene with various oxidants under a myriad of oxidant concentration conditions. In addition, the PILS-ToF is used, again in tandem with other chemical and physical characterization methods at CE-CERT, to probe temperature effects on SOA formation from isoprene under many different oxidizing conditions. Finally, the PILS-ToF is used to provide new mechanistic information on SOA formation from trimethylamine and tributylamine, two tertiary amines emitted from anthropogenic and animal husbandry processes. For these two teriary amines the PILS-ToF provides evidence of

  4. Temporal Variability of Aerosol Properties during TCAP: Impact on Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

    2013-11-01

    Ground-based remote sensing and in situ observations of aerosol microphysical and optical properties have been collected during summertime (June-August, 2012) as part of the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/), which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (http://www.arm.gov/). The overall goal of the TCAP field campaign is to study the evolution of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol transported from North America to the Atlantic and their impact on the radiation energy budget. During TCAP, the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed on Cape Cod, an arm-shaped peninsula situated on the easternmost portion of Massachusetts (along the east coast of the United States) and that is generally downwind of large metropolitan areas. The AMF site was equipped with numerous instruments for sampling aerosol, cloud and radiative properties, including a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), and a three-wavelength nephelometer. In this study we present an analysis of diurnal and day-to-day variability of the column and near-surface aerosol properties obtained from remote sensing (MFRSR data) and ground-based in situ measurements (SMPS, APS, and nephelometer data). In particular, we show that the observed diurnal variability of the MFRSR aerosol optical depth is strong and comparable with that obtained previously from the AERONET climatology in Mexico City, which has a larger aerosol loading. Moreover, we illustrate how the variability of aerosol properties impacts the direct aerosol radiative forcing at different time scales.

  5. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaveri, R. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Cahill, J. F.; Cairns, Brian; Cappa, C. D.; Ottaviani, Matteo; Cziczo, D. J.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, Mikhail Dmitrievic; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D. B.; Schmid, B.; Chand, D.; China, S.; Comstock, J. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Easter, R. C.; Erickson, M. H.; Fast, J. D.; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, E.; Baidar, S.; Hair, J.; Hostetler, C.; Obland, M. D.; Rogers, R. R.; Floerchinger, C.; Banta, R. M.; Barnard, J. C.; Beranek, J.; Berg, L. K.; Brechtel, F.; Brewer, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites - one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area - were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climaterelated properties in freshly polluted and "aged" urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: (a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, (b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, (c) an overview of key observations and initial findings from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and (d) a roadmap of planned data

  6. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shaw, William J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, Beat; Ferrare, R.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, Mikhail; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D.; Baidar, Sunil; Banta, Robert M.; Barnard, James C.; Beranek, Josef; Berg, Larry K.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, John F.; Cairns, Brian; Cappa, Christopher D.; Chand, Duli; China, Swarup; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Easter, Richard C.; Erickson, Matthew H.; Fast, Jerome D.; Floerchinger, Cody; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, Edward; Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Gilles, Mary K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, William I.; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Hair, John; Hardesty, Michael; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, Scott C.; Hiranuma, Naruki; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, Bertram T.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, Chongai; Kubatova, A.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, Alexander; Laulainen, Nels S.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Mei, F.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Nelson, Danny A.; Obland, Michael; Oetjen, Hilke; Onasch, Timothy B.; Ortega, Ivan; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, Ray; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, Art; Senff, Christoph; Senum, Gunar; Setyan, Ari; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Song, Chen; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Wallace, Hoyt A.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zhang, Qi

    2012-08-22

    Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites - one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area - were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and 'aged' urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, c) an overview of key observations and initial results from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and d) a roadmap of planned data

  7. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, R. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, B.; Ferrare, R. A.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, M.; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D. B.; Baidar, S.; Banta, R. M.; Barnard, J. C.; Beranek, J.; Berg, L. K.; Brechtel, F.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, J. F.; Cairns, B.; Cappa, C. D.; Chand, D.; China, S.; Comstock, J. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Easter, R. C.; Erickson, M. H.; Fast, J. D.; Floerchinger, C.; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, E.; Gaffney, J. S.; Gilles, M. K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, W. I.; Gyawali, M.; Hair, J.; Hardesty, R. M.; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, S.; Hiranuma, N.; Hostetler, C.; Hubbe, J. M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, B. T.; Kassianov, E. I.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, C.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, C.; Kubátová, A.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, A.; Laulainen, N.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, C.; Mei, F.; Moffet, R. C.; Nelson, D.; Obland, M. D.; Oetjen, H.; Onasch, T. B.; Ortega, I.; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, M.; Prather, K. A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, R. R.; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, A.; Senff, C. J.; Senum, G.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J. E.; Shrivastava, M.; Song, C.; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Suski, K.; Tomlinson, J.; Volkamer, R.; Wallace, H. W.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Yu, X.-Y.; Zelenyuk, A.; Zhang, Q.

    2012-08-01

    Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites - one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area - were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and "aged" urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: (a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, (b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, (c) an overview of key observations and initial findings from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and (d) a roadmap of planned data

  8. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, R. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, B.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, M.; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D. B.; Baidar, S.; Banta, R. M.; Barnard, J. C.; Beranek, J.; Berg, L. K.; Brechtel, F.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, J. F.; Cairns, B.; Cappa, C. D.; Chand, D.; China, S.; Comstock, J. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Floerchinger, C.; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, E.; Gaffney, J. S.; Gilles, M. K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, W. I.; Gyawali, M.; Hair, J.; Hardesty, R. M.; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, S.; Hiranuma, N.; Hostetler, C.; Hubbe, J. M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, B. T.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, C.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, C.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, A.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, C.; Mei, F.; Moffet, R. C.; Nelson, D.; Obland, M. D.; Oetjen, H.; Onasch, T. B.; Ortega, I.; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, M.; Prather, K. A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, R. R.; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, A.; Senff, C. J.; Senum, G.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J. E.; Shrivastava, M.; Song, C.; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Tomlinson, J.; Volkamer, R.; Wallace, H. W.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Zelenyuk, A.; Zhang, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites - one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area - were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and "aged" urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: (a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, (b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, (c) an overview of key observations and initial results from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and (d) a roadmap of planned data

  9. Pre-Cloud Aerosol, Cloud Droplet Concentration, and Cloud Condensation Nuclei from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS) Field Campaign First Quarter 2010 ASR Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, LI; Springston, SR; Daum, PH; Lee, Y-N; Sedlacek, AJ; Senum, G; Wang, J

    2011-08-31

    In this, the first of a series of Program Metric Reports, we (1) describe archived data from the DOE G-1 aircraft, (2) illustrate several relations between sub-cloud aerosol, CCN, and cloud droplets pertinent to determining the effects of pollutant sources on cloud properties, and (3) post to the data archive an Excel spreadsheet that contains cloud and corresponding sub-cloud data.

  10. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paytan, A.; Mackey, K.R.M.; Chen, Y.; Lima, I.D.; Doney, S.C.; Mahowald, N.; Labiosa, R.; Post, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol deposition is an important source of nutrients and trace metals to the open ocean that can enhance ocean productivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Using aerosol samples from different back trajectories in incubation experiments with natural communities, we demonstrate that the response of phytoplankton growth to aerosol additions depends on specific components in aerosols and differs across phytoplankton species. Aerosol additions enhanced growth by releasing nitrogen and phosphorus, but not all aerosols stimulated growth. Toxic effects were observed with some aerosols, where the toxicity affected picoeukaryotes and Synechococcus but not Prochlorococcus.We suggest that the toxicity could be due to high copper concentrations in these aerosols and support this by laboratory copper toxicity tests preformed with Synechococcus cultures. However, it is possible that other elements present in the aerosols or unknown synergistic effects between these elements could have also contributed to the toxic effect. Anthropogenic emissions are increasing atmospheric copper deposition sharply, and based on coupled atmosphere-ocean calculations, we show that this deposition can potentially alter patterns of marine primary production and community structure in high aerosol, low chlorophyll areas, particularly in the Bay of Bengal and downwind of South and East Asia.

  11. Optimized sparse-particle aerosol representations for modeling cloud-aerosol interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierce, Laura; McGraw, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Sparse representations of atmospheric aerosols are needed for efficient regional- and global-scale chemical transport models. Here we introduce a new framework for representing aerosol distributions, based on the method of moments. Given a set of moment constraints, we show how linear programming can be used to identify collections of sparse particles that approximately maximize distributional entropy. The collections of sparse particles derived from this approach reproduce CCN activity of the exact model aerosol distributions with high accuracy. Additionally, the linear programming techniques described in this study can be used to bound key aerosol properties, such as the number concentration of CCN. Unlike the commonly used sparse representations, such as modal and sectional schemes, the maximum-entropy moment-based approach is not constrained to pre-determined size bins or assumed distribution shapes. This study is a first step toward a new aerosol simulation scheme that will track multivariate aerosol distributions with sufficient computational efficiency for large-scale simulations.

  12. Passive Remote Sensing of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Remote sensing of aerosol optical and microphysical properties got a resurgence in the 1970s when John Reagan and Ben Herman initiated a program to develop and implement a surface-based sunphotometer system to monitor spectral aerosol optical thickness at the University of Arizona. In this presentation I will review the state of the technology used to monitor aerosol optical and microphysical properties, including the determination of spectral aerosol optical thickness and total ozone content. This work continued with John Reagan developed a surface-based spectral flux radiometer to implement Ben Herman's idea to determine the imaginary part of the complex refractive index of aerosols using the recently developed diffuse-direct technique. Progress made both in surface-based instrumentation, inversion theory for analyzing such data, and in satellite observations of aerosol optical and microphysical properties will be reviewed to highlight the state of knowledge after 30 years of expanded capability and introduction of novel new capabilities, both from the ground and from spacecraft.

  13. Absorption of Visible and Long-wave Radiation by Primary and Secondary Biogenic Aerosols.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2008-12-01

    Field results for the 14C content of carbonaceous aerosols are presented that indicate significant biogenic sources of both primary and secondary aerosols in urban and regional environments. Samples collected in Mexico City and downwind of the urban area during the MILAGRO field study are compared with results reported previously in the literature indicating a significant amount of biogenic aerosols from both biomass burning and secondary photochemical production (e.g. terpene oxidations) are contributing to the overall carbonaceous aerosols in the optically active region of 0.1 to 1.0 micron. Samples in this size range collected on quartz fiber filters were also examined using an integrating sphere and FTIR diffuse reflectance techniques to obtain absorption spectra from 280 to the mid-IR. These data clearly indicate that the biogenic derived primary aerosols from agricultural and trash-burning, as well as secondary organic aerosols from isoprene and terpene oxidations will produce both UV-Visible (short-wave) absorbing substances as well as IR (long-wave) absorbing compounds including humic-like-substances (HULIS). With the anticipated increases in growing seasons (i.e. earlier springs and longer summers) the likely hood of increased fires (forest and grassland) as well as the continuing growth in agricultural burning activities, these primary sources are expected to increase and may play a role in heating of the atmosphere. The compound effects of these primary and secondary biogenic sources of absorbing aerosols to the total aerosol loading and regional climate will be discussed. This work was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64328 as part of the Atmospheric Science Program.

  14. A study of the origin of atmospheric organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Hildemann, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The sources of ambient organic particulate matter in urban areas are investigated through a program of emission source measurements, atmospheric measurements, and mathematical modeling of source/receptor relationships. A dilution sampler intended to collect fine organic aerosol from combustion sources is designed to simulate atmospheric cooling and dilution processes, so that organic vapors which condense under ambient conditions will be collected as particulate matter. This system is used to measure the emissions from a boiler burning distillate oil, a home fireplace, catalyst and noncatalyst automobiles, heavy-duty diesel trucks, natural gas home appliances, and meat-cooking operations. Alternate techniques are used to sample the particulate matter emitted from cigarette smoking, a roofing tar pot, paved road dust, brake lining wear, tire wear, and vegetative detritus. The bulk chemical characteristics of the fine aerosol fraction are presented for each source. Over half of the fine aerosol mass emitted from automobiles, wood burning, meat cooking, home appliances, cigarettes, and tar pots is shown to consist of organic compounds. The organic material collected from these sources is analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography. Using a simple analytical protocol, a quantitative, 50-parameter characterization of the elutable fine organic aerosol emitted from each source type is obtained, which proves to be a unique fingerprint that can be used to distinguish most sources from each other. A mathematical model is used to predict the characteristics of fine ambient organic aerosol in the Los Angeles area that would prevail if the primary organic emissions are transported without chemical reaction. The model is found to track the seasonal variations observed in the ambient aerosol at the three sites studied.

