Science.gov

Sample records for aerosol tests conducted

  1. Aerosol tests conducted at Aberdeen Proving Grounds MD.

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Servantes, Brandon Lee; Hankins, Matthew Granholm

    2012-06-01

    Test data are reported that demonstrate the deposition from a spray dispersion system (Illinois Tool Works inductively charging rotary atomization nozzle) for application of decontamination solution to various surfaces in the passenger cabin of a Boeing 737 aircraft. The decontamination solution (EnviroTru) was tagged with a known concentration of fluorescein permitting determination of both airborne decontaminant concentration and surface deposited decontaminant solution so that the effective deposition rates and surface coverage could be determined and correlated with the amount of material sprayed. Six aerosol dispersion tests were conducted. In each test, aluminum foil deposition coupons were set out throughout the passenger area and the aerosol was dispersed. The aerosol concentration was measured with filter samplers as well as with optical techniques Average aerosol deposition ranged from 3 to 15 grams of decontamination solution per square meter. Some disagreement was observed between various instruments utilizing different measurement principles. These results demonstrate a potentially effective method to disperse decontaminant to interior surfaces of a passenger aircraft.

  2. Ice-condenser aerosol tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Eschbach, E.J.; Winegardner, W.K. )

    1991-09-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of aerosol particle transport and capture using a full-scale height and reduced-scale cross section test facility based on the design of the ice compartment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice-condenser containment system. Results of 38 tests included thermal-hydraulic as well as aerosol particle data. Particle retention in the test section was greatly influenced by thermal-hydraulic and aerosol test parameters. Test-average decontamination factor (DF) ranged between 1.0 and 36 (retentions between {approximately}0 and 97.2%). The measured test-average particle retentions for tests without and with ice and steam ranged between DF = 1.0 and 2.2 and DF = 2.4 and 36, respectively. In order to apparent importance, parameters that caused particle retention in the test section in the presence of ice were steam mole fraction (SMF), noncondensible gas flow rate (residence time), particle solubility, and inlet particle size. Ice-basket section noncondensible flows greater than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in stable thermal stratification whereas flows less than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in thermal behavior termed meandering with frequent temperature crossovers between flow channels. 10 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Test-Aerosol Generator For Calibrating Particle Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Adams, Alois J.; Schwindt, Christian J.; Hodge, Timothy R.; Mallow, Tim J.; Duong, Anh A.; Bukauskas, Vyto V.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus generates clean, stable aerosol stream for use in testing and calibrating laser-based aerosol-particle counter. Size and concentration of aerosol particles controlled to ensure accurate calibration. Cheap, widely available medical nebulizers used to generate aerosols.

  4. Paint spray tests for respirators: aerosol characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ackley, M W

    1980-05-01

    Liquid paint is sprayed from an atomizing nozzle to form an aerosol for testing paint spray respirators. The generated aerosol conditions are dependent upon liguid properties, spray-nozzle flow conditions and droplet evaporation. A technique was developed for controlling the aerosol concentrations reliably. Particle-size distributions of lacquer and enamel have been measured. The lacquer distribution was found to be multi-modal. Aerosol concentration dradients arise when the nozzle is not properly positioned. Filter loading resistance is significantly affected by these concentration variations. With regard to selection of standard aerosol test be improved by modifying the current NIOSH criteria to include a description of the particle-size distribution, a more precise definition of the paint and paint thinner chemical compositions, and a narrower concentration range. PMID:6932174

  5. Bone-Conduction ABR Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone-Wesson, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the accuracy of bone-conduction auditory brainstem response (BC-ABR) tests to determine the presence and severity of conductive hearing impairment. It provides warnings about technical pitfalls and recommends incorporating BC-ABR protocols for routine clinical use. It concludes that the method allows estimating cochlear…

  6. Efficiency tests of samplers for microbiological aerosols, a review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henningson, E.; Faengmark, I.

    1984-01-01

    To obtain comparable results from studies using a variety of samplers of microbiological aerosols with different collection performances for various particle sizes, methods reported in the literature were surveyed, evaluated, and tabulated for testing the efficiency of the samplers. It is concluded that these samplers were not thoroughly tested, using reliable methods. Tests were conducted in static air chambers and in various outdoor and work environments. Results are not reliable as it is difficult to achieve stable and reproducible conditions in these test systems. Testing in a wind tunnel is recommended.

  7. Comparison of Predicted and Measured 2 Micron Aerosol Backscatter from the 1998 ACLAIM Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowdle, David A.; Hannon, Stephen M.; Bogue, Rodney K.

    1999-01-01

    The 1998 Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced Inflight Measurements (ACLAIM) flight tests were conducted aboard a well-instrumented research aircraft. This paper presents comparisons of 2 micrometer aerosol backscatter coefficient predictions from aerosol sampling data and mie scattering codes with those produced by the ACLAIM instrument.

  8. Results and code prediction comparisons of lithium-air reaction and aerosol behavior tests

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1986-03-01

    The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) Fusion Safety Support Studies include evaluation of potential safety and environmental concerns associated with the use of liquid lithium as a breeder and coolant for fusion reactors. Potential mechanisms for volatilization and transport of radioactive metallic species associated with breeder materials are of particular interest. Liquid lithium pool-air reaction and aerosol behavior tests were conducted with lithium masses up to 100 kg within the 850-m/sup 3/ containment vessel in the Containment Systems Test Facility. Lithium-air reaction rates, aerosol generation rates, aerosol behavior and characterization, as well as containment atmosphere temperature and pressure responses were determined. Pool-air reaction and aerosol behavior test results were compared with computer code calculations for reaction rates, containment atmosphere response, and aerosol behavior. The volatility of potentially radioactive metallic species from a lithium pool-air reaction was measured. The response of various aerosol detectors to the aerosol generated was determined. Liquid lithium spray tests in air and in nitrogen atmospheres were conducted with lithium temperatures of about 427/sup 0/ and 650/sup 0/C. Lithium reaction rates, containment atmosphere response, and aerosol generation and characterization were determined for these spray tests.

  9. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence.

  10. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence.

  11. Sodium oxide and uranium oxide aerosol experiments: NSPP Tests 106-108 and Tests 204-207, data record report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.E.; Kress, T.S.; Tobias, M.L.

    1981-03-01

    This data record report describes three sodium oxide aerosol tests and four uranium oxide aerosol tests conducted in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of this project is to establish the validity (or level of conservatism) of the aerosol behavioral code, HAARM-3, and follow-on codes under development at the Battelle Columbus Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Descriptions of the seven tests with tables and graphs summarizing the results are included. 92 figs.

  12. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  13. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  14. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  15. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  16. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

  17. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T.; Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence

  18. Aerosol can puncture device operational test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1994-05-03

    Puncturing of aerosol cans is performed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1) process as a requirement of the waste disposal acceptance criteria for both transuranic (TRU) waste and low-level waste (LLW). These cans have contained such things as paints, lubricating oils, paint removers, insecticides, and cleaning supplies which were used in radioactive facilities. Due to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Fire Protection concerns of the baseline system`s fire/explosion proof characteristics, a study was undertaken to compare the baseline system`s design to commercially available puncturing devices. While the study found no areas which might indicate a risk of fire or explosion, WHC Fire Protection determined that the puncturing system must have a demonstrated record of safe operation. This could be obtained either by testing the baseline design by an independent laboratory, or by substituting a commercially available device. As a result of these efforts, the commercially available Aerosolv can puncturing device was chosen to replace the baseline design. Two concerns were raised with the system. Premature blinding of the coalescing/carbon filter, due to its proximity to the puncture and draining operation; and overpressurization of the collection bottle due to its small volume and by blinding of the filter assembly. As a result of these concerns, testing was deemed necessary. The objective of this report is to outline test procedures for the Aerosolv.

  19. Computation of ammonium bisulfate aerosol deposition in conducting airways

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.; Patel, M.

    1981-11-01

    Experimental measurements of the growth of monodisperse dry NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 4/ aerosols by H/sub 2/O vapor condensation have been reported in the literature. These data are incorporated into an aerosol deposition model to study the behavior of inhaled NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 4/ particles, which is of concern in relation to human health. The tracheobronchial tree is described by Weibel's model A morphology, and Landahl's formulas are used to compute particle deposition efficiencies. Enhanced losses in the trachea due to the action of the laryngeal jet are accounted for by using an empirical deposition efficiency equation. The effect of NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 4/ aerosol growth is quantitated by comparisons of total and intrabronchial deposition probabilities with those of a nonhygroscopic aerosol of equal aerodynamic size. Computations indicate that hygroscopic growth effects are a function of the size of the particles inhaled. Total deposition efficiencies of NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O droplet aerosols are greater than those of nonhygroscopic aerosols only if the former originate from dry NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 4/ particles exceeding a critical geometric diameter of 0.3 ..mu..m. Growth effects are explained in terms of the relative efficiencies of the dominant deposition mechanisms active in the lung.

  20. Results and code predictions for ABCOVE (aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation) aerosol code validation: Test AB6 with two aerosol species. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R K; McCormack, J C; Muhlestein, L D

    1984-12-01

    A program for aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The second large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB6, was performed in the 850-m/sup 3/ CSTF vessel with a two-species test aerosol. The test conditions simulated the release of a fission product aerosol, NaI, in the presence of a sodium spray fire. Five organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using seven computer codes. Three of the codes (QUICKM, MAEROS and CONTAIN) were discrete, multiple species codes, while four (HAA-3, HAA-4, HAARM-3 and SOFIA) were log-normal codes which assume uniform coagglomeration of different aerosol species. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for seven key aerosol behavior parameters.

  1. Unique DNA-barcoded aerosol test particles for studying aerosol transport

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harding, Ruth N.; Hara, Christine A.; Hall, Sara B.; Vitalis, Elizabeth A.; Thomas, Cynthia B.; Jones, A. Daniel; Day, James A.; Tur-Rojas, Vincent R.; Jorgensen, Trond; Herchert, Edwin; et al

    2016-03-22

    Data are presented for the first use of novel DNA-barcoded aerosol test particles that have been developed to track the fate of airborne contaminants in populated environments. Until DNATrax (DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol eXperiments) particles were developed, there was no way to rapidly validate air transport models with realistic particles in the respirable range of 1–10 μm in diameter. The DNATrax particles, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and tested with the assistance of the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, are the first safe and effective materials for aerosol transport studies that are identified by DNA molecules. The usemore » of unique synthetic DNA barcodes overcomes the challenges of discerning the test material from pre-existing environmental or background contaminants (either naturally occurring or previously released). The DNATrax particle properties are demonstrated to have appropriate size range (approximately 1–4.5 μm in diameter) to accurately simulate bacterial spore transport. As a result, we describe details of the first field test of the DNATrax aerosol test particles in a large indoor facility.« less

  2. Uranium oxide and sodium oxide aerosol experiments: NSPP mixed-oxide tests 303-307, data record report. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.E.; Kress, T.S.; Tobias, M.L.

    1982-10-01

    This data record report summarizes five tests, involving mixtures of uranium oxide and sodium oxide aerosols, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of this project is to establish the validity (or level of conservatism) of the aerosol behavioral code, HAARM-3, and follow-on codes under development at Battelle Columbus Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Descriptions of the five tests with tables and graphs summarizing the results are included.

  3. Contamination from electrically conductive silicone tubing during aerosol chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yong; Alexander, M. L.; Perraud, Veronique; Bruns, Emily; Johnson, Stan; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2009-06-01

    Electrically conductive silicone tubing is used to minimize losses in sampling lines during the analysis of airborne particle size distributions and number concentrations. We report contamination from this tubing using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of filter-collected samples as well as by particle mass spectrometry. Comparison of electrically conductive silicone and stainless steel tubing showed elevated siloxanes only for the silicone tubing. The extent of contamination increased with length of tubing to which the sample was exposed, and decreased with increasing relative humidity.

  4. Blue Origin Conducts Pad Escape Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape test Oct. 19 at the company's West Texas launch site, firing its pusher escape motor and launching a full-scale suborbital crew capsule from a simulate...

  5. Chamber for testing metered-dose propellant-driven aerosols of immunologically relevant proteins.

    PubMed

    Brown, A R; Pickrell, J A

    1994-12-01

    A small aerosol chamber was developed for testing and delivery of aerosols of immunologically important proteins to the respiratory tracts of rodents. The chamber was designed to accommodate the small aerosol volumes produced by metered-dose propellant-driven aerosol canisters. Metered bursts of protein aerosols released into the chamber could be sampled for their particle sizes or used to expose the noses of up to six mice to the aerosols. The chamber consisted of a polyethylene tank with two removable plexiglass end plates. One end plate accommodated the propellant-driven, metered-dose, aerosol vial. The other end of the tank was fitted with a plate accepting aerosol sampling devices or a plate containing mouse restrainers. Uniform concentrations of aerosolized proteins were obtained at different positions in the chamber when sampled for particles of respirable size. Respirable-sized protein particles produced by propellant-driven aerosols ranged from 5 to 50% of total aerosolized protein. Propellant-driven aerosols of proteins released in the chamber produced aerosol particles equivalent to 15-26 micrograms of total protein exposure to the respiratory tract of each mouse. The chamber permitted aerosol releases without risk of operator exposure. This aerosol chamber will permit the testing of protein aerosols for their immunologic consequences to the respiratory tract. Potential proteins for testing in this device include immunizing vaccine antigens, immunomodulating cytokine proteins, and passive antibody aerosol therapies against respiratory infections. PMID:7527068

  6. Surrogate/spent fuel sabotage : aerosol ratio test program and Phase 2 test results.

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III; Thompson, N. Slater; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Hibbs, R.S.; Nolte, Oliver; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno; Young, F. I.; Koch, Wolfgang; Brochard, Didier; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Lange, Florentin

    2004-05-01

    A multinational test program is in progress to quantify the aerosol particulates produced when a high energy density device, HEDD, impacts surrogate material and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This program provides needed data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments; the program also provides significant political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the spent fuel ratio, SFR, the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are crucial for predicting radiological impacts. This document includes a thorough description of the test program, including the current, detailed test plan, concept and design, plus a description of all test components, and requirements for future components and related nuclear facility needs. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2003. All available test results, observations, and analyses - primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. This spent fuel sabotage - aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC, and supported by both the U.S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  7. Chemical characterization of challenge aerosols for HEPA filter penetration testing

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, S.W.

    1985-04-01

    Quality assurance penetration testing of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters use oil mists as challenge aerosols. Concern over the carcinogenic risk associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) has led to the investigation of alternative materials and generation methods for these aerosols. Since several commonly used generation methods for quality assurance testing of HEPA filters utilize heating of the starting material, it was determined essential to evaluate the starting material and the resultant aerosol which might contain thermal degradation by-products. A penetrometer utilizing flash vaporization has been developed by A.D. Little, Inc., for the US Government as a possible alternative generation method to the Q-127 thermally generated DEHP penetrometer. Tetraethylene glycol, oleic acid, and DEHP aerosols were generated in this unit, and particulate and vapor samples were collected and identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. Thermally generated DEHP by-products were also sampled and identified using a Q-107 penetrometer used in the testing of large HEPA filters. Determination of the toxicological hazards of starting materials and all of the identified compounds was made by reviewing available literature obtained on the Toxline system of the National Library of Medicine. No major degradation products were found in the flash vaporization penetrometer although a number of thermally generated by-products were found in the Q-107 penetrometer. Toxicologically, no hazards were found to preclude the use of either tetraethylene glycol or oleic acid as tested in the A.D. Little penetrometer. 133 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Formed Core Sampler Hydraulic Conductivity Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. H.; Reigel, M. M.

    2012-09-25

    A full-scale formed core sampler was designed and functionally tested for use in the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to compare properties of the formed core samples and core drilled samples taken from adjacent areas in the full-scale sampler. While several physical properties were evaluated, the primary property of interest was hydraulic conductivity. Differences in hydraulic conductivity between the samples from the formed core sampler and those representing the bulk material were noted with respect to the initial handling and storage of the samples. Due to testing conditions, the site port samples were exposed to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions prior to testing whereas the formed core samples were kept in sealed containers with minimal exposure to an uncontrolled environment prior to testing. Based on the results of the testing, no significant differences in porosity or density were found between the formed core samples and those representing the bulk material in the test stand.

  9. Conductive surge testing of circuits and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, P.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques are given for conductive surge testing of powered electronic equipment. The correct definitions of common and normal mode are presented. Testing requires not only spike-surge generators with a suitable range of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current waveshapes, but also appropriate means, termed couplers, for connecting test surges to the equipment under test. Key among coupler design considerations is minimization of fail positives resulting from reduction in delivered surge energy due to the coupler. Back-filters and the lines on which they are necessary, are considered as well as ground-fault and ground potential rise. A method for monitoring delivered and resulting surge waves is mentioned.

  10. Overview of the Capstone depleted uranium study of aerosols from impact with armored vehicles: test setup and aerosol generation, characterization, and application in assessing dose and risk.

    PubMed

    Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Guilmette, Raymond A

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Characterization and Risk Assessment Study was conducted to generate data about DU aerosols generated during the perforation of armored combat vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, and to apply the data in assessments of human health risks to personnel exposed to these aerosols, primarily through inhalation, during the 1991 Gulf War or in future military operations. The Capstone study consisted of two components: 1) generating, sampling, and characterizing DU aerosols by firing at and perforating combat vehicles, and 2) applying the source-term quantities and characteristics of the aerosols to the evaluation of doses and risks. This paper reviews the background of the study including the bases for the study, previous reviews of DU particles and health assessments from DU used by the U.S. military, the objectives of the study components, the participants and oversight teams, and the types of exposures it was intended to evaluate. It then discusses exposure scenarios used in the dose and risk assessment and provides an overview of how the field tests and dose and risk assessments were conducted. PMID:19204481

  11. Flame-driven aerosol synthesis of copper-nickel nanopowders and conductive nanoparticle films.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Munish K; Qi, Di; Buchner, Raymond D; Scharmach, William J; Papavassiliou, Vasilis; Swihart, Mark T

    2014-08-27

    We report the continuous one-step synthesis of bimetallic copper-nickel nanostructured coatings by deposition and sintering of metal nanoparticles produced as an aerosol using a flame driven high temperature reducing jet (HTRJ) process. The HTRJ process allows gas-phase (aerosol) formation of metal nanoparticles from low-cost metal salt precursors. These can be collected as discrete powders for subsequent use in formulating conductive inks or for other applications. However, direct deposition of nanoparticles to form coatings allows measurements of electrical conductivity of films of deposited nanoparticles as a function of composition and sintering temperature, without actually formulating and printing inks. This is the approach taken here for the purpose of screening nanoparticle compositions quickly. We characterized the microstructure and composition of both nanopowders and films and found that their composition consistently matched the ratio of metals in the precursor solution. The electrical conductivity was highest (∼10(4) S/m) for films with 60:40 and 40:60 copper-to-nickel mass ratios. These films maintained their conductivity during extended storage (1 month) under ambient conditions. The oxidation resistance and high conductivity observed here suggest that 60:40 and 40:60 Cu:Ni nanoparticles have promise as lower cost replacements for silver nanoparticles in conductive ink formulations. PMID:25075968

  12. The design of an aerosol test tunnel for occupational hygiene investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackford, D. B.; Heighington, K.

    An aerosol test tunnel which provides large working sections is described and its performance evaluated. Air movement within the tunnel is achieved with a powerful D.C. motor and centrifugal fan. Test dusts are dispersed and injected into the tunnel by means of an aerosol generator. A unique divertor valve allows aerosol laden air to be either cleaned by a commercial pulse jet filtration unit or recycled around the tunnel to obtain a high aerosol concentration. The tunnel instrumentation is managed by a microcomputer which automatically controls the airspeed and aerosol concentration.

  13. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  14. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  15. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  16. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  17. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  18. Initiation of depleted uranium oxide and spent fuel testing for the spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Mo, Tin; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Loiseau, Olivier; Nolte, Oliver; Hibbs, Russell S.; Molecke, Martin Alan; Slater-Thompson, Nancy; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Tsai, Han-Chung; Billone, Michael C.; Lange, Florentin; Young, Francis I.

    2004-08-01

    The authors provide a detailed overview of an on-going, multinational test program that is developing aerosol data for some spent fuel sabotage scenarios on spent fuel transport and storage casks. Experiments are being performed to quantify the aerosolized materials plus volatilized fission products generated from actual spent fuel and surrogate material test rods, due to impact by a high-energy-density device. The program participants in the United States plus Germany, France and the United Kingdom, part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks (WGSTSC) have strongly supported and coordinated this research program. Sandia National Laboratories has the lead role for conducting this research program; test program support is provided by both the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The authors provide a summary of the overall, multiphase test design and a description of all explosive containment and aerosol collection test components used. They focus on the recently initiated tests on 'surrogate' spent fuel, unirradiated depleted uranium oxide and forthcoming actual spent fuel tests, and briefly summarize similar results from completed surrogate tests that used non-radioactive, sintered cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rods.

  19. High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, R; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Parsons, Michael S; Rogers, Donna M; Norton, Olin P; Nagel, Brian A; Alderman, Steven L; Waggoner, Charles A

    2007-08-01

    This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30 x 30 x 29 cm(3) nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 12 standard m(3)/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150 degrees C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7 standard m(3)/min, high mass concentrations (approximately 25 mg/m(3)) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160 nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions. PMID

  20. High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, R.; Hogancamp, Kristina U.; Parsons, Michael S.; Rogers, Donna M.; Norton, Olin P.; Nagel, Brian A.; Alderman, Steven L.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2007-08-01

    This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30×30×29cm3 nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5to12standardm3/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150°C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7standardm3/min, high mass concentrations (˜25mg/m3) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions.

  1. LMFBR source term experiments in the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Petrykowski, J.C.; Longest, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The transport of uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) aerosol through liquid sodium was studied in a series of ten experiments in the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The experiments were designed to provide a mechanistic basis for evaluating the radiological source term associated with a postulated, energetic core disruptive accident (CDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Aerosol was generated by capacitor discharge vaporization of UO/sub 2/ pellets which were submerged in a sodium pool under an argon cover gas. Measurements of the pool and cover gas pressures were used to study the transport of aerosol contained by vapor bubbles within the pool. Samples of cover gas were filtered to determine the quantity of aerosol released from the pool. The depth at which the aerosol was generated was found to be the most critical parameter affecting release. The largest release was observed in the baseline experiment where the sample was vaporized above the sodium pool. In the nine ''undersodium'' experiments aerosol was generated beneath the surface of the pool at depths varying from 30 to 1060 mm. The mass of aerosol released from the pool was found to be a very small fraction of the original specimen. It appears that the bulk of aerosol was contained by bubbles which collapsed within the pool. 18 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Binary Colloidal Alloy Test Conducted on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, Monica I.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1999-01-01

    Colloids are tiny (submicron) particles suspended in fluid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. The Binary Colloidal Alloy Test (BCAT) is part of an extensive series of experiments planned to investigate the fundamental properties of colloids so that scientists can make colloids more useful for technological applications. Some of the colloids studied in BCAT are made of two different sized particles (binary colloidal alloys) that are very tiny, uniform plastic spheres. Under the proper conditions, these colloids can arrange themselves in a pattern to form crystals. These crystals may form the basis of new classes of light switches, displays, and optical devices. Windows made of liquid crystals are already in the marketplace. These windows change their appearance from transparent to opaque when a weak electric current is applied. In the future, if the colloidal crystals can be made to control the passage of light through them, such products could be made much more cheaply. These experiments require the microgravity environment of space because good quality crystals are difficult to produce on Earth because of sedimentation and convection in the fluid. The BCAT experiment hardware included two separate modules for two different experiments. The "Slow Growth" hardware consisted of a 35-mm camera with a 250- exposure photo film cartridge. The camera was aimed toward the sample module, which contained 10 separate colloid samples. A rack of small lights provided backlighting for the photographs. The BCAT hardware was launched on the shuttle and was operated aboard the Russian space station Mir by American astronauts John Blaha and David Wolf (launched September 1996 and returned January 1997; reflown September 1997 and returned January 1998). To begin the experiment, one of these astronauts would mix the samples to disperse the colloidal particles and break up any crystals that might have already formed. Once the samples were mixed and

  3. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program : FY 2004 test and data summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Brucher, Wenzel; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Loiseau, Olivier; Mo, Tin; Billone, Michael C.; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Young, F. I.; Coats, Richard Lee; Burtseva, Tatiana; Luna, Robert Earl; Dickey, Roy R.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Nolte, Oliver; Thompson, Nancy Slater; Hibbs, Russell S.; Gregson, Michael Warren; Lange, Florentin; Molecke, Martin Alan; Tsai, Han-Chung

    2005-07-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. The program also provides significant technical and political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are the input for follow-on modeling studies to quantify respirable hazards, associated radiological risk assessments, vulnerability assessments, and potential cask physical protection design modifications. This document includes an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, during FY 2004. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2004. All available test results, observations, and aerosol analyses plus interpretations--primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests, series 2/5A through 2/9B, using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. Advanced plans and progress are described for upcoming tests with unirradiated, depleted uranium oxide and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of

  4. Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol code validation - Test AB5

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R K; McCormack, J D; Postma, A K

    1983-11-01

    A program for aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The first large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB5, was performed in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel using a sodium spray as the aerosol source. Seven organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using seven different computer codes (HAA-3, HAA-4, HAARM-3, QUICK, MSPEC, MAEROS and CONTAIN). Three of the codes were used by more than one user so that the effect of user input could be assessed, as well as the codes themselves. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for eight key parameters.

  5. Laboratory Testing of Aerosol for Enclosure Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Curtis; Modera, Mark

    2012-05-01

    This report presents a process for improving the air tightness of a building envelope by sealing shell leaks with an aerosol sealing technology. Both retrofit and new construction applications are possible through applying this process either in attics and crawlspaces or during rough-in stage.

  6. Measurement of internal and external mixtures of test aerosols with a new Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonaschütz, Anna; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2015-04-01

    The mixing state of atmospheric aerosol particles is a very important property affecting processes such as CCN activation and scattering and absorption of light by the particles, but is challenging to determine. A new Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (LAAPTOF, AeroMegt GmbH) was tested with regards to its capability of measuring internal and external mixture of aerosols using laboratory generated particles. To create the external mixture, solutions of three different salts in deionized water, and a suspension of carbon black (Cabot Corporation) in a mixture of isopropanol and water were nebulized and individually dried, before being passed into a small mixing chamber. To create the internal mixture, equal parts of each solution/suspension were mixed, fed into a single nebulizer, nebulized and dried. The LAAPTOF sampled from the mixing chamber and recorded mass spectra of individual particles. The analysis shows a heterogeneous ensemble of single particle spectra for the external mixture, and a homogeneous ensemble of spectra for the internal mixture. The ability of a fuzzy clustering algorithm to resolve the difference between the two mixing states was also tested.

  7. Aerosol penetration measurements through protective clothing in small scale simulation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Garr, J.; Fearon, D.; Gerdner, P.

    1989-06-01

    We have developed a new laboratory apparatus and technique to measure the penetration of aerosols through protective clothing. The unique feature of this apparatus is a cylindrical fabric holder that incorporates the complex aerodynamics of flow around protective clothing. Because of this feature, the test results from small patch samples in this apparatus can be used to predict aerosol penetration in full scale clothing. This apparatus has the potential for large time and cost savings in new suit development and in evaluating protective clothing against biological agents and chemical aerosols. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  8. 30 CFR 18.9 - Conduct of investigations and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conduct of investigations and tests. 18.9 Section 18.9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES General Provisions § 18.9 Conduct of investigations...

  9. 14 CFR 33.99 - General conduct of block tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General conduct of block tests. 33.99 Section 33.99 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.99 General conduct of...

  10. 14 CFR 33.99 - General conduct of block tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General conduct of block tests. 33.99 Section 33.99 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.99 General conduct of...

  11. Development and testing of an aerosol-stratus cloud parameterization scheme for middle and high latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, P.Q.; Meyers, M.P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Cotton, W.R.

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this new project is to develop an aerosol/cloud microphysics parameterization of mixed-phase stratus and boundary layer clouds. Our approach is to create, test, and implement a bulk-microphysics/aerosol model using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites and large-eddy simulation (LES) explicit bin-resolving aerosol/microphysics models. The primary objectives of this work are twofold. First, we need the prediction of number concentrations of activated aerosol which are transferred to the droplet spectrum, so that the aerosol population directly affects the cloud formation and microphysics. Second, we plan to couple the aerosol model to the gas and aqueous-chemistry module that will drive the aerosol formation and growth. We begin by exploring the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations of Arctic stratus clouds over the North Slope CART site. These simulations using Colorado State University`s regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) will be useful in designing the structure of the cloud-resolving model and in interpreting data acquired at the North Slope site.

  12. Laboratory Testing of Aerosol for Enclosure Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, C.; Modera, M.

    2012-05-01

    Space conditioning energy use can be significantly reduced by addressing uncontrolled infiltration and exfiltration through the envelope of a building. A process for improving the air tightness of a building envelope by sealing shell leaks with an aerosol sealing technology is presented. Both retrofit and new construction applications are possible through applying this process either in attics and crawlspaces or during rough-in stage.

  13. Surrogate/spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio testing:phase 1 summary and results.

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, Manuel Gilbert; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Lange, F. , Germany); Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Dickey, Roy R.; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire , France); Young, F. I.; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und reaktorsicherheit , Germany)

    2005-10-01

    This multinational test program is quantifying the aerosol particulates produced when a high energy density device (HEDD) impacts surrogate material and actual spent fuel test rodlets. The experimental work, performed in four consecutive test phases, has been in progress for several years. The overall program provides needed data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This program also provides significant political benefits in international cooperation for nuclear security related evaluations. The spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks (WGSTSC), and supported by both the U.S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report summarizes the preliminary, Phase 1 work performed in 2001 and 2002 at Sandia National Laboratories and the Fraunhofer Institute, Germany, and documents the experimental results obtained, observations, and preliminary interpretations. Phase 1 testing included: performance quantifications of the HEDD devices; characterization of the HEDD or conical shaped charge (CSC) jet properties with multiple tests; refinement of the aerosol particle collection apparatus being used; and, CSC jet-aerosol tests using leaded glass plates and glass pellets, serving as representative brittle materials. Phase 1 testing was quite important for the design and performance of the following Phase 2 test program and test apparatus.

  14. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable. The test requirements and performance... specified for a reference method sampler in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable, such as... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aerosol transport test for Class...

  15. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable. The test requirements and performance... specified for a reference method sampler in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable, such as... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerosol transport test for Class...

  16. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable. The test requirements and performance... specified for a reference method sampler in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable, such as... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aerosol transport test for Class...

  17. 30 CFR 74.12 - Conduct of tests; demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conduct of tests; demonstrations. 74.12 Section 74.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES General Requirements for All Devices § 74.12 Conduct...

  18. High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Nantista, C.D.; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-11-07

    We report the results of the first high power tests of single-cell traveling-wave and standing-wave structures. These tests are part of an experimental and theoretical study of rf breakdown in normal conducting structures at 11.4 GHz. The goal of this study is to determine the gradient potential of normal-conducting rf-powered particle beam accelerators. The test setup consists of reusable mode converters and short test structures and is powered by SLAC's XL-4 klystron. This setup was created for economical testing of different cell geometries, cell materials and preparation techniques with short turn-around time. The mode launchers and structures were manufactured at SLAC and KEK and tested in the SLAC Klystron Test Lab.

  19. 30 CFR 35.7 - Date for conducting tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Date for conducting tests. 35.7 Section 35.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.7 Date for...

  20. 30 CFR 35.7 - Date for conducting tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Date for conducting tests. 35.7 Section 35.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.7 Date for...

  1. 30 CFR 35.7 - Date for conducting tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Date for conducting tests. 35.7 Section 35.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.7 Date for...

  2. 30 CFR 35.7 - Date for conducting tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Date for conducting tests. 35.7 Section 35.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.7 Date for...

