Science.gov

Sample records for aerosols optical properties

  1. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Measured properties of atmospheric aerosol particles are presented. These include aerosol size frequency distribution and complex retractive index. The optical properties of aerosols are computed based on the presuppositions of thermodynamic equilibrium and of Mie-theory.

  2. Study of Aerosol Chemical Composition Based on Aerosol Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Austin; Aryal, Rudra

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the variation of aerosol absorption optical properties obtained from the CIMEL Sun-Photometer measurements over three years (2012-2014) at three AERONET sites GSFC; MD Science_Center and Tudor Hill, Bermuda. These sites were chosen based on the availability of data and locations that can receive different types of aerosols from land and ocean. These absorption properties, mainly the aerosol absorption angstrom exponent, were analyzed to examine the corresponding aerosol chemical composition. We observed that the retrieved absorption angstrom exponents over the two sites, GSFC and MD Science Center, are near 1 (the theoretical value for black carbon) and with low single scattering albedo values during summer seasons indicating presence of black carbon. Strong variability of aerosol absorption properties were observed over Tudor Hill and will be analyzed based on the air mass embedded from ocean side and land side. We will also present the seasonal variability of these properties based on long-range air mass sources at these three sites. Brent Holben, NASA GSFC, AERONET, Jon Rodriguez.

  3. Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: The Software Package OPAC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, M.; Koepke, P.; Schult, I.

    1998-05-01

    The software package OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds) is described. It easily provides optical properties in the solar and terrestrial spectral range of atmospheric particulate matter. Microphysical and optical properties of six water clouds, three ice clouds, and 10 aerosol components, which are considered as typical cases, are stored as ASCII files. The optical properties are the extinction, scattering, and absorption coefficients, the single scattering albedo, the asymmetry parameter, and the phase function. They are calculated on the basis of the microphysical data (size distribution and spectral refractive index) under the assumption of spherical particles in case of aerosols and cloud droplets and assuming hexagonal columns in case of cirrus clouds. Data are given for up to 61 wavelengths between 0.25 and 40 m and up to eight values of the relative humidity. The software package also allows calculation of derived optical properties like mass extinction coefficients and Ångström coefficients.Real aerosol in the atmosphere always is a mixture of different components. Thus, in OPAC it is made possible to get optical properties of any mixtures of the basic components and to calculate optical depths on the base of exponential aerosol height profiles. Typical mixtures of aerosol components as well as typical height profiles are proposed as default values, but mixtures and profiles for the description of individual cases may also be achieved simply.

  4. Climatology of Aerosol Optical Properties in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queface, Antonio J.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    A thorough regionally dependent understanding of optical properties of aerosols and their spatial and temporal distribution is required before we can accurately evaluate aerosol effects in the climate system. Long term measurements of aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent and retrieved single scattering albedo and size distribution, were analyzed and compiled into an aerosol optical properties climatology for southern Africa. Monitoring of aerosol parameters have been made by the AERONET program since the middle of the last decade in southern Africa. This valuable information provided an opportunity for understanding how aerosols of different types influence the regional radiation budget. Two long term sites, Mongu in Zambia and Skukuza in South Africa formed the core sources of data in this study. Results show that seasonal variation of aerosol optical thicknesses at 500 nm in southern Africa are characterized by low seasonal multi-month mean values (0.11 to 0.17) from December to May, medium values (0.20 to 0.27) between June and August, and high to very high values (0.30 to 0.46) during September to November. The spatial distribution of aerosol loadings shows that the north has high magnitudes than the south in the biomass burning season and the opposite in none biomass burning season. From the present aerosol data, no long term discernable trends are observable in aerosol concentrations in this region. This study also reveals that biomass burning aerosols contribute the bulk of the aerosol loading in August-October. Therefore if biomass burning could be controlled, southern Africa will experience a significant reduction in total atmospheric aerosol loading. In addition to that, aerosol volume size distribution is characterized by low concentrations in the non biomass burning period and well balanced particle size contributions of both coarse and fine modes. In contrast high concentrations are characteristic of biomass burning period, combined with

  5. Aerosol Optical Properties in Southeast Asia From AERONET Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Boonjawat, J.; Le, H. V.; Schafer, J. S.; Reid, J. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.

    2003-12-01

    There is little published data available on measured optical properties of aerosols in the Southeast Asian region. The AERONET project and collaborators commenced monitoring of aerosol optical properties in February 2003 at four sites in Thailand and two sites in Viet Nam to measure the primarily anthropogenic aerosols generated by biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion/ industrial emissions. Automatic sun/sky radiometers at each site measured spectral aerosol optical depth in 7 wavelengths from 340 to 1020 nm and combined with directional radiances in the almucantar, retrievals were made of spectral single scattering albedo and aerosol size distributions. Angstrom exponents, size distributions and spectral single scattering albedo of primarily biomass burning aerosols at rural sites are compared to measurements made at AERONET sites in other major biomass burning regions in tropical southern Africa, South America, and in boreal forest regions. Additionally, the aerosol single scattering albedo and size distributions measured in Bangkok, Thailand are compared with those measured at other urban sites globally. The influences of aerosols originating from other regions outside of Southeast Asia are analyzed using trajectory analyses. Specifically, cases of aerosol transport and mixing from Southern China and from India are presented.

  6. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  7. Estimation of aerosol optical properties from all-sky imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantzidis, Andreas; Tzoumanikas, Panagiotis; Salamalikis, Vasilios; Wilbert, Stefan; Prahl, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols are one of the most important constituents in the atmosphere that affect the incoming solar radiation, either directly through absorbing and scattering processes or indirectly by changing the optical properties and lifetime of clouds. Under clear skies, aerosols become the dominant factor that affect the intensity of solar irradiance reaching the ground. It has been shown that the variability in direct normal irradiance (DNI) due to aerosols is more important than the one induced in global horizontal irradiance (GHI), while the uncertainty in its calculation is dominated by uncertainties in the aerosol optical properties. In recent years, all-sky imagers are used for the detection of cloud coverage, type and velocity in a bouquet of applications including solar irradiance resource and forecasting. However, information about the optical properties of aerosols could be derived with the same instrumentation. In this study, the aerosol optical properties are estimated with the synergetic use of all-sky images, complementary data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and calculations from a radiative transfer model. The area of interest is Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA), Tabernas, Spain and data from a 5 month period are analyzed. The proposed methodology includes look-up-tables (LUTs) of diffuse sky radiance of Red (R), Green (G) and Blue (B) channels at several zenith and azimuth angles and for different atmospheric conditions (Angström α and β, single scattering albedo, precipitable water, solar zenith angle). Based on the LUTS, results from the CIMEL photometer at PSA were used to estimate the RGB radiances for the actual conditions at this site. The methodology is accompanied by a detailed evaluation of its robustness, the development and evaluation of the inversion algorithm (derive aerosol optical properties from RGB image values) and a sensitivity analysis about how the pre-mentioned atmospheric parameters affect the results.

  8. Aerosol optical properties of the free troposphere: Tropospheric backscatter climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, James M.

    1994-12-01

    A unique ensemble of aerosol sensors (backscattersondes, nephelometers and particle counters) has been assembled during the course of this research to obtain new measurements relating to the optical properties of aerosols in the atmosphere, especially in the free troposphere. A knowledge of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio has been greatly enhanced as a result of this project and the inference of representative values along with the range of variation is now possible. Agreement between the optical model results and actual measurements appears to be quite satisfactory. An initial climatology of aerosol backscatter in the free troposphere has been developed and is in general agreement with results and inferences from global remote sensing instruments. However, the data from remote sensors may indicate a larger influence of volcanic aerosols on the upper troposphere than actually exists. Further work with high resolution soundings is needed to fully resolve this issue.

  9. The Effect of Aerosol Hygroscopicity and Volatility on Aerosol Optical Properties During Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystov, A.; Grieshop, A. P.; Saha, P.; Subramanian, R.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic sources can influence optical properties of ambient aerosol by altering its hygroscopicity and contributing to light absorption directly via formation of brown carbon and indirectly by enhancing light absorption by black carbon ("lensing effect"). The magnitude of these effects remains highly uncertain. A set of state-of-the-art instruments was deployed at the SEARCH site near Centerville, AL during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign in summer 2013 to measure the effect of relative humidity and temperature on aerosol size distribution, composition and optical properties. Light scattering and absorption by temperature- and humidity-conditioned aerosols was measured using three photo-acoustic extinctiometers (PAX) at three wavelengths (405 nm, 532 nm, and 870 nm). The sample-conditioning system provided measurements at ambient RH, 10%RH ("dry"), 85%RH ("wet"), and 200 C ("TD"). In parallel to these measurements, a long residence time temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD) and a variable residence time constant temperature TD in combination with three SMPS systems and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) were used to assess aerosol volatility and kinetics of aerosol evaporation. We will present results of the on-going analysis of the collected data set. We will show that both temperature and relative humidity have a strong effect on aerosol optical properties. SOA appears to increase aerosol light absorption by about 10%. TD measurements suggest that aerosol equilibrated fairly quickly, within 2 s. Evaporation varied substantially with ambient aerosol loading and composition and meteorology.

  10. Measurements of Semi-volatile Aerosol and Its Effect on Aerosol Optical Properties During Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystov, A.; Grieshop, A. P.; Saha, P.; Subramanian, R.

    2013-12-01

    Semi-volatile compounds, including particle-bound water, comprise a large part of aerosol mass and have a significant influence on aerosol lifecycle and its optical properties. Understanding the properties of semi-volatile compounds, especially those pertaining to gas/aerosol partitioning, is of critical importance for our ability to predict concentrations and properties of ambient aerosol. A set of state-of-the-art instruments was deployed at the SEARCH site near Centerville, AL during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign in summer 2013 to measure the effect of temperature and relative humidity on aerosol size distribution, composition and optical properties. Light scattering and absorption by temperature- and humidity-conditioned aerosols was measured using three photo-acoustic extinctiometers (PAX) at three wavelengths (405 nm, 532 nm, and 870 nm). In parallel to these measurements, a long residence time temperature-stepping thermodenuder and a variable residence time constant temperature thermodenuder in combination with three SMPS systems and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) were used to assess aerosol volatility and kinetics of aerosol evaporation. It was found that both temperature and relative humidity have a strong effect on aerosol optical properties. The variable residence time thermodenuder data suggest that aerosol equilibrated fairly quickly, within 2 s, in contrast to other ambient observations. Preliminary analysis show that approximately 50% and 90% of total aerosol mass evaporated at temperatures of 100 C and 180C, respectively. Evaporation varied substantially with ambient aerosol loading and composition and meteorology. During course of this study, T50 (temperatures at which 50% aerosol mass evaporates) varied from 60 C to more than 120 C.

  11. Climatology and Characteristics of Aerosol Optical Properties in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, Lauren; Ogren, John; Backman, John; Asmi, Eija; Andrews, Elisabeth; Jefferson, Anne; Bergin, Michael; Tunved, Peter; Sharma, Sangeeta; Starkweather, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Within the Arctic, climate forcers like atmospheric aerosols are important contributors to the observed warming and environmental changes in the region. Quantifying the forcing by aerosols in the Arctic is especially difficult, given short aerosol lifetimes, annual variability in illumination and surface albedo, stratified atmospheric conditions, complex feedbacks, and long-range aerosol transport. However, in-situ surface measurements of Arctic aerosol optical properties can be used to constrain variability of light scattering and absorption, identify potential particle sources, and help evaluate the resulting forcing. Data from six WMO Global Atmosphere Watch stations are presented: Alert, Canada (ALT); Barrow, Alaska (BRW); Pallas, Finland (PAL); Summit, Greenland (SUM); Tiksi, Russia (TIK); and Zeppelin Mountain, Norway (ZEP). These sites contribute to the International Arctic System for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA), which facilitates Arctic-wide data collection and analysis. Climatologies of aerosol optical properties from each station show differences in magnitude and variability of observed parameters. For example, most stations (ALT, BRW, SUM, TIK, ZEP) experience maximum scattering in winter/spring, while PAL exhibits maximum scattering in the summer. The observed range in scattering across these sites is large (almost an order of magnitude) - SUM has the lowest annual median scattering at 0.82 Mm-1 while BRW has the highest at 6.9 Mm-1. A closer look at systematic variability between optical properties at each station, as well as site back trajectories, suggest differences in aerosol processes, sources and transport. The development of consistent climatologies and additional analyses like the ones presented here can help provide a better understanding of trans-Arctic aerosol variability, which can be an asset for improving aerosol models in this unique and remote region.

  12. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Properties under Thin Cirrus from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaehwa; Hsu, Nai-Yung Christina; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew Mark.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of aerosol optical properties using shortwave bands from passive satellite sensors, such as MODIS, is typically limited to cloud-free areas. However, if the clouds are thin enough (i.e. thin cirrus) such that the satellite-observed reflectance contains signals under the cirrus layer, and if the optical properties of this cirrus layer are known, the TOA reflectance can be corrected for the cirrus layer to be used for retrieving aerosol optical properties. To this end, we first correct the TOA reflectances in the aerosol bands (0.47, 0.55, 0.65, 0.86, 1.24, 1.63, and 2.12 micron for ocean algorithm and 0.412, 0.47, and 0.65 micron for deep blue algorithm) for the effects of thin cirrus using 1.38 micron reflectance and conversion factors that convert cirrus reflectance in 1.38 micron band to those in aerosol bands. It was found that the conversion factors can be calculated by using relationships between reflectances in 1.38 micron band and minimum reflectances in the aerosol bands (Gao et al., 2002). Refer to the example in the figure. Then, the cirrus-corrected reflectance can be calculated by subtracting the cirrus reflectance from the TOA reflectance in the optically thin case. A sensitivity study suggested that cloudy-sky TOA reflectances can be calculated with small errors in the form of simple linear addition of cirrus-only reflectances and clear-sky reflectances. In this study, we correct the cirrus signals up to TOA reflectance at 1.38 micron of 0.05 where the simple linear addition is valid without extensive radiative transfer simulations. When each scene passes the set of tests shown in the flowchart, the scene is corrected for cirrus contamination and passed into aerosol retrieval algorithms.

  13. Retrieval of aerosol optical properties over land using PMAp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorski, Michael; Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Ruediger; Poli, Gabriele; Holdak, Andriy

    2015-04-01

    The retrieval of aerosol optical properties is an important task for industry and climate forecasting. An ideal instrument should include observations with moderate spectral and high spatial resolutions for a wide range of wavelengths (from the UV to the TIR), measurements of the polarization state at different wavelengths and measurements of the same scene for different observation geometries. As such an ideal instrument is currently unavailable the usage of different instruments on one satellite platform is an alternative choice. Since February 2014, the Polar Multi sensor Aerosol product (PMAp) is delivered as operational GOME product to our customers. The algorithms retrieve aerosol optical properties over ocean (AOD, volcanic ash, aerosol type) using a multi-sensor approach (GOME, AVHRR, IASI). The next releases of PMAp will provide an extended set of aerosol and cloud properties which include AOD over land and an improved volcanic ash retrieval combining AVHRR and IASI. This presentation gives an overview on the existing product and the prototypes in development. The major focus is the discussion of the AOD retrieval over land implemented in the upcoming PMAp2 release. In addition, the results of our current validation studies (e.g. comparisons to AERONET, other satellite platforms and model data) are shown.

  14. Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Torres, O.; Syniuk, A.; Decae, R.; deLeeuw, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OM1 is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 sq km at nadir) and daily global coverage. OM1 will make a major contribution to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to climate research. OM1 will provide data continuity with the TOMS instruments. One of the pleasant surprises of the TOMS data record was its information on aerosol properties. First, only the absorbing aerosol index, which is sensitive to elevated lay- ers of aerosols such as desert dust and smoke aerosols, was derived. Recently these methods were further improved to yield aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over land and ocean for 19 years of TOMS data (1979-1992,1997-2002), making it one of the longest and most valuable time series for aerosols presently available. Such long time series are essential to quantify the effect of aerosols on the Earth& climate. The OM1 instrument is better suited to measure aerosols than the TOMS instruments because of the smaller footprint, and better spectral coverage. The better capabilities of OMI will enable us to provide an improved aerosol product, but the knowledge will also be used for further analysis of the aerosol record from TOMS. The OM1 aerosol product that is currently being developed for OM1 combines the TOMS experience and the multi-spectral techniques that are used in the visible and near infrared. The challenge for this new product is to provide aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo from the near ultraviolet to the visible (330-500 nm) over land and ocean. In this presentation the methods for deriving the OM1 aerosol product will be presented. Part of these methods developed for OM1 can already be applied to TOMS data and results of such analysis will be shown.

  15. Optical and radiative-transfer properties of mixed atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degheidy, A. R.; Sallah, M.; Elgarayhi, A.; Shaaban, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    The optical and radiative-transfer properties of mixed atmospheric aerosols have been investigated. The aerosol medium is considered as a plane-parallel anisotropic scattering medium with diffusive reflecting boundaries and containing an internal radiation source. The basic components are defined by their complex refractive index, a lognormal size distribution and humidity dependence in hygroscopic particles. The aerosol particles are assumed to be spherical, so the scattering parameters in the form of single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, scattering, absorption, extinction efficiencies and linear anisotropic coefficient are calculated using the Mie theory. The calculations have been performed for individual aerosol particles, internal and external mixing media. Radiation transfer problem through the considered aerosol medium has been solved in terms of the solution of the corresponding source-free problem with simple boundary conditions. For the solution of the source-free problem, the Variational Pomraning-Eddington technique has been employed. The variation of the radiative-transfer properties (partial radiative fluxes at the medium boundaries) have been calculated and represented graphically for the different aerosols with their different mixing states. A comparison of the obtained results versus available published data has been performed and a very good agreement was observed.

  16. Background Maritime Aerosol: Their Optical Thickness and Scattering Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.; Dubovik, Oleg; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of human induced change in the aerosol concentration and properties, or the aerosol response to climate change (e.g. droughts producing fires or dust) should be measured relative to a "background aerosol". How to define this background aerosol, so that it is both measurable and useful? Here we use 10 stations located in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans to answer this question. Using a data set of the spectral optical thickness measured by the Aerosol Robotic network (AERONET), extending 1-3 years, we find the background conditions for these stations. The oceanic background aerosol is the result of ocean emission and spray, and some residual long lived continental aerosol. Its source is very broadly spread and is expected to vary little in time. Pollution or dust sources are from specific locations, emitted and transported to the measuring site in specific combination of meteorological conditions. Therefore they are expected to vary with time. It follows that the background aerosol can be identified as the median for conditions with small variations. To define the background we compute the median of N consequent measurements. We use N=50 that in average cloudy conditions corresponds to 2-3 days of measurements and N=100 (4-5 days). Most high polluted or dusty conditions correspond to data sequences with high standard deviation (greater than 0.02 in optical thickness) and are excluded. From the remaining N point running medians with low standard deviations we derive again the median. This excludes those rare cases of pollution or dust that is stable during the N measurements. The results show that the background aerosol over the Pacific Ocean is characterize by optical thickness of 0.055 at 500 nm and Angstrom exponent of 0.74. Over the Atlantic Ocean the values are 0.070 and 1.1 respectively, with little influence of the assumed value of N (50 or 100). The derivation of the background uses 20,000 and 5000 medians respectively that passed the

  17. Aerosol optical properties in the ABL over arctic sea ice from airborne aerosol lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Neuber, Roland; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Dethloff, Klaus; Herber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Between 2009 and 2013 aerosols, sea ice properties and meteorological variables were measured during several airborne campaigns covering a wide range of the western Arctic Ocean. The campaigns were carried out with the aircraft Polar 5 of the German Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) during spring and summer periods. Optical properties of accumulation mode aerosol and clouds were measured with the nadir looking AMALi aerosol lidar covering the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 3000m, while dropsondes provided coincident vertical profiles of meteorological quantities. Based on these data we discuss the vertical distribution of aerosol backscatter in and above the atmospheric boundary layer and its dependence on relative humidity, dynamics and underlying sea ice properties. We analyze vertical profiles of lidar and coincident dropsonde measurements from various locations in the European and Canadian Arctic from spring and summer campaigns. Sea ice cover is derived from modis satellite and aircraft onboard camera images. The aerosol load in the arctic atmospheric boundary layer shows a high variability. Various meteorological parameters and in particular boundary layer properties are discussed with their respective influence on aerosol features. To investigate the effect of the frequency and size of open water patches on aerosol properties, we relate the profiles to the sea ice properties influencing the atmosphere in the upwind region.

  18. Estimation of aerosol optical properties considering hygroscopicity and light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Chang Hoon; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the influences of water solubility and light absorption on the optical properties of organic aerosols were investigated. A size-resolved model for calculating optical properties was developed by combining thermodynamic hygroscopic growth and aerosol dynamics models. The internal mixtures based on the homogeneous and core-shell mixing were compared. The results showed that the radiative forcing (RF) of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC) aerosol can be estimated to range from -0.07 to -0.49 W/m2 for core-shell mixing and from -0.09 to -0.47 W/m2 for homogeneous mixing under the simulation conditions (RH = 60%). The light absorption properties of WSOC showed the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of WSOC can be estimated 0.43-0.5 m2/g, which accounts for 5-10% of the MAE of elemental carbon (EC). The effect on MAE of increasing the imaginary refractive index of WSOC was also calculated, and it was found that increasing the imaginary refractive index by 0.001i enhanced WSOC aerosol absorption by approximately 0.02 m2/g. Finally, the sensitivity test results revealed that changes in the fine mode fraction (FMF) and in the geometric mean diameter of the accumulation mode play important roles in estimating RF during hygroscopic growth.

  19. Optical properties of aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Smolik, J.; Zdimal, V.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Colbeck, I.

    Measurements of aerosol optical properties, size distribution and chemical composition were conducted at Finokalia, a remote coastal site on the Greek island of Crete (35°19'N, 25°40'E) during July 2000 and January 2001. During the summer campaign the total scattering coefficient, σ, (at a wavelength of 550 nm) ranged from 13 to 120 Mm -1 (mean=44.2 Mm -1, standard deviation=17.5) whilst during the winter it ranged from 7.22 to 37.8 Mm -1 (mean=18.42 Mm -1, standard deviation=6.61). A distinct diurnal variation in scattering coefficients was observed, with minima occurring during the early morning and maxima in the late afternoon during the summer and late evening during the winter. The mean value of the Ångström exponent was 1.47 during the summer and 1.28 during the winter, suggesting a larger fraction of smaller particles at the site during the summer. This was confirmed by continuous measurements of the aerosol size distribution. An analysis of the single scattering albedo suggests that there is a more absorbing fraction in the particle composition in the summer than during the winter. An investigation of air mass origins on aerosol optical properties indicated that those from Turkey and Central/Eastern Europe were highly polluted with a corresponding impact on aerosol optical properties. A linear relationship was obtained between the total scattering coefficient and both the non-sea-salt sulphate concentrations and the fine aerosol fraction.

  20. Heterogeneous Photochemistry and Optical Properties of Mineral Dust Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassian, Vicki

    2012-02-01

    It is now widely recognized that heterogeneous reactions of mineral dust aerosol with trace atmospheric gases impact the chemical balance of the atmosphere and the physicochemical properties of these particles. Field studies using single particle analysis, have now shown that the chemistry is mineralogy specific and follows the trends expected from laboratory studies. These laboratory studies, which were initiated over a decade ago, have focused on the nighttime chemistry of mineral dust aerosol which is really only ``half'' the story. This talk will focus on two aspects of solar light interaction with mineral dust aerosol. First, the heterogeneous photochemistry of adsorbed chromophores (e.g. nitrate ion) and light absorbing components of mineral dust (iron oxides and titanium dioxide) is discussed. These heterogeneous photochemical reactions are poorly understood and laboratory studies to better quantify these reactions in order to determine the impact on the chemical balance of the atmosphere are needed, as will be discussed. Second, the optical properties of mineral dust aerosol measured by extinction infrared spectroscopy and visible light scattering show that shape effects are extremely important for mineral dust aerosol.

  1. Uncertainties of simulated aerosol optical properties induced by assumptions on aerosol physical and chemical properties: an AQMEII-2 perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    The calculation of aerosol optical properties from aerosol mass is a process subject to uncertainty related to necessary assumptions on the treatment of the chemical species mixing state, density, refractive index, and hygroscopic growth. In the framework of the AQMEII-2 model in...

  2. Vertical Profiles of Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Condensation Nuclei, Optical Aerosol, Aerosol Optical Properties, and Aerosol Volatility Measured from Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshler, T.; Snider, J. R.; Vali, G.

    1998-01-01

    Under the support of this grant a balloon-borne gondola containing a variety of aerosol instruments was developed and flown from Laramie, Wyoming, (41 deg N, 105 deg W) and from Lauder, New Zealand (45 deg S, 170 deg E). The gondola includes instruments to measure the concentrations of condensation nuclei (CN), cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), optically detectable aerosol (OA.) (r greater than or equal to 0.15 - 2.0 microns), and optical scattering properties using a nephelometer (lambda = 530 microns). All instruments sampled from a common inlet which was heated to 40 C on ascent and to 160 C on descent. Flights with the CN counter, OA counter, and nephelometer began in July 1994. The CCN counter was added in November 1994, and the engineering problems were solved by June 1995. Since then the flights have included all four instruments, and were completed in January 1998. Altogether there were 20 flights from Laramie, approximately 5 per year, and 2 from Lauder. Of these there were one or more engineering problems on 6 of the flights from Laramie, hence the data are somewhat limited on those 6 flights, while a complete data set was obtained from the other 14 flights. Good CCN data are available from 12 of the Laramie flights. The two flights from Lauder in January 1998 were successful for all measurements. The results from these flights, and the development of the balloon-bome CCN counter have formed the basis for five conference presentations. The heated and unheated CN and OA measurements have been used to estimate the mass fraction of the aerosol volatile, while comparisons of the nephelometer measurements were used to estimate the light scattering, associated with the volatile aerosol. These estimates were calculated for 0.5 km averages of the ascent and descent data between 2.5 km and the tropopause, near 11.5 km.

  3. Global Aerosol Radiative Forcing Derived from Sea WiFS-Inferred Aerosol Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Wang, Menghua

    1999-01-01

    Aerosol optical properties inferred from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) radiance measurements are used to compute the aerosol shortwave radiative forcing using a radiative transfer model. The aerosol optical thickness at the wavelength of 865-nm is taken from the SeaWIFS archive. It is found that the nominal optical thickness over oceans ranges from 0.1 to 0.2. Using a maritime aerosol model and the radiances measured at the various SeaWiFS channels, the Angstrom exponent is determined to be 0.2174, the single-scattering albedo to be 0.995, and the asymmetry factor to be 0.786. The radiative transfer model has eight bands in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions and three bands in the near infrared. It includes the absorption due to aerosols, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, and the scattering due to aerosols and gases (Rayleigh scattering). The radiative forcing is computed over global oceans for four months (January, April, July, and October, 1998) to represent four seasons. It is found that the aerosol radiative forcing is large and changes significantly with seasons near the continents with large-scale forest fires and desert dust. Averaged over oceans and the four months, the aerosol radiative forcing is approximately 7 W/sq m at the top of the atmosphere. This large radiative forcing is expected to have a significant cooling effect on the Earth's climate as implied from simulations of a number of general circulation models.

  4. High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I - Theory and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipley, S. T.; Tracy, D. H.; Eloranta, E. W.; Roesler, F. L.; Weinman, J. A.; Trauger, J. T.; Sroga, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A high spectral resolution lidar technique to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols is described. Light backscattered by the atmosphere from a narrowband optically pumped oscillator-amplifier dye laser is separated into its Doppler broadened molecular and elastically scattered aerosol components by a two-channel Fabry-Perot polyetalon interferometer. Aerosol optical properties, such as the backscatter ratio, optical depth, extinction cross section, scattering cross section, and the backscatter phase function, are derived from the two-channel measurements.

  5. Influence of shape on the optical properties of hematite aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veghte, Daniel P.; Moore, Justin E.; Jensen, Lasse; Freedman, Miriam Arak

    2015-07-01

    Mineral dust particles are the second highest emitted aerosol type by mass. Due to changes in particle size, composition, and shape that are caused by physical processes and reactive chemistry, optical properties vary during transport, contributing uncertainty in the calculation of radiative forcing. Hematite is the major absorbing species of mineral dust. In this study, we analyzed the extinction cross sections of nigrosin and hematite particles using cavity ring-down aerosol extinction spectroscopy (CRD-AES) and have measured particle shape and size distributions using transmission electron microscopy. Nigrosin was also used in this study as a spherical standard for absorbing particles. The size-selected nigrosin particles have a narrow size distribution, with extinction cross sections that are described by Mie theory. In contrast, the size distribution of size-selected hematite particles is more polydisperse. The extinction cross sections were modeled using Mie theory and the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The DDA was used to model more complex shapes that account for the surface roughness and particle geometry. Of the four models used, Mie theory was the simplest to implement, but had significant error with a 26.1% difference from the CRD-AES results. By increasing the complexity of the models using the DDA, we determined that spheroids had a 14.7% difference, roughened spheres a 12.8% difference, and roughened spheroids a 11.2% difference from the experimental results. Using additional parameters that account for particle shape is necessary to model the optical properties of hematite particles and leads to improved extinction cross sections for modeling aerosol optical properties.

  6. Optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aculinin, Alexandr; Smicov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of aerosol properties in Kishinev, Moldova are being carried out within the framework of the international AERONET program managed by NASA/GSFC since 1999. Direct solar and sky diffuse radiances are measured by using of sunphotometer Cimel-318. Aerosol optical properties are retrieved from measured radiances by using of smart computational procedures developed by the AERONET's team. The instrument is situated at the ground-based solar radiation monitoring station giving the opportunity to make simultaneous spectral (win sunphotometer) and broadband (with the set of sensors from radiometric complex) solar radiation. Detailed description of the station and investigations in progress can be found at the http://arg.phys.asm.md. Ground station is placed in an urban environment of Kishinev city (47.00N; 28.56E; 205 m a.s.l). Summary of aerosol optical and microphysical properties retrieved from direct solar and diffuse sky radiance observations at Moldova site from September 1999 to June 2009 are presented below. Number of measurements (total): 1695 Number of measurements (for ?o, n, k): 223 Range of aerosol optical depth (AOD) @440 nm: 0.03 < ?(440) < 2.30, < ?(440)>=0.25 Range of Ångström parameter < α440_870 >: 0.14 < α < 2.28 Asymmetry factor (440/670/870/1020): 0.70/0.63/0.59/0.58 ±0.04 Refraction (n) and absorption (k) indices@440 nm: 1.41 ± 0.06; 0.009 ± 0.005 Single scattering albedo < ?o >(440/670/870/1020): 0.93/0.92/0.90/0.89 ±0.04 Parameters of volume particle size distribution function: (fine mode) volume median radius r v,f , μm: 0.17 ± 0.06 particle volume concentration Cv,f, μm3/μm2: 0.04 ± 0.03 (coarse mode) volume median radius rv,c , μm: 3.08 ± 0.64 particle volume concentration Cv,c, μm3/μm2: 0.03 ± 0.03 Climatic norms of AOD@500 nm and Ångström parameter < α440_870 > at the site of observation are equal to 0.21 ± 0.06 and 1.45 ± 0.14, respectively. The aerosol type in Moldova may be considered as 'urban

  7. Optical Properties of Mixed Black Carbon, Inorganic and Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, S E

    2012-05-30

    Summarizes the achievements of the project, which are divided into four areas: 1) Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols; 2) Development and of a polar nephelometer to measure aerosol optical properties and theoretical approaches to several optical analysis problems, 3) Studies on the accuracy of measurements of absorbing carbon by several methods, and 4) Environmental impacts of biodiesel.

  8. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Derived From SeaWIFS - Retrieved Aerosol Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Mong-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Wang, Menghua; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    To understand climatic implications of aerosols over global oceans, the aerosol optical properties retrieved from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) are analyzed, and the effects of the aerosols on the Earth's radiation budgets (aerosol radiative forcing, ARF) are computed using a radiative transfer model. It is found that the distribution of the SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical thickness is distinctively zonal. The maximum in the equatorial region coincides with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the maximum in the Southern Hemispheric high latitudes coincides with the region of prevailing westerlies. The minimum aerosol optical thickness is found in the subtropical high pressure regions, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. These zonal patterns clearly demonstrate the influence of atmospheric circulation on the oceanic aerosol distribution. Over global oceans, aerosols reduce the annual mean net downward solar flux by 5.4 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere and by 6.1 W m-2 at the surface. The largest ARF is found in the tropical Atlantic, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, the coastal regions of Southeast and East Asia, and the Southern Hemispheric high latitudes. During the period of the Indonesian big fires (September-December 1997), the cooling due to aerosols is greater than 15 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere and greater than 30 W m(exp -1) at the surface in the vicinity of the maritime continents. The atmosphere receives extra solar radiation by greater than 15 W m(exp -1) over a large area. These large changes in radiative fluxes are expected to have enhanced the atmospheric stability, weakened the atmospheric circulation, and augmented the drought condition during that period. It would be very instructive to simulate the regional climatic. The model-calculated clear sky solar flux at the top of the atmosphere is compared with that derived from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The net downward solar flux of

  9. Morphology and Optical Properties of Mixed Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Mehrnoush M.; Krieger, Ulrich; Rudich, Yinon; Marcolli, Claudia; Peter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Experiments and modeling studies have shown that deliquesced aerosols can be present not only as one-phase system containing organics, inorganic salts and water, but often as two-phase systems consisting of a predominantly organic and a predominantly inorganic aqueous phase 1,2. Recent laboratory studies conducted with model mixtures representing tropospheric aerosols1,2,3, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from smog chamber experiments4, and field measurements5 suggest that liquid- liquid phase separations (LLPS) is indeed a common phenomenon in mixed organic/ ammonium sulfate (AS) particles. During LLPS, particles may adopt different morphologies mainly core- shell and partially engulfed. A core- shell configuration will have consequences for heterogeneous chemistry and hygroscopicity and as a result will alter the optical properties of the particles since the aqueous inorganic-rich phase will be totally enclosed by a probably highly viscous organic coating with low diffusivity for reactants and water. The primary objective of this project is to establish a method for investigating the morphology of mixed inorganic and absorbing organic compounds of atmospheric relevance and study their radiative properties before, during, and after phase transitions mainly during LLPS. This will be the first study looking into the radiative effect of LLPS in detail. In this first experiment, the behavior of single droplets of carminic acid (CA)/ AS/ H2O mixture was monitored during relative humidity (RH) cycles using optical microscopy. The same mixture particle was levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and the change in its absorption properties was measured at varying RH. We also intend to determine the occurrence of LLPS in accumulation- sized particles and the change in their absorption using a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer. If LLPS alters the absorptive properties of the suggested model aerosols significantly, absorption measurements of accumulation mode

  10. Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2007-09-30

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  11. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparing modeled and measured aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Schmeisser, Lauren; Schulz, Michael; Fiebig, Markus; Ogren, John; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steve; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Myhre, Gunnar; Randles, Cynthia; da Silva, Arlindo; Stier, Phillip; Skeie, Ragnehild; Takemura, Toshihiko; van Noije, Twan; Zhang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data has the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is an asset in accomplishing the overall goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosols processes and the predicative capability of global climate models. Here we compare dry, in-situ aerosol scattering and absorption data from ~75 surface, in-situ sites from various global aerosol networks (including NOAA, EUSAAR/ACTRIS and GAW) with a simulated optical properties from a suite of models participating in the AeroCom project. We report how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies for a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis suggest substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography. Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol behaviors, for example, the tendency of in-situ single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. The endgoal of the INSITU project is to identify specific

  12. Optical Properties of Black and Brown Carbon Aerosols from Laboratory Combustion of Wildland Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beres, N. D.; Molzan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol light absorption in the solar spectral region (300 nm - 2300 nm) of the atmosphere is key for the direct aerosol radiative forcing, which is determined by aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), asymmetry parameter, and by the albedo of the underlying surface. SSA is of key importance for the sign and quantity of aerosol direct radiative forcing; that is, does the aerosol make the earth look darker (heating) or whiter (cooling)? In addition, these optical properties are needed for satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth and properties. During wildland fires, aerosol optical absorption is largely determined by black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) emissions. BC is strongly absorbing throughout the solar spectrum, while BrC absorption strongly increases toward shorter wavelength and can be neglected in the red and infrared. Optical properties of BrC emitted from wildland fires are poorly understood and need to be studied as function of fuel type and moisture content and combustion conditions. While much more is known about BC optical properties, knowledge for the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region is still lacking and critically needed for satellite remote sensing (e.g., TOMS, OMI) and for modeling of tropospheric photochemistry. Here, a project to better characterize biomass burning aerosol optical properties is described. It utilizes a laboratory biomass combustion chamber to generate aerosols through combustion of different wildland fuels of global and regional importance. Combustion aerosol optics is characterized with an integrating nephelometer to measure aerosol light scattering and a photoacoustic instrument to measure aerosol light absorption. These measurements will yield optical properties that are needed to improve qualitative and quantitative understanding of aerosol radiative forcing and satellite retrievals for absorbing carbonaceous aerosols from combustion of wildland fuels.

  13. Morphology and Optical Properties of Mixed Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fard, Mehrnoush M.; Krieger, Ulrich; Rudich, Yinon; Marcolli, Claudia; Peter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Experiments and modeling studies have shown that deliquesced aerosols can exist not only as one-phase system containing organics, inorganic salts and water, but often as two-phase systems consisting of a predominantly organic and a predominantly inorganic aqueous phase (1,2). Recent laboratory studies conducted with model mixtures representing tropospheric aerosols (1,2,3), secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from smog chamber experiments (4), and field measurements (5) suggest that liquid-liquid phase separations (LLPS) is indeed a common phenomenon in mixed organic/ inorganic particles. During LLPS, particles may adopt different morphologies mainly core-shell and partially engulfed. A core-shell configuration will have consequences for heterogeneous chemistry and hygroscopicity and as a result will alter the optical properties of the particles in particular for organic phases containing absorbing molecules, e.g. brown carbon. The primary objective of this project is to establish a method for investigating the morphology of mixed inorganic and absorbing organic compounds of atmospheric relevance and study their radiative properties before, during, and after phase transitions mainly during LLPS. This will be the first study looking into the radiative effect of LLPS in detail. Our ternary model system consist of ammonium sulfate (AS)/ Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)/ and water (H2O). Carminic acid (CA) was added as a proxy for an absorbing organic compound to the system. The behavior of single droplets of above ternary mixture was monitored during relative humidity (RH) cycles using optical microscopy. The same ternary mixture particle was levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and the change in its absorption properties was measured at varying RH. In addition, Mie-code modeling is used to predict the absorption efficiency of the same ternary system and the result will be compared with the data obtained from EDB experiment. We also intend to determine the occurrence of

  14. Aerosol optical properties over the midcontinental United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Markham, Brian L.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Aro, Theo. O.

    1992-01-01

    Solar and sky radiation measurements were analyzed to obtain aerosol properties such as the optical thickness and the size distribution. The measurements were conducted as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment during the second intensive field campaign (IFC) from June 25 to July 14, 1987, and the fifth IFC from July 25 to August 12, 1989, on the Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas. Correlations with climatological and meteorological parameters show that during the period of observations in 1987, two types of air masses dominated the area: an air mass with low optical thickness and low temperature air associated with a northerly breeze, commonly referred to as the continental air, and an air mass with a higher optical thickness and higher temperature air associated with a southerly wind which we call 'Gulf air'. The size distributions show a predominance of the larger size particles in 'Gulf air'. Because of the presence of two contrasting air masses, correlations with parameters such as relative humidity, specific humidity, pressure, temperature, and North Star sky radiance reveal some interesting aspects. In 1989, clear distinctions between continental and Gulf air cannot be made; the reason for this will be discussed.

  15. Optical properties of aerosol contaminated cloud derived from MODIS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Linlu; Rozanov, Vladimir; Lelli, Luca; Vountas, Marco; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    The presence of absorbing aerosols above/within cloud can reduce the amount of up-welling radiation in visible (VIS) and short-wave infrared and darken the spectral reflectance when compared with a spectrum of a clean cloud observed by satellite instruments (Jethva et al., 2013). Cloud properties retrieval for aerosol contaminated cases is a great challenge. Even small additional injection of aerosol particles into clouds in the cleanest regions of Earth's atmosphere will cause significant effect on those clouds and on climate forcing (Koren et al., 2014; Rosenfeld et al., 2014) because the micro-physical cloud process are non-linear with respect to the aerosol loading. The current cloud products like Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ignoring the aerosol effect for the retrieval, which may cause significant error in the satellite-derived cloud properties. In this paper, a new cloud properties retrieval method, considering aerosol effect, based on the weighting-function (WF) method, is presented. The retrieval results shows that the WF retrieved cloud properties (e.g COT) agrees quite well with MODIS COT product for relative clear atmosphere (AOT ≤ 0.4) while there is a large difference for large aerosol loading. The MODIS COT product is underestimated for at least 2 - 3 times for AOT>0.4, and this underestimation increases with the increase of AOT.

  16. Effect of Dust and Anthropogenic Aerosols on Columnar Aerosol Optical Properties over Darjeeling (2200 m asl), Eastern Himalayas, India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Adak, Anandamay; Singh, Ajay K.; Devara, Panuganti C. S.; Raha, Sibaji

    2012-01-01

    Background The loading of atmospheric particulate matter (aerosol) in the eastern Himalaya is mainly regulated by the locally generated anthropogenic aerosols from the biomass burning and by the aerosols transported from the distance sources. These different types of aerosol loading not only affect the aerosol chemistry but also produce consequent signature on the radiative properties of aerosol. Methodology/Principal Findings An extensive study has been made to study the seasonal variations in aerosol components of fine and coarse mode aerosols and black carbon along with the simultaneous measurements of aerosol optical depth on clear sky days over Darjeeling, a high altitude station (2200 masl) at eastern Himalayas during the year 2008. We observed a heavy loading of fine mode dust component (Ca2+) during pre-monsoon (Apr – May) which was higher by 162% than its annual mean whereas during winter (Dec – Feb), the loading of anthropogenic aerosol components mainly from biomass burning (fine mode SO42− and black carbon) were higher (76% for black carbon and 96% for fine mode SO42−) from their annual means. These high increases in dust aerosols during pre-monsoon and anthropogenic aerosols during winter enhanced the aerosol optical depth by 25 and 40%, respectively. We observed that for every 1% increase in anthropogenic aerosols, AOD increased by 0.55% during winter whereas for every 1% increase in dust aerosols, AOD increased by 0.46% during pre-monsoon. Conclusion/Significance The natural dust transport process (during pre-monsoon) plays as important a role in the radiation effects as the anthropogenic biomass burning (during winter) and their differential effects (rate of increase of the AOD with that of the aerosol concentration) are also very similar. This should be taken into account in proper modeling of the atmospheric environment over eastern Himalayas. PMID:22792264

  17. Quantitative retrieval of aerosol optical properties by means of ceilometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegner, Matthias; Gasteiger, Josef; Geiß, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    In the last few years extended networks of ceilometers have been established by several national weather services. Based on improvements of the hardware performance of these single-wavelength backscatter lidars and their 24/7 availability they are increasingly used to monitor mixing layer heights and to derive profiles of the particle backscatter profile. As a consequence they are used for a wide range of applications including the dispersion of volcanic ash plumes, validation of chemistry transport models and air quality studies. In this context the development of automated schemes to detect aerosol layers and to identify the mixing layer are essential, in particular as the latter is often used as a proxy for air quality. Of equal importance is the calibration of ceilometer signals as a pre-requisite to derive quantitative optical properties. Recently, it has been emphasized that the majority of ceilometers are influenced by water vapor absorption as they operate in the spectral range of 905 - 910 nm. If this effect is ignored, errors of the aerosol backscatter coefficient can be as large as 50%, depending on the atmospheric water vapor content and the emitted wavelength spectrum. As a consequence, any other derived quantity, e.g. the extinction coefficient or mass concentration, would suffer from a significant uncertainty in addition to the inherent errors of the inversion of the lidar equation itself. This can be crucial when ceilometer derived profiles shall be used to validate transport models. In this presentation, the methodology proposed by Wiegner and Gasteiger (2015) to correct for water vapor absorption is introduced and discussed.

  18. Microphysical, chemical and optical aerosol properties in the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikas, Ülle; Reinart, Aivo; Pugatshova, Anna; Tamm, Eduard; Ulevicius, Vidmantas

    2008-11-01

    The microphysical structure, chemical composition and prehistory of aerosol are related to the aerosol optical properties and radiative effect in the UV spectral range. The aim of this work is the statistical mapping of typical aerosol scenarios and adjustment of regional aerosol parameters. The investigation is based on the in situ measurements in Preila (55.55° N, 21.00° E), Lithuania, and the AERONET data from the Gustav Dalen Tower (58 N, 17 E), Sweden. Clustering of multiple characteristics enabled to distinguish three aerosol types for clear-sky periods: 1) clean maritime-continental aerosol; 2) moderately polluted maritime-continental aerosol; 3) polluted continental aerosol. Differences between these types are due to significant differences in aerosol number and volume concentration, effective radius of volume distribution, content of SO 4- ions and Black Carbon, as well as different vertical profiles of atmospheric relative humidity. The UV extinction, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the Ångstrom coefficient α increased with the increasing pollution. The value α = 1.96 was observed in the polluted continental aerosol that has passed over central and eastern Europe and southern Russia. Reduction of the clear-sky UV index against the aerosol-free atmosphere was of 4.5%, 27% and 41% for the aerosol types 1, 2 and 3, respectively.

  19. Ceilometer calibration for retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yoshitaka; Kai, Kenji; Kawai, Kei; Nagai, Tomohiro; Sakai, Tetsu; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Uchiyama, Akihiro; Batdorj, Dashdondog; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Nishizawa, Tomoaki

    2015-03-01

    Ceilometers are durable compact backscatter lidars widely used to detect cloud base height. They are also useful for measuring aerosols. We introduced a ceilometer (CL51) for observing dust in a source region in Mongolia. For retrieving aerosol profiles with a backscatter lidar, the molecular backscatter signal in the aerosol free heights or system constant of the lidar is required. Although the system constant of the ceilometer is calibrated by the manufacturer, it is not necessarily accurate enough for the aerosol retrieval. We determined a correction factor, which is defined as the ratio of true attenuated backscattering coefficient to the measured attenuated backscattering coefficient, for the CL51 ceilometer using a dual-wavelength Mie-scattering lidar in Tsukuba, Japan before moving the ceilometer to Dalanzadgad, Mongolia. The correction factor determined by minimizing the difference between the ceilometer and lidar backscattering coefficients was approximately 1.2±0.1. Applying the correction to the CL51 signals, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) agreed well with the sky-radiometer AOD during the observation period (13-17 February 2013) in Tsukuba (9 ×10-3 of mean square error). After moving the ceilometer to Dalanzadgad, however, the AOD observed with the CL51 (calibrated by the correction factor determined in Tsukuba) was approximately 60% of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometer AOD. The possible causes of the lower AOD results are as follows: (1) the limited height range of extinction integration (< 3 km); (2) change in the correction factor during the ceilometer transportation or with the window contamination in Mongolia. In both cases, on-site calibrations by dual-wavelength lidar are needed. As an alternative method, we showed that the backward inversion method was useful for retrieving extinction coefficients if the AOD was larger than 1.5. This retrieval method does not require the system constant and molecular backscatter signals

  20. Baseline Maritime Aerosol: Methodology to Derive the Optical Thickness and Scattering Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.; Dubovik, Oleg; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite Measurements of the global distribution of aerosol and their effect on climate should be viewed in respect to a baseline aerosol. In this concept, concentration of fine mode aerosol particles is elevated above the baseline by man-made activities (smoke or urban pollution), while coarse mode by natural processes (e.g. dust or sea-spray). Using 1-3 years of measurements in 10 stations of the Aerosol Robotic network (ACRONET we develop a methodology and derive the optical thickness and properties of this baseline aerosol for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Defined as the median for periods of stable optical thickness (standard deviation < 0.02) during 2-6 days, the median baseline aerosol optical thickness over the Pacific Ocean is 0.052 at 500 am with Angstrom exponent of 0.77, and 0.071 and 1.1 respectively, over the Atlantic Ocean.

  1. A case study of modeled aerosol optical properties during the SAFARI 2000 campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmanoski, Maja; Box, M. A.; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Redemann, Jens

    2007-08-01

    We present modeled aerosol optical properties (single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter and lidar ratio) in two layers with different aerosol loadings and particle sizes, observed during the SAFARI 2000 campaign. The optical properties were calculated from aerosol size distributions retrieved from aerosol layer optical thickness spectra, measured using the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-14), and the refractive index based on the available information on aerosol chemical composition. The study focuses on differences between the results of two models for the mixture of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosol components: a layered sphere with absorbing core and non-absorbing shell, and an effective medium model. In addition, comparisons of modeled optical properties with the measurements are discussed. Because of the large difference between the single scattering albedo values (~ 0.1 at mid-visible wavelengths) obtained from different measurement methods for the case with high amount of biomass burning particles, radiative transfer calculations were carried out to estimate the radiative effect of the implied difference in aerosol absorption. For that purpose, the volume fraction of black carbon was varied to obtain a range of single scattering albedo values (0.81 – 0.91 at λ = 0.50 μm). The difference in absorption resulted in a significant difference in the instantaneous radiative forcing at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), and can result in a change of the sign of the aerosol forcing at TOA from negative to positive.

  2. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core-shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ±6% and ±14% for external mixture and ±9% and ±31% for core-shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. PMID:26851881

  3. Interpretation of Aerosol Optical and Morphological Properties during the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study in Sacramento, June 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkowski, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Sharma, N.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Gyawali, M. S.; Arnott, W. P.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Sacramento Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) utilized two ground sites T0 and T1 along with an aircraft platform to characterize carbonaceous aerosol chemical and physical properties and their evolution. The T0 site was chosen within the Sacramento metropolitan area for measuring primary and secondary aerosols generated in the city. The T1 site was chosen East of Sacramento on the Sierra foothill to study the evolution and processing of the Sacramento aerosol plume and to assess the characteristics of the background air. To reach T1, the Sacramento aerosols traveled often over the Blodgett Forest resulting in significant aging due coagulation, condensation, and photochemical processes. The ground sites were chosen for this unique and reoccurring transport pattern of the aerosols. The campaign took place in June 2010. Six Integrated Photoacoustic/Nephelometer Spectrometers (IPNSs) were installed at the sites to simultaneously record aerosol light scattering and absorption data. The optical properties of the aerosols were measured at 355nm (ultraviolet), 375nm (ultraviolet), 405nm (blue), 532nm (green), and 781nm (red). In conjugation with the IPNSs, aerosol filters for electron microscopy analysis were collected at each site; these were examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope to study the aerosol morphology. The origins of the air masses did vary daily, but a few general trends emerged. The processing of the IPNS data with a wavelet denoising technique greatly enhanced the signal to noise ratio of the measurements enabling a better understanding of the aerosol optical properties for various airmasses with different characteristics. Typically signals at both sites were lower than expected, however the processed signals from T0 clearly showed a daily rise and dilution of the Sacramento plume. Using the processed signals from both sites the transportation of the Sacramento plume was detectable. The IPNS data were

  4. Optical Properties of Fine/Coarse Mode Aerosol Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Siniuk, A.; Pinker, R. T.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Chatenet, B.; Li, Z.; Singh, R.; Tripathi, S. N.; Dubovik, O.; Giles, D. M.; Martins, J.; Reid, J. S.; O'Neill, N. T.; Smirnov, A.