  15. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Stanley A.; Reedy, Gerald T.; Kumar, Romesh

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  16. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Summary report, field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Ecker, R.M.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-11-01

    A three-phase field sampling program was conducted on the Buttermilk-Cattaraugus Creek system to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Phase 1 of the sampling program was conducted during November and December 1977; Phase 2 during September 1978; and Phase 3 during April 1979. Bed sediment, suspended sediment, and water samples were collected over a 45-mile reach of the creek system. Bed sediment samples were also collected at the mouth of Cattaraugus Creek in Lake Erie. A fourth sampling trip was conducted during May 1980 to obtain supplementary channel geometry data and flood plain sediment samples. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, CS-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks.

  17. Well installation and documentation, and ground-water sampling protocols for the pilot National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardy, M.A.; Leahy, P.P.; Alley, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Several pilot projects are being conducted as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The purpose of the pilot program is to test and refine concepts for a proposed full-scale program. Three of the pilot projects are specifically designed to assess groundwater. The purpose of this report is to describe the criteria that are being used in the NAWQA pilot projects for selecting and documenting wells, installing new wells, and sampling wells for different water quality constituents. Guidelines are presented for the selection of wells for sampling. Information needed to accurately document each well includes site characteristics related to the location of the well, land use near the well, and important well construction features. These guidelines ensure the consistency of the information collected and will provide comparable data for interpretive purposes. Guidelines for the installation of wells are presented and include procedures that need to be followed for preparations prior to drilling, the selection of the drilling technique and casing type, the grouting procedure, and the well-development technique. A major component of the protocols is related to water quality sampling. Tasks are identified that need to be completed prior to visiting the site for sampling. Guidelines are presented for purging the well prior t sampling, both in terms of the volume of water pumped and the chemical stability of field parameters. Guidelines are presented concerning sampler selection as related to both inorganic and organic constituents. Documentation needed to describe the measurements and observations related to sampling each well and treating and preserving the samples are also presented. Procedures are presented for the storage and shipping of water samples, equipment cleaning, and quality assurance. Quality assurance guidelines include the description of the general distribution of the various quality assurance samples (blanks, spikes, duplicates, and

  18. Aerosols and past environments: A global investigation into cave aerosol identification, distribution, and contribution to speleothem geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dredge, J. A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Harrison, R. M.; Woodhead, J. D.; Hellstrom, J.; Mattey, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new sector of interest is developing within cave science regarding the influence of aerosols on the cave environment and the potential speleothem palaeoenvironmental aerosol record which may be preserved. This paper presents the results from a global collaboration project which explored all aspects of aerosols in the cave environment. Cave aerosol identification, introduction and distribution Cave aerosol multivariable environmental monitoring projects were carried out in the UK, Spain, Austria and Australia. Results demonstrate that cave ventilation is the predominant control on the introduction and distribution of aerosols throughout the cave environment (Dredge et al., 2013). Consequently, aerosol transportation processes vary as a result of seasonal ventilation changes and cave morphological features. Cave aerosol contribution to speleothem geochemistry Aerosol contributions to speleothem geochemistry were determined by comparing monitored aerosol deposition to speleothem trace element data. Significant aerosol contribution scenarios were identified as: hiatus events, high aerosol flux situations and secondary microbial concentration processes. Modelling indicates that a >99.9% reduction in drip water flow rates is required to reduce trace element supply quantities to equal that of aerosol supply (Dredge et al., 2013). Aerosol palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental records Aerosol contributions and the ability to utilise aerosol records in speleothem are investigated in samples from Gibraltar and Australia. Long range dust sources and past atmospheric circulation over several glacial cycles is studied through Sr isotope analysis of a Flowstone core from Gibraltar. Results of organic fire proxy analysis from Australian speleothem samples indicate an aerosol deposition forest fire record. In addition to primary fire deposition, secondary biological feedbacks and subsequent bioaccumulation processes in the cave environment are explored by microbial analysis

  19. Assessment of microphysical and chemical factors of aerosols over seas of the Russian Artic Eastern Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golobokova, Liudmila; Polkin, Victor

    2014-05-01

    aerosols while the natural ones are of lower severity due to low temperatures endemic for the Arctic Ocean areas. For doing the assessment of the air mass components chemical formulation samples of water soluble fraction of the atmospheric aerosol underwent chemical analysis. Sum of main ions within the aerosol composition varied from 0.23 to 16.2 mkg/m3. Minimum ion concentrations are defined in the aerosol sampled over the Chukotka sea surface at still. Chemical composition of the Beringov and Chukotka sea aerosol was dominated by impurities of sea origin coming from the ocean with air mass. Ion sum increased concentrations were observed in the Pevek area (Eastern Siberia Sea). Aerosol chemical composition building was impacted by air mass coming from the shore. Maximum concentrations of the bespoken components are seen in the aerosol sampled during stormy weather. Increase of wind made it for raising into the air of the sea origin particles. Ingestion of sprays onto the filter was eliminated by covering the sample catcher with a special protective hood. This completed survey is indicative of favourable state of atmosphere in the arctic resource of the Russian Arctic Eastern Section during Summer-Autumn season of 2013. The job is done under financial support of project. 23 Programs of fundamental research of the RAS Presidium, Partnership Integration Project, SB RAS. 25.

  20. Holistic aerosol evaluation using synthesized aerosol aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson-Parris, Duncan; Reddington, Carly; Schutgens, Nick; Stier, Philip; Carslaw, Ken; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James; Coe, Hugh

    2016-04-01

    Despite ongoing efforts there are still large uncertainties in aerosol concentrations and loadings across many commonly used GCMs. This in turn leads to large uncertainties in the contributions of the direct and indirect aerosol forcing on climate. However, constraining these fields using earth observation data, although providing global coverage, is problematic for many reasons, including the large uncertainties in retrieving aerosol loadings. Additionally, the inability to retrieve aerosols in or around cloudy scenes leads to further sampling biases (Gryspeerdt 2015). Many in-situ studies have used regional datasets to attempt to evaluate the model uncertainties, but these are unable to provide an assessment of the models ability to represent aerosols properties on a global scale. Within the Global Aerosol Synthesis and Science Project (GASSP) we have assembled the largest collection of quality controlled, in-situ aircraft observations ever synthesized to a consistent format. This provides a global set of in-situ measurements of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and Black Carbon (BC), amongst others. In particular, the large number of vertical profiles provided by this aircraft data allows us to investigate the vertical structure of aerosols across a wide range of regions and environments. These vertical distributions are particularly valuable when investigating the dominant processes above or below clouds where remote sensing data is not available. Here we present initial process-based assessments of the BC lifetimes and vertical distributions of CCN in the HadGEM-UKCA and ECHAM-HAM models using this data. We use point-by-point based comparisons to avoid the sampling issues associated with comparing spatio-temporal aggregations.

  1. Subarctic atmospheric aerosol composition: 1. Ambient aerosol characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Beth; Herich, Hanna; Kammermann, Lukas; Gross, Deborah S.; Ameth, Almut; Holst, Thomas; Lohmann, U.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2009-07-10

    Sub-Arctic aerosol was sampled during July 2007 at the Abisko Research Station Stordalen field site operated by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Located in northern Sweden at 68º latitude and 385 meters above sea level (msl), this site is classified as a semi-continuous permafrost mire. Number density, size distribution, cloud condensation nucleus properties, and chemical composition of the ambient aerosol were determined. Backtrajectories showed that three distinct airmasses were present over Stordalen during the sampling period. Aerosol properties changed and correlated with airmass origin to the south, northeast, or west. We observe that Arctic aerosol is not compositionally unlike that found in the free troposphere at mid-latitudes. Internal mixtures of sulfates and organics, many on insoluble biomass burning and/or elemental carbon cores, dominate the number density of particles from ~200 to 2000 nm aerodynamic diameter. Mineral dust which had taken up gas phase species was observed in all airmasses. Sea salt, and the extent to which it had lost volatile components, was the aerosol type that most varied with airmass.

  2. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  3. The Oleander Program - 9 years of Gulf Stream Sampling and Still Going Strong!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossby, T.

    2001-12-01

    Starting in Fall 1992 we have been monitoring the currents between the mid-Atlantic Bight and the NW Sargasso Sea with an acoustic Doppler current profiler on the freighter CMV Oleander, which makes weekly roundtrips between Port Elizabeth, NJ and Bermuda. In addition, XBTs and surface salts have been taken on a monthly basis since 1979. These systematic observations of the upper ocean are giving us new insights into the structure of the Gulf Stream and adjacent waters. In this overview we will highlight some of the major findings of this ongoing program. One of the more striking observations is perhaps the structural stability of the Gulf Stream itself. Its shape can be characterized as a double-exponential which results from the mixing or homogenization of waters between the current and either side, but not across it. We show that 80 percent of the Eulerian eddy kinetic energy that is observed in the Gulf Stream can be described in terms of the meandering of a rigid double-exponential current. The remaining variability can be accounted for in terms of a few structural modes that are most likely associated with the meandering of the current. We have found that the transport of the current has been conspicuously stable, and will argue that past thoughts about large variations in transport may result from an inability to distinguish between the current itself and adjacent local recirculations of varying intensity. The distinction is made clear thanks to the repeat sampling. However, the Gulf Stream does exhibit significant variations in mean path on interannual time scales. These show a strong correlation with temperature-salinity anomalies in the Slope Sea. We suggest that both result from time-varying transports from the Labrador shelf, but there is presently considerable discussion as to whether the path shifting should be viewed as a thermohaline or a winddriven process. More generally, we use the above examples to argue that with more deliberate planning, the

  4. Infrared Absorption by Atmospheric Aerosols in Mexico City during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    Past research in our group using cylindrical internal reflectance spectroscopy has indicated that aqueous aerosols could contribute to the radiative warming as greenhouse species (1,2). Although aerosol radiative effects have been known for sometime and are considered one of the major uncertainties in climate change modeling, most of the studies have focused on the forcing due to scattering and absorption of radiation in the uv- visible region (3). Infrared spectral information also allows the confirmation of key functional groups that are responsible for enhanced absorption observations from secondary organics in the uv-visible region. This work extends our efforts to evaluate the infrared absorption by aerosols, particularly organics, that are now found to be a major fraction of urban and regional aerosols in the 0.1 to 1.0 micron size range and to help identify key types of organics that can contribute to aerosol absorption. During the MILAGRO campaign, quartz filter samples were taken at 12-hour intervals from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. These samples were taken at the two super-sites, T-0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) and T-1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico). The samples have been characterized for total carbon content (stable isotope mass spectroscopy) and natural radionuclide tracers, as well as for their UV-visible spectroscopic properties by using integrating sphere diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). These same samples have been characterized in the mid and near infrared spectral ranges using diffuse reflection spectroscopy (Nicolet 6700 FTIR with a Smart Collector accessory). Aerosol samples were removed from the surfaces of the aerosol filters by using Si-Carb sampler. The samples clearly indicate the presence of carbonyl organic constituents and the spectra are quite similar to those observed for humic and fulvic acids

  5. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkinmore » formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.« less

  6. Characterization of Cooking-Related Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    The temperatures at which food is cooked are usually high enough to drive oils and other organic compounds out of materials which are being prepared for consumption. As these compounds move away from the hot cooking surface and into the atmosphere, they can participate in chemical reactions or condense to form particles. Given the high concentration of cooking in urban areas, cooking-related aerosols likely contribute to the overall amount of particulate matter on a local scale. Reported here are results for the mid-infrared optical characterization of aerosols formed during the cooking of several meat and vegetable samples in an inert atmosphere. The samples were heated in a novel aerosol generator that is designed to collect particles formed immediately above the cooking surface and inject them into a laminar aerosol flow cell. Preliminary results for the chemical processing of cooking-related aerosols in synthetic air will also be presented.