  3. 30 CFR 33.7 - Date for conducting tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Date for conducting tests. 33.7 Section 33.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 33.7 - Date for conducting tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Date for conducting tests. 33.7 Section 33.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 33.7 - Date for conducting tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Date for conducting tests. 33.7 Section 33.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 33.7 - Date for conducting tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Date for conducting tests. 33.7 Section 33.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 33.7 - Date for conducting tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Date for conducting tests. 33.7 Section 33.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES...

  8. 30 CFR 74.12 - Conduct of tests; demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tests; demonstrations. (a) Prior to the issuance of a certificate of approval, only personnel of MSHA... observe the tests conducted. MSHA and NIOSH shall hold as confidential, and shall not disclose, principles of patentable features, nor shall MSHA or NIOSH disclose any details of the applicant's drawings...

  9. 30 CFR 35.7 - Date for conducting tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Date for conducting tests. 35.7 Section 35.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.7 Date for...

  10. In-place testing of tandem HEPA filter stages using fluorescent aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.; Kyle, T.G.; Tillery, M.I.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1981-04-01

    Fluorescent test aerosols have been incorporated into an in-place two-stage high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter test method to improve sensitivity and eliminate interference by background aerosol leaking into the downstream sampling location. The method has been demonstrated by field testing large two-stage HEPA systems, one with a flow rate of 22 m/sup 3//s (48,500 cfm) and a decontamination factor (DF) of approximately 10/sup 8/. Advantages of the method, such as DF measurement more representative of actual filter performance and potential savings in construction and testing costs, make the fluorescent particle method a useful test method. A laser fluorescent particle spectrometer suitable for testing by this method was developed in conjunction with an instrument manufacturer and is commercially available. An improved dilution system was developed to reduce upstream aerosol concentration into the operating range of the spectrometer. Generation of a fluorescent dye-tagged DOP aerosol was accomplished by high-capacity, gas-thermal generator. Aerosol concentration of approximately 2 x 10/sup 6/ particles per cm/sup 3/ was maintained in the plenum upstream of the first stage. Other in-place test methods using fluorescent particles collected on sampling filters were investigated with only limited success and could not be extended to two-stage testing. The potentially most sensitive method, counting of solid fluorescent particles on sample filters taken upstream and downstream of HEPA filter stages, was restricted by particle losses in the resuspension operation. Maximum DF measurable by a solid fluorescent particle method was predicted to be 3 x 10/sup 3/, which would be adequate for testing one high-quality HEPA filter stage without excessive filter loading.

  11. Analysis of Slug Tests in Formations of High Hydraulic Conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J., Jr.; Garnett, E.J.; Healey, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A new procedure is presented for the analysis of slug tests performed in partially penetrating wells in formations of high hydraulic conductivity. This approach is a simple, spreadsheet-based implementation of existing models that can be used for analysis of tests from confined or unconfined aquifers. Field examples of tests exhibiting oscillatory and nonoscillatory behavior are used to illustrate the procedure and to compare results with estimates obtained using alternative approaches. The procedure is considerably simpler than recently proposed methods for this hydrogeologic setting. Although the simplifications required by the approach can introduce error into hydraulic-conductivity estimates, this additional error becomes negligible when appropriate measures are taken in the field. These measures are summarized in a set of practical field guidelines for slug tests in highly permeable aquifers.

  12. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier; Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Brucher, Wenzel; Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-03-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively

  13. Pretest Caluculations of Temperature Changes for Field Thermal Conductivity Tests

    SciTech Connect

    N.S. Brodsky

    2002-07-17

    A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J {center_dot} m{sup -3} {center_dot} K{sup -1}), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result.

  14. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : technical review and analysis supplement.

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2009-07-01

    This project seeks to provide vital data required to assess the consequences of a terrorist attack on a spent fuel transportation cask. One such attack scenario involves the use of conical shaped charges (CSC), which are capable of damaging a spent fuel transportation cask. In the event of such an attack, the amount of radioactivity that may be released as respirable aerosols is not known with great certainty. Research to date has focused on measuring the aerosol release from single short surrogate fuel rodlets subjected to attack by a small CSC device in various aerosol chamber designs. The last series of three experiments tested surrogate fuel rodlets made with depleted uranium oxide ceramic pellets in a specially designed double chamber aerosol containment apparatus. This robust testing apparatus was designed to prevent any radioactive release and allow high level radioactive waste disposal of the entire apparatus following testing of actual spent fuel rodlets as proposed. DOE and Sandia reviews of the project to date identified a number of issues. The purpose of this supplemental report is to address and document the DOE review comments and to resolve the issues identified in the Sandia technical review.

  15. Aerosol behavior during SIC control rod failure in QUENCH-13 test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Csordás, Anna Pintér; Nagy, Imre; Stuckert, Juri

    2010-02-01

    In a nuclear reactor severe accident, radioactive fission products as well as structural materials are released from the core by evaporation, and the released gases form particles by nucleation and condensation. In addition, aerosol particles may be generated by droplet formation and fragmentation of the core. In pressurized water reactors (PWR), a commonly used control rod material is silver-indium-cadmium (SIC) covered with stainless steel cladding. The control rod elements, Cd, In and Ag, have relatively low melting temperatures, and especially Cd has also a very low boiling point. Control rods are likely to fail early on in the accident due to melting of the stainless steel cladding which can be accelerated by eutectic interaction between stainless steel and the surrounding Zircaloy guide tube. The release of the control rod materials would follow the cladding failure thus affecting aerosol source term as well as fuel rod degradation. The QUENCH experimental program at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe investigates phenomena associated with reflood of a degrading core under postulated severe accident conditions. QUENCH-13 test was the first in this program to include a silver-indium-cadmium control rod of prototypic PWR design. To characterize the extent of aerosol release during the control rod failure, aerosol particle size distribution and concentration measurements in the off-gas pipe of the QUENCH facility were carried out. For the first time, it was possible to determine on-line the aerosol concentration and size distribution released from the core. These results are of prime importance for model development for the proper calculation of the source term resulting from control rod failure. The on-line measurement showed that the main aerosol release started at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1570 K at hottest bundle elevation. A very large burst of aerosols was detected 660 s later at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1650 K, followed by a relatively

  16. 14 CFR 91.1019 - Conducting tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conducting tests and inspections. 91.1019 Section 91.1019 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management §...

  17. "The Instruments used in Conducting the Tests at the Tule ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "The Instruments used in Conducting the Tests at the Tule River Power House." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. II, No. 3, March 1914, p. 119 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  18. Scavenging in weakly electrified saturated and subsaturated clouds, treating aerosol particles and droplets as conducting spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Limin; Tinsley, Brian A.; Plemmons, Abigail

    2009-09-01

    The effects of electric charge on collision rate coefficients for scavenging of aerosol particles by droplets are evaluated, as appropriate to weak electrification conditions in clouds. Variations in charges on droplets and particles in clouds are proportional to the flow of current in the global electric circuit through gradients in resistivity, which are determined by gradients in droplet concentration and humidity. We obtain the collision rate coefficients by “trajectory model” calculations for spherical aerosol particles and droplets using the exact electrical force equation, with its long-range repulsion and short-range attraction, interacting with drag, inertia, and phoretic forces. The use of the exact electric force gives rate coefficients up to a factor of two greater than previous image charge calculations for particles in the “Greenfield Gap”. Rate coefficients for scavenging by Brownian diffusion are obtained by the analytic expression for “flux model” calculations. Rate coefficients for combined effects of electric and phoretic scavenging are given, as appropriate for scavenging of droplets evaporating to residual particles while temporarily retaining the original droplet charge. For particles of radii below about 0.1 μm and with charges typical of residues of freshly evaporated droplets, the long-range repulsive electrical force reduces the collision rate coefficients below those for phoretic scavenging in subsaturated air and below the rates for Brownian scavenging. Time constants for scavenging of particles are given for selected values of droplet size, particle and droplet charges, and particle density, and the applications to observed effects in the atmosphere are discussed.

  19. Weld Tests Conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; Lance Lauerhass; James Dowalo

    2007-02-01

    During the fiscal year of 2006, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed many tests and work relating to the Mobile Melt-Dilute (MMD) Project components. Tests performed on the Staubli quick disconnect fittings showed promising results, but more tests were needed validate the fittings. Changes were made to the shield plug design—reduced the closure groove weld depth between the top of the canister and the top plate of the shielding plug from 0.5-in to 0.375-in deep. Other changes include a cap to cover the fitting, lifting pintle and welding code citations on the prints. Tests conducted showed stainless steel tubing, with 0.25-in, 0.375-in, and 0.5-in diameters, all with 0.035-in wall thickness, could be pinch seal welded using commercially available resistance welding equipment. Subsequent testing showed that these welds could be real-time inspected with ultrasonic inspection methods.

  20. Percolation testing and hydraulic conductivity of soils for percolation areas.

    PubMed

    Mulqueen, J; Rodgers, M

    2001-11-01

    The results of specific percolation tests are expressed in terms of field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) of the soil. The specific tests comprise the Irish SR 6 and the UK BS 6297 standard tests and the inversed auger hole and square hole tests employed for the design of land drainage. Percolation times from these tests are converted to Kfs values using unit gradient theory and the Elrick and Reynolds (Soil Sci. 142(5) (1986) 308) model which takes into account gravitational, pressure head and matric potential gradients. Kfs is then expressed as the inverse of the percolation rate times a constant, in this way the percolation rate can be directly related to Kfs of the soil. A plot of Kfs against percolation rate for the Irish SR 6 and the UK BS 6297 standard tests is asymptotic at Kfs values less than 0.2 m/d and greater than 0.8 m/d. This behaviour creates difficulty in setting limits for percolation rates in standards. Curves are provided which enable Kfs values to be read off from percolation tests without the restrictions of head range currently enforced, for example in the Irish SR 6 and BS 6297 standards. Experimental measurements of percolation rates and Kfs were carried out on two sands in the laboratory and in the field on two soils. Kfs of these four materials was also measured using a tension infiltrometer and the Guelph permeameter. The saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) of the sands were also estimated in a falling head laboratory apparatus and by the Hazen formula. There was good agreement between the different tests for Kfs on each material. Because percolation time continued to increase significantly in consecutive tests in the same test hole while Kfs became constant, the latter is a better measure of the suitability of soils for percolation. PMID:12230173

  1. Development of an aerosol dispersion test to detect early changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    McCawley, M.; Lippmann, M.

    1988-07-01

    The dispersion of a 0.5 micron aerosol bolus during tidal breathing differs significantly (p less than 0.0001) between a group of smokers (with approximately 20 pack-years average exposure) and a comparable group of nonsmokers. Their mean differences in standard respiratory function indexes from spirometry (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC (FEF25-75)) were smaller and not statistically significant. The test is simple to perform and may be done as quickly as spirometry but without using a forced exhalation. Comparison of the coefficients of variation for the dispersion test and FEV1 indicate that the aerosol dispersion test may be useful in epidemiologic investigations either by reducing the required population size or increasing the level of confidence.

  2. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  3. Thermography Used to Test Conductivity of Carbon Based Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Testing of the ability of carbon fiber to radiatively cool a heat source. The carbon fibers are attached to a heat source. The heat conducts into the fiber than along the fiber away from the heat source. The test are done in a vacuum chamber (10-5 Torr typical). The IR camera is viewing the fiber through a ZnSe window. A thermocouple (TC) in contact with the fiber is at the top right hand side of the area of interest and one is near the bottom. Thin shielding fins, seen edge on, are just above the top thermocouple.

  4. Conduct disorder and cognitive functioning: testing three causal hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, I S; Shaffer, D; O'Connor, P; Portnoy, S

    1988-08-01

    The sample consisted of black adolescents who were members of the Columbia-Presbyterian chapter of the Collaborative Perinatal Project from birth to age 7. At age 17, subjects and their parents were administered a battery of instruments that included standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews as part of a call-back study. Results from least-squares and logistic regression analyses were compatible with the hypothesis that deficiencies in cognitive functioning are causally related to adolescent conduct disorder as defined by DSM III. The results suggested that the relation of cognitive functioning to psychiatric status appears to be specific to conduct disorders. The results were incompatible with a "third" variable hypothesis (third factors included neurological status and environmental disadvantage) and the hypothesis that conduct problems lead to deficits in cognitive functioning. The 3 most (and equally) important factors in accounting for age-17 conduct disorder were cognitive functioning, parent psychopathology, and early aggression. A closer look at the data tentatively suggested that a broad deficiency in acculturational learning, rather than narrowly focused social cognitive differences or native endowment, constitutes a key element in the link between cognitive functioning and conduct disorder. Test bias was ruled out as a possible explanation for the results. PMID:3168633

  5. Field test of a new instrument to measure UV/Vis (300-700 nm) ambient aerosol extinction spectra in Colorado during DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, C. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Greenslade, M. E.; Martin, R.; Scheuer, E. M.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Troop, D.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    An optical instrument has been developed to investigate aerosol extinction spectra in the ambient atmosphere. Based on a White-type cell design and using a differential optical approach, aerosol extinction spectra over the 300-700 nm ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) wavelength range are obtained. Laboratory tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) in March 2014 showed good agreement with Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS PMex, Aerodyne Research) extinction measurements (at 450, 530, and 630 nm) for a variety of aerosols, e.g., scatterers such as polystyrene latex spheres and ammonium sulfate; absorbers such as dust (including pigmented minerals), smoke (generated in a miniCAST burning propane) and laboratory smoke analogs (e.g., fullerene soot and aquadag). The instrument was field tested in Colorado in July and August 2014 aboard the NASA mobile laboratory at various ground sites during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. A description of the instrument, results from the laboratory tests, and summer field data will be presented. The instrument provides a new tool for probing in situ aerosol optical properties that may help inform remote sensing approaches well into the UV range.

  6. Vortex Wake Turbulence: Flight Tests Conducted During 1970

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A flight test program designed to obtain data on the characteristics of wing-tip vortices generated by large jet aircraft was initiated on 12 February 1970. The objective was to update the interim air traffic separation standards issued on 21 January 1970 restricting the airspace behind the B-747 and C-5A aircraft 60 deg either side and 2,000 feet below to a distance of 10 miles. The program involved flight tests at three different locations, which were conducted simultaneously. (1) At the Edwards Air Force Base test range, a NASA CV-990 and F-104 probed the vortices of a C-5A. This supplemented previous flight tests in U-3A and F-104 behind a B-52 and C-5A. (2) At Seattle, the Boeing Company probed the vortices of a B-747 and a B-707-300 with a B-737 and F-86. In addition, approach, landing, takeoff, and crossing runway tests were conducted with a B-737 trailing a B-747. Immediately following the Edwards tests, the NASA CV-990 proceeded to Seattle and engaged in probing flights behind the same B-747 and B-707-300. (3) At Idaho Falls, Idaho, FAA personnel, utilizing the Atomic Energy Commission and Environmental Science Services Administration facilities and a 200 ft, instrumented tower, conducted 114 flights past the tower. The aircraft were positioned to permit their vortices to descend into the air flow sensors and smoke generated from various levels on the tower. This permitted obtaining measurements and photography of the vortex core diameters, tangential velocities and related characteristics. Immediately following this test phase, analysis of the interrelated data was completed by the project managers representing NASA, Boeing and FAA and a Compilation of Work Papers was issued on 30 April 1970. These data were the basis of a revised General Notice issued on 26 February 1970 which, in essence, modified the restricted airspace to five miles behind heavy jets in the 300,000 lb. gross takeoff weight category.

  7. 3. Guidelines for efficacy testing of household insecticide products - Mosquito coils, vaporizer mats, liquid vaporizers, ambient emanators and aerosols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides specific and standardized procedures and criteria for efficacy testing and evaluation of specific household insecticide products intended for indoor use against mosquitoes, namely, mosquito coils, vaporizer mats, liquid vaporizers, ambient emanators and aerosols....

  8. The Messy Aerosol Submodel MADE3 (v2.0b): Description and a Box Model Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, J. C.; Hendricks, J.; Righi, M.; Riemer, N.; Zaveri, R. A.; Metzger, S.; Aquila, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We introduce MADE3 (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications, 3rd generation), an aerosol dynamics submodel for application within the MESSy framework (Modular Earth Submodel System). MADE3 builds on the predecessor aerosol submodels MADE and MADE-in. Its main new features are the explicit representation of coarse particle interactions both with other particles and with condensable gases, and the inclusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl)chloride (Cl) partitioning between the gas and condensed phases. The aerosol size distribution is represented in the new submodel as a superposition of nine lognormal modes: one for fully soluble particles, one for insoluble particles, and one for mixed particles in each of three size ranges (Aitken, accumulation, and coarse mode size ranges). In order to assess the performance of MADE3 we compare it to its predecessor MADE and to the much more detailed particle-resolved aerosol model PartMC-MOSAIC in a box model simulation of an idealized marine boundary layer test case. MADE3 and MADE results are very similar, except in the coarse mode, where the aerosol is dominated by sea spray particles. Cl is reduced in MADE3 with respect to MADE due to the HClCl partitioning that leads to Cl removal from the sea spray aerosol in our test case. Additionally, aerosol nitrate concentration is higher in MADE3 due to the condensation of nitric acid on coarse particles. MADE3 and PartMC- MOSAIC show substantial differences in the fine particle size distributions (sizes about 2 micrometers) that could be relevant when simulating climate effects on a global scale. Nevertheless, the agreement between MADE3 and PartMC-MOSAIC is very good when it comes to coarse particle size distribution, and also in terms of aerosol composition. Considering these results and the well-established ability of MADE in reproducing observed aerosol loadings and composition, MADE3 seems suitable for application within a global model.

  9. Optimization and Testing of Electrically Conductive Spacecraft Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report discussing work done for the Space Environmental Effects (SEE) program in the Materials and Processes Laboratory, on electrically conductive thermal control coatings. These thermal control coatings are being developed to have several orders of magnitude lower electrical resistivity than most available thermal control coatings. Extensive research has taken place over the last few years to develop a variety of spacecraft coatings with the unique property of being able to conduct surface charge to a substrate or grounding system. The ability to conduct surface charge to a safe point, while maintaining optical properties and performance, is highly advantageous in maintaining operational space based systems. Without this mechanism the surface of a spacecraft can accumulate charge to the point that a catastrophic electrical breakdown can occur, resulting in damage to or failure of the spacecraft. Ultimately, use of this type of coating will help mitigate many of the concerns that NASA and the space industry still have for their space based systems. The unique coatings studied here fall into two specific categories: 1) broadband absorber and 2) selective absorber. These coatings have controllable solar absorptance and electrical surface resistivity values over the designated ranges. These coatings were developed under an SBIR program which focused on the development of such constituents and coatings. This project focused on simulated space environmental effects testing with the intent of using this data to help optimize the stability and initial properties of these coatings.

  10. Testing and Optimization of Electrically Conductive Spacecraft Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, R. J.; Wertz, G. E.; Edwards, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report discussing the work done for the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program. It discusses test chamber design, coating research, and test results on electrically thermal control coatings. These thermal control coatings are being developed to have several orders of magnitude higher electrical conductivity than most available thermal control coatings. Most current coatings tend to have a range in surface resistivity from 1,011 to 1,013 ohms/sq. Historically, spacecraft have had thermal control surfaces composed of dielectric materials of either polymers (paints and metalized films) or glasses (ceramic paints and optical solar reflectors). Very seldom has the thermal control surface of a spacecraft been a metal where the surface would be intrinsically electrically conductive. The poor thermal optical properties of most metals have, in most cases, stopped them from being used as a thermal control surface. Metals low infrared emittance (generally considered poor for thermal control surfaces) and/or solar absorptance, have resulted in the use of various dielectric coatings or films being applied over the substrate materials in order to obtain the required optical properties.

  11. Fabrication and test of a variable conductance heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtinen, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    A variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) with feedback control was fabricated with a reservoir-condenser volume ratio of 10 and an axially grooved action section. Tests of the heat transport capability were greater than or equal to the analytical predictions for the no gas case. When gas was added, the pipe performance degraded by 18% at zero tilt as was expected. The placement of the reservoir heater and the test fixture cooling fins are believed to have caused a superheated vapor condition in the reservoir. Erroneously high reservoir temperature indications resulted from this condition. The observed temperature gradients in the reservoir lend support to this theory. The net result was higher than predicted reservoir temperatures. Also, significant increases in minimum heat load resulted for controller set point temperatures higher than 0 C. At 30 C, control within the tolerance band was maintained, but high reservoir heater power was required. Analyses showed that control is not possible for reasonably low reservoir heater power. This is supported by the observation of a significant reservoir heat leak through the condenser.

  12. 40 CFR 60.1795 - May I conduct stack testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Stack Testing § 60.1795 May I conduct stack testing less often? (a) You may test less often if you own... conduct a stack test for that pollutant for the next 2 years. However, you must conduct another stack test within 36 months of the anniversary date of the third consecutive stack test that shows you comply...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1151 - How often must I conduct well production tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How often must I conduct well production tests... Gas Production Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1151 How often must I conduct well production tests? (a) You must conduct well production tests as shown in the following table: You must conduct:...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1151 - How often must I conduct well production tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How often must I conduct well production tests... Gas Production Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1151 How often must I conduct well production tests? (a) You must conduct well production tests as shown in the following table: You must conduct:...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1151 - How often must I conduct well production tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How often must I conduct well production tests... Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1151 How often must I conduct well production tests? (a) You must conduct well production tests as shown in the following table: You must conduct: And you must submit...

  16. Estimation on the self recovery behavior of low-conductivity layer in landfill final cover by laboratory conductivity tests.

    PubMed

    Kwon, O; Park, J

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the application of a Self Recovering Sustainable Layer (SRSL) as a landfill final cover. Low-conductivity layers in landfill covers are known to have problems associated with cracking as a result of the differential settlement or climatic changes. A SRSL is defined as a layer with chemical properties that reduces the increased hydraulic conductivity resulting from cracking by forming low-conductivity precipitates of chemicals contained in the layer. In this study, the formation of precipitates was confirmed using a batch test, spectroscopic analysis and mineralogical speciation tests. The possibility of secondary contamination due to the chemicals used for recovery was evaluated using a leaching test. A laboratory conductivity test was performed on a single layer composed of each chemical as well as on a 2-layer system. The recovery performance of the SRSL was estimated by developing artificial cracks in the specimens and observing the change in hydraulic conductivity as a function of time. In the laboratory conductivity test, the hydraulic conductivity of a 2-layer system as well as those of the individual layers that comprise the 2-layer system was estimated. In addition sodium ash was found to enhance the reduction in conductivity. A significant increase in conductivity was observed after the cracks developed but this was reduced with time, which indicated that the SRSL has a proper recovering performance. In conclusion, a SRSL can be used as a landfill final cover that could maintain low-conductivity even after the serious damages due to settlement. PMID:17203605

  17. Development of a Test Technique to Determine the Thermal Conductivity of Large Refractory Ceramic Test Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Loveland, Erick R; Prigmore, Andre L

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed to utilize the High Intensity Infrared lamp located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the measurement of thermal conductivity of bulk refractory materials at elevated temperatures. The applicability of standardized test methods to determine the thermal conductivity of refractory materials at elevated temperatures is limited to small sample sizes (laser flash) or older test methods (hot wire, guarded hot plate), which have their own inherent problems. A new method, based on the principle of the laser flash method, but capable of evaluating test specimens on the order of 200 x 250 x 50 mm has been developed. Tests have been performed to validate the method and preliminary results are presented in this paper.

  18. 40 CFR 60.2720 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance testing less often? (a) You can test less often for a given pollutant if you have test data for at... not have to conduct a performance test for that pollutant for the next 2 years. You must conduct a... chloride, or opacity, you may choose to conduct performance tests for these pollutants every third...

  19. 40 CFR 63.2993 - What test methods must I use in conducting performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in conducting performance tests? (a) Use EPA Method 1 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) for selecting the sampling port location and the number of sampling ports. (b) Use EPA Method 2 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) for measuring the volumetric flow rate. (c) Use EPA Method 316 or 318 (40 CFR part 63, appendix A)...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2993 - What test methods must I use in conducting performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in conducting performance tests? (a) Use EPA Method 1 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) for selecting the sampling port location and the number of sampling ports. (b) Use EPA Method 2 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) for measuring the volumetric flow rate. (c) Use EPA Method 316 or 318 (40 CFR part 63, appendix A)...

  1. 40 CFR 63.2993 - What test methods must I use in conducting performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in conducting performance tests? (a) Use EPA Method 1 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) for selecting the sampling port location and the number of sampling ports. (b) Use EPA Method 2 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) for measuring the volumetric flow rate. (c) Use EPA Method 316 or 318 (40 CFR part 63, appendix A)...

  2. CHANGES IN OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION UNIFORMITY FOR PM2.5 AND PM10 SAMPLER TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical note documents changes in the standard operating procedures used at the Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) aerosol testing wind tunnel facility for testing of particulate matter monitoring methods of PM2.5 and PM10. These changes are relative to the op...

  3. A Proposed Framework for Conducting Data-Based Test Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaney, Kathleen L.; Maraun, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors argue that the current state of applied data-based test analytic practice is unstructured and unmethodical due in large part to the fact that there is no clearly specified, widely accepted test analytic framework for judging the performances of particular tests in particular contexts. Drawing from the extant test theory literature,…

  4. Laboratory Testing and Calibration of the Nuclei-Mode Aerosol Size Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    This grant was awarded to complete testing and calibration of a new instrument, the nuclei-mode aerosol size spectrometer (N-MASS), following its use in the WB-57F Aerosol Measurement (WAM) campaign in early 1998. The N-MASS measures the size distribution of particles in the 4-60 nm diameter range with 1-Hz response at typical free tropospheric conditions. Specific tasks to have been completed under the auspices of this award were: 1) to experimentally determine the instrumental sampling efficiency; 2) to determine the effects of varying temperatures and flows on N-MASS performance; and 3) to calibrate the N-MASS at typical flight conditions as operated in WAM. The work outlined above has been completed, and a journal manuscript based on this work and that describes the performance of the N-MASS is in preparation. Following a brief description of the principles of operation of the instrument, the major findings of this study are described.

  5. Construction, Modeling and Testing of a Low-Flow, Large-Diameter Aerosol Flow System for the Study of the Formation and Reactions of Tropospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezell, M. J.; Johnson, S. N.; Yu, Y.; Pokkunuri, P.; Perraud, V.; Bruns, E.; Alexander, M.; Zelenyuk, A.; Dabdub, D.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    A unique, high-volume, low-flow, stainless steel aerosol flow system for the study of the formation and reactions of aerosols relevant to the troposphere has been constructed, modeled and experimentally tested. The total flow tube length is 7.3 m which includes a 1.2 m section used for mixing. The flow tube is equipped with ultraviolet lamps for photolysis. The diameter of 0.45 m results in a smaller surface to volume ratio than is found in many other flow systems and reduces the contribution of wall reactions. The latter is also reduced by frequent cleaning of the flow tube walls which is feasible due to the ease of disassembly of the flow tube. Flow systems present a major advantage over chamber studies in that continuous sampling under stable conditions over long periods of time is possible, increasing the amount of sample available for analysis and permitting a wide variety of analytical techniques to be applied simultaneously. In this system, the large volume (1000 L) and low flow speed (2 cm/minute) result in a residence time of nearly an hour; and equally spaced sampling ports allow for time-resolved measurements of aerosol and gas-phase products. The central features of this system have been modeled using computational fluid dynamics software and experimentally probed using inert gases and aerosols. Instrumentation attached directly to this flow system includes a NOx analyzer, an ozone analyzer, relative humidity and temperature probes, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) spectrometer, an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer, GC-MS, integrating nephelometer, and FTIR. Particles are collected using impactors and filters, and analyzed by a variety of techniques including FTIR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS), GC-MS, HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS. In addition, for selected studies, an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), a single particle mass spectrometer (SPLAT II) and

  6. 30 CFR 250.1152 - How do I conduct well tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gas Production Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1152 How do I conduct well tests? (a) When you conduct well tests you must: (1) Recover fluid from the well completion equivalent to the amount... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I conduct well tests? 250.1152...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1151 - How often must I conduct well production tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How often must I conduct well production tests... SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1151 How often must I conduct well production tests? (a) You must conduct well production tests as shown in the following table:...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1152 - How do I conduct well tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I conduct well tests? 250.1152 Section... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1152 How do I conduct well tests? (a) When you conduct well tests...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1152 - How do I conduct well tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1152 How do I conduct well tests? (a) When you conduct well tests you must: (1... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I conduct well tests? 250.1152...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1152 - How do I conduct well tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I conduct well tests? 250.1152 Section... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1152 How do I conduct well tests? (a) When you conduct well tests...

  11. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? As a laboratory, when you conduct validity... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct...

  12. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? As a laboratory, when you conduct validity... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct...

  13. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? As a laboratory, when you conduct validity... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct...

  14. The MESSy aerosol submodel MADE3 (v2.0b): description and a box model test

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, J. C.; Hendricks, J.; Righi, M.; Riemer, N.; Zaveri, R. A.; Metzger, S.; Aquila, V.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce MADE3 (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications, 3rd generation; version: MADE3v2.0b), an aerosol dynamics submodel for application within the MESSy framework (Modular Earth Submodel System). MADE3 builds on the predecessor aerosol submodels MADE and MADE-in. Its main new features are the explicit representation of coarse mode particle interactions both with other particles and with condensable gases, and the inclusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) / chloride (Cl) partitioning between the gas and condensed phases. The aerosol size distribution is represented in the new submodel as a superposition of nine lognormal modes: one for fully soluble particles, one for insoluble particles, and one for mixed particles in each of three size ranges (Aitken, accumulation, and coarse mode size ranges). In order to assess the performance of MADE3 we compare it to its predecessor MADE and to the much more detailed particle-resolved aerosol model PartMC-MOSAIC in a box model simulation of an idealised marine boundary layer test case. MADE3 and MADE results are very similar, except in the coarse mode, where the aerosol is dominated by sea spray particles. Cl is reduced in MADE3 with respect to MADE due to the HCl / Cl partitioning that leads to Cl removal from the sea spray aerosol in our test case. Additionally, the aerosol nitrate concentration is higher in MADE3 due to the condensation of nitric acid on coarse mode particles. MADE3 and PartMC-MOSAIC show substantial differences in the fine particle size distributions (sizes ≲ 2 μm) that could be relevant when simulating climate effects on a global scale. Nevertheless, the agreement between MADE3 and PartMC-MOSAIC is very good when it comes to coarse particle size distributions (sizes ≳ 2 μm), and also in terms of aerosol composition. Finally, considering these results and the well-established ability of MADE in reproducing observed aerosol loadings and composition, MADE3 seems

  15. 14 CFR 33.99 - General conduct of block tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... construction in the vibration, calibration, endurance, and operation tests, except that, if a separate engine is used for the endurance test it must be subjected to a calibration check before starting the endurance test. (b) Each applicant may service and make minor repairs to the engine during the block...

  16. 14 CFR 33.57 - General conduct of block tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... design and construction in the vibration, calibration, detonation, endurance, and operation tests, except that, if a separate engine is used for the endurance test it must be subjected to a calibration check before starting the endurance test. (b) The applicant may service and make minor repairs to the...

  17. 14 CFR 33.57 - General conduct of block tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... design and construction in the vibration, calibration, detonation, endurance, and operation tests, except that, if a separate engine is used for the endurance test it must be subjected to a calibration check before starting the endurance test. (b) The applicant may service and make minor repairs to the...

  18. 14 CFR 33.57 - General conduct of block tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... design and construction in the vibration, calibration, detonation, endurance, and operation tests, except that, if a separate engine is used for the endurance test it must be subjected to a calibration check before starting the endurance test. (b) The applicant may service and make minor repairs to the...

  19. 14 CFR 33.57 - General conduct of block tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... design and construction in the vibration, calibration, detonation, endurance, and operation tests, except that, if a separate engine is used for the endurance test it must be subjected to a calibration check before starting the endurance test. (b) The applicant may service and make minor repairs to the...