    2009-12-01

    Several regions of the earth exhibit seasonal mixtures of fine and coarse mode sized aerosol types, which are challenging to characterize from satellite remote sensing. Over land the coarse mode size aerosols (radius >1 micron) originate primarily from arid regions, which generate airborne soil dust, and the dominant fine mode sources are gases and particulates from urban/industrial emissions and from biomass burning. AERONET sun-sky radiometer almucantar retrievals from several years are analyzed for the urban sites of Beijing, China and Kanpur, India (in the Ganges floodplain) where seasonal coarse mode dust particles mix with fine mode pollution aerosol, predominately in the spring. As increasingly more absorbing fine mode pollutants are added to the dust aerosol at both sites, the single scattering albedo (SSA) of the mixtures at 675 nm through 1020 nm decrease as the fine mode fraction of AOD increases, while the 440 nm SSA is relatively constant. Additionally we compare multi-year data from Ilorin, Nigeria where desert dust from the Sahara and Sahel mix with fine mode biomass-burning aerosols. The volume size distribution retrievals from this site often shows tri-modality (third mode centered at 0.6 micron radius), which suggests a different particle source than found for most other arid region AERONET sites, which typically have bi-modal distributions. Comparison of mid-visible single scattering albedo obtained from in situ aircraft measurements during DABEX to multi-year means from the Ilorin site AERONET retrievals show close agreement (within 0.03 or less) over a wide range of Angstrom exponent (0.3 to 1.5). Observed differences in the spectral SSA as a function of fine mode fraction of the optical depth between all three sites are discussed and occur due to differences in absorption for both modes and also due to fine mode particle size dynamics.

  5. Influences of external vs. core-shell mixing on aerosol optical properties at various relative humidities.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, S; Srivastava, Rohit

    2013-05-01

    Aerosol optical properties of external and core-shell mixtures of aerosol species present in the atmosphere are calculated in this study for different relative humidities. Core-shell Mie calculations are performed using the values of radii, refractive indices and densities of aerosol species that act as core and shell, and the core-shell radius ratio. The single scattering albedo (SSA) is higher when the absorbing species (black carbon, BC) is the core, while for a sulfate core SSA does not vary significantly as the BC in the shell dominates the absorption. Absorption gets enhanced in core-shell mixing of absorbing and scattering aerosols when compared to their external mixture. Thus, SSA is significantly lower for a core-shell mixture than their external mixture. SSA is more sensitive to core-shell ratio than mode radius when BC is the core. The extinction coefficient, SSA and asymmetry parameter are higher for external mixing when compared to BC (core)-water soluble aerosol (shell), and water soluble aerosol (core)-BC (shell) mixtures in the relative humidity range of 0 to 90%. Spectral SSA exhibits the behaviour of the species which acts as a shell in core-shell mixing. The asymmetry parameter for an external mixture of water soluble aerosol and BC is higher than BC (core)-water soluble aerosol (shell) mixing and increases as function of relative humidity. The asymmetry parameter for the water soluble aerosol (core)-BC (shell) is independent of relative humidity as BC is hydrophobic. The asymmetry parameter of the core-shell mixture decreases when BC aerosols are involved in mixing, as the asymmetry parameter of BC is lower. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) of core-shell mixtures increases at a higher rate when the relative humidity exceeds 70% in continental clean and urban aerosol models, whereas AOD remains the same when the relative humidity exceeds 50% in maritime aerosol models. The SSA for continental aerosols varies for core-shell mixing of water soluble

  6. Background Southeast United States Aerosol Optical Properties and Their Dependence Upon Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlyszyn, C.; West, M.; Sherman, J. P.; Link, M.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol effects on SE U.S. radiation budget are highly-seasonal. Aerosol loading is much higher in summer, due largely to high levels of biogenic secondary organic aerosol and sulfates. Aerosol loading is lowest in winter. Aerosol optical properties relevant to radiative forcing have been measured continuously at the Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research facility (AppalAIR) since the summer of 2009. AppalAIR is the only site in the eastern US to house co-located NOAA ESRL and NASA AeroNET instrumentation and is located in the mountains of Boone, NC. Lower tropospheric sub-micron (PM1) light scattering and absorption coefficients measured over seven summers and six winters are presented here, in addition to PM1 organic and sulfate aerosol mass concentrations measured during summers 2012-2013 as well as winter 2013. The objective is to determine the influence of aerosol sources and meteorology along the air mass back-trajectories on aerosol loading and composition. PM1 aerosol mass was dominated by organic aerosol and sulfate during the periods measured. Aerosol light scattering and organic aerosol concentrations were positively correlated during summer with temperature and solar flux along the parcel back-trajectory and negatively-correlated with rainfall along the back-trajectory. Wet deposition was a major factor in the difference between the upper and lower scattering coefficient quartiles for both summer and winter. Summer PM1 light scattering coefficient declined by approximately 30-40% since 2009, with smaller decreases during winter months. Long-term studies of aerosol optical properties from the regionally-representative AppalAIR site are necessary to determine the relationships between changing SE U.S. air quality and aerosol effects on regional climate and weather.

  7. Aerosol optical properties in the southeastern United States in summer - Part 2: Sensitivity of aerosol optical depth to relative humidity and aerosol parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, C. A.; Wagner, N. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Diskin, G. S.; Gordon, T. D.; Jimenez, J. L.; Lack, D. A.; Liao, J.; Markovic, M.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Perring, A. E.; Richardson, M. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Welti, A.; Ziemba, L. D.; Murphy, D. M.

    2015-11-01

    Aircraft observations of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties were made between May and September 2013. Regionally representative aggregate vertical profiles of median and interdecile ranges of the measured parameters were constructed from 37 individual aircraft profiles made in the afternoon when a well-mixed boundary layer with typical fair-weather cumulus was present (Wagner et al., 2015). We use these 0-4 km aggregate profiles and a simple model to calculate the sensitivity of aerosol optical depth (AOD) to changes in dry aerosol mass, relative humidity, mixed layer height, the central diameter and width of the particle size distribution, hygroscopicity, and dry and wet refractive index, while holding the other parameters constant. The calculated sensitivity is a result of both the intrinsic sensitivity and the observed range of variation of these parameters. These observationally based sensitivity studies indicate that the relationship between AOD and dry aerosol mass in these conditions in the southeastern US can be highly variable and is especially sensitive to relative humidity (RH). For example, calculated AOD ranged from 0.137 to 0.305 as the RH was varied between the 10th and 90th percentile profiles with dry aerosol mass held constant. Calculated AOD was somewhat less sensitive to aerosol hygroscopicity, mean size, and geometric standard deviation, σg. However, some chemistry-climate models prescribe values of σg substantially larger than we or others observe, leading to potential high biases in model-calculated AOD of ~ 25 %. Finally, AOD was least sensitive to observed variations in dry and wet aerosol refractive index and to changes in the height of the well-mixed surface layer. We expect these findings to be applicable to other moderately polluted and background continental airmasses in which an accumulation mode between 0.1-0.5 μm diameter dominates aerosol extinction.

  8. Aerosol optical properties in the southeastern United States in summer - Part 2: Sensitivity of aerosol optical depth to relative humidity and aerosol parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Charles A.; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lack, Daniel A.; Liao, Jin; Markovic, Milos Z.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Perring, Anne E.; Richardson, Matthews S.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Welti, Andre; Ziemba, Luke D.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2016-04-01

    Aircraft observations of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties were made between May and September 2013 in the southeastern United States (US). Regionally representative aggregate vertical profiles of median and interdecile ranges of the measured parameters were constructed from 37 individual aircraft profiles made in the afternoon when a well-mixed boundary layer with typical fair-weather cumulus was present (Wagner et al., 2015). We use these 0-4 km aggregate profiles and a simple model to calculate the sensitivity of aerosol optical depth (AOD) to changes in dry aerosol mass, relative humidity, mixed-layer height, the central diameter and width of the particle size distribution, hygroscopicity, and dry and wet refractive index, while holding the other parameters constant. The calculated sensitivity is a result of both the intrinsic sensitivity and the observed range of variation in these parameters. These observationally based sensitivity studies indicate that the relationship between AOD and dry aerosol mass in these conditions in the southeastern US can be highly variable and is especially sensitive to relative humidity (RH). For example, calculated AOD ranged from 0.137 to 0.305 as the RH was varied between the 10th and 90th percentile profiles with dry aerosol mass held constant. Calculated AOD was somewhat less sensitive to aerosol hygroscopicity, mean size, and geometric standard deviation, σg. However, some chemistry-climate models prescribe values of σg substantially larger than we or others observe, leading to potential high biases in model-calculated AOD of ˜ 25 %. Finally, AOD was least sensitive to observed variations in dry and wet aerosol refractive index and to changes in the height of the well-mixed surface layer. We expect these findings to be applicable to other moderately polluted and background continental air masses in which an accumulation mode between 0.1-0.5 µm diameter dominates aerosol extinction.

  9. Sensitivity of aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, and phase function calculations to assumptions on physical and chemical properties of aerosol

    EPA Science Inventory

    In coupled chemistry-meteorology simulations, the calculation of aerosol optical properties is an important task for the inclusion of the aerosol effects on the atmospheric radiative budget. However, the calculation of these properties from an aerosol profile is not uniquely defi...

  10. Vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties based on aircraft measurements over the Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Junxia; Liu, Xingang; Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Li, Zhanqing; Li, Peiren; Ren, Gang; Jin, Lijun; Li, Runjun; Dong, Zipeng; Li, Yiyu; Yang, Junmei

    2015-08-01

    Vertical distributions of aerosol optical properties based on aircraft measurements over the Loess Plateau were measured for the first time during a summertime aircraft campaign, 2013 in Shanxi, China. Data from four flights were analyzed. The vertical distributions of aerosol optical properties including aerosol scattering coefficients (σsc), absorption coefficients (σab), Angström exponent (α), single scattering albedo (ω), backscattering ratio (βsc), aerosol mass scattering proficiency (Qsc) and aerosol surface scattering proficiency (Qsc(')) were obtained. The mean statistical values of σsc were 77.45 Mm(-1) (at 450 nm), 50.72 Mm(-1) (at 550n m), and 32.02 Mm(-1) (at 700 nm). The mean value of σab was 7.62 Mm(-1) (at 550 nm). The mean values of α, βsc and ω were 1.93, 0.15, and 0.91, respectively. Aerosol concentration decreased with altitude. Most effective diameters (ED) of aerosols were less than 0.8 μm. The vertical profiles of σsc,, α, βsc, Qsc and Qsc(') showed that the aerosol scattering properties at lower levels contributed the most to the total aerosol radiative forcing. Both α and βsc had relatively large values, suggesting that most aerosols in the observational region were small particles. The mean values of σsc, α, βsc, Qsc, Qsc('), σab and ω at different height ranges showed that most of the parameters decreased with altitude. The forty-eight hour backward trajectories of air masses during the observation days indicated that the majority of aerosols in the lower level contributed the most to the total aerosol loading, and most of these particles originated from local or regional pollution emissions. PMID:26257345

  11. A study of aerosol optical properties using a lightweight optical particle spectrometer and sun photometer from an unmanned aerial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telg, H.; Murphy, D. M.; Bates, T. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Gao, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    A miniaturized printed optical particle spectrometer (POPS) and sun photometer (miniSASP) have been developed recently for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and balloon applications. Here we present the first scientific data recorded by the POPS and miniSASP from a Manta UAS during a field campaign on Svalbard, Norway, in April 2015. As part of a payload composed of five different aerosol instruments (absorption photometer, condensation particle counter, filter sampler, miniSASP and POPS) we collected particle size distributions, the optical depth (OD) and the sky brightness from 0 to 3000 m altitude. The complementary measurement approaches of the miniSASP and POPS allow us to calculate aerosol optical properties such as the aerosol optical depth and the angstrom exponent or the asymmetry parameter independently. We discuss deviation between results with respect to aerosol properties, e.g. hygroscopicity and absorption, as well as instrumental limitations.

  12. Long term measurements of the estimated hygroscopic enhancement of aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervo, Maxime; Sellegri, Karine; Pichon, Jean Marc; Roger, Jean Claude; Laj, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Water vapour has a major impact on aerosol optical properties, thus on the Radiative Forcing for aerosol-radiation interaction (RFari). However there is few studies measuring this impact over a large period. Optical properties of aerosols were measured at the GAW Puy de Dôme station (1465m) over a seven year period (2006-2012). The impact of hygroscopicity on aerosol optical properties was calculated over a two year period (2010-2011). The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of the dry optical properties showed that while no long term trend was found, a clear seasonal and diurnal variation was observed on the extensive parameters (scattering, absorption). Scattering and absorption coefficients were highest during the warm season and daytime, in concordance with the seasonality and diurnal variation of the planetary boundary layer height reaching the site. Intensive parameters (single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, refractive index) did not show such a strong diurnal variability, but still indicated different values depending on the season. Both extensive and intensive optical parameters were sensitive to the air mass origin. A strong impact of hygroscopicity on aerosol optical properties was calculated, mainly on aerosol scattering, with a dependence on the aerosol type and the season. At 90% humidity, the scattering factor enhancement (fsca) was more than 4.4 for oceanic aerosol that have mixed with a pollution plume. Consequently, the aerosol radiative forcing was estimated to be 2.8 times higher at RH= 90% and 1.75 times higher at ambient RH when hygroscopic growth of the aerosol was considered. The hygroscopicity enhancement factor of the scattering coefficient was parameterized as a function of humidity and air mass type. To our knowledge, these results are one of the first presenting the impact of water vapour on the aerosol optical properties for a long period, and the first for a site at the border between the planetary boundary layer

  13. Midinfrared optical properties of petroleum oil aerosols. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurton, K.P.; Bruce, C.W.

    1994-08-01

    The mass normalized absorption and extinction coefficients were measured for fog oil aerosol at 3.4 micrometers with a combined photoacoustic and transmissometer system. An extinction spectral profile was determined over a range of infrared (IR) wavelengths from 2.7 to 4.0 micrometers by an IR scanning transmissometer. The extinction spectrum was mass normalized by referencing it to the photoacoustic portion of the experiment. A corresponding Mie calculation was conducted and compared with the above measurements. Agreement is good for the most recent optical coefficients. An extrapolation of this data to other similar petroleum products such as kerosene or diesel fuel that exhibit similar bulk absorption characteristics were briefly examined.

  14. Climatology and Characteristics of In-situ Aerosol Optical Properties in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, L.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Asmi, E.; Bergin, M. H.; Jefferson, A.; Andrews, E.; Tunved, P.; Backman, J.; Starkweather, S.

    2015-12-01

    Within the Arctic, climate forcers like atmospheric aerosols are important contributors to the observed warming and environmental changes in the region. Quantifying the forcing by aerosols in the Arctic is especially difficult, given short aerosol lifetimes, annual variability in illumination and surface albedo, stratified atmospheric conditions, complex feedbacks, and long-range aerosol transport. However, in-situ surface measurements of Arctic aerosol optical properties can be used to constrain variability of light scattering and absorption, identify potential particle sources, and help evaluate the resulting forcing. Data from six WMO Global Atmosphere Watch stations are presented: Alert, Canada (ALT); Barrow, Alaska (BRW); Pallas, Finland (PAL); Summit, Greenland (SUM); Tiksi, Russia (TIK); and Zeppelin Mountain, Norway (ZEP). These sites contribute to the International Arctic System for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA), which facilitates Arctic-wide data collection and analysis. Climatologies of aerosol optical properties from each station show differences in magnitude and variability of observed parameters. For example, Figure 1 presents the annual cycle of aerosol light scattering at 550 nm at each site for 2012-2014, with most stations (ALT, BRW, TIK, ZEP) experiencing maximum scattering in winter/spring, while SUM and PAL exhibit minimum scattering in the winter. The observed range in scattering across these sites is large (almost an order of magnitude) - SUM has the lowest annual median scattering at 0.82 Mm-1 while BRW has the highest at 6.9 Mm-1. A closer look at systematic variability between optical properties at each station, as well as site back trajectories, suggest differences in aerosol processes, sources and transport. The development of consistent climatologies and additional analyses like the ones presented here can help provide a better understanding of trans-Arctic aerosol variability, which can be an asset for improving aerosol models in

  15. Climatological Aspects of the Optical Properties of Fine/Coarse Mode Aerosol Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Sinyuk, A.; Pinker, R. T.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Chatenet, B.; Li, Z.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S.N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Dubovik O.; O'Neill, N. T.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, P.; Xia, X.

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol mixtures composed of coarse mode desert dust combined with fine mode combustion generated aerosols (from fossil fuel and biomass burning sources) were investigated at three locations that are in and/or downwind of major global aerosol emission source regions. Multiyear monitoring data at Aerosol Robotic Network sites in Beijing (central eastern China), Kanpur (Indo-Gangetic Plain, northern India), and Ilorin (Nigeria, Sudanian zone of West Africa) were utilized to study the climatological characteristics of aerosol optical properties. Multiyear climatological averages of spectral single scattering albedo (SSA) versus fine mode fraction (FMF) of aerosol optical depth at 675 nm at all three sites exhibited relatively linear trends up to 50% FMF. This suggests the possibility that external linear mixing of both fine and coarse mode components (weighted by FMF) dominates the SSA variation, where the SSA of each component remains relatively constant for this range of FMF only. However, it is likely that a combination of other factors is also involved in determining the dynamics of SSA as a function of FMF, such as fine mode particles adhering to coarse mode dust. The spectral variation of the climatological averaged aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) was nearly linear in logarithmic coordinates over the wavelength range of 440-870 nm for both the Kanpur and Ilorin sites. However, at two sites in China (Beijing and Xianghe), a distinct nonlinearity in spectral AAOD in logarithmic space was observed, suggesting the possibility of anomalously strong absorption in coarse mode aerosols increasing the 870 nm AAOD.

  16. The advanced characterization of aerosol properties from measurements of spectral optical thickness of the atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Benjamin; Toledano, Carlos; Dubovik, Oleg; Litvinov, Pavel; Lapyonok, Tatyana; Fuertes, David; Tanre, Didier; Goloub, Phillipe

    The main purpose of the work is to assess the potential of using spectral optical thickness measurement for characterizing aerosol properties. While the use of these measurements is limited to the characterization of aerosol loading in the atmosphere, several studies demonstrated that these observations could be used for deriving more detailed information about aerosol, such as size distribution (King et al. 1978) and for discriminating between the extinction of fine and coarse modes of aerosol (O’Neill 2003). In this study, we test the possibilities of using AERONET inversion (Dubovik and King 2000) for improving the interpretation of measurements of optical thickness. In addition, we study the potential of synergetic scenarios for inverting optical thickness using GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) algorithm (Dubovik et al., 2011). This algorithm uses new multi-pixel retrieval approach. According to this approach, the accuracy of aerosol retrieval can be improved if several sets of observations (e.g. observations of satellite over several pixels) are inverted together under additional a priori constraints on time and spatial variability of the retrieved parameters. The application of this approach appears to be promising for the present study. First, the retrieval stability can be improved by inverting more than a single set of spectral aerosol optical depth at once. Second, the set of spectral aerosol optical depth can be inverted together with the radiances observed in the same day. The preliminary results of using simulated data (for different scenarios and aerosol models), as well as, the applications to real data from several AERONET sites will be presented.

  17. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects (supplement)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A digest of technical papers is presented. Topics include aerosol size distribution from spectral attenuation with scattering measurements; comparison of extinction and backscattering coefficients for measured and analytic stratospheric aerosol size distributions; using hybrid methods to solve problems in radiative transfer and in multiple scattering; blue moon phenomena; absorption refractive index of aerosols in the Denver pollution cloud; a two dimensional stratospheric model of the dispersion of aerosols from the Fuego volcanic eruption; the variation of the aerosol volume to light scattering coefficient; spectrophone in situ measurements of the absorption of visible light by aerosols; a reassessment of the Krakatoa volcanic turbidity, and multiple scattering in the sky radiance.

  18. Systematic Relationships among Background SE U.S. Aerosol Optical, Micro-physical, and Chemical Properties-Development of an Optically-based Aerosol Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, J. P.; Link, M. F.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing-based retrievals of aerosol composition require known or assumed relationships between aerosol optical properties and types. Most optically-based aerosol classification schemes apply some combination of the spectral dependence of aerosol light scattering and absorption-using the absorption and either scattering or extinction Angstrom exponents (AAE, SAE and EAE), along with single-scattering albedo (SSA). These schemes can differentiate between such aerosol types as dust, biomass burning, and urban/industrial but no such studies have been conducted in the SE U.S., where a large fraction of the background aerosol is a variable mixture of biogenic SOA, sulfates, and black carbon. In addition, AERONET retrievals of SSA are often highly uncertain due to low AOD in the region during most months. The high-elevation, semi-rural AppalAIR facility at Appalachian State University in Boone, NC (1090m ASL, 36.210N, 81.690W) is home to the only co-located NOAA-ESRL and AERONET monitoring sites in the eastern U.S. Aerosol chemistry measured at AppalAIR is representative of the background SE U.S (Link et al. 2014) Dried aerosol light absorption and dried and humidified aerosol light scattering and hemispheric backscattering at 3 visible wavelengths and 2 particle size cuts (sub-1μm and sub-10μm) are measured continuously. Measurements of size-resolved, non-refractory sub-1μm aerosol composition were made by a co-located AMS during the 2012-2013 summers and 2013 winter. Systematic relationships among aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical properties were developed to better understand aerosol sources and processes and for use in higher-dimension aerosol classification schemes. The hygroscopic dependence of visible light scattering is sensitive to the ratio of sulfate to organic aerosol(OA), as are SSA and AAE. SAE is a less sensitive indicator of fine-mode aerosol size than hemispheric backscatter fraction (b) and is more sensitive to fine-mode aerosol

  19. Validation of Retrieved Aerosol Optical Properties over Northeast Asia for Five Years from GOSAT TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Lee, S.; KIM, M.; Choi, M.; Go, S.; Lim, H.; Goo, T. Y.; Nakajima, T.; Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Yokota, T.

    2015-12-01

    An aerosol retrieval algorithm was developed from Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The algorithm retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD), size distribution of aerosol, and aerosol type in 0.1 degree grid resolution by look-up tables, which is used in retrieving optical properties of aerosol using inversion products from Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) sun-photometer observation. To improve the accuracy of aerosol algorithm, first, this algorithm considered the annually estimated radiometric degradation factor of TANSO-CAI suggested by Kuze et al. (2014). Second, surface reflectance was determined by two methods: one using the clear sky composite method from CAI measurements and the other the database from MODerate resolution Imaging Sensor (MODIS) surface reflectance data. At a given pixel, the surface reflectance is selected by using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) depending on season (Hsu et al., 2013). In this study, the retrieved AODs were compared with those of AERONET and MODIS dataset for different season over five years. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and CAI show reasonable agreement with correlation coefficients of 0.65 ~ 0.97 and regression slopes between 0.7 and 1.2 for the whole period, depending on season and sites. Moreover, those between MODIS and CAI for the same period show agreements with correlation coefficients of 0.7 ~ 0.9 and regression slopes between 0.7 and 1.0, depending on season and regions. The results show reasonably good correlation, however, the largest error source in aerosol retrieval has been surface reflectance of TANSO-CAI due to its 3-days revisit orbit characteristics.

  20. Measurements of Aerosol Vertical Profiles and Optical Properties during INDOEX 1999 Using Micro-Pulse Lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Campbell, James R.; Spinhirne, James D.; Gordon, Howard R.; Johnson, James E.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Micro-pulse lidar systems (MPL) were used to measure aerosol properties during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) 1999 field phase. Measurements were made from two platforms: the NOAA ship RN Ronald H. Brown, and the Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (KCO) in the Maldives. Sunphotometers were used to provide aerosol optical depths (AOD) needed to calibrate the MPL. This study focuses on the height distribution and optical properties (at 523 nm) of aerosols observed during the campaign. The height of the highest aerosols (top height) was calculated and found to be below 4 km for most of the cruise. The marine boundary layer (MBL) top was calculated and found to be less than 1 km. MPL results were combined with air mass trajectories, radiosonde profiles of temperature and humidity, and aerosol concentration and optical measurements. Humidity varied from approximately 80% near the surface to 50% near the top height during the entire cruise. The average value and standard deviation of aerosol optical parameters were determined for characteristic air mass regimes. Marine aerosols in the absence of any continental influence were found to have an AOD of 0.05 +/- 0.03, an extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S-ratio) of 33 +/- 6 sr, and peak extinction values around 0.05/km (near the MBL top). The marine results are shown to be in agreement with previously measured and expected values. Polluted marine areas over the Indian Ocean, influenced by continental aerosols, had AOD values in excess of 0.2, S-ratios well above 40 sr, and peak extinction values approximately 0.20/km (near the MBL top). The polluted marine results are shown to be similar to previously published values for continental aerosols. Comparisons between MPL derived extinction near the ship (75 m) and extinction calculated at ship-level using scattering measured by a nephelometer and absorption using a PSAP were conducted. The comparisons indicated that the MPL algorithm (using a constant S-ratio throughout the

  1. Urban Aerosol Optical Properties Measurement by Elastic Counter-Look Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Boselli, A.; He, Y.; Sannino, A.; Song, C.; Spinelli, N.

    2016-06-01

    The new developed elastic lidar system utilizes two identical elastic lidars, in counter-look configuration, to measure aerosol backscattering and extinction coefficients without any hypotheses. Compared to elastic-Raman lidar and high spectral resolution lidar, the proposed counter-look elastic lidar can use low power eyesafe laser and all available wavelengths. With this prototype lidar system, urban aerosol optical properties and their spatial distribution have been directly measured, including backscatter coefficient, extinction coefficient and lidar ratio. The preliminary results show that the low cost and eye-safe counter-look configured elastic lidar system can be used to measure the aerosol optical properties distribution and give the hint of aerosol type.

  2. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties Performed at CNR- IMAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, L.; Amodeo, A.; Cornacchia, C.; D'Amico, G.; Madonna, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Pappalardo, G.

    2005-12-01

    The lidar system for tropospheric aerosol study, located at CNR-IMAA in Tito Scalo, Potenza (40 °36'N, 15°44' E, 760 m above sea level), is a Raman/elastic lidar system operational since May 2000 in the framework of EARLINET (European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork), the first lidar network for tropospheric aerosol study on continental scale. It provides independent measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficient profiles at 355 nm and aerosol backscatter profiles at 532 nm. Both the IMAA aerosol lidar system and the used algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol optical parameters have been successfully tested with different intercomparison exercises in the frame of the EARLINET quality assurance program. In the frame of EARLINET, regular measurements are performed three times per week, allowing to study the aerosol content typically present in the planetary boundary layer over Potenza. Particular attention is devoted to Saharan dust intrusions in Europe, and Saharan dust forecasts are distributed to all EARLINET stations. The large dataset of Saharan dust optical properties profiles collected at IMAA allowed to study the contribution of dust particles to the aerosol load typically present in our area as well as to investigate transformations of aerosol optical properties during the transport. Several intensive measurement campaigns have been performed at IMAA with this system to study optical properties of different types of aerosol, and how the transport and modification mechanisms and the water content affect these optical properties. In particular, direct transport of volcanic aerosol emitted in 2002 during the Etna eruptions was observed, and in summer 2004, aerosol layers related to forest fires smoke or pollution plume transported from Alaska, Canada and North America were observed at IMAA during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) field campaign. Moreover, this system has been used

  3. Aerosol Optical Properties in the Lower Troposphere During Summer Over New Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman Radha, Radhakrishnan; Arya, Bhuwan Chandra; Misra, Sumith Kumar; Sharma, Chhemendra; Kumar, Arun; Shukla, Devesh Kumar; Jaswanth

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the variation in optical properties of aerosol in the boundary layer over the Delhi region during the summer season of the year 2014. The layering of aerosol particles in the shallow residual layer is observed in the night preceded by the hot days. The monitoring of this kind of layers in the lower troposphere is very important to study its long range transport.

  4. Beyond the Alphabet Soup: Molecular Properties of Aerosol Components Influence Optics. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Components within atmospheric aerosols exhibit almost every imaginable model of chemical bonding and physical diversity. The materials run the spectrum from crystalline to amorphous, covalent to ionic, and have varying viscosities, phase, and hygroscopicity. This seminar will focus on the molecular properties of materials that influence the optical behavior of aerosols. Special focus will be placed on the polarizability of materials, hygroscopic growth, and particle phase.

  5. Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren

    2013-07-01

    The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

  6. Aerosol Optical Properties of Smoke from the Las Conchas Wildfire, Los Alamos, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Flowers, B. A.; Aiken, A. C.; Klein, B. Z.; Mazzoleni, C.; Sharma, N.; China`, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Las Conchas wildfire in Northern New Mexico started on June, 26 2011 and spread rapidly, eventually burning an area of 634 km2 (245 mi2). Due to the close proximity to the fire, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was shut down and the town evacuated for several days. Immediately after LANL reopened (7/6/2011) the Earth and Environmental Sciences Division (EES-14) attained unique measurements of the smoke by sampling the ambient air. Three Integrated Photoacoustic/Nephelometer Spectrometers (DMT Inc.) were set up to measure aerosol light absorption and scattering coefficients. A University of Northwest Switzerland thermodenuder was used to remove compounds that are volatile at temperatures up to 200C. The aerosol's optical properties were measured before and after denuding the sample at 405nm (blue), 532nm (green), 781nm (red), and for non-denuded particles also at 375nm (ultraviolet). The aerosol size distributions were measured after the denuder with a Laser Aerosol Spectrometer (LAS, TSI Inc.) and black carbon was measured with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2, DMT Inc.). Additionally, ambient measurements of Total Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were collected continuously at the LANL air monitoring stations. These measurements are used in conjunction with numerical simulations to determine the bulk optical properties of the aerosol. Aerosols in wildfire smoke are composed of organic and black carbon (soot) particles that are formed during wood combustion and pyrolysis. The optical properties of the smoke particles are complex and lead to large uncertainties in assessing the global climate. During the measurement period, the Las Conchas fire provided very high particle concentrations (up to 200 μg/m3) that were exploited to investigate their optical properties. By heating the particles to temperatures ranging from 75 to 200C in the denuder, volatile organics were removed and the optical properties of the remaining particles were measured

  7. Optical properties of aerosol emissions from biomass burning in the tropics, BASE-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, Brent N.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Setzer, Alberto W.; Tanre, Didre D.; Ward, Darold E.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-based and airborne measurements of biomass-burning smoke particle optical properties, obtained with a view to aerosol-absorption properties, are presented as a function of time and atmospheric height. The wavelength dependence of the optical thickness can be explained by a log-normal size distribution, with particles' effective radius varying between 0.1 and 0.2 microns. The strong correlation noted between aerosol particle profile and CO profile indicates that smoke particulates constitute a good tracer for emission trace gases from tropical biomass burning.

  8. Sensitivity of Multiangle Imaging to the Optical and Microphysical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Kahn, Ralph A.; Nelson, David; Yau, Kevin; Seinfeld, John H.

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of biomass burning (BB) carbonaceous particles in the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Standard Aerosol Retrieval Algorithm is assessed, and algorithm refinements are suggested, based on a theoretical sensitivity analysis and comparisons with near-coincident AERONET measurements at representative BB sites. Over the natural ranges of BB aerosol microphysical and optical properties observed in past field campaigns, patterns of retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), particle size, and single scattering albedo (SSA) are evaluated. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, assuming total column AOD of 0.2, over a dark, uniform surface, MISR can distinguish two to three groups in each of size and SSA, except when the assumed atmospheric particles are significantly absorbing (mid-visible SSA approx.0.84), or of medium sizes (mean radius approx.0.13 pin); sensitivity to absorbing, medium-large size particles increases considerably when the assumed column AOD is raised to 0.5. MISR Research Aerosol Retrievals confirm the theoretical results, based on coincident AERONET inversions under BB-dominated conditions. When BB is externally mixed with dust in the atmosphere, dust optical model and surface reflection uncertainties, along with spatial variability, contribute to differences between the Research Retrievals and AERONET. These results suggest specific refinements to the MISR Standard Aerosol Algorithm complement of component particles and mixtures. They also highlight the importance for satellite aerosol retrievals of surface reflectance characterization, with accuracies that can be difficult to achieve with coupled surface-aerosol algorithms in some higher AOD situations.

  9. The spatial-temporal variations in optical properties of atmosphere aerosols over China and its application in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Cheng, T.

    2013-12-01

    The atmospheric and climate response to the aerosol forcing are assessed by climate models regionally and globally under the past, present and future conditions. However, large uncertainties exist because of incomplete knowledge concerning the distribution and the physical and chemical properties of aerosols as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. Reduction in these uncertainties requires long-term monitoring of detailed properties of different aerosol types. China is one of the heavily polluted areas with high concentration of aerosols in the world. The complex source, composition of China aerosol led to the worse accuracy of aerosol radiative forcing assessment in the world, which urgently calls for improvements on the understanding of China regional aerosol properties. The spatial-temporal properties of aerosol types over China are studied using the radiance measurements and inversions data at 4 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations. Five aerosol classes were identified including a coarse-size dominated aerosol type (presumably dust) and four fine-sized dominated aerosol types ranging from non-absorbing to highly absorbing fine aerosols. The mean optical properties of different aerosol types in China and their seasonal variations were also investigated. Based on the cluster analysis, the improved ground-based aerosol model is applied to the MODIS dark target inversion algorithm. Validation with MODIS official product and CE318 is also included.

  10. An AeroCom Initial Assessment - Optical Properties in Aerosol Component Modules of Global Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, M.; Textor, C.; Guibert, S.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Berglen, T.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, Richard C.; Feichter, H.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Grini, A.; Hendricks, J.; Herzog, M.; Horrowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Kloster, S.; Koch, D.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Krol, M.; Lauer, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lesins, G.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, U.; Montanaro, V.; Myhre, G.; Penner, Joyce E.; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tie, X.

    2006-05-29

    The AeroCom exercise diagnoses multi-component aerosol modules in global modeling. In an initial assessment global fields for mass and for mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (aot) were compared among aerosol component modules of 21 different global models. There is general agreement among models for the annual global mean of component combined aot. At 0.12 to 0.14, simulated aot values are at the lower end of global averages suggested by remote sensing from ground (AERONET ca 0.14) and space (MODIS-MISR composite ca 0.16). More detailed comparisons, however, reveal that larger differences in regional distribution and significant differences in compositional mixture have remained. Of particular concern is the large model diversity for contributions by dust and carbon, because it leads to significant uncertainty in aerosol absorption (aab). Since not only aot but also aab influence the aerosol impact on the radiative energy-balance, aerosol (direct) forcing uncertainty in modeling is larger than differences in aot might suggest. New diagnostic approaches are proposed to trace model differences in terms of aerosol processing and transport: These include the prescription of common input (e.g. amount, size and injection of aerosol component emissions) and the use of observational capabilities from ground (e.g. measurements networks) and space (e.g. correlations between retrieved aerosol and cloud properties).

  11. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties from In-situ Surface Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, L.; Andrews, E.; Schulz, M.; Fiebig, M.; Zhang, K.; Randles, C. A.; Myhre, G.; Chin, M.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Krol, M. C.; Bian, H.; Skeie, R. B.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Kokkola, H.; Laakso, A.; Ghan, S.; Easter, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data have the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is a big asset in accomplishing the overarching goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosol processes and predicative capability of global climate models. The INSITU project looks at how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies on a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis, using GOCART and other models participating in this AeroCom project, show substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location and optical property. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography (see Figure 1). Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol co-dependencies, for example, the tendency of in-situ surface single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. This study elucidates specific problems with current aerosol models and suggests additional model runs and perturbations that could further evaluate the discrepancies between measured and modeled

  12. Aeronet-based Microphysical and Optical Properties of Smoke-dominated Aerosol near Source Regions and Transported over Oceans, and Implications for Satellite Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Smoke aerosols from biomass burning are an important component of the global aerosol cycle. Analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals of size distribution and refractive index reveals variety between biomass burning aerosols in different global source regions, in terms of aerosol particle size and single scatter albedo (SSA). Case studies of smoke transported to coastal/island AERONET sites also mostly lie within the range of variability at near-source sites. Two broad families of aerosol properties are found, corresponding to sites dominated by boreal forest burning (larger, broader fine mode, with midvisible SSA 0.95), and those influenced by grass, shrub, or crop burning with additional forest contributions (smaller, narrower particles with SSA 0.88-0.9 in the midvisible). The strongest absorption is seen in southern African savanna at Mongu (Zambia), with average SSA 0.85 in the midvisible. These can serve as candidate sets of aerosol microphysicaloptical properties for use in satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms. The models presently adopted by these algorithms over ocean are often insufficiently absorbing to represent these biomass burning aerosols. A corollary of this is an underestimate of AOD in smoke outflow regions, which has important consequences for applications of these satellite datasets.

  13. Quantification of black carbon mixing state from traffic: implications for aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, M. D.; Healy, R. M.; Riemer, N.; West, M.; Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Wenger, J. C.; Evans, G. J.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Lee, A. K. Y.

    2015-11-01

    The climatic impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosol, an important absorber of solar radiation in the atmosphere, remain poorly constrained and are intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modelling informed by quantitative measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer, we confirm that the mixing state (the distribution of co-emitted aerosol amongst fresh BC-containing particles) at the time of emission significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble aerosol mass spectrometry observations indicate that BC near the point of emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol in two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon in HOA-rich and BC-rich particles was 0.02-0.08 and 0.72-0.93, respectively. Notably, approximately 90 % of BC mass resides in BC-rich particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1) arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection into the atmosphere.

  14. Quantification of black carbon mixing state from traffic: Implications for aerosol optical properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Willis, Megan D.; Healy, Robert M.; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew; Wang, Jon M.; Jeong, Cheol -Heon; Wenger, John C.; Evans, Greg J.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Lee, Alex K. Y.

    2016-04-14

    The climatic impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosol, an important absorber of solar radiation in the atmosphere, remain poorly constrained and are intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modelling informed by quantitative measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer, we confirm that the mixing state (the distribution of co-emitted aerosol amongst fresh BC-containing particles) at the time of emission significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble aerosol mass spectrometry observations indicate that BC near the point of emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) inmore » two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon in HOA-rich and BC-rich particle classes was  < 0.1 and 0.8, respectively. Notably, approximately 90 % of BC mass resides in BC-rich particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Lastly, significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1) arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection into the atmosphere.« less

  15. Quantification of black carbon mixing state from traffic: implications for aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Megan D.; Healy, Robert M.; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew; Wang, Jon M.; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wenger, John C.; Evans, Greg J.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Lee, Alex K. Y.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosol, an important absorber of solar radiation in the atmosphere, remain poorly constrained and are intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modelling informed by quantitative measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer, we confirm that the mixing state (the distribution of co-emitted aerosol amongst fresh BC-containing particles) at the time of emission significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble aerosol mass spectrometry observations indicate that BC near the point of emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) in two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon in HOA-rich and BC-rich particle classes was < 0.1 and 0.8, respectively. Notably, approximately 90 % of BC mass resides in BC-rich particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1) arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection into the atmosphere.

  16. A study of aerosol optical properties at the global GAW station Bukit Kototabang, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, N.; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2012-01-01

    There have been very few studies carried out in Indonesia on the atmospheric aerosol optical properties and their impact on the earth climate. This study utilized solar radiation and aerosol measurement results of Indonesian GAW station Bukit Kototabang in Sumatra. The radiation data of nine years were used as input to a radiation simulation code for retrieving optically equivalent parameters of aerosols, i.e., aerosol optical thickness (AOT), coarse particle to fine particle ratio ( γ-ratio), and soot fraction. Retrieval of aerosol properties shows that coarse particles dominated at the station due to high relative humidity (RH) reaching more than 80% throughout the year. AOT time series showed a distinct two peak structure with peaks in MJJ and NDJ periods. The second peak corresponds to the period of high RH suggesting it was formed by active particle growth with large RH near 90%. On the other hand the time series of hot spot number, though it is only for the year of 2004, suggests the first peak was strongly contributed by biomass burning aerosols. The γ-ratio took a value near 10 throughout the year except for November and December when it took a larger value. The soot fraction varies in close relation with the γ-ratio, i.e. low values when γ was large, as consistent with our proposal of active particle growth in the high relative periods.

  17. Modelling the optical properties of aerosols in a chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, E.; Kahnert, M.

    2015-12-01

    According to the IPCC fifth assessment report (2013), clouds and aerosols still contribute to the largest uncertainty when estimating and interpreting changes to the Earth's energy budget. Therefore, understanding the interaction between radiation and aerosols is both crucial for remote sensing observations and modelling the climate forcing arising from aerosols. Carbon particles are the largest contributor to the aerosol absorption of solar radiation, thereby enhancing the warming of the planet. Modelling the radiative properties of carbon particles is a hard task and involves many uncertainties arising from the difficulties of accounting for the morphologies and heterogeneous chemical composition of the particles. This study aims to compare two ways of modelling the optical properties of aerosols simulated by a chemical transport model. The first method models particle optical properties as homogeneous spheres and are externally mixed. This is a simple model that is particularly easy to use in data assimilation methods, since the optics model is linear. The second method involves a core-shell internal mixture of soot, where sulphate, nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, sea salt, and water are contained in the shell. However, by contrast to previously used core-shell models, only part of the carbon is concentrated in the core, while the remaining part is homogeneously mixed with the shell. The chemical transport model (CTM) simulations are done regionally over Europe with the Multiple-scale Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry (MATCH) model, developed by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). The MATCH model was run with both an aerosol dynamics module, called SALSA, and with a regular "bulk" approach, i.e., a mass transport model without aerosol dynamics. Two events from 2007 are used in the analysis, one with high (22/12-2007) and one with low (22/6-2007) levels of elemental carbon (EC) over Europe. The results of the study help to assess the

  18. Airborne in situ characterization of dry urban aerosol optical properties around complex topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targino, Admir Créso; Noone, Kevin J.

    2006-02-01

    In situ data from the 1997 Southern California Ozone Study—NARSTO were used to describe the aerosol optical properties in an urban area whose aerosol distribution is modified as the aerosols are advected over the surrounding topography. The data consist of measurements made with a nephelometer and absorption photometer onboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Pelican aircraft. The cases investigated in this study include vertical profiles flown over coastal sites as well as sites located along some important mountain ranges in southern California. The vertical distribution of the aerosol in the Los Angeles Basin showed a complex configuration, directly related with the local meteorological circulations and the surrounding topography. High spatial and temporal variability in air pollutant concentrations within a relatively small area was found, as indicated by the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficient data. The results suggest that in areas with such complex terrain, a high spatial resolution is required in order to adequately describe the aerosol optical quantities. Principal components analysis (PCA) has been applied to aerosol chemical samples in order to identify the major aerosol types in the Los Angeles Basin. The technique yielded four components that accounted for 78% of the variance in the data set. These were indicative of marine aerosols, urban aerosols, trace elements and secondary aerosol components of traffic emissions and agricultural activities. A Monte Carlo radiation transfer model has been employed to simulate the effects that different aerosol vertical profiles have on the attenuation of solar energy. The cases examined were selected using the results of the PCA and in situ data were used to describe the atmospheric optical properties in the model. These investigations comprise a number of sensitivity tests to evaluate the effects on the results of the location of the aerosol layers as well as

  19. Aerosol optical properties and types over the tropical urban region of Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharol, Shailesh Kumar; Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Rani Sharma, Anu; Kvs, Badarinath; Kambezidis, H. D.

    India is densely populated, industrialized and in the recent years has witnessed an impressive economic development. Aerosols over and around India not only affect the Indian monsoon but also the global climate. The growing population coupled with revolution in industry has resulted in higher demands for energy and transport. With more and more urbanization the usage pattern of fossil and bio-fuels are leading to changes in aerosol properties, which may cause changes in precipitation and can decelerate the hydrological cycle. Over urban areas of India aerosol emissions from fossil fuels such as coal, petrol and diesel oil dominate. Further-more, the Indian subcontinent exhibits different land characteristics ranging from vegetated areas and forests to semiarid and arid environments and tall mountains. India experiences large seasonal climatic variations, which result in extreme temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity. These meteorological and climatic features introduce large variabilities in aerosol op-tical and physico-chemical characteristics at spatial and temporal scales. In the present study, seasonal variations in aerosol properties and types were analysed over tropical urban region of Hyderabad, India during October 2007-September 2008 using MICROTOPS II sun photometer measurements. Higher aerosol optical depth (AOD) values are observed in premonsoon, while the variability of the ˚ngstrüm exponent (α) seems to be more pronounced with higher values A in winter and premonsoon and lower in the monsoon periods. The AOD at 500 nm (AOD500 ) is very large over Hyderabad, varying from 0.46±0.17 in postmonsoon to 0.65±0.22 in premon-soon periods. A discrimination of the different aerosol types over Hyderabad is also attempted using values of AOD500 and α380-870. Such discrimination is rather difficult to interpret since a single aerosol type can partly be identified only under specific conditions (e.g. anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning or dust

  20. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  1. A new approach for retrieving the UV-vis optical properties of ambient aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluvshtein, Nir; Flores, J. Michel; Segev, Lior; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important part in the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial radiation. To quantify the effective radiative forcing due to aerosol-radiation interactions, researchers must obtain a detailed understanding of the spectrally dependent intensive and extensive optical properties of different aerosol types. Our new approach retrieves the optical coefficients and the single-scattering albedo of the total aerosol population over 300 to 650 nm wavelength, using extinction measurements from a broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer at 315 to 345 nm and 390 to 420 nm, extinction and absorption measurements at 404 nm from a photoacoustic cell coupled to a cavity ring-down spectrometer, and scattering measurements from a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer. By combining these measurements with aerosol size distribution data, we retrieved the time- and wavelength-dependent effective complex refractive index of the aerosols. Retrieval simulations and laboratory measurements of brown carbon proxies showed low absolute errors and good agreement with expected and reported values. Finally, we implemented this new broadband method to achieve continuous spectral- and time-dependent monitoring of ambient aerosol population, including, for the first time, extinction measurements using cavity-enhanced spectrometry in the 315 to 345 nm UV range, in which significant light absorption may occur.

  2. Retrieval of aerosol optical and micro-physical properties with 2D-MAX-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Rich; Hair, Johnathan; Kassianov, Evgueni; Barnard, James; Berg, Larry; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason; Hodges, Gary; Lantz, Kathy; Wagner, Thomas; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Recent retrievals of 2 dimensional (2D) Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (2D-MAX-DOAS) have highlighted its importance in order to infer diurnal horizontal in-homogeneities around the measurement site. In this work, we expand the capabilities of 2D measurements in order to estimate simultaneously aerosol optical and micro-physical properties. Specifically, we present a retrieval method to obtain: (1) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in the boundary layer (BL) and free troposphere (FT) and (2) the effective complex refractive index and the effective radius of the aerosol column size distribution. The retrieval method to obtain AOT is based on an iterative comparison of measured normalized radiances, oxygen collision pair (O4), and absolute Raman Scattering Probability (RSP) with the forward model calculations derived with the radiative transfer model McArtim based on defined aerosol extinction profiles. Once the aerosol load is determined we use multiple scattering phase functions and single scattering albedo (SSA) obtained with Mie calculations which then constrain the RTM to forward model solar almucantar normalized radiances. The simulated almucantar normalized radiances are then compared to the measured normalized radiances. The best-fit, determined by minimizing the root mean square, retrieves the complex refractive index, and effective radius. We apply the retrieval approach described above to measurements carried out during the 2012 intensive operation period of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) held on Cape Cod, MA, USA. Results are presented for two ideal case studies with both large and small aerosol loading and similar air mass outflow from the northeast coast of the US over the West Atlantic Ocean. The aerosol optical properties are compared with several independent instruments, including the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) for highly resolved extinction profiles during the overpasses, and with the

  3. Seasonal variation and difference of aerosol optical properties in columnar and surface atmospheres over Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tiantao; Xu, Chen; Duan, Junyan; Wang, Yifan; Leng, Chunpeng; Tao, Jun; Che, Huizheng; He, Qianshan; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Renjian; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jianmin; Kong, Lingdong; Yu, Xingna

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties in columnar and surface atmospheres were measured at an urban station of Shanghai from December 2010 to October 2012, and their seasonal variations and differences were examined. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 500 nm is on average about 0.72 over the entire campaign, relatively higher in spring and summer and lower in autumn and winter. Ångström wavelength exponent (Alfa) mainly distributes in 1.1-1.6 (72%) with an obvious uni-peak pattern, implying that fine particles are primary in the aerosol group. Aerosol single scattering albedo of columnar atmosphere (SSA) at 440 nm experiences a weak seasonal variation with an average of 0.91, indicating that aerosols are mainly composed of particles with relatively higher scattering efficiency. The aerosol volume size distribution shows one fine mode and another coarse mode, with peak radii of 0.15 μm and 3.0 μm, respectively. The volume of fine mode particles is minimum in spring and maximum in summer, while the volume of coarse mode particles is minimum in autumn and maximum in winter. The scattering coefficient (Sc) of aerosols in surface atmosphere is relatively higher in winter and spring, the absorptive coefficient (Ab) is higher in autumn and summer. The SSA of surface atmosphere (SSA-surf) at 532 nm varies weakly over time with a lower deviation, mostly scattering in the range of 0.8-0.95 (82%). Although the disconnection of aerosol properties between columnar and surface atmospheres exists, AOT and Alfa are correlated to some extent with PM2.5 and visibility. However, the difference of SSA and SSA-surf is remarkable about 0.1. Overall, fine particles are dominant in aerosols and contribute to AOT significantly in this city, and their difference between surface and columnar atmospheres is unignored.