  7. Development of a dual-internal-reference technique to improve accuracy when determining bacterial 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio with application to Escherichia coli liquid and aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Huajun; Krumins, Valdis; Fennell, Donna E; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate enumeration of rRNA content in microbial cells, e.g. by using the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio, is critical to properly understand its relationship to microbial activities. However, few studies have considered possible methodological artifacts that may contribute to the variability of rRNA analysis results. In this study, a technique utilizing genomic DNA and 16S rRNA from an exogenous species (Pseudomonas fluorescens) as dual internal references was developed to improve accuracy when determining the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of a target organism, Escherichia coli. This technique was able to adequately control the variability in sample processing and analysis procedures due to nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) losses, inefficient reverse transcription of RNA, and inefficient PCR amplification. The measured 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased by 2-3 fold when E. coli 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA quantities were normalized to the sample-specific fractional recoveries of reference (P. fluorescens) 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA, respectively. In addition, the intra-sample variation of this ratio, represented by coefficients of variation from replicate samples, decreased significantly after normalization. This technique was applied to investigate the temporal variation of 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli during its non-steady-state growth in a complex liquid medium, and to E. coli aerosols when exposed to particle-free air after their collection on a filter. The 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased significantly during its early exponential phase of growth; when E. coli aerosols were exposed to extended filtration stress after sample collection, the ratio also increased. In contrast, no significant temporal trend in E. coli 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio was observed when the determined ratios were not normalized based on the recoveries of dual references. The developed technique could be widely applied in studies of relationship between

  8. Development of a dual-internal-reference technique to improve accuracy when determining bacterial 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio with application to Escherichia coli liquid and aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Huajun; Krumins, Valdis; Fennell, Donna E; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate enumeration of rRNA content in microbial cells, e.g. by using the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio, is critical to properly understand its relationship to microbial activities. However, few studies have considered possible methodological artifacts that may contribute to the variability of rRNA analysis results. In this study, a technique utilizing genomic DNA and 16S rRNA from an exogenous species (Pseudomonas fluorescens) as dual internal references was developed to improve accuracy when determining the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of a target organism, Escherichia coli. This technique was able to adequately control the variability in sample processing and analysis procedures due to nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) losses, inefficient reverse transcription of RNA, and inefficient PCR amplification. The measured 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased by 2-3 fold when E. coli 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA quantities were normalized to the sample-specific fractional recoveries of reference (P. fluorescens) 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA, respectively. In addition, the intra-sample variation of this ratio, represented by coefficients of variation from replicate samples, decreased significantly after normalization. This technique was applied to investigate the temporal variation of 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli during its non-steady-state growth in a complex liquid medium, and to E. coli aerosols when exposed to particle-free air after their collection on a filter. The 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased significantly during its early exponential phase of growth; when E. coli aerosols were exposed to extended filtration stress after sample collection, the ratio also increased. In contrast, no significant temporal trend in E. coli 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio was observed when the determined ratios were not normalized based on the recoveries of dual references. The developed technique could be widely applied in studies of relationship between

  9. Analytical techniques for ambient sulfate aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.A.; Graczyk, D.G.; Kumar, R.; Cunningham, P.T.

    1981-06-01

    Work done to further develop the infrared spectroscopic analytical method for the analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles, as well as some exploratory work on a new procedure for determining proton acidity in aerosol samples is described. Earlier work had led to the successful use of infrared (ir) spectrophotometry for the analysis of nitrate, ammonium, and neutral and acidic sulfates in aerosol samples collected by an impactor on a Mylar-film substrate. In this work, a filter-extraction method was developed to prepare filter-collected aerosol samples for ir analysis. A study was made comparing the ir analytical results on filter-collected samples with impactor-collected samples. Also, the infrared analytical technique was compared in field studies with light-scattering techniques for aerosol analysis. A highly sensitive instrument for aerosol analysis using attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy was designed, built, and tested. This instrument provides a measurement sensitivity much greater (by a factor of 6 for SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) than that obtainable using the KBr-pellet method. This instrument collect size- and time-resolved samples and is potentially capable of providing automated, near real-time aerosol analysis. Exploratory work on a novel approach to the determination of proton acidity in filter- or impactor-collected aerosol samples is also described. In this technique, the acidic sample is reacted with an access of a tagged, vapor-phase base. The unreacted base is flushed off and the amount of the tag retained by the sample is a direct measure of the proton acidity of the sample. The base was tagged with Ge, which can be conveniently determined by the x-ray fluorescence technique.

  10. Measurements of Natural Radioactivity in Submicron Aerosols in Mexico City.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Sterling, K.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2003-12-01

    Natural radionuclides can be useful in evaluating the transport of ozone and aerosols in the troposphere. Beryllium-7, which is produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and becomes adsorbed on fine aerosols, can be a useful indicator of upper air transport into a region. Lead-210 is produced by the decay of radon-222 out-gassed into the lower atmosphere from ground-based uranium deposits. Potassium-40, found in soils, can act as a measure of wind-blown dust and also comes from burning of wood and other biomass that is enriched in this natural radioisotope. Thus, both lead-210 and potassium-40 can aid in identification of aerosols sourced in the lower atmosphere. As part of our continuing interest in the lifetimes and sources of aerosols and their radiative effects, we report here measurements of fine aerosol radioactivity in Mexico City, one of the largest megacities in the world. Samples were collected on quartz fiber filters by using cascade impactors (Sierra type, Anderson Instruments) and high-volume air samplers from the rooftop of the main laboratory of El Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental (CENICA). By using stage 4 of the impactor and timers, we were able to collect integrated samples of sizes > 1 micrometer and < 1 micrometer over 12-hr time periods daily for approximately one month in April 2003. Samples were counted at the University of Illinois at Chicago by using state-of-the-art gamma counting (beryllium-7, 477.6 keV; potassium-40, 1460.8 keV; lead-210, 46.5 keV). The beryllium-7 data indicate one possible upper-air transport event during April 2003. As expected, the lead-210 data indicate very little soil contribution to the fine aerosol. The potassium-40 data showed an increase in fine aerosol potassium during Holy Week that might be attributed to local combustion of biomass fuels. The data will be presented and discussed in light of future data analysis and comparison with other

  11. A Large Sample Evaluation of a Court-Mandated Batterer Intervention Program: Investigating Differential Program Effect for African American and Caucasian Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttell, Frederick P.; Carney, Michelle Mohr

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to (a) evaluate a 26-week batterer intervention program by investigating changes in psychological variables related to abuse (i.e., truthfulness, violence, lethality, control, alcohol use, drug use, and stress coping abilities) between pretreatment and posttreatment assessments in a large sample of…

  12. Cloud Droplet Size and Liquid Water Path Retrievals From Zenith Radiance Measurements: Examples From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Varnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Knyazikhin, Y.; O'Connor, E. J.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a nonwater-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g/sq m and horizontal resolution of 201m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 m, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 m and a relative deviation of 13 %. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 gm.2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 m than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 m and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 m. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  13. Aerosols of Mongolian arid area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golobokova, L.; Marinayte, I.; Zhamsueva, G.

    2012-04-01

    Sampling was performed in July-August 2005-2010 at Station Sain Shand (44°54'N, 110°07'E) in the Gobi desert (1000 m a.s.l.), West Mongolia. Aerosol samples were collected with a high volume sampler PM 10 (Andersen Instruments Inc., USA) onto Whatman-41 filters. The substance was extracted from the filters by de-ionized water. The solution was screened through an acetate-cellulose filter with 0.2 micron pore size. Ions of ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, as well as sulphate ions, nitrate ions, hydrocarbonate, chloride ions were determined in the filtrate by means of an atomic adsorption spectrometer Carl Zeiss Jena (Germany), a high performance liquid chromatographer «Milichrome A-02» (Russia), and an ionic chromatographer ICS-3000 (Dionex, USA). The PAH fraction was separated from aerosol samples using hexane extraction at room temperature under UV environment. The extract was concentrated to 0.1-0.2 ml and analysed by a mass-spectrometer "Agilent, GC 6890, MSD 5973 Network". Analysis of concentrations of aerosols components, their correlation ratios, and meteorological modeling show that the main factor affecting chemical composition of aerosols is a flow of contaminants transferred by air masses to the sampling area mainly from the south and south-east, as well as wind conditions of the area, dust storms in particular. Sulphate, nitrate, and ammonium are major ions in aerosol particles at Station Sain Shand. Dust-borne aerosol is known to be a sorbent for both mineral and organic admixtures. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) being among superecotoxicants play an important role among resistant organic substances. PAH concentrations were determined in the samples collected in 2010. All aerosol samples contained dominant PAHs with 5-6 benzene rings ( (benze(k)fluoranthen, benze(b)flouranthen, benze(a)pyren, benze(?)pyren, perylene, benze(g,h,i)perylene, and indene(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene). Their total quantity varied between 42 and 90

  14. Chesapeake Bay coordinated split sample program annual report, 1990-1991: Analytical methods and quality assurance workgroup of the Chesapeake Bay program monitoring subcommittee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is a federal-state partnership with a goal of restoring the Chesapeake Bay. Its ambient water quality monitoring programs, started in 1984, sample over 150 monitoring stations once or twice a month a month. Due to the size of the Bay watershed (64,000 square miles) and the cooperative nature of the CBP, these monitoring programs involve 10 different analytical laboratories. The Chesapeake Bay Coordinated Split Sample Program (CSSP), initialed in 1988, assesses the comparability of the water quality results from these laboratories. The report summarizes CSSP results for 1990 and 1991, its second and third full years of operation. The CSSP has two main objectives: identifying parameters with low inter-organization agreement, and estimating measurement system variability. The identification of parmeters with low agreement is used as part of the overall Quality Assurance program. Laboratory and program personnel use the information to investigate possible causes of the differences, and take action to increase agreement if possible. Later CSSP results will document any improvements in inter-organization agreement. The variability estimates are most useful to data analysts and modelers who need confidence estimates for monitoring data.

  15. Helping the Dislocated Worker: Sample Programs. Research and Development Series No. 243B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, William L.; Zahniser, Gale L.

    This report, one in a series of three publications for vocational program developers and others to use in planning and developing a community-based response to worker dislocation, deals with programs for dislocated workers that have been developed and supported by private sector and local community efforts and resources. Reviewed in the first…

  16. Applying Matched Sampling to Evaluate a University Tutoring Program for First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walvoord, Mark E.; Pleitz, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Our study used a case-control matching design to assess the influence of a voluntary tutoring program in improving first-year students' Grade Point Averages (GPA). To evaluate program effectiveness, we applied case-control matching to obtain 215 pairs of students with or without participation in tutoring, but matched on high school GPA and…

  17. Teacher Work Sample Methodology: Displaying Accountability of U.S. Teacher Education Program Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooner, Donna; Stevenson, Cerissa; Frederiksen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Productive strategies for evaluating outcomes in teacher licensure programs are becoming increasingly important in the education field. Research data from 492 teacher licensure program completers from 2006-2009 in the School of Education, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (USA) was compiled after accreditation by the Colorado…

  18. Educating Homeless Children and Youth: A Sample of Programs, Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Kathleen P.