  20. 14 CFR 33.99 - General conduct of block tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... construction in the vibration, calibration, endurance, and operation tests, except that, if a separate engine is used for the endurance test it must be subjected to a calibration check before starting the endurance test. (b) Each applicant may service and make minor repairs to the engine during the block...

  1. 14 CFR 33.57 - General conduct of block tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... design and construction in the vibration, calibration, detonation, endurance, and operation tests, except that, if a separate engine is used for the endurance test it must be subjected to a calibration check before starting the endurance test. (b) The applicant may service and make minor repairs to the...

  2. 14 CFR 33.99 - General conduct of block tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... construction in the vibration, calibration, endurance, and operation tests, except that, if a separate engine is used for the endurance test it must be subjected to a calibration check before starting the endurance test. (b) Each applicant may service and make minor repairs to the engine during the block...

  3. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols from infrared measurements: simulations, testing, and applications.

    PubMed

    Zasetsky, Alexander Yu; Khalizov, Alexei F; Sloan, James J

    2004-10-10

    An inversion method for the characterization of atmospheric condensed phases from infrared (IR) spectra is described. The method is tested with both synthetic IR spectra and the spectra of particles that flow in a cryogenic flow tube. The method is applied to the IR spectra recorded by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument carried by the Space Shuttle during three missions in 1992, 1993, and 1994. The volume density and particle size distribution for sulfate aerosol are obtained as a function of altitude. The density and size distribution of ice particles in several cirrus clouds are also retrieved. The probable radius of the ice particles in the high-altitude (10-15-km) cirrus clouds is found to be approximately 6-7 microm. PMID:15508608

  4. 40 CFR 63.2991 - When must I conduct performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 5 years. You must conduct a performance test every 5 years as part of renewing your 40 CFR part 70... conduct a performance test for each drying and curing oven subject to this subpart according to...

  5. 40 CFR 63.2162 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... according to the procedures in § 63.2161, you must conduct an EPA Test Method 25A of 40 CFR part 60... Yeast Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2162 When must I conduct subsequent...

  6. 40 CFR 63.2162 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... according to the procedures in § 63.2161, you must conduct an EPA Test Method 25A of 40 CFR part 60... Yeast Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2162 When must I conduct subsequent...

  7. 40 CFR 63.2162 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... according to the procedures in § 63.2161, you must conduct an EPA Test Method 25A of 40 CFR part 60... Yeast Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2162 When must I conduct subsequent...

  8. Test of the Rosetta Pedotransfer Function for saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models are tools that can be used to explore, for example, effects of cultural practices on soil erosion and irrigation on crop yield. However, often these models require many soil related input data of which the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important ones. The...

  9. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section... Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as soon... that meets the requirements of § 26.91(b) and (c) was used for the initial alcohol test, the same...

  10. Initial Mechanical Testing of Superalloy Lattice Block Structures Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, David L.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The first mechanical tests of superalloy lattice block structures produced promising results for this exciting new lightweight material system. The testing was performed in-house at NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Benchmark Test Facility, where small subelement-sized compression and beam specimens were loaded to observe elastic and plastic behavior, component strength levels, and fatigue resistance for hundreds of thousands of load cycles. Current lattice block construction produces a flat panel composed of thin ligaments arranged in a three-dimensional triangulated trusslike structure. Investment casting of lattice block panels has been developed and greatly expands opportunities for using this unique architecture in today's high-performance structures. In addition, advances made in NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program have extended the lattice block concept to superalloy materials. After a series of casting iterations, the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN 718, Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV) was successfully cast into lattice block panels; this combination offers light weight combined with high strength, high stiffness, and elevated-temperature durability. For tests to evaluate casting quality and configuration merit, small structural compression and bend test specimens were machined from the 5- by 12- by 0.5-in. panels. Linear elastic finite element analyses were completed for several specimen layouts to predict material stresses and deflections under proposed test conditions. The structural specimens were then subjected to room-temperature static and cyclic loads in Glenn's Life Prediction Branch's material test machine. Surprisingly, the test results exceeded analytical predictions: plastic strains greater than 5 percent were obtained, and fatigue lives did not depreciate relative to the base material. These assets were due to the formation of plastic hinges and the redundancies inherent in lattice block construction

  11. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) via atmospheric aerosol (cloud) backscattering: recent results of coherent CO2 lidar measurements conducted at the Maui Space Surveillance Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willman, Benjamin C.; Kovacs, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Textron Systems, under the US Army Space and Missile Defense Command's Field Ladar Tactical Transition Demonstration program, has been evaluating coherently detected, atmospheric aerosol backscattering as a method to extend the utility of the DIAL technique. This paper present recently obtained long range, multi-wavelength DIAL measurements utilizing cloud formations and a laboratory positioned absorption test cell. Good agreement between cloud and continuous wave laboratory measurements of the absorption spectra of ammonia have been obtained.

  12. Engineers conduct key water test for A-3 stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Water cascades from the A-2 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center as engineers challenge the limits of the high-pressure water system as part of the preparation process for the A-3 Test Stand under construction. Jeff Henderson, test director for Stennis' A Complex, led a series of tests Nov. 16-20, flowing water simultaneously on the A-1 and A-2 stands, followed by the A-1 and B-1 stands, to determine if the high-pressure industrial water facility pumps and the existing pipe system can support the needs of the A-3 stand. The stand is being built to test rocket engines that will carry astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit and will need about 300,000 gallons of water per minute when operating, but the Stennis system never had been tested to that level. The recent tests were successful in showing the water facility pumps can operate at that capacity - reaching 318,000 gallons per minute in one instance. However, officials continue to analyze data to determine if the system can provide the necessary pressure at that capacity and if the delivery system piping is adequate. 'We just think if there's a problem, it's better to identify and address it now rather than when A-3 is finished and it has to be dealt with,' Henderson said.

  13. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening... Alcohol Testing § 40.229 What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? EBTs and ASDs on the... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is...

  14. 40 CFR 63.2991 - When must I conduct performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 5 years. You must conduct a performance test every 5 years as part of renewing your 40 CFR part 70 operating permit. (c) To change your OMM plan. You must conduct a performance test according to the... and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2991 When must I conduct performance tests? You must...

  15. Results of the "carbon conference" international aerosol carbon round robin test stage I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Heidrun; Laskus, Lothar; Jürgen Abraham, Hans; Baltensperger, Urs; Lavanchy, Vincent; Bizjak, Mirko; Burba, Peter; Cachier, Helene; Crow, Dale; Chow, Judith; Gnauk, Thomas; Even, Arja; ten Brink, H. M.; Giesen, Klaus-Peter; Hitzenberger, Regina; Hueglin, Christoph; Maenhaut, Willy; Pio, Casimiro; Carvalho, Abel; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree; Puxbaum, Hans

    An international round robin test on the analysis of carbonaceous aerosols on quartz fiber filters sampled at an urban site was organized by the Vienna University of Technology. Seventeen laboratories participated using nine different thermal and optical methods. For the analysis of total carbon (TC), a good agreement of the values obtained by all laboratories was found (7 and 9% r.s.d.) with only two outliers in the complete data set. In contrast the results of the determination of elemental carbon (EC) in two not pre-extracted samples were highly variable ranging over more than one order of magnitude and the relative standard deviations (r.s.d.) of the means were 36.6 and 45.5%. The laboratories that obtained similar results by using methods which reduce the charring artifact were put together to a new data set in order to approach a "real EC" value. The new data set consisting of the results of 10 laboratories using seven different methods showed 16 and 24% lower averages and r.s.d. of 14 and 24% for the two not pre-extracted samples. Taking the current filters as "equivalents" for urban aerosol samples we conclude that the following methods can be used for the analysis of EC in carbonaceous aerosols: thermal methods with an optical feature to correct for charring during pyrolysis, two-step thermal procedures reducing charring during pyrolysis, the VDI 2465/1 method (removal of OC by solvent extraction and thermodesorption in nitrogen) and the VDI 2465/2 method (combustion of OC and EC at different temperatures) with an additional pre-extraction with a dimethyl formamide (DMF)/toluene mixture. Only thermal methods without any correction for charring during pyrolysis and the VDI 2465/2 method were outside the range of twice the standard deviation of the new data set. For a filter sample pre-extracted with the DMF/toluene mixture the average and r.s.d. from all laboratories (20.7 μgC; 24.4% r.s.d.) was very similar as for the laboratory set reduced to 10

  16. SEP BIMOD variable conductance heat pipes acceptance and characterization tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A series of six heat pipes, similar in design to those flown on the Comunications Technology Satellite Hermes, for use in a prototype Solar Electric Propulsion BIMOD thrust module are evaluated. The results of acceptance and characterization tests performed on the heat pipe subassemble are reported. The performance of all the heat pipes met, or exceeded, design specifications.

  17. SEP BIMOD variable conductance heat pipes acceptance and characterization tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemminger, J. A.

    1981-08-01

    A series of six heat pipes, similar in design to those flown on the Comunications Technology Satellite Hermes, for use in a prototype Solar Electric Propulsion BIMOD thrust module are evaluated. The results of acceptance and characterization tests performed on the heat pipe subassemble are reported. The performance of all the heat pipes met, or exceeded, design specifications.

  18. 30 CFR 18.9 - Conduct of investigations and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., certification, or acceptance of a hose, only MSHA personnel, representative(s) of the applicant, and such other person(s) as may be mutually agreed upon may observe any part of the investigation or tests. The MSHA... notified to the contrary by MSHA, the applicant shall provide assistance in disassembling parts...

  19. Phenols and hydroxy-PAHs (arylphenols) as tracers for coal smoke particulate matter: source tests and ambient aerosol assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Bernd R.T. Simoneit; Xinhui Bi; Daniel R. Oros; Patricia M. Medeiros; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu

    2007-11-01

    Source tests were conducted to analyze and characterize diagnostic key tracers for emissions from burning of coals with various ranks. Coal samples included lignite from Germany, semibituminous coal from Arizona, USA, bituminous coal from Wales, UK and sample from briquettes of semibituminous coal, bituminous coal and anthracite from China. Ambient aerosol particulate matter was also collected in three areas of China and a background area in Corvallis, OR (U.S.) to confirm the presence of tracers specific for coal smoke. The results showed a series of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, including PAHs and hydroxy-PAHs as the major tracers, as well as a significant unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of compounds. The tracers that were found characteristic of coal combustion processes included hydroxy-PAHs and PAHs. Atmospheric ambient samples from Beijing and Taiyuan, cities where coal is burned in northern China, revealed that the hydroxy-PAH tracers were present during the wintertime, but not in cities where coal is not commonly used (e.g., Guangzhou, South China). Thus, the mass of hydroxy-PAHs can be apportioned to coal smoke and the source strength modeled by summing the proportional contents of EC (elemental carbon), PAHs, UCM and alkanes with the hydroxy-PAHs. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section 26.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as...

  1. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section 26.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as...

  2. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section 26.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as...

  3. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section 26.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as...

  4. Simulation test of aerosol generation from vessels in the pre-treatment system of fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Fujine, Sachio; Kitamura, Koichiro; Kihara, Takehiro

    1997-08-01

    Aerosol concentration and droplet size are measured in off-gas of vessel under various conditions by changing off-gas flow rate, stirring air flow rate, salts concentration and temperature of nitrate solution. Aerosols are also measured under evaporation and air-lift operation. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Air detoxification with nanosize TiO2 aerosol tested on mice.

    PubMed

    Besov, A S; Krivova, N A; Vorontsov, A V; Zaeva, O B; Kozlov, D V; Vorozhtsov, A B; Parmon, V N; Sakovich, G V; Komarov, V F; Smirniotis, P G; Eisenreich, N

    2010-01-15

    A method for fast air purification using high concentration aerosol of TiO(2) nanoparticles is evaluated in a model chemical catastrophe involving toxic vapors of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). Mice are used as human model in a closed 100 dm(3) chamber. Exposure of mice to 37 ppm of DFP vapor for 15 min resulted in acute poisoning. Spraying TiO(2) aerosol in 2 min after the start of exposure to DFP vapors resulted in quick removal of DFP vapors from the chamber's air. Animals did not show signs of poisoning after the decontamination experiment and exposure to TiO(2) aerosol alone. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of mice blood plasma were measured for animals exposed to sound of aerosol generator, DFP vapors, TiO(2) aerosol and DFP vapors+TiO(2) aerosol. Reduced ROS and increased AOA were found for mice exposure to sound, DFP and TiO(2) aerosol. Exposure to DFP and decontamination with TiO(2) nanoparticles resulted in decreased AOA in 48 h following the exposure. The results suggest that application of TiO(2) aerosol is a powerful method of air purification from toxic hydrolysable compounds with moderate health aftermaths and requires further study and optimization. PMID:19765900

  6. Hydraulic conductivity testing of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) using the constant volume method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Benson, C.H.

    1999-12-01

    Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted using open and constant-volume permeation systems on specimens from a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL). Two constant volume (CV) systems were employed: the falling-head constant-volume (FHCV) system and the constant-head constant-volume (CHCV) system. A conventional burette system using pressurized air was employed for the open system (OS) tests. The test results show that hydraulic conductivity tests can be conducted 30 or more times faster with the FHCV and CHCV systems than with an open system. Typically the permeation portion of the FHCV and CHCV tests can be conducted in one-half day. Slightly lower hydraulic conductivities are measured with the CV systems due to the slightly higher effective stress applied during testing with these systems. The CHCV system has several advantages over the FHCV system, including minimizing initial transient behavior, constant applied effective stress during testing, and simpler calculations.

  7. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  8. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  9. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  10. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  11. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  12. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  13. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  14. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  15. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  16. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  17. 30 CFR 250.460 - What are the requirements for conducting a well test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a well test? (a) If you intend to conduct a well test, you must include your projected plans for the... starting a well test. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the requirements for conducting a...

  18. 30 CFR 250.460 - What are the requirements for conducting a well test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a well test? (a) If you intend to conduct a well test, you must include your projected plans for the... starting a well test. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the requirements for conducting a...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7515 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests or fuel analyses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... previous performance test. (f) You must conduct a fuel analysis according to § 63.7521 for each type of... performance tests or fuel analyses? 63.7515 Section 63.7515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Requirements § 63.7515 When must I conduct subsequent performance tests or fuel analyses? (a) You must...

  20. Stimulation of interferons and endorphins/enkephalins by electro-aerosol inhalation? An experimental approach for testing an expanded hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, A. P.

    1984-03-01

    The biological effects of endorphins/enkephalins and of interferons closely resemble those attributed to air ions and electro-aerosols. Air ions/electro-aerosols have been reported to affect brain functions and feelings of “well-being”; to have sedative and analgesic effects; to be therapeutically effective in certain viral (e.g., upper respiratory) infections; and to have tumor-attenuating effects. It is, therefore, conceivable that endorphins/enkephalins and interferons might be the mediators of these air ion/electro-aerosol effects. An experimental approach for testing this hypothesis is described. It calls for mice to be challenged with a suitable agent and to be exposed under appropriate conditions to a negatively charged aerosol of physiological saline 6 hours/day for up to 3 weeks; for the serial sacrifice of subgroups of these mice; for collecting blood and brains of the sacrificed animals; for the bioassay of the sera for interferon; and for radioimmunoassays of brains for endorphins/enkephalins. Special considerations, necessitated by the nature of the experiment, are discussed.

  1. A comparative assessment of cigarette smoke aerosols using an in vitro air–liquid interface cytotoxicity test

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, David; Dalrymple, Annette; Dillon, Deborah; Duke, Martin; Meredith, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study describes the evaluation of a modified air-liquid interface BALB/c 3T3 cytotoxicity method for the assessment of smoke aerosols in vitro. The functionality and applicability of this modified protocol was assessed by comparing the cytotoxicity profiles from eight different cigarettes. Three reference cigarettes, 1R5F, 3R4F and CORESTA Monitor 7 were used to put the data into perspective and five bespoke experimental products were manufactured, ensuring a balanced and controlled study. Manufactured cigarettes were matched for key variables such as nicotine delivery, puff number, pressure drop, ventilation, carbon monoxide, nicotine free dry particulate matter and blend, but significantly modified for vapor phase delivery, via the addition of two different types and quantities of adsorptive carbon. Specifically manufacturing products ensures comparisons can be made in a consistent manner and allows the research to ask targeted questions, without confounding product variables. The results demonstrate vapor-phase associated cytotoxic effects and clear differences between the products tested and their cytotoxic profiles. This study has further characterized the in vitro vapor phase biological response relationship and confirmed that the biological response is directly proportional to the amount of available vapor phase toxicants in cigarette smoke, when using a Vitrocell® VC 10 exposure system. This study further supports and strengthens the use of aerosol based exposure options for the appropriate analysis of cigarette smoke induced responses in vitro and may be especially beneficial when comparing aerosols generated from alternative tobacco aerosol products. PMID:26339773

  2. A comparative assessment of cigarette smoke aerosols using an in vitro air-liquid interface cytotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Thorne, David; Dalrymple, Annette; Dillon, Deborah; Duke, Martin; Meredith, Clive

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the evaluation of a modified air-liquid interface BALB/c 3T3 cytotoxicity method for the assessment of smoke aerosols in vitro. The functionality and applicability of this modified protocol was assessed by comparing the cytotoxicity profiles from eight different cigarettes. Three reference cigarettes, 1R5F, 3R4F and CORESTA Monitor 7 were used to put the data into perspective and five bespoke experimental products were manufactured, ensuring a balanced and controlled study. Manufactured cigarettes were matched for key variables such as nicotine delivery, puff number, pressure drop, ventilation, carbon monoxide, nicotine free dry particulate matter and blend, but significantly modified for vapor phase delivery, via the addition of two different types and quantities of adsorptive carbon. Specifically manufacturing products ensures comparisons can be made in a consistent manner and allows the research to ask targeted questions, without confounding product variables. The results demonstrate vapor-phase associated cytotoxic effects and clear differences between the products tested and their cytotoxic profiles. This study has further characterized the in vitro vapor phase biological response relationship and confirmed that the biological response is directly proportional to the amount of available vapor phase toxicants in cigarette smoke, when using a Vitrocell® VC 10 exposure system. This study further supports and strengthens the use of aerosol based exposure options for the appropriate analysis of cigarette smoke induced responses in vitro and may be especially beneficial when comparing aerosols generated from alternative tobacco aerosol products. PMID:26339773

  3. Selectivity Across the Interface: A Test of Surface Activity in the Composition of Organic-Enriched Aerosols from Bubble Bursting.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Richard E; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stone, Elizabeth A; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-05-01

    Although theories have been developed that describe surface activity of organic molecules at the air-water interface, few studies have tested how surface activity impacts the selective transfer of molecules from solution phase into the aerosol phase during bubble bursting. The selective transfer of a series of organic compounds that differ in their solubility and surface activity from solution into the aerosol phase is quantified experimentally for the first time. Aerosol was produced from solutions containing salts and a series of linear carboxlyates (LCs) and dicarboxylates (LDCs) using a bubble bursting process. Surface activity of these molecules dominated the transport across the interface, with enrichment factors of the more surface-active C4-C8 LCs (55 ± 8) being greater than those of C4-C8 LDCs (5 ± 1). Trends in the estimated surface concentrations of LCs at the liquid-air interface agreed well with their relative concentrations in the aerosol phase. In addition, enrichment of LCs was followed by enrichment of calcium with respect to other inorganic cations and depletion of chloride and sulfate. PMID:27093579

  4. 40 CFR 60.2155 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... time. (2) You must repeat the performance test within 60 days of a process change, as defined in § 60... Compliance Requirements § 60.2155 May I conduct performance testing less often? (a) You can test less often for a given pollutant if you have test data for at least 3 years, and all performance tests for...

  5. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  6. 40 CFR 63.8440 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... performance tests? (a) You must conduct a performance test before renewing your 40 CFR part 70 operating... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Brick and Structural...

  7. 40 CFR 63.8440 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... performance tests? (a) You must conduct a performance test before renewing your 40 CFR part 70 operating... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Brick and Structural...

  8. 40 CFR 63.8440 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance tests? (a) You must conduct a performance test before renewing your 40 CFR part 70 operating... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Brick and Structural...

  9. 40 CFR 63.8440 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... performance tests? (a) You must conduct a performance test before renewing your 40 CFR part 70 operating... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Brick and Structural...

  10. 40 CFR 63.8440 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance tests? (a) You must conduct a performance test before renewing your 40 CFR part 70 operating... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Brick and Structural...

  11. 40 CFR 63.8590 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tests? (a) For each kiln that is subject to the emission limits specified in Table 1 to this subpart, you must conduct a performance test before renewing your 40 CFR part 70 operating permit or at...

  12. Development and Testing of the New Surface LER Climatology for OMI UV Aerosol Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Pawan; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren; Ahn, Changwoo

    2014-01-01

    Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard Aura satellite retrieved aerosols properties using UV part of solar spectrum. The OMI near UV aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV) is a global inversion scheme which retrieves aerosol properties both over ocean and land. The current version of the algorithm makes use of TOMS derived Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) climatology. A new monthly climatology of surface LER at 354 and 388 nm have been developed. This will replace TOMS LER (380 nm and 354nm) climatology in OMI near UV aerosol retrieval algorithm. The main objectives of this study is to produce high resolution (quarter degree) surface LER sets as compared to existing one degree TOMS surface LERs, to product instrument and wavelength consistent surface climatology. Nine years of OMI observations have been used to derive monthly climatology of surface LER. MODIS derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) have been used to make aerosol corrections on OMI wavelengths. MODIS derived BRDF adjusted reflectance product has been also used to capture seasonal changes in the surface characteristics. Finally spatial and temporal averaging techniques have been used to fill the gaps around the globes, especially in the regions with consistent cloud cover such as Amazon. After implementation of new surface data in the research version of algorithm, comparisons of AOD and single scattering albedo (SSA) have been performed over global AERONET sites for year 2007. Preliminary results shows improvements in AOD retrievals globally but more significance improvement were observed over desert and bright locations. We will present methodology of deriving surface data sets and will discuss the observed changes in retrieved aerosol properties with respect to reference AERONET measurements.

  13. 14 CFR 61.37 - Knowledge tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge tests: Cheating or other....37 Knowledge tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct. (a) An applicant for a knowledge test may not: (1) Copy or intentionally remove any knowledge test; (2) Give to another applicant or...

  14. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? 40.91 Section 40.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories...

  15. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? 40.91 Section 40.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories...

  16. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  17. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  18. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  19. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1305 - May I conduct stack testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... testing less often? (a) You may test less often if you own or operate a Class II municipal waste combustion unit and if all stack tests for a given pollutant over 3 consecutive years show you comply with the emission limit. In that case, you are not required to conduct a stack test for that pollutant...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2155 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant (particulate matter, hydrogen chloride, or opacity) over 3 consecutive years show that you comply... limitation for particulate matter, hydrogen chloride, or opacity, you may choose to conduct performance tests... matter, hydrogen chloride, or opacity, you must conduct annual performance tests for that pollutant...

  2. Plutonium-aerosol emission rates and potential inhalation exposure during cleanup and treatment test at Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.

    1985-08-13

    A Cleanup and Treatment (CAT) test was conducted in 1981 at Area 11, Nevada Test Site. Its purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a large truck-mounted vacuum cleaner similar to those used to clean paved streets for cleaning radiological contamination from the surface of desert soils. We found that four passes with the vehicle removed 97% of the alpha contamination and reduced resuspension by 99.3 to 99.7%. Potential exposure to cleanup workers was slight when compared to natural background exposure. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. The Impact of Ship-Produced Aerosols on the Microstructure and Albedo of Warm Marine Stratocumulus Clouds: A Test of MAST Hypotheses 1i and 1ii.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkee, P. A.; Noone, K. J.; Ferek, R. J.; Johnson, D. W.; Taylor, J. P.; Garrett, T. J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hudson, J. G.; Bretherton, C. S.; Innis, G.; Frick, G. M.; Hoppel, W. A.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Russell, L. M.; Gasparovic, R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Tessmer, S. A.; Öström, E.;  Osborne, S. R.;  Flagan, R. C.;  Seinfeld, J. H.;  Rand, H.

    2000-08-01

    Anomalously high reflectivity tracks in stratus and stratocumulus sheets associated with ships (known as ship tracks) are commonly seen in visible and near-infrared satellite imagery. Until now there have been only a limited number of in situ measurements made in ship tracks. The Monterey Area Ship Track (MAST) experiment, which was conducted off the coast of California in June 1994, provided a substantial dataset on ship emissions and their effects on boundary layer clouds. Several platforms, including the University of Washington C-131A aircraft, the Meteorological Research Flight C-130 aircraft, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ER-2 aircraft, the Naval Research Laboratory airship, the Research Vessel Glorita, and dedicated U.S. Navy ships, participated in MAST in order to study processes governing the formation and maintenance of ship tracks.This paper tests the hypotheses that the cloud microphysical changes that produce ship tracks are due to (a) particulate emission from the ship's stack and/or (b) sea-salt particles from the ship's wake. It was found that ships powered by diesel propulsion units that emitted high concentrations of aerosols in the accumulation mode produced ship tracks. Ships that produced few particles (such as nuclear ships), or ships that produced high concentrations of particles but at sizes too small to be activated as cloud drops in typical stratocumulus (such as gas turbine and some steam-powered ships), did not produce ship tracks. Statistics and case studies, combined with model simulations, show that provided a cloud layer is susceptible to an aerosol perturbation, and the atmospheric stability enables aerosol to be mixed throughout the boundary layer, the direct emissions of cloud condensation nuclei from the stack of a diesel-powered ship is the most likely, if not the only, cause of the formation of ship tracks. There was no evidence that salt particles from ship wakes cause ship tracks.

  4. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-11-04

    We report the results of ongoing high power tests of single-cell standing wave structures. These tests are part of an experimental and theoretical study of rf breakdown in normal conducting structures at 11.4 GHz. The goal of this study is to determine the maximum gradient possibilities for normal-conducting rf powered particle beam accelerators. The test setup consists of reusable mode launchers and short test structures powered by SLACs XL-4 klystron. The mode launchers and structures were manufactured at SLAC and KEK and tested at the SLAC klystron test laboratory.

  5. 40 CFR 790.55 - Modification of test standards or schedules during conduct of test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., 14-C labelled test substance), lack of availability of healthy test organisms, or the unexpected... equal to the in-life portion of the test plus 60 days. (4) EPA will normally approve only one...

  6. Validation of non-Darcian flow effects in slug tests conducted in fractured rock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Patryk M.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA series of rising and falling head slug tests with different initial applied head differentials (ΔHo) were conducted in open fractured dolostone and sandstone boreholes using straddle packers isolating specific depth intervals (1.5 m length) to examine the influence of non-Darcian flow. The open holes were developed and inspected using video and acoustic televiewing (ATV) to ensure that evidence of skin effects due to drilling were absent. The transmissivity (T) values obtained from both the rising and falling head slug tests were very similar at low initial applied head; however, the T values were progressively smaller at larger ΔHo, suggesting error due to non-Darcian flow. Non-Darcian flow behavior was confirmed by constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals where the injection rate (Q) vs. applied head (dH) relationship became non-linear at relatively low injection rates, and the non-Darcian data also resulted in lower T values. For a series of slug tests conducted at different ΔHo, non-Darcian flow effects gradually increased as ΔHo increased, consistent with the trends for constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals. To maintain Darcian flow conditions in the fractured dolostone and sandstone tested in this study, ΔHo must be kept small, generally less than 0.2 m. This study demonstrates that by conducting both "stepped" slug tests and constant head step tests, the Darcian flow assumption for both types of tests can be rigorously validated. However, when only slug tests are conducted, it is necessary to conduct a series of "stepped" slug tests, including tests with small applied head differentials, to avoid errors due to non-Darcian flow.

  7. Evaluation of the discmini personal aerosol monitor for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Jessica Breyan

    This work evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103-104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (+/-35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present.

  8. 49 CFR 40.253 - What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test? 40.253 Section 40.253 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests §...

  9. 49 CFR 40.253 - What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test? 40.253 Section 40.253 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests §...

  10. 49 CFR 40.253 - What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test? 40.253 Section 40.253 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests §...

  11. 30 CFR 36.9 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as may be mutually agreed upon may observe the investigations or tests. MSHA shall hold as... a certificate of approval, MSHA may conduct such public demonstrations and tests of the approved..., tests, and demonstrations shall be under the direction and control of MSHA, and any other persons...

  12. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14680 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... data for at least 3 years, and all performance tests for the pollutant (particulate matter, hydrogen..., hydrogen chloride, or opacity, you may choose to conduct performance tests for these pollutants every third... test shows a deviation from an emission limitation for particulate matter, hydrogen chloride,...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14680 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... data for at least 3 years, and all performance tests for the pollutant (particulate matter, hydrogen..., hydrogen chloride, or opacity, you may choose to conduct performance tests for these pollutants every third... test shows a deviation from an emission limitation for particulate matter, hydrogen chloride,...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14680 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... data for at least 3 years, and all performance tests for the pollutant (particulate matter, hydrogen..., hydrogen chloride, or opacity, you may choose to conduct performance tests for these pollutants every third... test shows a deviation from an emission limitation for particulate matter, hydrogen chloride,...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14680 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... data for at least 3 years, and all performance tests for the pollutant (particulate matter, hydrogen..., hydrogen chloride, or opacity, you may choose to conduct performance tests for these pollutants every third... test shows a deviation from an emission limitation for particulate matter, hydrogen chloride,...

  17. 40 CFR 790.62 - Submission of study plans and conduct of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission of study plans and conduct of testing. 790.62 Section 790.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES GOVERNING TESTING CONSENT AGREEMENTS AND TEST RULES Implementation, Enforcement...

  18. 40 CFR 63.11220 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests or fuel analyses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... performance tests or fuel analyses? 63.11220 Section 63.11220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... When must I conduct subsequent performance tests or fuel analyses? (a) If your boiler has a heat input... performance (stack) tests according to § 63.11212 on a triennial basis, except as specified in paragraphs...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14680 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... data for at least 3 years, and all performance tests for the pollutant (particulate matter, hydrogen..., hydrogen chloride, or opacity, you may choose to conduct performance tests for these pollutants every third... test shows a deviation from an emission limitation for particulate matter, hydrogen chloride,...

  20. Results of chronic toxicity tests conducted on selected A-area outfalls, June-August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-07-01

    In anticipation of possible toxicity testing requirements in the SRS`s new (1996) NPDES permit, toxicity tests were performed at selected A-Area NPDES outfalls in order to determine if the outfalls were toxic. Chronic definitive toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia using water collected from nine locations during the summer of 1996. Six of the nine locations were toxic.

  1. Compendium of Test Results of Recent Single Event Effect Tests Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Steven S.; Allen, Gregory R.; Irom, Farokh; Scheick, Leif Z.; Adell, Philippe C.; Miyahira, Tetsuo F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports heavy ion and proton-induced single event effect (SEE) results from recent tests for a variety of microelectronic devices. The compendium covers devices tested over the last two years by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. Li-ion conducting Li0.35La0.55TiO3 electrolyte thick films fabricated by aerosol deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-Jin; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Ryu, Jungho; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Park, Dong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Lithium lanthanum titanium oxide (Li0.35La0.55TiO3, LLT) films with thickness of 5 ˜ 30 μm were fabricated on a stainless-steel substrates by using aerosol deposition with a micron-sized powder at room temperature, and their Li-ion conductivity values were analyzed and compared with bulk ceramics sintered using the same powder. The crystalline size of the film was controlled by controlling the initial particle size of the LLT powder. The phase formation and the microstructural evolution of the films for different deposition conditions were observed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The lithium-ion conductivity of the film at room temperature was analyzed by the impedance measurement technique. The LLT bulk ceramic sintered at 1200 °C and LLT film deposited at room-temperature showed total lithium ion conductivity of 8.37 × 10-6 and 6.38 × 10-7 S/cm, respectively.