  4. Dual-aureole and sun spectrometer system for airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Zieger, Paul; Ruhtz, Thomas; Preusker, Rene; Fischer, Jürgen

    2007-12-10

    We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct sun irradiance and the aureole radiance in two different solid angles. The high-resolution spectral radiation measurements are used to derive vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties. Combined measurements in two solid angles provide better information about the aerosol type without additional and elaborate measuring geometries. It is even possible to discriminate between absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosol types. Furthermore, they allow to apply additional calibration methods and simplify the detection of contaminated data (e.g., by thin cirrus clouds). For the characterization of the detected aerosol type a new index is introduced that is the slope of the aerosol phase function in the forward scattering region. The instrumentation is a flexible modular setup, which has already been successfully applied in airborne and ground-based field campaigns. We describe the setup as well as the calibration of the instrument. In addition, example vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties--including the aureole measurements--are shown and discussed. PMID:18071387

  5. Global direct radiative forcing by process-parameterized aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KirkevâG, Alf; Iversen, Trond

    2002-10-01

    A parameterization of aerosol optical parameters is developed and implemented in an extended version of the community climate model version 3.2 (CCM3) of the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research. Direct radiative forcing (DRF) by monthly averaged calculated concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfate and black carbon (BC) is estimated. Inputs are production-specific BC and sulfate from [2002] and background aerosol size distribution and composition. The scheme interpolates between tabulated values to obtain the aerosol single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, extinction coefficient, and specific extinction coefficient. The tables are constructed by full calculations of optical properties for an array of aerosol input values, for which size-distributed aerosol properties are estimated from theory for condensation and Brownian coagulation, assumed distribution of cloud-droplet residuals from aqueous phase oxidation, and prescribed properties of the background aerosols. Humidity swelling is estimated from the Köhler equation, and Mie calculations finally yield spectrally resolved aerosol optical parameters for 13 solar bands. The scheme is shown to give excellent agreement with nonparameterized DRF calculations for a wide range of situations. Using IPCC emission scenarios for the years 2000 and 2100, calculations with an atmospheric global cliamte model (AFCM) yield a global net anthropogenic DRF of -0.11 and 0.11 W m-2, respectively, when 90% of BC from biomass burning is assumed anthropogenic. In the 2000 scenario, the individual DRF due to sulfate and BC has separately been estimated to -0.29 and 0.19 W m-2, respectively. Our estimates of DRF by BC per BC mass burden are lower than earlier published estimates. Some sensitivity tests are included to investigate to what extent uncertain assumptions may influence these results.

  6. Optical and Structural Properties of Aerosols Emitted from Open Biomass Burning (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosmuller, H.; Chakrabarty, R. K.; Lewis, K.; Gyawali, M.; Mazzoleni, C.; Dubey, M. K.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Arnott, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    Open biomass burning including wildland fires and agricultural burning emits substantial quantities of carbonaceous aerosols into the atmosphere. Fuel, soil, and atmospheric conditions largely determine the combustion phase. High temperature flaming combustion emits black aerosols, generally consisting of fractal-like chain aggregates that have a high black carbon content and therefore strongly absorb visible light. Low temperature, smoldering combustion, on the other hand, emits fairly white aerosols, often consisting of near-spherical particles that have high organic carbon content. While this organic carbon is traditionally considered to cause negligent absorption of visible light, more recent studies have shown that organic carbon from biomass burning often contains brown carbon. Brown carbon is a component of organic carbon, optically defined by its increasing light absorption toward shorter wavelengths. The physical characteristics of biomass combustion aerosol particles are determined by a combination of their morphology, monomer size, and shape, all of which can be determined from electron microscopy and image analysis. Here, we review optical and structural properties of aerosols emitted from open biomass burning with a focus on relevance for radiative forcing and climate change and satellite remote sensing. This review is followed by a discussion of measurements and modeling of brown carbon optical properties, of associated metrics such as the Ångström absorption coefficient, and of future research needs.

  7. Evolution of Biomass Burning Aerosol Optical Properties in the Near Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, A. J., III; Arnott, W. P.; Chand, D.; Fortner, E.; Freedman, A.; Kleinman, L. I.; Onasch, T. B.; Shilling, J. E.; Springston, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) events are known to produce chemically rich environments that can impact the evolution of primary aerosols and influence secondary aerosols production rates. With their increasing in frequency, BB events are expected to exert an ever-increasing impact on climate due to aerosol radiative forcing processes. One area that is still poorly understood is the evolution of these smoke aerosols in the near field. Recent literature suggests that BB aerosols undergo a rapid evolution near their source that is then followed by a slower aging phase. During the summer of 2013, the Department of Energy-sponsored an aircraft field campaign called the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) that specifically targeted the evolution of smoke aerosols in the near field (< 2 hours). Results examining the evolution of BB optical and microphysical properties will be presented. To probe these properties, the BBOP field campaign deployed a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to probe the mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC) and a Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) to investigate the composition of both non-refractory and rBC-containing particles. Aerosol optical properties were measured in situ using a 355 nm Photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS), a 532 nm photo thermal interferometer (PTI), a 630 nm cavity Attenuation Phase Shifted (CAPS) spectrometer, a 3-λ nephelometer, and a 3-λ PSAP. The BBOP study represented the maiden aircraft deployment for the SP-AMS, the 355 nm PAS and 532 nm PTI. Discussion will be on the near-field evolution of particle mixing state and morphology, chemical composition, and microphysical processes that determine aerosol size distributions and single scattering albedo (SSA) of light absorbing aerosols. In the cases studied, increases in the coating thickness of refractive black carbon (rBC) particles, organic aerosol/rBC ratio, scattering/CO ratio, and aerosol size distributions have been observed. Results will be

  8. Ground-based remote sensing of aerosol climatology in China: Aerosol optical properties, direct radiative effect and its parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X.; Che, H.; Zhu, J.; Chen, H.; Cong, Z.; Deng, X.; Fan, X.; Fu, Y.; Goloub, P.; Jiang, H.; Liu, Q.; Mai, B.; Wang, P.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of aerosol optical properties and aerosol direct radiative effects (ADRE) are studied based on high quality aerosol data at 21 sunphotometer stations with at least 4-months worth of measurements in China mainland and Hong Kong. A parameterization is proposed to describe the relationship of ADREs to aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD) and single scattering albedo at 550 nm (SSA). In the middle-east and south China, the maximum AOD is always observed in the burning season, indicating a significant contribution of biomass burning to AOD. Dust aerosols contribute to AOD significantly in spring and their influence decreases from the source regions to the downwind regions. The occurrence frequencies of background level AOD (AOD < 0.10) in the middle-east, south and northwest China are very limited (0.4%, 1.3% and 2.8%, respectively). However, it is 15.7% in north China. Atmosphere is pristine in the Tibetan Plateau where 92.0% of AODs are <0.10. Regional mean SSAs at 550 nm are 0.89-0.90, although SSAs show substantial site and season dependence. ADREs at the top and bottom of the atmosphere for solar zenith angle of 60 ± 5° are -16--37 W m-2 and -66--111 W m-2, respectively. ADRE efficiency shows slight regional dependence. AOD and SSA together account for more than 94 and 87% of ADRE variability at the bottom and top of the atmosphere. The overall picture of ADRE in China is that aerosols cool the climate system, reduce surface solar radiation and heat the atmosphere.

  9. Development of 2-D-MAX-DOAS and retrievals of trace gases and aerosols optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan

    Air pollution is a major problem worldwide that adversely a_ects human health, impacts ecosystems and climate. In the atmosphere, there are hundreds of important compounds participating in complex atmospheric reactions linked to air quality and climate. Aerosols are relevant because they modify the radiation balance, a_ect clouds, and thus Earth albedo. The amount of aerosol is often characterized by the vertical integral through the entire height of the atmosphere of the logarithm fraction of incident light that is extinguished called Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). The AOD at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is 0.19 (multi annual global mean), and that over oceans is 0.13. About 43 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions, sample spatial scales that resemble satellite ground-pixels and atmospheric models, and help integrate remote sensing and in-situ observations to obtain optical closure on the effects of aerosols and trace gases in our changing environment. In this work, I present the recent development of the University of Colorado two dimensional (2-D) Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument to measure the azimuth and altitude distribution of trace gases and aerosol optical properties simultaneously with a single instrument. The instrument measures solar scattered light from any direction in the sky, including direct sun light in the hyperspectral domain. In Chapter 2, I describe the capabilities of 2-D measurements in the context of retrievals of azimuth distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), and glyoxal (CHOCHO), which are precursors for tropospheric O3 and aerosols. The measurements were carried out during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) campaign in Mainz, Germany and show the ability to bridge spatial scales to

  10. Aerosol optical properties at Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean) 1. Influence of transport and identification of different aerosol types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, G.; di Sarra, A.; Meloni, D.; Piacentino, S.; Chamard, P.

    2005-07-01

    Ångström exponent values. Particles originating from all sectors show a summer maximum in aerosol optical depth. The summer increase in optical depth for European aerosols is linked with an increment in the values of α that indicates an enhancement in the number of fine particles. The summer maximum of τ for African particles is associated with a weak reduction in theÅngström exponent, suggesting an increase in the total number of particles and a relatively more intense transport of large particles. The observations were classified according to the aerosol optical properties, and two main classes have been identified: desert dust and biomass burning/urban-industrial aerosols. Values of τ and α averaged over the whole observing period are 0.37 and 0.15 for desert dust, and 0.27 and 1.77 for urban-industrial/biomass burning aerosols. Lampedusa reveals a stronger influence of desert dust compared to other Mediterranean sites (mostly located on the coasts of Europe).

  11. Aerosol optical properties at Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean). 1. Influence of transport and identification of different aerosol types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, G.; di Sarra, A.; Meloni, D.; Piacentino, S.; Chamard, P.

    2006-03-01

    the meteorological patterns over the Mediterranean, the efficiency of the aerosol production mechanisms, and the variability of the particles' residence time produce a distinct seasonal cycle of aerosol optical depths and Ångström exponent values. Particles originating from all sectors show a summer maximum in aerosol optical depth. The summer increase in optical depth for European aerosols is linked with an increment in the values of α, that indicates an enhancement in the number of fine particles. The summer maximum of τ for African particles is associated with a weak reduction in the Ångström exponent, suggesting an increase in the total number of particles and a relatively more intense transport of large particles. The observations were classified according to the aerosol optical properties, and two main classes have been identified: desert dust and biomass burning/urban-industrial aerosols. Values of τ and α averaged over the whole observing period are 0.37 and 0.15 for desert dust, and 0.27 and 1.77 for urban-industrial/biomass burning aerosols.

  12. [Aerosol optical properties during different air-pollution episodes over Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Chan-Zhen; Yu, Xing-Na; Zhou, Bin; Xiang, Lei; Nie, Hao-Hao

    2013-11-01

    Based on the 2005-2011 data from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), this study conducted analysis on aerosol optical properties over Beijing during different air-pollution episodes (biomass burning, CNY firework, dust storm). The aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed notable increases in the air-pollution episodes while the AOD (at 440 nm) during dust storm was 4. 91, 4. 07 and 2.65 times higher as background, biomass burning and firework aerosols. AOD along with Angstrom exponent (alpha) can be used to determine the aerosol types. The dust aerosol had the highest AOD and the lowest alpha. The alpha value of firework (1.09) was smaller than biomass burning (1.21) and background (1.27), indicating that coarse particles were dominant in the former type. Higher AOD of burnings (than background) can be attributed to the optical extinction capability of black carbon aerosol. The single scattering albedo (SSA) was insensitive to wavelength. The SSA value of dust (0.934) was higher than background (0.878), biomass burning (0.921) and firework (0.905). Additionally, the extremely large SSA of burnings here maybe was caused by the aging smoke, hygroscopic growth and so on. The peak radius of aerosol volume size distributions were 0.1-0.2 microm and 2.24 -3.85 microm in clear and polluted conditions. The value of volume concentration ratio between coarse and fine particles was in the order of clear background (1.04), biomass burning (1.10), CNY firework (1.91) and dust storm (4.96) episode. PMID:24455916

  13. Aerosol Physiochemistry in Clean and Polluted Regions: Influences on Optical Properties and CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, A.; Kapustin, V.; Howell, S.; Shinozuka, Y.; McNaughton, C.; Zhou, J.; Decarlo, P.; Jimenez, J.; Roberts, G.

    2007-12-01

    Long range transport of aerosol from urban regions and anthropogenic sources is recognized to influence the radiative properties of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei, CCN, over large portions of the planet. The nature of these influences is determined by the size distributions, concentration and composition of the aerosol and their magnitude relative to natural sources. We have participated in diverse major field studies over the past decade designed to measure and isolate key properties that can be used to characterize various source regions and to provide aerosol parameters to effectively model both "direct" and "indirect" radiative effects. More recently these have expanded to include scales that can assess transformation in both gas and aerosol components as they evolve downwind or get lofted into the free troposphere. These experiments have revealed the importance of primary emissions and secondary emissions and the state of mixing of the aerosol both near the source and after aging downwind. The physiochemical processes that influence aerosol composition, growth, evolution, optical properties and cloud processes differ markedly with size. In this talk we focus on direct radiative effects that depend on sizes that dominate aerosol surface area or mass and on cloud related effects more sensitive to smaller sizes that dominate aerosol number and CCN. Key players of both anthropogenic and natural origin are black carbon (BC), sulfate, nitrate and organic carbon. These frequently evolve into internal mixtures and/or interact with similar natural aerosol such as dust and sea- salt. Hence, the size resolved state-of-mixing of these components determine their influences and also impact the strategies that might be used to mitigate any effects. Recent data highlight the significance of BC to both direct and indirect effects and reveal its multiple roles expressed through its optical properties, its evolution, its relation to light absorbing OC (brown carbon) and

  14. Aerosol chemical and optical properties over the Paris area within ESQUIF project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Vautard, R.; Chazette, P.; Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol chemical and optical properties are extensively investigated for the first time over the Paris Basin in July 2000 within the ESQUIF project. The measurement campaign offers an exceptional framework to evaluate the performances of the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE in simulating concentrations of gaseous and aerosol pollutants, as well as the aerosol-size distribution and composition in polluted urban environment against ground-based and airborne measurements. A detailed comparison of measured and simulated variables during the second half of July with particular focus on 19 and 31 pollution episodes reveals an overall good agreement for gas-species and aerosol components both at the ground level and along flight trajectories, and the absence of systematic biases in simulated meteorological variables such as wind speed, relative humidity and boundary layer height as computed by the MM5 model. A good consistency in ozone and NO concentrations demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce fairly well the plume structure and location both on 19 and 31 July, despite an underestimation of the amplitude of ozone concentrations on 31 July. The spatial and vertical aerosol distributions are also examined by comparing simulated and observed lidar vertical profiles along flight trajectories on 31 July and confirmed the model capacity to simulate the plume characteristics. The comparison of observed and modeled aerosol components in the southwest suburb of Paris during the second half of July indicated that the aerosol composition is rather correctly reproduced, although the total aerosol mass is underestimated of about 20%. The simulated Parisian aerosol is dominated by primary particulate matter that accounts for anthropogenic and biogenic primary particles (40%) and inorganic aerosol fraction (40%) including nitrate (8%), sulfate (22%) and ammonium (10%). The secondary organic aerosols (SOA) represent 12% of the total aerosol mass, while the mineral dust

  15. Aerosol chemical and optical properties over the Paris area within ESQUIF project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Vautard, R.; Chazette, P.; Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.

    2006-08-01

    Aerosol chemical and optical properties are extensively investigated for the first time over the Paris Basin in July 2000 within the ESQUIF project. The measurement campaign offers an exceptional framework to evaluate the performances of the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE in simulating concentrations of gaseous and aerosol pollutants, as well as the aerosol-size distribution and composition in polluted urban environments against ground-based and airborne measurements. A detailed comparison of measured and simulated variables during the second half of July with particular focus on 19 and 31 pollution episodes reveals an overall good agreement for gas-species and aerosol components both at the ground level and along flight trajectories, and the absence of systematic biases in simulated meteorological variables such as wind speed, relative humidity and boundary layer height as computed by the MM5 model. A good consistency in ozone and NO concentrations demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce the plume structure and location fairly well both on 19 and 31 July, despite an underestimation of the amplitude of ozone concentrations on 31 July. The spatial and vertical aerosol distributions are also examined by comparing simulated and observed lidar vertical profiles along flight trajectories on 31 July and confirm the model capacity to simulate the plume characteristics. The comparison of observed and modeled aerosol components in the southwest suburb of Paris during the second half of July indicates that the aerosol composition is rather correctly reproduced, although the total aerosol mass is underestimated by about 20%. The simulated Parisian aerosol is dominated by primary particulate matter that accounts for anthropogenic and biogenic primary particles (40%), and inorganic aerosol fraction (40%) including nitrate (8%), sulfate (22%) and ammonium (10%). The secondary organic aerosols (SOA) represent 12% of the total aerosol mass, while the mineral dust

  16. Characterizing Aerosol Distributions and Optical Properties Using the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2013-02-14

    The objective of this project was to provide vertically and horizontally resolved data on aerosol optical properties to assess and ultimately improve how models represent these aerosol properties and their impacts on atmospheric radiation. The approach was to deploy the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and other synergistic remote sensors on DOE Atmospheric Science Research (ASR) sponsored airborne field campaigns and synergistic field campaigns sponsored by other agencies to remotely measure aerosol backscattering, extinction, and optical thickness profiles. Synergistic sensors included a nadir-viewing digital camera for context imagery, and, later in the project, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The information from the remote sensing instruments was used to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol properties and type. The retrieved lidar parameters include profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth. Products produced in subsequent analyses included aerosol mixed layer height, aerosol type, and the partition of aerosol optical depth by type. The lidar products provided vertical context for in situ and remote sensing measurements from other airborne and ground-based platforms employed in the field campaigns and was used to assess the predictions of transport models. Also, the measurements provide a data base for future evaluation of techniques to combine active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) measurements in advanced retrieval schemes to remotely characterize aerosol microphysical properties. The project was initiated as a 3-year project starting 1 January 2005. It was later awarded continuation funding for another 3 years (i.e., through 31 December 2010) followed by a 1-year no-cost extension (through 31 December 2011). This project supported logistical and flight costs of the NASA sensors on a dedicated aircraft, the subsequent

  17. Observed changes in aerosol physical and optical properties before and after precipitation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingmin; Dong, Yan; Dong, Zipeng; Du, Chuanli; Chen, Chuang

    2016-08-01

    Precipitation scavenging of aerosol particles is an important removal process in the atmosphere that can change aerosol physical and optical properties. This paper analyzes the changes in aerosol physical and optical properties before and after four rain events using in situ observations of mass concentration, number concentration, particle size distribution, scattering and absorption coefficients of aerosols in June and July 2013 at the Xianghe comprehensive atmospheric observation station in China. The results show the effect of rain scavenging is related to the rain intensity and duration, the wind speed and direction. During the rain events, the temporal variation of aerosol number concentration was consistent with the variation in mass concentration, but their size-resolved scavenging ratios were different. After the rain events, the increase in aerosol mass concentration began with an increase in particles with diameter <0.8 μm [measured using an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS)], and fine particles with diameter <0.1 μm [measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS)]. Rainfall was most efficient at removing particles with diameter ~0.6 μm and greater than 3.5 μm. The changes in peak values of the particle number distribution (measured using the SMPS) before and after the rain events reflect the strong scavenging effect on particles within the 100-120 nm size range. The variation patterns of aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients before and after the rain events were similar, but their scavenging ratios differed, which may have been related to the aerosol particle size distribution and chemical composition.

  18. Aerosol Optical Properties Measured Onboard the Ronald H. Brown During ACE Asia as a Function of Aerosol Chemical Composition and Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Bates, T. S.; Welton, E. J.; Covert, D. S.; Miller, T. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Maria, S.; Russell, L.; Arimoto, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the ACE Asia intensive field campaign conducted in the spring of 2001 aerosol properties were measured onboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown to study the effects of the Asian aerosol on atmospheric chemistry and climate in downwind regions. Aerosol properties measured in the marine boundary layer included chemical composition; number size distribution; and light scattering, hemispheric backscattering, and absorption coefficients. In addition, optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol 180 deg backscatter were measured. Aerosol within the ACE Asia study region was found to be a complex mixture resulting from marine, pollution, volcanic, and dust sources. Presented here as a function of air mass source region are the mass fractions of the dominant aerosol chemical components, the fraction of the scattering measured at the surface due to each component, mass scattering efficiencies of the individual components, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo, Angstrom exponents, optical depth, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction. All results except aerosol optical depth and the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are reported at a relative humidity of 55 +/- 5%. An over-determined data set was collected so that measured and calculated aerosol properties could be compared, internal consistency in the data set could be assessed, and sources of uncertainty could be identified. By taking into account non-sphericity of the dust aerosol, calculated and measured aerosol mass and scattering coefficients agreed within overall experimental uncertainties. Differences between measured and calculated aerosol absorption coefficients were not within reasonable uncertainty limits, however, and may indicate the inability of Mie theory and the assumption of internally mixed homogeneous spheres to predict absorption by the ACE Asia aerosol. Mass scattering efficiencies of non-sea salt sulfate aerosol, sea salt, submicron particulate organic

  19. Effects of data assimilation on the global aerosol key optical properties simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaomei; Dai, Tie; Schutgens, Nick A. J.; Goto, Daisuke; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Shi, Guangyu

    2016-09-01

    We present the one month results of global aerosol optical properties for April 2006, using the Spectral Radiation Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS) coupled with the Non-hydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM), by assimilating Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) with Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF). The simulated AOD, Ångström Exponent (AE) and single scattering albedo (SSA) are validated by independent Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations over the global sites. The data assimilation has the strongest positive effect on the AOD simulation and slight positive influences on the AE and SSA simulations. For the time-averaged globally spatial distribution, the data assimilation increases the model skill score (S) of AOD, AE, and SSA from 0.55, 0.92, and 0.75 to 0.79, 0.94, and 0.80, respectively. Over the North Africa (NAF) and Middle East region where the aerosol composition is simple (mainly dust), the simulated AODs are best improved by the data assimilation, indicating the assimilation correctly modifies the wrong dust burdens caused by the uncertainties of the dust emission parameterization. Assimilation also improves the simulation of the temporal variations of the aerosol optical properties over the AERONET sites, with improved S at 60 (62%), 45 (55%) and 11 (50%) of 97, 82 and 22 sites for AOD, AE and SSA. By analyzing AOD and AE at five selected sites with best S improvement, this study further indicates that the assimilation can reproduce short duration events and ratios between fine and coarse aerosols more accurately.

  20. Comparing the relationships between aerosol optical depth and cloud properties in observations and global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Aerosols impact the climate both directly, through their interaction with radiation and indirectly, via their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), modifying cloud properties. The influence of aerosols on cloud properties is highly uncertain. Many relationships between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and cloud properties have been observed using satellite data, but previous work has shown that some of these relationships are the product of the strong AOD-cloud fraction (CF) relationship. The confounding influence of local meteorology obscures the magnitude of any aerosol impact on CF, and so also the impact of aerosol on other cloud properties. For example, both AOD and CF are strongly influenced by relative humidity, which can generate a correlation between them. Previous studies have used reanalysis data to account for confounding meteorological variables. This requires knowledge of the relevant meteorological variables and is limited by the accuracy of the reanalysis data. Recent work has shown that by using the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) to mediate the AOD-CF relationship, the impact of relative humidity can be significantly reduced. This method removes the limitations imposed by the finite accuracy of reanalysis data. In this work we investigate the impact of the CDNC mediation on the AOD-CF relationship and on the relationship between AOD and other cloud properties in global atmospheric models. By comparing pre-industrial and present day runs, we investigate the success of the CDNC mediated AOD-CF relationship to predict the change in CF from the pre-industrial to the present day using only observations of the present day relationships between clouds and aerosol properties. This helps to determine whether the satellite-derived relationship provides a constraint on the aerosol indirect forcing due to changes in CF.

  1. A Study on the Optical Properties of Aerosols above the Forest by Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, J.

    2004-12-01

    Aerosol retrieval by remote sensing technique is one of the promising method in understanding the chemical and optical properties, column load, and spatial distribution of aerosols. However, though the current technique in use is quite successful about aerosols over ocean with small water-leaving radiances, quantitative retrieval of aerosols over land mass is not yet satisfactory. We try to develop a new method to make the aerosol retrieval over land more accurate than ever before. A sensitivity analysis of reflectance shows that wrong selection of spectral reflectance model results in quite a large difference in retrieved aerosol characteristics. Therefore, a well¡Csuited surface reflectance model is needed to be created. We conducted aerosol and radiation measurements coupled with in situ forest reflectance measurements in sync with satellite radiance measurements by EOS Terra and Aqua from the top of the atmosphere. The experimental site is located in a forest with an extensive and uniform area covered with deciduous trees commonly existing in Japan. The ground-based measurements include Andersen impactor samplings, radiometric measurements with OPC, a sunphotometer and a telephotometer. Forest reflectance was measured with a spectral radiometer covering visible and near infrared above the forest canopy level from a tower standing in the forest. Reflectance was measured directionally, and was found to show no major bi-directional dependency, assuring us that Lambert reflectance model is sufficient for calculation in this particular type of forest. The sampled spectral reflectances were averaged to be 0.0414 at 0.55 μ m. For satellite aerosol retrieval, visible and near infrared bands in MODIS sensors were employed. MODTRAN code was used in radiative transfer in the aerosol-laden atmosphere. Several different types of aerosol were examined, and a rural aerosol model with similar size distribution and composition to the aerosols, which are estimated from OPC

  2. A new method of measuring aerosol optical properties from digital twilight photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M.; Iwabuchi, H.

    2015-01-01

    An optimal-estimation algorithm for inferring aerosol optical properties from digital twilight photographs is proposed. The sensitivity of atmospheric components and surface characteristics to brightness and color of twilight sky is investigated, and the results suggest that tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol optical thickness (AOT) are sensitive to condition of the twilight sky. The coarse-fine particle volume ratio is moderately sensitive to the sky condition near the horizon under a clean-atmosphere condition. A radiative transfer model that takes into account a spherical-shell atmosphere, refraction, and multiple scattering is used as a forward model. Error analysis shows that the tropospheric and stratospheric AOT can be retrieved without significant bias. Comparisons with results from other ground-based instruments exhibit reasonable agreement on AOT. A case study suggests that the AOT retrieval method can be applied to atmospheric conditions with varying aerosol vertical profiles and vertically inhomogeneous species in the troposphere.

  3. A new method of measuring aerosol optical properties from digital twilight photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M.; Iwabuchi, H.

    2015-10-01

    An optimal-estimation algorithm for inferring aerosol optical properties from digital twilight photographs is proposed. The sensitivity of atmospheric components and surface characteristics to brightness and color of twilight sky is investigated, and the results suggest that tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol optical thickness (AOT) are sensitive to condition of the twilight sky. The coarse-fine particle volume ratio is moderately sensitive to the sky condition near the horizon under a clean-atmosphere condition. A radiative transfer model that takes into account a spherical-shell atmosphere, refraction, and multiple scattering is used as a forward model. Error analysis shows that the tropospheric and stratospheric AOT can be retrieved without significant bias. Comparisons with results from other ground-based instruments exhibit reasonable agreement on AOT. A case study suggests that the AOT retrieval method can be applied to atmospheric conditions with varying aerosol vertical profiles and vertically inhomogeneous species in the troposphere.

  4. Sun and aureole spectrometer for airborne measurements to derive aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Asseng, Hagen; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen

    2004-04-01

    We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct Sun irradiance and aureole radiance. The instrument is based on diffraction grating spectrometers with linear image sensors. It is robust, lightweight, compact, and reliable, characteristics that are important for airborne applications. The multispectral radiation measurements are used to derive optical properties of tropospheric aerosols. We extract the altitude dependence of the aerosol volume scattering function and of the aerosol optical depth by using flight patterns with descents and ascents ranging from the surface level to the top of the boundary layer. The extinction coefficient and the product of single scattering albedo and phase function of separate layers can be derived from the airborne measurements. PMID:15074425

  5. Determination of the broadband optical properties of biomass burning aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluvshtein, Nir; Flores, J. Michel; Segev, Lior; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-04-01

    The direct and semi-direct effects of atmospheric aerosol on the Earth's energy balance are still the two of the largest uncertainties in our understanding of anthropogenic radiative forcing. In this study we developed a new approach for determining high sensitivity broadband UV-Vis spectrum (300-650 nm) of extinction, scattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo and the complex refractive index for continuous, spectral and time dependent, monitoring of polydisperse aerosols population. This new approach was applied in a study of biomass burning aerosol. Extinction, scattering and absorption coefficients (αext, αsca, αabs, respectively) were continually monitored using photoacoustic spectrometer coupled to a cavity ring down spectrometer (PA-CRD-AS) at 404 nm, a dual-channel Broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer (BBCES) at 315-345 nm and 390-420 nm and a three channel integrating nephelometer (IN) centered at 457, 525 and 637 nm. During the biomass burning event, the measured aerosol number concentration increased by more than an order of magnitude relative to other week nights and the mode of the aerosols size distribution increased from 40-50 nm to 110nm diameter. αext and αsca increased by a factor of about 5.5 and 4.5, respectively. The αabs increased by a factor over 20, indicating a significant change in the aerosol overall chemical composition. The imaginary part of the complex RI at 404nm increased from its background level at about 0.02 to a peak of about 0.08 and the SSA decreased from 0.9 to about 0.6. Significant change of the absorption spectral dependence indicates formation of visible-light absorbing compounds. The mass absorption cross section of the water soluble organic aerosol (MACWSOA) reached up to about 12% of the corresponding value for black carbon (BC) at 450 nm and up to 30% at 300 nm. These results demonstrate the importance of biomass burning in understanding global and regional radiative forcing.

  6. Optical and Physicochemical Properties of Brown Carbon Aerosol: Light Scattering, FTIR Extinction Spectroscopy, and Hygroscopic Growth.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingjin; Alexander, Jennifer M; Kwon, Deokhyeon; Estillore, Armando D; Laskina, Olga; Young, Mark A; Kleiber, Paul D; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-06-23

    A great deal of attention has been paid to brown carbon aerosol in the troposphere because it can both scatter and absorb solar radiation, thus affecting the Earth's climate. However, knowledge of the optical and chemical properties of brown carbon aerosol is still limited. In this study, we have investigated different aspects of the optical properties of brown carbon aerosol that have not been previously explored. These properties include extinction spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region and light scattering at two different visible wavelengths, 532 and 402 nm. A proxy for atmospheric brown carbon aerosol was formed from the aqueous reaction of ammonium sulfate with methylglyoxal. The different optical properties were measured as a function of reaction time for a period of up to 19 days. UV/vis absorption experiments of bulk solutions showed that the optical absorption of aqueous brown carbon solution significantly increases as a function of reaction time in the spectral range from 200 to 700 nm. The analysis of the light scattering data, however, showed no significant differences between ammonium sulfate and brown carbon aerosol particles in the measured scattering phase functions, linear polarization profiles, or the derived real parts of the refractive indices at either 532 or 402 nm, even for the longest reaction times with greatest visible extinction. The light scattering experiments are relatively insensitive to the imaginary part of the refractive index, and it was only possible to place an upper limit of k ≤ 0.01 on the imaginary index values. These results suggest that after the reaction with methylglyoxal the single scattering albedo of ammonium sulfate aerosol is significantly reduced but that the light scattering properties including the scattering asymmetry parameter, which is a measure of the relative amount of forward-to-backward scattering, remain essentially unchanged from that of unprocessed ammonium sulfate. The optical extinction properties

  7. Aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties observed in the ambient atmosphere during haze pollution conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengqiang; Xie, Yisong; Li, Donghui; Li, Kaitao; Zhang, Ying; Li, Li; Lv, Yang; Qie, Lili; Xu, Hua

    Aerosol’s properties in the ambient atmosphere may differ significantly from sampling results due to containing of abundant water content. We performed sun-sky radiometer measurements in Beijing during 2011 and 2012 winter to obtain distribution of spectral and angular sky radiance. The measurements are then used to retrieve aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, including single scattering albedo, size distribution, complex refractive indices and aerosol component fractions identified as black carbon, brown carbon, mineral dust, ammonium sulfate-like components and water content inside particle matters. We found that during winter haze condition aerosol is dominated by fine particles with center radius of about 0.2 micron. Fine particles contribute about 93% to total aerosol extinction of solar light, and result in serious decrease of atmospheric visibility during haze condition. The percentage of light absorption of haze aerosol can up to about 10% among its total extinction, much higher than that of unpolluted conditions, that causes significant radiative cooling effects suppressing atmospheric convection and dispersion of pollutants. Moreover, the average water content occupies about one third of the ambient aerosol in volume which suggests the important effect of ambient humidity in the formation of haze pollution.

  8. Effects of Transport and Processing on Aerosol Chemical and Optical Properties Across the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P.; Bates, T.; Baynard, T.; Onasch, T.; Coffman, D.; Covert, D.; Worsnop, D.; Goldan, P.; Kuster, B.; Degouw, J.; Stohl, A.

    2005-12-01

    NEAQS-ITCT 2004 took place in July and August to study natural and anthropogenic emissions from North America including the processing of gas and particle phase species during transport over the North Atlantic and the resulting impact on air quality and climate. During the experiment, measurements were made onboard the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown with a ship track that extended from the coast along Cape Cod, MA, Boston, MA and Portland, ME, east into the Gulf of Maine and out to Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia. Although measurements on the ship were not made in a true Lagrangian sense, they reveal information about the effects of transport and processing on aerosol chemical and optical properties. Photochemical age based on measured toluene to benzene ratios can be used in this region to indicate 'younger' versus 'older' aerosol. This approach, coupled with FLEXPART estimates of source contributions and age, reveals that continental aerosol becomes more acidic as it ages with transport over the Gulf of Maine. The increasing acidity is due to the conversion of SO2 to SO4= with no further significant input of NH3 in the well-capped marine boundary layer to neutralize the aerosol. In addition, as the aerosol ages, the organic mass fraction decreases while the organics that are present become more oxidized. These same chemical features were observed in aerosol transported from the Ohio River Valley and beyond. In contrast, recently formed aerosol from urban centers along the Eastern Seaboard are neutralized, have a higher organic content, and the organics are less oxidized. The impact of the observed range of aerosol acidity, organic mass fraction, and degree of oxidation of the organic matter on the f(RH) of the aerosol will be described. Here, f(RH) refers to the dependence of light extinction on relative humidity.

  9. Aerosol optical properties and mixing state of black carbon in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Haobo; Liu, Li; Fan, Shaojia; Li, Fei; Yin, Yan; Cai, Mingfu; Chan, P. W.

    2016-04-01

    Aerosols contribute the largest uncertainty to the total radiative forcing estimate, and black carbon (BC) that absorbs solar radiation plays an important role in the Earth's energy budget. This study analysed the aerosol optical properties from 22 February to 18 March 2014 at the China Meteorological Administration Atmospheric Watch Network (CAWNET) station in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. The representative values of dry-state particle scattering coefficient (σsp), hemispheric backscattering coefficient (σhbsp), absorption coefficient (σabsp), extinction coefficient (σep), hemispheric backscattering fraction (HBF), single scattering albedo (SSA), as well as scattering Ångström exponent (α) were presented. A comparison between a polluted day and a clean day shows that the aerosol optical properties depend on particle number size distribution, weather conditions and evolution of the mixing layer. To investigate the mixing state of BC at the surface, an optical closure study of HBF between measurements and calculations based on a modified Mie model was employed for dry particles. The result shows that the mixing state of BC might be between the external mixture and the core-shell mixture. The average retrieved ratio of the externally mixed BC to the total BC mass concentration (rext-BC) was 0.58 ± 0.12, and the diurnal pattern of rext-BC can be found. Furthermore, considering that non-light-absorbing particles measured by a Volatility-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (V-TDMA) exist independently with core-shell and homogenously internally mixed BC particles, the calculated optical properties were just slightly different from those based on the assumption that BC exist in each particle. This would help understand the influence of the BC mixing state on aerosol optical properties and radiation budget in the PRD.

  10. Retrieval and analysis of a polarized high-spectral-resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Yongying; Cheng, Zhongtao; Huang, Hanlu; Zhang, Bo; Ling, Tong; Shen, Yibing

    2013-06-01

    Taking advantage of the broad spectrum of the Cabannes-Brillouin scatter from atmospheric molecules, the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) technique employs a narrow spectral filter to separate the aerosol and molecular scattering components in the lidar return signals and therefore can obtain the aerosol optical properties as well as the lidar ratio (i.e., the extinction-to-backscatter ratio) which is normally selected or modeled in traditional backscatter lidars. A polarized HSRL instrument, which employs an interferometric spectral filter, is under development at the Zhejiang University (ZJU), China. In this paper, the theoretical basis to retrieve the aerosol lidar ratio, depolarization ratio and extinction and backscatter coefficients, is presented. Error analyses and sensitivity studies have been carried out on the spectral transmittance characteristics of the spectral filter. The result shows that a filter that has as small aerosol transmittance (i.e., large aerosol rejection rate) and large molecular transmittance as possible is desirable. To achieve accurate retrieval, the transmittance of the spectral filter for molecular and aerosol scattering signals should be well characterized. PMID:23736562

  11. [A floating-dust case study based on the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Deng, Jun-Ying; Shi, Lan-Hong; Chen, Yong-Hang; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Sheng; Xu, Ting-Ting

    2014-03-01

    The vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties of a typical floating-dust event on October 19, 2009 in Shanghai was analyzed by using Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL) and the CALIPSO satellite. The results showed that the floating-dust aerosol mainly existed below 2 km of height. The floating-dust aerosol backscatter coefficient ranged from 0 to 0.015 km(-1) x sr(-1), and the MPL extinction coefficient ranged from 0 to 0.32 km(-1). The MPL data showed that the aerosol extinction coefficient first increased and then decreased during the floating-dust event. At the same time, the aerosol layer was constantly lifting. The CALIPSO data showed that a large number of small particles were suspended in air at a height of below 2 km, while the big particles always stayed near the ground (0-0.5 km). At the height of 2-10 km, there was only few aerosols; in the range of 4-6 km, there was a mixture of particles with regular and irregular shapes. The vertical distribution of CALIPSO 532 nm total attenuated backscatter coefficient and MPL normalized relative backscatter signal was basically the same, but the extinction coefficient values gained by them were different. Observations by CALIPSO and MPL together could be more comprehensive and objective for monitoring floating-dust in Shanghai. PMID:24881367

  12. Study on aerosol optical properties and radiative effect in cloudy weather in the Guangzhou region.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tao; Deng, XueJiao; Li, Fei; Wang, ShiQiang; Wang, Gang

    2016-10-15

    Currently, Guangzhou region was facing the problem of severe air pollution. Large amount of aerosols in the polluted air dramatically attenuated solar radiation. This study investigated the vertical optical properties of aerosols and inverted the height of boundary layer in the Guangzhou region using the lidar. Simultaneously, evaluated the impact of different types of clouds on aerosol radiation effects using the SBDART. The results showed that the height of the boundary layer and the surface visibility changed consistently, the average height of the boundary layer on the hazy days was only 61% of that on clear days. At the height of 2km or lower, the aerosol extinction coefficient profile distribution decreased linearly along with height on clear days, but the haze days saw an exponential decrease. When there was haze, the changing of heating rate of atmosphere caused by the aerosol decreased from 3.72K/d to 0.9K/d below the height of 2km, and the attenuation of net radiation flux at the ground surface was 97.7W/m(2), and the attenuation amplitude was 11.4%; when there were high clouds, the attenuation was 125.2W/m(2) and the attenuation amplitude was 14.6%; where there were medium cloud, the attenuation was 286.4W/m(2) and the attenuation amplitude was 33.4%. Aerosol affected mainly shortwave radiation, and affected long wave radiation very slightly. PMID:27295588

  13. Aerosol optical properties in the southeastern United States in summer - Part 1: Hygroscopic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Charles A.; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Attwood, Alexis R.; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Carlton, Annmarie G.; Day, Douglas A.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lack, Daniel A.; Liao, Jin; Markovic, Milos Z.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Ng, Nga L.; Perring, Anne E.; Richardson, Matthews S.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Welti, Andre; Xu, Lu; Ziemba, Luke D.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2016-04-01

    Aircraft observations of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties were made during May-September 2013 in the southeastern United States (US) under fair-weather, afternoon conditions with well-defined planetary boundary layer structure. Optical extinction at 532 nm was directly measured at relative humidities (RHs) of ˜ 15, ˜ 70, and ˜ 90 % and compared with extinction calculated from measurements of aerosol composition and size distribution using the κ-Köhler approximation for hygroscopic growth. The calculated enhancement in hydrated aerosol extinction with relative humidity, f(RH), calculated by this method agreed well with the observed f(RH) at ˜ 90 % RH. The dominance of organic aerosol, which comprised 65 ± 10 % of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 1 µm in the planetary boundary layer, resulted in relatively low f(RH) values of 1.43 ± 0.67 at 70 % RH and 2.28 ± 1.05 at 90 % RH. The subsaturated κ-Köhler hygroscopicity parameter κ for the organic fraction of the aerosol must have been < 0.10 to be consistent with 75 % of the observations within uncertainties, with a best estimate of κ = 0.05. This subsaturated κ value for the organic aerosol in the southeastern US is broadly consistent with field studies in rural environments. A new, physically based, single-parameter representation was developed that better described f(RH) than did the widely used gamma power-law approximation.

  14. Aerosol optical depth, physical properties and radiative forcing over the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh, S. K.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Takemura, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Arabian Sea region (4° N 20° N to 50° E 78° E) has a unique weather pattern on account of the Indian monsoon and the associated winds that reverse direction seasonally. The aerosol data, collected using ship-borne and island platforms (for 8 years from 1995 to 2002) along with MODIS (onboard TERRA satellite) data (from 2000 to 2003) have been used to evolve a comprehensive characterisation of the spatial and temporal variation in the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of aerosols over the Arabian Sea. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) was found to increase with latitude between the equator and 12° N. Over the northern Arabian Sea (regions lying north of 12° N), AODs do not show significant latitudinal variations; the average aerosol optical depth for this region was 0.29±0.12 during winter monsoon season (WMS; November to March) and 0.47±0.14 during summer monsoon season (SMS; April/May to September). The corresponding Angstrom exponents were 0.7±0.12 and 0.3±0.08, respectively. The low values of the exponent during SMS indicate the dominance of large aerosols (mainly dust particles >1 µm). The latitudinal gradient in AOD in the southern Arabian Sea is larger during SMS compared to WMS.

  15. The Effects of Mineral Dust on the Hygroscopic and Optical Properties of Inorganic Salt Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwood, A. R.; Greenslade, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral dust particles are a significant fraction of the total aerosol mass, thus they play an important role in the Earth's radiative budget by direct scattering and absorption of radiation. Assessing this impact is complicated by the variability of optical properties resulting from water uptake and changes in chemical composition due to atmospheric mixing. Internal mixtures of montmorillonite, a clay component of mineral dust, with sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate were studied optically using cavity ring down spectroscopy. The effects of the addition of the clay to the optically observed deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) and water uptake of these salts was considered by investigating a series of different salt mass fractions. In most cases, montmorillonite alters the hygroscopic properties and causes the DRH to occur at a lower relative humidity. For ammonium sulfate, optical properties can be approximated by volume weighted mixing rules with some minor deviations around the DRH. For sodium chloride, this approximation is only accurate below the DRH with enhanced water uptake at higher relative humidities. Our results show that salt particles may transition from solid to liquid at a lower relative humidity than is expected based on the salt alone, as observed with changes in optical properties. Further, they contradict current measurements in the literature that suggest little change in the hygroscopic behavior of salts when insoluble mineral dust components are added and should continue to be investigated. Accurate, direct measurements of the effect of the addition of clays to the optical properties of common aerosol species will allow for improvements in the prediction of the aerosol direct effect.

  16. Studies of seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties with use of remote techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzalkowska, Agata; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Pakszys, Paulina; Markuszewski, Piotr; Makuch, Przemyslaw

    2014-05-01

    According to the IPCC report, atmospheric aerosols due to their properties -extinction of Sun and Earth radiation and participation in processes of creation of clouds, are among basic "unknowns" in climate studies. Aerosols have large effect on the radiation balance of the Earth which has a significant impact on climate changes. They are also a key issue in the case of remote sensing measurements. The optical properties of atmospheric aerosols depend not only on their type but also on physical parameters such as pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction. The wide range of properties in which atmospheric aerosols affect Earth's climate is the reason of high unrelenting interest of scientists from different disciplines such as physics, chemistry and biology. Numerous studies have dealt with aerosol optical properties, e.g. Dubovik et al. (2002), but only in a few have regarded the influence of meteorological parameters on the optical properties of aerosols in the Baltic Sea area. Studies of aerosol properties over the Baltic were conducted already in the last forty years, e.g. Zielinski T. et. al. (1999) or Zielinski T. & A. Zielinski (2002). The experiments carried out at that time involved only one measuring instrument -e.g. LIDAR (range of 1 km) measurements and they were conducted only in selected areas of the Polish coastal zone. Moreover in those publications authors did not use measurements performed on board of research vessel (R/V Oceania), which belongs to Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Science (IO PAN) or data received from satellite measurements. In 2011 Zdun and Rozwadowska performed an analysis of all data derived from the AERONET station on the Gotland Island. The data were divided into seasons and supplemented by meteorological factors. However, so far no comprehensive study has been carried out for the entire Baltic Sea area. This was the reason to conduct further research of SEasonal Variations of Aerosol optical depth over the Baltic

  17. Optical properties of aerosols over a tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna, South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yongjing; Xin, Jinyuan; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-09-01

    Observation and analysis of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols in a South Asian tropical rain forest showed that the annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol Ångström exponent (α) at 500 nm were 0.47 ± 0.30 (± value represents the standard deviation) and 1.35 ± 0.32, respectively, from 2012 to 2014, similar with that of Amazon region. Aerosol optical properties in this region varied significantly between the dry and wet seasons. The mean AOD and α were 0.50 ± 0.32 and 1.41 ± 0.28, respectively, in the dry season and 0.41 ± 0.20 and 1.13 ± 0.41 in the wet season. Because of the combustion of the rich biomass in the dry season, fine modal smoke aerosols increased, which led to a higher AOD and smaller aerosol control mode than in the wet season. The average atmospheric humidity in the wet season was 85.50%, higher than the 79.67% during the dry season. In the very damp conditions of the wet season, the aerosol control mode was relatively larger, while AOD appeared to be lower because of the effect of aerosol hygroscopic growth and wet deposition. The trajectories were similar both in dry and wet, but with different effects on the aerosol concentration. The highest AOD values 0.66 ± 0.34 (in dry) and 0.45 ± 0.21 (in wet) both occurred in continental air masses, while smaller (0.38-0.48 in dry and 0.30-0.35 in wet) in oceanic air masses. The range of AOD values during the wet season was relatively narrow (0.30-0.45), but the dry season range was wider (0.38-0.66). For the Ångström exponent, the range in the wet season (0.74-1.34) was much greater than that in the dry season (1.33-1.54).

  18. Aerosol Physical, Optical and Chemical Properties during African Dust Events at Cape San Juan (CPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes de Jongh, C.; Mayol Bracero, O. L.; Rivera Vazquez, H.; Sheridan, P.; Ogren, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Large amounts of atmospheric dust are lifted from the North African deserts and are transported by the trade winds over the Caribbean region, especially during the summer months. How African dust particles influence the earth's radiative budget is not well understood because these particles are highly variable and their physical, optical, and chemical properties are poorly characterized, especially when they are atmospherically processed as are those that travel from Africa to the Caribbean region. Here we present results of aerosol measurements performed at Cape San Juan (CPR), a ground-based station located at the northeastern tip of the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. We used a condensation particle counter to determine the particle number concentration, a sunphotometer (part of the AErosol RObotical NETwork, AERONET, aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov) to determine volume size distributions and aerosol optical thickness, and a 3-wavelength nephelometer and particle/soot absorption photometer to determine the scattering and absorption coefficients. Filter samples for chemical analyses were collected with stacked-filter units. Preliminary results show that African dust air masses have higher average particle number concentrations (N=720 cm -3 ), aerosol optical depth (AOD = 0.27), and scattering and absorption coefficients (σ s = 30 Mm -1 , σ a = 0.46 Mm -1 ) than clean air masses (N = 460 cm -3 , AOD= 0.08, σ s = 11 Mm -1 , σ a = 0.37 Mm -1 . Results presented will also show how changes in aerosol optical properties in the presence and absence of African dust relate to the physical and chemical composition of the particles.

  19. Investigation of aerosol distribution patterns and its optical properties at different time scale by using LIDAR system and AERONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Fuyi; Khor, Wei Ying; Hee, Wan Shen; Choon, Yeap Eng; San, Lim Hwee; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol is a major health-impairment issue in Malaysia especially during southeast monsoon period (June-September) due to the active open burning activities. However, hazy days were an issue in Penang, Malaysia during March, 2014. Haze intruded Penang during March and lasted for a month except for the few days after rain. Rain water had washed out the aerosols from the atmosphere. Therefore, this study intends to analyse the aerosol profile and the optical properties of aerosol during this haze event and after rain. Meanwhile, several days after the haze event (during April, 2014) were also analyzed for comparison purposes. Additionally, the dominant aerosol type (i.e., dust, biomass burning, industrial and urban, marine, and mixed aerosol) during the study period was identified according to the scattering plots of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) against the Angstrom exponent.

  20. Lidar profiling of aerosol optical properties from Paris to Lake Baikal (Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieudonné, E.; Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.; Shang, X.

    2015-05-01

    In June 2013, a ground-based mobile lidar performed the ~10 000 km ride from Paris to Ulan-Ude, near Lake Baikal, profiling for the first time aerosol optical properties all the way from western Europe to central Siberia. The instrument was equipped with N2-Raman and depolarization channels that enabled an optical speciation of aerosols in the low and middle troposphere. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio (also called lidar ratio or LR) and particle depolarization ratio (PDR) at 355 nm have been retrieved. The LR in the lower boundary layer (300-700 m) was found to be 63 ± 17 sr on average during the campaign with a distribution slightly skewed toward higher values that peaks between 50 and 55 sr. Although the difference is small, PDR values observed in Russian cities (>2%, except after rain) are systematically higher than the ones measured in Europe (<1%), which is probably an effect of the lifting of terrigenous aerosols by traffic on roads. Biomass burning layers from grassland or/and forest fires in southern Russia exhibit LR values ranging from 65 to 107 sr and from 3 to 4% for the PDR. During the route, desert dust aerosols originating from the Caspian and Aral seas regions were characterized for the first time, with a LR (PDR) of 43 ± 14 sr (23 ± 2%) for pure dust. The lidar observations also showed that this dust event extended over 2300 km and lasted for ~6 days. Measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) show that our results are comparable in terms of aerosol optical thickness (between 0.05 and 0.40 at 355 nm) with the mean aerosol load encountered throughout our route.