    This report reviews a variety of approaches for working with homeless students. Information was gathered from state Coordinators of Education for Homeless Children and Youth, regional coordinators of homeless programs, and national and local organizations. The programs described are organized into five categories. The first concerns educating…

  19. Hourglass Sampling of Participants in the Human Reliability Program (HRP) for Drug and Alcohol (D&A) Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan R. Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Hourglass Sampling of Participants in the Human Reliability Program (HRP) for Alcohol and Drug Testing Ivan R. Thomas Idaho National Laboratory The random sampling with replacement of Human Reliability Program (HRP) participants for alcohol and drug testing can have the disadvantage that some participants are selected multiple times while others might not be chosen during an annual testing period. To alleviate this inefficiency, an “hourglass” sampling scheme has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the random selection of HRP participants. With this scheme, all HRP participants are placed in a primary population at the beginning of the calendar year, and throughout the year, sequential random samples (generally of a fixed sample size) are drawn without replacement until the population is emptied. Thus, each participant is guaranteed to be tested at least once annually; but due to the random selection, the time of the initial test is unknown. After initial testing, the participants drawn from the primary population are transferred to a secondary population for potential retesting. Each time that the primary population is sampled, the secondary population is likewise sampled, but the sampling is with replacement. Thus, while the primary population decreases at a constant rate, the secondary population increases at the same rate through the accrual and retention of previously-tested participants, hence the hourglass concept. The replacement sampling of participants from the secondary population is through an increasing sample size (a fixed percentage of those currently in the population). Thus, once in the secondary population, each participant has a constant probability of being reselected, but the number of annual reselections is less than would be realized through traditional replacement sampling from a single population. Furthermore, the objective of maintaining suspense on the part of the HRP participant is retained, that is, all participants

  20. Characterization of aerosols containing microcystin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Zhou, Yue; Irvin, C Mitch; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C

    2007-01-01

    Toxic blooms of cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in both freshwater and brackish water sources throughout the world. One class of cyanobacterial toxins, called microcystins, is cyclic peptides. In addition to ingestion and dermal, inhalation is a likely route of human exposure. A significant increase in reporting of minor symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms was associated with exposure to higher levels of cyanobacteria during recreational activities. Algae cells, bacteria, and waterborne toxins can be aerosolized by a bubble-bursting process with a wind-driven white-capped wave mechanism. The purposes of this study were to: evaluate sampling and analysis techniques for microcystin aerosol, produce aerosol droplets containing microcystin in the laboratory, and deploy the sampling instruments in field studies. A high-volume impactor and an IOM filter sampler were tried first in the laboratory to collect droplets containing microcystins. Samples were extracted and analyzed for microcystin using an ELISA method. The laboratory study showed that cyanotoxins in water could be transferred to air via a bubble-bursting process. The droplets containing microcystins showed a bimodal size distribution with the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 1.4 and 27.8 mum. The sampling and analysis methods were successfully used in a pilot field study to measure microcystin aerosol in situ. PMID:18463733

  1. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution are provided. The apparatus includes a modified particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and a collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical methods. The method provided for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles includes exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  2. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.; Orsini, Douglas

    2006-04-18

    An apparatus for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution is provided. The apparatus includes an enhanced particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and an enhanced collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical means. Methods for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles are also provided, the method including exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; and flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  3. Temporal and spatial variations of the Vienna aerosol.

    PubMed

    Horvath, H; Habenreich, T A; Kreiner, I; Norek, C

    1989-07-01

    For several intensive sampling periods the mass concentration, light extinction, light scattering and light absorption coefficients, and the mass size distribution of the aerosol have been determined at up to eleven location in the non-industrial town of Vienna. Obviously, large variations of the measured values have been found. The following factors influenced the aerosol markedly: wind speed, wind direction, increased aerosol production such as by space heating or traffic and resuspension. Most of the variations in aerosol were found to be caused by these factors. A comparison of the mass concentration and light absorption of the aerosol upwind and downwind of Vienna permitted the estimation of locally produced aerosols: about 50% of the mass of the aerosol and 75% of the light-absorbing aerosol appears to be produced locally.

  4. Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, D.; Pehrsson, P.R.; Haytowitz, D.B.; Holden, J.M.; Phillips, K.M.; Rasor, A.S.; Conley, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze frequently consumed foods in the U.S. food supply using statistically rigorous sampling plans, established sample handling procedures, and qualified analytical laboratories. Methods for careful handling of food samples from acquisition to analysis were developed to ensure the integrity of the samples and subsequent generation of accurate nutrient values. The infrastructure of NFNAP, under which over 1500 foods have been sampled, mandates tested sample handling protocols for a wide variety of foods. The majority of these foods were categorized into several major areas: 1) frozen foods; 2) fresh produce and/or highly perishable foods requiring refrigeration; 3) fast foods and prepared foods; 4) shelf-stable foods; 5) specialized study and non-retail (point of production) foods; and 6) foods from remote areas (e.g. American Indian reservations). This paper describes the sample handling approaches, from the collection and receipt of the food items to the preparation of the analytical samples, with emphasis on the strategies developed for those foods. It provides a foundation for developing sample handling protocols of foods to be analyzed under NFNAP and for other researchers working on similar projects. PMID:21516233

  5. 78 FR 53017 - Changes to the Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Analysis of Raw Beef for Shiga Toxin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... on July 25, 1996 (61 FR 38805-38989; http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/93-016F.pdf ). Among... sampling was expensive for the Agency. As stated in the PR/HACCP rule (at 61 FR 38835), FSIS selected... classification system announced on February 27, 2006 (71 FR 9772). FSIS inspection program personnel...

  6. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  7. Aerosol volatility in a boreal forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häkkinen, S. A. K.; ńijälä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Riipinen, I.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and health effects of atmospheric aerosols are determined by their properties such as their chemical composition. Aerosol chemical composition can be studied indirectly by measuring volatility of aerosol particles. The volatility of submicron aerosol particles (20-500 nm) was studied in a boreal forest site at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II) station (Vesala et al., 1998) in Hyytiälä, Finland, during 01/2008-05/2010. The instrument used for the measurements was VDMPS (Volatility Differential Mobility Particle Sizer), which consists of two separate instruments: DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, Aalto et al., 2001) and TD (Thermodenuder, Wehner et al., 2002). Aerosol evaporation was examined by heating the aerosol and comparing the total aerosol mass before and after heating. In the VDMPS system ambient aerosol sample was heated up to temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 280 °C. The higher the heating temperature was the more aerosol material was evaporated. There was a non-volatile residual present in aerosol particles when heated up to 280 °C. This residual explained (20±8)% of the total aerosol mass. Aerosol non-volatile mass fraction was highest during winter and smallest during summer months. The role of black carbon in the observed non-volatile residual was determined. Black carbon explained 40 to 90% of the non-volatile mass. Especially during colder seasons noticeable amount of non-volatile material, something else than black carbon, was observed. According to Kalberer et al. (2004) some atmospheric organic species can form polymers that have high evaporation temperatures. Also low-volatile organic salts may contribute to the non-volatile aerosol (Smith et al., 2010). Aerosol mass composition measured directly with AMS (Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Jayne et al., 2000) was analyzed in order to examine the properties of the non-volatile material (other than black carbon). The AMS measurements were performed

  8. Code System to Calculate Particle Penetration Through Aerosol Transport Lines.

    1999-07-14

    Version 00 Distribution is restricted to US Government Agencies and Their Contractors Only. DEPOSITION1.03 is an interactive software program which was developed for the design and analysis of aerosol transport lines. Models are presented for calculating aerosol particle penetration through straight tubes of arbitrary orientation, inlets, and elbows. An expression to calculate effective depositional velocities of particles on tube walls is derived. The concept of maximum penetration is introduced, which is the maximum possible penetrationmore » through a sampling line connecting any two points in a three-dimensional space. A procedure to predict optimum tube diameter for an existing transport line is developed. Note that there is a discrepancy in this package which includes the DEPOSITION 1.03 executable and the DEPOSITION 2.0 report. RSICC was unable to obtain other executables or reports.« less

  9. Comparative study of pre-treatment procedures for (3)H monitoring in water samples from environmental protection programs.

    PubMed

    Tarancón, A; Bagán, H; Rauret, G; García, J F

    2010-04-15

    The determination of tritium activity in water samples is included in most environmental protection programs, and the recommended procedure consists of sample distillation and further measurement by liquid scintillation. Distillation is a simple but time consuming pre-treatment, especially in routine analysis. Here we evaluate alternative pre-treatments for tritium activity determination, such as filtration or the use of multiple selective ion exchange columns. 52 samples from different water sources (rain, surface, underground, sea and drinking water) in Spanish environmental protection programs, together with an IAEA reference material were analyzed. Results show that both pre-treatments can be applied as a preliminary tool to discriminate between tritium active and non active waters in environmental monitoring programs. In addition, filtration and multiple selective ion exchange column pre-treatments can be used as alternative procedures for tritium activity determination in the routine analyses of water samples with known and reproducible chemical and isotopic composition. Both methods are less time consuming than distillation and, in the case of filtration, extremely cheap. For waters with complex matrices, especially sea water, distillation is the recommended procedure due to the interference from salts contained in the sample. PMID:20167352

  10. Comparative study of pre-treatment procedures for (3)H monitoring in water samples from environmental protection programs.

    PubMed

    Tarancón, A; Bagán, H; Rauret, G; García, J F

    2010-04-15

    The determination of tritium activity in water samples is included in most environmental protection programs, and the recommended procedure consists of sample distillation and further measurement by liquid scintillation. Distillation is a simple but time consuming pre-treatment, especially in routine analysis. Here we evaluate alternative pre-treatments for tritium activity determination, such as filtration or the use of multiple selective ion exchange columns. 52 samples from different water sources (rain, surface, underground, sea and drinking water) in Spanish environmental protection programs, together with an IAEA reference material were analyzed. Results show that both pre-treatments can be applied as a preliminary tool to discriminate between tritium active and non active waters in environmental monitoring programs. In addition, filtration and multiple selective ion exchange column pre-treatments can be used as alternative procedures for tritium activity determination in the routine analyses of water samples with known and reproducible chemical and isotopic composition. Both methods are less time consuming than distillation and, in the case of filtration, extremely cheap. For waters with complex matrices, especially sea water, distillation is the recommended procedure due to the interference from salts contained in the sample.

  11. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Phase 3. Field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.; Walters, W.H.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-08-01

    A field sampling program was conducted on Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York during April 1979 to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Bed sediment, suspended sediment and water samples were collected during unsteady flow conditions over a 45 mile reach of stream channel. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, Cs-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks. This field sampling effort was the last of a three phase program to collect hydrologic and radiologic data at different flow conditions.

  12. Aerosol gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  13. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1990-10-01

    Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste drums were sampled for gas composition. Glass, metal, graphite, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values were calculated for the waste drums. G(H{sub 2}) was below 0.6 and G(Total) was below 1.3 for all waste forms discussed in this report. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for Standard Reference Samples Distributed in March 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Jerry W.; Copen, Ashley M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-161 (trace constituents), M-154 (major constituents), N-65 (nutrient constituents), N-66 nutrient constituents), P-34 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-30 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2000 to 144 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 132 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  15. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in October 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, B.F.; Currier, J.P.; Woodworth, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-163 (trace constituents), M-156 (major constituents), N-67 (nutrient constituents), N-68 (nutrient constituents), P-35 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-31 (mercury) -- that were distributed in October 2000 to 126 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 122 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  16. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in April 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, M.T.; Connor, B.F.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-165 (trace constituents), M-158 (major constituents), N-69 (nutrient constituents), N-70 (nutrient constituents), P-36 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-32 (mercury) -- that were distributed in April 2001 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 73 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  17. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for standard reference samples distributed in March 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Jerry W.; Chleboun, Kimberly M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for 8 standard reference samples -- T-157 (trace constituents), M-150 (major constituents), N-61 (nutrient constituents), N-62 (nutrient constituents), P-32 (low ionic strength constituents), GWT-5 (ground-water trace constituents), GWM- 4 (ground-water major constituents),and Hg-28 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 1999 to 120 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 111 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the seven reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the 8 standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  18. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in September 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-171 (trace constituents), M-164 (major constituents), N-75 (nutrient constituents), N-76 (nutrient constituents), P-39 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-35 (mercury) -- that were distributed in September 2002 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 102 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  19. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in March 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-173 (trace constituents), M-166 (major constituents), N-77 (nutrient constituents), N-78 (nutrient constituents), P-40 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-36 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2003 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 110 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  20. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-167 (trace constituents), M-160 (major constituents), N-71 (nutrient constituents), N-72 (nutrient constituents), P-37 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-33 (mercury) -- that were distributed in September 2001 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 98 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  1. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in October 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-159 (trace constituents), M-152 (major constituents), N-63 (nutrient constituents), N-64 (nutrient constituents), P-33 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-29 (mercury) -- that were distributed in October 1999 to 149 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 131 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  2. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for Standard Reference Samples Distributed in March 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, M.T.; Conner, B.F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T- 169 (trace constituents), M- 162 (major constituents), N-73 (nutrient constituents), N-74 (nutrient constituents), P-38 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-34 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2002 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored intedaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 93 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  3. Master schedule for CY-1983 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring programs at the Hanford Site is presented. The purpose of the programs is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. Radiological monitoring data are reported for air (particulate filter and gases/vapor), Columbia River water, sanitary water, onsite pond water, foodstuffs (whole milk, leafy vegetables, fruit, wheat/alfalfa, beef, poultry/eggs), wildlife, soil and vegetation, and direct radiation. Information is also given for on site radiation control audit surveys (roadway, railway, aerial, and waste disposal sites, and the Hanford ground-water monitoring program.