  3. Analysis of Dissimilar Material Defect Based on Eddy Current Conductivity Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Lifu

    In this experiment, the conductivity distribution of lack of penetration (LOP) in friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar materials has been tested, and has been compared with the conductivity distribution of the same kind of material, by using eddy current conductivity meter. CZ state and M state LY12 aluminum alloy has been studied. The results show that when the depth of LOP is small, the conductivity of M state is the highest, the conductivity decreases gradually to the weld center, reduce to the minimum until reach the CZ state base metal. When the depth of LOP is larger, the conductivity of the weld center decreases sharply with the depth of LOP increases gradually. Scilicet, the larger the depth of LOP, the lower the conductivity. The conductivity distribution of other areas is similar to the distribution when the depth of LOP is small.

  4. Research Problems Associated with Limiting the Applied Force in Vibration Tests and Conducting Base-Drive Modal Vibration Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1995-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to make a case for developing and conducting vibration tests which are both realistic and practical (a question of tailoring versus standards). Tests are essential for finding things overlooked in the analyses. The best test is often the most realistic test which can be conducted within the cost and budget constraints. Some standards are essential, but the author believes more in the individual's ingenuity to solve a specific problem than in the application of standards which reduce problems (and technology) to their lowest common denominator. Force limited vibration tests and base-drive modal tests are two examples of realistic, but practical testing approaches. Since both of these approaches are relatively new, a number of interesting research problems exist, and these are emphasized herein.

  5. 30 CFR 250.407 - What tests must I conduct to determine reservoir characteristics?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conduct to determine reservoir characteristics? You must determine the presence, quantity, quality, and reservoir characteristics of oil, gas, sulphur, and water in the formations penetrated by logging, formation sampling, or well testing....

  6. Methodology for the Assessment of 3D Conduction Effects in an Aerothermal Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Anthony Brandon

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for the assessment of three-dimensional conduction effects during test in a Aerothermal Wind Tunnel. The test objectives were to duplicate and extend tests that were performed during the 1960's on thermal conduction on proturberance on a flat plate. Slides review the 1D versus 3D conduction data reduction error, the analysis process, CFD-based analysis, loose coupling method that simulates a wind tunnel test run, verification of the CFD solution, Grid convergence, Mach number trend, size trends, and a Sumary of the CFD conduction analysis. Other slides show comparisons to pretest CFD at Mach 1.5 and 2.16 and the geometries of the models and grids.

  7. 40 CFR 63.8590 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., you must conduct a performance test before renewing your 40 CFR part 70 operating permit or at least... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Clay...

  8. 40 CFR 63.8590 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., you must conduct a performance test before renewing your 40 CFR part 70 operating permit or at least... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Clay...

  9. 40 CFR 63.8590 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., you must conduct a performance test before renewing your 40 CFR part 70 operating permit or at least... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Clay...

  10. 40 CFR 63.8590 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., you must conduct a performance test before renewing your 40 CFR part 70 operating permit or at least... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Clay...

  11. 9 CFR 55.8 - Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests. 55.8 Section 55.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF...

  12. 9 CFR 55.8 - Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests. 55.8 Section 55.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...: (1) Histopathological examination of central nervous system (CNS) tissues from the animal...

  13. 9 CFR 55.8 - Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests. 55.8 Section 55.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...: (1) Histopathological examination of central nervous system (CNS) tissues from the animal...

  14. 9 CFR 55.8 - Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests. 55.8 Section 55.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...: (1) Histopathological examination of central nervous system (CNS) tissues from the animal...

  15. 9 CFR 55.8 - Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official CWD tests and approval of laboratories to conduct official CWD tests. 55.8 Section 55.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...: (1) Histopathological examination of central nervous system (CNS) tissues from the animal...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 240 - Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recommended Procedures for Conducting Skill Performance Tests E Appendix E to Part 240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Pt. 240, App. E Appendix E to Part 240—Recommended Procedures for Conducting...

  17. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  18. Spectra Aerosol Light Scattering and Absorption for Laboratory and Urban Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, Madhu S.

    Atmospheric aerosols considerably influence the climate, reduce visibility, and cause problems in human health. Aerosol light absorption and scattering are the important factors in the radiation transfer models. However, these properties are associated with large uncertainties in climate modeling. In addition, atmospheric aerosols widely vary in composition and size; their optical properties are highly wavelength dependent. This work presents the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering throughout the ultraviolet to near-infrared regions. Data were collected in Reno, NV from 2008 to 2010. Also presented in this study are the aerosol optical and physical properties during carbonaceous aerosols and radiative effects study (CARES) conducted in Sacramento area during 2010. Measurements were made using photoacoustic instruments (PA), including a novel UV 355 nm PA of our design and manufacture. Comparative analyses are presented for three main categories: (1) aerosols produced by wildfires and traffic emissions, (2) laboratory-generated and wintertime ambient urban aerosols, and (3) urban plume and biogenic emissions. In these categories, key questions regarding the light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOA), so-called brown carbon (BrC), and black carbon (BC) will be discussed. An effort is made to model the emission and aging of urban and biomass burning aerosol by applying shell-core calculations. Multispectral PA measurements of aerosols light absorption and scattering coefficients were used to calculate the Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA) and single scattering albedo (SSA). The AEA and SSA values were analyzed to differentiate the aerosol sources. The California wildfire aerosols exhibited strong wavelength dependence of aerosol light absorption with AEA as lambda -1 for 405 and 870 nm, in contrast to the relatively weak wavelength dependence of traffic emissions aerosols for which AEA varied approximately as lambda-1. By using

  19. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30,60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  20. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  1. Characterizing particulate matter emissions from vehicles: chassis-dynamometer tests using a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, S.; Zhang, Q.; Forestieri, S.; Kleeman, M.; Cappa, C. D.; Kuwayama, T.

    2012-12-01

    During September of 2011 a suite of real-time instruments was used to sample vehicle emissions at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Schmidt facility in El Monte, CA. A representative fleet of 8 spark ignition gasoline vehicles, a diesel passenger vehicle, a gasoline direct-injection vehicle and an ultra-low emissions vehicle were tested on a chassis dynamometer. The emissions were sampled into the facility's standard CVS tunnel and diluted to atmospherically relevant levels (5-30 μg/m3) while controlling other factors such as relative humidity or background black carbon particulate loading concentrations. An Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-MS) was among the real-time instruments used and sampled vehicle emissions at 10 second time resolution in order to characterize the non-refractory organic and inorganic particulate matter (PM). PM composition and concentration were tracked throughout the cold start driving cycle which included periods of fast acceleration and high velocity cruise control, meant to recreate typical commuter driving behavior. Variations in inorganic and organic PM composition for a given vehicle throughout the driving cycle as well as for various vehicles with differing emissions loading were characterized. Differences in PM composition for a given vehicle whose emissions are being exposed to differing experimental conditions such as varying relative humidity will also be reported. In conjunction with measurements from a Multi Wavelength Photoacoustic Black Carbon Spectrometer (MWPA-BC) and real-time gas measurements from the CARB facility, we determine the real-time emission ratios of primary organic aerosols (POA) with respect to BC and common combustion gas phase pollutants and compared to different vehicle driving conditions. The results of these tests offer the vehicle emissions community a first time glimpse at the real-time behavior of vehicle PM emissions for a variety of conditions and

  2. 30 CFR 35.8 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions... shall not disclose features of this hydraulic fluid such as the chemical analysis, specifications... demonstrations and tests of the approved hydraulic fluid as it deems appropriate. The conduct of...

  3. 30 CFR 35.8 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions... shall not disclose features of this hydraulic fluid such as the chemical analysis, specifications... demonstrations and tests of the approved hydraulic fluid as it deems appropriate. The conduct of...

  4. 30 CFR 35.8 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions... shall not disclose features of this hydraulic fluid such as the chemical analysis, specifications... demonstrations and tests of the approved hydraulic fluid as it deems appropriate. The conduct of...

  5. 30 CFR 35.8 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions... shall not disclose features of this hydraulic fluid such as the chemical analysis, specifications... demonstrations and tests of the approved hydraulic fluid as it deems appropriate. The conduct of...

  6. 46 CFR 153.1600 - Equipment required for conducting the stripping quantity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment required for conducting the stripping quantity test. 153.1600 Section 153.1600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures...

  7. 30 CFR 33.8 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations. 33.8 Section 33.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH...

  8. 30 CFR 33.8 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations. 33.8 Section 33.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH...

  9. Measurement uncertainty for the Uniform Engine Testing Program conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelwahab, Mahmood; Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Silver, Dean

    1987-01-01

    An uncertainty analysis was conducted to determine the bias and precision errors and total uncertainty of measured turbojet engine performance parameters. The engine tests were conducted as part of the Uniform Engine Test Program which was sponsored by the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). With the same engines, support hardware, and instrumentation, performance parameters were measured twice, once during tests conducted in test cell number 3 and again during tests conducted in test cell number 4 of the NASA Lewis Propulsion Systems Laboratory. The analysis covers 15 engine parameters, including engine inlet airflow, engine net thrust, and engine specific fuel consumption measured at high rotor speed of 8875 rpm. Measurements were taken at three flight conditions defined by the following engine inlet pressure, engine inlet total temperature, and engine ram ratio: (1) 82.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.0, (2) 82.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.3, and (3) 20.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.3. In terms of bias, precision, and uncertainty magnitudes, there were no differences between most measurements made in test cells number 3 and 4. The magnitude of the errors increased for both test cells as engine pressure level decreased. Also, the level of the bias error was two to three times larger than that of the precision error.

  10. 30 CFR 250.1152 - How do I conduct well tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I conduct well tests? 250.1152 Section 250.1152 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1152...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1151 - How often must I conduct well production tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How often must I conduct well production tests? 250.1151 Section 250.1151 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Well Tests...

  12. 30 CFR 33.8 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations. 33.8 Section 33.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH...

  13. 30 CFR 33.8 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations. 33.8 Section 33.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH...

  14. 30 CFR 33.8 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations. 33.8 Section 33.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH...

  15. 30 CFR 27.10 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations. MSHA shall hold as confidential and shall not... direction and control of MSHA, and any other persons shall be present only as observers, except as noted in... the investigations or tests. (b) When requested by MSHA the applicant shall provide assistance...

  16. 14 CFR 63.18 - Written tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct. 63.18 Section 63.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS General § 63.18 Written tests: Cheating or other...

  17. 40 CFR 63.2362 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... current certification in accordance with the U.S. DOT pressure test requirements in 49 CFR part 180 for cargo tanks or 49 CFR 173.31 for tank cars. ... (Non-Gasoline) Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2362 When must I conduct...

  18. 40 CFR 63.2362 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... current certification in accordance with the U.S. DOT pressure test requirements in 49 CFR part 180 for cargo tanks or 49 CFR 173.31 for tank cars. ... (Non-Gasoline) Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2362 When must I conduct...

  19. 40 CFR 63.2362 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... current certification in accordance with the U.S. DOT pressure test requirements in 49 CFR part 180 for cargo tanks or 49 CFR 173.31 for tank cars. ...-Gasoline) Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2362 When must I conduct subsequent...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2162 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the procedures in § 63.2161, you must conduct an EPA Test Method 25A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, performance test and establish a brew-to-exhaust correlation according to the procedures in Table 2 to...

  1. 40 CFR 63.2162 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the procedures in § 63.2161, you must conduct an EPA Test Method 25A of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, performance test and establish a brew-to-exhaust correlation according to the procedures in Table 2 to...

  2. "Vernonia v. Acton": Should Schools Conduct Random Drug Tests of Student Athletes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, J. Patrick

    1995-01-01

    In June 1995, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the Vernonia (Oregon) School District's right to conduct random drug tests of its student athletes. The court balanced a seventh grader's privacy interest with the state's interest in curbing drug abuse among student athletes. Before adopting drug-testing policies, school boards should assess the local…

  3. 40 CFR 790.62 - Submission of study plans and conduct of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Submission of study plans and conduct of testing. 790.62 Section 790.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES GOVERNING TESTING CONSENT AGREEMENTS AND...

  4. 40 CFR 63.10006 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests or tune-ups?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limit, you must conduct all applicable periodic HCl emissions tests according to Table 5 to this subpart... performance tests according to Table 5 to this subpart and § 63.10007 at least every year. (b) For affected... years (once every year for Hg) according to Table 5 and § 63.10007. Should subsequent emissions...

  5. 40 CFR 63.6615 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I conduct subsequent performance tests? 63.6615 Section 63.6615 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Internal Combustion Engines Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.6615 When must I...

  6. 30 CFR 35.8 - Conduct of investigations, tests, and demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions... shall not disclose features of this hydraulic fluid such as the chemical analysis, specifications... demonstrations and tests of the approved hydraulic fluid as it deems appropriate. The conduct of...

  7. AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION WITH CENTRIFUCAL AEROSOL SPECTROMETERS: THEORY AND EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A general mathematical model describing the motion of particles in aerosol centrifuges has been developed. t has been validated by comparisons of theoretically predicted calibration sites with experimental data from tests sizing aerosols in instruments of three different spiral d...

  8. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples, including fungal spores, bacteria, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres, were analyzed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two excitation wavelengths/detection wavebands method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one-year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and decreased towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions prevail. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand, the total aerosol number concentration was almost always higher during daytime than during nighttime and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed. However, a clear correlation was identified between the FBAP

  9. A simple constant-head injection test for streambed hydraulic conductivity estimation.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, M Bayani; Zlotnik, Vitaly A

    2003-01-01

    A fast, efficient constant-head injection test (CHIT) for in situ estimation of hydraulic conductivity (K) of sandy streambeds is presented. This test uses constant-head hydraulic injection through a manually driven piezometer. Results from CHIT compare favorably to estimates from slug testing and grain-size analysis. The CHIT combines simplicity of field performance, data interpretation, and accuracy of K estimation in flowing streams. PMID:14649870

  10. Results From a Pressure Sensitive Paint Test Conducted at the National Transonic Facility on Test 197: The Common Research Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Lipford, William E.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Goad, William K.; Goad, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    This report will serve to present results of a test of the pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique on the Common Research Model (CRM). This test was conducted at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA Langley Research Center. PSP data was collected on several surfaces with the tunnel operating in both cryogenic mode and standard air mode. This report will also outline lessons learned from the test as well as possible approaches to challenges faced in the test that can be applied to later entries.

  11. 40 CFR 63.2993 - What test methods must I use in conducting performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance tests? (a) Use EPA Method 1 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) for selecting the sampling port location and the number of sampling ports. (b) Use EPA Method 2 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) for measuring the volumetric flow rate. (c) Use EPA Method 316 or 318 (40 CFR part 63, appendix A) for measuring...

  12. 40 CFR 63.2993 - What test methods must I use in conducting performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance tests? (a) Use EPA Method 1 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) for selecting the sampling port location and the number of sampling ports. (b) Use EPA Method 2 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) for measuring the volumetric flow rate. (c) Use EPA Method 316 or 318 (40 CFR part 63, appendix A) for measuring...

  13. Thermoluminescent aerosol analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Long, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for detecting and measuring trace amounts of aerosols when reacted with ozone in a gaseous environment was examined. A sample aerosol was exposed to a fixed ozone concentration for a fixed period of time, and a fluorescer was added to the exposed sample. The sample was heated in a 30 C/minute linear temperature profile to 200 C. The trace peak was measured and recorded as a function of the test aerosol and the recorded thermoluminescence trace peak of the fluorescer is specific to the aerosol being tested.

  14. NASA Processes and Requirements for Conducting Human-in-the-Loop Closed Chamber Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Montz, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has specific processes and requirements that must be followed for tests involving human subjects to be conducted in a safe and effective manner. There are five distinct phases of test operations. Phase one, the test request phase, consists of those activities related to initiating, processing, reviewing, and evaluating the test request. Phase two, the test preparation phase consists of those activities related to planning, coordinating, documenting, and building up the test. Phase three, the test readiness phase consists of those activities related to verifying and reviewing the planned test operations. Phase four, the test activity phase, consists of all pretest operations, functional checkouts, emergency drills, and test operations. Phase five, the post test activity phase, consists of those activities performed once the test is completed, including briefings, documentation of anomalies, data reduction and archiving, and reporting. Project management processes must be followed for facility modifications and major test buildup, which include six phases: initiation and assessment, requirements evaluation, preliminary design, detailed design, use readiness review (URR) and acceptance. Compliance with requirements for safety and quality assurance are documented throughout the test buildup and test operation processes. Tests involving human subjects must be reviewed by the applicable Institutional Review Board (IRB).

  15. HOUSTON AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An intensive field study of ambient aerosols was conducted in Houston between September 14 and October 14, 1978. Measurements at 12 sites were made using (1) two relocatable monitoring systems instrumented for aerosol and gaseous pollutants, (2) a network of high volume samplers ...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1571 - How and when do I conduct a performance test or other initial compliance demonstration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... demonstration? (a) When must I conduct a performance test? You must conduct performance tests and report the... according to the provisions in § 63.7(a)(2). If you are required to do a performance evaluation or test for... evaluations? You must: (1) Conduct each performance test according to the requirements in § 63.7(e)(1)....

  17. Analytical study of electrophoretic characterization of kidney cells. [conducted during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Embryonic kidney cells were studied as a follow-up to the MA-011 Electrophoresis Technology Experiment which was conducted during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). The postflight analysis of the performance of the ASTP zone electrophoresis experiment involving embryonic kidney cells is reported. The feasibility of producing standard particles for electrophoresis was also studied. This work was undertaken in response to a need for standardization of methods for producing, calibrating, and storing electrophoretic particle standards which could be employed in performance tests of various types of electrophoresis equipment. Promising procedures were tested for their suitability in the production of standard test particles from red blood cells.

  18. Technical and management considerations in conducting type B shipping container tests

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, M.A.; Leader, D.R.; Phipps, D.P.

    1994-04-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) mandate that type B shipping containers are capable of surviving specific drop tests. One approach for demonstrating compliance to the CFRs is to drop test a shipping container. This paper will discuss the technical and management considerations in conducting such drop tests on the 9975 family of shipping containers. For both technical and management considerations this paper will comment on loading the shipping container, dropping the shopping container, and examination of the shipping container after the drop tests.

  19. Shuttle crew escape systems test conducted in JSC Bldg 9A CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Shuttle crew escape systems test is conducted by astronauts Steven R. Nagel (left) and Manley L. (Sonny) Carter in JSC One Gravity Mockup and Training Facilities Bldg 9A crew compartment trainer (CCT). Nagel and Carter are evaluating methods for crew escape during Space Shuttle controlled gliding flight. JSC test was done in advance of tests scheduled for facilities in California and Utah. Here, Carter serves as test subject evaluating egress positioning for the tractor rocket escape method - one of the two systems currently being closely studied by NASA.

  20. Design and testing of Electrostatic Aerosol in Vitro Exposure System (EAVES): an alternative exposure system for particles.

    PubMed

    de Bruijne, K; Ebersviller, S; Sexton, K G; Lake, S; Leith, D; Goodman, R; Jetters, J; Walters, G W; Doyle-Eisele, M; Woodside, R; Jeffries, H E; Jaspers, I

    2009-02-01

    Conventional in vitro exposure methods for cultured human lung cells rely on prior suspension of particles in a liquid medium; these have limitations for exposure intensity and may modify the particle composition. Here electrostatic precipitation was used as an effective method for such in vitro exposures. An obsolete electrostatic aerosol sampler was modified to provide a viable environment within the deposition field for human lung cells grown on membranous support. Particle deposition and particle-induced toxicological effects for a variety of particles including standardized polystyrene latex spheres (PSL) and diesel exhaust emission particle mixtures are reported. The Electrostatic Aerosol in Vitro Exposure System (EAVES) efficiently deposited particles from an air stream directly onto cells. Cells exposed to the electric field of the EAVES in clean air or in the presence of charged PSL spheres exhibited minimal cytotoxicity, and their release of inflammatory cytokines was indistinguishable from that of the controls. For the responses tested here, there are no significant adverse effects caused neither by the electric field alone nor by the mildly charged particles. Exposure to diesel exhaust emissions using the EAVES system induced a threefold increase in cytokines and cytotoxicity as compared to the control. Taken together, these data show that the EAVES can be used to expose human lung cells directly to particles without prior collection in media, thereby providing an efficient and effective alternative to the more conventional particle in vitro exposure methods. PMID:18800273

  1. [Animal testing ethics and human testing. Thoughts on our conduct with and our relationship to animals].

    PubMed

    Locker, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    After many years of experimental work with animals of diverse species, the author felt confronted with the question whether the great expenditure of sacrificed animal life would pay off when compared with the results gained. By self-critically considering his work, he gradually experienced a conversion from an unconcerned experimenter to a man feeling a deep sympathy with his fellow creatures. This motivated him to ponder the true nature of animals. Instead of applying ethics--though justified in its own realm--the author preferred to look at the problem using the General Systems Theory (GST), which can describe "the other side" of any system, the side into which any system may occasionally or necessarily transform. It occurred to him to assume that--provided we see a living organism as a system (as Ludwig von Bertalanffy, the founder of GST, did)--the "other side" of the animal would correspond to an innocent "genius" who suffers for man (thereby assuming a Christ-like position), whereas in its transitory life the true essence of the animal is hidden. Thus, by fancifully viewing the role of animals destined to suffer, a connection between GST and theology or religion arises. The consequence for us would be to pay honour to the test animal, irrespective of whether or not painful experiments could be avoided. The differentiation between a sacrifice (spiritually surrendering for a greater good) and a victim (involuntarily subjected to suffering) reveals that the experimental animal primarily belongs to the latter. But it can be elevated to the former when the full meaning of its suffering becomes obvious. The same holds true for "human testing", if, in contrast to the formidable atrocities, e.g. of concentration camps, the momentum of voluntariness is guaranteed, as pioneers of medical research frequently demonstrated by carrying out experiments on themselves. PMID:15586253

  2. Preparation, conduct, and experimental results of the AVR loss-of-coolant accident simulation test

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, K.; Bergerfurth, A.; Burger, S.; Pohl, P.; Wimmers, M. ); Cleveland, J.C. )

    1991-02-01

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is one of the most severe accidents for a nuclear power plant. To demonstrate inherent safety characteristics incorporated into small high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design, LOCA simulation tests have been conducted at the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR), the German pebble-bed-high-temperature reactor plant. The AVR is the only nuclear power plant ever to have been intentionally subjected to LOCA conditions without emergency cooling. This paper presents the planning and licensing activities including pretest predictions performed for the LOCA test are described, and the conduct of the test and experimental results. The LOCA test was planned to create conditions that would exist if a rapid LOCA occurred with the reactor operating at full power. The test demonstrated this reactor's safe response to an accident in which the coolant escapes from the reactor core and no emergency system is available to provide coolant flow to the core. The test is of special interest because it demonstrates the inherent safety features incorporated into optimized modular HTGR designs. The main LOCA test lasted for 5 days. After the test began, core temperatures increased for {approx}13 h and then gradually and continually decreased as the rate of heat dissipation from the core exceeded the simulated decay power. Throughout the test, temperatures remained below limiting values for the core and other reactor components.

  3. Conducting the NLM/AHCPR Large Scale Vocabulary Test: a distributed Internet-based experiment.

    PubMed Central

    McCray, A. T.; Cheh, M. L.; Bangalore, A. K.; Rafei, K.; Razi, A. M.; Divita, G.; Stavri, P. Z.

    1997-01-01

    The Large Scale Vocabulary Test, sponsored by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), was conducted to determine the extent to which a combination of existing health-related terminologies cover vocabulary needed in health care information systems. The test was conducted over the Internet using a sophisticated World Wide Web interface with over 60 participants and over 40,000 terms submitted. This paper discusses the issues encountered in the design and execution of the experiment, including the design of the interface and the issues of recruitment, training, and guidance of remote participants over the Internet. Test data are currently undergoing expert review. Upon completion of the expert review, the results of the test will be fully reported. PMID:9357688

  4. Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of the radionuclide tracer test conducted at the project Gnome Underground Nuclear Test Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Pohll, G.; Pohlmann, K.

    1996-08-01

    A radionuclide tracer test was conducted in 1963 by the U.S. Geological Survey at the Project Gnome underground nuclear test site, approximately 40 km southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The tracer study was carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to study the transport behavior of radionuclides in fractured rock aquifers. The Culebra Dolomite was chosen for the test because it was considered to be a reasonable analogue of the fractured carbonate aquifer at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the principal location of U.S. underground nuclear tests. Project Gnome was one of a small number of underground nuclear tests conducted by the AEC at sites distant from the NTS. The Gnome device was detonated on December 10, 1961 in an evaporate unit at a depth of 360 m below ground surface. Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close these offsite nuclear test areas. An early step in this process is performance of a preliminary risk analysis of the hazard posed by each site. The Desert Research Institute has performed preliminary hydrologic risk evaluations for the groundwater transport pathway at Gnome. That evaluation included the radioactive tracer test as a possible source because the test introduced radionuclides directly into the Culebra Dolomite, which is the only aquifer at the site. This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the radionuclide tracer test as a source for radionuclide migration in the Culebra Dolomite. The results of this study will assist in planning site characterization activities and refining estimates of the radionuclide source for comprehensive models of groundwater transport st the Gnome site.

  6. 40 CFR 63.8445 - How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits? 63.8445 Section 63.8445 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  7. 40 CFR 63.8595 - How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits? 63.8595 Section 63.8595 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  8. ANALYSIS OF A GAS-PHASE PARTITIONING TRACER TEST CONDUCTED THROUGH FRACTURED MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gas-phase partitioning tracer method was used to estimate non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), water, and air saturations in the vadose zone at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated field site in Tucson, AZ. The tracer test was conducted in a fractured clay system that is the confin...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2150 - By what date must I conduct the annual performance test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false By what date must I conduct the annual performance test? 60.2150 Section 60.2150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1775 - What types of stack tests must I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What types of stack tests must I conduct? 60.1775 Section 60.1775 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2715 - By what date must I conduct the annual performance test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false By what date must I conduct the annual performance test? 60.2715 Section 60.2715 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial...

  12. 40 CFR 63.9630 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I conduct subsequent performance tests? 63.9630 Section 63.9630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission...

  13. Developmental Pathways to Conduct Problems: A Further Test of the Childhood and Adolescent-Onset Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandreaux, Danielle M.; Frick, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested several theoretically important differences between youth with a childhood-onset and youth with an adolescent-onset to their severe conduct problems. Seventy-eight pre-adjudicated adolescent boys (ranging in age from 11 to 18) housed in two short-term detention facilities and one outpatient program for youth at risk for…

  14. Predicting Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Percolation Test Results in Layered Silt Loam Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The size of on-site waste disposal systems is usually determined by one or more percolation tests performed on the proposed site. The objectives of this study were to develop an empirical relationship between the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of layered soils and their percolation times (PT)...

  15. 40 CFR 63.8445 - How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits? 63.8445 Section 63.8445 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  16. 40 CFR 63.8595 - How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits? 63.8595 Section 63.8595 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  17. 30 CFR 250.460 - What are the requirements for conducting a well test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the requirements for conducting a well test? 250.460 Section 250.460 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil...

  18. 30 CFR 250.460 - What are the requirements for conducting a well test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for conducting a well test? 250.460 Section 250.460 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15230 - What types of stack tests must I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of stack tests must I conduct? 62.15230 Section 62.15230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14675 - By what date must I conduct the annual performance test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false By what date must I conduct the annual performance test? 62.14675 Section 62.14675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements...

  1. Characterizing Measurement Error in Test Scores across Studies: A Tutorial on Conducting "Reliability Generalization" Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Robin K.; Thompson, Bruce

    Given the potential value of reliability generalization (RG) studies in the development of cumulative psychometric knowledge, the purpose of this paper is to provide a tutorial on how to conduct such studies and to serve as a guide for researchers wishing to use this methodology. After some brief comments on classical test theory, the paper…

  2. 40 CFR 63.2262 - How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating requirements? 63.2262 Section 63.2262 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1795 - May I conduct stack testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I conduct stack testing less often? 60.1795 Section 60.1795 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1305 - May I conduct stack testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I conduct stack testing less often? 60.1305 Section 60.1305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1775 - What types of stack tests must I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of stack tests must I conduct? 60.1775 Section 60.1775 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1285 - What types of stack tests must I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of stack tests must I conduct? 60.1285 Section 60.1285 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  7. 40 CFR 63.10006 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests or tune-ups?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must I conduct subsequent performance tests or tune-ups? 63.10006 Section 63.10006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2155 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I conduct performance testing less often? 60.2155 Section 60.2155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2720 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I conduct performance testing less often? 60.2720 Section 60.2720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and...

  10. 40 CFR 63.8595 - How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits? 63.8595 Section 63.8595 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  11. 40 CFR 63.8445 - How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating limits? 63.8445 Section 63.8445 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  12. 33 CFR 148.410 - What are the conditions for conducting site evaluation and pre-construction testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conducting site evaluation and pre-construction testing? 148.410 Section 148.410 Navigation and Navigable... Site Evaluation and Pre-Construction Testing § 148.410 What are the conditions for conducting site evaluation and pre-construction testing? (a) No person may conduct site evaluation and...

  13. [Masking in bone-conduction testing--proposal of ABC method].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Y

    1992-11-01

    A new strategic masking technique, namely the ABC method, has been developed. In performing this method of measuring thresholds of bone-conduction, the vibrator is placed at the forehead with both ears occluded by air-conduction earphones. One of the earphones is for masking noise and the other is a dummy which balances out the occlusive effect of the test ear against the nontest ear. The ABC method is based on the ABC rule that, in bone-conduction testing, the effective masking noise level necessary to block out the nontest ear can be calculated by a simple equation: right AC (A) + left AC (B)--unmasked BCu (C) under the assumption that the BCu belongs to the nontest ear. In some cases of hearing loss, the above noise level might produce overmasking, then an additive safety noise level, BCu + Interaural Attenuation, is employed. This method offers testers step by step directions which consist of indications of the noise level and a criterion for determining whether the measured bone-conduction is free from cross hearing and overmasking for the given configuration of air-conduction of both ears, BCu, and the masking noise level. Compared to the well known Plato method, in which measurements of thresholds are repeated at several masking noise levels in order to find a single bone-conduction threshold, the ABC method can essentially find the threshold at only one masking noise level. Therefore the ABC method makes it possible to save a great deal of time in performing bone conduction testing. PMID:1464791

  14. 40 CFR 53.66 - Test procedure: Volatility test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... linear regression with the candidate method CRM as the dependent variable and the reference method RM as... aerosol is greatly dependent upon environmental conditions, all phases of this test shall be conducted at... condensation dynamics of a volatile aerosol is greatly dependent upon the vapor pressure of the...

  15. Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE 30) Module Conductivity Test Thermal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Jose; Phelps, Lisa H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two SAFE 30 modules were tested to determinate the thermal conductivity efficiency of the tri-cusps filled between the heat pipe and the heater cores. The modules consisted of four one-inch diameter tubes with heaters joined to an empty 1 inch diam. tube. The test was conducted on a vacuum chamber with 4 configurations: tri-cusps filled with and without radiation shielding and non-filled tri-cusps with and without radiation shielding. The tri-cusps material helps the bonding of the heat pipe to the four electric heater cores, filling the gap between the pipes. The baseline configuration is a brazed joint between the pipe. The test consisted of controlling the power applied to the heaters until a set surface temperature is reach. The temperatures varied between a max. of 800 C to 500 C. Test data, input energy and chamber surface temperature from each individual test, was used as boundary conditions for the model. Nodes located on the same location as the test thermocouples were plotted again test data to determinate the accuracy of the analysis. The unknown n variables on the analysis are the radiation emissivity of the pipe and chamber and the radiation view factor between the module and the chamber. A correlation was determined using a parametric analysis varying the surface emissivity and view factor until a good match was reach.

  16. Toward A 3-D Picture of Hydraulic Conductivity With Multilevel Slug Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwee, C. D.; McElwee, C. D.; Ross, H. C.