  1. Lidar profiling of aerosol optical properties from Paris to Lake Baikal (Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieudonné, E.; Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.; Shang, X.

    2014-11-01

    In June 2013, a ground-based mobile lidar performed the 10 000 km ride from Paris to Ulan-Ude, near Lake Baikal, profiling for the first time aerosol optical properties all the way from Western Europe to central Siberia. The instrument was equipped with N2-Raman and depolarization channels that enabled an optical speciation of aerosols in the low and middle troposphere. The backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) and particle depolarization ratio (PDR) at 355 nm have been retrieved. The BER in the lower boundary layer (300-700 m) was found to be 0.017 ± 0.009 sr-1 in average during the campaign, with slightly higher values in background conditions near Lake Baikal (0.021 ± 0.010 sr-1 in average) corresponding to dust-like particles. PDR values observed in Russian cities (>1.7%) are higher than the ones measured in European cities (<1.3%) due to the lifting of terrigenous aerosols by traffic on roads with a bad tarmac. Biomass burning layers from grassland or/and forest fires in southern Russia exhibit BER values ranging from 0.010 to 0.015 sr-1 and from 2 to 3% for the PDR. Desert dust aerosols originating from the Caspian and Aral seas regions were characterized for the first time, with a BER (PDR) of 0.022 sr-1 (21%) for pure dust, and 0.011 sr-1 (15%) for a mix between dust and biomass burning. The lidar observations also showed that this dust event extended over 2300 km and lasted for ~6 days. Measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) show that our results are comparable in terms of aerosol optical thickness (between 0.05 and 0.40 at 355 nm) with the mean aerosol load encountered throughout our route.

  2. Modelling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, Josef; Wiegner, Matthias; Groß, Silke; Freudenthaler, Volker; Toledano, Carlos; Tesche, Matthias; Kandler, Konrad

    2011-09-01

    We model lidar-relevant optical properties of mineral dust aerosols and compare the modelling results with optical properties derived from lidar measurements during the SAMUM field campaigns. The Discrete Dipole Approximation is used for optical modelling of single particles. For modelling of ensemble properties, the desert aerosol type of the OPAC aerosol dataset is extended by mixtures of absorbing and non-absorbing irregularly shaped mineral dust particles. Absorbing and non-absorbing particles are mixed to mimic the natural mineralogical inhomogeneity of dust particles. A sensitivity study reveals that the mineralogical inhomogeneity is critical for the lidar ratio at short wavelengths; it has to be considered for agreement with the observed wavelength dependence of the lidar ratio. The amount of particles with low aspect ratios (about 1.4 and lower) affects the lidar ratio at any lidar wavelength; their amount has to be low for agreement with SAMUM observations. Irregularly shaped dust particles with typical refractive indices, in general, have higher linear depolarization ratios than corresponding spheroids, and improve the agreement with the observations.

  3. The Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties using Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W.; Castaneda, Rene; Owano, Thomas; Baer, Douglas S.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects that aerosols have on climate require improved in situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This paper describes the use of continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) technology to address this problem. The innovations in this instrument are the use of CW-CRD to measure aerosol extinction coefficient, the simultaneous measurement of scattering coefficient, and small size suitable for a wide range of aircraft applications. Our prototype instrument measures extinction and scattering coefficient at 690 nm and extinction coefficient at 1550 nm. The instrument itself is small (60 x 48 x 15 cm) and relatively insensitive to vibrations. The prototype instrument has been tested in our lab and used in the field. While improvements in performance are needed, the prototype has been shown to make accurate and sensitive measurements of extinction and scattering coefficients. Combining these two parameters, one can obtain the single-scattering albedo and absorption coefficient, both important aerosol properties. The use of two wavelengths also allows us to obtain a quantitative idea of the size of the aerosol through the Angstrom exponent. Minimum sensitivity of the prototype instrument is 1.5 x 10(exp -6)/m (1.5 M/m). Validation of the measurement of extinction coefficient has been accomplished by comparing the measurement of calibration spheres with Mie calculations. This instrument and its successors have potential to help reduce uncertainty currently associated with aerosol optical properties and their spatial and temporal variation. Possible applications include studies of visibility, climate forcing by aerosol, and the validation of aerosol retrieval schemes from satellite data.

  4. The Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties Using Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Owano, T.; Castaneda, R.; Baer, D. S.; Paldus, B. A.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects that aerosols have on climate require improved in-situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This abstract describes the use of continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) technology to address this problem. The innovations in this instrument are the use of CW-CRD to measure aerosol extinction coefficient, the simultaneous measurement of scattering coefficient, and small size suitable for a wide range of aircraft applications. Our prototype instrument measures extinction and scattering coefficient at 690 nm and extinction coefficient at 1550 nm. The instrument itself is small (60 x 48 x 15 cm) and relatively insensitive to vibrations. The prototype instrument has been tested in our lab and used in the field. While improvements in performance are needed, the prototype has been shown to make accurate and sensitive measurements of extinction and scattering coefficients. Combining these two parameters, one can obtain the single-scattering albedo and absorption coefficient, both important aerosol properties. The use of two wavelengths also allows us to obtain a quantitative idea of the size of the aerosol through the Angstrom exponent. Minimum sensitivity of the prototype instrument is 1.5 x 10(exp -6)/m (1.5/Mm). Validation of the measurement of extinction coefficient has been accomplished by comparing the measurement of calibration spheres with Mie calculations. This instrument and its successors have potential to help reduce uncertainty currently associated with aerosol optical properties and their spatial and temporal variation. Possible applications include studies of visibility, climate forcing by aerosol, and the validation of aerosol retrieval schemes from satellite data.

  5. What is the real role of iron oxides in the optical properties of dust aerosols?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. L.; Wu, G. J.; Zhang, C. L.; Xu, T. L.; Zhou, Q. Q.

    2015-11-01

    Iron oxide compounds constitute an important component of mineral dust aerosols. Several previous studies have shown that these minerals are strong absorbers at visible wavelengths and thus that they play a critical role in the overall climate perturbation caused by dust aerosols. When compiling a database of complex refractive indices of possible mineral species of iron oxides to study their optical properties, we found that uniformly continuous optical constants for a single type of iron oxide in the wavelength range between 0.2 and 50 μm are very scarce, and that the use of hematite to represent all molecular or mineral iron-oxides types is a popular hypothesis. However, the crucial problem is that three continuous data sets for complex refractive indices of hematite are employed in climate models, but there are significant differences between them. Thus, the real role of iron oxides in the optical properties of dust aerosols becomes a key scientific question, and we address this problem by considering different refractive indices, size distributions and more logical weight fractions and mixing states of hematite. Based on the microscopic observations, a semi-external mixture that employs an external mixture between Fe aggregates and other minerals and partly internal mixing between iron oxides and aluminosilicate particles is advised as the optimal approximation. The simulations demonstrate that hematite with a spectral refractive index from Longtin et al. (1988) shows approximately equal absorbing capacity to the mineral illite over the whole wavelength region from 0.55 to 2.5 μm, and only enhances the optical absorption of aerosol mixture at λ < 0.55 μm. Using the data set from Querry (1985) may overestimate the optical absorption of hematite at both visible and near-infrared wavelengths. More laboratory measurements of the refractive index of iron oxides, especially for hematite and goethite in the visible spectrum, should therefore be taken into account

  6. Investigation of aerosol optical properties for remote sensing through DRAGON (distributed regional aerosol gridded observation networks) campaign in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Park, Jin-Soo; Hong, You-Deok; Han, Jin-Seok; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-11-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere, including dust and pollutants, scatters/absorbs solar radiation and change the microphysics of clouds, thus influencing the Earth's energy budget, climate, air quality, visibility, agriculture and water circulation. Pollutants have also been reported to threaten the human health. The present research collaborated with the U.S. NASA and the U.S. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is to study the aerosol characteristics in East Asia and improve the long-distance transportation monitoring technology by analyzing the observations of aerosol characteristics in East Asia during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March 2012-May 2012). The sun photometers that measure the aerosol optical characteristics were placed evenly throughout the Korean Peninsula and concentrated in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Observation data are obtained from the DRAGON campaign and the first year (2012) observation data (aerosol optical depth and aerosol spatial distribution) are analyzed. Sun photometer observations, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), are utilized to validate satellite observations from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Additional analysis is performed associated with the Northeast Asia, the Korean Peninsula in particular, to determine the spatial distribution of the aerosol.

  7. Aerosol optical and physical properties during winter monsoon pollution transport in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Verma, S; Bhanja, S N; Pani, S K; Misra, A

    2014-04-01

    We analysed aerosol optical and physical properties in an urban environment (Kolkata) during winter monsoon pollution transport from nearby and far-off regions. Prevailing meteorological conditions, viz. low temperature and wind speed, and a strong downdraft of air mass, indicated weak dispersion and inhibition of vertical mixing of aerosols. Spectral features of WinMon aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed larger variability (0.68-1.13) in monthly mean AOD at short-wavelength (SW) channels (0.34-0.5 μm) compared to that (0.28-0.37) at long-wavelength (LW) channels (0.87-1.02 μm), thereby indicating sensitivity of WinMon AOD to fine aerosol constituents and the predominant contribution from fine aerosol constituents to WinMon AOD. WinMon AOD at 0.5 μm (AOD 0. 5) and Angstrom parameter ( α) were 0.68-0.82 and 1.14-1.32, respectively, with their highest value in December. Consistent with inference from spectral features of AOD, surface aerosol loading was primarily constituted of fine aerosols (size 0.23-3 μm) which was 60-70 % of aerosol 10- μm (size 0.23-10 μm) concentration. Three distinct modes of aerosol distribution were obtained, with the highest WinMon concentration at a mass median diameter (MMD) of 0.3 μm during December, thereby indicating characteristics of primary contribution related to anthropogenic pollutants that were inferred to be mostly due to contribution from air mass originating in nearby region having predominant emissions from biofuel and fossil fuel combustion. A relatively higher contribution from aerosols in the upper atmospheric layers than at the surface to WinMon AOD was inferred during February compared to other months and was attributed to predominant contribution from open burning emissions arising from nearby and far-off regions. A comparison of ground-based measurements with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data showed an underestimation of MODIS AOD and α values for most of the days. Discrepancy in

  8. In situ observations of aerosol physical and optical properties in northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihavainen, H.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hooda, R. K.; Raatikainen, T. E.; Sharma, V.; Komppula, M.

    2012-12-01

    The southern Asia, including India, is exposed to substantial quantities of particulate air pollution originating mainly from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Besides serious adverse health effects, these aerosols cause a large reduction of solar radiation at the surface accompanied by a substantial atmospheric heating, which is expected to have significant influences on the air temperature, crop yields, livestock and water resources over the southern Asia. The various influences by aerosols in this region depend crucially on the development of aerosol emissions from household, industrial, transportation and biomass burning sectors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate several measured aerosol optical and physical properties. We take advantage of observations from two measurement stations which have been established by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and The Energy and Resources Institute. Another station is on the foothills of Himalayas, in Mukteshwar, about 350 km east of New Delhi at elevation about 2 km ASL. This site is considered as a rural background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7-500 nm), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and weather parameters have been conducted since 2006. Another station is located at the outskirts of New Delhi, in Gual Pahari, about 35 km south of city centre. It is considered as an urban background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7 nm- 10 μm), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, aerosol optical depth, aerosol vertical distribution (LIDAR), aerosol filter sampling for chemical characterization and weather parameters were conducted between 2008 and 2010. On the overall average PM10 and PM2.5 values were about 3-4 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar as expected, 216 and 126 μg m^-3, respectively. However, difference depended much on the season, so that during winter time PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were about

  9. Observations of Aerosol Optical Properties over 15 AERONET Sites in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J. D.; Lagrosas, N.; Uy, S. N.; Holben, B. N.; Dorado, S.; Tobias, V., Jr.; Anh, N. X.; Po-Hsiung, L.; Janjai, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Liew, S. C.; Lim, H. S.; Lestari, P.

    2014-12-01

    Mean column-integrated optical properties from ground sun photometers of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are studied to provide an overview of the characteristics of aerosols over the region as part of the 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7-SEAS) mission. The 15 AERONET sites with the most available level 2 data products are selected from Thailand (Chiang Mai, Mukdahan, Songkhla and Silpakorn University), Malaysia (University Sains Malaysia), Laos (Vientiane), Vietnam (Bac Giang, Bac Lieu and Nha Trang), Taiwan (National Cheng Kung University and Central Weather Bureau Taipei), Singapore, Indonesia (Bandung) and the Philippines (Manila Observatory and Notre Dame of Marbel University). For all 15 sites, high angstrom exponent values (α>1) have been observed. Chiang Mai and USM have the highest mean Angstrom exponent indicating the dominance of fine particles that can be ascribed to biomass burning and urbanization. Sites with the lowest Angstrom exponent values include Bac Lieu (α=1.047) and Manila Observatory (α=1.021). From the average lognormal size distribution curves, Songkhla and NDMU show the smallest annual variation in the fine mode region, indicating the observed fine aerosols are local to the sites. The rest of the sites show high variation which could be due to large scale forcings (e.g., monsoons and biomass burnings) that affect aerosol properties in these sites. Both high and low single scattering albedo at 440 nm (ω0440) values are found in sites located in major urban areas. Silpakorn University, Manila Observatory and Vientiane have all mean ω0440 < 0.90. Singapore and CWB Taipei have ω0440 > 0.94. The discrepancy in ω0 suggests different types of major emission sources present in urban areas. The absorptivity of urban aerosols can vary depending on the strength of traffic emissions, types of fuel combusted and automobile engines used, and the effect of biomass burning aerosols during the dry season. High aerosol optical depth values (τa550

  10. Mixing State and Optical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosol during the SAMBBA 2012 Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, Jennifer; Brooks, Barbara; McQuaid, Jim; Osborne, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Emissions of black carbon are a global phenomenon associated with combustion activities with an estimated 40 % of global emissions from biomass burning. These emissions are typically dominated in regional hotspots, such as along the edges of the Amazon Basin, and contribute to the regional air quality and have associated health impacts as well as the global climatic impacts of this major source of black carbon as well as other radiatively active species. New airborne measurements will be presented of biomass burning emissions across the Amazon region from the South AMerican Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) campaign based at Porto Vehlo, Rondônia, Brazil in September 2012. This airborne campaign aboard the FAAM BAe-146 coincided with the seasonal peak in South American biomass burning emissions, which make up the most dominant source of atmospheric pollutants in the region at this time. SAMBBA included dedicated flights involving in-situ measurements and remote sensing of single plume studies through to multi-plume sampling of smouldering and flaming vegetation fires, regional haze sampling, and measurements of biogenic aerosol and gases across Amazonas. This presentation summarises early findings from the SAMBBA aircraft observations focusing on the relationship between biomass burning aerosol properties; size distributions, aerosol mixing state and optical properties from a suite of instruments onboard the FAAM BAe-146. The interplay of these properties influences the regional radiative balance impacting on weather and climate. The Leeds airborne VACC (Volatile Aerosol Concentration and Composition) instrument is designed to investigate the volatility properties of different aerosol species in order to determine aerosol composition; furthermore it can be used to infer the mixing state of the aerosol. Size distributions measured with the volatility system will be compared with ambient size distribution measurements this allows information on organic coating

  11. Spatial Variability of AERONET Aerosol Optical Properties and Satellite Data in South Korea during NASA DRAGON-Asia Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Son, Youn-Suk

    2016-04-01

    We investigated spatial variability in aerosol optical properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine-mode fraction (FMF), and single scattering albedo (SSA), observed at 21 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites and satellite remote sensing data in South Korea during the spring of 2012. These dense AERONET networks established in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) field campaign enabled us to examine the spatially detailed aerosol size distribution and composition as well as aerosol levels. The springtime particle air quality was characterized by high background aerosol levels and high contributions of coarse-mode aerosols to total aerosols. We found that between-site correlations and coefficient of divergence for AOD and FMF strongly relied on the distance between sites, particularly in the south-north direction. Higher AOD was related to higher population density and lower distance from highways, and the aerosol size distribution and composition reflected source-specific characteristics. The ratios of satellite NO2 to AOD, which indicate the relative contributions of local combustion sources to aerosol levels, represented higher local contributions in metropolitan Seoul and Pusan. Our study demonstrates that the aerosol levels were determined by both local and regional pollution and that the relative contributions of these pollutions to aerosols generated spatial heterogeneity in the particle air quality. PMID:26953969

  12. High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. II - Calibration and data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroga, J. T.; Eloranta, E. W.; Roesler, F. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Tryon, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) measures optical properties of atmospheric aerosols by interferometically separating the elastic aerosol backscatter from the Doppler broadened molecular contribution. Calibration and data analysis procedures developed for the HSRL are described. Data obtained during flight evaluation testing of the HSRL system are presented with estimates of uncertainties due to instrument calibration. HSRL measurements of the aerosol scattering cross section are compared with in situ integrating nephelometer measurements.

  13. Measurements of Intensive Aerosol Optical Properties During TexAQS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Wright, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the bulk extensive aerosol optical properties - particle extinction coefficient (bext) and particle scattering coefficient (bscat) - and particle number concentrations were made as part of the six-week TRAMP experiment during the TexAQS II (2006) study. These measurements were done at a nominal surface site (the roof of an 18 story building) on the University of Houston campus near downtown Houston, Texas. Our ground-based tandem cavity ring-down transmissometer/nephelometer instrument (CRDT/N) provided the aerosol optical property measurements. A commercial Condensation Particle Counter (TSI 3007) was used to measure the number concentrations during part of the study period. The optical data was used to construct the intensive aerosol optical properties single scattering albedo ω0 at 532 nm and the Angstrom exponent for extinction between 532 nm and 1064 nm. Recent validation studies of size- selected laboratory generated aerosols are presented to illustrate the soundness of this approach using our instrument. The Angstrom exponent is compared to values from other instruments operating in the area and is found to be a characteristic of the regional air mass under some conditions. Size distributions measured during the study were used to create a new empirical adjustment to scattering measured by the Radiance Research nephelometer, resulting in improved results for particle absorption coefficient and single scattering albedo. The study average value of ω0(532 nm) = 0.78 is lower than expected from comparable field studies and even lower values are experienced during the study. Possible causes of this discrepancy are examined and the utility of using the current version of the CRDT/N instrument to measure the key radiative property ω0 is assessed. Observed episodes of rapid increases in particle number concentration with little corresponding growth in the optical properties can presumably be used to signal the occurrence of particle

  14. Use of the NASA GEOS-5 SEAC4RS Meteorological and Aerosol Reanalysis for assessing simulated aerosol optical properties as a function of smoke age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Buchard, V.; Govindaraju, R.; Chen, G.; Hair, J. W.; Russell, P. B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Wagner, N.; Lack, D.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model, which includes an online aerosol module, provided chemical and weather forecasts during the SEAC4RS field campaign. For post-mission analysis, we have produced a high resolution (25 km) meteorological and aerosol reanalysis for the entire campaign period. In addition to the full meteorological observing system used for routine NWP, we assimilate 550 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from MODIS (both Aqua and Terra satellites), ground-based AERONET sun photometers, and the MISR instrument (over bright surfaces only). Daily biomass burning emissions of CO, CO2, SO2, and aerosols are derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We have also introduced novel smoke "age" tracers, which provide, for a given time, a snapshot histogram of the age of simulated smoke aerosol. Because GEOS-5 assimilates remotely sensed AOD data, it generally reproduces observed (column) AOD compared to, for example, the airborne 4-STAR instrument. Constraining AOD, however, does not imply a good representation of either the vertical profile or the aerosol microphysical properties (e.g., composition, absorption). We do find a reasonable vertical structure for aerosols is attained in the model, provided actual smoke injection heights are not much above the planetary boundary layer, as verified with observations from DIAL/HRSL aboard the DC8. The translation of the simulated aerosol microphysical properties to total column AOD, needed in the aerosol assimilation step, is based on prescribed mass extinction efficiencies that depend on wavelength, composition, and relative humidity. Here we also evaluate the performance of the simulated aerosol speciation by examining in situ retrievals of aerosol absorption/single scattering albedo and scattering growth factor (f(RH)) from the LARGE and AOP suite of instruments. Putting these comparisons in the context of smoke age as diagnosed by the model helps us to

  15. Aerosol climatology over Mexico City basin: Characterization of their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabali-Sandoval, Giovanni; Valdéz-Barrón, Mauro; Bonifaz-Alfonso, Roberto; Riveros-Rosas, David; Estévez, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    Climatology of aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and size parameters were analyzed using a 15-year (1999-2014) data set from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) observations over Mexico City basin. Since urban air pollution is one of the biggest problems that face this megacity, many studies addressing these issues have been published. However few studies have examined the climatology of aerosol taking into account their optical properties over long-time period. Pollution problems in Mexico City have been generated by the daily activities of some 21 million people coupled with the vast amount of industry located within the city's metropolitan area. Another contributing factor is the unique geographical setting of the basin encompassing Mexico City. The basin covers approximately 5000 km2 of the Mexican Plateau at an average elevation of 2250 m above sea level (ASL) and is surrounded on three sides by mountains averaging over 3000 m ASL. In this work we present preliminary results of aerosol climatology in Mexico City.

  16. Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Boris B.; Sverdlik, Leonid G.; Imashev, Sanjar A.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Artamonova, Maria S.; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regionalmore » sources are characterized by pollution transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51) and the fine particle mass fraction (64%). Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing.« less

  17. The impacts of optical properties on radiative forcing due to dust aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Shi, G. Y.; Li, S. Y.; Li, W.; Wang, B.; Huang, Y. B.

    2006-05-01

    There are large uncertainties in the quantitative assessment of radiative effects due to atmospheric dust aerosol. The optical properties contribute much to those uncertainties. The authors perform several sensitivity experiments to estimate the impacts of optical characteristics on regional radiative forcing in this paper. The experiments involve in refractive indices, single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor and optical depth. An updated dataset of refractive indices representing East Asian dust and the one recommended by the World Meteorology Organization (WMO) are contrastively analyzed and used. A radiative transfer code for solar and thermal infrared radiation with detailed aerosol parameterization is employed. The strongest emphasis is on the refractive indices since other optical parameters strongly depend on it, and the authors found a strong sensitivity of radiative forcing on refractive indices. Studies show stronger scattering, weaker absorption and forward scattering of the East Asian dust particles at solar wavelengths, which leads to higher negative forcing, lower positive forcing and bigger net forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) than that of the WMO dust model. It is also found that the TOA forcings resulting from these two dust models have opposite signs in certain regions, which implies the importance of accurate measurements of optical properties in the quantitative estimation of radiative forcing.

  18. Aerosol optical properties under the condition of heavy haze over an urban site of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Che, Huizheng; Xia, Xiangao; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yaqiang; Sun, Junying; Zhang, Xiaoye; Shi, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    In January 2013, several serious haze pollution events happened in North China. Cimel sunphotometer measurements at an urban site of Beijing (Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences-CAMS) from 1 to 30 January 2013 were used to investigate the detailed variation of aerosol optical properties. It was found that Angstrom exponents were mostly larger than 0.80 when aerosol optical depth values are higher than 0.60 at the urban region of Beijing during January 2013. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) at the urban region of Beijing can remain steady at approximately 0.40 before haze happening and then increased sharply to more than 1.50 at 500 nm with the onset of haze, which suggests that the fine-mode AOD is a factor of 20 of the coarse-mode AOD during a serious haze pollution event. The single scattering albedo was approximately 0.90 ± 0.03 at 440, 675, 870 and 1,020 nm during the haze pollution period. The single scattering albedo at 440 nm as a function of the fine-mode fraction was relatively consistent, but it was highly variable at 675, 870 and 1,020 nm. Except on January 12 and 18, all the fine-mode particle volumes were larger than those of coarse particles, which suggests that fine particles from anthropogenic activities made up most of the haze. Aerosol type classification analysis showed that the dominant aerosol types can be classified as both "mixed" and "urban/industrial (U/I) and biomass burning (BB)" categories during the heavy haze period of Beijing in January of 2013. The mixed category occurrence was about 31 %, while the U/I and BB was about 69 %. PMID:25106521

  19. Effect of aging on morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalizov, A. F.; Xue, H.; Pagels, J.; McMurry, P. H.; Zhang, R.

    2009-12-01

    Soot from incomplete combustion represents one of the major forms of particulate matter pollution, profoundly impacting human health, air quality, and climate. The direct and indirect radiative effects of soot aerosol depend on particle composition and morphology, which may vary significantly when aerosol is subjected to atmospheric aging. We will present an overview of a comprehensive set of experimental measurements performed in our laboratory at Texas A&M to study the effect of internal mixing with atmospheric species on morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of combustion soot. In our experiments, size-classified soot aerosol was exposed to 0.1 - 1000 ppb (part per billion) mixing ratios of sulfuric acid and dicarboxylic organic acids and resulting changes particle morphology and mixing state under dry and humid conditions were characterized through mass-mobility measurements by aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM) and tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA). Light absorption and scattering cross-sections for well-characterized fresh and coated soot aerosol were derived using a cavity ring-down spectrometer and an integrating nephelometer in order to assess the effect of atmospheric processing on the radiative properties of atmospheric soot. Internally mixed soot shows significant changes in particle morphology, increasing with the mass fraction of the coating material and relative humidity. Restructuring was the strongest for aggregates coated by sulfuric and glutaric acids whereas succinic acid coating did not result in observable morphology change. Sulfuric acid - coated particles experienced large hygroscopic growth at sub-saturated conditions and activated to cloud droplets at atmospherically relevant supersaturations. Furthermore, coating and subsequent hygroscopic growth considerably altered the optical properties of soot aerosol, increasing light scattering and absorption cross-sections. We found that irreversible restructuring of soot

  20. Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renyi; Khalizov, Alexei F.; Pagels, Joakim; Zhang, Dan; Xue, Huaxin; McMurry, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The atmospheric effects of soot aerosols include interference with radiative transfer, visibility impairment, and alteration of cloud formation and are highly sensitive to the manner by which soot is internally mixed with other aerosol constituents. We present experimental studies to show that soot particles acquire a large mass fraction of sulfuric acid during atmospheric aging, considerably altering their properties. Soot particles exposed to subsaturated sulfuric acid vapor exhibit a marked change in morphology, characterized by a decreased mobility-based diameter but an increased fractal dimension and effective density. These particles experience large hygroscopic size and mass growth at subsaturated conditions (<90% relative humidity) and act efficiently as cloud-condensation nuclei. Coating with sulfuric acid and subsequent hygroscopic growth enhance the optical properties of soot aerosols, increasing scattering by ≈10-fold and absorption by nearly 2-fold at 80% relative humidity relative to fresh particles. In addition, condensation of sulfuric acid is shown to occur at a similar rate on ambient aerosols of various types of a given mobility size, regardless of their chemical compositions and microphysical structures. Representing an important mechanism of atmospheric aging, internal mixing of soot with sulfuric acid has profound implications on visibility, human health, and direct and indirect climate forcing. PMID:18645179

  1. Effects of aerosol optical properties on deep convective clouds and radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Renyi; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Mohr, Karen I

    2008-04-23

    The aerosol radiative effects (ARE) on the deep convective clouds are investigated by using a spectral-bin cloud-resolving model coupled with a radiation scheme and an explicit land surface model. The sensitivity of cloud properties and the associated radiative forcing to aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) are examined. The ARE on cloud properties is pronounced for mid-visible SSA of 0.85. Relative to the case without ARE, the cloud fraction and optical depth decrease by about 18% and 20%, respectively. Ice particle number concentrations, liquid water path, ice water path, and droplet size decrease by more than 15% when the ARE is introduced. The ARE causes a surface cooling of about 0.35 K and significantly high heating rates in the lower troposphere (about 0.6 K day-1 higher at 2 km), both of which lead to a more stable atmosphere and hence weaker convection. The weaker convection explains the less cloudiness, lower cloud optical depth, less LWP and IWP, smaller droplet size, and less precipitation resulting from the ARE. The daytime-mean direct forcing induced by black carbon is about 2.2 W m-2 at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and -17.4 W m-2 at the surface for SSA of 0.85. The semi-direct forcing is positive, about 10 and 11.2 W m-2 at the TOA and surface, respectively. Both the TOA and surface total radiative forcing values are strongly negative for the deep convective clouds, attributed mostly to aerosol indirect forcing. Aerosol direct and semi-direct effects are very sensitive to SSA when aerosol optical depth is high. Because the positive semi-direct forcing compensates the negative direct forcing at the surface, the surface temperature and heat fluxes decrease less significantly with the increase of aerosol absorption (decreasing SSA). The cloud fraction, optical depth, convective strength, and precipitation decrease with the increase of absorption, resulting from a more stable atmosphere due to enhanced

  2. Effects of aerosol optical properties on deep convective clouds and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Renyi; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Mohr, Karen I.

    2008-04-01

    The aerosol radiative effects (ARE) on the deep convective clouds are investigated by using a spectral-bin cloud-resolving model coupled with a radiation scheme and an explicit land surface model. The sensitivity of cloud properties and the associated radiative forcing to aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) are examined. The ARE on cloud properties is pronounced for mid-visible SSA of 0.85. Relative to the case without ARE, the cloud fraction and optical depth decrease by about 18% and 20%, respectively. Ice particle number concentrations, liquid water path, ice water path, and droplet size decrease by more than 15% when the ARE is introduced. The ARE causes a surface cooling of about 0.35 K and significantly high heating rates in the lower troposphere (about 0.6 K day-1 higher at 2 km), both of which lead to a more stable atmosphere and hence weaker convection. The weaker convection explains the less cloudiness, lower cloud optical depth, less LWP and IWP, smaller droplet size, and less precipitation resulting from the ARE. The daytime-mean direct forcing induced by black carbon is about 2.2 W m-2 at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and -17.4 W m-2 at the surface for SSA of 0.85. The semi-direct forcing is positive, about 10 and 11.2 W m-2 at the TOA and surface, respectively. Both the TOA and surface total radiative forcing values are strongly negative for the deep convective clouds, attributed mostly to aerosol indirect forcing. Aerosol direct and semi-direct effects are very sensitive to SSA when aerosol optical depth is high. Because the positive semi-direct forcing compensates the negative direct forcing at the surface, the surface temperature and heat fluxes decrease less significantly with the increase of aerosol absorption (decreasing SSA). The cloud fraction, optical depth, convective strength, and precipitation decrease with the increase of absorption, resulting from a more stable atmosphere due to enhanced surface cooling and atmospheric heating.

  3. Physical and optical properties of mineral dust aerosol during the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, S. R.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Baran, A. J.; Harrison, M. A. J.; McConnell, C. L.

    2008-12-01

    We present aircraft measurements of dust aerosol during the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment (DABEX), a project affiliated with the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis. DABEX took place between 13 January and 3 February 2006 in Sahelian west Africa, with the aircraft based at Niamey, Niger. The data set is augmented with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data. A mineral dust layer below 1-2 km (sourced from the north) and an overlying biomass burning (BB) layer (sourced from anthropogenic fires to the south) was observed on all days, although variability was observed in both layers. There is evidence of ozone loss within the dust, but with CO levels between 140 and 170 ppbv some history of combustion has occurred. Size distribution of the dust is compared with that of the BB aerosol and with dust measured near Senegal, during the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO-1) experiment. For accurate representation of the optical properties, five log-normals to the size distribution across sizes 0.05-5 μm are required, although two log-normals are adequate. The single scattering albedo was almost purely scattering, with values of 0.99 ± 0.01. During the strongest dust events the dust contribution to the column optical depth was 75-80%, compared to a DABEX mean of 50%. The aircraft-derived optical depth varied between 0.19 and 1.07, with the dust-only contribution between 0.07 and 0.81. AERONET optical depth trends are in good agreement with aircraft during DABEX, albeit with a bias to higher aircraft values. Retrieved AERONET aerosol size distributions show variable agreement with the aircraft. Differences between Versions 1 and 2 of the AERONET algorithm are highlighted.

  4. Examining the Impact of Overlying Aerosols on the Retrieval of Cloud Optical Properties from Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coddington, O. M.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Platnick, S.; Russell, P. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Gore, W. J.; Livingston, J.; Wind, G.; Vukicevic, T.

    2010-01-01

    Haywood et al. (2004) show that an aerosol layer above a cloud can cause a bias in the retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius. Monitoring for this potential bias is difficult because space ]based passive remote sensing cannot unambiguously detect or characterize aerosol above cloud. We show that cloud retrievals from aircraft measurements above cloud and below an overlying aerosol layer are a means to test this bias. The data were collected during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-A) study based out of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States, above extensive, marine stratus cloud banks affected by industrial outflow. Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) irradiance measurements taken along a lower level flight leg above cloud and below aerosol were unaffected by the overlying aerosol. Along upper level flight legs, the irradiance reflected from cloud top was transmitted through an aerosol layer. We compare SSFR cloud retrievals from below ]aerosol legs to satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in order to detect an aerosol ]induced bias. In regions of small variation in cloud properties, we find that SSFR and MODIS-retrieved cloud optical thickness compares within the uncertainty range for each instrument while SSFR effective radius tend to be smaller than MODIS values (by 1-2 microns) and at the low end of MODIS uncertainty estimates. In regions of large variation in cloud properties, differences in SSFR and MODIS ]retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius can reach values of 10 and 10 microns, respectively. We include aerosols in forward modeling to test the sensitivity of SSFR cloud retrievals to overlying aerosol layers. We find an overlying absorbing aerosol layer biases SSFR cloud retrievals to smaller effective radii and optical thickness while nonabsorbing aerosols had no impact.

  5. Optical, physical and chemical properties of transported African mineral dust aerosols in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, Cyrielle; Di Biagio, Claudia; Chevaillier, Servanne; Gaimoz, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Loisil, Rodrigue; Triquet, Sylvain; Zapf, Pascal; Roberts, Greg; Bourrianne, Thierry; Torres, Benjamin; Blarel, Luc; Sellegri, Karine; Freney, Evelyn; Schwarzenbock, Alfons; Ravetta, François; Laurent, Benoit; Mallet, Marc; Formenti, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The transport of mineral dust aerosols is a global phenomenon with strong climate implications. Depending on the travel distance over source regions, the atmospheric conditions and the residence time in the atmosphere, various transformation processes (size-selective sedimentation, mixing, condensation of gaseous species, and weathering) can modify the physical and chemical properties of mineral dust, which, in turn, can change the dust's optical properties. The model predictions of the radiative effect by mineral dust still suffer of the lack of certainty of these properties, and their temporal evolution with transport time. Within the frame of the ChArMex project (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), two intensive airborne campaigns (TRAQA, TRansport and Air QuAlity, 18 June - 11 July 2012, and ADRIMED, Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact in the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region, 06 June - 08 July 2013) have been performed over the Central and Western Mediterranean, one of the two major transport pathways of African mineral dust. In this study we have set up a systematic strategy to determine the optical, physical and optical properties of mineral dust to be compared to an equivalent dataset for dust close to source regions in Africa. This study is based on airborne observations onboard the SAFIRE ATR-42 aircraft, equipped with state of the art in situ instrumentation to measure the particle scattering and backscattering coefficients (nephelometer at 450, 550, and 700 nm), the absorption coefficient (PSAP at 467, 530, and 660 nm), the extinction coefficient (CAPS at 530 nm), the aerosol optical depth (PLASMA at 340 to 1640 nm), the size distribution in the extended range 40 nm - 30 µm by the combination of different particle counters (SMPS, USHAS, FSSP, GRIMM) and the chemical composition obtained by filter sampling. The chemistry and transport model CHIMERE-Dust have been used to classify the air masses according to

  6. Remote Marine Aerosol: A Characterization of Physical, Chemical and Optical Properties and their Relation to Radiative Transfer in the Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Antony D.; Porter, John N.

    1997-01-01

    Our research effort is focused on improving our understanding of aerosol properties needed for optical models for remote marine regions. This includes in-situ and vertical column optical closure and involves a redundancy of approaches to measure and model optical properties that must be self consistent. The model is based upon measured in-situ aerosol properties and will be tested and constrained by the vertically measured spectral differential optical depth of the marine boundary layer, MBL. Both measured and modeled column optical properties for the boundary layer, when added to the free-troposphere and stratospheric optical depth, will be used to establish spectral optical depth over the entire atmospheric column for comparison to and validation of satellite derived radiances (AVHRR).

  7. Variations in optical properties of aerosols on monsoon seasonal change and estimation of aerosol optical depth using ground-based meteorological and air quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Holben, B.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the optical properties of aerosols in Penang, Malaysia were analyzed for four monsoonal seasons (northeast monsoon, pre-monsoon, southwest monsoon, and post-monsoon) based on data from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from February 2012 to November 2013. The aerosol distribution patterns in Penang for each monsoonal period were quantitatively identified according to the scattering plots of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) against the Angstrom exponent. A modified algorithm based on the prototype model of Tan et al. (2014a) was proposed to predict the AOD data. Ground-based measurements (i.e., visibility and air pollutant index) were used in the model as predictor data to retrieve the missing AOD data from AERONET because of frequent cloud formation in the equatorial region. The model coefficients were determined through multiple regression analysis using selected data set from in situ data. The predicted AOD of the model was generated based on the coefficients and compared against the measured data through standard statistical tests. The predicted AOD in the proposed model yielded a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.68. The corresponding percent mean relative error was less than 0.33% compared with the real data. The results revealed that the proposed model efficiently predicted the AOD data. Validation tests were performed on the model against selected LIDAR data and yielded good correspondence. The predicted AOD can beneficially monitor short- and long-term AOD and provide supplementary information in atmospheric corrections.

  8. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Shantz, Nicole C.; Gultepe, Ismail; Andrews, Elisabeth; Earle, Michael; MacDonald, A. M.; Liu, Peter S.K.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2014-03-06

    Airborne observations from four flights during the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) are used to examine some cloud-free optical, physical, and chemical properties of aerosol particles in the springtime Arctic troposphere. The number concentrations of particles larger than 0.12 μm (Na>120), important for light extinction and cloud droplet formation, ranged from 15 to 2260 cm-3, with the higher Na>120 cases dominated by measurements from two flights of long-range transported biomass burning (BB) aerosols. The two other flights examined here document a relatively clean aerosol and an Arctic Haze aerosol impacted by larger particles largely composed of dust. For observations from the cleaner case and the BB cases, the particle light scattering coefficients at low relative humidity (RH<20%) increased nonlinearly with increasing Na>120, driven mostly by an increase in mean sizes of particles with increasing Na>120 (BB cases). For those three cases, particle light absorption coefficients also increased nonlinearly with increasing Na>120 and linearly with increasing submicron particle volume concentration. In addition to black carbon, brown carbon was estimated to have increased light absorption coefficients by 27% (450 nm wavelength) and 14% (550 nm) in the BB cases. For the case with strong dust influence, the absorption relative to submicron particle volume was small compared with the other cases. There was a slight gradient of Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) mean volume diameter (MVD) towards smaller sizes with increasing height, which suggests more scavenging of the more elevated particles, consistent with a typically longer lifetime of particles higher in the atmosphere. However, in approximately 10% of the cases, the MVD increased (>0.4 μm) with increasing altitude, suggesting transport of larger fine particle mass (possibly coarse particle mass) at high levels over the Arctic. This may be because of transport of

  9. Aerosol optical and microphysical properties as derived from collocated measurements using polarization lidar and direct sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Tetsu; Nagai, Tomohiro; Mano, Yuzo; Zaizen, Yuji; Inomata, Yayoi

    2012-12-01

    Collocated and simultaneous measurements of aerosols near the ground were conducted using a lidar and aerosol sampler at Tsukuba, Japan, to clarify the relationship between lidar-derived optical properties and in-situ microphysical properties. The total linear particle depolarization ratio (δp) ranged from 14% to 18% when nonspherical mineral dust particles were predominant in the supermicrometer range on May 7-8, 2008, whereas it ranged from 6% to 7% when spherical sea-salt particles were predominant in that range on September 3-4, 2008. Sulfates and nitrates were predominant in the submicrometer range for these two periods. Water-dialysis analysis on May 6-7 indicated that 29% of the coarse particles were water insoluble, whereas 70% were water soluble or nearly soluble on September 3-4. The ratio of dry mass concentration to the backscattering coefficient (M/βp) was 34-39 g m-2 sr on May 7-8 and 6.2-6.3 g m-2 sr on September 3-4. Our results provide evidence that lidar-derived βp and δp capture the aerosol mass concentration and relative abundance of the spherical and nonspherical particles although the microphysical properties vary significantly for individual particles.

  10. An Airborne A-Band Spectrometer for Remote Sensing Of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael; Hostetler, Chris; Poole, Lamont; Holden, Carl; Rault, Didier

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric remote sensing with the O2 A-band has a relatively long history, but most of these studies were attempting to estimate surface pressure or cloud-top pressure. Recent conceptual studies have demonstrated the potential of spaceborne high spectral resolution O2 A-band spectrometers for retrieval of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The physical rationale of this new approach is that information on the scattering properties of the atmosphere is embedded in the detailed line structure of the O2 A-band reflected radiance spectrum. The key to extracting this information is to measure the radiance spectrum at very high spectral resolution. Instrument performance requirement studies indicate that, in addition to high spectral resolution, the successful retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties from A-band radiance spectra will also require high radiometric accuracy, instrument stability, and high signal-to-noise measurements. To experimentally assess the capabilities of this promising new remote sensing application, the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an airborne high spectral resolution A-band spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a plane holographic grating with a folded Littrow geometry to achieve high spectral resolution (0.5 cm-1) and low stray light in a compact package. This instrument will be flown in a series of field campaigns beginning in 2001 to evaluate the overall feasibility of this new technique. Results from these campaigns should be particularly valuable for future spaceborne applications of A-band spectrometers for aerosol and cloud retrievals.

  11. Monitoring Aerosol Optical Properties in the ABL, Using Lidar System and Sunphotometer in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallotta, J.; Pawelko, E.; Otero, L.; Ristori, P.; D'Elia, R.; Gonzalez, F.; Dworniczak, J.; Vilar, O.; Quel, E.

    2009-03-01

    At the Lasers and Applications Research Center (CEILAP, CITEFA-CONICET, (34°33' S, 58°30' W), located in an industrial suburb of the metropolitan area (Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina), operates a multiwavelength lidar, based on a Nd:Yag laser (Continuum Surelite III P-IV). This system emits in 1064, 532 and 355 nm simultaneously (10 Hz, 600 mJ @ 1064 nm) and allows the monitoring of the optical aerosols properties in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). On the same experimental site, an AERONET sunphotometer provides the AOT value. An analysis of boundary layer behaviour in some relevant days of March, from the years 2004 to 2006 is presented. On the days analyzed, no aerosols events and clouds were registered over the ABL. Evolutions of some characteristics of the ABL are presented, such as the height of the boundary layer, height of entrainment zone (EZ) and the entrainment flux ratio.

  12. Retrieval and Validation of Aerosol Optical Properties over East Asia from TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Mijin; Choi, Myungje; Go, Sujung; Lim, HyunKwang; Ou, Mi-Lim; Goo, Tae-Young; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol is a significant component on air quality and climate change. In particular, spatial and temporal distribution of aerosol shows large variability over East Asia, thus has large effect in retrieving carbon dioxide from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). An aerosol retrieval algorithm was developed from TANSO- Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) onboard the GOSAT. The algorithm retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD), size distribution of aerosol, and aerosol type in 0.1 degree grid resolution and surface reflectance was estimated using the clear sky composite method. To test aerosol absorptivity, the reflectance difference method was considered using channels of TANSO-CAI. In this study, the retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) was compared with those of Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) and MODerate resolution Imaging Sensor (MODIS) dataset from September 2011 and August 2014. Comparisons of AODs between AERONET and CAI show the reasonably good correlation with correlation coefficient of 0.77 and regression slope of 0.87 for the whole period. Moreover, those between MODIS and CAI for the same period show correlations with correlation coefficient of 0.7 ~ 0.9 and regression slope of 0.7 ~ 1.2, depending on season and comparison regions however, the largest error source in aerosol retrieval has been surface reflectance. Over ocean and some Land, surface reflectance tends to be overestimated, and thereby CAI-AOD tends to be underestimated. Based on the results with CAI algorithm developed, the algorithm is continuously improved for better performance.

  13. A Long-term Record of Saharan Dust Aerosol Properties from TOMS Observations: Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, P. K.; Herman, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The interaction between the strong Rayleigh scattering in the near UV spectral region (330-380 nm) and the processes of aerosol absorption and scattering, produce a clear spectral signal in the upwelling radiance at the top of the atmosphere. This interaction is the basis of the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) aerosol retrieval technique that can be used for their characterization and to differentiate non-absorbing sulfates from strongly UV-absorbing aerosols such as mineral dust. For absorbing aerosols, the characterization is in terms of the optical depth and single scattering albedo with assumptions about the aerosol plume height. The results for non-absorbing aerosols are not dependent on plume height. Although iron compounds represent only between 5% to 8% of desert dust aerosol mass, hematite (Fe2O3) accounts for most of the near UV absorption. Because of the large ultraviolet absorption characteristic of hematite, the near UV method of aerosol sensing is especially suited for the detection and characterization of desert dust aerosols. Using the combined record of near UV measurements by the Nimbus7 (1978-1992) and Earth Probe (1996-present) TOMS instruments, a global longterm climatology of near UV optical depth and single scattering albedo has been produced. The multi-year long record of mineral aerosol properties over the area of influence of the Saharan desert, will be discussed.

  14. Compositional and Optical Properties of Titan Haze Analogs Using Aerosol Mass Spectrometry, Photoacoustic Spectroscopy and Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugelow, M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The organic haze that surrounds Saturn's moon Titan is formed through the photolysis and electron initiated dissociation of methane and nitrogen. The chemical pathways leading to haze formation and the resulting haze optical properties are still highly uncertain. Here we examine the compositional and optical properties of Titan haze aerosol analogs. By studying these properties together, the impact of haze on Titan's radiative balance can be better understood. The aerosol analogs studied are produced from different initial methane concentrations (0.1, 2 and 10% CH4) using spark discharge excitation. To determine the complex refractive index of the aerosol, we combine two spectroscopic techniques, one that measures absorption and one that measures extinction: photoacoustic spectroscopy coupled with cavity ring-down spectroscopy (PASCaRD). This technique provides the benefit of a high precision determination of the imaginary component of the refractive index (k), along with the highly sensitive determination of the real component of the refractive index (n). The refractive indices are retrieved at two wavelengths, 405 and 532 nm, using the PASCaRD system. To yield aerosol composition, quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometry is used. Compositional information is obtained from a technique that uses isotopically labeled and unlabeled methane gas. I will present preliminary data on the complex refractive indices of Titan aerosol analogs at both wavelengths, in conjunction with the aerosol composition as a percent by weight of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen. The correlation of optical and chemical properties should be useful for remote sensing instruments probing Titan haze.

  15. Optical and microphysical properties of column-integrated aerosols at a SKYNET site downwind of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Park, J. S.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    A skyradiometer (POM-02, Prede Co. Ltd.) has been operated to investigate aerosol properties at a SKYNET (SKYradiometer NETwork) site, YGN (Yongin) for six years starting from November 2008. The site is at the rooftop of a five-story building on the hill, about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul (37.34 °N, 127.27 °E and 167 m above sea level). POM-02 measures the diffuse radiation at six minute intervals at 11 wavelengths. Using version 5 of the skyrad.pack, aerosol optical (aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo) and microphysical (volume size distribution) properties were retrieved from the measurements at five wavelengths such as 400, 500, 675, 870 and 1020 nm. In comparison with CIMEL sun photometers used in AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork), another worldwide ground-based network, skyradiometers have an advantage that they can provide larger number of aerosol property data at shorter time intervals. However, standard procedures for instrument operation and data retrieval have not been established. In this study, we first showed how we calibrated the instrument and how we obtained cloud screened and quality assured data. Next, we presented variations in aerosol optical and microphysical properties, depending on air masses and/or meteorological conditions, and examined the characteristic of high aerosol loading episodes including Asian dust storm and smog.

  16. Long-term Observation of Aerosol Optical Properties at the SORPES station in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yicheng; Ding, Aijun; Virkkula, Aki; Wang, Jiaping; Chi, Xuguang; Qi, Ximeng; Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Longfei; Xie, Yuning

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence the earth's radiation budget by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and contribute substantial uncertainty in the estimation of climate forcing. Thorough and comprehensive measurements on different parameters including absorption and scattering coefficient, wavelength dependence and angular dependence along with their daily and seasonal variation help to understand the influence of aerosol on radiation. 2-years continuous measurement of aerosol optical properties has been conducted from June 2013 to May 2015 at the Station for Observing Regional Process of Earth System (SORPES) station, which is a regional background station located in downwind direction of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) urban agglomeration in China. A 7-wavelenths aethalometer and a 3-wavelenths nephelometer were used to measure absorption and scattering coefficient, and also other parameters like single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption angstrom Exponent (AAE), scattering angstrom exponent (SAE) and back-scattering refraction. In addtion, simultaneous measurements on chemical composition and particle size distribution were performed so as to investigate the dependencies of aerosol optical properties on chemical composition and size distribution. To get further insight on the influencing factors, Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) was employed for source identification in this study. The averages of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and SSA are 26.0±18.7 Mm-1, 426±327 Mm-1 , 0.936±0.3 at 520nm respectively for whole period. SAE between 450 and 635nm is 1.299±0.34 and have strong negative correlation with particle Surface Mean Diameter (SMD). AAE between 370 and 950nm is 1.043±0.15 for whole period but growth to more than 1.6 in all identified Biomass Burning (BB) events.

  17. Optical properties of internally mixed aerosol particles composed of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Miriam A; Hasenkopf, Christa A; Beaver, Melinda R; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2009-12-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of internally mixed aerosol particles composed of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate using cavity ring-down aerosol extinction spectroscopy at a wavelength of 532 nm. The real refractive indices of these nonabsorbing species were retrieved from the extinction and concentration of the particles using Mie scattering theory. We obtain refractive indices for pure ammonium sulfate and pure dicarboxylic acids that are consistent with literature values, where they exist, to within experimental error. For mixed particles, however, our data deviates significantly from a volume-weighted average of the pure components. Surprisingly, the real refractive indices of internal mixtures of succinic acid and ammonium sulfate are higher than either of the pure components at the highest organic weight fractions. For binary internal mixtures of oxalic or adipic acid with ammonium sulfate, the real refractive indices of the mixtures are approximately the same as ammonium sulfate for all organic weight fractions. Various optical mixing rules for homogeneous and slightly heterogeneous systems fail to explain the experimental real refractive indices. It is likely that complex particle morphologies are responsible for the observed behavior of the mixed particles. Implications of our results for atmospheric modeling and aerosol structure are discussed. PMID:19877658

  18. Optical Properties and Climate Impacts of Tropospheric Aerosols that Undergo Long-Range Transport to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P.; Bates, T.; Coffman, D.; Schulz, K.; Shank, L.; Jefferson, A.; Ogren, J.; Burkhart, J.; Shaw, G.