  4. Field guide for collecting and processing stream-water samples for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program includes extensive data- collection efforts to assess the quality of the Nations's streams. These studies require analyses of stream samples for major ions, nutrients, sediments, and organic contaminants. For the information to be comparable among studies in different parts of the Nation, consistent procedures specifically designed to produce uncontaminated samples for trace analysis in the laboratory are critical. This field guide describes the standard procedures for collecting and processing samples for major ions, nutrients, organic contaminants, sediment, and field analyses of conductivity, pH, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen. Samples are collected and processed using modified and newly designed equipment made of Teflon to avoid contamination, including nonmetallic samplers (D-77 and DH-81) and a Teflon sample splitter. Field solid-phase extraction procedures developed to process samples for organic constituent analyses produce an extracted sample with stabilized compounds for more accurate results. Improvements to standard operational procedures include the use of processing chambers and capsule filtering systems. A modified collecting and processing procedure for organic carbon is designed to avoid contamination from equipment cleaned with methanol. Quality assurance is maintained by strict collecting and processing procedures, replicate sampling, equipment blank samples, and a rigid cleaning procedure using detergent, hydrochloric acid, and methanol.

  5. MDIs: physics of aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Clark, A R

    1996-03-01

    The aerosol clouds produced by metered dose inhalers are very dynamic and dramatic changes in both droplet size and velocity take place within the first few centimeters of the spray plume. It is the interaction of this dynamic cloud with the geometry of the mouth and oropharynx that controls the extent of oral deposition and hence the ability of the MDI to deliver a respiratory therapeutic to the lung. Oral deposition is controlled by inertial mechanisms and in order to develop meaningful in-vitro test methods consideration must be given to both the velocity and droplet size distribution of the cloud. The correct design of the inlet ports used to convey MDI clouds in aerosol sizing instruments is therefore crucial to the development of successful in-vitro methodologies. The use of large sampling chambers or the characterization of residual aerosol droplets is unlikely to produce meaning product comparisons or satisfactory product control data.

  6. A characterization of cloud base aerosol and associated microphysics in southeast Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessendorf, S. A.; Arnold, C.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Axisa, D.; Peter, J.; Wilson, L.; Siems, S.; Manton, M.; May, P. T.; Stone, R.

    2009-12-01

    In response to a severe drought experienced over the past few years, the Queensland government subsequently sponsored a Cloud Seeding Research Program (CSRP) in southeast Queensland. The Queensland CSRP is a cloud seeding feasibility study conducted in the Brisbane, Australia region of southeast Queensland for the past two austral summers. In the CSRP, two Doppler radars (one with dual-polarization capabilities) and an aircraft with microphysical instrumentation and seeding capabilities were employed. The overall goal of the Queensland CSRP is to assess the impact of hygroscopic seeding on convective clouds in the region. Assessing the variety of aerosol regimes, as well as the frequency of occurrence for each regime in the CSRP domain, and studying the effectiveness of warm rain processes under each aerosol regime is crucial to assess the effectiveness of hygroscopic seeding, as well as to gain a better understanding of the nature of precipitation processes across the varying aerosol conditions in the region. The aircraft observations collected included fine through coarse mode aerosol measurements (utilizing DMA, PCASP, and FSSP instrumentation) and aerosol filter sampling to assess the composition and deliquescence of the measured aerosol. Cloud microphysical measurements included a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter, and cloud droplet spectrometers and imaging probes. On each flight in the field program, the aircraft took standard measurements of cloud base aerosol and CCN, as well as the initial drop size distribution (DSD) in the cloud above cloud base. These basic measurements allowed us to build a climatology of cloud base aerosol conditions and relate them to the initial DSDs in the clouds. Our observations indicate that the domain of the southeast Queensland CSRP experienced great variations in sub-cloud aerosol conditions, even over the course of a few days, from more continental to more maritime in nature. We have run HYSPLIT back trajectories for

  7. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  8. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  9. Lead Isotopic Composition and Trace Metals in Aerosols for Source Apportionment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, C. T.; Paytan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Transported thousands of miles away from their source, aerosols can be dispersed and deposition throughout the Earth's surface. Aerosols from natural and industrial sources have different characteristics and health impacts thus it is important to identify their sources. The lead isotopic composition and trace metals in aerosol samples collected in different regions and periods around the world can help us better understand spatial and seasonal variation of aerosol sources. Aerosol samples collected in California, Bermuda, China and the Red Sea have been analyzed. The trace metal and Pb isotopes in these samples provide information regarding the various sources of aerosols to these sites.

  10. The mobile Water vapor Aerosol Raman LIdar and its implication in the framework of the HyMeX and ChArMEx programs: application to a dust transport process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.

    2014-06-01

    The increasing importance of the coupling of water and aerosol cycles in environmental applications requires observation tools that allow simultaneous measurements of these two fundamental processes for climatological and meteorological studies. For this purpose, a new mobile Raman lidar, WALI (Water vapor and Aerosol LIdar), has been developed and implemented within the framework of the international HyMeX and ChArMEx programs. This paper presents the key properties of this new device and its first applications to scientific studies. The lidar uses an eye-safe emission in the ultraviolet range at 354.7 nm and a set of compact refractive receiving telescopes. Cross-comparisons between rawinsoundings performed from balloon or aircraft and lidar measurements have shown a good agreement in the derived water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR). The discrepancies are generally less than 0.5 g kg-1 and therefore within the error bars of the respective instruments. A detailed study of the uncertainty of the WVMR retrieval was conducted and shows values between 7 and 11%, which is largely constrained by the quality of the lidar calibration. It also proves that the lidar is able to measure the WVMR during daytime over a range of about 1 km. In addition the WALI system provides measurements of aerosol optical properties such as the lidar ratio (LR) or the particulate depolarization ratio (PDR). An important example of scientific application addressing the main objectives of the HyMeX and ChArMEx programs is then presented, following an event of desert dust aerosols over the Balearic Islands in October 2012. This dust intrusion may have had a significant impact on the intense precipitations that occurred over southwestern France and the Spanish Mediterranean coasts. During this event, the LR and PDR values obtained are in the ranges of ~45-63 ± 6 and 0.10-0.19 ± 0.01 sr, respectively, which is representative of dust aerosols. The dust layers are also shown to be associated with

  11. The mobile Water vapor Aerosol Raman LIdar and its implication in the frame of the HyMeX and ChArMEx programs: application to a dust transport process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.

    2013-12-01

    The increasing importance of the coupling of water and aerosol cycles in environmental applications requires observation tools which allow simultaneous measurements of these two fundamental processes for climatological and meteorological studies. In this purpose, a new mobile Raman lidar, WALI (Water vapor and Aerosol LIDAR), has been developed and implemented within the framework of the international HyMeX/IODA-MED and ChArMEx programs. This paper presents the key properties of this new device and its first applications to scientific studies. The lidar uses an eye-safe emission in the ultra-violet range at 354.7 nm and a set of compact refractive receptors. Cross-comparisons between rawindsoundings performed from balloon or aircraft and lidar measurements have shown a good agreement in the derived water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR). The discrepancies are generally less than 0.5 g kg-1 and therefore within the error bars of the instruments. A detailed study of the uncertainties was conducted and shows a 7 to 11% accuracy of the WVMR retrieval, which is largely constrained by the quality of the calibration. It also proves that the lidar is able to measure the WVMR during the day over a range of about 1 km. The WALI system otherwise provides measurements of aerosol optical properties such as the lidar ratio (LR) or the particulate depolarization ratio (PDR). An important example of scientific application addressing the main objectives of the HyMeX and ChArMEx programs is then presented, following an event of desert dust aerosols over the Balearic Islands. This dust intrusion may have had a significant impact on the intense precipitations that occurred over southwestern France and the Spanish Mediterranean coasts. During this event, the LR and PDR values obtained are in the ranges of ~ 45-63 ± 6 sr and 0.1-0.19 ± 0.01, respectively, which is representative of dust aerosols. The dust layers are also shown to be associated with significant WVMR, i.e. between 4 and 6.7 g

  12. Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South Atlantic and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (<2 nmol m-3) ammonium concentrations from the remote high latitude ocean, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2 nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.

  13. Implementation of the Missing Aerosol Physics into LLNL IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C

    2005-02-09

    In recent assessments of climate forcing, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change lists aerosol as one o f the most important anthropogenic agents that influence climate. Atmospheric aerosols directly affect the radiative fluxes at the surface and top of the Earth's atmosphere by scattering and/or absorbing radiation. Further, aerosols indirectly change cloud microphysical properties (such as cloud drop effective radius) that also affect the radiative fluxes. However, the estimate of the magnitude of aerosol climatic effect varies widely, and aerosol/cloud interactions remain one of the most uncertain aspects of climate models today. The Atmospheric Sciences Division has formulated a plan to enhance and expand our modeling expertise in aerosol/cloud/climate interactions. Under previous LDRD support, we successfully developed a computationally efficient version of IMPACT to simulate aerosol climatology. This new version contains a compact chemical mechanism for the prediction of sulfate and also predicts the distributions of organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), dust, and sea salt. Furthermore, we implemented a radiation package into IMPACT to calculate the radiative forcing and heating/cooling rates by aerosols. This accomplishment built the foundation of our currently funded projects under the NASA Global Modeling and Analysis Program as well as the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Program. Despite the fact that our research is being recognized as an important effort to quantify the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on climate, the major shortcoming of our previous simulations on aerosol climatic effects is the over simplification of spatial and temporal variations of aerosol size distributions that are shaped by complicated nucleation, growth, transport and removal processes. Virtually all properties of atmospheric aerosols and clouds depend strongly on aerosol size distribution. Moreover, molecular processing on aerosol surfaces alters the hygroscopic

  14. Apportionment of Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosols in Southern California During the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols in Riverside (SOAR-1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient sampling was conducted in Riverside, California during the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols in Riverside to characterize the composition and sources of organic aerosol using a variety of state-of-the-art instrumentation and source apportionment techniques.

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Results on Sikorsky Aircraft Survivable Affordable Reparable Airframe Program (SARAP) Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The Survivable, Affordable, Reparable Airframe Program (SARAP) will develop/produce new structural design concepts with lower structural weight, reduced manufacturing complexity and development time, increased readiness, and improved threat protection. These new structural concepts will require advanced field capable inspection technologies to help meet the SARAP structural objectives. In the area of repair, damage assessment using nondestructive inspection (NDI) is critical to identify repair location and size. The purpose of this work is to conduct an assessment of new and emerging NDI methods that can potentially satisfy the SARAP program goals.

  16. Multiple sample characterization of coals and other substances by controlled-atmosphere programmed temperature oxidation

    DOEpatents

    LaCount, Robert B.

    1993-01-01

    A furnace with two hot zones holds multiple analysis tubes. Each tube has a separable sample-packing section positioned in the first hot zone and a catalyst-packing section positioned in the second hot zone. A mass flow controller is connected to an inlet of each sample tube, and gas is supplied to the mass flow controller. Oxygen is supplied through a mass flow controller to each tube to either or both of an inlet of the first tube and an intermediate portion between the tube sections to intermingle with and oxidize the entrained gases evolved from the sample. Oxidation of those gases is completed in the catalyst in each second tube section. A thermocouple within a sample reduces furnace temperature when an exothermic condition is sensed within the sample. Oxidized gases flow from outlets of the tubes to individual gas cells. The cells are sequentially aligned with an infrared detector, which senses the composition and quantities of the gas components. Each elongated cell is tapered inward toward the center from cell windows at the ends. Volume is reduced from a conventional cell, while permitting maximum interaction of gas with the light beam. Reduced volume and angulation of the cell inlets provide rapid purgings of the cell, providing shorter cycles between detections. For coal and other high molecular weight samples, from 50% to 100% oxygen is introduced to the tubes.