    2001-12-01

    The GEMS (Geohydrologic Experiment and Monitoring Site) field area has been established (in the Kansas River valley near Lawrence, Kansas) for a variety of reasons relating to research and teaching in hydrogeology at the University of Kansas. Over 70 wells have been installed for various purposes. The site overlies an alluvial aquifer with a total thickness of about 70 feet. The water table is typically about 20 feet below the surface, giving a total saturated thickness of about 50 feet. The upper part of the aquifer is finer material consisting of silt and clay. Typically, the lower 35 feet of the aquifer is sand and gravel. A number of wells through out the site are fully screened through the sand and gravel aquifer. Some of these fully screened wells are larger diameters; however, most wells are constructed of 2 inch PVC casing. Slug tests are widely used in hydrogeology to measure hydraulic conductivity. Over the last several years we have been conducting research to improve the slug test method. We have previously reported the detailed structure of hydraulic conductivity that can be seen in a 5 inch well (McElwee and Zemansky, EOS, v. 80, no. 46, p. F397, 1999) at this site, using multilevel slug tests. The existing 2 inch, fully screened wells are spread out over the site and offer the opportunity for developing a 3-D picture of the hydraulic conductivity distribution. However, it is difficult to develop a system that allows multilevel slug tests to be done accurately and efficiently in a 2 inch well. This is especially true in regions of very high hydraulic conductivity, where the water velocity in the casing will be relatively high. The resistance caused by frictional forces in the equipment must be minimized and a model taking account of these forces must be used. We have developed a system (equipment, software, and technique) for performing multilevel slug tests in 2 inch wells. Some equipment configurations work better than others. The data that we have

  17. Design and Testing of D.C. Conduction Pump for Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nashine, B.K.; Dash, S.K.; Gurumurthy, K.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2006-07-01

    DC Conduction pump immersed in sodium forms a part of Failed Fuel Location Module (FFLM) of 500 MWe Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) currently under construction. FFLM housed in control plug of the reactor, is used to locate the failed fuel sub-assembly due to clad rupture in the fuel pin. The DC conduction pump sucks the sodium from the top of fuel sub-assemblies through the selector valve and pumps the sodium to hold up for detecting the presence of delayed neutrons. Presence of delayed neutron is the indication of failure in the sampled fuel sub-assembly. The DC Conduction Pump was chosen because of its low voltage operation (2 V) where argon/alumina ceramic can provide required electrical insulation even at operating temperature of 560 deg. C without much complication on the manufacturing front. Sampling of sodium from top of different sub-assemblies is achieved by operation of selector valve in-conjunction with the drive motor. FFLM requires the pump to be immersed in sodium pool at {approx} 560 deg. C located above the fuel sub-assemblies in the reactor. The Pump of 0.36 m{sup 3}/h capacity and developing 1.45 Kg/ cm{sup 2} pressure was designed, manufactured and tested. The DC Conduction Pump has a stainless steel duct filled with liquid sodium, which is to be pumped. The stainless steel duct is kept in magnetic field obtained by means of electromagnet. The electromagnet is made of soft iron and the coil made of copper conductor surrounds the yoke portion of electromagnet. The external DC source of 2000 Amps, 2 Volt is used to send current through sodium placed in the stainless steel duct and the same current is sent through copper coil of electromagnet for producing required magneto motive force, which in turn produces required magnetic field. The interaction of current in sodium (placed in stainless steel duct) and magnetic field produced by the electromagnet in the duct region produces pumping force in the sodium. Electromagnet, copper coil, stainless steel

  18. Development and Testing of a Variable Conductance Thermal Acquisition, Transport, and Switching System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Stouffer, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a scalable thermal management architecture for instruments, subsystems, or systems that must operate in severe space environments with wide variations in sink temperature. The architecture involves a serial linkage of one or more hot-side variable conductance heat pipes (VCHPs) to one or more cold-side loop heat pipes (LHPs). The VCHPs provide wide area heat acquisition, limited distance thermal transport, modest against gravity pumping, concentrated LHP startup heating, and high switching ratio variable conductance operation. The LHPs provide localized heat acquisition, long distance thermal transport, significant against gravity pumping, and high switching ratio variable conductance operation. The single-VCHP, single-LHP system described herein was developed to maintain thermal control of a small robotic lunar lander throughout the lunar day-night thermal cycle. It is also applicable to other variable heat rejection space missions in severe environments. Operationally, despite a 60-70% gas blocked VCHP condenser during ON testing, the system was still able to provide 2-4 W/K ON conductance, 0.01 W/K OFF conductance, and an end-to-end switching ratio of 200-400. The paper provides a detailed analysis of VCHP condenser performance, which quantified the gas blockage situation. Future multi-VCHP/multi-LHP thermal management system concepts that provide power/transport length scalability are also discussed.

  19. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: Aerosol experiments ABCOVE AB5, AB6, AB7, and LACE LA2

    SciTech Connect

    Souto, F.J.; Haskin, F.E.; Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-10-01

    The MELCOR computer code has been used to model four of the large-scale aerosol behavior experiments conducted in the Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) vessel. Tests AB5, AB6 and AB7 of the ABCOVE program simulate the dry aerosol conditions during a hypothetical severe accident in an LMFBR. Test LA2 of the LACE program simulates aerosol behavior in a condensing steam environment during a postulated severe accident in an LWR with failure to isolate the containment. The comparison of code results to experimental data show that MELCOR is able to correctly predict most of the thermal-hydraulic results in the four tests. MELCOR predicts reasonably well the dry aerosol behavior of the ABCOVE tests, but significant disagreements are found in the aerosol behavior modelling for the LA2 experiment. These results tend to support some of the concerns about the MELCOR modelling of steam condensation onto aerosols expressed in previous works. During these analyses, a limitation in the MELCOR input was detected for the specification of the aerosol parameters for more than one component. A Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) sensitivity study of the aerosol dynamic constants is presented for test AB6. The study shows the importance of the aerosol shape factors in the aerosol deposition behavior, and reveals that MELCOR input/output processing is highly labor intensive for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses based on LHS.

  20. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols, performance of WIBS-4 for discrimination of several types of aerosols, and the detection and identification of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples including spores, bacteria, pollen, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres were analysed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the Ultra Violet Light Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two wavelengths excitation/two wavebands detection method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and it decreases towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions are prevailing. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand the total aerosol number concentration was always higher during day time than during night time and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature

  1. SAGE II aerosol data validation based on retrieved aerosol model size distribution from SAGE II aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.; Russell, P. B.; Oberbeck, V. R.; Livingston, J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to aerosol correlative measurements experiments for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, conducted between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative measurements were taken with an impactor/laser probe, a dustsonde, and an airborne 36-cm lidar system. The primary aerosol quantities measured by the ground-based instruments are compared with those calculated from the aerosol size distributions from SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements. Good agreement is found between the two sets of measurements.

  2. Aerosol Climate Time Series in ESA Aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Thomas; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Pinnock, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. Meanwhile, full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer, but also from ATSR instruments and the POLDER sensor), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which were also validated and improved in the reprocessing. For the three ATSR algorithms the use of an ensemble method was tested. The paper will summarize and discuss the status of dataset reprocessing and validation. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension

  3. Analysis of aquifer tests conducted in borehole USW G-2, 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, G.M.

    1998-08-01

    Borehole USW G-2 is located north of Yucca Mountain in a large-hydraulic-gradient area. Two single-borehole aquifer tests were conducted in the borehole during 1996. A 54.9-hour pumping period was conducted February 6--8, 1996, and a 408-hour pumping period was conducted April 8--25, 1996. The purpose of testing was to obtain estimates of the aquifer-system transmissivity and to determine if perched water was affecting the observed water level in borehole USW G-2. This report presents and analyzes data collected between February 6 and December 17, 1996. Analysis of the aquifer-test data indicated that fracture flow, dual-porosity flow, and boundary-affected flow conditions were observed in the drawdown and recovery data. Transmissivity estimates ranged from 2.3 to 12 meters squared per day. The most representative transmissivity estimate for the interval tested is the early-time mean transmissivity of 9.4 meters squared per day. The Calico Hills Formation was the primary formation tested, but the top 3 meters of the nonpumping water column was within the overlying Topopah Spring Tuff. Persistent residual drawdown following pumping more than 6 million liters of water during aquifer testing may indicate that the bore-hole intersected a perched water body. After 236 days of recovery, residual drawdown was 0.5 meter. The quantitative effect of the perched water on the observed water level in borehole USW G-2, however, cannot be determined with the available data.

  4. Fabrication and Testing of a Bi-Conductive Polymer Membrane Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, S.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tanaka, T.; Fréchette, L. G.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports the fabrication process and testing of a bi-conductive polymer membrane (BCPM) fuel cell that integrates lateral current collectors on both sides with an ionic conductive path through the membrane. The new membrane shows major advantages over standard Nafion® membranes used in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEMFCs). In addition to being mechanically stable when wet, the flexible BCPM integrates efficient thin film current collectors (ICCs) on an ionic conductive membrane with a high active area ratio. Also, ICCs leave all the surface of the electrode free to eventually integrate a more efficient water and gas management system than traditional gas diffusion layers. Moreover, the fabricated membrane has shown superior volumetric power density than standard PEMFC (0.76 vs 0.47 mW/cm2μm).

  5. LMFBR aerosol release and transport program. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, T.S.; Tobias, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes progress for the Aerosol Release and Transport Program sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Accident Evaluation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the period July-September 1981. Topics discussed include (1) preparations for under-sodium tests at the Fast Aerosol Simulant Test Facility, (2) progress in interpretation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Sandia Laboratory normalization test results, (3) U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ in steam (light-water reactor accident) aerosol experiments conducted in the Nuclear Safety Power Plant, (4) experiments on B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ aerosols at the Containment Research Installation-II Facility, (5) fuel-melting tests in small-scale experimental facilities for the core-melt aerosol program, (6) analytical comparison of simple adiabatic nonlinear and linear analytical models of bubble oscillation phenomena with experimental data.

  6. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSIENT PRESSURE RESPONSE FROM A CONSTANT FLOW RATE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY TEST.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporating a flow pump into a conventional triaxial laboratory system allows fluid to be supplied to or withdrawn from the base of a sediment sample at small and constant rates. An initial transient record of hydraulic head versus time is observed which eventually stabilizes to a constant steady state gradient across the sample; values of hydraulic conductivity can subsequently be determined from Darcy's law. In this paper, analytical methods are presented for determining values of specific storage and hydraulic conductivity from the initial transient phase of such a constant flow rate test. These methods are based on a diffusion equation involving pore pressure and are analogous to those used to describe the soil consolidation process and also to interpret aquifer properties from pumping tests.

  7. Evaluation of Fluid Conduction and Mixing within a Subassembly of the Actinide Burner Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff B. Davis

    2007-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D code is being considered as a thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the sodium-cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. An evaluation was performed to determine whether the control system could be used to simulate the effects of non-convective mechanisms of heat transport in the fluid, including axial and radial heat conduction and subchannel mixing, that are not currently represented with internal code models. The evaluation also determined the relative importance of axial and radial heat conduction and fluid mixing on peak cladding temperature for a wide range of steady conditions and during a representative loss-of-flow transient. The evaluation was performed using a RELAP5-3D model of a subassembly in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, which was used as a surrogate for the Actinide Burner Test Reactor.

  8. STS-31 MS Sullivan conducts DSO 473 test on Pilot Bolden on OV-103's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-31 Mission Specialist (MS) Kathryn D. Sullivan conducts a Merieux skin test on Pilot Charles F. Bolden as part of Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 473, Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity. In Sullivan's left hand is a bar filled with doses of a bacterial antigen to be administered to the subject's skin. The two crewmembers are in front of forward lockers on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103.

  9. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy for conducting gas tracer tests and measuring water saturations in landfills.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoojin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M Erfan; Chiu, Pei; Yazdani, Ramin; Imhoff, Paul T

    2012-02-01

    Gas tracer tests can be used to determine gas flow patterns within landfills, quantify volatile contaminant residence time, and measure water within refuse. While gas chromatography (GC) has been traditionally used to analyze gas tracers in refuse, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) might allow real-time measurements with reduced personnel costs and greater mobility and ease of use. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PAS for conducting gas tracer tests in landfills. Two tracer gases, difluoromethane (DFM) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)), were measured with a commercial PAS instrument. Relative measurement errors were invariant with tracer concentration but influenced by background gas: errors were 1-3% in landfill gas but 4-5% in air. Two partitioning gas tracer tests were conducted in an aerobic landfill, and limits of detection (LODs) were 3-4 times larger for DFM with PAS versus GC due to temporal changes in background signals. While higher LODs can be compensated by injecting larger tracer mass, changes in background signals increased the uncertainty in measured water saturations by up to 25% over comparable GC methods. PAS has distinct advantages over GC with respect to personnel costs and ease of use, although for field applications GC analyses of select samples are recommended to quantify instrument interferences. PMID:21996285

  10. A TEST OF THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM MODELS AND 3-D AIR QUALITY MODELS FOR PREDICTIONS OF AEROSOL NO3-

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inorganic species of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium constitute a major fraction of atmospheric aerosols. The behavior of nitrate is one of the most intriguing aspects of inorganic atmospheric aerosols because particulate nitrate concentrations depend not only on the amount of ...

  11. Absolute hydraulic conductivity estimates from aquifer pumping and tracer tests in a stratified aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Thorbjarnarson, K.W.; Huntley, D.; McCarty, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Independent estimates of absolute hydraulic conductivity were obtained by a standard aquifer pumping test and a forced-gradient tracer test in a highly heterogeneous aquifer. An aquifer hydraulic test was conducted to evaluate the average hydraulic conductivity (K), and to establish steady-state flow for the tracer test. An average K of 48 m/day was interpreted from the draw-down data in a fully screened well. Type-curve matching and simulation with MODFLOW of the hydraulic response in partially screened wells indicates K of 10 to 15 m/day for the upper section and 71 to 73 m/day for the deeper section. Iodide and fluorescent dye tracers were injected at low rates in wells located approximately 8 m upgradient of the production well. Tracer breakthrough was monitored in the production well and at ten depth intervals within the fully screened monitoring well. Interpretation of tracer response in the production well reveals tracer transport is limited to a 3.9 m thick section of the 20 m thick aquifer, with a hydraulic conductivity of 248 m/day. However, the depth distribution of these permeable strata cannot be determined from the production well tracer response. When sampled at 1.5 m depth intervals in the monitoring well, breakthrough was observed in only three intervals along the entire 18.2 m screened well. K estimates from tracer travel time within discrete high-permeability strata range from 31 to 317 m/day. Inclusion of permeameter K estimates for the lower permeability aquifer sands result in a range in relative K of 0.01 to 1.0. This field site has the highest absolute K estimate for a discrete stratum and the widest range in relative hydraulic conductivity among research field sites with K estimates for discrete strata. Within such a highly stratified aquifer, the use of an average K from an aquifer pumping test to predict solute transport results in great underestimation of transport distances for a given time period.

  12. Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing for Conducted Susceptibility Along Interconnecting Signal Lines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P. D.; Wood, R. T.; Korsah, K.; Shourbaji, A. A.; Wilson, T. L.; Beets, B. M.

    2002-07-31

    This document presents recommendations and the associated technical basis for addressing the effects of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) along interconnecting signal lines in safety-related instrumentation and control (I&C) systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in assisting the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research in developing the technical basis for regulatory guidance on EMIIRFI immunity and power surge withstand capability (SWC). Previous research efforts have provided recommendations on (1) electromagnetic compatibility design and installation practices, (2) the endorsement of EMI/RFI and SWC test criteria and test methods, (3) the determination of ambient electromagnetic conditions at nuclear power plants, and (4) the development of recommended electromagnetic operating envelopes applicable to locations where safety-related I&C systems will be installed. The current research focuses on the susceptibility of l&C systems to conducted EMIIRFI along interconnecting signal lines. Coverage of signal line susceptibility was identified as an open issue in previous research on establishing the technical basis for EMIIRFI and SWC in safety-related I&C systems. Research results provided in this report will be used to establish the technical basis for endorsing U.S. Department of Defense and European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization test criteria and test methods that address signal-line susceptibility. In addition, recommendations on operating envelopes are presented based on available technical information.

  13. Development of an electrical conductivity screening test for mine waste assessments.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Warner, Richard C; Honaker, Rick Q

    2016-10-01

    An environmental concern at mining operations is the potential leaching of trace elements from overburden and byproduct streams of processing plants. To provide a timely assessment of this concern, electrical conductivity of the leachate emanating from the plant waste streams can be measured as an indicator of the trace element content levels using the USGS Field Leach Test (FLT). However, the research reported in this publication revealed the need to modify the FLT procedure to improve the precision of the test results. The primary issue involved the importance of leachant volume-to-particle surface area ratio in the assessment of the leaching potential for a given source. To determine the key factors impacting leachability of a given material, a statistically-designed parametric study was performed. The experimental program evaluated the effects of particle surface area, the leachant volume-to-surface area ratio, and the amount of oxidant used to expedite the leaching rate during the test. The results revealed that the significant parameters are leachant volume-to-solid surface area ratio and the amount of oxidant. The findings were used to recommend a modification to the conductivity screening test. PMID:27351901

  14. Cross-Institute Evaluations of Inhibitor-Resistant PCR Reagents for Direct Testing of Aerosol and Blood Samples Containing Biological Warfare Agent DNA

    PubMed Central

    Minogue, Timothy D.; Rachwal, Phillip A.; Trombley Hall, Adrienne; Koehler, Jeffery W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid pathogen detection is crucial for the timely introduction of therapeutics. Two groups (one in the United Kingdom and one in the United States) independently evaluated inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for the direct testing of substrates. In the United Kingdom, a multiplexed Bacillus anthracis (target) and Bacillus subtilis (internal-control) PCR was used to evaluate 4 reagents against 5 PCR inhibitors and down-selected the TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step master mix (Life Technologies Inc.). In the United States, four real-time PCR assays (targeting B. anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], and Orthopoxvirus spp.) were used to evaluate 5 reagents (plus the Fast Virus master mix) against buffer, blood, and soil samples and down-selected the KAPA Blood Direct master mix (KAPA Biosystems Inc.) with added Platinum Taq (Life Technologies). The down-selected reagents underwent further testing. In the United Kingdom experiments, both reagents were tested against seven contrived aerosol collector samples containing B. anthracis Ames DNA and B. subtilis spores from a commercial formulation (BioBall). In PCR assays with reaction mixtures containing 40% crude sample, an airfield-collected sample induced inhibition of the B. subtilis PCR with the KAPA reagent and complete failure of both PCRs with the Fast Virus reagent. However, both reagents allowed successful PCR for all other samples—which inhibited PCRs with a non-inhibitor-resistant reagent. In the United States, a cross-assay limit-of-detection (LoD) study in blood was conducted. The KAPA Blood Direct reagent allowed the detection of agent DNA (by four PCRs) at higher concentrations of blood in the reaction mixture (2.5%) than the Fast Virus reagent (0.5%), although LoDs differed between assays and reagent combinations. Across both groups, the KAPA Blood Direct reagent was determined to be the optimal reagent for inhibition relief in PCR. PMID:24334660

  15. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable. The test requirements and performance... specified for a reference method sampler in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable, such as...-traceability (if required) of all measurement instruments used in the tests. The accuracy of flow rate...

  16. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. (a) Any list that may be prepared by the Food and Drug Administration of testing and...

  17. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. (a) Any list that may be prepared by the Food and Drug Administration of testing and...

  18. 40 CFR 63.6110 - By what date must I conduct the initial performance tests or other initial compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... date must I conduct the initial performance tests or other initial compliance demonstrations? (a) You... equipment changes. (5) The test must be conducted at any load condition within plus or minus 10 percent of... performance tests or other initial compliance demonstrations? 63.6110 Section 63.6110 Protection...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7515 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests, fuel analyses, or tune-ups?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... performance tests, fuel analyses, or tune-ups? 63.7515 Section 63.7515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Analyses, and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.7515 When must I conduct subsequent performance tests, fuel analyses, or tune-ups? (a) You must conduct all applicable performance tests according to §...

  20. 40 CFR 63.7515 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests, fuel analyses, or tune-ups?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance tests, fuel analyses, or tune-ups? 63.7515 Section 63.7515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance Requirements § 63.7515 When must I conduct subsequent performance tests, fuel analyses, or tune-ups? (a) You must conduct all applicable performance tests according to § 63.7520 on an annual...

  1. 40 CFR 63.7515 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests, fuel analyses, or tune-ups?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... performance tests, fuel analyses, or tune-ups? 63.7515 Section 63.7515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Analyses, and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.7515 When must I conduct subsequent performance tests, fuel analyses, or tune-ups? (a) You must conduct all applicable performance tests according to §...

  2. Dependence of Hydraulic Conductivity on Test Scale: Artifact or Something More?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Over the years, there have been frequent reports of a dependence of hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates on test volume (scale). This dependence is commonly demonstrated using results from laboratory permeameter tests and from slug and pumping tests. Typically, K estimates from pumping tests are reported to be considerably larger than those from slug tests, which, in turn, are considerably larger than those from permeameter tests. Despite the large body of evidence, a key question remains unresolved - is this relationship produced by methodological differences or a natural underlying scale dependence in K? The most effective means to resolve this question is to use a single technique that can be configured to span orders of magnitude in test scale. The constant-rate pumping test is just such a technique. In the first few minutes to tens of minutes of pumping, the affected volume is relatively small. In contrast, after days of pumping, this volume can be orders of magnitude larger. If there is an underlying scale dependence, it should be revealed by K estimates determined from different durations of pumping. We have been investigating this issue using pumping tests in unconsolidated aquifers in central and western Kansas. In western Kansas, irrigation wells are pumped nearly continuously for the entire growing season. If nearby observation wells are available, we can use this near-continuous pumping as a long-duration, albeit imperfectly controlled, pumping test to increase the scale of the investigation. An initial assessment of these formal and ad-hoc pumping tests has found no evidence of a scale dependence in K; these tests are typically characterized by homogeneous aquifer behavior at small to moderate times of pumping after which boundary effects become dominant. Thus, if there is an underlying scale dependence, it is below the scale of these observations, which would have to be considered rather serendipitous. We can assess the relationship at smaller scales

  3. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy for conducting gas tracer tests and measuring water saturations in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yoojin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M. Erfan; Chiu, Pei; Yazdani, Ramin; Imhoff, Paul T.

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy tested for measuring tracer gas in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement errors for tracer gases were 1-3% in landfill gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Background signals from landfill gas result in elevated limits of detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique is much less expensive and easier to use than GC. - Abstract: Gas tracer tests can be used to determine gas flow patterns within landfills, quantify volatile contaminant residence time, and measure water within refuse. While gas chromatography (GC) has been traditionally used to analyze gas tracers in refuse, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) might allow real-time measurements with reduced personnel costs and greater mobility and ease of use. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PAS for conducting gas tracer tests in landfills. Two tracer gases, difluoromethane (DFM) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}), were measured with a commercial PAS instrument. Relative measurement errors were invariant with tracer concentration but influenced by background gas: errors were 1-3% in landfill gas but 4-5% in air. Two partitioning gas tracer tests were conducted in an aerobic landfill, and limits of detection (LODs) were 3-4 times larger for DFM with PAS versus GC due to temporal changes in background signals. While higher LODs can be compensated by injecting larger tracer mass, changes in background signals increased the uncertainty in measured water saturations by up to 25% over comparable GC methods. PAS has distinct advantages over GC with respect to personnel costs and ease of use, although for field applications GC analyses of select samples are recommended to quantify instrument interferences.

  4. Development and Testing of a Variable Conductance Thermal Acquisition, Transport, and Switching System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, D. C.; Farmer, J. T.; Stouffer, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a scalable thermal control architecture for instruments, subsystems, or systems that must operate in severe space environments with wide variations in sink temperature. The architecture is comprised by linking one or more hot-side variable conductance heat pipes (VCHPs) in series with one or more cold-side loop heat pipes (LHPs). The VCHPs provide wide area heat acquisition, limited distance thermal transport, modest against gravity pumping, concentrated LHP startup heating, and high switching ratio variable conductance operation. The LHPs provide localized heat acquisition, long distance thermal transport, significant against gravity pumping, and high switching ratio variable conductance operation. Combining two variable conductance devices in series ensures very high switching ratio isolation from severe environments like the Earth's moon, where each lunar day spans 15 Earth days (270 K sink, with a surface-shielded/space viewing radiator) and each lunar night spans 15 Earth days (80-100 K radiative sink, depending on location). The single VCHP-single LHP system described herein was developed to maintain thermal control of International Lunar Network (ILN) anchor node lander electronics, but it is also applicable to other variable heat rejection space missions in severe environments. The LHPVCHP system utilizes a stainless steel wire mesh wick ammonia VCHP, a Teflon wick propylene LHP, a pair of one-third square meter high ? radiators (one capillary-pumped horizontal radiator and a second gravity-fed vertical radiator), a half-meter of transport distance, and a wick-bearing co-located flow regulator (CLFR) to allow operation with a hot (deactivated) radiator. The VCHP was designed with a small reservoir formed by extending the length of its stainless steel heat pipe tubing. The system was able to provide end-to-end switching ratios of 300-500 during thermal vacuum testing at ATK, including 3-5 W/K ON conductance

  5. Estimating the Hydraulic Conductivity of Glacial Tills From Soil Index Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, S.; Lowery, J. B.

    2002-05-01

    The most important parameter in any groundwater flow or contaminant transport problem is hydraulic conductivity (K). However, for fine-grained soils, the measurement of hydraulic conductivity (K) can be expensive and time-consuming. Previous attempts at estimating K for fine-grained soils have been marginally successful. In this study, 23 glacial till were sampled at seven sites in McLean County, Illinois. The samples were tested for saturated vertical K, grain-size distribution, porosity, plastic limit and plasticity index. Soil characteristics from the soil-index tests were mathematically manipulated into several variable forms and correlated to K by using the Statistical Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Variables that correlated significantly with K were then used to perform a step-wise multiple regression analysis, with K as the dependent variable. The resulting equation explained 75% of the variance in K. Plastic limit and clay content showed the strongest correlation to K. Plastic limit showed a positive correlation with K, along with clay contents above 23%. This is likely due to the effect that clay content and plasticity have on structure in shallow, unsaturated soils. Repeated expansion and contraction leads to fracturing in highly plastic soils, which increases K. This study shows the need for a closer examination into the importance of structure on the hydraulic conductivity of shallow, fine-grained soils.

  6. Characteristics of acoustic wave from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2015-04-01

    Availability of the acoustic wave on the record of microbarograph is one of discriminate signs of atmospheric (surface layer of atmosphere) and contact explosions. Nowadays there is large number of air wave records from chemical explosions recorded by the IMS infrasound stations installed during recent decade. But there is small number of air wave records from nuclear explosions as air and contact nuclear explosions had been conducted since 1945 to 1962, before the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963 (the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water) by the Great Britain, USSR and USA. That time there was small number of installed microbarographs. First infrasound stations in the USSR appeared in 1954, and by the moment of the USSR collapse the network consisted of 25 infrasound stations, 3 of which were located on Kazakhstan territory - in Kurchatov (East Kazakhstan), in Borovoye Observatory (North Kazakhstan) and Talgar Observatory (Northern Tien Shan). The microbarograph of Talgar Observatory was installed in 1962 and recorded large number of air nuclear explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site and Novaya Zemlya Test Site. The epicentral distance to the STS was ~700 km, and to Novaya Zemlya Test Site ~3500 km. The historical analog records of the microbarograph were analyzed on the availability of the acoustic wave. The selected records were digitized, the database of acoustic signals from nuclear explosions was created. In addition, acoustic signals from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites were recorded by analogue broadband seismic stations at wide range of epicentral distances, 300-3600 km. These signals coincide well by its form and spectral content with records of microbarographs and can be used for monitoring tasks and discrimination in places where infrasound observations are absent. Nuclear explosions which records contained acoustic wave were from 0.03 to 30 kt yield for

  7. Using sequential self-calibration method to identify conductivity distribution: Conditioning on tracer test data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hu, B.X.; He, C.

    2008-01-01

    An iterative inverse method, the sequential self-calibration method, is developed for mapping spatial distribution of a hydraulic conductivity field by conditioning on nonreactive tracer breakthrough curves. A streamline-based, semi-analytical simulator is adopted to simulate solute transport in a heterogeneous aquifer. The simulation is used as the forward modeling step. In this study, the hydraulic conductivity is assumed to be a deterministic or random variable. Within the framework of the streamline-based simulator, the efficient semi-analytical method is used to calculate sensitivity coefficients of the solute concentration with respect to the hydraulic conductivity variation. The calculated sensitivities account for spatial correlations between the solute concentration and parameters. The performance of the inverse method is assessed by two synthetic tracer tests conducted in an aquifer with a distinct spatial pattern of heterogeneity. The study results indicate that the developed iterative inverse method is able to identify and reproduce the large-scale heterogeneity pattern of the aquifer given appropriate observation wells in these synthetic cases. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2008.

  8. Submicron Aerosol Particle Losses in Metalized Bags.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecinski, Alice

    1980-07-01

    Two new types of conducting bags were tested for aerosol particle storage and sampling, a 3M Company Velostat bag and a bag constructed from 3M Type 2100 Static Shielding Film. The half-lives of unipolar, unit-charged 0.025 m, 0.050 m and 0.090 m sized aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag and the film bag were 130, 190 and 270 min and 40, 70 and 180 min, respectively. These results depend upon the history of bag filling. The values given here apply to bags which had not previously been filled on the day of experimentation. The lifetimes exhibited by the aerosol particles stored in the Velostat bag are the longest found to data.

  9. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    SciTech Connect

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  10. Temperature and strain rate effects in high strength high conductivity copper alloys tested in air

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.J.

    1998-03-01

    The tensile properties of the three candidate alloys GlidCop{trademark} Al25, CuCrZr, and CuNiBe are known to be sensitive to the testing conditions such as strain rate and test temperature. This study was conducted on GlidCop Al25 (2 conditions) and Hycon 3HP (3 conditions) to ascertain the effect of test temperature and strain rate when tested in open air. The results show that the yield strength and elongation of the GlidCop Al25 alloys exhibit a strain rate dependence that increases with temperature. Both the GlidCop and the Hycon 3 HP exhibited an increase in strength as the strain rate increased, but the GlidCop alloys proved to be the most strain rate sensitive. The GlidCop failed in a ductile manner irrespective of the test conditions, however, their strength and uniform elongation decreased with increasing test temperature and the uniform elongation also decreased dramatically at the lower strain rates. The Hycon 3 HP alloys proved to be extremely sensitive to test temperature, rapidly losing their strength and ductility when the temperature increased above 250 C. As the test temperature increased and the strain rate decreased the fracture mode shifted from a ductile transgranular failure to a ductile intergranular failure with very localized ductility. This latter observation is based on the presence of dimples on the grain facets, indicating that some ductile deformation occurred near the grain boundaries. The material failed without any reduction in area at 450 C and 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}, and in several cases failed prematurely.

  11. Electrical and Thermal View Points for Designing Conduction-Cooled Specimen Holder for Short Sample Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvelä, J.; Stenvall, A.; Mikkonen, R.

    Theelectrical and stabilitypropertiesof superconductivestrandsareoftencharacterizedby short sample testing.These tests are often done in a measurement system where the sample is cooled by liquid cryogen or cold gas flow. In both approaches, the sample temperature during a measurement is stabilized by the abundance of available cooling power. This also helps to protect the sample during a thermal runaway i.e. quench. However, in some characterizations, e.g. minimum quench energy testing, the cooling conditions can have a significant effect on the results. Therefore a more adiabatic solution is prefer able as iten able seasier comparison of the results from different measurement stations. One solution to achieving the desired adiabacy is to use conduction-cooling and vacuum insulation. As there is no cooling fluidtorelyon, as cheme for sample protection has to be implemented. Inaconduction-cooled setup, one way to protect the sampleis to use an active protection system in conjunction with aproperly designed sample holder. In this publication, we present an electrical and thermal analysis of a conduction-cooled sample holder suitable for both critical current and minimum quench energy measurements. A coupled electro-thermal finite element method model was constructed to study the sample holder performance during measurement. For our application, the performance is defined by the ohmic losses in the holder component sand by the recovery time from as amplequench.