    2009-04-01

    Tropospheric aerosol particles undergo long range transport from the mid-latitudes to the Arctic each winter and spring. Once in the Arctic, aerosols may impact regional climate in several ways. Aerosols can affect climate directly by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and altering cloud properties. In addition, absorbing aerosol that is deposited onto ice and snow can lower the surface albedo and enhance the ice-albedo feedback mechanism. Measurements of aerosol properties relevant to climate forcing (chemical composition, light scattering, and light absorption) have been made by NOAA at Barrow, AK for over a decade. Measurements of aerosol chemical composition have been made over the same time period at the three more southern Alaskan sites of Poker Flat, Denali National Park, and Homer. In addition, in March and April of 2008, aerosol measurements were made during a NOAA research cruise (ICEALOT) to the Greenland, Norwegian and Barents Seas. Onboard the ship, measurements were made of aerosol optical and cloud nucleating properties. Results from the long-term measurements and ICEALOT will be presented in order to describe trends and climate-relevant properties of aerosol particles transported to the Arctic.

  19. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainic, M.; Riziq, A. A.; Lavi, A.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The heterogeneous reaction between gas phase glyoxal and ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols, a proxy for inorganic atmospheric aerosol, was studied in terms of the dependence of the optical, physical and chemical properties of the product aerosols on initial particle size and ambient RH. The reactions were studied under different relative humidity (RH) conditions, varying from dry conditions (~20 % RH) and up to 90 % RH, covering conditions prevalent in many atmospheric environments. At λ = 355 nm, the reacted aerosols demonstrate a substantial growth in optical extinction cross section, as well as in mobility diameter under a broad range of RH values (35-90 %). The ratio of the product aerosol to seed aerosol geometric cross section reached up to ~3.5, and the optical extinction cross-section up to ~250. The reactions show a trend of increasing physical and optical growth with decreasing seed aerosol size, from 100nm to 300 nm, as well as with decreasing RH values from 90 % to ~40 %. Optically inactive aerosols, at the limit of the Mie range (100 nm diameter) become optically active as they grow due to the reaction. AMS analyses of the reaction of 300 nm AS at RH values of 50 %, 75 % and 90 % show that the main products of the reaction are glyoxal oligomers, formed by acetal formation in the presence of AS. In addition, imidazole formation, which is a minor channel, is observed for all reactions, yielding a product which absorbs at λ = 290 nm, with possible implications on the radiative properties of the product aerosols. The ratio of absorbing substances (C-N compounds, including imidazoles) increases with increasing RH value. A core/shell model used for the investigation of the optical properties of the reaction products of AS 300nm with gas phase glyoxal, shows that the refractive index (RI) of the reaction products are in the range between 1.57-1.71 for the real part and between 0-0.02 for the imaginary part of the RI at 355 nm. The observed increase in the

  20. Aerosol optical and radiative properties observed at Anmyeon and Jeju, Korea in the spring of 2000 and 2001.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung-Nam; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Lee, Sang-Sam

    2004-03-01

    The radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols are determined by their masses, chemical characteristics, and optical properties, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angström parameter (alpha) and single scattering albedo (SSA). In particular, the aerosol optical properties determine the surface temperature perturbation that may give some information in understanding regional atmospheric radiative forcing. To understand the radiative forcing and regional source of an aerosol, the present study focused on the analysis of the aerosol optical properties based on two different observations in the spring season, during the special Asian dust storm period. The Korean Global Atmosphere Watch Observatory (KGAWO), at Anmyeon Island, and the ACE-Asia super-site, at Gosan, Jeju Island, have measured radiations and aerosols since 2000. The sites are located in the mid-west and south of the Korean peninsula, which are strongly affected by the Asian dust coming from China every spring. The aerosol optical properties, measured by ground-based sun and sky radiometers, over both sites were analyzed to gain an understanding of the radiation and climate properties. The probability distributions of the aerosol optical depths were rather narrow, with a modal value of approximately 0.38 at both sites during 2001 and 2002. The Angström parameter frequency distributions showed two peaks at Anmyeon GAW, but only one peak at the Jeju ACE-Asia super site. One peak, around 0.63, characterizes the situation of a day having Asian dust, the second peak, around 1.13, corresponded to the relatively dust-free cases. The correlation between the aerosol optical depth and the Angström exponents resulted in a wide range of the Angström parameter, alpha, over a wide range of optical depths at Anmyeon, whereas a narrow range of alpha, with moderate to low values for the AOD at Jeju. Under dust free conditions the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased with wavelength, while in the presence of

  1. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern sides of the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Ma, Y. M.; Panday, A.; Cong, Z. Y.; Yang, K.; Zhu, Z. K.; Wang, J. M.; Amatya, P. M.; Zhao, L.

    2014-03-01

    The Himalaya mountains along the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau act as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at two Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites on the southern side of the Himalaya (Pokhara, 812 m above sea level (a.s.l.) and EVK2-CNR, 5079 m a.s.l. in Nepal) and one on the northern side (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS) in Tibet, 4076 m a.s.l. in China). While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is a lower-elevation suburban site with much higher aerosol load due to both the influence of local anthropogenic activities and to its proximity to the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the investigated period was 0.05 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large-scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites, wind erosion and hydrated/cloud-processed aerosols lead to an increase in coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than at QOMS_CAS in August and September, indicating that the transport of coarse mode aerosols from the southern to the northern side may be effectively reduced. The effect of precipitation scavenging is clearly seen at Pokhara, which sees significantly reduced aerosol loads during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local

  2. Variability in Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties at a Coastal Industrial City in India, deduced from OMI and MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, B.; Ahn, C.; Torres, O.

    2009-12-01

    Many cities in India have gone through industrial revolution due to the priorities put by the State and Central Governments for economical growth. Bhubaneswar is one of the cities in the eastern part of India (85.8 E and 20.2 N) that has been the center of industrial activities since 1990s. A number of industries such as thermal power plants, sponge iron plants and housing developments have resulted changes in the land cover and in the slow deterioration of air quality affecting public health and reduced visibility. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the variability in aerosol optical and physical properties in Bhubaneswar using remote sensing data produced by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). We have analyzed the data for Aerosol Extiction Optical Depth (AOD), Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth (AAOD), UV Aerosol Index and Cloud Fraction from OMI and Aerosol Small Mode Fraction, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Cloud Optical Depth (COD), Aerosol Mass over Land from MODIS. The analysis has been made for 4 years from 2005-2008. Variations in AOD and AAOD values are observed during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods.

  3. Monsoonal variations in aerosol optical properties and estimation of aerosol optical depth using ground-based meteorological and air quality data in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Holben, B.

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining continuous aerosol-optical-depth (AOD) measurements is a difficult task due to the cloud-cover problem. With the main motivation of overcoming this problem, an AOD-predicting model is proposed. In this study, the optical properties of aerosols in Penang, Malaysia were analyzed for four monsoonal seasons (northeast monsoon, pre-monsoon, southwest monsoon, and post-monsoon) based on data from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from February 2012 to November 2013. The aerosol distribution patterns in Penang for each monsoonal period were quantitatively identified according to the scattering plots of the Ångström exponent against the AOD. A new empirical algorithm was proposed to predict the AOD data. Ground-based measurements (i.e., visibility and air pollutant index) were used in the model as predictor data to retrieve the missing AOD data from AERONET due to frequent cloud formation in the equatorial region. The model coefficients were determined through multiple regression analysis using selected data set from in situ data. The calibrated model coefficients have a coefficient of determination, R2, of 0.72. The predicted AOD of the model was generated based on these calibrated coefficients and compared against the measured data through standard statistical tests, yielding a R2 of 0.68 as validation accuracy. The error in weighted mean absolute percentage error (wMAPE) was less than 0.40% compared with the real data. The results revealed that the proposed model efficiently predicted the AOD data. Performance of our model was compared against selected LIDAR data to yield good correspondence. The predicted AOD can enhance measured short- and long-term AOD and provide supplementary information for climatological studies and monitoring aerosol variation.

  4. Linking aerosol size and optical properties to trace gases emitted from biomass burning in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Carrico, C. M.; Stockwell, C.; Yokelson, R. J.; Veres, P. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosols have large impacts on regional and global climate that are partly determined by their optical properties. The optical properties of aerosol depend on their size and composition, which in turn are related to fire combustion processes. Here we investigate relationships between a large suite of trace gases and aerosol size and optical properties to better understand processes governing the optical properties of fresh biomass burning aerosol emissions. We examined over 100 individual burns of biomass fuels during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment 4 (FLAME 4). Emissions were measured directly from an exhaust stack designed to capture all emissions from relatively small-scale fires burned at the base of a large burn chamber. Trace gas species were measured using a combination of an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) and proton-transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Aerosol optical properties at 870 nm were measured using a photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX) and particle size distributions were measured using a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. The rapid response of the instruments allowed for comparisons of the emissions and particle properties over the duration of the fire. For example, we observed correlations between aerosol absorption, particle size, and gas-phase species associated with different types of combustion such as flaming and smoldering. We also report fire-integrated emissions for aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients and compare these to other fire-integrated properties. Many of our burn experiments examined a number of fuels that had not before been characterized in laboratory conditions, including a number of peat fuels, African savanna grasses and crop residuals.

  5. Dust events and their influence on aerosol optical properties over Jaipur in Northwestern India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sunita; Payra, Swagata; Gautam, Ritesh; Prakash, Divya; Soni, Manish; Holben, Brent; Bell, Shaun

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we systematically document the link between dust episodes and local scale regional aerosol optical properties over Jaipur located in the vicinity of Thar Desert in the northwestern state of Rajasthan. The seasonal variation of AOT(500 nm) (aerosol optical thickness) shows high values (0.51 ± 0.18) during pre-monsoon (dust dominant) season while low values (0.36 ± 0.14) are exhibited during winter. The Ångström wavelength exponent has been found to exhibit low value (<0.25) indicating relative dominance of coarse-mode particles during pre-monsoon season. The AOT increased from 0.36 (Aprilmean) to 0.575 (May-June(mean)). Consequently, volume concentration range increases from April through May-June followed by a sharp decline in July during the first active phase of the monsoon. Significantly high dust storms were observed over Jaipur as indicated by high values of single scattering albedo (SSA(440 nm) = 0.89, SSA(675 nm) = 0.95, SSA870 nm = 0.97, SSA(1,020 nm) = 0.976) than the previously reported values over IGP region sites. The larger SSA values (more scattering aerosol), especially at longer wavelengths, is due to the abundant dust loading, and is attributed to the measurement site's proximity to the Thar Desert. The mean and standard deviation in SSA and asymmetry parameter during pre-monsoon season over Jaipur is 0.938 ± 0.023 and 0.712 ± 0.017 at 675 nm wavelength, respectively. Back-trajectory air mass simulations suggest Thar Desert in northwestern India as the primary source of high aerosols dust loading over Jaipur region as well as contribution by long-range transport from the Arabian Peninsula and Middle East gulf regions, during pre-monsoon season. PMID:23397540

  6. Identification of aerosol types over Indo-Gangetic Basin: implications to optical properties and associated radiative forcing.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, S; Srivastava, A K; Singh, A K; Singh, Sachchidanand

    2015-08-01

    The aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) are a mixture of sulfate, dust, black carbon, and other soluble and insoluble components. It is a challenge not only to identify these various aerosol types, but also to assess the optical and radiative implications of these components. In the present study, appropriate thresholds for fine-mode fraction and single-scattering albedo have been used to first identify the aerosol types over IGB. Four major aerosol types may be identified as polluted dust (PD), polluted continental (PC), black carbon-enriched (BCE), and organic carbon-enriched (OCE). Further, the implications of these different types of aerosols on optical properties and radiative forcing have been studied. The aerosol products derived from CIMEL sun/sky radiometer measurements, deployed under Aerosol Robotic Network program of NASA, USA were used from four different sites Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur, spread over Pakistan and Northern India. PD is the most dominant aerosol type at Karachi and Jaipur, contributing more than 50% of all the aerosol types. OCE, on the other hand, contributes only about 12-15% at all the stations except at Kanpur where its contribution is ∼38%. The spectral dependence of AOD was relatively low for PD aerosol type, with the lowest AE values (<0.5); whereas, large spectral dependence in AOD was observed for the remaining aerosol types, with the highest AE values (>1.0). SSA was found to be the highest for OCE (>0.9) and the lowest for BCE (<0.9) type aerosols, with drastically different spectral variability. The direct aerosol radiative forcing at the surface and in the atmosphere was found to be the maximum at Lahore among all the four stations in the IGB. PMID:25893625

  7. Large differences in aerosol optical properties over the north-west Atlantic Ocean during the TCAP field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, D.; Berg, L. K.; Comstock, J. M.; Fast, J. D.; Flynn, C. J.; Hubbe, J. M.; Kassianov, E.; Mei, F.; Pekour, M. S.; Schmid, B.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Tomlinson, J. M.; Shilling, J. E.; Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.; Berkowitz, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol radiative forcing is an important parameter in the Earth's radiation budget and can be an important driver of atmospheric circulation and the hydrological cycle. Accurate estimation of aerosol radiative forcing requires measurement of both the extensive and intensive optical properties of aerosols. While the intensive optical properties are independent of aerosol mass or number, they are critical inputs when calculating radiative forcing with applications to climate research, satellite remote sensing and model validations. The key aerosol intensive properties that need to be evaluated include single scattering albedo (SSA), the angstrom exponent, the asymmetry parameter, the radiative forcing efficiency, and the hygroscopic scattering factor. We report here on values of these variables over the Cape Cod and nearby northwest Atlantic Ocean during the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). The average SSA shows a distinct profile having higher SSA values below the top of well-mixed residual layer (RL) and lower SSA above it. Aerosol in the free troposphere (FT) were found to have less spectral dependence in their optical properties, lower back scatter fraction and higher hygroscopic growth relative to aerosols found in the RL. Analysis of individual particle composition suggests that that ratio of aged to fresh aerosol numbers in the FT is 70% higher compared to aerosols measured in the RL, and that smoke from biomass burning contributed ~10% to this number. Single particle analysis also reveals that the fraction and variability of coated black carbon (BC) aerosol is higher in the FT relative to that measured in the residual layer. The daily radiative forcing efficiency of these aerosols in the FT is factor 2 higher than below RL. Seven years (2007-2013) of CALIPSO satellite observations show that the mean altitude of the top of smoke layers (~3.3 km) consistent with these in situ observations from TCAP. Overall, the long term CALIPSO observations characterizes

  8. Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, C.; Cassola, F.; Mazzino, A.; Triquet, S.; Chevaillier, S.; Grand, N.; Bourrianne, T.; Momboisse, G.; Sellegri, K.; Schwarzenbock, A.; Freney, E.; Mallet, M.; Formenti, P.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents in situ aircraft measurements of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean basin in June-July 2013 during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) airborne campaign. Dust events differing in terms of source region (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco), time of transport (1-5 days) and height of transport were sampled. Mineral dust were transported above the marine boundary layer, which conversely was dominated by pollution and marine aerosols. The dust vertical structure was extremely variable and characterized by either a single layer or a more complex and stratified structure with layers originating from different source regions. Mixing of mineral dust with pollution particles was observed depending on the height of transport of the dust layers. Dust layers carried a higher concentration of pollution particles below 3 km above sea level (a.s.l.) than above 3 km a.s.l., resulting in a scattering Ångström exponent up to 2.2 below 3 km a.s.l. However, the optical properties of the dust plumes remained practically unchanged with respect to values previously measured over source regions, regardless of the altitude. Moderate absorption of light by the dust plumes was observed with values of aerosol single scattering albedo at 530 nm ranging from 0.90 to 1.00. Concurrent calculations from the aerosol chemical composition revealed a negligible contribution of pollution particles to the absorption properties of the dust plumes that was due to a low contribution of refractory black carbon in regards to the fraction of dust and sulfate particles. This suggests that, even in the presence of moderate pollution, likely a persistent feature in the Mediterranean, the optical properties of the dust plumes could be assumed similar to those of native dust in radiative transfer simulations, modelling studies and satellite retrievals

  9. Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, C.; Cassola, F.; Mazzino, A.; Triquet, S.; Chevaillier, S.; Grand, N.; Bourrianne, T.; Momboisse, G.; Sellegri, K.; Schwarzenbock, A.; Freney, E.; Mallet, M.; Formenti, P.

    2015-08-01

    This study presents in situ aircraft measurements of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean basin in June-July 2013 during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) airborne campaign. Dust events differing in terms of source region (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco), time of tranport (1-5 days) and height of transport were sampled. Mineral dust were transported above the marine boundary layer, which conversely was dominated by pollution and marine aerosols. The dust vertical structure was extremely variable and characterized by either a single layer or a more complex and stratified structure with layers originating from different source regions. Mixing of mineral dust with pollution particles was observed depending on the height of transport of the dust layers. Dust layers carried higher concentration of pollution particles at intermediate altitude (1-3 km) than at elevated altitude (> 3 km), resulting in scattering Angstrom exponent up to 2.2 within the intermediate altitude. However, the optical properties of the dust plumes remained practically unchanged with respect to values previously measured over source regions, regardless of the altitude. Moderate light absorption of the dust plumes was observed with values of aerosol single scattering albedo at 530 nm ranging from 0.90 to 1.00 ± 0.04. Concurrent calculations from the aerosol chemical composition revealed a negligible contribution of pollution particles to the absorption properties of the dust plumes that was due to a low contribution of refractory black carbon in regards to the fraction of dust and sulfate particles. This suggests that, even in the presence of moderate pollution, likely a persistent feature in the Mediterranean, the optical properties of the dust plumes could be assimilated to those of native dust in radiative transfer simulations, modeling studies and

  10. Aerosol optical properties from sky radiometer measurement on board R/V Shirase during the JARE Japan Antarctica cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, M.; Yabuki, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Hara, K.; Osada, K.; Hashida, G.; Sakuraba, T.; Yamano, M.; Muraji, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Sky radiometer measurement on board the Antarctic R/V Shirase has been continued for investigating the aerosol optical properties over the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean and Antarctic Ocean during the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) Japan Antarctica annual cruises since 2000. The Prede POM-01 Mark II sky-radiometer is designed for shipboard measurements and was put on the upper deck of R/V Shirase for full-automatic operations being controlled by a PC placed in a laboratory room during cruises. In this paper, a brief summary of results from the 2000 - 2005 cruises is shown and discussed on optical properties such as the aerosol optical thickness, single scattering albedo, complex refractive index, etc. to be compared with those which have been simultaneously obtained from in-situ measurements with an optical particle counter, an integrating nephelometer and a PSAP for marine boundary layer aerosols, especially in the Asian tropical ocean area.

  11. Aerosol Optical Properties Over the High Altitude Station Hanle in the Western Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, E. J.; Bagare, S. P.; Ningombam, S. S.; Singh, R. B.; Sinha, N.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of an astronomical site characterization program, studies of atmospheric aerosols were carried-out at the Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO) Hanle (32047' N and 78058' E, 4500 m amsl), Ladakh region in the Western Himalayas, using Skyradiometer (Prede, Japan) from direct solar and diffuse sky irradiance measurements at 400, 500, 675, 870, and 1020 nm. Aerosol optical properties are retrieved using Skyrad.pack to calculate the aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), volume size distribution, and phase function. The AOD at 500 nm was found to be between 0.02 and 0.10, which is consistent with reported values for high altitude stations across the globe. Value of the Angstrom exponent (α), which relates to size particles, fluctuates between 0.5 and 1.5. The SSA is close to 1.0 for each wavelength, indicating the dominance of scattered light in the observed spectral region. The estimated daily mean aerosol asymmetry parameter (g) from the retrieved phase function varies in between 0.68 and 0.72 for the different wavelengths, indicating predominantly forward scattering than the backward scattering. The value of g decreases at the visible region and slightly increases in the near-infrared region. The retrieved g parameter strongly depends on both the wavelength and the Angstrom parameter. We find that the AOD value peaks during the spring season, and this is likely to be due to aerosol transport from the deserts to the west. The HYSPLIT back Trajectory analysis indicates the passage of air mass transported predominantly from Sahara in the African region towards the observing station. There is a bimodal as well as tri-modal volume size distribution with particle population sizes in the range 0.15 to 10 microns. The bi-modal features are more common during winter and autumn seasons, while the tri-modal features are seen in all the seasons with a marginal predominance during spring and summer. The temporal response of the two populations of

  12. Relationship between Oxidation Level and Optical Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambe, A. T.; Cappa, C. D.; Massoli, P.; Onasch, T. B.; Forestieri, S.; Martin, A. T.; Cummings, M. J.; Croasdale, D. R.; Brune, W. H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.

    2013-12-01

    Brown carbon (BrC), which may include secondary organic aerosol (SOA), can be a significant climate-forcing agent via its optical absorption properties. However, the overall contribution of SOA to BrC remains poorly understood. Here, correlations between oxidation level and optical properties of SOA are examined. SOA was generated in a flow reactor in the absence of NOx by OH oxidation of gas-phase precursors used as surrogates for anthropogenic (naphthalene, tricyclo-[5.2.1.02,6]decane), biomass burning (guaiacol), and biogenic (α-pinene) emissions. SOA chemical composition was characterized with a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. SOA mass-specific absorption cross sections (MAC) and refractive indices were calculated from real-time cavity ring-down photoacoustic spectrometry measurements at 405 and 532 nm and from UV-vis spectrometry measurements of methanol extracts of filter-collected particles (300 to 600 nm). At 405 nm, SOA MAC values and imaginary refractive indices increased with increasing oxidation level and decreased with increasing wavelength, leading to negligible absorption at 532 nm. Real refractive indices of SOA decreased with increasing oxidation level. Comparison with literature studies suggests that under typical polluted conditions the effect of NOx on SOA absorption is small. SOA may contribute significantly to atmospheric BrC, with the magnitude dependent on both precursor type and oxidation level. Mass-specific absorption cross sections (MAC) of SOA at λ = 405 nm as a function of the O/C ratio

  13. Relationship between oxidation level and optical properties of secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Andrew T; Cappa, Christopher D; Massoli, Paola; Onasch, Timothy B; Forestieri, Sara D; Martin, Alexander T; Cummings, Molly J; Croasdale, David R; Brune, William H; Worsnop, Douglas R; Davidovits, Paul

    2013-06-18

    Brown carbon (BrC), which may include secondary organic aerosol (SOA), can be a significant climate-forcing agent via its optical absorption properties. However, the overall contribution of SOA to BrC remains poorly understood. Here, correlations between oxidation level and optical properties of SOA are examined. SOA was generated in a flow reactor in the absence of NOx by OH oxidation of gas-phase precursors used as surrogates for anthropogenic (naphthalene, tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]decane), biomass burning (guaiacol), and biogenic (α-pinene) emissions. SOA chemical composition was characterized with a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. SOA mass-specific absorption cross sections (MAC) and refractive indices were calculated from real-time cavity ring-down photoacoustic spectrometry measurements at 405 and 532 nm and from UV-vis spectrometry measurements of methanol extracts of filter-collected particles (300 to 600 nm). At 405 nm, SOA MAC values and imaginary refractive indices increased with increasing oxidation level and decreased with increasing wavelength, leading to negligible absorption at 532 nm. Real refractive indices of SOA decreased with increasing oxidation level. Comparison with literature studies suggests that under typical polluted conditions the effect of NOx on SOA absorption is small. SOA may contribute significantly to atmospheric BrC, with the magnitude dependent on both precursor type and oxidation level. PMID:23701291

  14. A new operational EUMETSAT product for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties over land (PMAp v2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorski, Michael; Munro, Rosemary; Poli, Gabriele; Holdak, Andriy; Lang, Ruediger

    2016-04-01

    The retrieval of aerosol optical properties is an important task to provide data for industry and climate forecasting. An ideal instrument should include observations with moderate spectral and high spatial resolution for a wide range of wavelengths (from the UV to the TIR), measurements of the polarization state at different wavelengths and measurements of the same scene for different observation geometries. As such an ideal instrument is currently unavailable the usage of different instruments on one satellite platform is an alternative choice. Since February 2014, the Polar Multi sensor Aerosol product (PMAp) has been delivered as an operational GOME product to our customers. The algorithm retrieves aerosol optical properties over ocean (AOD, volcanic ash, aerosol type) using a multi-sensor approach (GOME, AVHRR, IASI). The product is now extended to pixels over land using a new release of the operational PMAp processor (PMAp v2). The pre-operational data dissemination of the new PMAp v2 data to our users is scheduled for March 2016. This presentation gives an overview on the new operational product PMAp v2 with a focus on the validation of the PMAp aerosol optical depth over land. The impact of different error sources on the results (e.g. surface contribution to the TOA reflectance) is discussed. We also show first results of upcoming extensions of our PMAp processor, in particular the improvement of the cloud/aerosol discrimination of thick aerosol events (e.g. volcanic ash plumes, desert dust outbreaks).

  15. Probing the micro-rheological properties of aerosol particles using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Rory M.; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2014-07-01

    The use of optical trapping techniques to manipulate probe particles for performing micro-rheological measurements on a surrounding fluid is well-established. Here, we review recent advances made in the use of optical trapping to probe the rheological properties of trapped particles themselves. In particular, we review observations of the continuous transition from liquid to solid-like viscosity of sub-picolitre supersaturated solution aerosol droplets using optical trapping techniques. Direct measurements of the viscosity of the particle bulk are derived from the damped oscillations in shape following coalescence of two particles, a consequence of the interplay between viscous and surface forces and the capillary driven relaxation of the approximately spheroidal composite particle. Holographic optical tweezers provide a facile method for the manipulation of arrays of particles allowing coalescence to be controllably induced between two micron-sized aerosol particles. The optical forces, while sufficiently strong to confine the composite particle, are several orders of magnitude weaker than the capillary forces driving relaxation. Light, elastically back-scattered by the particle, is recorded with sub-100 ns resolution allowing measurements of fast relaxation (low viscosity) dynamics, while the brightfield image can be used to monitor the shape relaxation extending to times in excess of 1000 s. For the slowest relaxation dynamics studied (particles with the highest viscosity) the presence and line shape of whispering gallery modes in the cavity enhanced Raman spectrum can be used to infer the relaxation time while serving the dual purpose of allowing the droplet size and refractive index to be measured with accuracies of ±0.025% and ±0.1%, respectively. The time constant for the damped relaxation can be used to infer the bulk viscosity, spanning from the dilute solution limit to a value approaching that of a glass, typically considered to be >1012 Pa s, whilst

  16. Aerosol Optical Properties Above Opaque Water Clouds Derived From The Caliop Version 4 Level 1 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoyan; Winker, David; Omar, Ali; Vaughan, Mark; Kar, Jayanta; Trepte, Charles; Hu, Yongxiang; Schuster, Gregory; Young, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    In a previous study we evaluated the above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval at 532 nm in the CALIOP version 3 (V3) data products for two selected spatial domains along the Saharan dust transport pathway and African smoke transport pathway. In that study we rescaled the V3 level-1 (L1) data to compensate for known V3 calibration biases, and then derived aerosol intrinsic properties such as lidar ratio (Sa) and particulate depolarization ratio (PDR) for comparison with the CALIOP dust and smoke aerosol models. The calibration of the recently released version 4 (V4) CALIPSO L1 data product is significantly improved over V3. So in this paper we repeat our previous analysis using the new V4 L1 data. A comparison shows that our rescaled V3 and the new V4 data are different only by ~1% in the two selected spatial domains. The retrieved AOD values decrease by ~2.6% in both domains from V3 to V4. When the data is screened to exclude weakly scattering layers, the median Sa retrieved from the V4 L1 data in the dust transport region is reduced by 1.4 sr to 43.0±8.3 sr. The median Sa value in the smoke transport region is increased by 0.8 sr to 71.2±15.1 sr. The PDR values remain almost unchanged for the screened data.

  17. An intensive study on aerosol optical properties and affecting factors in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenping; Chen, Mindong; Ma, Yan; Zheng, Jun; Zhou, Yaoyao; Li, Shizheng; Qi, Lu; Wang, Li

    2016-02-01

    The optical properties of aerosol as well as their impacting factors were investigated at a suburb site in Nanjing during autumn from 14 to 28 November 2012. More severe pollution was found together with lower visibility. The average scattering and absorption coefficients (Bsca and Babs) were 375.7 ± 209.5 and 41.6 ± 18.7 Mm(-1), respectively. Higher Ångström absorption and scattering exponents were attributed to the presence of more aged aerosol with smaller particles. Relative humidity (RH) was a key factor affecting aerosol extinction. High RH resulted in the impairment of visibility, with hygroscopic growth being independent of the dry extinction coefficient. The hygroscopic growth factor was 1.8 ± 1.2 with RH from 19% to 85%. Light absorption was enhanced by organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and EC coatings, with contributions of 26%, 44% and 75% (532 nm), respectively. The Bsca and Babs increased with increasing N100 (number concentration of PM2.5 with diameter above 100 nm), PM1 surface concentration and PM2.5 mass concentration with good correlation. PMID:26969543

  18. Horizontal variability of aerosol optical properties observed during the ARCTAS airborne experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Clarke, A. D.; Podolske, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The properties of tropospheric aerosol and gas vary within a satellite grid cell and between ground-based instruments. This hinders comparison between satellite and suborbital measurements of different spatial scales as well as their applications to climate and air quality studies. This paper quantifies the realistic range of the variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD), its Angstrom exponent, in-situ extinction coefficient and carbon monoxide mixing ratio over horizontal distances of 1-30 km, using measurements from the ARCTAS airborne experiment. The Canada phase in June and July 2008, in which smoke from local forest fires was sampled, likely represents the most heterogeneous of the ambient aerosol environments common over the globe. The relative standard deviation (stdrel) of AOD measured with the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) has median 19.4% (at 499 nm) among thousands of horizontal 20 km segments. For 6 km segments the analogous median is 9.1%. Another measure of horizontal variability, the autocorrelation (r) of AOD499 across 20 km and 6 km segments is 0.37 and 0.71, respectively. In contrast, the Alaska phase in April 2008, which sampled particles transported from Asia, is presumably among the most homogeneous environments. The median stdrel is 3.0% and r is 0.90, both over 30 km, only slightly different from those for 1 km (stdrel=0.4% and r=1.00). r in the Canada phase is ~0.2 less for in situ extinction coefficient (from a nephelometer and a particle soot absorption photometer) than for the AOD. It is ~0.1 less than for the carbon monoxide mixing ratio. The trends of horizontal variability with distance and aerosol environment are different for the wavelength dependence and the humidity response of light scattering. We discuss challenges in estimating aerosol optical properties, particle size and chemical composition from measurements at a distant location. The statistical parameters thus help interpret existing remote

  19. AEROSOL OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOGENIC SOA: EFFECT ON HYGROSCOPIC PROPERTIES AND LIGHT ABSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study will provide a comprehensive characterization of optical properties of biogenic SOA and their sensitivity to anthropogenic influence. Several parameters critical for climate modeling, such as absorption cross-section, single scattering albedo and sensitivity to R...

  20. Study of aerosol optical properties at Kunming in southwest China and long-range transport of biomass burning aerosols from North Burma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Xia, X.; Che, H.; Wang, J.; Zhang, J.; Duan, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal variation of aerosol optical properties and dominant aerosol types at Kunming (KM), an urban site in southwest China, is characterized. Substantial influences of the hygroscopic growth and long-range transport of biomass burning (BB) aerosols on aerosol optical properties at KM are revealed. These results are derived from a detailed analysis of (a) aerosol optical properties (e.g. aerosol optical depth (AOD), columnar water vapor (CWV), single scattering albedo (SSA) and size distribution) retrieved from sunphotometer measurements during March 2012-August 2013, (b) satellite AOD and active fire products, (c) the attenuated backscatter profiles from the space-born lidar, and (d) the back-trajectories. The mean AOD440nm and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE440 - 870) at KM are 0.42 ± 0.32 and 1.25 ± 0.35, respectively. Seasonally, high AOD440nm (0.51 ± 0.34), low EAE440 - 870 (1.06 ± 0.34) and high CWV (4.25 ± 0.97 cm) during the wet season (May - October) contrast with their counterparts 0.17 ± 0.11, 1.40 ± 0.31 and 1.91 ± 0.37 cm during the major dry season (November-February) and 0.53 ± 0.29, 1.39 ± 0.19, and 2.66 ± 0.44 cm in the late dry season (March-April). These contrasts between wet and major dry season, together with the finding that the fine mode radius increases significantly with AOD during the wet season, suggest the importance of the aerosol hygroscopic growth in regulating the seasonal variation of aerosol properties. BB and Urban/Industrial (UI) aerosols are two major aerosol types. Back trajectory analysis shows that airflows on clean days during the major dry season are often from west of KM where the AOD is low. In contrast, air masses on polluted days are from west (in late dry season) and east (in wet season) of KM where the AOD is often large. BB air mass is found mostly originated from North Burma where BB aerosols are lifted upward to 5 km and then subsequently transported to southwest China via prevailing westerly winds.

  1. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Ma, Y. M.; Yang, K.; Zhu, Z. K.; Wang, J. M.; Amatya, P. M.; Zhao, L.

    2013-08-01

    The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal) and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS) in Tibet, China) slopes of the Himalayas. While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is an urban site with much higher aerosol load due to the influence of local anthropogenic activities. The annual mean of aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the investigated period was 0.06 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at 500 nm at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites results in an increase of coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at the three sites. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than QOMS_CAS from July to September, indicating the Himalayas blocks the coarse particles carried by the southwest winds. The precipitation scavenging effect is obvious at Pokhara, which can significantly reduce the aerosol load during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. In general, precipitation can lead to a decrease of the aerosol load and the average particle size at each station. AOD changes in a short time with the emission rate near the emission

  2. Measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of single aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffet, Ryan Christopher

    Knowledge of aerosol physical, chemical, optical properties is essential for judging the effect that particulates have on human health, climate and visibility. The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) is capable of measuring, in real-time, the size and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols. This was exemplified by the recent deployments of the ATOFMS to Mexico City and Riverside. The ATOFMS provided rapid information about the major particle types present in the atmosphere. Industrial sources of particles, such as fine mode particles containing lead, zinc and chloride were detected in Mexico City. The rapid time response of the ATOFMS was also exploited to characterize a coarse particle concentrator used in human health effects studies. The ATOFMS showed the ability to detect changes in particle composition with a time resolution of 15 min during short 2 hour human exposure studies. As a major component of this work, an optical measurement has been added to the ATOFMS. The scattered light intensity was acquired for each sized and chemically analyzed particle. This scattering information together with the particle aerodynamic diameter, enabled the refractive index and density of the aerosol to be retrieved. This method was validated in the laboratory using different test particles such as oils, aqueous salt solutions and black carbon particles. It was found that the nozzle-type inlet does not evaporate aqueous salt particles as has been observed for aerodynamic lens inlets. These new optical and microphysical measurements were integrated into the ATOFMS for field deployment in Riverside and Mexico City. For both cities, the different mixing states were found to have unique refractive indexes and densities. A fraction of the strongly absorbing elemental carbon particles were observed to have a spherical morphology due to heavy mixing with secondary species. In addition to the quantitative refractive index and effective density measurements

  3. Retrieval of high-spectral-resolution lidar for atmospheric aerosol optical properties profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Luo, Jing; Yang, Yongying; Cheng, Zhongtao; Zhang, Yupeng; Zhou, Yudi; Duan, Lulin; Su, Lin

    2015-10-01

    High-spectral-resolution lidars (HSRLs) are increasingly being developed for atmospheric aerosol remote sensing applications due to the straightforward and independent retrieval of aerosol optical properties without reliance on assumptions about lidar ratio. In HSRL technique, spectral discrimination between scattering from molecules and aerosol particles is one of the most critical processes, which needs to be accomplished by means of a narrowband spectroscopic filter. To ensure a high retrieval accuracy of an HSRL system, the high-quality design of its spectral discrimination filter should be made. This paper reviews the available algorithms that were proposed for HSRLs and makes a general accuracy analysis of the HSRL technique focused on the spectral discrimination, in order to provide heuristic guidelines for the reasonable design of the spectral discrimination filter. We introduce a theoretical model for retrieval error evaluation of an HSRL instrument with general three-channel configuration. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are performed to validate the correctness of the theoretical model. Results from both the model and MC simulations agree very well, and they illustrate one important, although not well realized fact: a large molecular transmittance and a large spectral discrimination ratio (SDR, i.e., ratio of the molecular transmittance to the aerosol transmittance) are beneficial t o promote the retrieval accuracy. The application of the conclusions obtained in this paper in the designing of a new type of spectroscopic filter, that is, the field-widened Michelson interferometer, is illustrated in detail. These works are with certain universality and expected to be useful guidelines for HSRL community, especially when choosing or designing the spectral discrimination filter.

  4. Combining data from lidar and in situ instruments to characterize the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Turco, R. P.; Pueschel, R. F.; Browell, E. V.; Grant, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last decade, the quantification of tropospheric aerosol abundance, composition and radiative impacts has become an important research endeavor. For the most part, the interest in tropospheric aerosols is derived from questions related to the global and local (instantaneous) radiative forcing of climate due to these aerosols. One approach is to study local forcing under well-defined conditions, and to extrapolate such results to global scales. To estimate local aerosol forcing, appropriate radiative transfer models can be employed (e.g., the Fu-Liou radiative transfer code, [Fu and Liou, 1993]). In general, such models require information on derived aerosol properties [Toon, 1994]; namely the aerosol optical depth, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor (phase function), all of which appear in the equations of radiative transfer. In this paper, we report on a method that utilizes lidar data and in situ aerosol size distribution measurements to deduce the vertical structure of the aerosol complex index of refraction in the near IR, thus identifying the aerosol type. Together with aerosol size distributions obtained in situ, the aerosol refractive index can be used to calculate the necessary derived aerosol properties. The data analyzed here were collected during NASA's PEM West-B (Pacific Exploratory Mission) experiment, which took place in February/March 1994. The platform for the measurements was the NASA DC-8 aircraft. The primary goal of the PEM West missions [Browell et al., 1996] was the assessment of potential anthropogenic perturbations of the chemistry in the Pacific Basin troposphere. For this purpose the timing of PEM West-B corresponded to the seasonal peak in transport from the Asian continent into the Pacific basin [Merrill et al., in press]. This period normally occurs during Northern Hemisphere spring, when the Japan jet is well developed.

  5. Derivation of optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols by monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiangtao; Crozier, Peter A; Ercius, Peter; Anderson, James R

    2014-06-01

    Monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is employed to determine the optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols from the infrared to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. It is essential to determine their optical properties to understand their accurate contribution to radiative forcing for climate change. The influence of surface and interface plasmon effects on the accuracy of dielectric data determined from EELS is discussed. Our measurements show that the standard thin film formulation of Kramers-Kronig analysis can be employed to make accurate determination of the dielectric function for carbonaceous particles down to about 40 nm in size. The complex refractive indices of graphitic and amorphous carbon spherules found in the atmosphere were determined over the wavelength range 200-1,200 nm. The graphitic carbon was strongly absorbing black carbon, whereas the amorphous carbon shows a more weakly absorbing brown carbon profile. The EELS approach provides an important tool for exploring the variation in optical properties of atmospheric carbon. PMID:24735494

  6. WRF-Chem model sensitivity to chemical mechanisms choice in reconstructing aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarini, A.; Pirovano, G.; Honzak, L.; Žabkar, R.; Curci, G.; Forkel, R.; Hirtl, M.; San José, R.; Tuccella, P.; Grell, G. A.

    2015-08-01

    aerosols predictions, as well as in the calculation of aerosol optical properties.

  7. Characterization of aerosol optical properties, chemical composition and mixing states in the winter season in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong; Huang, Yuanlong; Li, Ling; Chen, Hong; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Xin; Gao, Song; Gross, Deborah S

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical properties of ambient aerosols at the single particle level were studied in Shanghai from December 22 to 28, 2009. A Cavity-Ring-Down Aerosol Extinction Spectrometer (CRD-AES) and a nephelometer were deployed to measure aerosol light extinction and scattering properties, respectively. An Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was used to detect single particle sizes and chemical composition. Seven particle types were detected. Air parcels arrived at the sampling site from the vicinity of Shanghai until mid-day of December 25, when they started to originate from North China. The aerosol extinction, scattering, and absorption coefficients all dropped sharply when this cold, clean air arrived. Aerosol particles changed from a highly aged type before this meteorological shift to a relatively fresh type afterwards. The aerosol optical properties were dependent on the wind direction. Aerosols with high extinction coefficient and scattering Ångström exponent (SAE) were observed when the wind blew from the west and northwest, indicating that they were predominantly fine particles. Nitrate and ammonium correlated most strongly with the change in aerosol optical properties. In the elemental carbon/organic carbon (ECOC) particle type, the diurnal trends of single scattering albedo (SSA) and elemental carbon (EC) signal intensity had a negative correlation. We also found a negative correlation (r=-0.87) between high mass-OC particle number fraction and the SSA in a relatively clean period, suggesting that particulate aromatic components might play an important role in light absorption in urban areas. PMID:25499489

  8. Aerosol optical properties and their relationship with meteorological parameters during wintertime in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S.; Pandithurai, G.; Attri, S. D.; Srivastava, A. K.; Soni, V. K.; Bisht, D. S.; Anil Kumar, V.; Srivastava, Manoj K.

    2015-02-01

    In situ and columnar measurements of aerosol optical properties (AOPs) [Aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom Exponent (AE), Aerosol scattering (σscat) and absorption (σabs) coefficients and single scattering albedo (SSA)] along with soot particles (Black carbon: BC) and fine particles (PM2.5: d ≤ 2.5) were continuously measured at an urban site in Delhi, India during winter period (December 2011 to March 2012). Average values of AOD, σscat, σabs, and SSA at 500 nm; and AE for the observation period were found to be 0.95 ± 0.32, 1027.36 ± 797.1 Mm- 1, 85.95 ± 73.2 Mm- 1 and 0.93 ± 0.03; and 0.94 ± 0.19, respectively. Higher values of σscat and σabs were occurred in the month of December (1857 and 148 Mm- 1) while relatively lower values of σscat (585 Mm- 1) and σabs (44 Mm- 1) were occurred in March and February respectively. SSA, however, was higher during January (0.94) and lower in March (0.89). The mass concentration of PM2.5 and BC were 195.34 ± 157.99 and 10.11 ± 8.83 μg m- 3 respectively during study period. Bimodal distributions were observed in σscat and σabs coefficients during 0800 and 0900 h LT (traffic rush hours) and at 2200 and 2300 h LT (low boundary layer conditions) with lower values during daytime between 1500 and 1700 h LT, respectively. The σscat peak in morning may be attributed to large emissions of aerosol in the traffic rush hours and production of secondary aerosols with increasing solar radiation and temperature. During study period, the σscat (mean) coefficient was 13% lower during daytime as compared to nighttime. An interesting feature was seen in monthly analysis of σscat in between day and nighttime which was 18% and 22% higher in December and January in nighttime however ~ 4% lower during February and March; it is due to effect of local meteorology. The impact of meteorological parameters such as wind speed (WS), wind direction (WD), visibility (VIS) and mixed layer depths (MLDs) on AOPs along with fine and

  9. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon: airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition, microphysical properties, mixing state and optical properties during SAMBBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Szpek, K.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. On regional scales, the impacts are substantial, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado

  10. Aerosol optical and radiative properties during summer and winter seasons over Lahore and Karachi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Khan; Trautmann, Thomas; Blaschke, Thomas; Majid, Hussain

    2012-04-01

    The study of aerosol optical and radiative properties presented here focuses on a geographic region in which there exist significant gaps in our knowledge. These properties have been analyzed through the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) over the two megacities of Lahore and Karachi for summer (April-June) and winter (December-February) of 2010-11. During the study period the monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm over Lahore ranged from 0.57 ± 0.18 to 0.76 ± 0.38, and the monthly mean Ångström exponent () ranged from 0.39 ± 0.17 to 1.22 ± 0.13. Likewise, over Karachi the monthly mean AOD ranged from 0.33 ± 0.11 to 0.63 ± 0.28 and the values varied between 0.29 ± 0.08 to 0.95 ± 0.22. The average AOD values in summer and winter are 0.66 ± 0.30, 0.50 ± 0.18 and 0.67 ± 0.40, 0.34 ± 0.12 in Lahore and Karachi respectively. The relationship between the Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) and the Extinction Ångström Exponent (EAE) provided an indication of the relative proportions of urban-industrial and mineral dust aerosols over the two sites. The volume size distributions were higher over Lahore than over Karachi during both seasons. The single scattering albedo (SSA) ranged from 0.83 ± 0.02 (440 nm) to 0.91 ± 0.05 (1020 nm) over Lahore and from 0.88 ± 0.02 (440 nm) to 0.97 ± 0.01 (1020 nm) over Karachi. The lower SSA values over Lahore suggest that absorbing aerosols are more dominant over Lahore than over Karachi. The average aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) values in summer at the surface and the top of atmosphere (TOA) are -101.6 ± 8.2, -63.3 ± 9.5 and -19 ± 4.35, -20 ± 3.1 over Lahore and Karachi respectively. Likewise, the average ARF values in winter at the surface and TOA are -90.3 ± 21.03, -57 ± 6.35 and -26 ± 7, -16 ± 2.3 over Lahore and Karachi respectively. The averaged aerosol ARF values over Lahore and Karachi for the entire period covered by the observations were -22.5 ± 5.9 W m-2 and

  11. Contrasting trends of mass and optical properties of aerosols over the Northern Hemisphere from 1992 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Dickinson, R. E.; Su, L.; Trenberth, K. E.

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impact both human health and climate. PMX is the mass concentration of aerosol particles that have aerodynamic diameters less than X μm, PM10 was initially selected to measure the environmental impact of aerosols. Recently, it was realized that fine particles are more hazardous than larger ones and should be measured. Consequently, observational data for PM2.5 have been obtained but only for a much shorter period than that of PM10. Optical extinction of aerosols, the inverse of meteorological visibility, is sensitive to particles less than 1.0 μm. These fine particles only account for a small part of total mass of aerosols although they are very efficient in light extinction. Comparisons are made between PM10 and PM2.5 over the period when the latter is available and with visibility data for a longer period. PM10 has decreased by 44% in Europe from 1992 to 2009, 33% in the US from 1993 to 2010, 10% in Canada from 1994 to 2009, and 26% in China from 2000 to 2010. However, in contrast, aerosol optical extinction increased 7% in the US, 10% in Canada, and 18% in China during the above study periods. The reduction of optical extinction over Europe of 5% is also much less than the 44% reduction in PM10. Over its short period of record PM2.5 decreased less than PM10. Hence, PM10 is neither a good measure of changes in smaller particles or of their long-term trends, a result that has important implications for both climate impact and human health effects. The increased fraction of anthropogenic aerosol emission, such as vehicle exhaust, to total atmospheric aerosols partly explains this contrasting trend of optical and mass properties of aerosols.

  12. Contrasting trends of mass and optical properties of aerosols over the Northern Hemisphere from 1992 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. C.; Dickinson, R. E.; Su, L.; Trenberth, K. E.

    2012-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect both human health and climate. PMX is the mass concentration of aerosol particles that have aerodynamic diameters less than X μm, PM10 was initially selected to measure the environmental impact of aerosols. Recently, it was realized that fine particles are more hazardous than larger ones and should be measured. Consequently, observational data for PM2.5 have been obtained but only for a much shorter period than that of PM10. Optical extinction of aerosols, the inverse of meteorological visibility, is sensitive to particles less than 1.0 μm. These fine particles only account for a small part of total mass of aerosols although they are very efficient in light extinction. Comparisons are made between PM10 and PM2.5 over the period when the latter is available and with visibility data for a longer period. PM10 has decreased by 44% in Europe from 1992 to 2009, 33% in the US from 1993 to 2010, 10% in Canada from 1994 to 2009, and 26% in China from 2000 to 2011. However, in contrast, aerosol optical extinction has increased 7% in the US, 10% in Canada, and 18% in China during the above study periods. The reduction of optical extinction over Europe of 5% is also much less than the 44% reduction in PM10. Over its short period of record PM2.5 decreased less than PM10. Hence, PM10 is neither a good measure of changes in smaller particles nor of their long-term trends, a result that has important implications for both climate impact and human health effects. The increased fraction of anthropogenic aerosol emission, such as from vehicle exhaust, to total atmospheric aerosols partly explains this contrasting trend of optical and mass properties of aerosols.

  13. Assessment of aerosol optical property and radiative effect for the layer decoupling cases over the northern South China Sea during the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Shantanu Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lolli, Simone; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chantara, Somporn; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol radiative effect can be modulated by the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols, particularly when aerosol layers are decoupled. Direct aerosol radiative effects over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were assessed by incorporating an observed data set of aerosol optical properties obtained from the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/Dongsha Experiment into a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical properties for a two-layer structure of aerosol transport were estimated. In the radiative transfer calculations, aerosol variability (i.e., diversity of source region, aerosol type, and vertical distribution) for the complex aerosol environment was also carefully quantified. The column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.1-0.3 for near-surface aerosols and increased 1-5 times in presence of upper layer biomass-burning aerosols. A case study showed the strong aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (ω) ≈ 0.92 at 440 nm wavelength) exhibited by the upper layer when associated with predominantly biomass-burning aerosols, and the ω (≈0.95) of near-surface aerosols was greater than that of the upper layer aerosols because of the presence of mixed type aerosols. The presence of upper level aerosol transport could enhance the radiative efficiency at the surface (i.e., cooling) and lower atmosphere (i.e., heating) by up to -13.7 and +9.6 W m-2 per AOD, respectively. Such enhancement could potentially modify atmospheric stability, can influence atmospheric circulation, as well as the hydrological cycle over the tropical and low-latitude marginal northern SCS.

  14. Optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol observed over Warsaw on 10th July 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona; Veselovskii, Igor; Baars, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning aerosol originating from Canadian forest fires was widely observed over Europe in July 2013. Favorable weather conditions caused long-term westward flow of smoke from Canada to Western and Central Europe. During this period, PollyXT lidar of the University of Warsaw took wavelength dependent measurements in Warsaw. On July 10th short event of simultaneous advection of Canadian smoke and Saharan dust was observed at different altitudes over Warsaw. Different origination of both air masses was indicated by backward trajectories from HYSPLIT model. Lidar measurements performed with various wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm), using also Raman and depolarization channels for VIS and UV allowed for distinguishing physical differences of this two types of aerosols. Optical properties acted as input for retrieval of microphysical properties. Comparisons of microphysical and optical properties of biomass burning aerosols and mineral dust observed will be presented.