  17. Aerosol analysis for the regional air pollution study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jaklevic, J.M.; Gatti, R.C.; Goulding, F.S.; Loo, B.W.; Thompson, A.C.

    1980-05-01

    The design and operation of an aerosol sampling and analysis program implemented during the 1975 to 1977 St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study is described. A network of ten samplers were operated at selected sites in the St. Louis area and the total mass and elemental composition of the collected particulates were determined. Sampling periods of 2 to 24 hours were employed. The samplers were capable of collecting aerosol particles in two distinct size ranges corresponding to fine (< 2.4 ..mu..m diameter) and coarse (> 2.4 ..mu..m diameter) particles. This unique feature allowed the separation of the particulate samples into two distinct fractions with differing chemical origins and health effects. The analysis methods were also newly developed for use in the St. Louis RAPS study. Total particulate mass was measured by a beta-particle attenuation method in which a precision of +- 5 ..mu..m/cm/sup 2/ could be obtained in a one minute measurement time. Elemental compositions of the samples were determined using an energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence method in which detectable limits of 5 ng/cm/sup 2/ or less were routinely achieved for elements ranging in atomic number from Al to Pb. The advantages of these analytical methods over more conventional techniques arise from the ability to automate the measurements. During the course of the two year study, a total of more than 35,000 individual samples were processed and a total of 28 concentrations measured for each sample.

  18. Revisiting Aerosol Effects in Global Climate Models Using an Aerosol Lidar Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, P. L.; Chepfer, H.; Winker, D. M.; Ghan, S.; Rasch, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol effects are considered a major source of uncertainty in global climate models and the direct and indirect radiative forcings have strong model dependency. These forcings are routinely evaluated (and calibrated) against observations, among them satellite retrievals are greatly used for their near-global coverage. However, the forcings calculated from model output are not directly comparable with those computed from satellite retrievals since sampling and algorithmic differences (such as cloud screening, noise reduction, and retrieval) between models and observations are not accounted for. It is our hypothesis that the conventional model validation procedures for comparing satellite observations and model simulations can mislead model development and introduce biases. Hence, we have developed an aerosol lidar simulator for global climate models that simulates the CALIOP lidar signal at 532nm. The simulator uses the same algorithms as those used to produce the "GCM-oriented CALIPSO Aerosol Product" to (1) objectively sample lidar signal profiles; and (2) derive aerosol fields (e.g., extinction profile, aerosol type, etc) from lidar signals. This allows us to sample and derive aerosol fields in the model and real atmosphere in identical ways. Using the Department of Energy's ACME model simulations, we found that the simulator-retrieved aerosol distribution and aerosol-cloud interactions are significantly different from those computed from conventional approaches, and that the model is much closer to satellite estimates than previously believed.

  19. Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Kahn, Ralph A.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Yu, Hongbin; Rind, David; Feingold, Graham; Quinn, Patricia K.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Streets, David G.; DeCola, Phillip; Halthore, Rangasayi

    2009-01-01

    This report critically reviews current knowledge about global distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosols, as they relate to aerosol impacts on climate. It assesses possible next steps aimed at substantially reducing uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Current measurement techniques and modeling approaches are summarized, providing context. As a part of the Synthesis and Assessment Product in the Climate Change Science Program, this assessment builds upon recent related assessments, including the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4, 2007) and other Climate Change Science Program reports. The objectives of this report are (1) to promote a consensus about the knowledge base for climate change decision support, and (2) to provide a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the climate-relevant impacts of anthropogenic aerosols for policy makers, policy analysts, and general public, both within and outside the U.S government and worldwide.

  20. Measuring the Effectiveness of a Summer Literacy Program for Elementary Students Using Writing Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, John S.; Hughes, Gail D.

    2008-01-01

    To prevent summer achievement loss and help ensure Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for all students as mandated by No Child Left Behind (NCLB), school districts are enacting summer enrichment programs. To determine effectiveness, additional student assessments are often required and instructional time is reduced. The goals of this study were to…

  1. Suicide Ideation among Participants in an After-School Program: A Convenience Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Raymond K.; Burrola, Kimberly S.; Bryan, Carey H.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined differences between elementary-age youth who have considered suicide and their peers using a data set that was collected from elementary school-age children (N = 51) who participated in an after-school program. Data were collected using a standardized survey assessing daily activities, social support, self-esteem,…

  2. Computer program provides linear sampled- data analysis for high order systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunn, D. B.; Kimball, R. B.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program performs transformations in the order S-to W-to Z to allow arithmetic to be completed in the W-plane. The method is based on a direct transformation from the S-plane to the W-plane. The W-plane poles and zeros are transformed into Z-plane poles and zeros using the bilinear transformation algorithm.

  3. Comparing Propensity Score Methods in Balancing Covariates and Recovering Impact in Small Sample Educational Program Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Clement A.; Tang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score applications are often used to evaluate educational program impact. However, various options are available to estimate both propensity scores and construct comparison groups. This study used a student achievement dataset with commonly available covariates to compare different propensity scoring estimation methods (logistic…

  4. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; McFeeters, T.L.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1991-02-11

    Rocky Flats Plant Transuranic Waste Drums were sampled for gas composition. Combustibles, plastics, Raschig rings, solidified organic sludge, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. Plastic bag material and waste samples were also taken from some solidified sludge waste drums. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values (gas generation) were calculated for the waste drums. Analytical results indicate that very low concentrations of potentially flammable or corrosive gas mixtures will be found in vented drums. G(H{sub 2}) was usually below 1.6, while G(Total) was below 4.0. Hydrogen permeability tests on different types of plastic waste bags used at Rocky Flats were also conducted. Polyvinylchloride was slightly more permeable to hydrogen than polyethylene for new or creased material. Permeability of aged material to hydrogen was slightly higher than for new material. Solidified organic and inorganic sludges were sampled for volatile organics. The analytical results from two drums of solidified organic sludges showed concentrations were above detection limits for four of the 36 volatile organics analyzed. The analytical results for four of the five solidified inorganic sludges show that concentrations were below detection limits for all volatile organics analyzed. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  6. Sample size determination for a t test given a t value from a previous study: A FORTRAN 77 program.

    PubMed

    Gillett, R

    2001-11-01

    When uncertain about the magnitude of an effect, researchers commonly substitute in the standard sample-size-determination formula an estimate of effect size derived from a previous experiment. A problem with this approach is that the traditional sample-size-determination formula was not designed to deal with the uncertainty inherent in an effect-size estimate. Consequently, estimate-substitution in the traditional sample-size-determination formula can lead to a substantial loss of power. A method of sample-size determination designed to handle uncertainty in effect-size estimates is described. The procedure uses the t value and sample size from a previous study, which might be a pilot study or a related study in the same area, to establish a distribution of probable effect sizes. The sample size to be employed in the new study is that which supplies an expected power of the desired amount over the distribution of probable effect sizes. A FORTRAN 77 program is presented that permits swift calculation of sample size for a variety of t tests, including independent t tests, related t tests, t tests of correlation coefficients, and t tests of multiple regression b coefficients.

  7. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco site for the LTHMP on May 16 and 17, 2011. The samples were shipped to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed, with the exception of the determination of tritium concentration by the enrichment method, because the laboratory no longer provides that service. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and tritium using the conventional method. Starting in 2012, DOE will retain a different laboratory that provides the enriched tritium analysis service.

  8. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  9. Sample introduction methods for improving the particle detection capability of the spectrometric oil analysis program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhine, W. E.; Kauffman, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A program is being conducted to improve the particle detention capability of the rotating disk electrode arc/spark source atomic emission spectrometer, i.e., the A/E35U-3. This spectrometer is the primary spectrometer used by over 200 of the tri-service Joint Oil Analysis Program (JOAP) laboratories. The initial investigation determined the factors which limit the particle detention capability of the A/E35U-3 spectrometers. This report discusses the next effort which was conducted to improve the particle detention capability of the A/E35U-3 spectrometer. Acid dissolution, spark-to-residue and spark-in-vapor methods were investigated. The resultant data indicated that these methods can improve the particle detention capability of the spark source emission spectrometers.

  10. Influence of semi-volatile aerosol on physical and optical properties of aerosol in Kathmandu valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sujan; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Shrestha, Kundan; Panday, Arnico

    2016-04-01

    A field study was conducted in the urban atmosphere of Kathmandu valley to study the influence of the semi-volatile aerosol fraction on physical and optical properties of aerosols. The study was carried out during the 2015 pre-monsoon period. Experimental setup consisted of air from an ambient air inlet being split to two sets of identical sampling instruments. The first instrument received the ambient sample directly, while the second instrument received the air sample through a thermodenuder (TDD). Four sets of experiments were conducted to understand aerosol number, size distribution, scattering and absorption properties using Condensation Particle Counter (CPC), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Aethalometer (AE33) and Nephelometer. The influence of semi-volatile aerosols was calculated from the fraction of particles evaporated in the TDD at set temparetures: room temperature, 50°C, 100°C, 150°C, 200°C, 250°C and 300°C. Results show that, with increasing temperature, the evaporated fraction of semi-volatile aerosol also increased. At room temperature the fraction of semi-volatile aerosols was 12% while at 300°C it was as high as to 49%. Aerosol size distribution analysis shows that with an increase in TDD temperature from 50°C to 300°C, peak mobility diameter of particles shifted from around 60nm to 40nm. However we found little change in effective diameter of aerosol size distribution with increase in set TDD temperature. The change in size of aerosols due to loss of semi-volatile component has a stronger influence (~70%) in higher size bins when compared to at lower size bins (~20%). Studies using the AE33 showed that absorption by black carbon (BC) is amplified due to influence of semi-volatile aerosols by upto 37% at 880nm wavelength. Similarly nephelometer measurements showed that upto 71% of total scattering was found to be contributed by semi-volatile aerosol fraction. The scattering Angstrom Exponent (SAE) of semi-volatile aerosol

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLT/NaCo Large program I. Sample (Desidera+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desidera, S.; Covino, E.; Messina, S.; Carson, J.; Hagelberg, J.; Schlieder, J. E.; Biazzo, K.; Alcala, J.; Chauvin, G.; Vigan, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Bonavita, M.; Bonnefoy, M.; Delorme, P.; D'Orazi, V.; Esposito, M.; Feldt, M.; Girardi, L.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Lagrange, A. M.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Launhardt, R.; Marmier, M.; Melo, C.; Meyer, M.; Mouillet, D.; Moutou, C.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.; Zaidi, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Stellar parameters for 86 stars observed in NaCo Large Program and their wide companions are presented. These include coordinates, magnitudes, spectral types, metallicity, mass, distance, radial velocities, proper motions, space velocities Xray luminosity, chromospheric emission, rotation period, projected rotational velocity, lithium equivalent width, effective temperature, age (Tables 9-12). Table D1 summarizes the details of the rotation period search (results for individual segments and for the whole timeseries). (13 data files).

  12. The parsec program: a large sample of brown dwarf trigonometric parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, Alexandre H.; Smart, Richard L.; Bucciarelli, Beatrice; Penna, Jucira L.; Marocco, Federico; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Crosta, Mariateresa; Teixeira, Ramakrishna

    2013-02-01

    We report on the parsec program, which observed 140 L and T dwarfs on a regular basis from 2007 to 2011, using the WIFI camera on the ESO/2.2 m telescope. Trigonometric parallaxes at 5 mas precision are derived for 49 objects, and mas yr-1-level proper motions are derived for approximately 200,000 objects in the same fields. We discuss image cleaning, object centroiding, and astrometric methods, in particular three different approaches for trigonometric parallax determination.