  12. Estimating Hydraulic Conductivities in a Fractured Shale Formation from Pressure Pulse Testing and 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbet, C.; DICK, P.; Lefevre, M.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.; Barnichon, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the framework of its research on the deep disposal of radioactive waste in shale formations, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has developed a large array of in situ programs concerning the confining properties of shales in their underground research laboratory at Tournemire (SW France). One of its aims is to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling radionuclide migration through the host rock, from the disposal system to the biosphere. Past research programs carried out at Tournemire covered mechanical, hydro-mechanical and physico-chemical properties of the Tournemire shale as well as water chemistry and long-term behaviour of the host rock. Studies show that fluid circulations in the undisturbed matrix are very slow (hydraulic conductivity of 10-14 to 10-15 m.s-1). However, recent work related to the occurrence of small scale fractures and clay-rich fault gouges indicate that fluid circulations may have been significantly modified in the vicinity of such features. To assess the transport properties associated with such faults, IRSN designed a series of in situ and laboratory experiments to evaluate the contribution of both diffusive and advective process on water and solute flux through a clay-rich fault zone (fault core and damaged zone) and in an undisturbed shale formation. As part of these studies, Modular Mini-Packer System (MMPS) hydraulic testing was conducted in multiple boreholes to characterize hydraulic conductivities within the formation. Pressure data collected during the hydraulic tests were analyzed using the nSIGHTS (n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator) code to estimate hydraulic conductivity and formation pressures of the tested intervals. Preliminary results indicate hydraulic conductivities of 5.10-12 m.s-1 in the fault core and damaged zone and 10-14 m.s-1 in the adjacent undisturbed shale. Furthermore, when compared with neutron porosity data from borehole

  13. Final Report - Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth for Underground Test Area (UGTA) Wells

    SciTech Connect

    P. Oberlander; D. McGraw; C. Russell

    2007-10-31

    Hydraulic conductivity with depth has been calculated for Underground Test Area (UGTA) wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock. The following wells in volcanic tuff are evaluated: ER-EC-1, ER-EC-2a, ER-EC-4, ER-EC-5, ER-5-4#2, ER-EC-6, ER-EC-7, and ER-EC-8. The following wells in carbonate rock are evaluated: ER-7-1, ER-6-1, ER-6-1#2, and ER-12-3. There are a sufficient number of wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock to associate the conductivity values with the specific hydrogeologic characteristics such as the stratigraphic unit, hydrostratigraphic unit, hydrogeologic unit, lithologic modifier, and alteration modifier used to describe the hydrogeologic setting. Associating hydraulic conductivity with hydrogeologic characteristics allows an evaluation of the data range and the statistical distribution of values. These results are relevant to how these units are considered in conceptual models and represented in groundwater models. The wells in volcanic tuff illustrate a wide range of data values and data distributions when associated with specific hydrogeologic characteristics. Hydraulic conductivity data within a hydrogeologic characteristic can display normal distributions, lognormal distributions, semi-uniform distribution, or no identifiable distribution. There can be multiple types of distributions within a hydrogeologic characteristic such as a single stratigraphic unit. This finding has implications for assigning summary hydrogeologic characteristics to hydrostratigraphic and hydrogeologic units. The results presented herein are specific to the hydrogeologic characteristic and to the wells used to describe hydraulic conductivity. The wells in carbonate rock are associated with a fewer number of hydrogeologic characteristics. That is, UGTA wells constructed in carbonate rock have tended to be in similar hydrogeologic materials, and show a wide range in hydraulic conductivity values and data distributions. Associations of hydraulic conductivity and

  14. Life testing of conductively coupled thermoelectric cells. Final report for task 11

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, E.; Klee, P.; Hanson, J.; Nakahara, J.

    1997-09-26

    Four conductively coupled thermoelectric cells, developed under the SP100 program, have been life tested. These cells, referred to as TOC (Task Order Contract) cells, were fourth generation cells, and incorporated design improvements to extend operating life. GS526 glass had been added to suppress the loss of Ge from the MoGe bond between the SiGe and the barrier graphite. The previous generation was life limited by the degradation of this electrical bond at the SiGe to graphite hot side interface due to the Ge loss. This led to abnormal internal resistance trends. The TOC cell test data and post test diagnostic have confirmed the effectiveness of the perimeter glass. Three of the four cells demonstrated normal electrical performance trends. The fourth cell (No. 139) tested at JPL showed an abnormal increase in internal resistance and a shift in temperature levels at 12,400 hours following a facility shutdown and restart. When the cell was removed from the test fixture, separation occurred between the hot side compliant pad facesheet and the niobium filament bundles. No degradation of the bond between the SiGe and the barrier graphite was found and the change in slope of the internal resistance was attributed to changes in the rate of dopant precipitation caused by the shift in temperature levels.

  15. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

    2011-03-02

    This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

  16. Individualised headband simulation test for predicting outcome after percutaneous bone conductive implantation.

    PubMed

    Monini, S; Filippi, C; Atturo, F; Biagini, M; Lazzarino, A I; Barbara, M

    2015-10-01

    Trans-cutaneous bone conduction (BC) stimulators, when coupled to the HB (BC-HB), are generally used to predict the results that could be achieved after bone conductive implant (BCI) surgery, and their performance is generally considered inferior to that provided by the definitive percutaneous system. The aim of the present study was to compare the performances between BC-HB and BCI of the same typology, when the former's sound processor is fitted in accordance to the individual auditory situation. Twenty-two patients selected for surgical application of a BCI were evaluated and the same audiological protocol was used to select the candidate and assess the final outcome. The BC-HB was properly fitted based on individual hearing loss and personal auditory targets, and tested as primary step of the protocol to obtain the most reliable predictive value. The BAHA Divino and BP100 sound processors were applied in 12 patients with conductive/mixed hearing loss (CMHL) and in 10 subjects with single sided deafness (SSD). Audiometric evaluation included the pure tone average (PTA3) threshold between 250-1000 Hz; the PTA thresholds at 2000 and 4000 Hz; intelligibility scores as percentage of word recognition (WRS) in quiet and in noise; and subjective evaluation of perceived sound quality by a visual analogue scale (VAS). Statistical evaluation with a student's t test was used for assessment of efficacy of BC-HB and BCI compared with the unaided condition. Spearman's Rho coefficient was used to confirm the reliability of the BC-HB simulation test as a predictor of definitive outcome. The results showed that the mean PTA difference between BCI and BC-HB ranged from 2.54 to 8.27 decibels in the CMHL group and from 1.27 to 3.9 decibels in the SSD group. Compared with the BC-HB, BCI showed a better WRS both in CMHL (16% in quiet and 12% in noise) and in SSD (5% in quiet and a 1% in noise) groups. Spearman's Rho coefficient, calculated for PTA, WRS in quiet and in noise and VAS

  17. Organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN.

  18. Variations in hydraulic conductivity with scale of measurement during aquifer tests in heterogeneous, porous carbonate rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Cherkauer, Douglas S.

    Previous studies have shown that hydraulic conductivity of an aquifer seems to increase as the portion of the aquifer tested increases. To date, such studies have all relied on different methods to determine hydraulic conductivity at each scale of interest, which raises the possibility that the observed increase in hydraulic conductivity is due to the measurement method, not to the scale. This study analyzes hydraulic conductivity with respect to scale during individual aquifer tests in porous, heterogeneous carbonate rocks in southeastern Wisconsin, USA. Results from this study indicate that hydraulic conductivity generally increases during an individual test as the volume of aquifer impacted increases, and the rate of this increase is the same as the rate of increase determined by using different measurement methods. Thus, scale dependence of hydraulic conductivity during single tests does not depend on the method of measurement. This conclusion is supported by 22 of 26 aquifer tests conducted in porous-flow-dominated carbonate units within the aquifer. Instead, scale dependency is probably caused by heterogeneities within the aquifer, a conclusion supported by digital simulation. All of the observed types of hydraulic-conductivity variations with scale during individual aquifer tests can be explained by a conceptual model of a simple heterogeneous aquifer composed of high-conductivity zones within a low-conductivity matrix. Résumé Certaines études ont montré que la conductivité hydraulique d'un aquifère semble augmenter en même temps que la partie testée de l'aquifère s'étend. Jusqu'à présent, ces études ont toutes reposé sur des méthodes de détermination de la conductivité hydraulique différentes pour chaque niveau d'échelle, ce qui a conduit à penser que l'augmentation observée de la conductivité hydraulique pouvait être due aux méthodes de mesure et non à l'effet d'échelle. Cette étude analyse la conductivité hydraulique par

  19. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable. The test requirements and performance... specified for a reference method sampler in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable, such as... air flow splitting components that may be used in a Class I candidate equivalent method sampler...

  20. Brownian motion of a charged test particle in vacuum between two conducting plates

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Hongwei; Chen Jun

    2004-12-15

    The Brownian motion of a charged test particle caused by quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations between two perfectly conducting plates is examined and the mean squared fluctuations in the velocity and position of the test particle are calculated. Our results show that the Brownian motion in the direction normal to the plates is reinforced in comparison to that in the single plate case. The effective temperature associated with this normal Brownian motion could be three times as large as that in the single plate case. However, the negative dispersions for the velocity and position in the longitudinal directions, which could be interpreted as reducing the quantum uncertainties of the particle, acquire positive corrections due to the presence of the second plate, and are thus weakened.

  1. Drying tests conducted on Three Mile Island fuel canisters containing simulated debris

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    Drying tests were conducted on TMI-2 fuel canisters filled with simulated core debris. During these tests, canisters were dried by heating externally by a heating blanket while simultaneously purging the canisters` interior with hot, dry nitrogen. Canister drying was found to be dominated by moisture retention properties of a concrete filler material (LICON) used for geometry control. This material extends the drying process 10 days or more beyond what would be required were it not there. The LICON resides in a nonpurgeable chamber separate from the core debris, and because of this configuration, dew point measurements on the exhaust stream do not provide a good indication of the dew point in the canisters. If the canisters are not dried, but rather just dewatered, 140-240 lb of water (not including the LICON water of hydration) will remain in each canister, approximately 50-110 lb of which is pore water in the LICON and the remainder unbound water.

  2. Feasibility of conducting a dynamic helium charging experiment for vanadium alloys in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility of conducting a dynamic helium charging experiment (DHCE) for vanadium alloys in the water-cooled Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is being investigated as part of the U.S./Monbusho collaboration. Preliminary findings suggest that such an experiment is feasible, with certain constraints. Creating a suitable irradiation position in the ATR, designing an effective thermal neutron filter, incorporating thermocouples for limited specimen temperature monitoring, and handling of tritium during various phases of the assembly and reactor operation all appear to be feasible. An issue that would require special attention, however, is tritium permeation loss through the capsule wall at the higher design temperatures (>{approx}600{degrees}C). If permeation is excessive, the reduced amount of tritium entering the test specimens would limit the helium generation rates in them. At the lower design temperatures (<{approx}425{degrees}C), sodium, instead of lithium, may have to be used as the bond material to overcome the tritium solubility limitation.

  3. Stability test of conduction-cooled LTS/HTS composite coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ying Min; Wang, Yin Shun; Lv, Gang; Pi, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A small LTS/HTS composite coil made of NbTi/Cu and YBCO, with an inner diameter of 80 mm, an outer diameter of 88mm, a height of 50 mm, and an inductance of 5.5 μH, was designed to test its heat disturbance performance in a GM cryocooler. For comparison, a conventional LTS coil of a similar size made of NbTi/Cu wire was also tested. Transport current was applied from 50 A to 700 A at 8 K and 8.5 K, respectively. The two coils’ heat disturbance, minimum quench energy and quench propagation velocity performance were investigated and simulated. The results indicate that the LTS/HTS composite coil shows better thermal stability and is more fit for operation in conductive cryocooler systems compared to LTS coils.

  4. 40 CFR 63.2261 - By what date must I conduct performance tests or other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tests upon initial startup or no later than 180 calendar days after the compliance date that is... conduct initial compliance demonstrations that do not require performance tests upon initial startup or...

  5. 40 CFR 63.7515 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests, fuel analyses, or tune-ups?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with the mercury or hydrogen chloride based on fuel analysis, you must conduct a monthly fuel... tests annually. The requirement to test at maximum chloride input level is waived unless the stack...

  6. Test Rig for High-Temperature Thermopower and Electrical Conductivity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, S.; Famengo, A.; Montagner, F.; Battiston, S.; Fiameni, S.; Fabrizio, M.; Barison, S.

    2013-07-01

    A high-temperature test rig to simultaneously measure electrical conductivity and thermopower is described. The apparatus allows to perform measurements in a controlled atmosphere or vacuum to protect oxygen-sensitive materials. A spring-loaded mounting placed in the cold zone reduces the thermal contact resistance between the sample and two metallic blocks (the hot side and the heat sink) even at high temperatures. The hot-side metal block is periodically heated to obtain the thermopower from the slope of Δ V versus Δ T. Conductivity is measured before each thermopower measurement by a linear four-wire method. The automatic data acquisition and analysis are controlled by a LabView-based interface. Two interchangeable setups are possible. The first one uses silver blocks and K-type thermocouples and is suitable for temperatures from 300 K to about 1000 K. The second one uses W blocks and S-type thermocouples to allow higher-temperature measurements since all the hot-zone parts are made of Al2O3, Pt or W. The device was tested using PdAg alloy and Ni rods and, for the low-temperature range, the NIST standard reference material 3451 (bismuth telluride), strictly confirming the reference data.

  7. Techniques Employed to Conduct Postshot Drilling at the former Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Dekin, W D

    2011-04-14

    Postshot drilling provided essential data on the results of the underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), now identified as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It was the means by which samples from the zone of interest were obtained for radiochemical analysis. This handbook describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted postshot drilling operations at the NTS, and it provides a general understanding of the process. Postshot drilling is a specialized application of rotary drilling. Accordingly, this handbook gives a brief description of rotary drilling in Section 2 to acquaint the reader with the general subject before proceeding to the specialized techniques used in postshot drilling. In Section 3, the handbook describes the typical postshot drilling situation at the former NTS and the drilling methods used. Section 4 describes the typical sequence of operations in postshot drilling at the former NTS. Detailed information on special equipment and techniques is given in a series of appendices (A through F) at the end of the handbook.

  8. Inversion of the anomalous diffraction approximation for variable complex index of refraction near unity. [numerical tests for water-haze aerosol model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Fymat analytic inversion method for retrieving a particle-area distribution function from anomalous diffraction multispectral extinction data and total area is generalized to the case of a variable complex refractive index m(lambda) near unity depending on spectral wavelength lambda. Inversion tests are presented for a water-haze aerosol model. An upper-phase shift limit of 5 pi/2 retrieved an accurate peak area distribution profile. Analytical corrections using both the total number and area improved the inversion.

  9. 40 CFR 60.2725 - May I conduct a repeat performance test to establish new operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conduct a repeat performance test at any time to establish new values for the operating limits. The Administrator may request a repeat performance test at any time. (b) You must repeat the performance test if your feed stream is different than the feed streams used during any performance test used...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2725 - May I conduct a repeat performance test to establish new operating limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conduct a repeat performance test at any time to establish new values for the operating limits. The Administrator may request a repeat performance test at any time. (b) You must repeat the performance test if your feed stream is different than the feed streams used during any performance test used...

  11. Effect of Two-Tier Diagnostic Tests on Promoting Learners' Conceptual Understanding of Variables in Conducting Scientific Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Taking a test generally improves the retention of the material tested. This is a phenomenon commonly referred to as testing effect. The present research investigated whether two-tier diagnostic tests promoted student teachers' conceptual understanding of variables in conducting scientific experiments, which is a scientific process skill. In this…

  12. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  13. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  14. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  15. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  16. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  17. Intercomparison of aerosol instruments: number concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, E O; Sinclair, D; Tu, K W; Hinchliffe, L; Franklin, H

    1982-05-01

    An intercomparison of aerosol instruments conducted February 23-27, 1981, at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) focused on five instruments: the Pollak and TSI condensation nucleus counters; the Active Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer (ASAS-X); and two aerosol electrometers. Test aerosols of sodium chloride and ammonium fluorescein generated by nebulization/electrostatic classification were used to obtain 195 lines of comparison data. Concentrations measured by the ASAS-X and the TSI aerosol electrometer averaged respectively 1.388 and 1.581 times that measured by the Pollak. These ratios were very stable during the week and there was little effect of particle size or material. Most other comparisons were equally stable. However, a review of past work at EML and elsewhere led to the disturbing conclusion that these ratios may change from year to year, or from season to season. A filter sample was taken from microscopy, concurrent with readings from the ASAS-X and the TSI condensation nucleus counters. In this sample, the two instruments differed by 20%. Within its 20% uncertainty, the filter result matched both the TSI and ASAS-X readings.

  18. Comparative analyses of pumping tests conducted in layered rhyolitic volcanic formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Székely, Ferenc; Szűcs, Péter; Zákányi, Balázs; Cserny, Tibor; Fejes, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The rhyolitic volcanic formations are modeled as multilayer flow systems composed of high permeability fractured zones separated by less permeable depth intervals referred to as matrix zones. The multilayer or linear cross flow model is applied which considers lateral flow in all units. The vertical cross flow between the model layers is calculated as the product of the head difference and the vertical inter-layer conductance. The axi-symmetrical well flow simulation software WT (i) applies either analytical or numerical drawdown simulators in the formation, (ii) assumes uniform well bore drawdown conditions in the pumping wells, and (iii) considers drawdown driven induced flow in the observation well. The interpretation of the pumping-recovery test in the well Megyaszó K-9 (Hungary) includes 7 low permeability and 6 screened water yielding zones and applies analytical method to compute the formation response. The benchmark Drill Hole Wash pumping test (Nevada) with pumped and monitoring open boreholes involves 5 fracture and 8 matrix zones. The radial formation heterogeneity is approximated by the bi-zonal flow domain and numerical method is used for drawdown simulation in the formation. Appropriate agreement with the measured drawdown data (both tests) and flow logging data (Drill Hole Wash) is achieved. Computer aided calibration is used for the parameter estimation. The results of the presented evaluations are compared with outputs of independent analyses.

  19. Development of Low Conductivity and Ultra High Temperature Ceramic Coatings Using A High-Heat-Flux Testing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The development of low conductivity, robust thermal and environmental barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity and cyclic resistance at very high surface temperatures (up to 17OOOC) under large thermal gradients. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux test approach is established for evaluating advanced low conductivity, ultra-high temperature ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. The test approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity: the initial conductivity rise under a steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and the later coating conductivity reduction under a subsequent cyclic thermal gradient test due to coating cracking/delamination. The coating system is then evaluated based on the damage accumulations and failure after the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The lattice and radiation thermal conductivity of advanced ceramic coatings can also be evaluated using laser heat-flux techniques. The coating external radiation resistance is assessed based on the measured specimen temperature response under a laser heated intense radiation flux source. The coating internal radiation contribution is investigated based on the measured apparent coating conductivity increases with the coating surface test temperature under large thermal gradient test conditions. Since an increased radiation contribution is observed at these very high surface test temperatures, by varying the laser heat-flux and coating average test temperature, the complex relation between the lattice and radiation conductivity as a function of surface and interface test temperature is derived.

  20. A system for conducting flow-through toxicity tests with larval fish

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, S.A.; Oris, J.T.; Guttman, S.I.

    1995-08-01

    Assessment of toxicological effects in aquatic systems commonly include larval fish 96-h LC50 determinations. The LC50 tests are conducted using static renewal as well as flow-through methods. However, in the case of chemicals with high vapor pressures or fugacity, static renewal methods may produce inconsistent results arising from the pulsed nature of exposure. In addition, in exposures involving these types of compounds, the fluctuation in concentration that can occur between renewals is unlike most exposure scenarios in nature. For these reasons, flow-through systems are often preferable. The authors report here on an inexpensive, easily constructed, flow-through system for toxicant exposure of small organisms. Data are presented to illustrate the capacity of the system to maintain uniform toxicant concentrations relative to static renewal methods.

  1. UNSATURATED FLOW IN A CENTRIFUGAL FIELD: MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND TESTING OF DARCY'S LAW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Rubin, J.; Hammermeister, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed to establish steady flow of water in unsaturated soil sample spinning in a centrifuge. Theoretical analysis predicts moisture conditions in the sample that depend strongly on soil type and certain operating parameter. For Oakley sand, measurements of flux, water content, and matric potential during and after centrifugation verify that steady state flow can be achieved. Experiments have confirmed the theoretical prediction of a nearly uniform moisture distribution for this medium and have demonstrated that the flow can be effectively one-dimensional. The method was used for steady state measurements of hydraulic conductivity K for relatively dry soil, giving values at low as 7. 6 multiplied by 10** minus **1**1 m/s with data obtained in a few hours. Darcy's law was tested by measuring K for different centrifugal driving forces but with the same water content.

  2. Enhancements in Glovebox Design Resulting from Laboratory-Conducted FIre Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Wunderlich, Gregory M.; Mcentire, James R.; Richmond, William G.

    2013-06-14

    The primary mission of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) Project was to disassemble nuclear weapons pits and convert the resulting special nuclear materials to a form suitable for further disposition. Because of the nature of materials involved, the fundamental system which allowed PDCF to perform its mission was a series of integrated and interconnected gloveboxes which provided confinement and containment of the radioactive materials being processed. The high throughput planned for PDCF and the relatively high neutron and gamma radiation levels of the pits required that gloveboxes be shielded to meet worker dose limits. The glovebox shielding material was required to contain high hydrogen concentrations which typically result in these materials being combustible. High combustible loadings created design challenges for the facility fire suppression and ventilation system design. Combustible loading estimates for the PDCF Plutonium (Pu) Processing Building increased significantly due to these shielding requirements. As a result, the estimates of combustible loading substantially exceeded values used to support fire and facility safety analyses. To ensure a valid basis for combustible loading contributed by the glovebox system, the PDCF Project funded a series of fire tests conducted by the Southwest Research Institute on door panels and a representative glovebox containing Water Extended Polyester (WEP) radiological shielding to observe their behavior during a fire event. Improvements to PDCF glovebox designs were implemented based on lessons learned during the fire test. In particular, methods were developed to provide high levels of neutron shielding while maintaining combustible loading in the glovebox shells at low levels. Additionally, the fire test results led to design modifications to mitigate pressure increases observed during the fire test in order to maintain the integrity of the WEP cladding. These changes resulted in significantly

  3. Manipulator having thermally conductive rotary joint for transferring heat from a test specimen

    DOEpatents

    Haney, S.J.; Stulen, R.H.; Toly, N.F.

    1983-05-03

    A manipulator for rotatably moving a test specimen in an ultra-high vacuum chamber includes a translational unit movable in three mutually perpendicular directions. A manipulator frame is rigidly secured to the translational unit for rotatably supporting a rotary shaft. A first copper disc is rigidly secured to an end of the rotary shaft for rotary movement within the vacuum chamber. A second copper disc is supported upon the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. A sapphire plate is interposed between the first and second discs to prevent galling of the copper material while maintaining high thermal conductivity between the first and second discs. A spring is disposed on the shaft to urge the second disc toward the first disc and compressingly engage the interposed sapphire plate. A specimen mount is secured to the first disc for rotation within the vacuum chamber. The specimen maintains high thermal conductivity with the second disc receiving the cryogenic transfer line.

  4. Manipulator having thermally conductive rotary joint for transferring heat from a test specimen

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Stulen, Richard H.; Toly, Norman F.

    1985-01-01

    A manipulator for rotatably moving a test specimen in an ultra-high vacuum chamber includes a translational unit movable in three mutually perpendicular directions. A manipulator frame is rigidly secured to the translational unit for rotatably supporting a rotary shaft. A first copper disc is rigidly secured to an end of the rotary shaft for rotary movement within the vacuum chamber. A second copper disc is supported upon the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. A sapphire plate is interposed between the first and second discs to prevent galling of the copper material while maintaining high thermal conductivity between the first and second discs. A spring is disposed on the shaft to urge the second disc toward the first disc and compressingly engage the interposed sapphire plate. A specimen mount is secured to the first disc for rotation within the vacuum chamber. The specimen maintains high thermal conductivity with the second disc receiving the cryogenic transfer line.

  5. Electro-Mechanical Testing of Conductive Materials Used in Flexible Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordill, Megan; Glushko, Oleksandr; Putz, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The use of flexible electronics has increased in recent years. In order to have robust and long lasting flexible displays and sensors, the combined electro-mechanical behavior needs to be assessed. The most common method to determine electrical and mechanical behavior of conductive thin films used in flexible electronics is the fragmentation test, or uniaxial tensile straining of the film and substrate. When performed in situ fracture and deformation behavior can be determined. The use of in situ electrical resistance measurements can be informative about the crack onset strain of brittle layers, such as transparent conductors, or the stretchability of metal interconnects. The combination of in situ electrical measurements with in situ X-ray or confocal laser scanning microscopy can provide even more information about the failure mechanisms of the material systems. Lattice strains and stresses can be measured with X-rays, while cracking and buckle delaminations can be studied with confocal laser scanning microscopy. These new combinations of in situ methods will be discussed as well as methods to quantify interfacial properties of conductive thin films on polymer substrates. The combined techniques provide valuable correlated electrical and mechanical data needed to understand failure mechanisms in flexible devices.

  6. Assessing the Performance of Computationally Simple and Complex Representations of Aerosol Processes using a Testbed Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, J. D.; Ma, P.; Easter, R. C.; Liu, X.; Zaveri, R. A.; Rasch, P.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of aerosol radiative forcing in climate models still contain large uncertainties, resulting from a poor understanding of certain aerosol processes, the level of complexity of aerosol processes represented in models, and the ability of models to account for sub-grid scale variability of aerosols and processes affecting them. In addition, comparing the performance and computational efficiency of new aerosol process modules used in various studies is problematic because different studies often employ different grid configurations, meteorology, trace gas chemistry, and emissions that affect the temporal and spatial evolution of aerosols. To address this issue, we have developed an Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules. The AMT consists of the modular Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a series of testbed cases for which extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties are available, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of meteorological, chemical, aerosol process modules. WRF contains various parameterizations of meteorological, chemical, and aerosol processes and includes interactive aerosol-cloud-radiation treatments similar to those employed by climate models. In addition, the physics suite from a global climate model, Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), has also been ported to WRF so that these parameterizations can be tested at various spatial scales and compared directly with field campaign data and other parameterizations commonly used by the mesoscale modeling community. In this study, we evaluate simple and complex treatments of the aerosol size distribution and secondary organic aerosols using the AMT and measurements collected during three field campaigns: the Megacities Initiative Local and Global Observations (MILAGRO) campaign conducted in the vicinity of Mexico City during March 2006, the

  7. ATI TDA 5A aerosol generator evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, D.A.

    1998-07-27

    Oil based aerosol ``Smoke`` commonly used for testing the efficiency and penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air filters (HEPA) and HEPA systems can produce flammability hazards that may not have been previously considered. A combustion incident involving an aerosol generator has caused an investigation into the hazards of the aerosol used to test HEPA systems at Hanford.

  8. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jessica B.; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103–104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 21% of those measured by reference instruments for polydisperse aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +130% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. PMID:23473056

  9. Methodology for the passive detection and discrimination of chemical and biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, William J.; Shokhirev, Kirill N.; Konno, Daisei; Rossi, David C.; Richardson, Martin

    2013-05-01

    The standoff detection and discrimination of aerosolized biological and chemical agents has traditionally been addressed through LIDAR approaches, but sensor systems using these methods have yet to be deployed. We discuss the development and testing of an approach to detect these aerosols using the deployed base of passive infrared hyperspectral sensors used for chemical vapor detection. The detection of aerosols requires the inclusion of down welling sky and up welling ground radiation in the description of the radiative transfer process. The wavelength and size dependent ratio of absorption to scattering provides much of the discrimination capability. The approach to the detection of aerosols utilizes much of the same phenomenology employed in vapor detection; however, the sensor system must acquire information on non-line-of-sight sources of radiation contributing to the scattering process. We describe the general methodology developed to detect chemical or biological aerosols, including justifications for the simplifying assumptions that enable the development of a real-time sensor system. Mie scattering calculations, aerosol size distribution dependence, and the angular dependence of the scattering on the aerosol signature will be discussed. This methodology will then be applied to two test cases: the ground level release of a biological aerosol (BG) and a nonbiological confuser (kaolin clay) as well as the debris field resulting from the intercept of a cruise missile carrying a thickened VX warhead. A field measurement, conducted at the Utah Test and Training Range will be used to illustrate the issues associated with the use of the method.

  10. Offering Parents Individualized Feedback on the Results of Psychological Testing Conducted for Research Purposes with Children: Ethical Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefaivre, Marie-josee; Chambers, Christine T.; Fernandez, Conrad V.

    2007-01-01

    Research protocols involving children often include psychological testing as part of an assessment battery. Inclusion of such testing raises the question of whether parents (or others) should be offered the individualized results of their children's psychological testing conducted for research purposes. The purpose of this article is to provide a…

  11. 40 CFR 63.3960 - By what date must I conduct performance tests and other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquid-liquid material balances according to § 63.3961(j), you must conduct a performance test of each... performance tests specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Instead, you must maintain a log detailing... parameter monitors during the period between the compliance date and the performance test. You must...

  12. 40 CFR 63.3160 - By what date must I conduct performance tests and other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance date specified in § 63.3083. You must conduct a performance test of each capture system and add-on... required by § 63.3093 until after you have completed the performance tests specified in paragraph (a)(1) of... performance test. You must begin complying with the operating limits for your affected source on the date...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4560 - By what date must I conduct performance tests and other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-liquid material balances according to § 63.4561(j), you must conduct a performance test of each capture... performance tests specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Instead, you must maintain a log detailing... parameter monitors during the period between the compliance date and the performance test. You must...

  14. Inversion of solar extinction data from the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (ASTP/SAM) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    The inversion methods are reported that have been used to determine the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient due to the stratospheric aerosols from data measured during the ASTP/SAM solar occultation experiment. Inversion methods include the onion skin peel technique and methods of solving the Fredholm equation for the problem subject to smoothing constraints. The latter of these approaches involves a double inversion scheme. Comparisons are made between the inverted results from the SAM experiment and near simultaneous measurements made by lidar and balloon born dustsonde. The results are used to demonstrate the assumptions required to perform the inversions for aerosols.

  15. Aerosol lenses propagation model.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Grégoire; Roy, Gilles

    2011-09-01

    We propose a model based on the properties of cascading lenses modulation transfer function (MTF) to reproduce the irradiance of a screen illuminated through a dense aerosol cloud. In this model, the aerosol cloud is broken into multiple thin layers considered as individual lenses. The screen irradiance generated by these individual layers is equivalent to the point-spread function (PSF) of each aerosol lens. Taking the Fourier transform of the PSF as a MTF, we cascade the lenses MTF to find the cloud MTF. The screen irradiance is found with the Fourier transform of this MTF. We show the derivation of the model and we compare the results with the Undique Monte Carlo simulator for four aerosols at three optical depths. The model is in agreement with the Monte Carlo for all the cases tested. PMID:21886230

  16. Testing secondary organic aerosol models using smog chamber data for complex precursor mixtures: influence of precursor volatility and molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, S. H.; Donahue, N. M.; Adams, P. J.; Robinson, A. L.