  15. Aerosol Optical Properties over the Oceans: Summary and Interpretation of Shadow-Band Radiometer Data from Six Cruises. Chapter 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Mark A.; Reynolds, R. M.; Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    2001-01-01

    The aerosol scattering component of the total radiance measured at the detectors of ocean color satellites is determined with atmospheric correction algorithms. These algorithms are based on aerosol optical thickness measurements made in two channels that lie in the near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The aerosol properties in the near-infrared region are used because there is no significant contribution to the satellite-measured radiance from the underlying ocean surface in that spectral region. In the visible wavelength bands, the spectrum of radiation scattered from the turbid atmosphere is convolved with the spectrum of radiation scattered from the surface layers of the ocean. The radiance contribution made by aerosols in the visible bands is determined from the near-infrared measurements through the use of aerosol models and radiation transfer codes. Selection of appropriate aerosol models from the near-infrared measurements is a fundamental challenge. There are several challenges with respect to the development, improvement, and evaluation of satellite ocean-color atmospheric correction algorithms. A common thread among these challenges is the lack of over-ocean aerosol data. Until recently, one of the most important limitations has been the lack of techniques and instruments to make aerosol measurements at sea. There has been steady progress in this area over the past five years, and there are several new and promising devices and techniques for data collection. The development of new instruments and the collection of more aerosol data from over the world's oceans have brought the realization that aerosol measurements that can be directly compared with aerosol measurements from ocean color satellite measurements are difficult to obtain. There are two problems that limit these types of comparisons: the cloudiness of the atmosphere over the world's oceans and the limitations of the techniques and instruments used to collect aerosol data from

  16. Diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties in the North China Plain and their influences on the estimates of direct aerosol radiative effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; Zhao, C. S.; Tao, J. C.; Ma, N.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties and their influences on the estimation of daily average direct aerosol radiative effect (DARE) in the North China Plain (NCP) are investigated based on in situ measurements from Haze in China campaign. For ambient aerosol, the diurnal patterns of single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry factor (g) in the NCP are both highest at dawn and lowest in the late afternoon, and quite different from those of dry-state aerosol. The relative humidity (RH) is the dominant factor which determines the diurnal pattern of SSA and g for ambient aerosol. Basing on the calculated SSA and g, several cases are designed to investigate the impacts of the diurnal changes of aerosol optical properties on DARE. The results demonstrate that the diurnal changes of SSA and g in the NCP have significant influences on the estimation of DARE at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). If the full temporal coverage of aerosol optical depth (AOD), SSA and g are available, an accurate estimation of daily average DARE can be achieved by using the daily averages of AOD, SSA and g. However, due to the lack of full temporal coverage data sets of SSA and g, their daily averages are usually not available. Basing on the results of designed cases, if the RH plays a dominant role in the diurnal variations of SSA and g, we suggest that using both SSA and g averaged over early morning and late afternoon as inputs for radiative transfer model to improve the accurate estimation of DARE. If the temporal samplings of SSA or g are too few to adopt this method, either averaged over early morning or late afternoon of both SSA and g can be used to improve the estimation of DARE at the TOA.

  17. Diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties in the North China Plain and their influences on the estimates of direct aerosol radiative effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Ye; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties and their influences on the estimation of daily average direct aerosol radiative effect (DARE) in the North China Plain (NCP) are investigated based on in situ measurements from Haze in China campaign. For ambient aerosol, the diurnal patterns of single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry factor (g) in the NCP are both highest at dawn and lowest in the late afternoon, and quite different from those of dry-state aerosol. The relative humidity is the dominant factor which determines the diurnal patterns of SSA and g for ambient aerosol. Basing on the calculated SSA and g, several cases are designed to investigate the impacts of the diurnal changes of aerosol optical properties on DARE. The results demonstrate that the diurnal changes of SSA and g in the NCP have significant influences on the estimation of DARE at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). If the full temporal coverage of aerosol optical depth (AOD), SSA and g are available, an accurate estimation of daily average DARE can be achieved by using the daily averages of AOD, SSA and g. However, due to the lack of full temporal coverage datasets of SSA and g, their daily averages are usually not available. Basing on the results of designed cases, if the RH plays a dominant role in the diurnal variations of SSA and g, we suggest that using both SSA and g averaged over early morning and late afternoon as inputs for radiative transfer model to improve the accurate estimation of DARE. If the temporal samplings of SSA or g are too few to adopt this method, either averaged over early morning or late afternoon of both SSA and g can be used to improve the estimation of DARF at TOA.

  18. Contribution of long-range transported aerosols to aerosol optical and physical properties: 3-year measurements at Gosan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, J.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Ogren, J. A.; Yoon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, more attentions have been paid to air quality in East Asia due to the enhanced loading of atmospheric pollutants related to rapid industrialization. Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO), Korea is regarded as an ideal site to study the transport of atmospheric pollutants because it is frequently influenced by various airmasses from China, Korea, Japan and Pacific Ocean. In order to understand aerosol optical and physical properties according to airmass transport routes, three-year (2012-2014) continuous measurements of aerosol scattering/absorption coefficient and number size distribution were analyzed, together with 48-hour backward trajectory calculations. The averaged aerosol absorption (σa) and scattering coefficient (σs) for airmasses transported from North China (NC; 36% of all trajectories) were 6.65 Mm-1 and 94.72 Mm-1 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively, which were similar to those for stagnant airmasses (ST; 22% of all trajectories; σa: 6.26 Mm-1, σs: 93.99 Mm-1). The highest values of σa (7.03 Mm-1) and σs (108.34 Mm-1) were observed when airmasses were traveled from South China (SC; 11% of all trajectories). σa and σs for airmasses from Korean Peninsula (KP; 7% of all trajectories) and Pacific Ocean (PO; 14% of all trajectories; in parenthesis) were 5.63 (2.76) Mm-1 and 73.63 (50.93) Mm-1, respectively. Compared to other airmasses, the higher values of Scattering Angstrom Exponent (SAE) for ST (1.65) is thought to be the build-up of anthropogenic fine particulate pollutants. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) was estimated to be 1.32 for NC airmass and 1.02 for SC airmass. Over the study period, 130 days of total 557 days were identified as new particle formation and growth event (NPF) from Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurements by Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Function (CSEOF) approach. Especially, 55.4% (72 days) of total 130 NPF days were found when a cold and dry airmass comes from NC after passing the frontal

  19. Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties and the solar heating rate estimated by combining sky radiometer and lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Rei; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Aoyagi, Toshinori

    2016-07-01

    The SKYLIDAR algorithm was developed to estimate vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties from sky radiometer (SKYNET) and lidar (AD-Net) measurements. The solar heating rate was also estimated from the SKYLIDAR retrievals. The algorithm consists of two retrieval steps: (1) columnar properties are retrieved from the sky radiometer measurements and the vertically mean depolarization ratio obtained from the lidar measurements and (2) vertical profiles are retrieved from the lidar measurements and the results of the first step. The derived parameters are the vertical profiles of the size distribution, refractive index (real and imaginary parts), extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor. Sensitivity tests were conducted by applying the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the simulated sky radiometer and lidar data for vertical profiles of three different aerosols, continental average, transported dust, and pollution aerosols. The vertical profiles of the size distribution, extinction coefficient, and asymmetry factor were well estimated in all cases. The vertical profiles of the refractive index and single-scattering albedo of transported dust, but not those of transported pollution aerosol, were well estimated. To demonstrate the performance and validity of the SKYLIDAR algorithm, we applied the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the actual measurements at Tsukuba, Japan. The detailed vertical structures of the aerosol optical properties and solar heating rate of transported dust and smoke were investigated. Examination of the relationship between the solar heating rate and the aerosol optical properties showed that the vertical profile of the asymmetry factor played an important role in creating vertical variation in the solar heating rate. We then compared the columnar optical properties retrieved with the SKYLIDAR algorithm to those produced with the more established scheme SKYRAD.PACK, and the surface solar irradiance calculated from the SKYLIDAR

  20. Seasonal variability of optical properties of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrekoussis, M.; Liakakou, E.; Koçak, M.; Kubilay, N.; Oikonomou, K.; Sciare, J.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    The aerosol optical properties (scattering and absorption coefficients) were investigated at two remote locations in the Eastern Mediterranean in conjunction with aerosol ion composition measurements: Finokalia in the Crete Island in Greece (March 2001-June 2002) and Erdemli in Turkey (July 1999-June 2000). Ambient light-scattering coefficient ( σsp-532 nm ) at Finokalia had a mean value of 50±23 Mm -1 while at Erdemli this value was 90±160 Mm -1, due to a severe dust event that occurred from 17 to 19 April 2000. Scattering coefficients up to 5000 Mm -1 were encountered during the transition periods (spring and autumn) and were associated with dust storm events. During these events significant correlations were observed between dust and σsp and mass scattering efficiencies of 0.21 and 0.96 m 2g -1 were calculated for dust for Finokalia and Erdemli, respectively. Significant correlations were also observed at both locations between non-sea-salt sulphate (nss-SO 42-); σsp and mass scattering efficiencies of 5.9±1.8 and 5.7±1.4 m 2g -1 were calculated for the nss-SO 42- at Finokalia and Erdemli, respectively. At Finokalia absorption measurements were also performed at the same time and the mean absorption coefficient ( σap-565 nm ) was found to be 5.6±3.6 Mm -1. Maxima of absorption coefficient were associated with two distinct meteorological situations indicative of pollution transported from northern Europe and Saharan dust events. Saharan dust can therefore significantly contribute to both scattering and absorption of solar radiation, the latter due to its hematite content. Based on scattering and absorption measurements, an annual mean single-scattering albedo ( ω) adjusted at 550 nm of 0.89±0.04 was calculated for Finokalia. Finally, radiative forcing efficiency (RFE) over the sea at 550 nm induced by aerosols has been calculated for Finokalia. RFE follows a clear seasonal variation, with the lowest mean values during summer (-73W m -2) and the highest

  1. Optical Properties of Boreal Region Biomass Burning Aerosols in Central Alaska and Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Optical Depth at an Arctic Coastal Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Sinyuk, A.; Hyer, E. J.; O'Neill, N. T.; Shaw, G. E.; VandeCastle, J. R.; Chapin, F. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Vermote, E.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D.; Slutsker, I.; Sorokine, M.; Newcomb, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of aerosol optical properties at a boreal forest AERONET site in interior Alaska was performed from 1994 through 2008 (excluding winter). Large interannual variability was observed, with some years showing near background aerosol optical depth (AOD) levels (<0.1 at 500 nm) while 2004 and 2005 had August monthly means similar in magnitude to peak months at major tropical biomass burning regions. Single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0); 440 nm) at the boreal forest site ranged from approximately 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approximately 0.96 for observations in 2004 and 2005. This suggests a significant amount of smoldering combustion of woody fuels and peat/soil layers that would result in relatively low black carbon mass fractions for smoke particles. The fine mode particle volume median radius during the heavy burning years was quite large, averaging approximately 0.17 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 0.1 and increasing to approximately 0.25 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 3.0. This large particle size for biomass burning aerosols results in a greater relative scattering component of extinction and, therefore, also contributes to higher omega (sub 0). Additionally, monitoring at an Arctic Ocean coastal site (Barrow, Alaska) suggested transport of smoke to the Arctic in summer resulting in individual events with much higher AOD than that occurring during typical spring Arctic haze. However, the springtime mean AOD(500 nm) is higher during late March through late May (approximately 0.150) than during summer months (approximately 0.085) at Barrow partly due to very few days with low background AOD levels in spring compared with many days with clean background conditions in summer.

  2. Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols generated by photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kun; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa; Li, Jiangjun; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    The refractive index (RI) is the fundamental characteristic that affects the optical properties of aerosols, which could be some of the most important factors influencing direct radiative forcing. The secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated by the photooxidation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene (BTEX) under low-NOx and high-NOx conditions are explored in this study. The particles generated in our experiments are considered to be spherical, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, and nonabsorbent at a wavelength of 532 nm, as determined by ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The retrieved RIs at 532 nm for the SOAs range from 1.38–1.59, depending on several factors, such as different precursors and NOx levels. The RIs of the SOAs are altered differently as the NOx concentration increases as follows: the RIs of the SOAs derived from benzene and toluene increase, whereas those of the SOAs derived from ethylbenzene and m-xylene decrease. Finally, by comparing the experimental data with the model values, we demonstrate that the models likely overestimate the RI values of the SOA particles to a certain extent, which in turn overestimates the global direct radiative forcing of the organic particles. PMID:24815734

  3. Calibration of a Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry and Nephelometry Setup for Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon-Bernal, I. D.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols have a great impact on climate and global warming which is not yet fully understood. We want to have a better understanding how of how the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols, coming from cooking and forest wildfires, interact with light and affect the Earths radiation budget and its impact on climate. Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometry and integrating Nephelometry was used to determine the extinction of scattering and absorbing polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres of 390 nm and 404nm respectfully and a soot sample of 400 nm. The extinction coefficients obtained for the scattering 404 nm PSL spheres, 390 nm absorbing PSL spheres and the soot sample were: 1.337E-05 m-1, 9.569E-05 m-1, and 2.200E-05 m-1 respectively. The Single Scattering Albedo was also obtained for the lab standards, which were 0.7077 for the scattering PSL spheres and 0.0643 for the absorbing PSL spheres. Samples for the flaming stage and smoldering stage were observed under a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to study how their morphology varies from one stage to the other. We determined the soot sample can attenuate light but less than what our PSL spheres are capable of after comparing extinction cross-sections. Error correlations need to be determined for the 400 nm soot particles and be applied to our data. Lastly, different morphologies were observed for the two burning stages analyzed under the SEM.

  4. Columnar-integrated aerosol optical properties and classification of different aerosol types over the semi-arid region, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Rama, Gopal K; Arafath, S Md; Balakrishnaiah, G; Raja, Obul Reddy K; Siva, Kumar Reddy N; Lingaswamy, A P; Pavan, Kumari S; Uma, Devi K; Reddy, R R; Suresh, Babu S

    2015-09-15

    This study presents a characterization of aerosol columnar properties measured at a semi-arid station Anantapur in the southern part of India during the period from October 2012 to September 2013. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent (α) have been retrieved from Microtops II Sunphotometer over the observation site. The results show that a pronounced spectral and monthly variability in the optical properties of aerosols is mainly due to anthropogenic sources. The results show that the spectral curvature can effectively be used as a tool for aerosol type discrimination, since the fine-mode aerosols exhibit negative curvature, while the coarse-mode particles are positive. The classification of aerosols is also proposed by using the values of AOD at 500 nm and Angstrom exponent values (α(380-870)) by applying threshold values obtained from the frequency distribution of AOD. The results of the analysis were identified by four individual components (anthropogenic/biomass burning, coarse/dust, coarse/marine, clean continental) of different origin and compositions. The most frequent situations observed over the site are that due to the anthropogenic/biomass burning situations which account for about 45.37%, followed by coarse/dust (43.64%), clean continental (7.2%) and coarse/marine (3.82%) during summer. The identification of the aerosol source type and the modification processes are analyzed by using the Gobbi et al. (2007) classification scheme based on the measured scattering properties (α, dα) derived from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. PMID:26005994

  5. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Optical Properties from Combined Airborne- and Ground-Based Direct and Diffuse Radiometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 m) and angular range (180 ) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  6. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 μm) and angular range (180°) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  7. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer, CAR, and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 μm) and angular range (180°) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  8. Aerosol optical properties at a coastal site in Hong Kong, South China: temporal features, size dependencies and source analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaping; Ding, Aijun; Virkkula, Aki; Lee, Shuncheng; Shen, Yicheng; Chi, Xuguang; Xu, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Hong Kong is a typical coastal city adjacent to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China, which is one of the regions suffering from severe air pollution. Atmospheric aerosols can affect the earth's radiative balance by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. Black Carbon (BC) aerosol is a particularly emphasized component due to its strong light absorption. Aerosol transported from different source areas consists of distinct size distributions, leading to different optical properties. As the byproducts of the incomplete oxidation, BC and CO both have relatively long life time, their relationship is a good indicator for distinguishing different pollutant sources. In this study, temporal variations of aerosol optical properties and concentrations of BC and CO at a coastal background station in Hong Kong were investigated. Transport characteristics and origins of aerosol were elucidated by analyzing backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) results, together with related parameters including the relationships between optical properties and particle size, BC-CO correlations, ship location data and meteorological variables. From February 2012 to September 2013 and March 2014 to February 2015, continuous in-situ measurements of light scattering and absorption coefficients, particle size distribution and concentrations of BC and CO were conducted at Hok Tsui (HT), a coastal background station on the southeast tip of Hong Kong Island (22.22°N, 114.25°E, 60 m above the sea level) with few local anthropogenic activities. Affected by the Asian monsoon, this region is dominated by continental outflow in winter and by marine inflow from the South China Sea in summer, which is an ideal station for identifying the transport characteristics of aerosol and their effects on optical properties from different anthropogenic emission sources. 7-day backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling was performed for source identification. Three

  9. Technical Note: Evaluation of the WRF-Chem "Aerosol Chemical to Aerosol Optical Properties" Module using data from the MILAGRO campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, James C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe L.; Arnott, W. P.; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-08-09

    A comparison between observed aerosol optical properties from the MILAGRO field campaign, which took place in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during March 2006, and values simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) model, reveals large differences. To help identify the source of the discrepancies, data from the MILAGRO campaign are used to evaluate the "aerosol chemical to aerosol optical properties" module implemented in the full chemistry version of the WRF-Chem model. The evaluation uses measurements of aerosol size distributions and chemical properties obtained at the MILAGRO T1 site. These observations are fed to the module, which makes predictions of various aerosol optical properties, including the scattering coefficient, Bscat; the absorption coefficient, Babs; and the single-scattering albedo, v0; all as a function of time. This simulation is compared with independent measurements obtained from a photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) at a wavelength of 870 nm. Because of line losses and other factors, only "fine mode" aerosols with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 mm are considered here. Over a 10-day period, the simulations of hour-by-hour variations of Bscat are not satisfactory, but simulations of Babs and v0 are considerably better. When averaged over the 10-day period, the computed and observed optical properties agree within the uncertainty limits of the measurements and simulations. Specifically, the observed and calculated values are, respectively: (1) Bscat, 34.1 ± 5.1 Mm-1 versus 30.4 ± 4.3 Mm-1; (2) Babs, 9.7 ± 1.0 Mm-1 versus 11.7 ± 1.5 Mm-1; and (3) v0, 0.78 ± 0.04 and 0.74 ± 0.03. The discrepancies in values of v0 simulated by the full WRF-Chem model thus cannot be attributed to the "aerosol chemistry to optics" module. The discrepancy is more likely due, in part, to poor characterization of emissions near the T1 site, particularly black carbon emissions.

  10. Comparison of modeled optical properties of Saharan mineral dust aerosols with SAMUM lidar and photometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, Josef; Wiegner, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Mineral dust aerosols are, for example, relevant for the radiative transfer in Earth's atmosphere. An important source of information on this aerosol type is provided by remote sensing using lidar systems and sun/sky photometers. We investigate the sensitivity of lidar and photometer observations to the microphysical aerosol properties in a numerical study. Knowledge of this sensitivity is required for the development of microphysical retrieval algorithms. Until recently, such retrieval algorithms were applied only to lidar or photometer observations. Quite different sensitivities for lidar and photometer are found in our study, suggesting that synergistic effects can be expected from combining the observations from both techniques. Furthermore, we compare the modeled aerosol properties to observations of Saharan mineral dust aerosols performed during the SAMUM field campaign. We determined aerosol ensembles that are consistent with the lidar as well as the photometer observations, confirming the feasibility of combining the observations from both techniques. The consistent aerosol ensembles are based on the desert mixture from the OPAC aerosol dataset, and were improved by considering mixing of absorbing and non-absorbing irregularly shaped particles.

  11. Ship-borne rotating shadowband radiometer observations for determination of components of spectral irradiance and aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Jonas; Deneke, Hartwig; Macke, Andreas; Bernhard, Germar

    2015-04-01

    The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been established as a sub-project of AERONET and a long-term program to collect ship-borne aerosol optical depth measurements over ocean. Its purpose is to serve as reliable reference database for the evaluation of models and satellite products. Data are currently collected by handheld Microtops II photometers, as the automated acquisition of data from sun photometers on stabilized platforms is so far too expensive for wide-spread use. A promising alternative to the sun photometer is the rotating shadowband radiometer, whose principle of operation allows the determination of the direct-beam component of solar radiation without stabilizing the instrument, if the orientation of the detector horizontal is known. OCEANET, a project to investigate the exchange fluxes of energy and matter between the atmosphere and ocean, has contributed aerosol observations to MAN on several of its cruises on RV Polarstern during the transit between the hemispheres. On the recent cruise (PS 83) from Cape Town to Bremerhaven, TROPOS has operated for the first time a 19 channel rotating shadowband radiometer (GUVis-3511) built by the company Biospherical, as a possible means to provide automated irradiance and aerosol optical depth measurements. Calibration and processing of the raw data will be described, and an initial evaluation of the instrumental performance will be given. Aerosol optical depths derived from Microtops II measurements and the rotating shadowband radiometer will be compared. We show that the standard deviation of Aerosol optical depths observed with Microtops II and the shadowband radiometer is about 0.02 for matching channels, and an aerosol type classification based on Angstrom exponent shows good agreement. Also the influence of ship smoke and ocean swell is studied. The suitability of the instrument to automate MAN observations is discussed, and an outlook to the use of the instrument to also derive cloud optical properties is

  12. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainic, M.; Abo Riziq, A.; Lavi, A.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-09-01

    The heterogeneous reaction between gas phase glyoxal and ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols, a proxy for inorganic atmospheric aerosol, was studied in terms of the dependence of the optical, physical and chemical properties of the product aerosols on initial particle size and ambient relative humidity (RH). Our experiments imitate an atmospheric scenario of a dry particle hydration at ambient RH conditions in the presence of glyoxal gas followed by efflorescence due to decrease of the ambient RH. The reactions were studied under different RH conditions, starting from dry conditions (~20% RH) and up to 90% RH, covering conditions prevalent in many atmospheric environments, and followed by consequent drying of the reacted particles before their analysis by the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), cavity ring down (CRD) and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) systems. At λ = 355 nm, the reacted aerosols demonstrate a substantial growth in optical extinction cross section, as well as in mobility diameter under a broad range of RH values (35-90%). The ratio of the product aerosol to seed aerosol geometric cross section reached up to ~3.5, and the optical extinction cross-section up to ~250. The reactions show a trend of increasing physical and optical growth with decreasing seed aerosol size, from 100 nm to 300 nm, as well as with decreasing RH values from 90% to ~40%. Optically inactive aerosols, at the limit of the Mie range (100 nm diameter) become optically active as they grow due to the reaction. AMS analyses of the reaction of 300 nm AS at RH values of 50%, 75% and 90% show that the main products of the reaction are glyoxal oligomers, formed by acetal formation in the presence of AS. In addition, imidazole formation, which is a minor channel, is observed for all reactions, yielding a product which absorbs at λ = 290 nm, with possible implications on the radiative properties of the product aerosols. The ratio of absorbing substances (C-N compounds, including

  13. Chemical and Optical Properties of Titan Aerosol Analogs Produced from Aromatic Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainer, M. G.; Sebree, J. A.; Anderson, C. M.; Loeffler, M. J.; Stern, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Since Cassini’s arrival at Titan, ppm levels of benzene (C6H6) as well as large positive ions, which may be polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been detected in the atmosphere. Aromatic molecules, photolytically active in the ultraviolet, may be important in the formation of the organic aerosol comprising the Titan haze layer even when present at low mixing ratios. Yet there have not been laboratory simulations exploring the impact of these molecules as precursors to Titan’s organic aerosol. We will discuss laboratory studies forming aerosol analogs via FUV irradiation of several aromatic precursors - with and without nitrogen heteroatoms - to understand how the unique chemical architecture of the products will influence the observable aerosol characteristics. Optical analyses are focused on the far- and mid-IR spectra of the aromatic aerosol for comparison to the observations of Titan by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). In particular, observations of Titan by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) between 560 and 20 cm-1 (~18 to 500 µm) have revealed a broad emission feature centered approximately at 140 cm-1 (71 µm), which cannot be reproduced using currently available optical constants (Anderson et al., 2011; Khare et al., 1984). Chemical analysis is focused on the isotopic fractionation observed in the aerosol relative to molecular precursors, showing that the aerosol may serve as a sink for the lighter carbon and nitrogen atoms. References: Anderson, C.M., et al.: "Titan’s aerosol and stratospheric ice opacities between 18 and 500 µm: Vertical and spectral characteristics from Cassini CIRS”. Icarus, Vol. 212, pp. 762-778, 2011. Khare, B. N., et al.: “Optical constants of organic Tholins produced in a simulated Titanian Atmosphere: From soft X-ray to Microwave Frequencies”. Icarus, Vol. 60, pp. 127-137, 1984.

  14. Dust aerosol and optical properties over North Africa simulated with the ALADIN numerical prediction model from 2006 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, M.; Tulet, P.; Fischer, C.; Bouteloup, Y.; Bouyssel, F.; Brachemi, O.

    2015-02-01

    The seasonal cycle and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols in North Africa were simulated for the period from 2006 to 2010 using the numerical atmospheric model ALADIN coupled to the surface scheme SURFEX. The particularity of the simulations is that the major physical processes responsible for dust emission and transport, as well as radiative effects, are taken into account at short timescales and mesoscale resolution. The aim of these simulations is to quantify the dust emission and deposition, locate the major areas of dust emission and establish a climatology of aerosol optical properties in North Africa. The mean monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) simulated by ALADIN is compared with the AOTs derived from the standard Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) algorithms of the Aqua-MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products over North Africa, and with a set of sun photometer measurements located at Banizoumbou, Cinzana, Soroa, Mbour and Capo Verde. The vertical distribution of dust aerosol represented by extinction profiles is also analysed using CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) observations. The annual dust emission simulated by ALADIN over North Africa is 878 Tg year-1. The Bodélé depression appears to be the main area of dust emission in North Africa, with an average estimate of about 21.6 Tg year-1. The simulated AOTs are in good agreement with satellite and sun photometer observations. The positions of the maxima of the modelled AOTs over North Africa match the observed positions, and the ALADIN simulations satisfactorily reproduce the various dust events over the 2006-2010 period. The AOT climatology proposed in this paper provides a solid database of optical properties and consolidates the existing climatology over this region derived from satellites, the AERONET network and Regional Climate Models. Moreover, the three-dimensional distribution of the simulated AOTs also provides information about the

  15. Column-integrated aerosol optical and physical properties at a regional background atmosphere in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Che, Huizheng; Xia, Xiangao; Chen, Hongbin; Goloub, Phillipe; Zhang, Wenxing

    2014-02-01

    The AERONET level 2.0 data at Xinglong station from February 2006 to July 2011 were used to characterize the aerosol optical and physical properties, including temporal variability, aerosol absorption, classification and properties under dust and haze conditions. The annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) are 0.28 ± 0.30 and 1.07 ± 0.38, respectively. The seasonal variations of AOD440nm are higher in spring (0.40 ± 0.3) and summer (0.40 ± 0.42) than in autumn (0.20 ± 0.22) and winter (0.19 ± 0.21). The EAE is low in spring (0.96 ± 0.43) and high in summer (1.22 ± 0.38). The EAE is ˜1.25 with an absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) of ˜1.0-1.5 in Xinglong, which indicates that the dominant type is mixed aerosol (accounting for 88.2% at AAE > 1.0). Almost all of the dust observations occurred in spring. The volume concentrations of both fine and coarse mode particles increase with increasing AOD. In spring, the increase of coarse particles is greater than that of fine aerosols; however, the reverse phenomenon is observed for other seasons. The high AOD at Xinglong could be associated with the growth of fine mode aerosols and addition of coarse mode particles. This background station is not only impacted by dust aerosols from northwest China and south Mongolia but also influenced by long-range transportation of anthropogenic aerosols from south urban and industrialized regions. The mean AOD was 1.49 on the dust day, while AOD was 1.10 on the haze day. The mean EAEs were 0.09 and 1.43 on dust and haze days, respectively.

  16. Seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties, vertical distribution and associated radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianjun; Zheng, Youfei; Li, Zhanqing; Flynn, Connor; Cribb, Maureen

    2012-08-01

    Four years of columnar aerosol optical properties and a one-year vertical profiles of aerosol particle extinction coefficient at 527 nm are analyzed at Taihu in the central Yangtze River Delta region in eastern China. Seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties, vertical distribution, and influence on shortwave radiation and heating rates were investigated. Multiyear variations of aerosol optical depths (AOD), Ångstrom exponents, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry factor (ASY) are analyzed, together with the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. AOD is largest in summer and smallest in winter. SSAs exhibit weak seasonal variation with the smallest values occurring during winter and the largest during summer. The vast majority of aerosol particles are below 2 km, and about 62%, 67%, 67% and 83% are confined to below 1 km in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Five-day back trajectory analyses show that the some aerosols aloft are traced back to northern/northwestern China, as far as Mongolia and Siberia, in spring, autumn and winter. The presence of dust aerosols were identified based on the linear depolarization measurements together with other information (i.e., back trajectory, precipitation, aerosol index). Dust strongly impacts the vertical particle distribution in spring and autumn, with much smaller effects in winter. The annual mean aerosol direct shortwave radiative forcing (efficiency) at the bottom, top and within the atmosphere are -34.8 ± 9.1 (-54.4 ± 5.3), -8.2 ± 4.8 (-13.1 ± 1.5) and 26.7 ± 9.4 (41.3 ± 4.6) W/m2 (Wm-2 τ-1), respectively. The mean reduction in direct and diffuse radiation reaching surface amount to 109.2 ± 49.4 and 66.8 ± 33.3 W/m2, respectively. Aerosols significantly alter the vertical profile of solar heating, with great implications for atmospheric stability and dynamics within the lower troposphere.

  17. Aerosol Optical Properties at NEAQS 2002 From Lidar, Sunphotometer, and Integrating Nephelometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhard, W. L.; Senff, C. J.; Quinn, P. K.; Alvarez, R. J.; McCarty, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    Optical measurements of aerosols were performed from the NOAA Research Vessel Ron Brown near the east coast of the United States for 3 weeks starting mid-July 2002. The instruments included a lidar (355 nm wavelength), a handheld sunphotometer (380, 440, 500, 675, and 870 nm), and an integrating nephelometer (450, 550, and 700 nm). Lidar extinction profiles are derived with constraint from the sunphotometer aerosol optical depth data when available. Typical extinction-to-backscatter values from these measurements for the same airmass types are used to retrieve extinction profiles at night and in cloudy periods. Temperature profile and wind shear data from radiosondes and vertical smoothness of the lidar backscatter profile are used to determine the vertical extent of the layer in which the aerosol particles can be considered well mixed. The fraction of the total column aerosol that is characterized by the near-surface in situ measurements is estimated from the lidar profile and depth of the mixed layer. Extinction values from the lowest gates of the lidar are compared with the nephelometer's aerosol scatter data when the atmosphere is apparently well mixed between the two heights. The optical characteristics for various sources (urban, rural, and maritime) are contrasted.

  18. Chemical apportionment of aerosol optical properties during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tingting; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xingang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jie; Zhao, Xiujuan; Du, Wei; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China, using the highly time-resolved measurements by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction monitor. The average (±σ) extinction coefficient (bext) and absorption coefficient (bap) were 186.5 (±184.5) M m-1 and 23.3 (±21.9) M m-1 during APEC, which were decreased by 63% and 56%, respectively, compared to those before APEC primarily due to strict emission controls. The aerosol composition and size distributions showed substantial changes during APEC; as a response, the mass scattering efficiency (MSE) of PM1 was decreased from 4.7 m2 g-1 to 3.5 m2 g-1. Comparatively, the average single-scattering albedo (SSA) remained relatively unchanged, illustrating the synchronous reductions of bext and bap during APEC. MSE and SSA were found to increase as function of the oxidation degree of organic aerosol (OA), indicating a change of aerosol optical properties during the aging processes. The empirical relationships between chemical composition and particle extinction were established using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed the largest contribution of ammonium nitrate to particle extinction, accounting for 35.1% and 29.3% before and during APEC, respectively. This result highlights the important role of ammonium nitrate in the formation of severe haze pollution during this study period. We also observed very different optical properties of primary and secondary aerosol. Owing to emission controls in Beijing and surrounding regions and also partly the influences of meteorological changes, the average bext of secondary aerosol during APEC was decreased by 71% from 372.3 M m-1 to 108.5 M m-1, whereas that of primary aerosol mainly from cooking, traffic, and biomass burning emissions showed a smaller reduction from 136.7 M m-1 to 71.3 M m-1. As a result

  19. Variability of aerosol optical depth and their impact on cloud properties in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Khan; Khan, Rehana; Blaschke, Thomas; Mukhtiar, Azam

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes seasonal and temporal variations in aerosol optical depth (AOD), and the impact of these variations on the properties of clouds over five cities in Pakistan, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, obtained from the Terra satellite during the period (2001-2011). The obtained results indicated seasonal variation in AOD, with a high value of 2.3, in summer and low values of 0.2, in winter for the costal part of the region. The relationship between AOD and other cloud parameters, namely water vapor (WV), cloud fraction (CF), cloud optical thickness (COT), cloud liquid water path (CLWP), cloud top temperature (CTT), and cloud top pressure (CTP) were analyzed. On a temporal scale, latitudinal variations of both WV and AOD produce high correlations (>0.6) in some regions, and moderate correlations (0.4-0.6) in the other regions. An increasing trend in CF with AOD was found over urban regions in the period of observations. The CF values were higher for Lahore than the other selected regions during the whole period. During autumn and winter seasons the correlation was found to be positive between AOD and CLWP, while negative correlation was observed during the other seasons for all the selected regions. COT showed negative correlation with AOD at all locations except Karachi during spring and summer seasons.

  20. Aerosol vertical distribution, optical properties and transport over Corsica (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léon, J.-F.; Augustin, P.; Mallet, M.; Bourrianne, T.; Pont, V.; Dulac, F.; Fourmentin, M.; Lambert, D.; Sauvage, B.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the aerosol vertical distribution observed in the western Mediterranean between February and April 2011 and between February 2012 and August 2013. An elastic backscattering lidar was continuously operated at a coastal site in the northern part of Corsica Island (Cap Corse) for a total of more than 14 000 h of observations. The aerosol extinction coefficient retrieved from cloud-free lidar profiles are analyzed along with the SEVIRI satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD). The SEVIRI AOD was used to constrain the retrieval of the aerosol extinction profiles from the lidar range-corrected signal and to detect the presence of dust or pollution aerosols. The daily average AOD at 550 nm is 0.16 (±0.09) and ranges between 0.05 and 0.80. A seasonal cycle is observed with minima in winter and maxima in spring-summer. High AOD days (above 0.3 at 550 nm) represent less than 10% of the totality of daily observations and correspond to the large scale advection of desert dust from Northern Africa or pollution aerosols from Europe. The respective origin of the air masses is confirmed using FLEXPART simulations in the backward mode. Dust events are characterized by a large turbid layer between 2 and 5 km height while pollution events show a lower vertical development with a thick layer below 3 km in altitude. However low level dust transport is also reported during spring while aerosol pollution layer between 2 and 4 km height has been also observed. We report an effective lidar ratio at 355 nm for pollution aerosols 68 (±13) Sr while it is 63 (±18) Sr for dust. The daily mean AOD at 355 nm for dust events is 0.61 (±0.14) and 0.71 (±0.16) for pollution aerosols events.

  1. Optical properties of aerosols during APEX and ACE-Asia experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo; Okada, Yasuhiko; Holben, Brent N.; Ohta, Sachio; Takamura, Tamio

    2003-12-01

    Sun/sky photometry and polarimetry of atmospheric light have been undertaken by multispectral photometers (CE-318-1 and -2, Cimel Electronique, France) and a polarimeter (PSR-1000, Opto Research, Japan) over Amami, Noto, and Shirahama, Japan, during APEX-E1, -E2, and ACE-Asia field campaigns. Radiometers provide us with the optical thickness of aerosols and Ångström exponent. Other aerosol characteristics, e.g., size distribution, refractive index, etc., are retrieved based on each inversion method corresponding each equipment. The former takes a standard AERONET processing, and the latter is according to our own procedure to analyze the polarimetry with PSR-1000. After several aerosol parameters are derived, the HYSPLIT4 backward trajectory analysis is adopted to search the origin of aerosols. It is shown from these ground measurements that aerosol optical thickness, Ångström exponent, and refractive index are classified into two typical categories as a background type detected in winter, and a soil dust type appeared in Asian dust events in spring. Further, it is found that the obtained size distribution of Asian dust indicates the dominance of large particles.

  2. Optical Properties of Aerosols from Long Term Ground-Based Aeronet Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Tanre, D.; Smirnov, A.; Eck, T. F.; Slutsker, I.; Dubovik, O.; Lavenu, F.; Abuhassen, N.; Chatenet, B.

    1999-01-01

    AERONET is an optical ground-based aerosol monitoring network and data archive supported by NASA's Earth Observing System and expanded by federation with many non-NASA institutions including AEROCAN (AERONET CANada) and PHOTON (PHOtometrie pour le Traiteinent Operatonnel de Normalisation Satellitaire). The network hardware consists of identical automatic sun-sky scanning spectral radiometers owned by national agencies and universities purchased for their own monitoring and research objectives. Data are transmitted hourly through the data collection system (DCS) on board the geostationary meteorological satellites GMS, GOES and METEOSAT and received in a common archive for daily processing utilizing a peer reviewed series of algorithms thus imposing a standardization and quality control of the product data base. Data from this collaboration provides globally distributed near real time observations of aerosol spectral optical depths, aerosol size distributions, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Access to the AERONET data base has shifted from the interactive program 'demonstrat' (reserved for PI's) to the AERONET homepage allowing faster access and greater development for GIS object oriented retrievals and analysis with companion geocoded data sets from satellites, LIDAR and solar flux measurements for example. We feel that a significant yet under utilized component of the AERONET data base are inversion products made from hourly principal plane and almucanter measurements. The current inversions have been shown to retrieve aerosol volume size distributions. A significant enhancement to the inversion code has been developed and is presented in these proceedings.

  3. The great Indian haze revisited: aerosol distribution effects on microphysical and optical properties of warm clouds over peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanti, R.; Ghosh, S.

    2010-03-01

    The Indian subcontinent is undergoing a phase of rapid urbanisation. Inevitable fallout of this process is a concomitant increase in air pollution much of which can be attributed to the infamous great Indian haze phenomena. One observes that the aerosol size distributions vary considerably along the Bay of Bengal (BOB), Arabian Sea (AS) and the Indian Ocean (IO), although, the dynamical attributes are very similar, particularly over the BOB and the AS during this season. Unlike major European studies (e.g. Aerosol Characterization Experiment-2, Ghosh et al., 2005), there are no cloud microphysical modelling studies to complement these observational results for the Indian sub-continent. Ours is the first modelling study over this important region where a time-tested model (O'Dowd et al., 1999a; Ghosh et al., 2007; Rap et al., 2009) is used to obtain cloud microphysical and optical properties from observed aerosol size distributions. Un-activated aerosol particles and very small cloud droplets have to be treated specially to account for non-ideal effects-our model does this effectively yielding realistic estimate of cloud droplet number concentrations (Nc). Empirical relationships linking aerosol concentration to (Nc) yield a disproportionately higher Nc suggesting that such empirical formulations should be used with caution. Our modelling study reveals that the cloud's microphysical and optical properties are very similar along the AS and the BOB despite them having disparate dry aerosol spectral distributions. This is non-intuitive, as one would expect changes in microphysical development with widely different aerosol distributions. There is some increase in cloud droplet numbers with increased haze concentrations but much less than a simple proportion would indicate.

  4. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Central Illinois and Comparison with Surface and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. Underflights of the CALIPSO satellite show reasonable agreement in a majority of retrieved profiles between aircraft-measured extinction at 532 nm (adjusted to ambient relative humidity) and CALIPSO-retrieved extinction, and suggest that routine aircraft profiling programs can be used to better understand and validate satellite retrieval algorithms. CALIPSO tended to overestimate the aerosol extinction at this location in some boundary layer flight segments when scattered or broken clouds were present, which could be related to problems with CALIPSO cloud screening methods. The in situ aircraft-collected aerosol data suggest extinction thresholds for the likelihood of aerosol layers being detected by the CALIOP lidar. These statistical data offer guidance as to the likelihood of CALIPSO's ability to retrieve aerosol extinction at various locations around the globe.

  5. Technical Note: Optical properties of desert aerosol with non-spherical mineral particles: data incorporated to OPAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Gasteiger, J.; Hess, M.

    2015-05-01

    Mineral particles, in general, are not spheres and so the assumption of spherical particles, instead of more realistic shapes, has significant effects on modeled optical properties and therefore on remote-sensing procedures for desert aerosol and the derived radiative forcing. Thus, in a new version of the database OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds; Hess et al., 1998), the optical properties of the mineral particles are modeled describing the particles as spheroids with size dependent aspect ratio distributions, but with the size distributions and the spectral refractive indices not changed against the previous version of OPAC. The spheroid assumption is known to substantially improve the scattering functions but pays regard to the limited knowledge on particle shapes in an actual case. The relative deviations of the optical properties of non-spherical mineral particles from those of spherical particles are for the phase function in the solar spectral range up to +60% at scattering angles of about 130° and up to -60% in the backscatter region, but less than 2% for the asymmetry parameter. The deviations are generally small in the thermal infrared and for optical properties that are independent of the scattering angle. The improved version of OPAC (4.0) is freely available at www.rascin.net.

  6. The long term Lampedusa data set of aerosol optical properties based on AERONET and MFRSR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sarra, Alcide; Meloni, Daniela; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Anello, Fabrizio; Bommarito, Carlo; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Monteleone, Francesco; Pace, Giandomenico; Piacentino, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of aerosol optical properties are made on the island of Lampedusa (35.5°N, 12.6°E), in the central Mediterranean, since 1999. Seven-band multi filter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and a Cimel sunphotometer have been used, with MFRSR and Cimel running in pareallel over extended periods. Four different MFRSRs were operated during the period 1999-2013, and MFRSR measurements are available quasi-continuously since summer 2001. The Cimel sunphotometer was run in a short period in 2000, and over the periods 2003-2006, and 2010-present. A different setup of the cimel channels was used before (with 4 wavelengths) and after 2010. During most of the cimel operation periods also MFRSR measurements are available. In this study we use the different advantages of the two measurement techniques (high temporal resolution of the MFRSR, allowing for a better cloud screening and larger number of data; smaller field of view allowing for more accurate aerosol optical depth, AOD, measurements for large particles for the Cimel) to produce a well calibrated and consistent multi-wavelength AOD dataset over the 2001-2013 period. The calibration of the two instruments is totally independent and follows different protocols. MFRSR calibration is based on the determination of the extraterrestrial constants from the measurements at Lampedusa, taking advantage of the high number of cloud-free data and the limited diurnal variability of the aerosol. The cimel is calibrated periodically within AERONET, and level 2 data are used in the analysis. Firstly, silutaneous co-located measurements of AOD in the different bands are compared. AOD measurements agree within the respctive measurements uncertainties for values smaller than about 0.5, while an underestimate by MFRSR is found for larger values. This underestimate is due to the effect of the larger MFRSR field of view, and the influence of forward scattering by large particles, particularly important for desert dust cases

  7. Correlations between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties ofBiomass Burn Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Lewis, K.; Desyaterik, Yury; Wang, Z.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Arnott, W.P.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, M.K.

    2008-01-29

    Aerosols generated from burning different plant fuels were characterized to determine relationships between chemical, optical and physical properties. Single scattering albedo ({omega}) and Angstrom absorption coefficients ({alpha}{sub ap}) were measured using a photoacoustic technique combined with a reciprocal nephelometer. Carbon-to-oxygen atomic ratios, sp{sup 2} hybridization, elemental composition and morphology of individual particles were measured using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion of X-rays (SEM/EDX). Particles were grouped into three categories based on sp2 hybridization and chemical composition. Measured {omega} (0.4-1.0 at 405 nm) and {alpha}{sub ap} (1.0-3.5) values displayed a fuel dependence. The category with sp{sup 2} hybridization >80% had values of {omega} (<0.5) and {alpha}{sub ap} ({approx}1.25) characteristic of light absorbing soot. Other categories with lower sp2 hybridization (20 to 60%) exhibited higher {omega} (>0.8) and {alpha}{sub ap} (1.0 to 3.5) values, indicating increased absorption spectral selectivity.

  8. Trace Gases and Aerosol Optical Properties Over the US Mid-Atlantic During Summer 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddridge, B. G.; Piety, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions from rapid urban sprawl, commuter/commercial traffic and industrialization along the East Coast of the United States have a profound effect on urban and regional air quality. During summer 2001 we used a light aircraft research platform operated from North Carolina northward through Pennsylvania measuring meteorological scalars, selected trace gases and aerosol optical properties on selected pollution episode days. The goal of this research is to gain an improved understanding of the sources, sinks, transport and photochemical transformations controlling the observed abundance of photochemical oxidants and fine particulate haze over the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region. The aircraft research capabilities will be described, over 60 research flights totaling in excess of 160 flight hours summarized, and key findings presented. Although westerly transport of remnant ozone and haze along with precursors can make substantial contributions to observed urban corridor air quality aloft, significant production downwind of the urban center often can occur within the planetary boundary layer during the afternoon hours.

  9. Correlations between optical, chemical and physical properties of biomass burn aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, R. J.; Lewis, K.; Desyaterik, Y.; Wang, Z.; Tivanski, A. V.; Arnott, W. P.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

    2007-09-01

    Aerosols generated from burning different plant fuels were characterized to determine relationships between chemical, optical and physical properties. Single scattering albedo (ω) and Angstrom absorption coefficients (α ap) were measured using a photoacoustic technique combined with a reciprocal nephelometer. Carbon-to-oxygen atomic ratios, sp2 hybridization, elemental composition and morphology of individual particles were measured using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion of X-rays (SEM/EDX). Particles were grouped into three categories based on sp2 hybridization and chemical composition. Measured ω (0.4 - 1.0 at 405 nm) and α ap (1.0 - 3.5) values displayed a fuel dependence. The category with sp2 hybridization >80% had values of ω (<0.5) and α ap (~1.25) characteristic of light absorbing soot. Other categories with lower sp2 hybridization (20 to 60%) exhibited higher ω (>0.8) and α ap (1.0 to 3.5) values, indicating increased absorption spectral selectivity.

  10. Measurement and analysis of surface aerosol optical properties over urban Nanjing in the Chinese Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xingna; Ma, Jia; Raghavendra Kumar, K; Zhu, Bin; An, Junlin; He, Jiaqi; Li, Mei

    2016-01-15

    Aerosol optical properties including aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp), absorption coefficient (σap), single scattering albedo (SSA), PM2.5 mass concentration and their relationship with meteorological factors were measured and analyzed from 1st March to 30th April 2011. The observations were conducted at an urban-industrial site in Nanjing located in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, China. The averaged σsp at 550 nm is found to be 329.3±321.6 Mm(-1) and occurred most frequently within the range of 100-200 Mm(-1). σap at 532 nm is measured to be 28.1±17.6 Mm(-1), which is remarkably smaller than most of the measurements made over megacities in China and nearly equivalent to the observations made at rural sites in the YRD. The mean SSA at 532 nm is 0.89±0.08 with the occurrence frequency of higher SSA (>0.9) accounting for about 60%, indicating that scattering-related aerosols are dominant over Nanjing during the study period. A bi-peak diurnal variation of σap and σsp is found with the maximum during late at night and early morning and the minimum in the afternoon, but the diurnal pattern of SSA is just the opposite to this. Significant correlation coefficients are noticed between different aerosol optical properties. σsp and σap showed a clear negative correlation with wind speed, temperature, and visibility. During the study period, the lower northwesterly and southeasterly winds are attributed to an increase in the aerosol optical properties. The σsp and σap increased significantly during severe haze and dust episodes caused by the accumulation of pollutants from both local and regional sources under favorable weather conditions. PMID:26519588

  11. Application of aerosol optical properties to estimate aerosol type from ground-based remote sensing observation at urban area of northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Huizheng; Zhao, Hujia; Wu, Yunfei; Xia, Xiangao; Zhu, Jun; Dubovik, Oleg; Estelles, Victor; Ma, Yanjun; Wang, Yangfeng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhang, Xiaoye; Shi, Guangyu

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol optical properties were derived from ground-based sunphotometer observations between 2009-2013 at three urban sites of Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun in northeastern China. The annual means for extinction aerosol optical depths (EAOD) at 500 nm were 0.57±0.38, 0.52±0.35, and 0.41±0.31 at Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun, respectively. The corresponding annual means for the extinction Angstrom exponents (EAE) computed for the wavelengths of 440 and 870 nm were 0.86±0.32, 0.86±0.34 and 0.91±0.35, respectively, indicating that urban area of Northeast China were affected by both coarse and fine particles. Hygroscopic growth in summer and incursions of dust aerosols in spring were evidently revealed from the analysis of the relationship between EAE and δEAE (the EAE difference, δEAE=EAE(440,670)-EAE(670,870)). The annual mean absorption aerosol optical depths (AAOD440 nm) values at Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun were 0.15±0.11, 0.10±0.07, 0.08±0.04, respectively. The annual mean absorption Angstrom exponents (AAE440-870 nm) values were 0.86±0.24, 1.19±0.39, 1.33±0.36 at Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun, respectively. When the AAEs were close to unity at Anshan, the absorption aerosol particles evidently consisted of black carbon from coal combustion and motor vehicles. Larger AAEs at Fushun were indicative of absorbing aerosols mainly from biomass burning and mineral dust. The AAE at Shenyang was<1 which may be consistent with black carbon particles with absorbing or non-absorbing coatings. Analysis of the relationship between the AAEs and extinction Angstrom exponents showed that the aerosol populations at these three sites could be classified as "mixed-small particles" including anthropogenic particles and secondary organic aerosol with highly variable sphericity fractions.

  12. Dynamics of the Optical Properties of Fine/Coarse Mode Aerosol Mixtures in Diverse Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Sinyuk, A.; Pinker, R. T.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Chatenet, B.; Singh, R. P.; Al Mandoos, A.; Reid, J. S.; Smirnov, A.