  13. Idaho's surface-water-quality monitoring program: results from five sites sampled during water years 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality, implemented a statewide water-quality monitoring program in response to Idaho's antidegradation policy as required by the Clean Water Act. The program objective is to provide water-quality managers with a coordinated statewide network to detect trends in surface-water quality. The monitoring program includes the collection and analysis of samples from 56 sites on the Bear, Clearwater, Kootenai, Pend Oreille, Salmon, Snake, and Spokane Rivers and their tributaries (fig. 1). Samples are collected every year at 5 sites (annual sites) in drainage basins where long-term water-quality management is practiced, every other year at 19 sites (biennial sites) in basins where land and water uses change slowly, and every third year at 32 sites (triennial sites) where future development may affect water quality. Each year, 25 of the 56 sites are sampled. This report discusses results of sampling at five annual sites. During water years 1990-93 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1993), samples were collected six times per year at the five annual sites (fig. 1). Onsite analyses were made for discharge, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, bacteria (fecal coliform and fecal streptococci), and alkalinity. Laboratory analyses were made for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Suspended sediment, nitrate, fecal coliform, trace elements, and specific conductance were used to characterize surface-water quality. Because concentrations of all trace elements except zinc were near detection limits, only zinc is discussed.

  14. SRB-3D Solid Rocket Booster performance prediction program. Volume 2: Sample case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The sample case presented in this volume is an asymmetrical eight sector thermal gradient performance prediction for the solid rocket motor. This motor is the TC-227A-75 grain design and the initial grain geometry is assumed to be symmetrical about the motors longitudinal axis.

  15. Gang Problems and Gang Programs in a National Sample of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Gary D.; Gottfredson, Denise C.

    This report describes approaches used by schools to prevent or reduce gang involvement among schools. The study of gang prevention and intervention builds on a large-scale National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools. A sample of 1,279 schools participated in the study. Overall, 7.6% of the male and 3.8% of the female secondary students…

  16. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain. PMID:20128446

  17. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  18. Aerosols and environmental pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth’s radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  19. Aerosols and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth's radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  20. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  1. Comparison of radioactivity data measured in PM10 aerosol samples at two elevated stations in northern Italy during the Fukushima event.

    PubMed

    Tositti, Laura; Brattich, Erika; Cinelli, Giorgia; Previti, Alberto; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2012-12-01

    The follow-up of Fukushima radioactive plume resulting from the 11th March 2011 devastating tsunami is discussed for two Italian stations in the northern Apennines: Mt. Cimone (Modena) and Montecuccolino (Bologna). Radioactivity data collected at both stations are described, including comparison between local natural background of airborne particulate and artificial radioactivity referable to the arrival of the radioactive plume and its persistence and evolution. Analysis of back-trajectories was used to confirm the arrival of artificial radionuclides following atmospheric transport and processing. The Fukushima plume was first detected on 3rd April 2011 when high volume sampling revealed the presence of the artificial radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs. The highest activity concentrations of these nuclides were detected on 5th April 2011 at the Montecuccolino site. Fukushima radioactivity data at the two stations were usually comparable, suggesting a good vertical mixing of the plume; discrepancies were occasional and attributed to different occurrence of wet removal, typically characterized by a scattered spatial pattern. To understand the relevance to the local population of the extra dose due to the Fukushima plume, atmospheric activities of the related artificial nuclides were compared to those of the main natural radionuclides in ambient particulate, and found to be lower by over one order of magnitude. Radiation doses referable to Fukushima, maximized for a whole year occurrence at the highest activity level observed at our stations in the weeks affected by the Japanese plume, were estimated at 1.1 μSv/year.

  2. Analysis of tank 7 surface supernatant sample (FTF-7-15-26) in support of corrosion control program

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N

    2015-10-01

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 7 surface supernatant liquid sample in support of the Corrosion Control Program (CCP). The measured nitrate, nitrite and free-hydroxide concentrations for the Tank 7 surface sample averaged, 3.74E-01 ± 1.88E-03, 4.17E-01 ± 9.01E-03 and 0.602 ± 0.005 M, respectively. The Tank 7 surface cesium-137, sodium and silicon concentrations were, respectively, 3.99E+08, ± 3.25E+06 dpm/mL, 2.78 M and <3.10 mg/L. The measured aluminum concentration in the Tank 7 surface sample averaged 0.11 M.

  3. Overview of ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Investigations on Aerosol Radiative Effects and Related Aerosol Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Valero, F. P. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Bergin, M.; Holben, B.; Nakajima, T.; Pilewskie, P.; Bergstrom, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A primary, ACE-Asia objective was to quantify the interactions between aerosols and radiation in the Asia-Pacific region. Toward this end, radiometric and related aerosol measurements were made from ocean, land, air and space platforms. Models that predict aerosol fields guided the measurements and are helping integrate and interpret results. Companion overview's survey these measurement and modeling components. Here we illustrate how these components were combined to determine aerosol radiative. impacts and their relation to aerosol properties. Because clouds can obscure or change aerosol direct radiative effects, aircraft and ship sorties to measure these effects depended on predicting and finding cloud-free areas and times with interesting aerosols present. Pre-experiment satellite cloud climatologies, pre-flight aerosol and cloud forecasts, and in-flight guidance from satellite imagery all helped achieve this. Assessments of aerosol regional radiative impacts benefit from the spatiotemporal coverage of satellites, provided satellite-retrieved aerosol properties are accurate. Therefore, ACE-Asia included satellite retrieval tests, as part of many comparisons to judge the consistency (closure) among, diverse measurements. Early results include: (1) Solar spectrally resolved and broadband irradiances and optical depth measurements from the C-130 aircraft and at Kosan, Korea yielded aerosol radiative forcing efficiencies, permitting comparisons between efficiencies of ACE-Asia and INDOEX aerosols, and between dust and "pollution" aerosols. Detailed results will be presented in separate papers. (2) Based on measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo the estimated 24-h a average aerosol radiative forcing efficiency at the surface for photosynthetically active radiation (400 - 700 nm) in Yulin, China is approx. 30 W sq m per AOD(500 nm). (3) The R/V Brown cruise from Honolulu to Sea of Japan sampled an aerosol optical

  4. Characteristics of Chinese aerosols determined by individual-particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuan; Anderson, James R.

    2001-08-01

    Tropospheric aerosols that originate in China and are transported over the North Pacific Ocean have potentially significant impacts on regional and global climate. These aerosols are complex mixtures of soil dust and anthropogenic particles from a variety of sources, including fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, mining, smelting, and other industrial processes, plus reaction products of heterogeneous processes that affect these particles during transport. In the coastal marine atmosphere, these particles could be further mixed with marine aerosols. To provide examples of the diversity of chemical and physical properties of east Asian aerosols in the spring, individual aerosol particle samples were collected in April and May 1999 in three different environments in China: Qingdao on the coast of the East China Sea, Beijing in the northeast interior, and Mount Waliguan in remote northwestern China. Results reveal that aerosols in this region are complex and heterogeneous. In addition to significant differences in aerosol composition and size distributions among the samples, each sample contains a large number of polyphase aggregates. Many of the particles also have irregular shapes; for a number of the particle types, the irregular shapes should persist even at high ambient RH. Because composition, degree and nature of polyphase aggregation, and shape all effect aerosol radiative properties, the complex state of east Asian aerosols presents a challenge for the modeling of aerosol radiative forcing in the region.

  5. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; deSzoeke, S.; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, Christine; Mann, Julia; O Connor, Ewan; Hogan, Robin; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palinkonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

  6. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; deSzoeke, S.; Yuter, Sandra; et al

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulusmore » and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.« less

  7. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    Atmospheric ozone, water vapor, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 214 flights of a United Airlines B-747 and two Pan American World Airways B-747's from March through June 1976. In addition, trichlorofluoromethane data obtained from laboratory analysis of two whole air samples collected in flight are reported. These data are available on GASP tape VL0005 from the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina. In addition to the GASP data, tropopause pressure fields obtained from NMC archives for the dates of the GASP flights are included on the data tape. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, and data tape specifications are described in this report. Selected analyses including ozone and sample bottle data are also presented.

  8. CCN activation of ambient and "synthetic ambient" urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Julia; Reischl, Georg; Steiner, Gerhard; Bauer, Heidi; Leder, Klaus; Kistler, Magda; Puxbaum, Hans; Hitzenberger, R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) activation properties of the urban aerosol in Vienna, Austria, were investigated in a long term (11 month) field study. Filter samples of the aerosol below 100 nm were taken in parallel to these measurements, and later used to generate "synthetic ambient" aerosols. Activation parameters of this "synthetic ambient" aerosol were also obtained. Hygroscopicity parameters κ [1] were calculated both for the urban and the "synthetic ambient" aerosol and also from the chemical composition. Average κ for the "synthetic ambient" aerosol ranged from 0.20 to 0.30 with an average value of 0.24, while the κ from the chemical composition of this "synthetic ambient" aerosol was significantly higher (average 0.43). The full results of the study are given elsewhere [2,3].

  9. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  10. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  11. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  12. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  13. Carbonaceous aerosols in the Western Mediterranean during summertime and their contribution to the aerosol optical properties at ground level: First results of the ChArMEx-ADRIMED 2013 intensive campaign in Corsica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Dulac, Francois; Feron, Anais; Crenn, Vincent; Sarda Esteve, Roland; Baisnee, Dominique; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Hamonou, Eric; Mallet, Marc; Lambert, Dominique; Nicolas, Jose B.; Bourrianne, Thierry; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Favez, Olivier; Canonaco, Francesco; Prevot, Andre; Mocnik, Grisa; Drinovec, Luka; Marpillat, Alexandre; Serrie, Wilfrid

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the CORSiCA (http://www.obs-mip.fr/corsica) and the ANR-ADRIMED programs, a large set of real-time measurements of carbonaceous aerosols was deployed in June 2013 at the Cape Corsica atmospheric supersite (http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/reports.asp?StationID=2076203042). Submicron organic aerosols (OA) were monitored every 30 min using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM; Aerodyne Res. Inc. MA, USA); Fine (PM2.5) Organic Carbon (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC) were measured every 2h using an OCEC Sunset Field Instrument (Sunset Lab, OR, USA) and every 12h using a low-vol (Leckel) filter sampler running at 2.3m3/h. Equivalent Black Carbon (BC) was monitored using two Aethalometers (models AE31 and AE33, Magee Scientific, US & Aerosol d.o.o., Slovenia) and a MAAP instrument (Thermo). Quality control of this large dataset was performed through chemical mass closure studies (using co-located SMPS and TEOM-FDMS) and direct comparisons with other real-time instruments running in parallel (Particle-Into-Liquid-Sampler-Ion-Chromatograph for ions, filter sampling, ...). Source apportionment of OA was then performed using the SourceFinder software (SoFi v4.5, http://www.psi.ch/acsm-stations/me-2) allowing the distinction between hydrogen- and oxygen-like organic aerosols (HOA and OOA, respectively) and highlighting the major contribution of secondary OA in the Western Mediterranean during summer. Using this time-resolved chemical information, reconstruction of the optical aerosol properties were performed and compared with integrating nephelometer (Model 3563, TSI, US) and photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX, DMT, US) measurements performed in parallel. Results of these different closure studies (chemical/physical/optical) are presented and discussed here in details. They highlight the central role of carbonaceous aerosols on the optical properties of aerosols at ground level

  14. Addressing the crush of sampling. [technology programs for space information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W. B.; Holcomb, L. B.; Rubin, B.

    1980-01-01

    An overall space information system involves sensing, processing, analyzing, and distributing space-acquired information. These systems may be partitioned into the spacecraft segment, the wideband space-to-ground communication segment, and the ground-based data analysis and distribution segment. The paper discusses NASA's advanced technology programs aimed at providing improved sensors and on-board data systems. Advances in charge-transfer devices, lasers, and microwave technologies will be responsible for major improvements in NASA's sensing and detection capabilities for future missions. These improvements will result in a future data crush that will amplify the data management problem.