    2014-06-01

    We use secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production data from an ensemble of unburned fuels measured in a smog chamber to test various SOA formation models. The evaluation considered data from 11 different fuels including gasoline, multiple diesels, and various jet fuels. The fuels are complex mixtures of species; they span a wide range of volatility and molecular structure to provide a challenging test for the SOA models. We evaluated three different versions of the SOA model used in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The simplest and most widely used version of that model only accounts for the volatile species (species with less than or equal to 12 carbons) in the fuels. It had very little skill in predicting the observed SOA formation (R2 = 0.04, fractional error = 108%). Incorporating all of the lower-volatility fuel species (species with more than 12 carbons) into the standard CMAQ SOA model did not improve model performance significantly. Both versions of the CMAQ SOA model over-predicted SOA formation from a synthetic jet fuel and under-predicted SOA formation from diesels because of an overly simplistic representation of the SOA formation from alkanes that did not account for the effects of molecular size and structure. An extended version of the CMAQ SOA model that accounted for all organics and the influence of molecular size and structure of alkanes reproduced the experimental data. This underscores the importance of accounting for all low-volatility organics and information on alkane molecular size and structure in SOA models. We also investigated fitting an SOA model based solely on the volatility of the precursor mixture to the experimental data. This model could describe the observed SOA formation with relatively few free parameters, demonstrating the importance of precursor volatility for SOA formation. The exceptions were exotic fuels such as synthetic jet fuel that expose the central assumption of the volatility-dependent model that

  17. Conduct overall test operations and evaluate two Doppler systems to detect, track and measure velocities in aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Krause, M. C.; Craven, C. E.; Edwards, B. B.; Coffey, E. W.; Huang, C. C.; Jetton, J. L.; Morrison, L. K.

    1974-01-01

    A program plan for system evaluation of the two-dimensional Scanning Laser Doppler System (SLDS) is presented. In order to meet system evaluation and optimization objectives the following tests were conducted: (1) noise tests; (2) wind tests; (3) blower flowfield tests; (4) single unit (1-D) flyby tests; and (5) dual unit (2-D) flyby tests. Test results are reported. The final phase of the program included logistics preparation, equipment interface checkouts, and data processing. It is concluded that the SLDS is capable of accurately tracking aircraft wake vortices from small or large aircraft, and in any type of weather.

  18. 14 CFR 120.107 - Substances for which testing must be conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.107 Substances for which testing... evidence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines during each test required...

  19. 14 CFR 120.107 - Substances for which testing must be conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.107 Substances for which testing... evidence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines during each test required...

  20. 14 CFR 120.107 - Substances for which testing must be conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.107 Substances for which testing... evidence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines during each test required...

  1. 14 CFR 120.107 - Substances for which testing must be conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.107 Substances for which testing... evidence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines during each test required...

  2. 14 CFR 120.107 - Substances for which testing must be conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.107 Substances for which testing... evidence of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and amphetamines during each test required...

  3. Use of In Situ Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Extinction, and Aerosol Size Distribution Measurements to Test a Method for Retrieving Cloud Condensation Nuclei Profiles From Surface Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, Stephen J.; Rissman, Tracey A.; Ellman, Robert; Ferrare, Richard A.; Turner, David; Flynn, Connor; Wang, Jian; Ogren, John; Hudson, James; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; VanReken, Timothy; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2006-01-01

    If the aerosol composition and size distribution below cloud are uniform, the vertical profile of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration can be retrieved entirely from surface measurements of CCN concentration and particle humidification function and surface-based retrievals of relative humidity and aerosol extinction or backscatter. This provides the potential for long-term measurements of CCN concentrations near cloud base. We have used a combination of aircraft, surface in situ, and surface remote sensing measurements to test various aspects of the retrieval scheme. Our analysis leads us to the following conclusions. The retrieval works better for supersaturations of 0.1% than for 1% because CCN concentrations at 0.1% are controlled by the same particles that control extinction and backscatter. If in situ measurements of extinction are used, the retrieval explains a majority of the CCN variance at high supersaturation for at least two and perhaps five of the eight flights examined. The retrieval of the vertical profile of the humidification factor is not the major limitation of the CCN retrieval scheme. Vertical structure in the aerosol size distribution and composition is the dominant source of error in the CCN retrieval, but this vertical structure is difficult to measure from remote sensing at visible wavelengths.

  4. 40 CFR 63.2261 - By what date must I conduct performance tests or other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conduct performance tests upon initial startup or no later than 180 calendar days after the compliance... initial startup or no later than 30 calendar days after the compliance date that is specified for...

  5. 40 CFR 63.2261 - By what date must I conduct performance tests or other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conduct performance tests upon initial startup or no later than 180 calendar days after the compliance... initial startup or no later than 30 calendar days after the compliance date that is specified for...

  6. Final Report: Part 1. In-Place Filter Testing Instrument for Nuclear Material Containers. Part 2. Canister Filter Test Standards for Aerosol Capture Rates.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin Douglas; Runnels, Joel T.; Moore, Murray E.; Reeves, Kirk Patrick

    2014-11-02

    A portable instrument has been developed to assess the functionality of filter sand o-rings on nuclear material storage canisters, without requiring removal of the canister lid. Additionally, a set of fifteen filter standards were procured for verifying aerosol leakage and pressure drop measurements in the Los Alamos Filter Test System. The US Department of Energy uses several thousand canisters for storing nuclear material in different chemical and physical forms. Specialized filters are installed into canister lids to allow gases to escape, and to maintain an internal ambient pressure while containing radioactive contaminants. Diagnosing the condition of container filters and canister integrity is important to ensure worker and public safety and for determining the handling requirements of legacy apparatus. This report describes the In-Place-Filter-Tester, the Instrument Development Plan and the Instrument Operating Method that were developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to determine the “as found” condition of unopened storage canisters. The Instrument Operating Method provides instructions for future evaluations of as-found canisters packaged with nuclear material. Customized stainless steel canister interfaces were developed for pressure-port access and to apply a suction clamping force for the interface. These are compatible with selected Hagan-style and SAVY-4000 storage canisters that were purchased from NFT (Nuclear Filter Technology, Golden, CO). Two instruments were developed for this effort: an initial Los Alamos POC (Proof-of-Concept) unit and the final Los Alamos IPFT system. The Los Alamos POC was used to create the Instrument Development Plan: (1) to determine the air flow and pressure characteristics associated with canister filter clogging, and (2) to test simulated configurations that mimicked canister leakage paths. The canister leakage scenarios included quantifying: (A) air leakage due to foreign material (i.e. dust and hair

  7. Results of Scoping Tests Examining the Effects of Gilsulate, Aluminum Silicate and Defoamers on the Operation of Conductivity Level Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R.F.

    1999-02-17

    Scoping tests have been completed examining the effects of Gilsulate, sodium aluminum silicate, and some organic materials on the operation of tank level conductivity probes. This report documents the results of scoping studies completed to examine the effect of those materials on conductivity probes.

  8. High Conduction Neutron Absorber to Simulate Fast Reactor Environment in an Existing Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Guillen, Donna; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Parry, James

    2014-06-22

    A need was determined for a thermal neutron absorbing material that could be cooled in a gas reactor environment without using large amounts of a coolant that would thermalize the neutron flux. A new neutron absorbing material was developed that provided high conduction so a small amount of water would be sufficient for cooling thereby thermalizing the flux as little as possible. An irradiation experiment was performed to assess the effects of radiation and the performance of a new neutron absorbing material. Neutron fluence monitors were placed inside specially fabricated holders within a set of drop-in capsules and irradiated for up to four cycles in the Advanced Test Reactor. Following irradiation, the neutron fluence monitor wires were analyzed by gamma and x-ray spectrometry to determine the activities of the activation products. The adjusted neutron fluences were calculated and grouped into three bins – thermal, epithermal and fast to evaluate the spectral shift created by the new material. Fluence monitors were evaluated after four different irradiation periods to evaluate the effects of burn-up in the absorbing material. Additionally, activities of the three highest activity isotopes present in the specimens are given.

  9. Effect of aerosol radiative forcing on the seasonal variation of snow over the northern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Lau, W. K.; Lee, W.; Kim, K.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the effect of aerosol radiative forcing on the seasonal variation of snow is studied based on GCM simulation with prescribed aerosols. Numerical experiments are conducted using NASA fvGCM with McRAS. Monthly mean distribution of five aerosol species (black carbon, organic carbon, dust, sulfate, and sea salt) is obtained from GOCART model. In the control run, all five aerosol species are included. For sensitivity test, we carry out an experiment without any aerosol radiative forcing and three additional runs, which are identical to the control run, except for exclusion of black carbon, of dust, and of sulfate, to show the effect of different types of aerosols. The results show that atmospheric warming by absorbing aerosols, dust and black carbon, initiate the elevated heat pump (EHP) and subsequently warm the atmosphere and land surface, especially over Tibetan Plateau (TP). As a results snow over TP reduced greatly in April and May, and the reduction of snow cover decrease surface albedo. Surface energy balance analysis shows that the surface warming due to absorbing aerosol cause early snow melting and further increase surface-atmosphere warming through snow/ice albedo feedback. The similar relations between aerosol radiative forcing and snow melt are also found over other higher latitude region in the Northern Hemisphere. The intensity and duration of earlier snow melt by black carbon aerosol is more significant than that of dust aerosol over the higher latitude in the Northern Hemisphere while over the Tibetan Plateau both black carbon and dust aerosol are important in driving earlier snow melt.

  10. Testing of an automated online EA-IRMS method for fast and simultaneous carbon content and stable isotope measurement of aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, István; Gyökös, Brigitta; Túri, Marianna; Futó, István; Filep, Ágnes; Hoffer, András; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive atmospheric studies have demonstrated that carbonaceous aerosol is one of the main components of atmospheric particulate matter over Europe. Various methods, considering optical or thermal properties, have been developed for quantification of the accurate amount of both organic and elemental carbon constituents of atmospheric aerosol. The aim of our work was to develop an alternative fast and easy method for determination of the total carbon content of individual aerosol samples collected on prebaked quartz filters whereby the mass and surface concentration becomes simply computable. We applied the conventional "elemental analyzer (EA) coupled online with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS)" technique which is ubiquitously used in mass spectrometry. Using this technique we are able to measure simultaneously the carbon stable isotope ratio of the samples, as well. During the developing process, we compared the EA-IRMS technique with an off-line catalytic combustion method worked out previously at Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies (HEKAL). We tested the combined online total carbon content and stable isotope ratio measurement both on standard materials and real aerosol samples. Regarding the test results the novel method assures, on the one hand, at least 95% of carbon recovery yield in a broad total carbon mass range (between 100 and 3000 ug) and, on the other hand, a good reproducibility of stable isotope measurements with an uncertainty of ± 0.2 per mill. Comparing the total carbon results obtained by the EA-IRMS and the off-line catalytic combustion method we found a very good correlation (R2=0.94) that proves the applicability of both preparation method. Advantages of the novel method are the fast and simplified sample preparation steps and the fully automated, simultaneous carbon stable isotope ratio measurement processes. Furthermore stable isotope ratio results can effectively be applied in the source apportionment

  11. GIS surface effects archive of underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.N.

    2001-11-02

    This report presents a new comprehensive, digital archive of more than 40 years of geologic surface effects maps produced at individual detonation sites throughout the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa nuclear testing areas of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Geographic Information System (GIS) surface effects map archive on CD-ROM (this report) comprehensively documents the surface effects of underground nuclear detonations conducted at two of the most extensively used testing areas of the Nevada Test Site. Between 1951 and 1992, numerous investigators of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency meticulously mapped the surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing. Their work documented the effects of more than seventy percent of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and all of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Pahute Mesa.

  12. FORCED-GRADIENT TRACER TESTS AND INFERRED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS AT THE MOBILE SITE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four single-well tracer tests and a two-well tracer test performed in a 21-m thick confined granular aquifer at a field site near Mobile, Alabama are described. The data from these tests together with previously published data from a single-well test and a two-well test allow one...

  13. Refining methods for conducting long-term sediment and water toxicity tests with Chironomus dilutus: Formation of a midge chronic testing work group

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard methods have been established by USEPA, ASTM International, Environment Canada and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for conducting sediment toxicity tests with various species of midges including Chironomus dilutus. Short-term 10-day exposures are ty...

  14. Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) April 2008

    SciTech Connect

    SJ Ghan; B Schmid; JM Hubbe; CJ Flynn; A Laskin; AA Zelenyuk; DJ Czizco; CN Long; G McFarquhar; J Verlinde; J Harrington; JW Strapp; P Liu; A Korolev; A McDonald; M Wolde; A Fridlind; T Garrett; G Mace; G Kok; S Brooks; D Collins; D Lubin; P Lawson; M Dubey; C Mazzoleni; M Shupe; S Xie; DD Turner; Q Min; EJ Mlawer; D Mitchell

    2007-11-01

    The ARM Climate Research Facility’s (ACRF) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) will deploy an intensive cloud and aerosol observing system to the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale for a five week Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) during period 29 March through 30 April 2008. The deployment period is within the International Polar Year, thus contributing to and benefiting from the many ancillary observing systems collecting data synergistically. We will deploy the Canadian National Research Council Convair 580 aircraft to measure temperature, humidity, total particle number, aerosol size distribution, single particle composition, concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei, optical scattering and absorption, updraft velocity, cloud liquid water and ice contents, cloud droplet and crystal size distributions, cloud particle shape, and cloud extinction. In addition to these aircraft measurements, ISDAC will deploy two instruments at the ARM site in Barrow: a spectroradiometer to retrieve cloud optical depth and effective radius, and a tandem differential mobility analyzer to measure the aerosol size distribution and hygroscopicity. By using many of the same instruments used during Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted in October 2004, we will be able to contrast the arctic aerosol and cloud properties during the fall and spring transitions. The aerosol measurements can be used in cloud models driven by objectively analyzed boundary conditions to test whether the cloud models can simulate the aerosol influence on the clouds. The influence of aerosol and boundary conditions on the simulated clouds can be separated by running the cloud models with all four combinations of M-PACE and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions: M-PACE aerosol and boundary conditions, M-PACE aerosol and ISDAC boundary conditions, ISDAC aerosol and M-PACE boundary conditions, and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions. ISDAC and M-PACE boundary

  15. ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

  16. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for tire production affected sources? 63.5994 Section 63.5994 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5994 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources? (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5997 Section 63.5997 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5997 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected...

  18. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for tire production affected sources? 63.5994 Section 63.5994 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5994 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources? (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5997 Section 63.5997 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5997 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected...

  20. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing...

  1. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing...

  2. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing...

  3. A mini slug test method for determination of a local hydraulic conductivity of an unconfined sandy aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsby, Klaus; Bjerg, Poul L.; Andersen, Lars J.; Skov, Bent; Clausen, Erik V.

    1992-08-01

    A new and efficient mini slug test method for the determination of local hydraulic conductivities in unconfined sandy aquifers is developed. The slug test is performed in a small-diameter (1 inch) driven well with a 0.25 m screen just above the drive point. The screened drive point can be driven from level to level and thereby establish vertical profiles of the hydraulic conductivity. The head data from the test well are recorded with a 10 mm pressure transducer, and the initial head difference required is established by a small vacuum pump. The method described has provided 274 spatially distributed measurements of a local hydraulic conductivity at a tracer test site at Vejen, Denmark. The mini slug test results calculated by a modified Dax slug test analysing method, applying the elastic storativity in the Dax equations instead of the specific yield, are in good accordance with the results from two natural gradient tracer experiments performed at the test site. The original Dax, the Bouwer and Rice, and the Chirlin analysing methods all led to an underestimation of the effective hydraulic conductivity by a factor of more than 2, when compared with the tracer tests. In contrast the spherical flow model of Karasaki et al. overestimated the results of the tracer tests by approximately a factor 1.4. The Dax and the Cooper et al. methods, assuming only radial flow to the partially screened well, yielded a better approximation of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity, than the Chirlin method, which also considers axial flow. This fact is suggested to be a result of aquifer anisotropy, as a significant higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity may suppress the significance of the axial flow component.

  4. Hydraulic conductivity of sandstones in the Baltic Basin - a comparative study of pumping tests and grain size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkone, E.; Bikše, J.; Jātnieks, J.; Klints, I.; Delina, A.; Saks, T.; Raga, B.; Retike, I.

    2012-04-01

    Aquifer fluid conductivity properties describe ability of sediments to transmit groundwater, and consequently govern the groundwater flow. Studies and knowledge of hydraulic conductivity (K), transmissivity and storativity for the particular aquifer is of great importance for hydrogeological problem solving process. This study presents the results of the comparative study between hydraulic conductivity, grain size distribution, sediments lithology of the lower Devonian Emsian stage, middle Devonian Eifelian and Givetian stage, upper Devonian Frasnian stage, and Cambrian clastic sediments in the central part of the Baltic Basin. The aim of this study was to find characteristic hydraulic conductivity values for each aquifer based on aquifer grain size distribution and lithology on the one hand and pumping test results one the other. For the calculation of the hydraulic conductivity one has to take into account not only grain size distribution but effective porosity, temperature and kinematic viscosity of the fluid as well, which are lacking in this study. Pumping test results provide a range of at least two orders of hydraulic conductivity values for each aquifer. To characterize the typical values for each aquifer and further subdivide each aquifer into regions of different hydraulic conductivities, pumping test results were correlated with grain size distribution. As a limiting factor for the hydraulic conductivity in the sandstones the fraction of the fine particles with the size less than 0.05 mm were chosen. The correlation of hydraulic conductivity and grain size distribution was carried out by comparing the <0.05 mm fraction and respective hydraulic conductivity values in the wells. The results suggest that grain size distribution in general does not correlate with conductivity obtained from the pumping tests. In general comparing hydraulic conductivity values obtained from pumping tests with calculated values from grain size distribution, calculated values in

  5. Development and first application of an Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) for quasi online compound specific aerosol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohaus, Thorsten; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Trimborn, Dagmar; Jayne, John; Wahner, Andreas; Worsnop, Doug

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate and human health on regional and global scales (IPCC, 2007). In many environments organics are a major fraction of the aerosol influencing its properties. Due to the huge variety of organic compounds present in atmospheric aerosol current measurement techniques are far from providing a full speciation of organic aerosol (Hallquist et al., 2009). The development of new techniques for compound specific measurements with high time resolution is a timely issue in organic aerosol research. Here we present first laboratory characterisations of an aerosol collection module (ACM) which was developed to allow for the sampling and transfer of atmospheric PM1 aerosol. The system consists of an aerodynamic lens system focussing particles on a beam. This beam is directed to a 3.4 mm in diameter surface which is cooled to -30 °C with liquid nitrogen. After collection the aerosol sample can be evaporated from the surface by heating it to up to 270 °C. The sample is transferred through a 60cm long line with a carrier gas. In order to test the ACM for linearity and sensitivity we combined it with a GC-MS system. The tests were performed with octadecane aerosol. The octadecane mass as measured with the ACM-GC-MS was compared versus the mass as calculated from SMPS derived total volume. The data correlate well (R2 0.99, slope of linear fit 1.1) indicating 100 % collection efficiency. From 150 °C to 270 °C no effect of desorption temperature on transfer efficiency could be observed. The ACM-GC-MS system was proven to be linear over the mass range 2-100 ng and has a detection limit of ~ 2 ng. First experiments applying the ACM-GC-MS system were conducted at the Jülich Aerosol Chamber. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was formed from ozonolysis of 600 ppbv of b-pinene. The major oxidation product nopinone was detected in the aerosol and could be shown to decrease from 2 % of the total aerosol to 0.5 % of the aerosol over the 48 hours of

  6. Conducting High Cycle Fatigue Strength Step Tests on Gamma TiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad; Draper, Sue; Pereira, J. Mike

    2002-01-01

    High cycle fatigue strength testing of gamma TiAl by the step test method is investigated. A design of experiments was implemented to determine if the coaxing effect occurred during testing. Since coaxing was not observed, step testing was deemed a suitable method to define the fatigue strength at 106 cycles.

  7. Method for volatility measurements on polydisperse aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Otmar; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.; Hopkins, Alfred R.; Eimer, Ben

    2000-08-01

    We describe a method for measuring the amount of volatile material in the aerosol phase using a thermal discriminator. This method, which requires the measurement of the particle size distributions of the heated (through discriminator) and non-heated (bypassing discriminator) sample aerosol, includes the effects due to both particle loss and partially volatile aerosols. Tests with polydisperse internally mixed, i.e. partially volatile, aerosol (not shown here) indicate a high degree of accuracy of this method even for ultrafine particles.

  8. Emission factors of fine particles, carbonaceous aerosols and traces gases from road vehicles: Recent tests in an urban tunnel in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Li, Guanghui; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Zhonghui; Zhang, Zhou; Huang, Xinyu; Deng, Wei; Liu, Tengyu; Huang, Zuzhao; Zhang, Zhanyi

    2015-12-01

    Motor vehicles contribute primarily and secondarily to air quality problems due to fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) pollution in China's megacities. Characterizing vehicle emission with the rapid change of vehicle numbers and fleet compositions is vital for both bottom-up emission survey and top-down source apportioning. To obtain emission factors (EFs) of PM2.5, carbonaceous aerosols and trace gases for road vehicles, in urban Guangzhou we conducted a field campaign in 2014 in the Zhujiang Tunnel, a heavily burdened tunnel with about 40,000 motor vehicles passing through each of its two separated bores per day. PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled for offline analysis while trace gases including SO2, NOx and CO were measured online and in situ. An eddy covariance system with an integrated 3-D sonic anemometer was also adopted to measure CO2 and winds inside the tunnel. We recorded an average fleet composition of 61% light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) + 12% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDVs) + 27% liquefied petroleum gas vehicles (LPGVs), and EFs of 82.7 ± 28.3, 19.3 ± 4.7 and 13.3 ± 3.3 mg veh-1 km-1, respectively, for PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). These EFs were respectively 23.4%, 18.3% and 72.3% lower when compared to that measured in the same tunnel in 2004. EFs of PM2.5, OC and EC were higher at night time (148 ± 126, 29 ± 24 and 21 ± 18 mg veh-1 km-1, respectively) due to significantly elevated fractions of HDVs in the traffic fleets. An average ratio of OC to EC 1.45 from this tunnel study was much higher than that of ∼0.5 in previous tunnel studies. The EFs of SO2, NOx, CO, CO2 and NMHCs for road traffic were also obtained from our tunnel tests, and they were 20.7 ± 2.9, (1.29 ± 0.2)E+03, (3.10 ± 0.68)E+03, (3.90 ± 0.49)E+05, and 448 ± 39 mg veh-1 km-1, respectively.

  9. Mexico City Aerosol Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, P. A.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J.; Holder, H. L.

    2007-12-01

    A radiative impact study was conducted in Mexico City during MILAGRO/MIRAGE campaign in March of 2006. On a day when the predominant wind was from the north to the south, authors measured radiative properties of the atmosphere in six locations across the city ranging from the city center, through the city south limits and the pass leading out of the city (causing pollutants to funnel through the area). A large change in aerosol optical properties has been noticed. The aerosol optical depth has generally increased outside of the city and angstrom coefficient has changed significantly towards smaller values. Aerosol size distribution was calculated using SkyRadPack. The total optical depths allowed coincidental lidar data to calculate total extinction profiles for all the locations for 1064nm.

  10. Large-scale V/STOL testing. [conducted in the Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. G.; Aiken, T. N.; Aoyagi, K.; Falarshi, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several facets of large-scale testing of V/STOL aircraft configurations are discussed with particular emphasis on test experience in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Examples of powered-lift test programs are presented in order to illustrate tradeoffs confronting the planner of V/STOL test programs. Large-scale V/STOL wind-tunnel testing can sometimes compete with small-scale testing in the effort required (overall test time) and program costs because of the possibility of conducting a number of different tests with a single large-scale model where several small-scale models would be required. The benefits of both high- or full-scale Reynolds numbers, more detailed configuration simulation, and number and type of onboard measurements are studied.

  11. Psychometric Characteristics of a Measure of Emotional Dispositions Developed to Test a Developmental Propensity Model of Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Applegate, Brooks; Chronis, Andrea M.; Jones, Heather A.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Loney, Jan; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2010-01-01

    Lahey and Waldman (2003; 2005) proposed a developmental propensity model in which three dimensions of children's emotional dispositions are hypothesized to transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder, heterogeneity in conduct disorder, and comorbidity with other disorders. To prepare for future tests of this model, a new measure of these dispositions was tested. Exploratory factor analysis of potential items was conducted in a sample of 1,358 4-17 year olds. Confirmatory factor analyses then confirmed the three dispositional dimensions in a second sample of 2,063 pairs of 6-17 year old twins. Caretaker ratings of the dispositional dimensions were associated as predicted with symptoms of conduct disorder and other psychopathology. In a third sample, caretaker ratings of each disposition correlated uniquely with relevant observational measures of child behavior and unintentional injuries. These findings provide initial support for the new dispositional measure. PMID:18991130

  12. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the irradiation of simulated automobile exhaust.

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, T E; Corse, E W; Li, W; McIver, C D; Conver, T S; Edney, E O; Driscoll, D J; Speer, R E; Weathers, W S; Tejada, S B

    2002-03-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from emissions from automotive exhaust. The goal was to determine to what extent photochemical oxidation products of these hydrocarbons contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and how well their formation is described by recently developed models for SOA formation. The quality of a surrogate was tested by comparing its reactivity with that from irradiations of authentic automobile exhaust. Experiments for secondary particle formation using the surrogate were conducted in a fixed volume reactor operated in a dynamic mode. The mass concentration of the aerosol was determined from measurements of organic carbon collected on quartz filters and was corrected for the presence of hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms in the organic species. A functional group analysis of the aerosol made by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated PMID:11924857

  13. Fracture hydraulic conductivity in the Mexico City clayey aquitard: Field piezometer rising-head tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Carlos; Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián

    A regional lacustrine aquitard covers the main aquifer of the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The aquitard's hydraulic conductivity (K') is fundamental for evaluating the natural protection of the aquifer against a variety of contaminants present on the surface and its hydraulic response. This study analyzes the distribution and variation of K' in the plains of Chalco, Texcoco and Mexico City (three of the six former lakes that existed in the Basin of Mexico), on the basis of 225 field-permeability tests, in nests of existing piezometers located at depths of 2-85 m. Tests were interpreted using the Hvorslev method and some by the Bouwer-Rice method. Results indicate that the distribution of K' fits log-Gaussian regression models. Dominant frequencies for K' in the Chalco and Texcoco plains range between 1E-09 and 1E-08 m/s, with similar population means of 1.19E-09 and 1.7E-09 m/s, respectively, which are one to two orders of magnitude higher than the matrix conductivity. In the Mexico City Plain the population mean is near by one order of magnitude lower; K'=2.6E-10 m/s. The contrast between the measured K' and that of the matrix is attributed to the presence of fractures in the upper 25-40 m, which is consistent with the findings of previous studies on solute migration in the aquitard. Un imperméable régional d'origine lacustre recouvre le principal aquifère de la zone urbaine de la ville de Mexico. La conductivité hydraulique K' de cet imperméable est fondamentale pour évaluer la protection naturelle de l'aquifère, contre les différents contaminants présents en surface, et sa réponse hydraulique. Cette étude analyse et les variations de K' dans les plaines de Chalco, Texcoco et Mexico (trois des six anciens lacs qui existaient dans le Bassin de Mexico), sur la base de 225 essais de perméabilité sur le terrain, réalisés en grappes dans des piézomètres existants entre 2 et 85 m de profondeur. Les essais ont été interprétés avec la m

  14. Aerosol effects on stratocumulus water paths in a PDF-based parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Golaz, J.-C.; Donner, L. J.

    2011-09-01

    Successful simulation of aerosol indirect effects in climate models requires parameterizations that capture the full range of cloud-aerosol interactions, including positive and negative liquid water path (LWP) responses to increasing aerosol concentrations, as suggested by large eddy simulations (LESs). A parameterization based on multi-variate probability density functions with dynamics (MVD PDFs) has been incorporated into the single-column version of GFDL AM3, extended to treat aerosol activation, and coupled with a two-moment microphysics scheme. We use it to explore cloud-aerosol interactions. In agreement with LESs, our single-column simulations produce both positive and negative LWP responses to increasing aerosol concentrations, depending on precipitation and free atmosphere relative humidity. We have conducted sensitivity tests to vertical resolution and droplet sedimentation parameterization. The dependence of sedimentation on cloud droplet size is essential to capture the full LWP responses to aerosols. Further analyses reveal that the MVD PDFs are able to represent changes in buoyancy profiles induced by sedimentation as well as enhanced entrainment efficiency with aerosols comparable to LESs.

  15. Evaluations of Thin Cirrus Contamination and Screening in Ground Aerosol Observations Using Collocated Lidar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hansell, Richard A.; Berkoff, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Cirrus clouds, particularly sub visual high thin cirrus with low optical thickness, are difficult to be screened in operational aerosol retrieval algorithms. Collocated aerosol and cirrus observations from ground measurements, such as the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to examine the susceptibility of operational aerosol products to thin cirrus contamination. Quality assured aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were also tested against the CALIPSO vertical feature mask (VFM) and the MODIS-derived thin cirrus screening parameters for the purpose of evaluating thin cirrus contamination. Key results of this study include: (1) Quantitative evaluations of data uncertainties in AERONET AOT retrievals are conducted. Although AERONET cirrus screening schemes are successful in removing most cirrus contamination, strong residuals displaying strong spatial and seasonal variability still exist, particularly over thin cirrus prevalent regions during cirrus peak seasons, (2) Challenges in matching up different data for analysis are highlighted and corresponding solutions proposed, and (3) Estimation of the relative contributions from cirrus contamination to aerosol retrievals are discussed. The results are valuable for better understanding and further improving ground aerosol measurements that are critical for aerosol-related climate research.

  16. Global Aerosols

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... sizes and from multiple sources, including biomass burning, mineral dust, sea salt and regional industrial pollution. A color scale is ... desert source region. Deserts are the main sources of mineral dust, and MISR obtains aerosol optical depth at visible wavelengths ...

  17. A Method of Conducting Controlled Testing of Hospital Information System Components

    PubMed Central

    Rusnak, James E.

    1981-01-01

    One of the greatest areas of difficulty in the acquisition and installation of Hospital Information Systems is the system testing and validation. These systems are complex, consisting of a large number of program modules. These program modules tend to have a high degree of dependency upon one another and the system's data files. The real-time nature of Hospital Information Systems, and the types of applications supported by these systems, introduces new problems in testing and validation of the system's programs. New techniques are required to replace those used in testing batch oriented systems. Through the use of a controlled testing methodology, a Hospital Information System can be tested and validated with a limited risk factor of failure after the system is installed. The quality of testing is directly reflected in the reliability of the installed system and its acceptance in the hospital environment by the affected department's staff.

  18. Sask method for testing hydraulic conductivity of soils by flat dilatometer (dmt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbulewski, Kazimierz; Żakowicz, Stanisław; Rabarijoely, Simon; Łada, Anna

    2012-10-01

    DMT is one of the most popular methods of determining soil parameters needed to design a safe construction. Apart from the basic outcome parameter obtained from DMT measurements hydraulic conductivity (k) can be determined, previously proposed DMTA and DMTC methods were modified. The basic idea of the method is that the return of the deformed membrane is due to soil and water pressure. In the proposed SASK method the hydraulic conductivity of the soil is determined by measuring time-varying pressures A and C. Research has been performed at the experimental site of the Department of Geotechnical Engineering, WULS. In the paper, the assumptions of the new method for determining the hydraulic conductivity k are presented. The proposed method allows us to determine a reliable value for the hydraulic conductivity of clay soils. Using this method, the value of hydraulic conductivity (k = 5,47*10-11) is similar to the results of BAT, DMTA and laboratory measurements.

  19. Results of an interlaboratory fatigue test program conducted on alloy 800H at room and elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental approach adopted for low cycle fatigue tests of alloy 800H involved the use of electrohydraulic test systems, hour glass geometry specimens, diametral extensometers, and axial strain computers. Attempts to identify possible problem areas were complicated by the lack of reliable data for the heat of Alloy 800H under investigation. The method adopted was to generate definitive test data in an Interlaboratory Fatigue Test Program. The laboratories participating in the program were Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle Columbus, Mar-Test, and NASA Lewis. Fatigue tests were conducted on both solid and turbular specimens at temperatures of 20, 593, and 760 C and strain ranges of 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5 percent. The subject test method can, under certain circumstances, produce fatigue data which are serious in error. This approach subsequently was abandoned at General Atomic Company in favor of parallel gage length specimens and axial extensiometers.