    2007-12-01

    Several regions of the earth exhibit seasonal mixtures of fine and coarse mode aerosol types, which are challenging to characterize from satellite remote sensing. Over land the coarse mode aerosols originate primarily from arid regions, which generate airborne soil dust, and the primary fine mode sources are urban/industrial emissions of gases and particulates and also biomass burning. The recently developed AERONET Version 2 retrieval algorithm produces more accurate retrievals of particle size distribution when non-spherical particles (such as dust) are present and also more accurate spectral single scattering albedo due to improved specification of the earth surface bidirectional reflectance. We show comparison of AERONET Version 1 and 2 retrievals that exhibit differences and suggest significantly improved single scattering albedo in Version 2. AERONET almucantar retrievals from several years are analyzed for the urban sites of Beijing, China and Kanpur, India (in the Ganges floodplain) where seasonal coarse mode dust particles mix with fine mode pollution aerosol, predominately in the spring. Additionally we compare multi-year data from Ilorin, Nigeria where desert dust from the Sahara and Sahel mix with fine mode biomass-burning aerosols. We also analyze data from two sites in the United Arab Emirates where dust mixes with urban/industrial pollution largely from petroleum industry emissions. The data are analyzed as a function of the aerosol optical depth fine mode fraction and also by Angstrom exponent, with comparisons made between sites.

  13. Aerosol optical properties and precipitable water vapor column in the atmosphere of Norway.

    PubMed

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Frette, Øyvind; Stamnes, Jakob J; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hamre, Børge

    2015-02-20

    Between February 2012 and April 2014, we measured and analyzed direct solar radiances at a ground-based station in Bergen, Norway. We discovered that the spectral aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor column (PWVC) retrieved from these measurements have a seasonal variation with highest values in summer and lowest values in winter. The highest value of the monthly median AOT at 440 nm of about 0.16 was measured in July and the lowest of about 0.04 was measured in December. The highest value of the monthly median PWVC of about 2.0 cm was measured in July and the lowest of about 0.4 cm was measured in December. We derived Ångström exponents that were used to deduce aerosol particle size distributions. We found that coarse-mode aerosol particles dominated most of the time during the measurement period, but fine-mode aerosol particles dominated during the winter seasons. The derived Ångström exponent values suggested that aerosols containing sea salt could have been dominating at this station during the measurement period. PMID:25968219

  14. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties using Polarization and Lidar Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosols cause a substantial forcing of the terrestrial climate, but the magnitude of this forcing remains largely unknown. This explains the significant interest of the climate community to the prospect of measuring key aerosol properties from space using advanced remote sensing techniques. It has been known for a long time that polarization of the scattered light is much more sensitive to the aerosol microphysics than the scattered intensity. It is, therefore, not surprising that the most recent addition to the New Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) payload is the so-called Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS). The main objective of this instrument is to measure the aerosol and cloud properties with accuracy and coverage sufficient for a reliable estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol forcings of climate. Accordingly, the first part of this lecture course will focus on describing the basic concept of the APS, the physical principles of polarization data analyses, and the results already obtained with an aircraft version of the APS. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) represent another poorly understood aerosol component of the terrestrial atmosphere which affects the climate by supporting chemical reactions destroying the ozone layer. The high altitude of the PSCs and their predominant occurrence in high latitude and polar regions make it very difficult to study PSCs using conventional in situ techniques. Most of the information that we have about this type of clouds has been gathered using ground-based polarization lidars. The second part of the course will focus on explaining the physical principles of the polarization lidar technique and describing retrievals of PSC particle microphysical characteristics by converting I multispectral lidar measurements of the backscattered intensity and depolarization.

  15. Light absorption, optical and microphysical properties of trajectory-clustered aerosols at two AERONET sites in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawole, O. G.; Cai, X.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol remote sensing techniques and back-trajectory modeling can be combined to identify aerosol types. We have clustered 7 years of AERONET aerosol signals using trajectory analysis to identify dominant aerosol sources at two AERONET sites in West Africa: Ilorin (4.34 oE, 8.32 oN) and Djougou (1.60 oE, 9.76 oN). Of particular interest are air masses that have passed through the gas flaring region in the Niger Delta area, of Nigeria, en-route the AERONET sites. 7-day back trajectories were calculated using the UK UGAMP trajectory model driven by ECMWF wind analyses data. Dominant sources identified, using literature classifications, are desert dust (DD), Biomass burning (BB) and Urban-Industrial (UI). Below, we use a combination of synoptic trajectories and aerosol optical properties to distinguish a fourth source: that due to gas flaring. Gas flaring, (GF) the disposal of gas through stack in an open-air flame, is believed to be a prominent source of black carbon (BC) and greenhouse gases. For these different aerosol source signatures, single scattering albedo (SSA), refractive index , extinction Angstrom exponent (EEA) and absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) were used to classify the light absorption characteristics of the aerosols for λ = 440, 675, 870 and1020 nm. A total of 1625 daily averages of aerosol data were collected for the two sites. Of which 245 make up the GF cluster for both sites. For GF cluster, the range of fine-mode fraction is 0.4 - 0.7. Average values SSA(λ), for the total and GF clusters are 0.90(440), 0.93(675), 0.95(870) and 0.96(1020), and 0.93(440), 0.92(675), 0.9(870) and 0.9(1020), respectively. Values of for the GF clusters for both sites are 0.62 - 1.11, compared to 1.28 - 1.66 for the remainder of the clusters, which strongly indicates the dominance of carbonaceous particles (BC), typical of a highly industrial area. An average value of 1.58 for the real part of the refractive index at low SSA for aerosol in the GF cluster is also

  16. Extensive aerosol optical properties and aerosol mass related measurements during TRAMP/TexAQS 2006 - Implications for PM compliance and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Monica E.; Atkinson, Dean B.; Ziemba, Luke; Griffin, Robert; Hiranuma, Naruki; Brooks, Sarah; Lefer, Barry; Flynn, James; Perna, Ryan; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Luke, Winston; Kelley, Paul

    2010-10-01

    Extensive aerosol optical properties, particle size distributions, and Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer measurements collected during TRAMP/TexAQS 2006 were examined in light of collocated meteorological and chemical measurements. Much of the evident variability in the observed aerosol-related air quality is due to changing synoptic meteorological situations that direct emissions from various sources to the TRAMP site near the center of the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) metropolitan area. In this study, five distinct long-term periods have been identified. During each of these periods, observed aerosol properties have implications that are of interest to environmental quality management agencies. During three of the periods, long range transport (LRT), both intra-continental and intercontinental, appears to have played an important role in producing the observed aerosol. During late August 2006, southerly winds brought super-micron Saharan dust and sea salt to the HGB area, adding mass to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) measurements, but apparently not affecting secondary particle growth or gas-phase air pollution. A second type of LRT was associated with northerly winds in early September 2006 and with increased ozone and sub-micron particulate matter in the HGB area. Later in the study, LRT of emissions from wildfires appeared to increase the abundance of absorbing aerosols (and carbon monoxide and other chemical tracers) in the HGB area. However, the greatest impacts on Houston PM 2.5 air quality are caused by periods with low-wind-speed sea breeze circulation or winds that directly transport pollutants from major industrial areas, i.e., the Houston Ship Channel, into the city center.

  17. Measurement of Optical Properties of Organic and Mixed Organic/ Inorganic Laboratory Aerosols at Relative Humidities between 8 and 95%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brem, B.; Mena, F. C.; Chen, Y.; Bond, T. C.; Rood, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Relative humidity (RH) affects the liquid water content of an aerosol, altering its scattering and absorption of visible light, which is important for aerosol effects on visibility and climate. Particle light extinction, light scattering and light absorption coefficient values are reported here for laboratory-generated inorganic and organic carbon (OC) aerosols at RH values between 8% and 95%. Light scattering was measured with a nephelometer, light extinction was measured with an extinction cell and light absorption was determined based on the difference between those two values at three visible wavelengths (467 nm, 530 nm and 660 nm). The instrumentation was benchmarked with non-absorbing ammonium sulfate, absorbing polystyrene microspheres (PSMs) and absorbing nigrosin aerosol under controlled RH conditions. Agreement between dry measured scattering and extinction coefficients for ammonium sulfate was achieved within 3%. Optical closure with modeled scattering values based on measured ammonium sulfate particle size distributions was achieved within 7%. Measured single scattering albedo for dry absorbing PSMs agreed within 0.02 with the literature value. Light absorption by nigrosin increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Light absorption of OC aerosol that was generated from wood pyrolysis demonstrated enhancements of 2.2 +/- 0.7 and 2.7 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at the wavelengths of 467 and 530 nm, but no absorption was detected at 660 nm. A spectral dependence of light absorption by OC was observed with absorption increasing from 530 nm towards the 467 nm wavelength, consistent with previously reported ex situ measurements of filter extracts. Current work focuses on the measurement of optical properties as a function of RH for OC wood pyrolysis aerosol mixed with ammonium sulfate. Additionally optical closure is evaluated between measured and modeled results.

  18. Improved method for retrieving the aerosol optical properties without the numerical derivative for Raman-Mie lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Wang, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Zhang, Jinye

    2015-08-01

    Raman-Mie light detection and ranging (lidar) is a very useful tool for research on atmospheric aerosol optical properties with high spatial-temporal resolution. However, many uncertainties still exist in data retrieval because traditional retrieval methods need to calculate the numerical derivative for aerosol extinction coefficient (AEC), which may cause large errors, particularly with low signal-to-noise ratios. Thus, we present an improved method for retrieving aerosol optical properties. We re-formulate the N2-Raman lidar equation to obtain an unknown term which contains the AEC at the Mie wavelength. We replace the unknown term of the equation in traditional method for retrieving aerosol backscatter coefficient (ABC). Then, AEC can be retrieved by the accurate ABC and Mie lidar signal without calculating the numerical derivative. Tests on the simulated and measured signals show that results of our method and those of the traditional method have similar tendencies. However, our method is more accurate and robust, and the significant errors of AEC caused by the numerical derivative can be reduced.

  19. Characteristics of aerosol optical properties and meteorological parameters during three major dust events (2005-2010) over Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chunxiang; Zheng, Sheng; Singh, Ramesh P.

    2014-12-01

    Multi-satellite sensors are capable of monitoring transport and characteristics of dust storms and changes in atmospheric parameters along their transport. The present paper discusses aerosol optical properties and meteorological parameters during major dust storm events occurred in the period 2005-2010 over Beijing, China. The back trajectory model shows that the dust is transported from the Inner Mongolia and Mongolia arid regions to Beijing. High aerosol optical depth (AOD) at the wavelength 675 nm and low Ångström exponent (AE) values in the wavelength 440-870 nm are observed during dusty days. The aerosol size distribution (ASD) in coarse mode shows a large increase in the volume during dusty days. The single scattering albedo (SSA) increases with higher wavelength on dusty days, and is generally found to be higher compared to the days prior to and after the dust events, indicating the presence of high concentrations of scattering particles due to dust storm events. The physico-chemical properties of aerosols during dusty and non dusty days show distinct characteristics as reflected from the changes in the real and imaginary parts of refractive index (RI). In addition, the CO volume mixing ratio (COVMR) from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) shows a pronounced decrease on dusty days, while the H2O mass mixing ratio (H2OMMR) shows enhanced signal. Furthermore, enhanced level of water vapor (WV) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data is also observed in and around Beijing over the dust storms track.

  20. Improvements in AOD retrieval from geostationary measurements over Asia with aerosol optical properties derived from the DRAGON-Asia campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J. H.; Song, C. K.; Lee, S.

    2015-04-01

    An aerosol model optimized for East Asia is improved by applying inversion data from both long-term monitoring of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer and the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia campaign from 2012. This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellite-based measurements. In particular, the performance of a single visible channel algorithm, limited to a specific aerosol type, from real-time measurements is strongly affected by the assumed aerosol optical properties (AOPs) for the measured scene. In sensitivity tests, a 4% difference in single scattering albedo (SSA) between modeled and measured values can cause a retrieval error in AOD of over 20%, and the overestimation of SSA leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AERONET inversion datasets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed AOPs can be summarized by SSAs (measured at 675 nm) of 0.92, 0.94, 0.92, and 0.91 for spring (March, April, and May), summer (June, July, and August), autumn (September, October, and November), and winter (December, January, and February), respectively. After DRAGON-Asia 2012, the SSA during spring shows a slight increase to 0.93. The large volume of data and spatially concentrated measurements from this campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the AOD datasets retrieved from a single channel algorithm, which uses a pre-calculated look-up table (LUT) with the new aerosol model, show an improved correlation with the measured AOD during the DRAGON-Asia campaign (March to May 2012). Compared with the correlation of the AOD retrieved using the original aerosol model, the regression slope between the new AOD and the AERONET values is reduced from 1.08 to 1.00, while the change of the y-offset of -0.08 is significant. The correlation coefficients for the comparisons are 0.87 and 0.85, respectively. The

  1. Variability in optical properties of atmospheric aerosols and their frequency distribution over a mega city "New Delhi," India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, S; Tiwari, Suresh; Hopke, P K; Attri, S D; Soni, V K; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    The role of atmospheric aerosols in climate and climate change is one of the largest uncertainties in understanding the present climate and in capability to predict future climate change. Due to this, the study of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols over a mega city "New Delhi" which is highly polluted and populated were conducted for two years long to see the aerosol loading and its seasonal variability using sun/sky radiometer data. Relatively higher mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) (0.90 ± 0.38) at 500 nm and associated Angstrom exponent (AE) (0.82 ± 0.35) for a pair of wavelength 400-870 nm is observed during the study period indicating highly turbid atmosphere throughout the year. Maximum AOD value is observed in the months of June and November while minimum is in transition months March and September. Apart from this, highest value of AOD (AE) value is observed in the post-monsoon [1.00 ± 0.42 (1.02 ± 0.16)] season followed by the winter [0.95 ± 0.36 (1.02 ± 0.20)] attributed to significance contribution of urban as well as biomass/crop residue burning aerosol which is further confirmed by aerosol type discrimination based on AOD vs AE. During the pre-monsoon season, mostly dust and mixed types aerosols are dominated. AODs value at shorter wavelength observed maximum in June and November while at longer wavelength maximum AOD is observed in June only. For the better understanding of seasonal aerosol modification process, the aerosol curvature effect is studied which show a strong seasonal dependency under a high turbid atmosphere, which are mainly associated with various emission sources. Five days air mass back trajectories were computed. They suggest different patterns of particle transport during the different seasons. Results suggest that mixtures of aerosols are present in the urban environment, which affect the regional air quality as well as climate. The present study will be very much useful to the modeler for

  2. Influences of dust aerosols on regional aerosol optical properties, radiation budget and tropospheric chemistry during a typical pre-monsoon season dust storm in northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Madronich, S.; Naja, M. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Pfister, G.; Knote, C. J.; Brasseur, G. P.; Ojha, N.; Sarangi, T.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of dust aerosols on the regional aerosol optical properties, radiation budget and tropospheric chemistry during a typical pre-monsoon season (April-June) dust storm event in northern India are analyzed. The MOZCART chemical mechanism of WRF-Chem is extended to simulate heterogeneous chemistry on dust surface and F-TUV photolysis scheme is updated to account for effects of dust aerosols on photolysis rates. The dust storm event lasted from 17 to 22 April 2010 and large changes (>50%) in local to regional scale aerosol optical properties are observed in both AERONET and satellite observations during this period. The extended version of WRF-Chem model captured several important features of the spatio-temporal distributions of dust plumes, aerosol optical properties and trace gases during the dust storm. Model results show that dust particles cool the surface and the top of the atmosphere, and warm the atmosphere. The regionally averaged radiative perturbation due to dust aerosols is estimated as -2.0×3.0 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere, 2.3×1.8 W m-2 in the atmosphere and -4.4×3.1 W m-2 at the surface. The impact of these radiative perturbations on the surface energy budget is estimated to be small on a regional scale but significant locally. The dust storm acted as a sink for many key trace gases including ozone, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen oxides, methanol, acetic acid and formaldehyde, and significantly perturbed their spatial and vertical distributions. The reductions in these gases are estimated as 5-99% and more than 80% of this reduction came from the heterogeneous chemistry. The RH dependence of reactive uptake coefficient is found to have a significant impact on the distributions of trace gases. A set of sensitivity analyses revealed that dust aging can play an important role in heterogeneous chemistry. Model experiments based on laboratory measurements of changes in the uptake of ozone by dust with aging showed that dust aging can lead to

  3. Preliminary results of aerosols' optical properties studied with EPF measurements from the SPICAM/UV instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willame, Y.; Vandaele, A.-C.; Depiesse, C.; Gillotay, D.; Kochenova, S.; Montmessin, F.

    2011-10-01

    Aerosols on Mars have an important impact on the radiative transfer properties of its atmosphere. Today their spectral properties and therefore their interaction with UV radiation are only poorly known. Improving the radiative transfer modeling requires a better knowledge of their characteristics, in particular of their phase function, single scattering albedo and opacity. We will show that such information can be accessed by using EPF observations.

  4. Optical properties of aerosols in the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume, May-June 1991. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, P.J.; Quincy, C.E.; Schnell, R.C.

    1993-12-01

    The vast oil field fires in Kuwait ignited by the Iraqi Army in early 1991 released enormous quantities of smoke into the atmosphere. The report focuses on aerosol data collected during one of the American missions, which has since come to be called the Kuwait Oil Field Fire Experiment (KOFFE). Aerosol optical scattering and absorption data presented in the report were obtained by sensors onboard the NCAR Electra aircraft. The objectives of these flights were to (1) determine the chemical composition of the smoke plumes, (2) examine the rates of emissions of particles and gases, (3) investigate the nature of the smoke particles, (4) ascertain the optical and radiative properties of the smoke, (5) provide air-truth' measurements for subsequent satellite intercomparison studies, and (6) determine the effects of atmospheric transport and aging on the smoke, for estimation of atmospheric residence times.

  5. Retrieving dust aerosols properties (optical depth and altitude) from very high resolution infrared sounders : from AIRS to IASI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyridieu, S.; Chédin, A.; Capelle, V.; Pierangelo, C.; Lamquin, N.; Armante, R.

    2009-04-01

    Observation from space, being global and quasi-continuous, is a first importance tool for aerosol studies. Remote sensing in the visible domain has been widely used to obtain better characterization of these particles and their effect on solar radiation. On the opposite, remote sensing of aerosols in the thermal infrared domain still remains marginal. However, knowledge of the effect of aerosols on terrestrial radiation is needed for the evaluation of their total radiative forcing. Infrared remote sensing provides a way to retrieve other aerosol characteristics, including their mean altitude. Moreover, observations are possible at night and day, over ocean and over land. In this context, six years (2003-2008) of the 2nd generation vertical sounder AIRS observations have been processed over the tropical belt (30°N-30°S). Aerosol properties (10 µm infrared optical depth and mean layer altitude) are retrieved using a Look-Up Table (LUT) approach. The forward radiative transfer model 4A (Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas) coupled with the DISORT algorithm accounting for atmospheric diffusion is used to feed the LUTs with simulations of the brightness temperatures of AIRS channels selected for their sensitivity to dust aerosols. LUTs degrees of freedom are : instrument viewing angle, surface pressure and surface emissivity, a parameter particularly important for dust retrieval over bright surfaces, such as deserts. AODs (resp. altitude) are sampled over the range 0.0-0.8 (resp. 0-5800 m). The retrieval algorithm follows two main steps : (i) retrieval of the atmospheric situation observed (temperature and water vapour profiles) ; (ii) retrieval of aerosol properties. Results have been compared to instruments commonly used in aerosol studies and also part of the Aqua Train : MODIS/Aqua and CALIOP/CALIPSO. The agreement obtained from these comparisons is quite satisfactory, demonstrating that our algorithm effectively allows the simultaneous retrieval of dust AOD

  6. Optical Properties of Aged Free Tropospheric Aerosol Over the Northern Atlantic: Analysis of 2012-2014 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Fialho, P. J.; Dzepina, K.; Helmig, D.; Jacques, H.; Dziobak, M.; Kumar, S.; China, S.; Sharma, N.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Azores are a volcanic archipelago located 1500km west of Lisbon, Portugal in the North Atlantic Ocean. A 2351 meter dormant volcano lies on the 447 km2island of Pico with a population of around 15,000. Its location and orography are such that the summit typically lies above the well mixed marine boundary layer. A station was established in the caldera of the volcano at 2225 m by the late Dr. Richard Honrath in collaboration with the University of the Azores and began collecting data in 2001. A seven-wavelength aethalometer was employed to measure the black carbon equivalent mass concentration in the free troposphere since then. In 2012 a three wavelength nephelometer was added to measure total light scattering and back scattering due to aerosol. In 2013 an optical particle counter was added. Aerosol, including black carbon, play an important role in atmospheric processes for a number of reasons including different radiative forcing effects, acting as a cloud condensation and ice nuclei and changing surface albedo of snow. We present the wavelength-dependent aerosol optical properties measured during the 2012, 2013 and 2014 sampling seasons along with particle count data when available. Several events with high aerosol concentrations are investigated in detail.

  7. Regional Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Impact of the Extreme Smoke Event in the European Arctic in Spring 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund Myhre, C.; Toledano, C.; Myhre, G.; Stebel, K.; Yttri, K.; Aaltonen, V.; Johnsrud, M.; Frioud, M.; Cachorro, V.; deFrutos, A.; Lihavainen, H.; Campbell, J.; Chaikovsky, A.; Shiobara, M.; Welton, E.; Torseth, K.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006 a special meteorological situation occurred in the European Arctic region giving record high levels of air pollution. The synoptic situation resulted in extensive transport of pollution predominantly from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe into the Arctic region and record high air-pollution levels were measured at the Zeppelin observatory at Ni-Alesun(78deg 54'N, 11deg 53'E) in the period from 25 April to 12 May. In the present study we investigate the optical properties of the aerosols from this extreme event and we estimate the radiative forcing of this episode. We examine the aerosol optical properties from the source region and into the European Arctic and explore the evolution of the episode and the changes in the optical properties. A number of sites in Eastern Europe, Northern Scandinavia and Svalbard are included in the study. In addition to AOD measurements, we explored lidar measurements from Minsk, ALOMAR (Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research at Andenes) and Ny-Alesund. For the AERONET sites included (Minsk, Toravere, Hornsund) we have further studied the evolution of the aerosol size. Importantly, at Svalbard it is consistency between the AERONET measurements and calculations of single scattering albedo based on aerosol chemical composition. We have found strong agreement between the satellite dally MODIS AOD and the ground-based AOD observations. This agreement is crucial for the radiative forcing calculations. We calculate a strong negative radiative forcing for the most polluted days employing the analysed ground based data, MODIS AOD and a multi-stream model for radiative transfer of solar radiation.

  8. Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2013-04-24

    Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

  9. Physical and optical properties of aerosols over an urban location in western India: Implications for shortwave radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Dilip; Jayaraman, A.

    2006-12-01

    We discuss results on implications of seasonal and interannual variabilities in aerosol parameters measured over Ahmedabad, an urban location in western India, for the regional-scale shortwave aerosol direct radiative forcing. Results on physical and optical properties of aerosols are discussed in a companion paper. A discrete ordinate radiative transfer model has been used to carry out the radiative transfer computations. Two different approaches are followed to generate spectral values of aerosol parameters required as input for the radiative transfer computations, and the estimated values are found comparable for both methods. Magnitudes of surface forcing are found to be highest during postmonsoon (-63 ± 10 W/m2), followed by dry (-54 ± 6 W/m2) and lower values during premonsoon (-41.4 ± 5 W/m2) and monsoon (-41 ± 11 W/m2) seasons. In case of TOA, radiative forcing are found to be negative during dry (-26 ± 3 W/m2) and postmonsoon (-22), while positive values are obtained during monsoon (14) and premonsoon (8). Large differences between TOA and surface forcing during monsoon and premonsoon indicate large absorption of radiant energy (˜50 W/m2) within the atmosphere during these seasons. Different properties of aerosols and differences in their vertical distribution give rise to different heating rates within the atmosphere for different seasons. Heating rates at the surface are found to be highest during postmonsoon (5.6°K/day) but decreases sharply with increase in height. Atmosphere is heated strongly at higher levels between 1 and 2 km during monsoon. Results from several sensitivity studies have emphasized the importance of solar zenith angle and other related factors in modulating the values of aerosol radiative forcing.

  10. Columnar and ground-level aerosol optical properties: sensitivity to the transboundary pollution, daily and weekly patterns, and relationships.

    PubMed

    Perrone, M R; Romano, S; Orza, J A G

    2015-11-01

    Columnar and ground-level aerosol optical properties co-located in space and time and retrieved from sun/sky photometer and nephelometer measurements, respectively, have been analyzed to investigate the impact of local and transboundary pollution, to analyze their relationships, and hence to contribute to the aerosol load characterization over the Central Mediterranean. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm, the Ångström exponent (Å) calculated from the AOD at 440 and 675 nm, and the asymmetry parameter (g col ) at 440 nm represent the investigated columnar aerosol parameters. The scattering coefficient (σ p) at 450 nm, the scattering Ångström exponent (å) calculated from σ p at 450 and 635 nm, and the asymmetry parameter (g) at 450 nm are the corresponding ground-level parameters. It is shown that the columnar and ground-level aerosol properties were significantly and similarly affected by the main airflows identified with backtrajectory cluster analysis. The yearly averaged daily evolution of σ p, å, and g was fairly correlated to the one of the AOD, Å, and g col , respectively. These results indicate that the aerosol particles were on average characterized by similar yearly averaged optical properties up to the ground level. In particular, the yearly means of columnar and ground-level Ångström exponents, 1.3 ± 0.4 and 1.1 ± 0.4, respectively, which are close to one, reveal a coarse-mode aerosol contribution in addition to the fine-mode particle contribution up to the ground level. Hourly means, day-by-day, and seasonal daily patterns of ground-level parameters were, however, very weakly correlated with the corresponding columnar parameters. The large impact of the local meteorology on the daily evolution of the ground-level aerosol properties, which makes the impact of long-range transported particles less apparent, was mainly responsible for these last results. It has also been found that columnar Ångström exponents much smaller

  11. An Intensive Study of Aerosol Optical Properties in the Outflow of the Manaus Urban Plume, in Central Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Cirino, G. G.; Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Barbosa, H. M.; Carbone, S.; Holanda, B. A.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Tota, J.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, one year of ground-based observations of aerosol optical properties from a site impacted by urban emissions in Central Amazon of Brazil are assessed as part of results from GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. The aerosol absorption (σa) and scattering (σs) coefficients, as well as single scattering albedo (SSA) are analyzed to aid in characterizing Manaus' urban aerosol at GoAmazon T2 site. There is a distinct diurnal variation for (σa) it was mainly attributed to the severe emission of particulate pollutants and black carbon during the morning and evening traffic rush hours. The decrease of (σa) nearly at noon (12:00-14:00 LT) was a result of strong atmospheric mixing and dilution due to the elevated height of atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL). After sunset (18:00 LT), the formation of stable nocturnal PBL even in atmospheric inversion led to a low atmospheric diffusion ability to aerosols and thus relatively high (σa) and (σs) throughout the night. Indeed, it was observed a strong dependence on local wind confirmed by simulated back trajectories in all two seasons. Overall, the wind dependence results provide valuable information about the locations of aerosol pollution sources and suggest that the air pollution in dry season is a regional problem but in the wet season it is mainly affected by local urban emissions. We have also seen an interesting difference in variability of (σs) and (σa) during 8:00-13:00 LT in wet season. A clear decrease was observed for (σa), while a smooth increase during 11:00-13:00 LT was presented for (σs). This is possibly a consequence of secondary aerosol production. (σa) is controlled to a large degree by primary aerosols such as black carbon that are emitted directly from pollution sources like vehicles, while (σs) is related to secondary aerosols such as sulfate and nitrate that contribute the most to light scattering. SSA was relatively low around 7:00-08:00 LT, which reflected that (σa) increased more

  12. A study on the aerosol optical properties over East Asia using a combination of CMAQ-simulated aerosol optical properties and remote-sensing data via a data assimilation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Han, K. M.; Park, M. E.; Lee, S.-S.; Kim, S.-B.; Shimizu, A.

    2011-08-01

    To more accurately estimate direct radiative forcing (DRF) by aerosols, and better investigate particulate pollution over East Asia, precise calculations of the optical properties of aerosols, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and aerosol extinction coefficient (σext), are of primary importance. The aerosol optical properties over East Asia were investigated in this study, based on US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v4.5.1 model simulations. The CMAQ model simulations in this study were improved in several ways compared to those in a previous study (Song et al., 2008). Although the details of the improvements were described in the manuscript, the following points should be emphasized: (1) two data assimilation techniques were employed for producing more accurate AOD products and meteorological fields over East Asia; (2) updated/upgraded emission inventories were used in the CMAQ model simulations with a fine grid resolution of 30 × 30 km2; and (3) the 4-D particulate composition obtained from the CMAQ model simulations was converted into 3-D or 4-D aerosol optical products, using the Malm and Hand (2007) algorithm with significant further modifications. The results from the CMAQ model simulations (without assimilation) showed great improvements compared to those from a previous study. For example, in terms of the regression coefficients (R), R-values were increased from 0.48-0.68 (previous study) to 0.77-0.89 (this study). The monthly-averaged CMAQ-simulated single scattering albedo (SSA) also agreed well with the AERONET SSA, with the exceptions of the Honk Kong and Taipei sites, where the air qualities were strongly influenced by active biomass burning events from January to April. There were also excellent matches between the vertical profiles of the CMAQ-simulated σext and LIDAR-retrieved σext. It was also found that the contributions of (NH4)2SO4 during summer, NH4NO3 during winter, sea-salt particles during winter and dust particles

  13. A study on the aerosol optical properties over East Asia using a combination of CMAQ-simulated aerosol optical properties and remote-sensing data via a data assimilation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Song, C. H.; Han, K. M.; Park, M. E.; Lee, S.-S.; Kim, S.-B.; Shimizu, A.

    2011-12-01

    To more accurately estimate direct radiative forcing (DRF) by aerosols, and better investigate particulate pollution over East Asia, precise calculations of the optical properties of aerosols, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and aerosol extinction coefficient (σext), are of primary importance. The aerosol optical properties over East Asia were investigated in this study, based on US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v4.5.1 model simulations. The CMAQ model simulations in this study were improved in several ways compared to those in a previous study (Song et al., 2008). Although the details of the improvements were described in the manuscript, the following points should be emphasized: (1) two data assimilation techniques were employed for producing more accurate AOD products and meteorological fields over East Asia; (2) updated/upgraded emission inventories were used in the CMAQ model simulations with a fine grid resolution of 30 × 30 km2; and (3) the 4-D particulate composition calculated from the CMAQ model simulations was converted into 3-D or 4-D aerosol optical products, using the Malm and Hand (2007) algorithm with significant further modifications. The results from the CMAQ model simulations (without assimilation) showed great improvements compared to those from a previous study. For example, in terms of the regression coefficients (R), R values were increased from 0.48-0.68 (previous study) to 0.62-0.79 (this study). The monthly-averaged CMAQ-simulated single scattering albedo (SSA) also agreed well with the AERONET SSA, with the exceptions of the Hong Kong and Taipei sites, where the air qualities were strongly influenced by active biomass burning events from January to April. There were also excellent matches between the vertical profiles of the CMAQ-simulated σext and LIDAR-retrieved σext. It was also found that the contributions of (NH4)2SO4 during summer, NH4NO3 during winter, sea-salt particles during winter and dust particles

  14. Optical Properties of Wintertime Aerosols from Residential Wood Burning in Fresno, CA: Results from DISCOVER-AQ 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Kim, Hwajin; Parworth, Caroline L; Young, Dominique E; Zhang, Qi; Metcalf, Andrew R; Cappa, Christopher D

    2016-02-16

    The optical properties, composition and sources of the wintertime aerosols in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) were characterized through measurements made in Fresno, CA during the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign. PM2.5 extinction and absorption coefficients were measured at 405, 532, and 870 nm along with refractory black carbon (rBC) size distributions and concentrations. BC absorption enhancements (Eabs) were measured using two methods, a thermodenuder and mass absorption coefficient method, which agreed well. Relatively large diurnal variations in the Eabs at 405 nm were observed, likely reflecting substantial nighttime emissions of wood burning organic aerosols (OA) from local residential heating. Comparably small diurnal variations and absolute nighttime values of Eabs were observed at the other wavelengths, suggesting limited mixing-driven enhancement. Positive matrix factorization analysis of OA mass spectra from an aerosol mass spectrometer resolved two types of biomass burning OA, which appeared to have different chemical composition and absorptivity. Brown carbon (BrC) absorption was estimated to contribute up to 30% to the total absorption at 405 nm at night but was negligible (<10%) during the day. Quantitative understanding of retrieved BrC optical properties could be improved with more explicit knowledge of the BC mixing state and the distribution of coating thicknesses. PMID:26771892

  15. Dust Aerosol Optical Properties Retrieval and Radiative Forcing over Northwestern China during 2008 China-US Joint Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J.; Su, J.; Ackerman, T. P.; Fu, Q.; Huang, J.; Shi, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Atmosphere Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program’s Ancillary Facility (AAF/SMART-COMMIT) was deployed to Zhangye (39.082° N, 100.276° E), which is located in a semi-desert area of Northwest China, during the period of late April to mid June in 2008. We selected 11 cases to retrieve dust aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent, size distribution, single-scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (ASY) from Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements. These cases are dominated by large particles with Angstrom exponent values ranging from 0.34 to 0.93. The values of AOD at 0.67 µm range from 0.074 to 0.249. The mean SSA value increases with wavelength from 0.76±0.02 at 0.415 µm to 0.86±0.01 at 0.867 µm, while the mean ASY value decreases from 0.74±0.04 to 0.70±0.02. Before estimating dust aerosol direct radiative forcing, a radiative closure experiment was performed to verify that the retrieved aerosol optical properties and other input parameters to the radiative transfer model appropriately represent atmospheric conditions. The daytime-averaged differences between model simulations and ground observations are -8.5, -2.9, and -2.1 Wm-2 for the total, diffuse, and direct normal fluxes, respectively. The mean difference in the instantaneous reflected solar fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) between the model and CERES observations is 8.0 Wm-2. The solar aerosol direct radiative forcing (ARF), averaged over a 24-hour period, at the surface is-22.4±8.9 Wm-2, while the TOA ARF is small and has an average value of only 0.52±1.69 Wm-2. The daily-average surface aerosol radiative forcing efficiency (ARFE) at 0.5 µm is -95.1±10.3 Wm-2τ-1. Our results illustrate that the primary role of dust aerosol is to alter the distribution of solar radiation within the climate system, rather than reflecting solar energy to space. We assess the satellite aerosol optical depth products from MISR and MODIS observations by comparing them

  16. Optical and chemical properties of marine boundary-layer aerosol around Japan determined from shipboard measurements in 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, Masataka; Hara, Keiichiro; Yabuki, Masanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    Shipboard measurements of the optical and chemical properties of marine boundary-layer aerosol were made around Japan over the period from 28 August to 25 September 2002. Measurements were conducted aboard the Research Vessel (R/V) Shirase along cruise tracks beginning from Yokosuka, and proceeding on to Hakodate, Sakata, Sasebo, Naha, Kure, and Yokkaichi. This paper describes the results of optical measurements using an Optical Particle Counter (OPC), an Integrating Nephelometer (IN), and a Particle Soot/Absorption Photometer (PSAP), as well as chemical analyses of water-soluble aerosol particles collected by impactor and filter systems. Coulter Multisizer measurements were used for water-insoluble aerosol particles. The complex refractive index (CRI), scattering and absorption coefficients, and size distribution of aerosols were estimated from combined measurements made using OPC, IN, and PSAP. Contrasting aerosol characteristics were observed during different stages of the cruise. Discussion on these differences focuses mainly on two legs: Leg-1 from Yokosuka to Hakodate and Leg-4 from Sasebo to Naha. Backward trajectory analyses indicate that the air sampled during Leg-1 originated from the Pacific Ocean, whereas the air sampled during Leg-4 originated from the Chinese Continent via the Korean Peninsula. For the first half of Leg-1, the number concentration was low and larger particles were relatively predominant. The real and imaginary parts of the CRI were estimated to be 1.38-1.40 and close to zero, respectively. This estimation is consistent with the results of chemical analyses, which show that the sea salt is rich in aerosols sourced from remote ocean areas. In contrast, small particles were predominant during Leg-4, and the real and imaginary parts of the CRI were estimated to be 1.52-1.59 and approximately -0.002, respectively. These findings are also consistent with chemical analyses that reveal a mixture of mineral dust and sulfate aerosol likely

  17. In-Situ Measurements of Aerosol Optical and Hygroscopic Properties at the Look Rock Site during SOAS 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zimmermann, K.; Bertram, T. H.; Corrigan, A. L.; Guzman, J. M.; Russell, L. M.; Budisulistiorini, S.; Li, X.; Surratt, J. D.; Hicks, W.; Bairai, S. T.; Cappa, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    One of the main goals of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) is to characterize the climate-relevant properties of aerosols over the southeastern United States at the interface of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions. As part of the SOAS campaign, the UCD cavity ringdown/photoacoustic spectrometer was deployed to make in-situ measurements of aerosol light extinction, absorption and sub-saturated hygroscopicity at the Look Rock site (LRK) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, TN from June 1 to July 15, 2013. The site is influenced by substantial biogenic emissions with varying impacts from anthropogenic pollutants, allowing for direct examination of the optical and hygroscopic properties of anthropogenic-influenced biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA). During the experiment period, the average dry aerosol extinction (Bext), absorption (Babs) coefficients and single scattering albedo (SSA) at 532 nm were 30.3 × 16.5 Mm-1, 1.12 × 0.78 Mm-1 and 0.96 × 0.06. The Babs at 532 nm was well correlated (r2 = 0.79) with the refractory black carbon (rBC) number concentration determined by a single particle soot spectrometer (SP2). The absorption by black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC) and the absorption enhancement due to the 'lensing' effect were quantified by comparing the Babs of ambient and thermo-denuded aerosols at 405 nm and 532 nm. The optical sub-saturated hygroscopic growth factor was derived from extinction and particle size distribution measurements at dry and elevated relative humidity. In addition, to explore the extent to which ammonia mediated chemistry leads to BrC formation, as suggested in recent laboratory studies(1,2), we performed an NH3 perturbation experiment in-situ for 1 week during the study, in which ambient aerosols were exposed to approximately 100 ppb NH3 with a residence time of ~ 3hr. The broader implications of these observational data at LRK will be discussed in the context of the concurrent gas and aerosol chemical

  18. Regional trends of aerosol optical depth and their impact on cloud properties over Southern India using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, K. Rama; Obul Reddy, K. Raja; Balakrishnaiah, G.; Arafath, S. MD.; Kumar Reddy, N. Siva; Rao, T. Chakradhar; Reddy, T. Lokeswara; Reddy, R. Ramakrishna

    2016-08-01

    Remote sensing of global aerosols has constituted a great scientific interest in a variety of applications related to global warming and climatic change. In the present study we investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical properties and its impact on various properties of clouds over Southern India for the last ten years (2005-2014) by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data retrieved from the onboard Terra and Aqua satellites. The spatial distributions of annual mean lowest Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) value is observed in Bangalore (BLR) (0.22±0.04) and the highest AOD value is noted in Visakhapatnam (VSK) (0.39±0.05). Similarly high Fine Mode Fraction (FMF) is noticed over VSK and Thiruvananthapuram (TVM), while lower values are observed in Anantapur (ATP), Hyderabad (HYD), Pune (PUNE) and BLR. From the results, a negative correlation was found between AOD and Cloud Top Temperature (CTT), Cloud Top Pressure (CTP) where as, a positive correlation was observed between AOD and Cloud Fraction (CF), Water Vapor (WV) over the selected regions. Monthly average AOD and FMF are plotted for analysis of the trends of aerosol loading in a long-term scale and both values showed statistically significant enhancing trend over all regions as derived from the MODIS measurements. Further, the annual variation of spatial correlation between MODIS and MISR (Multi - Angle Imaging Spectro Radiometer) AOD has been analyzed and the correlation coefficients are found to be higher in two of the regions VSK and PUNE (>0.8), and considerably lower for TVM (<0.7).

  19. A method for segregating the optical absorption properties and the mass concentration of winter time urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Utry, N.; Pintér, M.; Major, B.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2015-12-01

    A novel in-situ, real time method for the determination of inherent absorption properties of light absorbing carbonaceous particulate matter and its possible application for source apportionment are introduced here. The method is deduced from a two-week campaign under wintry urban conditions during which strong correlation was found between aerosol number size distribution and wavelength dependent optical absorption coefficient (AOC(λ)), measured by a Single Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a multi-wavelength photoacoustic absorption spectrometer, respectively, while wood burning and traffic (i.e. fossil fuel burning) activity were identified to be the dominant sources of carbonaceous particulate. Indeed, during the whole campaign, regardless of the actual emission strength of the aerosol sources, the measured number size distributions were always dominated by two unimodal modes with Count Mean Diameter (CMD) of 20 and 100 nm, which could be correlated to traffic and wood burning activities, respectively. AAEff, AAEwb (i.e. the Aerosol Angström Exponent of traffic and wood burning aerosol, respectively), σff(266 nm), σff(1064 nm), σwb(266 nm) and σff(1064 nm) (i.e. the segregated mass specific optical absorption coefficients at two of the measurement wavelengths) were found to be 1.17 ± 0.18, 2.6 ± 0.14, 7.3 ± 0.3 m2g-1, 1.7 ± 0.1 m2g-1 3.4 ± 0.3 m2g-1 and 0.31 ± 0.08 m2g-1, respectively. Furthermore the introduced methodology can also disentangle and quantify the temporal variation of both the segregated optical absorptions and the segregated mass concentrations of traffic and wood burning aerosol. Accordingly, the contribution of wood burning to optical absorption of PM was found to be negligible at 1064 nm but increased gradually towards the shorter wavelengths and became commensurable with the optical absorption of traffic at 266 nm during the whole measurement period. Furthermore, the contribution of wood burning mass to CM (mass of carbonaceous

  20. A Study of Aerosol Optical and Chemical Properties from the Perspectives of Source Region, Local, and Synoptic Meteorology During Summer 2013 at a Southeast US Regionally Representative Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krintz, I. A.; Link, M. F.; Madison, B.; Morrow, H. A.; Sherman, J. P.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    An intensive summer 2013 aerosol field campaign was conducted at the Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research facility at Appalachian State University (AppalAIR), coinciding with the SOAS campaign in the SE U.S. Measurements included lower tropospheric and column-averaged aerosol properties as part of the NOAA-ESRL and NASA AERONET, lidar-derived vertical profiles of aerosols and clouds, surface and vertical meteorology, and aerosol and organic precursor chemical composition. Clustered 120-hour HYSPLIT back-trajectories were used to determine the influence of source region on aerosol properties and composition. A synoptic-scale weather classification scheme (Sheridan 2000) was applied to bin the aerosol properties by synoptic weather type. Co-located near-surface T, P, and RH measurements and vertical profiles from 75 radiosonde launches were used to determine the influence of local meteorology on the aerosol properties. The anomalously cool, wet summer dampened and delayed the summer peak in aerosol scattering and absorption, relative to previous summers and limited the number of sunphotometer retrievals of column-averaged aerosol properties. Nevertheless, aerosol loading, composition, and several key optical properties such as absorption Angstrom exponent displayed distinct dependence on source region and meteorology. As an example, both light scattering and isoprene-derived SOA concentrations (Link et al, 2014) were highest for more pollution-influenced NE air masses, for which lower hemispheric backscatter fractions and absorption Angstrom exponents were observed. Aerosol loading was generally lower for SW and SE air masses, with the exception of extra-moist tropical weather types, which coincided with high aerosol optical depth and larger, hygroscopic, primarily scattering particles. Aerosol loading increased with local temperature and pressure and some other properties also displayed temperature dependence but the range of temperatures observed

  1. Wintertime Experimental investigation of Morphology, Mixing States and Columnar Optical Properties of Aerosols over a Desert location in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Kumar, T.; Sharma, C.; Prasad, M. V. S. N.; Singh, S.; Agnihotri, R.; Arya, B. C.; Gupta, B.; Naaraayanan, T.; Gautam, S.; Kumar, D.; Sood, K. N.; Tawale, J. S.; Sharma, A. K.; Mitra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Indian Desert (The Thar Desert) is considered as the source of mineral dust in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) especially in pre-monsoon period due to large scale convective activities during hot summer. To study the physico-chemical characteristics of aerosols over the Thar Desert (Jaisalmer, Rajasthan) during winter (December, 2013), a field campaign has been carried out in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan state. Experiments were conducted inside the city as well as far from the city. The faraway location is close to international border of another country i.e. Pakistan. PM2.5 and PM10 were collected within the city while PM5 was collected far from the city. Particles were collected on Teflon filters for bulk analysis with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), on Tin substrate for individual particle morphology and elemental composition analysis with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and on the Cu-TEM grid for individual particle morphology and mixing state characterization using High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM). Together with this, aerosol size distribution observation and columnar spectral aerosol optical properties have been carried out with OPC (Optical Particle Counter, GRIMM Model 1.108) and hand held Microtops-II, respectively. HRTEM analysis reveals occurrence of carbonaceous fractals found in various mixing states 1) aged with some hygroscopic species 2) embedded in sulfate host 3) semi-externally mixed with sulfate and other species. Core-shell particles were also observed with varying core composition (carbon, typical mineral dust, and calcite) and shell thickness (shell comprising of water). The back trajectory analysis reveals the source of wind from Karachi and Islamabad from Pakistan which may be the potential source of carbonaceous species over the sampling site. SEM-EDS analysis reveals occurrence of mineral dust 1) pure mineral dust (Ca and Si rich) 2) polluted mineral

  2. Long-term (2007-2013) analysis of aerosol optical properties over four locations in the Indo-Gangetic plains.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Humera; Alam, Khan; Blaschke, Thomas; Bibi, Samina; Iqbal, Muhammad Jawed

    2016-08-10

    The emphasis of the present work lies on the examination of the distribution and spectral behavior of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP). Measurements were performed using an AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) Sun photometer at four sites (Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur) with different aerosol environments during the period 2007-2013. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (α) were measured, and the results revealed a high AOD with a low α value over Karachi and Jaipur in July, while a high AOD with a high α value was reported over Lahore and Kanpur during October and December. The pattern of the aerosol volume size distribution (VSD) was similar across all four sites, with a prominent peak in coarse mode at a radius of 4.0-5.0 μm, and in fine mode at a radius of 0.1-4.0 μm, for all seasons. On the other hand, during the winter months, the fine-mode peaks were comparable to the coarse mode, which was not the case during the other seasons. The single scattering albedo (SSA) was found to be strongly wavelength-dependent during all seasons and for all sites, with the exception of Kanpur, where the SSA decreases with increasing wavelength during winter and post-monsoon. It was found that the phase function of the atmospheric aerosol was high at a small angle and stable around a scattering angle of 90°-180° at all sites and during all seasons. Spectral variation of the asymmetry parameter (ASY) revealed a decreasing trend with increasing wavelength, and this decreasing trend was more pronounced during the summer, winter, and post-monsoon as compared to pre-monsoon. Furthermore, extensive measurements suggest that both real (RRI) and imaginary (IRI) parts of the refractive index (RI) show contrasting spectral behavior during all seasons. Finally, the analysis of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hybrid single particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model back trajectory revealed

  3. Optical properties of Southern Hemisphere aerosols: Report of the joint CSIRO/NASA study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gras, John L.; Platt, C. Martin; Huffaker, R. Milton; Jones, William D.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Gras, John L.

    1988-01-01

    This study was made in support of the LAWS and GLOBE programs, which aim to design a suitable Doppler lidar system for measuring global winds from a satellite. Observations were taken from 5 deg S to 45 deg S along and off the E and SE Australian coast, thus obtaining representative samples over a large latitude range. Observations were made between 0 and 6 km altitude of aerosol physical and chemical properties in situ from the CSIRO F-27 aircraft; of lidar backscatter coefficients at 10.6 micron wavelength from the F-27 aircraft; of lidar backscatter profiles at 0.694 microns at Sale, SE Australia; and of lidar backscatter profiles at 0.532 microns at Cowley Beach, NE Australia. Both calculations and observations in the free troposphere gave a backscatter coefficient of 1-2 x 10 to the -11/m/sr at 10.6 microns, although the accuracies of the instruments were marginal at this level. Equivalent figures were 2-8 x 10 to the -9/m/sr (aerosol) and 9 x 10 to the -9 to 2 x 10 to the -8/m/sr (lidar) at 0.694 microns wavelength at Sale; and 3.7 x 10 to the -9/m/sr (aerosol) and 10 to the -8 to 10 to the -7/m/sr (lidar) at 0.532 microns wavelength at Cowley Beach. The measured backscatter coefficients at 0.694 and 0.532 microns were consistently higher than the values calculated from aerosol size distributions by factors of typically 2 to 10.

  4. Absorbing and scattering aerosols over the source region of biomass burning emissions: Implications in the assessment of optical and radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Atinderpal; Srivastava, Rohit; Rastogi, Neeraj; Singh, Darshan

    2016-02-01

    The current study focuses on the assessment of model simulated optical and radiative properties of aerosols incorporating the measured chemical composition of aerosol samples collected at Patiala during October, 2011-February, 2012. Monthly average mass concentration of PM2.5, elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), water-soluble (WS) and insoluble (INS) aerosols ranged from 120 to 192, 6.2 to 7.2, 20 to 39, 59 to 111 and 35 to 90 μg m-3, respectively. Mass concentration of different components of aerosols was further used for the assessment of optical properties derived from Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model simulations. Microtops based measured aerosol optical depth (AOD500) ranged from 0.47 to 0.62 showing maximum value during November and December, and minimum during February. Ångström exponent (α380-870) remained high (>0.90) throughout the study period except in February (0.74), suggesting predominance of fine mode particles over the study region. The observed ratio of scattering to absorbing aerosols was incorporated in OPAC model simulations and single scattering albedo (SSA at 500 nm) so obtained ranged between 0.80 and 0.92 with relatively low values during the period of extensive biomass burning. In the present study, SBDART based estimated values of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the surface (SRF) and top of the atmosphere (TOA) ranged from -31 to -66 Wm-2 and -2 to -18 W m-2 respectively. The atmospheric ARF, ranged between + 18 and + 58 Wm-2 resulting in the atmospheric heating rate between 0.5 and 1.6 K day-1. These results signify the role of scattering and absorbing aerosols in affecting the magnitude of aerosol forcing.