  15. An accurate metalloprotein-specific scoring function and molecular docking program devised by a dynamic sampling and iteration optimization strategy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fang; Liao, Sha; Gu, Junfeng; Jiang, Hualiang; Wang, Xicheng; Li, Honglin

    2015-04-27

    Metalloproteins, particularly zinc metalloproteins, are promising therapeutic targets, and recent efforts have focused on the identification of potent and selective inhibitors of these proteins. However, the ability of current drug discovery and design technologies, such as molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, to probe metal-ligand interactions remains limited because of their complicated coordination geometries and rough treatment in current force fields. Herein we introduce a robust, multiobjective optimization algorithm-driven metalloprotein-specific docking program named MpSDock, which runs on a scheme similar to consensus scoring consisting of a force-field-based scoring function and a knowledge-based scoring function. For this purpose, in this study, an effective knowledge-based zinc metalloprotein-specific scoring function based on the inverse Boltzmann law was designed and optimized using a dynamic sampling and iteration optimization strategy. This optimization strategy can dynamically sample and regenerate decoy poses used in each iteration step of refining the scoring function, thus dramatically improving both the effectiveness of the exploration of the binding conformational space and the sensitivity of the ranking of the native binding poses. To validate the zinc metalloprotein-specific scoring function and its special built-in docking program, denoted MpSDockZn, an extensive comparison was performed against six universal, popular docking programs: Glide XP mode, Glide SP mode, Gold, AutoDock, AutoDock4Zn, and EADock DSS. The zinc metalloprotein-specific knowledge-based scoring function exhibited prominent performance in accurately describing the geometries and interactions of the coordination bonds between the zinc ions and chelating agents of the ligands. In addition, MpSDockZn had a competitive ability to sample and identify native binding poses with a higher success rate than the other six docking programs.

  16. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol as determined from AERONET measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Kokhanovsky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal means and standard deviations of column-integrated aerosol optical properties (e.g. spectral aerosol optical thickness (AOT), single scattering albedo, phase function, Ångström exponent, volume particle size distribution, complex refractive index, absorbing aerosol optical thickness) from several Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites located in typical aerosol source and background regions are investigated (Holben et al., 1998). The AERONET program is an inclusive network of ground-based sun-photometers that measure atmospheric aerosol optical properties (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/). The results can be used for improving the accuracy of satellite-retrieved AOT, assessments of the global aerosol models, studies of atmospheric pollution and aerosol radiative forcing on climate. We have paid a special attention to several AERONET sites that are Mexico_City (Mexico), Alta_Floresta (Brazil), Avignon (France), Solar_Village (Saudi Arabia), and Midway_Island (Pacific) representative for industrial/urban, biomass burning, rural, desert dust and oceanic aerosols, respectively. We have found that the optical and microphysical aerosol properties are highly dependent on the local aerosol emission sources and seasonal meteorological conditions.

  17. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Grabbe, R.R.

    1995-03-02

    The objective of this Quality Assurance Plan is to provide quality assurance (QA) guidance, implementation of regulatory QA requirements, and quality control (QC) specifications for analytical service. This document follows the Department of Energy (DOE)-issued Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) and additional federal [10 US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 830.120] QA requirements that HASQAP does not cover. This document describes how the laboratory implements QA requirements to meet the federal or state requirements, provides what are the default QC specifications, and/or identifies the procedural information that governs how the laboratory operates. In addition, this document meets the objectives of the Quality Assurance Program provided in the WHC-CM-4-2, Section 2.1. This document also covers QA elements that are required in the Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (QAPPs), (QAMS-004), and Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Product Plans (QAMS-005) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A QA Index is provided in the Appendix A.

  18. Aerosol backscatter studies supporting LAWS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry

    1989-01-01

    Optimized Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), Laser True Airspeed System (LATAS) algorithm for low backscatter conditions was developed. The algorithm converts backscatter intensity measurements from focused continuous-wave (CW) airborne Doppler lidar into backscatter coefficients. The performance of optimized algorithm under marginal backscatter signal conditions was evaluated. The 10.6 micron CO2 aerosol backscatter climatologies were statistically analyzed. Climatologies reveal clean background aerosol mode near 10(exp -10)/kg/sq m/sr (mixing ratio units) through middle and upper troposhere, convective mode associated with planetary boundary layer convective activity, and stratospheric mode associated with volcanically-generated aerosols. Properties of clean background mode are critical to design and simulation studies of Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), a MSFC facility Instrument on the Earth Observing System (Eos). Previous intercomparisons suggested correlation between aerosol backscatter at CO2 wavelength and water vapor. Field measurements of backscatter profiles with MSFC ground-based Doppler lidar system (GBDLS) were initiated in late FY-88 to coincide with independent program of local rawinsonde releases and overflights by Multi-spectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS), a multi-channel infrared radiometer capable of measuring horizontal and vertical moisture distributions. Design and performance simulation studies for LAWS would benefit from the existence of a relationship between backscatter and water vapor.

  19. Sampling and analysis of the inactive waste tanks TH-2, WC-1, and WC-15. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Autrey, J.W.; Keller, J.M.; Griest, W.H.; Botts, J.L.; Schenley, R.L.; Sipe, M.A.

    1992-02-01

    Thirty-eight inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste tanks are currently managed by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The contents of these tanks are to be characterized in preparation for future corrective actions and remediation activities as part of compliance with the pending Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Twenty-nine of these tanks were sampled and analyzed in 1989. Three of the tanks (TH-2, WC-1, and WC-15) were not accessible from the surface and thus were not sampled until 1990. This report presents the sampling and analytical results of that campaign. All three tanks in this report had negligible regulatory organic compounds in the samples that were collected. There were no US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List (TCL) constituents for volatile organics detected in any of the aqueous samples. The only semivolatile organics detected were 2-chlorophenol (52 {mu}g/L) in tank TH-2 and dichloroethane (14--15 {mu}g/L) and diethyl either (15--17 {mu}g/L) in tank WC-15. A thin oil layer was discovered floating on top of the aqueous contents in tank WC-15. The analysis of the oil layer detected no volatile organics and showed only one EPA TCL constituent, di-n-butylphthalate, at 1900 {mu}g/L. Low levels of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals were observed in the samples from tank TH-2, but only the mercury level exceeded the RCRA limit. Samples from tank WC-1 had elevated levels of the RCRA metals barium, chromium, and lead. There were also finely suspended particles in one of the samples from tank WC-1, which was filtered and analyzed separately. This solid fines have levels of transuranium elements {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am high enough to classified as transuranic waste.

  20. Atmospheric pressure flow reactor / aerosol mass spectrometer studies of tropospheric aerosol nucleat and growth kinetics. Final report, June, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this program was to determine the mechanisms and rates of growth and transformation and growth processes that control secondary aerosol particles in both the clear and polluted troposphere. The experimental plan coupled an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to provide simultaneous measurement of condensed and particle phases. The first task investigated the kinetics of tropospheric particle growth and transformation by measuring vapor accretion to particles (uptake coefficients, including mass accommodation coefficients and heterogeneous reaction rate coefficients). Other work initiated investigation of aerosol nucleation processes by monitoring the appearance of submicron particles with the AMS as a function of precursor gas concentrations. Three projects were investigated during the program: (1) Ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosols as model of chemical reactivity of secondary organic aerosol; (2) Activation of soot particles by measurement deliquescence in the presence of sulfuric acid and water vapor; (3) Controlled nucleation and growth of sulfuric acid aerosols.

  1. Identifying Aerosol Type/Mixture from Aerosol Absorption Properties Using AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Slutsker, I.; Li, Z.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Zibordi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aerosols are generated in the atmosphere through anthropogenic and natural mechanisms. These sources have signatures in the aerosol optical and microphysical properties that can be used to identify the aerosol type/mixture. Spectral aerosol absorption information (absorption Angstrom exponent; AAE) used in conjunction with the particle size parameterization (extinction Angstrom exponent; EAE) can only identify the dominant absorbing aerosol type in the sample volume (e.g., black carbon vs. iron oxides in dust). This AAE/EAE relationship can be expanded to also identify non-absorbing aerosol types/mixtures by applying an absorption weighting. This new relationship provides improved aerosol type distinction when the magnitude of absorption is not equal (e.g, black carbon vs. sulfates). The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data provide spectral aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo - key parameters used to determine EAE and AAE. The proposed aerosol type/mixture relationship is demonstrated using the long-term data archive acquired at AERONET sites within various source regions. The preliminary analysis has found that dust, sulfate, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosol types/mixtures can be determined from this AAE/EAE relationship when applying the absorption weighting for each available wavelength (Le., 440, 675, 870nm). Large, non-spherical dust particles absorb in the shorter wavelengths and the application of 440nm wavelength absorption weighting produced the best particle type definition. Sulfate particles scatter light efficiently and organic carbon particles are small near the source and aggregate over time to form larger less absorbing particles. Both sulfates and organic carbon showed generally better definition using the 870nm wavelength absorption weighting. Black carbon generation results from varying combustion rates from a number of sources including industrial processes and biomass burning. Cases with primarily black carbon showed

  2. Characteristics of a random sample of emergency food program users in New York: I. Food pantries.

    PubMed

    Clancy, K L; Bowering, J; Poppendieck, J

    1991-07-01

    Food pantry users throughout New York State were studied and many demographic differences found between New York City and Upstate New York respondents. Seven percent of households had no income and median income as percent of the poverty level was 59 percent. Slightly more than 40 percent were spending over 60 percent of their incomes on housing. The data from this survey, the first in New York State to employ a random sampling design, demonstrate a sizable gap between household needs and available resources.

  3. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briehl, D.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Liu, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    The data currently available from GASP, including flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, and data tape specifications are described. Measurements of atmospheric ozone, cabin ozine, carbon monoxide, water vapor, particles, clouds, condensation nuclei, filter samples and related meteorological and flight information obtained during 562 flights of aircraft N533PA, N4711U, N655PA, and VH-EBE from October 3, 1977 through January 5, 1978 are reported. Data representing tropopause pressures obtained from time and space interpolation of National Meteorological Center archived data for the dates of the flights are included.

  4. Interplanetary program to optimize simulated trajectories (IPOST). Volume 4: Sample cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, P. E.; Kent, P. D; Olson, D. W.; Vallado, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Interplanetary Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (IPOST) is intended to support many analysis phases, from early interplanetary feasibility studies through spacecraft development and operations. The IPOST output provides information for sizing and understanding mission impacts related to propulsion, guidance, communications, sensor/actuators, payload, and other dynamic and geometric environments. IPOST models three degree of freedom trajectory events, such as launch/ascent, orbital coast, propulsive maneuvering (impulsive and finite burn), gravity assist, and atmospheric entry. Trajectory propagation is performed using a choice of Cowell, Encke, Multiconic, Onestep, or Conic methods. The user identifies a desired sequence of trajectory events, and selects which parameters are independent (controls) and dependent (targets), as well as other constraints and the cost function. Targeting and optimization are performed using the Standard NPSOL algorithm. The IPOST structure allows sub-problems within a master optimization problem to aid in the general constrained parameter optimization solution. An alternate optimization method uses implicit simulation and collocation techniques.

  5. Technical management plan for sample generation, analysis, and data review for Phase 2 of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.C.; Benson, S.B.; Beeler, D.A.

    1994-03-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds) released from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The remedial investigation is entering Phase 2, which has the following items as its objectives: define the nature and extent of the contamination in areas downstream from the DOE ORR, evaluate the human health and ecological risks posed by these contaminants, and perform preliminary identification and evaluation of potential remediation alternatives. This plan describes the requirements, responsibilities, and roles of personnel during sampling, analysis, and data review for the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The purpose of the plan is to formalize the process for obtaining analytical services, tracking sampling and analysis documentation, and assessing the overall quality of the CR-ERP data collection program to ensure that it will provide the necessary building blocks for the program decision-making process.

  6. Apparatus and method for the characterization of respirable aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Douglas K.; Hodges, Bradley W.; Bush, Jesse D.; Mishima, Jofu

    2016-05-31

    An apparatus for the characterization of respirable aerosols, including: a burn chamber configured to selectively contain a sample that is selectively heated to generate an aerosol; a heating assembly disposed within the burn chamber adjacent to the sample; and a sampling segment coupled to the burn chamber and configured to collect the aerosol such that it may be analyzed. The apparatus also includes an optional sight window disposed in a wall of the burn chamber such that the sample may be viewed during heating. Optionally, the sample includes one of a Lanthanide, an Actinide, and a Transition metal.

  7. Preparation and validation of gross alpha/beta samples used in EML`s quality assessment program

    SciTech Connec