  20. 40 CFR 60.2155 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... months following the previous performance test for the pollutant. For cadmium and lead, both cadmium and...) For particulate matter, hydrogen chloride, mercury, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, cadmium, lead...

  1. 40 CFR 790.62 - Submission of study plans and conduct of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Identity of the consent agreement under which testing will be performed. (2) The specific test requirements... these facilities. (7) Brief summaries of the training and experience of each professional involved in... , microbiologist , and laboratory assistants. (8) Identity and supporting data on the chemical substance...

  2. 40 CFR 63.3360 - What performance tests must I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as specified in 29 CFR 1910.1200(d)(4) and greater than or equal to 1.0 mass percent for other... of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. The Method 24 determination may be performed by the manufacturer of... (appendix A of 40 CFR part 63) test data and a facility's formulation data, and the Method 311 test value...

  3. 40 CFR 62.15250 - May I conduct stack testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... you own or operate a Class II municipal waste combustion unit and if all stack tests for a given..., opacity, hydrogen chloride, and fugitive ash. (b) You can test less often for dioxins/furans emissions...

  4. 40 CFR 62.15250 - May I conduct stack testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... you own or operate a Class II municipal waste combustion unit and if all stack tests for a given..., opacity, hydrogen chloride, and fugitive ash. (b) You can test less often for dioxins/furans emissions...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3360 - What performance tests must I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as specified in 29 CFR 1910.1200(d)(4) and greater than or equal to 1.0 mass percent for other... of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. The Method 24 determination may be performed by the manufacturer of... (appendix A of 40 CFR part 63) test data and a facility's formulation data, and the Method 311 test value...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3360 - What performance tests must I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as specified in 29 CFR 1910.1200(d)(4) and greater than or equal to 1.0 mass percent for other... of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. The Method 24 determination may be performed by the manufacturer of... (appendix A of 40 CFR part 63) test data and a facility's formulation data, and the Method 311 test value...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3360 - What performance tests must I conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as specified in 29 CFR 1910.1200(d)(4) and greater than or equal to 1.0 mass percent for other... of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. The Method 24 determination may be performed by the manufacturer of... (appendix A of 40 CFR part 63) test data and a facility's formulation data, and the Method 311 test value...

  8. Guidelines for conducting impact tests on shipping packages for radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Lu, S.C.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    Federal regulation (10 CFR Part 71) specifies a number of impact conditions (free-drop, penetration, and puncture), under which a package for the transport of radioactive materials must be tested or evaluated to demonstrate compliance with the regulation. This report is a comprehensive guide to the planning and execution of these impact tests. The report identifies the required considerations for both the design, pre-, and post-test inspections of the test model and the measurement, recording, analysis, and reporting of the test data. The report also presents reasons for the requirements, identifies the major difficulties in meeting these requirements, and suggests possible methods to overcome the difficulties. Discussed in substantial detail is the use of scale models and instrumented measurements.

  9. 40 CFR 63.11220 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests or fuel analyses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance with the mercury emission limit based on fuel analysis, you must conduct a fuel analysis according... burning the new type of fuel or mixture in your boiler. You must recalculate the mercury emission rate using Equation 1 of § 63.11211. The recalculated mercury emission rate must be less than the...

  10. Parenting and Infant Difficulty: Testing a Mutual Exacerbation Hypothesis to Predict Early Onset Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorber, Michael F.; Egeland, Byron

    2011-01-01

    The prediction of conduct problems (CPs) from infant difficulty and parenting measured in the first 6 months of life was studied in a sample of 267 high-risk mother-child dyads. Stable, cross-situational CPs at school entry (5-6 years) were predicted by negative infancy parenting, mediated by mutually angry and hostile mother-toddler interactions…

  11. 40 CFR 63.9798 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... part of renewing your 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71 operating permit. (b) You must conduct a... dryer or curing oven that is used to process the refractory product with the higher organic HAP processing rate. (2) Each affected kiln that follows an affected shape dryer or curing oven and is used...

  12. Test of Alternative Hypotheses Explaining the Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Willcutt, Erik G.; Hartman, Christie A.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2008-01-01

    There is significant comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The conclusions of studies that examined the causes of comorbidity between ADHD and CD conflict, with some researchers finding support for the three independent disorders model and others finding support for the correlated risk…

  13. 40 CFR 63.9798 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... part of renewing your 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71 operating permit. (b) You must conduct a... processing rate. (2) Each affected kiln that follows an affected shape dryer or curing oven and is used to... kiln that is subject to the emission limits specified in item 5 or 9 of Table 1 to this subpart,...

  14. 40 CFR 63.9798 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... part of renewing your 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71 operating permit. (b) You must conduct a... processing rate. (2) Each affected kiln that follows an affected shape dryer or curing oven and is used to... kiln that is subject to the emission limits specified in item 5 or 9 of Table 1 to this subpart,...

  15. 40 CFR 63.9798 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... part of renewing your 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71 operating permit. (b) You must conduct a... processing rate. (2) Each affected kiln that follows an affected shape dryer or curing oven and is used to... kiln that is subject to the emission limits specified in item 5 or 9 of Table 1 to this subpart,...

  16. 40 CFR 63.9798 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... part of renewing your 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71 operating permit. (b) You must conduct a... processing rate. (2) Each affected kiln that follows an affected shape dryer or curing oven and is used to... kiln that is subject to the emission limits specified in item 5 or 9 of Table 1 to this subpart,...

  17. 40 CFR 63.2262 - How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (TTE) conducted using Methods 204A through 204F of 40 CFR part 51, appendix M, which require three... nondetect data (§ 63.2292) must be treated as one-half of the method detection limit when determining total... method detection limit is less than or equal to 1 parts per million by volume, dry basis...

  18. 40 CFR 63.2262 - How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (TTE) conducted using Methods 204A through 204F of 40 CFR part 51, appendix M, which require three... nondetect data (§ 63.2292) must be treated as one-half of the method detection limit when determining total... method detection limit is less than or equal to 1 parts per million by volume, dry basis...

  19. 40 CFR 790.62 - Submission of study plans and conduct of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of study plans and conduct... RULES Implementation, Enforcement and Modification of Consent Agreements § 790.62 Submission of study... pursuant to a consent agreement shall submit a study plan no later than 45 days prior to the initiation...

  20. 40 CFR 790.62 - Submission of study plans and conduct of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of study plans and conduct... RULES Implementation, Enforcement and Modification of Consent Agreements § 790.62 Submission of study... pursuant to a consent agreement shall submit a study plan no later than 45 days prior to the initiation...

  1. Tests of regional elemental tracers of pollution aerosols. 1. Distinctness of regional signatures, stability during transport, and empirical validation

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenthal, D.H.; Wunschel, K.R.; Rahn, K.A. )

    1988-04-01

    The two major requirements for a successful regional tracer system are distinctness of signatures and stability of signatures during transport. Dissimilarity of the five regional signatures from eastern North America is shown by collinearity diagnostics and by apportionment of synthetic samples generated randomly. Stability of regional signatures during transport is shown first by use of tracer elements in coarse and fine aerosol to predict the maximum possible change of ratios from particle-size effects alone and then by examination of actual changes in signatures during transport from the Midwest to Underhill, VT. Two recent empirical validations of the tracer system are presented: qualitative agreement of pulses of mid-western aerosol in Vermont with pulses of perfluorocarbon tracer gas released in Ohio during CAPTEX '83 and reproduction of our three major northeastern and mid-western signatures by other investigators. The tracer system currently uses the seven elements As, Se, Sb, Zn, In, noncrustal Mn, and noncrustal V as measured by instrumental neutron activation.

  2. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM THE OXIDATION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE PRESENCE OF DRY SUBMICRON AMMONIUM SULFATE AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine formation of secondary organic aerosols. A smog chamber system was developed for studying gas-aerosol interactions in a dynamic flow reactor. These experiments were conducted to investigate the fate of gas and aerosol phase compounds ...

  3. A fixed frequency aerosol albedometer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jonathan E; Barta, Nick; Policarpio, Danielle; Duvall, Richard

    2008-02-01

    A new method for the measurement of aerosol single scatter albedo (omega) at 532 nm was developed. The method employs cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for measurement of aerosol extinction coefficient (b(ext)) and an integrating sphere nephelometer for determination of aerosol scattering coefficient (b(scat)). A unique feature of this method is that the extinction and scattering measurements are conducted simultaneously, on the exact same sample volume. Limits of detection (3s) for the extinction and scattering channel were 0.61 Mm(-1) and 2.7 Mm(-1) respectively. PMID:18542299

  4. Technical Bases to Aid in the Decision of Conducting Full Power Ground Nuclear Tests for Space Fission Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, Laurie L.; Houts, Michael G.; Clement, Steven D.

    2004-02-01

    The extent to which, if any, full power ground nuclear testing of space reactors should be performed has been a point of discussion within the industry for decades. Do the benefits outweigh the risks? Are there equivalent alternatives? Can a test facility be constructed (or modified) in a reasonable amount of time? Is the test article an accurate representation of the flight system? Are the costs too restrictive? The obvious benefits of full power ground nuclear testing; obtaining systems integrated reliability data on a full-scale, complete end-to-end system; come at some programmatic risk. Safety related information is not obtained from a full-power ground nuclear test. This paper will discuss and assess these and other technical considerations essential in the decision to conduct full power ground nuclear-or alternative-tests.

  5. HOUSTON URBAN PLUME STUDY, 1974. MICROSCOPICAL IDENTIFICATION OF COLLECTED AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An urban plume study was conducted in Houston during July 1974 to gain preliminary data on the concentration and composition of primary and secondary aerosols contributing to Houston's air pollution problem. Selected membrane filter samples containing urban aerosols were analyzed...

  6. Spatio-temporal variability of aerosols in the tropics relationship with atmospheric and oceanic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga-Arias, Manuel D.

    2011-12-01

    Earth's radiation budget is directly influenced by aerosols through the absorption of solar radiation and subsequent heating of the atmosphere. Aerosols modulate the hydrological cycle indirectly by modifying cloud properties, precipitation and ocean heat storage. In addition, polluting aerosols impose health risks in local, regional and global scales. In spite of recent advances in the study of aerosols variability, uncertainty in their spatio-temporal distributions still presents a challenge in the understanding of climate variability. For example, aerosol loading varies not only from year to year but also on higher frequency intraseasonal time scales producing strong variability on local and regional scales. An assessment of the impact of aerosol variability requires long period measurements of aerosols at both regional and global scales. The present dissertation compiles a large database of remotely sensed aerosol loading in order to analyze its spatio-temporal variability, and how this load interacts with different variables that characterize the dynamic and thermodynamic states of the environment. Aerosol Index (AI) and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were used as measures of the atmospheric aerosol load. In addition, atmospheric and oceanic satellite observations, and reanalysis datasets is used in the analysis to investigate aerosol-environment interactions. A diagnostic study is conducted to produce global and regional aerosol satellite climatologies, and to analyze and compare the validity of aerosol retrievals. We find similarities and differences between the aerosol distributions over various regions of the globe when comparing the different satellite retrievals. A nonparametric approach is also used to examine the spatial distribution of the recent trends in aerosol concentration. A significant positive trend was found over the Middle East, Arabian Sea and South Asian regions strongly influenced by increases in dust events. Spectral and composite analyses

  7. INTERIM PROCEDURES FOR CONDUCTING THE 'SALMONELLA'/MICROSOMAL MUTAGENICITY ASSAY (AMES TEST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ames assay is a rapid-screening procedure for determining the presence of mutagenic and carcinogenic pure chemicals, complex environmental mixtures, and commercial products. The procedure described incorporates modifications designed to make Ames testing data more precise and...

  8. 30 CFR 18.8 - Date for conducting investigation and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES General... determine the order of precedence for investigation and testing. If an electrical machine component...

  9. 30 CFR 18.8 - Date for conducting investigation and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES General... determine the order of precedence for investigation and testing. If an electrical machine component...

  10. 30 CFR 18.8 - Date for conducting investigation and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES General... determine the order of precedence for investigation and testing. If an electrical machine component...

  11. 30 CFR 18.8 - Date for conducting investigation and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES General... determine the order of precedence for investigation and testing. If an electrical machine component...

  12. 30 CFR 18.8 - Date for conducting investigation and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES General... determine the order of precedence for investigation and testing. If an electrical machine component...

  13. 30 CFR 250.407 - What tests must I conduct to determine reservoir characteristics?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine reservoir characteristics? You must determine the presence, quantity, quality, and reservoir characteristics of oil, gas, sulphur, and water in the formations penetrated by logging, formation sampling, or well testing....

  14. 30 CFR 250.407 - What tests must I conduct to determine reservoir characteristics?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determine reservoir characteristics? You must determine the presence, quantity, quality, and reservoir characteristics of oil, gas, sulphur, and water in the formations penetrated by logging, formation sampling, or well testing....

  15. 30 CFR 250.407 - What tests must I conduct to determine reservoir characteristics?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determine reservoir characteristics? You must determine the presence, quantity, quality, and reservoir characteristics of oil, gas, sulphur, and water in the formations penetrated by logging, formation sampling, or well testing....

  16. Compendium of Recent Test Results of Single Event Effects Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gregory R.; Guertin, Steven M.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Irom, Farokh; Zajac, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports heavy ion, proton, and laser induced single event effects results for a variety of microelectronic devices targeted for possible use in NASA spacecrafts. The compendium covers devices tested within the years of 2010 through 2012.

  17. Test Results of Total Ionizing Dose Conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivas, Rosa M.; Johnston, Allan H.; Miyahira, Tetsuo F.; Rax, Bernard G.; Wiedeman, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports recent Total Ionizing Dose (TID) test results obtained at JPL. Several device samples were analyzed exhibiting significant failure levels and ELDRS effects under biased and unbiased condition.

  18. 40 CFR 63.7515 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests or fuel analyses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Testing, Fuel Analyses, and Initial...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2155 - May I conduct performance testing less often?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the previous performance test for the pollutant. For cadmium and lead, both cadmium and lead must be... particulate matter, hydrogen chloride, mercury, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, cadmium, lead and...

  20. 40 CFR 63.7515 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests or fuel analyses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Testing, Fuel Analyses, and Initial Compliance... or process heater continues to meet the emission limit for particulate matter, HCl, mercury, or...

  1. 40 CFR 63.3960 - By what date must I conduct performance tests and other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicable compliance date specified in § 63.3883. For magnet wire coating operations you may, with approval, conduct a performance test of one representative magnet wire coating machine for each group of identical or very similar magnet wire coating machines. (2) You must develop and begin implementing the...

  2. 40 CFR 63.3960 - By what date must I conduct performance tests and other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... first material balance no later than the applicable compliance date specified in § 63.3883. For magnet wire coating operations you may, with approval, conduct a performance test of one representative magnet wire coating machine for each group of identical or very similar magnet wire coating machines. (2)...

  3. 40 CFR 63.3960 - By what date must I conduct performance tests and other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance date specified in § 63.3883. For magnet wire coating operations you may, with approval, conduct a performance test of one representative magnet wire coating machine for each group of identical or very similar magnet wire coating machines. (2) You must develop and begin implementing the work practice plan...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3960 - By what date must I conduct performance tests and other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... first material balance no later than the applicable compliance date specified in § 63.3883. For magnet wire coating operations you may, with approval, conduct a performance test of one representative magnet wire coating machine for each group of identical or very similar magnet wire coating machines. (2)...

  5. The Influence of Maternal Acculturation, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Parenting on Chinese American Adolescents' Conduct Problems: Testing the Segmented Assimilation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between…

  6. 40 CFR 63.7941 - How do I conduct a performance test, design evaluation, or other type of initial compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... device is used), as determined by Method 2 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, dscm/h; n = Number of organic... determined by Method 18 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A; MWi = Molecular weight of organic compound i in the... conduct the test using Method 21 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) and the procedures in § 63.925(a)...

  7. ANALYSIS OF A GAS-PHASE PARTITIONING TRACER TEST CONDUCTED IN AN UNSATURATED FRACTURED-CLAY FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gas-phase partitioning tracer method was used to estimate non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), water, and air saturations in the vadose zone at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated field site in Tucson, AZ. The tracer test was conducted in a fractured-clay system that is the confin...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5840 - By what date must I conduct a performance test or other initial compliance demonstration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true By what date must I conduct a performance test or other initial compliance demonstration? 63.5840 Section 63.5840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4350 - By what date must I conduct performance tests and other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... according to § 63.4351(d)(5), you must conduct a performance test of each capture system and add-on control....4351(d)(5), you must initiate the first material balance no later than the applicable compliance date....4293 no later than the compliance date specified in § 63.4283. (3) You must complete the...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4350 - By what date must I conduct performance tests and other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... according to § 63.4351(d)(5), you must conduct a performance test of each capture system and add-on control....4351(d)(5), you must initiate the first material balance no later than the applicable compliance date....4293 no later than the compliance date specified in § 63.4283. (3) You must complete the...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4350 - By what date must I conduct performance tests and other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-liquid material balances according to § 63.4351(d)(5), you must conduct a performance test of each... balances according to § 63.4351(d)(5), you must initiate the first material balance no later than the... practice plan required by § 63.4293 no later than the compliance date specified in § 63.4283. (3) You...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4350 - By what date must I conduct performance tests and other initial compliance demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... according to § 63.4351(d)(5), you must conduct a performance test of each capture system and add-on control....4351(d)(5), you must initiate the first material balance no later than the applicable compliance date....4293 no later than the compliance date specified in § 63.4283. (3) You must complete the...

  13. 40 CFR 63.7941 - How do I conduct a performance test, design evaluation, or other type of initial compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... device is used), as determined by Method 2 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, dscm/h; n = Number of organic... determined by Method 18 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A; MWi = Molecular weight of organic compound i in the... conduct the test using Method 21 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) and the procedures in § 63.925(a)...

  14. 40 CFR 63.7941 - How do I conduct a performance test, design evaluation, or other type of initial compliance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... device is used), as determined by Method 2 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, dscm/h; n = Number of organic... determined by Method 18 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A; MWi = Molecular weight of organic compound i in the... conduct the test using Method 21 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A) and the procedures in § 63.925(a)...

  15. 14 CFR 61.47 - Status of an examiner who is authorized by the Administrator to conduct practical tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Status of an examiner who is authorized by the Administrator to conduct practical tests. 61.47 Section 61.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General §...

  16. 40 CFR Table I-9 to Subpart I of... - Methods and Procedures for Conducting Emissions Test for Stack Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methods and Procedures for Conducting Emissions Test for Stack Systems I Table I-9 to Subpart I of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING...

  17. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests E Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Table E-2 Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53—Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance...

  18. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Table... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests E Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection...

  19. Aerosol generation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes exposed to cells cultured at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Polk, William W; Sharma, Monita; Sayes, Christie M; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Clippinger, Amy J

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol generation and characterization are critical components in the assessment of the inhalation hazards of engineered nanomaterials (NMs). An extensive review was conducted on aerosol generation and exposure apparatus as part of an international expert workshop convened to discuss the design of an in vitro testing strategy to assess pulmonary toxicity following exposure to aerosolized particles. More specifically, this workshop focused on the design of an in vitro method to predict the development of pulmonary fibrosis in humans following exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Aerosol generators, for dry or liquid particle suspension aerosolization, and exposure chambers, including both commercially available systems and those developed by independent researchers, were evaluated. Additionally, characterization methods that can be used and the time points at which characterization can be conducted in order to interpret in vitro exposure results were assessed. Summarized below is the information presented and discussed regarding the relevance of various aerosol generation and characterization techniques specific to aerosolized MWCNTs exposed to cells cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The generation of MWCNT aerosols relevant to human exposures and their characterization throughout exposure in an ALI system is critical for extrapolation of in vitro results to toxicological outcomes in humans. PMID:27108236

  20. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

  1. Stratospheric Aerosols for Solar Radiation Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Ben

    SRM in the context of this entry involves placing a large amount of aerosols in the stratosphere to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface, thereby cooling the surface and counteracting some of the warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The way this is accomplished depends on the specific aerosol used, but the basic mechanism involves backscattering and absorbing certain amounts of solar radiation aloft. Since warming from greenhouse gases is due to longwave (thermal) emission, compensating for this warming by reduction of shortwave (solar) energy is inherently imperfect, meaning SRM will have climate effects that are different from the effects of climate change. This will likely manifest in the form of regional inequalities, in that, similarly to climate change, some regions will benefit from SRM, while some will be adversely affected, viewed both in the context of present climate and a climate with high CO2 concentrations. These effects are highly dependent upon the means of SRM, including the type of aerosol to be used, the particle size and other microphysical concerns, and the methods by which the aerosol is placed in the stratosphere. SRM has never been performed, nor has deployment been tested, so the research up to this point has serious gaps. The amount of aerosols required is large enough that SRM would require a major engineering endeavor, although SRM is potentially cheap enough that it could be conducted unilaterally. Methods of governance must be in place before deployment is attempted, should deployment even be desired. Research in public policy, ethics, and economics, as well as many other disciplines, will be essential to the decision-making process. SRM is only a palliative treatment for climate change, and it is best viewed as part of a portfolio of responses, including mitigation, adaptation, and possibly CDR. At most, SRM is insurance against dangerous consequences that are directly due to increased surface air

  2. Sediment-contact and survival of fingernail clams: Implications for conducting short-term laboratory tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naimo, T.J.; Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Porewater toxicity tests have been used as indicators of whole sediment toxicity. However, many species commonly tested in porewater predominately reside in the water column and otherwise have little to no direct contact with sediment and associated porewater. We assessed the feasibility of porewater toxicity tests with fingernail clams Musculium transversum, a benthic macroinvertebrate that inhabits soft bottom sediments and feeds by filtering surface and porewater. Fingernail clams were exposed to water or sediment in a 96 h laboratory test with a 5 x 2 factorial experimental design. The five treatments included sediments from four sites in the Mississippi River and one sediment-free control (well water). In all treatments, clams were exposed to the sediments or water either directly (no enclosure) or indirectly (enclosure, suspended above the sediment surface). There were three replicates for each of the ten treatment combinations. Overall, survival of fingernail clams did not vary among the five treatments (p = 0.36). In treatments without enclosures, survival of clams in the sediment-free control was not significantly different (p = 0.34) from the sediment-containing treatments. Survival of clams in the sediment-free control averaged 85 - suggesting that direct sediment contact is not necessary for survival in short-term tests. In contrast, survival of clams in the sediment-containing treatments differed significantly (p = 0.03) between exposures with (mean, 77) and without (mean, 89) enclosures. Thus, fingernail clams may provide an alternative species for evaluating benthic macroinvertebrates in short-term laboratory porewater tests. However, more information on their physiological requirements and the development of sublethal endpoints is recommended before their use in tests of longer duration. (C) 2000 by John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  3. Estimation of host rock thermal conductivities using thetemperature data from the drift-scale test at Yucca Mountain,Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Tsang, Y.W.

    2003-11-25

    A large volume of temperature data has been collected from a very large, underground heater test, the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST was designed to obtain thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) data in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain. Sophisticated numerical models have been developed to analyze the collected THMC data. In these analyses, thermal conductivities measured from core samples have been used as input parameters to the model. However, it was not known whether these core measurements represented the true field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock. Realizing these difficulties, elaborate, computationally intensive geostatistical simulations have also been performed to obtain field-scale thermal conductivity of the host rock from the core measurements. In this paper, we use the temperature data from the DST as the input (instead of the measured core-scale thermal conductivity values) to develop an estimate of the field-scale thermal conductivity values. Assuming a conductive thermal regime, we develop an analytical solution for the temperature rise in the host rock of the DST; and using a nonlinear fitting routine, we obtain a best-fit estimate of field-scale thermal conductivity for the DST host rock. The temperature data collected from the DST shows clear evidence of two distinct thermal regimes: a zone below boiling (wet) and a zone above boiling (dry). We obtain estimates of thermal conductivity for both the wet and dry zones. We also analyze the sensitivity of these estimates to the input heating power of the DST.

  4. Spatial variation in hydraulic conductivity determined by slug tests in the Canadian River alluvium near the Norman Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha A.; Christenson, Scott C.

    1998-01-01

    Slug tests were used to characterize hydraulic conductivity variations at a spatial scale on the order of meters in the alluvial aquifer downgradient of the Norman Landfill. Forty hydraulic conductivity measurements were made, most along a 215-meter flow path transect. Measured hydraulic conductivity, excluding clayey layers, ranged from 8.4 ? 10-7 to 2.8 ? 10-4 meters per second, with a median value of 6.6 ? 10-5 meters per second. The hydraulic conductivity measurements yield a preliminary concept of the permeability structure of the aquifer along this transect. A low hydraulic conductivity silt-clay layer at about 4 meters below the water table and a high hydraulic conductivity layer at the base of the aquifer appear to have the most potential to affect contaminant transport. Specific conductance measurements show the leachate plume along this transect becomes attenuated between 150 and 200 meters downgradient of the landfill, except at the base of the aquifer, where it extends at least 225 meters downgradient of the landfill.

  5. Task 2 - Limits for High-Frequency Conducted Susceptibility Testing - CS114 (NRC-HQ-60-14-D-0015)

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Ewing, Paul D.; Moses, Rebecca J.

    2015-09-01

    A principal focus of Task 2 under this project was for ORNL to evaluate the basis for susceptibility testing against high-frequency conducted interference and to establish recommendations to resolve concerns about the severity of test limits for the conducted susceptibility (CS) test, CS114, from MIL-STD-461. The primary concern about the test limit has been characterized by the EPRI EMI Working Group in the following terms: Demonstrating compliance with the CS114 test limits recommended in TR-102323 has proven to be problematic, even for components that have been tested to commercial standards and demonstrated proper operation in industrial applications [6]. Specifically, EPRI notes that the CS114 limits approved in regulatory documents are significantly higher than those invoked by the US military and similar commercial standards in the frequency range below 200 kHz. For this task, ORNL evaluated the original approach to establishing the test limit, EPRI technical findings from a review of the limit, and the regulatory basis through which the currently approved limits were accepted. Based on this analysis, strategies have been developed regarding changes to the CS114 limit that can resolve the technical concerns raised by the industry. Guided by the principles that reasonable assurance of safety must not be compromised but excessive conservatism should be reduced, recommendations on a suitable basis for a revised limit have been developed and can be incorporated into the planned Revision 2 of RG 1.180.

  6. Testing of solar cell covers and encapsulants conducted in a simulated space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The materials included in the evaluation were 0211 micro-sheet, FEP-A used as a cover and as an adhesive, DC 93-500 adhesive, PFA "hard coat" used as a cover, GE 615/UV-24 used as a cover, GR 650 used as a cover, and electrostatically bonded 7070 glass. The test environments were 1 MeV electron irradiation interspersed with thermal cycling, 0.5 MeV proton irradiation interspersed with thermal cycling and UV exposure interspersed with thermal cycling. Summary data is given describing the response of the test materials both visually and electrically to the three different environments.

  7. Testing of solar cell covers and encapsulants conducted in a simulated space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, D. A.

    1981-11-01

    The materials included in the evaluation were 0211 micro-sheet, FEP-A used as a cover and as an adhesive, DC 93-500 adhesive, PFA "hard coat" used as a cover, GE 615/UV-24 used as a cover, GR 650 used as a cover, and electrostatically bonded 7070 glass. The test environments were 1 MeV electron irradiation interspersed with thermal cycling, 0.5 MeV proton irradiation interspersed with thermal cycling and UV exposure interspersed with thermal cycling. Summary data is given describing the response of the test materials both visually and electrically to the three different environments.

  8. Estimating hydraulic conductivity of fractured rocks from high-pressure packer tests with an Izbash's law-based empirical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Feng; Hu, Shao-Hua; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2015-04-01

    High-pressure packer test (HPPT) is an enhanced constant head packer test for characterizing the permeability of fractured rocks under high-pressure groundwater flow conditions. The interpretation of the HPPT data, however, remains difficult due to the transition of flow conditions in the conducting structures and the hydraulic fracturing-induced permeability enhancement in the tested rocks. In this study, a number of HPPTs were performed in the sedimentary and intrusive rocks located at 450 m depth in central Hainan Island. The obtained Q-P curves were divided into a laminar flow phase (I), a non-Darcy flow phase (II), and a hydraulic fracturing phase (III). The critical Reynolds number for the deviation of flow from linearity into phase II was 25-66. The flow of phase III occurred in sparsely to moderately fractured rocks, and was absent at the test intervals of perfect or poor intactness. The threshold fluid pressure between phases II and III was correlated with RQD and the confining stress. An Izbash's law-based analytical model was employed to calculate the hydraulic conductivity of the tested rocks in different flow conditions. It was demonstrated that the estimated hydraulic conductivity values in phases I and II are basically the same, and are weakly dependent on the injection fluid pressure, but it becomes strongly pressure dependent as a result of hydraulic fracturing in phase III. The hydraulic conductivity at different test intervals of a borehole is remarkably enhanced at highly fractured zone or contact zone, but within a rock unit of weak heterogeneity, it decreases with the increase of depth.

  9. 40 CFR 63.2362 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... current certification in accordance with the U.S. DOT pressure test requirements in 49 CFR part 180 for cargo tanks or 49 CFR 173.31 for tank cars. ... equipment and that is loaded with organic liquids at a transfer rack that is subject to control based on...

  10. 40 CFR 63.2362 - When must I conduct subsequent performance tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... current certification in accordance with the U.S. DOT pressure test requirements in 49 CFR part 180 for cargo tanks or 49 CFR 173.31 for tank cars. ... equipment and that is loaded with organic liquids at a transfer rack that is subject to control based on...

  11. Calibration of Self-Efficacy for Conducting a Chi-Squared Test of Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Whitney Alicia; Goins, Deborah D.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy and knowledge, both concerning the chi-squared test of independence, were examined in education graduate students. Participants rated statements concerning self-efficacy and completed a related knowledge assessment. After completing a demographic survey, participants completed the self-efficacy and knowledge scales a second time.…

  12. Standard practice for conducting moist SO{sub 2} tests. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee G-1 on Corrosion of Metals and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee G01.05 on Laboratory Corrosion Tests. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published November 1998. Originally published as G 87-97. Last previous edition was G 87-97.

  13. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures in EPA Method 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 to determine an oxygen correction factor if... performance test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies....

  14. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures in EPA Method 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 to determine an oxygen correction factor if... performance test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies....

  15. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures in EPA Method 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 to determine an oxygen correction factor if... performance test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies....

  16. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures in EPA Method 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 to determine an oxygen correction factor if... test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to you... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies....

  17. 40 CFR 63.5850 - How do I conduct performance tests, performance evaluations, and design evaluations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... test, performance evaluation, and design evaluation in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, that applies to you... requirements in § 63.7(e)(1) and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies. (c... and under the specific conditions that 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS, specifies. (d) You may not...

  18. Challenges of Formative Testing: Conducting Situated Research in Classrooms. Technical Report No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jan; Honey, Margaret A.

    It is argued that the three basic issues that have typically been the concern of formative evaluation (comprehensibility, appeal, and usefulness) tell us very little about the role that an instructional product can play in the ongoing environment of the classroom. The focus in this paper is on the field test, i.e., on research situated within the…

  19. 40 CFR 63.2262 - How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Methods 204A through 204F of 40 CFR part 51, appendix M, which require three separate test runs of at... nondetect data (§ 63.2292) must be treated as one-half of the method detection limit when determining total... method detection limit is less than or equal to 1 parts per million by volume, dry basis...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2262 - How do I conduct performance tests and establish operating requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Methods 204A through 204F of 40 CFR part 51, appendix M, which require three separate test runs of at... nondetect data (§ 63.2292) must be treated as one-half of the method detection limit when determining total... method detection limit is less than or equal to 1 parts per million by volume, dry basis...