  5. Long-term changes of aerosol optical and radiative properties and their role in global dimming and brightening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianastassiou, N.; Papadimas, C. D.; Matsoukas, C.; Pavlakis, K.; Fotiadi, A.; Wild, M.; Vardavas, I.

    2009-04-01

    Global dimming and brightening (GDB) have profound effects on the Earth's environment. For example, GDB counteracts or supplements greenhouse warming. Atmospheric aerosols, through their interaction with solar radiation (direct, indirect and semi-direct effects) can affect GDB. Changes in aerosol burden or other physical and optical properties can modify tendencies of GDB. For example, satellite observations of aerosol amounts, available since the early 1980s, but only over the oceans, indicate a downward trend since about 1990, consistent with the observed brightening during this period. There is a need, however, to investigate similar trends, but also over land, and to relate them with contemporary GDB. The seasonal and inter-annual variability of the natural, but also anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative effect on solar radiation at the Earth's surface (DREsurf) and the contribution of aerosols to global dimming and brightening (GDB) is estimated over the period 1984-2001. This is achieved by using a spectral radiative transfer model together with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and other satellite (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, ISCCP-D2), NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS) data for surface and atmospheric parameters. The major findings are mostly related to natural and less to anthropogenic aerosols because of limitations of the TOMS observational technique. The model results indicate that aerosols exert a strong surface cooling over the globe by reducing locally the incoming surface solar radiation by up to 70 W m-2. This direct radiative effect averaged over the globe for the period 1984-2001, is equivalent to 5 W m-2, associated with 6.5 and 3.5 W m-2, for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. However, this aerosol DREsurf effect shows an important inter-annual variability as large as 200%. A strong solar brightening, or decreased aerosol DREsurf, by as much as

  6. Satellite Retrieval of Aerosol Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G.; Robles Gonzalez, C.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Decae, R.

    SATELLITE RETRIEVAL of AEROSOL PROPERTIES G. de Leeuw, C. Robles Gonzalez, J. Kusmierczyk-Michulec and R. Decae TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Hague, The Netherlands; deleeuw@fel.tno.nl Methods to retrieve aerosol properties over land and over sea were explored. The dual view offered by the ATSR-2 aboard ERS-2 was used by Veefkind et al., 1998. The retrieved AOD (aerosol optical depth) values compare favourably with collocated sun photometer measurements, with an accuracy of 0.06 +/- 0.05 in AOD. An algorithm developed for GOME on ERS-2 takes advantage of the low surface reflection in the UV (Veefkind et al., 2000). AOD values retrieved from ATSR-2 and GOME data over western Europe are consistent. The results were used to produce a map of mean AOD values over Europe for one month (Robles-Gonzalez et al., 2000). The ATSR-2 is al- gorithm is now extended with other aerosol types with the aim to apply it over the In- dian Ocean. A new algorithm is being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to be launched in 2003 on the NASA EOS-AURA satellite. It is expected that, based on the different scattering and absorption properties of various aerosol types, five major aerosol classes can be distinguished. The experience with the retrieval of aerosol properties by using several wavelength bands is used to develop an algorithm for Sciamachy to retrieve aerosol properties both over land and over the ocean which takes advantage of the wavelengths from the UV to the IR. The variation of the AOD with wavelength is described by the Angstrom parameter. The AOD and the Angstrom parameter together yield information on the aerosol size distribution, integrated over the column. Analysis of sunphotometer data indicates a relation between the Angstrom parameter and the mass ratio of certain aerosols (black carbon, organic carbon and sea salt) to the total particulate matter. This relation has been further explored and was applied to satellite data over land to

  7. Comparison of aerosol properties over Beijing and Kanpur: Optical, physical properties and aerosol component composition retrieved from 12 years ground-based Sun-sky radiometer remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Lei; Zhang, Fengxia; Li, Donghui; Xie, Yisong; Xu, Hua

    2015-02-01

    Aerosol mixtures composed of coarse and fine particles occur frequently in metropolitan areas in the world, especially in developing countries. Beijing, China, and Kanpur, India, are both in Asian monsoon regions and experience strong aerosol loading because of increased economic activities, vehicles, and urbanization. Observations originating from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) have played a vital role in the field of aerosol study. In order to understand the variations of aerosol optical, physical properties and component composition over Beijing and Kanpur, we focus on AERONET measurements collected at these two sites from 2002 to 2013 and employ a five-component (including black carbon, BC; mineral dust, DU; brown carbon, BrC; ammonium sulfate like, AS; and aerosol water content, AW) aerosol mixture model to retrieve the aerosol component composition. Particle size distribution, spectral characteristics of single-scattering albedo, and refractive indices of the aerosols over Beijing and Kanpur are found to be distinct and with regular seasonal variations. Correspondingly, aerosol components show distinct temporal characteristics at both sites. In Beijing, BC shows a significant decrease from 2002 to 2013 (especially after 2007) with an average declining rate of 0.69 mg m-2 yr-1. Among the five components, BC and BrC are higher during winter and autumn especially at Beijing, while DU and AS are higher during spring and summer at the two sites. With respect to site differences, BC and BrC are usually higher in Beijing in most of the year, while DU and AS are higher in Kanpur especially from April to June. Moreover, AW is similar and quite comparable at two sites.

  8. A new experimental approach to study the hygroscopic and optical properties of aerosols: application to ammonium sulfate particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Katrib, Y.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Doussin, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    A new methodology for the determination of the changes due to hygroscopic growth with relative humidity of the number size distribution and optical properties of polydispersed aerosols is described. This method uses the simulation chamber CESAM where the hygroscopic properties of polydispersed aerosol particles can be investigated in situ by exposing them to RH ranging from 0 to 100% for approximately 1 h. In situ humidification is used to provide simultaneous information on the RH-dependence of the particle size and the corresponding scattering coefficient (σscat), and that for the entire size distribution. Optical closure studies, based on integrated nephelometer and aethalometer measurements, Mie scattering calculations and measured particle size distributions, can therefore be performed to yield derived parameters such as the complex refractive index (CRI) at λ = 525 nm. The CRI can also be retrieved in the visible spectrum by combining differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and white light aerosol spectrometer (Palas Welas®) measurements. We have applied this methodology to ammonium sulfate particles, which have well known optical and hygroscopic properties. The CRI obtained from the two methods (1.54-1.57) compared favourably to each other and are also in reasonable agreement with the literature values. The particle's growth was compared to values obtained for one selected size of particles (150 nm) with a H-TDMA and the effect of the residence time for particles humidification was investigated. When the humidification was performed in the chamber for a few minutes, a continuous increase of the ammonium sulfate particle's size and σscat was observed from RH values as low as 30% RH. Comparison of the measured and modelled values based on Köhler and Mie theories shows that layers of water are adsorbed on ammonium sulfate particles below the deliquescence point. In contradiction, the particle's growth reported with H-TDMAs showed a prompt deliquescence of

  9. A study on the aerosol optical properties over East Asia using a combination of CMAQ-simulated aerosol optical properties and remote-sensing data via a data assimilation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R.; Song, C. H.; Park, M.; Han, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    For the purpose of producing the accurate aerosol optical properties, AOD over East Asia was first investigated in this study. The CMAQ model simulations were conducted for the entire year, 2006, and were improved in several ways including the evaluations of emission inventories, the adoption of Malm and Hand (2007)'s algorithm and the data assimilations of meteorological wind fields and AOD. The results from the CMAQ model simulations (without assimilation) were improved greatly, compared to the previous study (Song et al., 2008) (e.g., from R=0.48-0.68 to R=0.77-0.89 for four seasons, R is correlation coefficient between CMAQ-simulated and MODIS-retrieved AODs). It was also found that there were great matches between the vertical profiles of CMAQ-simulated σext and LIDAR-derived σext. The contributions of sulfate in summer, nitrate in winter, sea-salt in winter and dust in spring were large in East Asia. Especially, the large contribution of nitrate in winter to the AOD distribution over East Asia is remarkable compared to the previous study (Chung et al., 2010). In order to produce more accurate AOD products, the CMAQ-simulated AOD was assimilated with MODIS-retrieved AOD. Both the assimilated and AERONET AODs were better correlated with each other, compared to the correlation between CMAQ-simulated AOD and AERONET AODs (e.g., from R=0.59-0.79 to R=0.71-0.8 for four seasons: R is correlation between the assimilated or CMAQ-simulated AOD and AERONET AOD). The obvious benefits for this study are that, with the improved aerosol optical properties, particulate pollution or PM forecasting over East Asia (e.g., AOD can be served as a proxy to PM2.5) and direct radiative forcing by aerosols can be much better estimated in future.

  10. Aerosol optical properties over a coastal site in Goa, along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirodkar, Shilpa; Menon, Harilal B.

    2015-08-01

    Spectral characteristics of the Aerosol optical depths (AODs) measured over a coastal site in Goa (15.46°N and 73.83°E), from a plateau ~50 m above mean sea level, for the period 2008-2010, are analyzed to understand the inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal variability and to delineate different aerosol sources. A Microtops-II sunphotometer having five different wavelengths centered at 0.380, 0.440, 0.500, 0.675 and 0.870 μm was used to estimate AODs in different seasons classified as: winter monsoon season from December to March (WMS), spring inter-monsoon season from April to May (SIMS), summer monsoon season from June to September (SMS) and fall inter-monsoon season from October to November (FIMS). The number of data (AODs) generated in each season is 569 in WMS, 131 in SIMS, 38 in SMS and 256 in FIMS. The highest AOD at 500 nm (AOD500) was recorded in SIMS (0.43±0.18) while the lowest value was observed in SMS (0.32±0.10). The seasonal mean values of Ångström α computed from the least-square method in the wavelength range 0.440-0.870 μm showed higher values (1.23±0.20) in FIMS than those in SMS (0.75±0.34). The highest Ångström β values were noticed in SIMS (0.25±0.10) and lowest in FIMS (0.17±0.06). To make a source appropriation and thus to resolve the complexity of aerosols in the study area, α was computed in different wavelength ranges, viz: short wavelengths (0.440-0.500 μm) and long wavelengths (0.675-0.870 μm), which revealed differing α values for different ranges of wavelengths. To account for the curvature, a second order polynomial fit is introduced. Subsequently, the second-order Ångström exponent (ά) and the coefficient of the second-order polynomial fit are analyzed to understand the dominant aerosol type.

  11. Chemical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols in Phimai, Thailand by intensive surface measurements and satellite data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, H.; Thana, B.; Takamura, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Yabuki, M.; Oikawa, E.; Nakajima, T.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols were measured at the Observatory of Atmospheric Research, in Phimai, Thailand, a key station of SKYNET, during 2006-2008. In the surface measurement, mass concentrations and major chemical components in fine and coarse aerosols were analyzed, and the optical properties such as AOT and SSA were measured by skyradiometer. Analysis of MODIS and CALIPSO satellite data was made for wild fire activities and aerosol distribution, respectively. In this paper, the following topics are summarized. The surface wind pattern in dry season was divided into the three periods as follows; D1 (Oct.-Nov.) with northeasterly monsoon, D3 (middle March-April) with southerly wind, and D2 (Dec.-early March) with a transit stage between D1 and D3. Wet season in southwesterly monsoon was from May to September. The concentration ratio of BC/nss-SO4 showed that the dominant PM2.5 aerosols in D1 were due to long-range transport of air pollutants emitted from urban/industrial area of east Asia. In contrast, most of aerosols in D3 were derived from biomass burning in Indochina, because the activity of biomass burning was highest in the latter D2 and early D3 period, by the analysis of the fire database in MODIS and of BC/nss-SO4. The mass concentration in PM2.5 showed a clear seasonal variation with the maximum in D2. On the contrary, AOT showed the maximum in D3, and which could be attributed to an increase in the vertical thickness of high aerosol concentration in the boundary layer by the CALIOP data analysis. Dust particles in D1 were directly transported from east Asia, and re-suspension of soil dusts was dominant in D2 because the surface soil became dry. In D3, soil dusts were re-suspended with the thermal plume caused by biomass burning. In contrast, high dust particles measured in the wet season was due to long range transport of dust aerosols from western desert area by the CALIOP data analysis.

  12. Measurements of Extensive Aerosol Optical Properties During TexAQS II: Implications for PM Compliance and Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, M. E.; Atkinson, D. B.; Luke, W. T.

    2007-12-01

    In 2000, the Houston-Galveston Area (HGA) was designated as a non-attainment area for several criteria air pollutants by the US EPA. In order to meet the requirements of the federal Clean Air Act, the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II) was designed to update the State Implementation Plan (SIP) by providing scientific air quality data over 18 months from June 2005 to October 2006. The data presented here was collected as part of the Texas Radical and Aerosol Measurement Program (TRAMP), a substudy of TexAQS II. Bulk aerosol optical properties were measured for six weeks atop the 60 m high Southwest Moody Tower on the University of Houston campus. The measurements were collected using a cavity ring-down transmissometer/nephelometer (CRDT/N) and consisted of the extensive aerosol coefficients: extinction (bext) at 532 and 1064 nm and scattering (bscat) at 530nm. In addition to daily and whole study averages and calculated mass values, positive correlations between the 1064 nm extinction and 532 nm absorption (babs = bext - bscat) values are displayed for this study period for the first time. Correlation between the particle scattering coefficient and the sum of AMS measured (UNH - PI: R. Griffin) sulfate and organic particle mass concentrations as well as covariance between optical properties and O3, CO and NOx values (ARL/NOAA - PI: W. Luke) are also examined. No correlation is expected between coarse particles (PM10), which are typically primary biogenic suspended soil minerals or windblown dust, and high ozone concentrations. Ozone levels are highest during periods of low wind when coarse particulate is likely to be at a minimum. On the other hand, secondary particles and O3 should be correlated on short time scales because both species tend to have the same precursors, NOx and VOC's, and formation of particles is favored during stagnant conditions. Fine particles (PM2.5) should also correlate with CO since both species have a common emission source. Wind

  13. Assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verver, Gé; Henzing, Bas

    Climate predictions are hampered by the large uncertainties involved in the estima- tion of the effects of atmospheric aerosol (IPCC,2001). These uncertainties are caused partly because sources and sinks as well as atmospheric processing of the different types of aerosol are not accurately known. Moreover, the climate impact (especially the indirect effect) of a certain distribution of aerosol is hard to quantify. There have been different approaches to reduce these uncertainties. In recent years intensive ob- servational campaigns such as ACE and INDOEX have been carried out, aiming to in- crease our knowledge of atmospheric processes that determine the fate of atmospheric aerosols and to quantify the radiation effects. With the new satellite instruments such as SCIAMACHY and OMI it will be possible in the near future to derive the ge- ographical distribution of the aerosol optical depths (AOD) and perhaps additional information on the occurrence of different aerosol types. The goal of the ARIA project (started in 2001) is to assimilate global satellite de- rived aerosol optical depth (AOD) in an off-line chemistry/transport model TM3. The TM3 model (Jeuken et al. 2001) describes sources, sinks, transformation and transport processes of different types of aerosol (mineral dust, carbon, sulfate, nitrate) that are relevant to radiative forcing. All meteorological input is provided by ECMWF. The assimilation procedure constrains the aerosol distribution produced by the model on the basis of aerosol optical depths observed by satellite. The product, i.e. an optimal estimation of global aerosol distribution, is then available for the calculation of radia- tive forcing. Error analyses may provide valuable information on deficiencies of the model. In the ARIA project it is tried to extract additional information on the type of aerosol present in the atmosphere by assimilating AOD at multiple wavelengths. First results of the ARIA project will be presented. The values

  14. Production Mechanism, Number Concentration, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols Workshop, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    2013-10-21

    The objective of this workshop was to address the most urgent open science questions for improved quantification of sea spray aerosol-radiation-climate interactions. Sea spray emission and its influence on global climate remains one of the most uncertain components of the aerosol-radiation-climate problem, but has received less attention than other aerosol processes (e.g. production of terrestrial secondary organic aerosols). Thus, the special emphasis was placed on the production flux of sea spray aerosol particles, their number concentration and chemical composition and properties.

  15. Modeling Optical Properties of Mineral Aerosol Particles by Using Nonsymmetric Hexahedra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Kahn, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    We explore the use of nonsymmetric geometries to simulate the single-scattering properties of airborne dust particles with complicated morphologies. Specifically, the shapes of irregular dust particles are assumed to be nonsymmetric hexahedra defined by using the Monte Carlo method. A combination of the discrete dipole approximation method and an improved geometric optics method is employed to compute the single-scattering properties of dust particles for size parameters ranging from 0.5 to 3000. The primary optical effect of eliminating the geometric symmetry of regular hexahedra is to smooth the scattering features in the phase function and to decrease the backscatter. The optical properties of the nonsymmetric hexahedra are used to mimic the laboratory measurements. It is demonstrated that a relatively close agreement can be achieved by using only one shape of nonsymmetric hexahedra. The agreement between the theoretical results and their measurement counterparts can be further improved by using a mixture of nonsymmetric hexahedra. It is also shown that the hexahedron model is much more appropriate than the "equivalent sphere" model for simulating the optical properties of dust particles, particularly, in the case of the elements of the phase matrix that associated with the polarization state of scattered light.

  16. Titan's aerosol optical properties with VIMS observations at the limb of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannou, Pascal; Seignovert, Benoit; Lavvas, Panayotis; Lemouelic, Stéphane; Sotin, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The study of Titan properties with remote sensing relies on a good knowledge of the atmosphere properties. The in-situ observations made by Huygens combined with recent advances in the definition of methane properties enable to model and interpret observations with a very good accuracy. Thanks to these progresses, we can analyze in this work the observations made at the limb of Titan in order to retrieve information on the haze properties as its vertical profiles but also the spectral behaviour between 0.88 and 5.2 μm.To study the haze layer and more generally the source of opacities in the stratosphere, we use som observation made at the limbe of Titan by the VIMS instrument onboard Cassini. We used a model in spherical geometry and in single scattering, and we accounted for the multiple scattering with a parallel plane model that evaluate the multiple scattering source function at the plane of the limb.Our scope is to retrieve informations about the vertical distribution of the haze, its spectral properties, but also to obtain details about the shape of the methane windows to disantangle the role of the methane and of the aerosols.We started our study at the latitude of 55°N, with a image taken in 2006 with a relatively high spatial resolution (for VIMS). Our preliminary results shows the spectral properties of the aerosols are the same whatever the altitude. This is a consequence of the large scale mixing. From limb profile between 0.9 and 5.2 μm, we can probe the haze layer from about 500 km (at 0.9 μm) to the ground (at 5.2 μm). We find that the vertical profile of the haze layer shows three distinct scale heights with transitions around 250 km and 350 km. We also clearly a transition around 70-90 km that may be due to the top of a condensation layer.

  17. Relation between aerosol particles and their optical properties: a case study for São Paulo-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Regina; Andrade, Maria de Fatima

    2013-04-01

    Brazil has a territory of 8.5 million km2 and a population of more than 160 million inhabitants, distributed throughout 26 states. Brazillian capital-cities with millions inhabitants and vehicles have several problems concerning air pollution. São Paulo, capital of São Paulo State, with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, as well as the major industrial and technological park of the country, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter. Air pollution, high building density, and a lack of green areas, combined with the proliferation of asphalt and concrete surfaces, have resulted in a greater number of urban heat island effects, fewer drizzle events, and rainfall events of greater intensity. São Paulo has an extensive air quality monitoring network, which has shown that ozone levels often exceed the NAAQS limit during spring and summer, and that concentrations of inhalable particles exceed the NAAQS limit mainly during the winter, from June to August. Aerosols are produced by a variety of processes, creating differences in their physicochemical properties and hence in their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation. For most urban areas in Brazil, vehicles are considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Particles have been monitored in the winter of 2012 in São Paulo using a MOUDI (Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor), in order to have the mass distribution of the aerosol. The concentrations of coarse particles can still be larger than those of fine particles, although the difference between both has become smaller than in the past. The samples collected were analyzed by gravimetry for mass concentration, optical reflectance for Black Carbon concentration and X-ray Fluorescence for elementar characterization. Optical properties were obtained from Aeronet (Aerosol Robotic Network, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for São Paulo city. It was found that a high fraction of elements was derived

  18. Summer-winter differences in the relationships among background southeastern U.S. aerosol optical, micro-physical, and chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, J. P.; Link, M.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Relationships among aerosol optical, micro-physical, and chemical properties are useful for evaluating regional climate models, developing satellite-based aerosol retrievals, and understanding aerosol sources and processes. Since aerosol loading and optical properties vary primarily on seasonal scales in the southeastern U.S., it is important that such studies be carried out over multiple seasons but few (if any) such multi-season studies have been conducted in the region. The high-elevation, semi-rural AppalAIR facility at Appalachian State University in Boone, NC (1080m ASL, 36.210N, 81.690W) is home to the only co-located NOAA-ESRL and AERONET monitoring sites in the eastern U.S. Measurements of size-resolved, non-refractory sub-1μm aerosol composition were also made by a co-located AMS during the 2012-2013 summers and 2013 winter. Systematic relationships among aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical properties were developed to better understand aerosol sources and processes and for use in higher-dimension aerosol classification schemes. Some of the major findings will be presented. Higher values of lower tropospheric aerosol light scattering coefficient at 550nm (a proxy for aerosol loading) are associated with higher single-scattering albedo (SSA) and lower hemispheric backscatter fraction (b) during both summer and winter. Absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) is typically well under 1 during summer and near 1.3-1.4 during winter. Lowest summer AAE values coincide with large, highly-reflective particles and higher aerosol light scattering coefficient but summer AAE is only weakly anti-correlated with organic and sulfate mass concentrations. Winter AAE is consistent with a mixture of elemental carbon and light-absorbing organic carbon, possibly influenced by regional residential wood-burning during winter. The hygroscopic dependence of visible light scattering is sensitive to sulfate and organic aerosol mass fractions during both summer and winter

  19. Optical Properties and Mixing State of Aerosols from Residential Wood Burning and Vehicle Emissions in Central and Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cappa, C. D.; Collier, S.; Zhang, Q.; Williams, L. R.; Lee, A.; Abbatt, J.; Russell, L. M.; Liu, J.; Chen, C. L.; Betha, R.

    2015-12-01

    Light-absorbing materials such as black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) in atmospheric aerosols play important roles in regulating the earth's radiative budget and climate. However, the representations of BC and BrC in state-of-the-art climate models remain highly uncertain, in part due to the poor understanding of their microphysical and optical properties. Direct observations and characterizations of the mixing state and absorption enhancement of ambient aerosols could provide invaluable constraints for current model representations of aerosol radiative effects. Here, we will discuss results from measurements of aerosol light absorption and absorption enhancement (Eabs), using a thermodenuder-absorption method, made during two recent field studies in central and southern California. The winter study took place in Dec/Jan of 2014/2015 in Fresno, CA. This region is severely impacted by particulate matter from local and regional residential biomass burning. The summer study took place in July 2015 in Fontana, CA, a region ~80 km downwind of Los Angeles and strongly impacted by vehicular emissions, and thus provides a sharp contrast to the Fresno study. Eabs of BC particles due to the "lensing" effect from coatings to BC core and/or the presence of BrC will be quantified and compared between the two studies. Additionally, the chemical composition of bulk and the BC-containing particles are determined via a HR-ToF-AMS and a SP-AMS, respectively. Variations in the composition and mixing state of the ambient particles and how these affect the observed Eabs will be examined. The overall measurements suggest a relatively small role for lensing-induced absorption enhancements for ambient particles in these regions.

  20. Gradient Correlation Method for the Stabilization of Inversion Results of Aerosol Microphysical Properties Retrieved from Profiles of Optical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolgotin, Alexei; Müller, Detlef; Romanov, Anton; Chemyakin, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Correlation relationships between aerosol microphysical parameters and optical data are investigated. The results show that surface-area concentrations and extinction coefficients are linearly correlated with a correlation coefficient above 0.99 for arbitrary particle size distribution. The correlation relationships that we obtained can be used as constraints in our inversion of optical lidar data. Simulation studies demonstrate a significant stabilization of aerosol microphysical data products if we apply the gradient correlation method in our traditional regularization technique.

  1. Influence of coal based thermal power plants on aerosol optical properties in the Indo-Gangetic basin - article no. L05805

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, A.K.; Singh, R.P.; Kafatos, M.

    2006-03-07

    The Indo-Gangetic basin is characterized by dense fog, haze and smog during the winter season. Here, we show one to one correspondence during the winter season of aerosol optical properties with the location of thermal power plants which are single small spatial entities compared to the big cities. Our results indicate that power plants are the key point source of air pollutants. The detailed analysis of aerosol parameters deduced from the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) level 3 remote sensing data show the existence of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols emitted from these plants. Analysis of higher resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) level 2 aerosol optical depth over thermal power plants supports the findings.

  2. Tropospheric Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical, Microphysical and Concentration Properties in the Frame of the Hygra-CD Campaign (Athens, Greece 2014): A Case Study of Long-Range Transport of Mixed Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayannis, Alexandros; Argyrouli, Athina; Müller, Detlef; Tsaknakis, Georgios; Kokkalis, Panayotis; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Kazadzis, Stelios; Solomos, Stavros; Amiridis, Vassilis

    2016-06-01

    Combined multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar and sun photometry measurements were performed during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece during May-June 2014. The retrieved aerosol optical properties (3 aerosol backscatter at 355-532-1064 nm and 2 aerosol extinction profiles at 355-532 nm) were used as input to an inversion code to retrieve the aerosol microphysical properties (effective radius reff and number concentration N) using regularization techniques. Additionally, the volume concentration profile was derived for fine particles using the LIRIC code. In this paper we selected a complex case study of long-range transport of mixed aerosols (biomass burning particles mixed with dust) arriving over Athens between 10-12 June 2014 in the 1.5-4 km height. Between 2-3 km height we measured mean lidar ratios (LR) ranging from 45 to 58 sr (at 355 and 532 nm), while the Ångström exponent (AE) aerosol extinction-related values (355nm/532nm) ranged between 0.8-1.3. The retrieved values of reff and N ranged from 0.19±0.07 to 0.22±0.07 μm and 460±230 to 2200±2800 cm-3, respectively. The aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ) at 532 nm was lower than 5-7% (except for the Saharan dust cases, where δ~10-15%).

  3. Vertical distribution of optical and micro-physical properties of ambient aerosols during dry haze periods in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yonghang; Liu, Qiong; Geng, Fuhai; Zhang, Hua; Cai, Changjie; Xu, Tingting; Ma, Xiaojun; Li, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Based on the lidar data obtained from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), the vertical distributions of aerosols are revealed during dry haze periods in the Shanghai vicinity by analyzing the optical and micro-physical parameters including total attenuated backscatter coefficient (TABC), volume depolarization ratio (VDR) and total attenuated color ratio (TACR). The preliminary conclusion is that when dry haze occurs in the Shanghai vicinity, smoke and maritime aerosols are the major types in summer and autumn and aerosols might be affected by long-distance transport of dust in spring; lower troposphere below 2 km is the layer polluted most severely and aerosol scattering with relatively irregular shape is much stronger than that of aerosols with relatively regular shape within 2-10 km in middle and upper troposphere; relatively large aerosols appear more frequently in lower (0-2 km) and middle troposphere (2-6 km) than those in upper troposphere (6-10 km). In addition, HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model is applied to analyze the aerosol sources during two typical episodes. The results indicate that the middle and upper troposphere in the Shanghai vicinity are affected by the long-distance transport of dusts from northwest of China or other upstream regions. The high aerosol concentrations in the Shanghai vicinity are mainly caused not only by local human activities but also by the long-distance transport from other places.

  4. Estimation of aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in the Ganga basin, northern India, during the wintertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sagnik; Tripathi, S. N.

    2007-02-01

    An aerosol model has been developed using mass size distributions of various chemical components measured at Kanpur (an urban location in the Ganga basin, GB, in northern India) and applied to estimate the radiative effects of the aerosols over the entire GB during the winter season. The number size distribution of various species was derived from the measured mass concentration, and the optical properties were calculated using Mie theory. The maximum anthropogenic contribution to the total extinction was estimated to be ˜83%. The relative contributions of various species to the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 0.5 μm are in the following order: (NH4)2SO4 (nss-SO4, 30%), nitrate (NO3-, 24%), salt (mainly NaCl and KCl, 18%), dust (17%) and black carbon (BC, 11%). Relative contribution of nss-SO4, NO3- and salt to the calculated AOD decreases with wavelength, and that of dust increases with wavelength, whereas BC contribution is spectrally insensitive. The extinction coefficient strongly depends on the RH, as the scattering by fine mode fraction, which contributes 88% to the total extinction, is enhanced at high ambient RH. The spectral variation of absorption coefficient indicates that the most likely source of BC in this region is fossil fuel. The spectral variation of single scattering albedo (SSA) in the coarse mode fraction suggests mixing of BC and dust particles. During the observational period, the mean shortwave (SW) clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface forcing over Kanpur are estimated to be -13 ± 3 and -43 ± 8 W m-2, respectively. The corresponding longwave forcings are 3.6 ± 0.7 and 2.9 ± 0.6 W m-2, respectively. Mean AOD at 0.55 μm over the GB as derived from MODIS data is 0.36 ± 0.14. Extending our model over the entire GB, the net mean TOA and surface forcing become -6.4 and -30.2 W m-2 (with overall ˜15% uncertainty). This results in high atmospheric absorption (+23.8 W m-2), translating into a heating rate of 0.67 K day-1. The SW

  5. Changes in column aerosol optical properties during extreme haze-fog episodes in January 2013 over urban Beijing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xingna; Kumar, K Raghavendra; Lü, Rui; Ma, Jia

    2016-03-01

    Several dense haze-fog (HF) episodes were occurred in the North China Plain (NCP), especially over Beijing in January 2013 characterized by a long duration, a large influential region, and an extremely high PM2.5 values (>500 μg m(-3)). In this study, we present the characteristics of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing using Cimel sun-sky radiometer measurements during HF and no haze-fog (NHF) episodes occurred over Beijing during 1-31 January, 2013. The respective maximum values of daily mean aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD440) were observed to be 1.21, 1.43, 1.52, and 2.21 occurred on 12, 14 19, and 28 January. It was found that the Ångström exponent (AE) values were almost higher than 1.0 during all the days with its maximum on 26 January (1.53), suggests the dominance of fine-mode particles. The maximum (minimum) aerosol volume size distributions occurred during dense HF (NHF) days with larger particle volumes of fine-mode. The single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and complex refractive index values during HF events suggest the abundance of fine-mode particles from anthropogenic (absorbing) activities mixed with scattering dust particles. The average shortwave direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) values at the bottom-of-atmosphere (BOA) during HF and NHF days were estimated to be 112.29 ± 42.18 W m(-2) and -58.61 ± 13.09 W m(-2), while at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) the forcing values were -45.78 ± 22.17 W m(-2) and -18.64 ± 5.84 W m(-2), with the corresponding heating rate of 1.61 ± 0.48 K day(-1) and 1.12 ± 0.31 K day(-1), respectively. The DARF values retrieved from the AERONET were in good agreement with the SBDART computed both at the TOA (r = 0.95) and the BOA (r = 0.97) over Beijing in January 2013. PMID:26735167

  6. Modelling the optical properties of fresh biomass burning aerosol produced in a smoke chamber: results from the EFEU campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hungershoefer, K.; Zeromskiene, K.; Iinuma, Y.; Helas, G.; Trentmann, J.; Trautmann, T.; Parmar, R. S.; Wiedensohler, A.; Andreae, M. O.; Schmid, O.

    2008-07-01

    A better characterisation of the optical properties of biomass burning aerosol as a function of the burning conditions is required in order to quantify their effects on climate and atmospheric chemistry. Controlled laboratory combustion experiments with different fuel types were carried out at the combustion facility of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (Mainz, Germany) as part of the "Impact of Vegetation Fires on the Composition and Circulation of the Atmosphere" (EFEU) project. The combustion conditions were monitored with concomitant CO2 and CO measurements. The mass scattering efficiencies of 8.9±0.2 m2 g-1 and 9.3±0.3 m2 g-1 obtained for aerosol particles from the combustion of savanna grass and an African hardwood (musasa), respectively, are larger than typically reported mainly due to differences in particle size distribution. The photoacoustically measured mass absorption efficiencies of 0.51±0.02 m2 g-1 and 0.50±0.02 m2 g-1 were at the lower end of the literature values. Using the measured size distributions as well as the mass scattering and absorption efficiencies, Mie calculations provided effective refractive indices of 1.60-0.010i (savanna grass) and 1.56-0.010i (musasa) (λ=0.55 μm). The apparent discrepancy between the low imaginary part of the refractive index and the high apparent elemental carbon (ECa) fractions (8 to 15%) obtained from the thermographic analysis of impactor samples can be explained by a positive bias in the elemental carbon data due to the presence of high molecular weight organic substances. Potential artefacts in optical properties due to instrument bias, non-natural burning conditions and unrealistic dilution history of the laboratory smoke cannot be ruled out and are also discussed in this study.

  7. Comparison of aerosol optical properties above clouds between POLDER and AeroCom models over the South East Atlantic Ocean during the fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peers, F.; Bellouin, N.; Waquet, F.; Ducos, F.; Goloub, P.; Mollard, J.; Myhre, G.; Skeie, R. B.; Takemura, T.; Tanré, D.; Thieuleux, F.; Zhang, K.

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol properties above clouds have been retrieved over the South East Atlantic Ocean during the fire season 2006 using satellite observations from POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances). From June to October, POLDER has observed a mean Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Thickness (ACAOT) of 0.28 and a mean Above-Clouds Single Scattering Albedo (ACSSA) of 0.87 at 550 nm. These results have been used to evaluate the simulation of aerosols above clouds in five Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART), Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), European Centre Hamburg Model 5-Hamburg Aerosol Module 2 (ECHAM5-HAM2), Oslo-Chemical Transport Model 2 (OsloCTM2), and Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS)). Most models do not reproduce the observed large aerosol load episodes. The comparison highlights the importance of the injection height and the vertical transport parameterizations to simulate the large ACAOT observed by POLDER. Furthermore, POLDER ACSSA is best reproduced by models with a high imaginary part of black carbon refractive index, in accordance with recent recommendations.

  8. Sunphotometry of the 2006-2007 aerosol optical/radiative properties at the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (5079 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Angelini, F.; Bonasoni, P.; Verza, G. P.; Marinoni, A.; Barnaba, F.

    2010-11-01

    In spite of being located at the heart of the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory (5079 m a.s.l.) at the Ev-K2-CNR Pyramid is shown to be affected by the advection of pollution aerosols from the populated regions of southern Nepal and the Indo-Gangetic plains. Such an impact is observed along most of the period April 2006-March 2007 addressed here, with a minimum in the monsoon season. Backtrajectory-analysis indicates long-range transport episodes occurring in this year to originate mainly in the west Asian deserts. At this high altitude site, the measured aerosol optical depth is observed to be about one order of magnitude lower than the one measured at Ghandi College (60 m a.s.l.), in the Indo-Gangetic basin. As for Ghandi College, and in agreement with the in situ ground observations at the Pyramid, the fine mode aerosol optical depth maximizes during winter and minimizes in the monsoon season. Conversely, total optical depth maximizes during the monsoon due to the occurrence of elevated, coarse particle layers. Possible origins of these particles are wind erosion from the surrounding peaks and hydrated/cloud-processed aerosols. Assessment of the aerosol radiative forcing is then expected to be hampered by the presence of these high altitude particle layers, which impede an effective, continuous measurement of anthropogenic aerosol radiative properties from sky radiance inversions and/or ground measurements alone. Even though the retrieved absorption coefficients of pollution aerosols were rather large (single scattering albedo of the order of 0.6-0.9 were observed in the month of April 2006), the corresponding low optical depths (~0.03 at 500 nm) are expected to limit the relevant radiative forcing. Still, the high specific forcing of this aerosol and its capability of altering snow surface albedo provide good reasons for continuous monitoring.

  9. Aerosol optical properties derived from the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign, and implications for a single-channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth in spring from Meteorological Imager (MI) on-board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Hong, H.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J. H.; Song, C. K.; Lee, S.; Chung, C.-Y.

    2016-02-01

    An aerosol model optimized for northeast Asia is updated with the inversion data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-northeast (NE) Asia campaign which was conducted during spring from March to May 2012. This updated aerosol model was then applied to a single visible channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from a Meteorological Imager (MI) on-board the geostationary meteorological satellite, Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate AOD from a single visible channel measurement. For the single-channel retrieval, sensitivity tests showed that perturbations by 4 % (0.926 ± 0.04) in the assumed single scattering albedo (SSA) can result in the retrieval error in AOD by over 20 %. Since the measured reflectance at the top of the atmosphere depends on both AOD and SSA, the overestimation of assumed SSA in the aerosol model leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) inversion data sets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were categorized by SSAs at 675 nm of 0.92 ± 0.035 for spring (March, April, and May). After the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign in 2012, the SSA during spring showed a slight increase to 0.93 ± 0.035. In terms of the volume size distribution, the mode radius of coarse particles was increased from 2.08 ± 0.40 to 2.14 ± 0.40. While the original aerosol model consists of volume size distribution and refractive indices obtained before 2011, the new model is constructed by using a total data set after the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. The large volume of data in high spatial resolution from this intensive campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the new AOD data sets retrieved from a single-channel algorithm, which uses a precalculated look-up table (LUT) with the new aerosol model, show an

  10. 2D-GMAX-DOAS measurements during TCAP: Comparison with MFRSR, HSRL and simultaneous retrievals of trace gases and aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, I.; Coburn, S.; Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J.; Berg, L. K.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Volkamer, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    The two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) investigates uncertainties in the aerosol direct effect in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) provide an opportunity for 1) atmospheric radiation closure studies, and 2) test retrievals of aerosol optical properties in the presence and absence of clouds. This presentation discusses innovative means to access column information about aerosol optical properties in the lower atmosphere from ground based measurements of solar stray light spectra in the hyperspectral domain, i.e., measurements of the Raman Scattering Probability (RSP, the probability that an observed photon has undergone a rotational Raman scattering event), and oxygen dimer slant column densities (O4 SCD) by means of the University of Colorado 2D scanning ground Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (2D-GMAX-DOAS) instrument that was located at the ARM/MAOS site at Cape Cod, MA. We compare retrievals of aerosol optical properties with those retrieved from the MFRSR and the Cimel Sunphotometer, for case studies in the presence/absence of clouds, and assess the need for atmospheric correction of NO2. 2D-GMAX-DOAS also facilitates a link between the ground-based ARM/MAOS dataset and DoE's G1 aircraft, NASA's King Air aircraft, and NASA's OMI satellite (i.e., NO2 vertical column). Early results that explore these linkages are presented for a case study that combines ground based MFRSR, in-situ observations aboard the G1 aircraft, as well as High Spectral Resolution LIDAR aboard the King Air aircraft.

  11. Global Analysis of Aerosol Properties Above Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waquet, F.; Peers, F.; Ducos, F.; Goloub, P.; Platnick, S. E.; Riedi, J.; Tanre, D.; Thieuleux, F.

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial varability of Aerosol Above Cloud (AAC) properties are derived from passive satellite data for the year 2008. A significant amount of aerosols are transported above liquid water clouds on the global scale. For particles in the fine mode (i.e., radius smaller than 0.3 m), including both clear sky and AAC retrievals increases the global mean aerosol optical thickness by 25(+/- 6%). The two main regions with man-made AAC are the tropical Southeast Atlantic, for biomass burning aerosols, and the North Pacific, mainly for pollutants. Man-made AAC are also detected over the Arctic during the spring. Mineral dust particles are detected above clouds within the so-called dust belt region (5-40 N). AAC may cause a warming effect and bias the retrieval of the cloud properties. This study will then help to better quantify the impacts of aerosols on clouds and climate.

  12. Properties of aerosol processed by ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudich, Y.; Adler, G.; Moise, T.; Erlick-Haspel, C.

    2012-12-01

    We suggest that highly porous aerosol (HPA) can form in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere when ice particles encounter sub-saturation leading to ice sublimation similar to freeze drying. This process can occur at the lower layers of cirrus clouds (few km), at anvils of high convective clouds and thunderstorms, in clouds forming in atmospheric gravitational waves, in contrails and in high convective clouds injecting to the stratosphere. A new experimental system that simulates freeze drying of proxies for atmospheric aerosol at atmospheric pressure was constructed and various proxies for atmospheric soluble aerosol were studied. The properties of resulting HPA were characterized by various methods. It was found that the resulting aerosol have larger sizes (extent depends on substance and mixing), lower density (largevoid fraction), lower optical extinction and higher CCN activity and IN activity. Implication of HPA's unique properties and their atmospheric consequences to aerosol processing in ice clouds and to cloud cycles will be discussed.

  13. A Compact Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Observations of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John W.; Cook, Anthony L.

    2002-01-01

    We are in the process of developing a nadir-viewing, aircraft-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) at NASA Langley Research Center. The system is designed to measure backscatter and extinction of aerosols and tenuous clouds. The primary uses of the instrument will be to validate spaceborne aerosol and cloud observations, carry out regional process studies, and assess the predictions of chemical transport models. In this paper, we provide an overview of the instrument design and present the results of simulations showing the instrument's capability to accurately measure extinction and extinction-to-backscatter ratio.

  14. Volcanic aerosol optical properties and phase partitioning behavior after long-range advection characterized by UV-Lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miffre, A.; David, G.; Thomas, B.; Rairoux, P.; Fjaeraa, A. M.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an UV-polarization Lidar is used to study the optical properties of volcanic aerosol in the troposphere. The particles were released by the mid-April 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (63.63°N, 19.62°W, Iceland) and passed in the troposphere above Lyon (45.76°N, 4.83°E, France) after advection over 2600 km. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was applied to simulate the volcanic ash transport from Iceland to South West Europe, at the border of the air traffic closure area. Time-altitude plots of FLEXPART ash concentrations as well as of aerosol backscattering are presented, showing the arrival of volcanic particles in the troposphere above Lyon and their mixing into the planetary boundary layer. The particle UV-backscattering coefficient was typically 4 Mm -1 sr -1 and highly sensitive and accurate particle UV-depolarization measurements were performed, with depolarization ranging from a few to 44%. After few days long-range transport, observed ash particles are still non spherical. The observed variations of the backscattering and depolarization coefficients can be attributed to variations in the volcanic particles content. Ash mass concentrations are then retrieved. Moreover, a partitioning into spherical and non spherical particles is evaluated from number concentration ratios between solid ash particles and spherical hydrated sulfate particles. The microphysical properties of volcanic particles can thus be studied by associating an UV-polarization remote sensing instrument with a numerical volcanic ash dispersion model.

  15. Effect of Slow Aging Reactions on Optical Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol Prepared by Oxidation of Selected Monoterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizkorodov, S. A.; Bones, D. L.; Henricksen, D. K.; Mang, S. A.; Bateman, A. P.; Pan, X.; Nguyen, T. B.; Gonsior, M.; Cooper, W.; Laskin, J.; Laskin, A.

    2009-05-01

    Organic particulate matter (PM) has a major impact on atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a rather significant fraction of organic PM; this includes SOA produced by oxidation of biogenically emitted monoterpenes. Once such SOA is formed, it is believed to undergo slow aging processes, which may have large effects on the physical and chemical properties of the particles. This presentation focuses on the effect of slow chemical aging on optical properties of SOA formed from the ozone-induced oxidation of limonene, myrcene, and other selected monoterpenes. Several complementary techniques including high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy, UV/vis spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy, and photodissociation spectroscopy are used to probe the aging-induced changes in physical properties and chemical composition of laboratory generated SOA. Limonene SOA appears to undergo a dramatic change in its absorption spectrum on a time scale of hours; it develops strong visible bands in the 400-500 nm region, and becomes fluorescent. This transformation is catalyzed by ammonium sulfate and certain amino acids. This rather unusual aging process can potentially contribute to the formation of brown carbon in biogenic SOA.

  16. Remote sensing of aerosol properties during CARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Barnard, James; Pekour, Mikhail; Flynn, Connor; Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Jobson, Bertram T.

    2011-11-01

    One month of MFRSR data collected at two sites in the central California (USA) region during the CARES campaign are processed and the MFRSR-derived AODs at 500 nm wavelength are compared with available AODs provided by AERONET measurements. We find that the MFRSR and AERONET AODs are small (~0.05) and comparable. A reasonable quantitative agreement between column aerosol size distributions (up to 2 μm) from the MFRSR and AERONET retrievals is illustrated as well. Analysis of the retrieved (MFRSR and AERONET) and in situ measured aerosol size distributions suggests that the contribution of the coarse mode to aerosol optical properties is substantial for several days. The results of a radiative closure experiment performed for the two sites and one-month period show a favorable agreement between the calculated and measured broadband downwelling irradiances (bias does not exceed about 3 Wm-2), and thus imply that the MFRSR-derived aerosol optical properties are reasonable.

  17. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Properties during CARES

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John; Jobson, Bertram Thomas

    2011-10-01

    One month of MFRSR data collected at two sites in the central California (USA) region during the CARES campaign are processed and the MFRSR-derived AODs at 500 nm wavelength are compared with available AODs provided by AERONET measurements. We find that the MFRSR and AERONET AODs are small ({approx}0.05) and comparable. A reasonable quantitative agreement between column aerosol size distributions (up to 2 um) from the MFRSR and AERONET retrievals is illustrated as well. Analysis of the retrieved (MFRSR and AERONET) and in situ measured aerosol size distributions suggests that the contribution of the coarse mode to aerosol optical properties is substantial for several days. The results of a radiative closure experiment performed for the two sites and one-month period show a favorable agreement between the calculated and measured broadband downwelling irradiances (bias does not exceed about 3 Wm-2), and thus imply that the MFRSR-derived aerosol optical properties are reasonable.

  18. Improvement of aerosol optical properties modeling over Eastern Asia with MODIS AOD assimilation in a global non-hydrostatic icosahedral aerosol transport model.

    PubMed

    Dai, Tie; Schutgens, Nick A J; Goto, Daisuke; Shi, Guangyu; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-12-01

    A new global aerosol assimilation system adopting a more complex icosahedral grid configuration is developed. Sensitivity tests for the assimilation system are performed utilizing satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the results over Eastern Asia are analyzed. The assimilated results are validated through independent Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. Our results reveal that the ensemble and local patch sizes have little effect on the assimilation performance, whereas the ensemble perturbation method has the largest effect. Assimilation leads to significantly positive effect on the simulated AOD field, improving agreement with all of the 12 AERONET sites over the Eastern Asia based on both the correlation coefficient and the root mean square difference (assimilation efficiency). Meanwhile, better agreement of the Ångström Exponent (AE) field is achieved for 8 of the 12 sites due to the assimilation of AOD only. PMID:25017412

  19. Optical, Physical and Chemical Properties of Tar Balls Observed During the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Jenny L.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, Alexander; Day, D. E.; Lee, Tae-bum; Wang, Chong M.; Carrico, C. E.; Carrillo, John R.; Cowin, James P.; Collett, J. G.; Iedema, Martin J.

    2005-11-09

    The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western U. S., and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls”, were present in samples collected during episodes of high particle light scattering coefficients that occurred during the peak of a smoke/haze event. The highest concentrations of light-absorbing carbon from a dual-wavelength aethalometer (λ = 370 and 880 nm) occurred during periods when the particles were predominantly tar balls, indicating they do absorb light in the UV and near-IR range of the solar spectrum. Closure experiments of mass concentrations and light scattering coefficients during periods dominated by tar balls did not require any distinct assumptions of organic carbon molecular weight correction factors, density, or refractive index compared to periods dominated by other types of organic carbon aerosols. Measurements of the hygroscopic behavior of tar balls using an environmental SEM indicate that tar balls do not exhibit deliquescence, but do uptake some water at high (~83 %) relative humidity. The ability of tar balls to efficiently scatter and absorb light, and to absorb water has important implications for their role in regional haze and climate fence.

  20. Seasonal cycle and source analyses of aerosol optical properties in a semi-urban environment at Puijo station in Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskinen, A.; Arola, A.; Komppula, M.; Portin, H.; Tiitta, P.; Miettinen, P.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Laaksonen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.

    2012-02-01

    We introduce a four-year (2006-2010) continuous data set of aerosol optical properties at Puijo in Kuopio, Finland. We study the annual and diurnal variation of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, hemispheric backscattering fraction, scattering Ångström exponent, and single scattering albedo, whose averages over this period were 11.1 Mm-1 (at 550 nm), 1.5 Mm-1 (at 670 nm), 0.13, 1.9, and 0.83, respectively. The scattering coefficient peaked in the spring and autumn, being 2-4 times those in the summer and winter. An exception was the summer of 2010, when the the scattering coefficient was elevated to ~300 Mm-1 by the plumes from forest fires in Russia. The absorption coefficient peaked in the winter with values of 2-3 times those in the summer. The single scattering albedo was lowest in the winter when more biomass burning derived, soot-containing aerosols were present. The optical properties varied also with wind direction and time of the day, indicating the effect of the local pollutant sources and the age of the particles. Peak values in the single scattering albedo were observed when the wind blew from a paper mill and from the sector without local pollutant sources. These observations were linked to the sulphate-rich aerosol from the paper mill and the oxygenated organics in the aged aerosol, which both are known to increase the scattering characteristics of aerosols. Changes in the single scattering albedo in the morning and afternoon in the summertime were linked to the increased traffic density at these hours. The scattering and absorption coefficients were found to be decreased by clouds. The effect was stronger for the scattering than absorption, indicating preferential activation of the more hygroscopic aerosol with higher scattering characteristics. What happens to the aerosol optical properties during a cloud event when the air masses come from different directions with different local sources, is under a more detailed inspection

  1. Development of a small portable eyesafe unattended scanning lidar for analysis of the structural and optical properties of tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michael; Pelon, Jacques R.; Buis, Jean P.; Chazette, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Structural and optical properties of aerosols and clouds can be retrieved by active remote sensing systems, such as lidars. Such parameters are of importance in the study of dynamics and radiation budget of the atmosphere. In that respect, a small, portable, eyesafe, unattended, elastic-backscatter lidar is being developed at Cimel Electronique, in collaboration with CNRS. It sues a compact, low-energy laser in the visible. The detection is made by a high-gain, high-speed PMT, and a single electronic card for fast acquisition. The aim of the system is also to be tunable to various pointing angles. A variational method was developed to make use of the multiangle measurements and tested on data collected during the INDOEX campaign in March 1999. The optical thickness and backscatter coefficient profiles were retrieved up to 1 km with a total uncertainty of 18 percent. The system has been assembled and first measurements have been made beginning of 2000 for comparison with the theoretical predictions. The system has shown it was satisfactory and the signal profiles obtained are in agreement with the ones simulated with the system parameters.

  2. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties and Water Vapor Among Ground and Airborne Lidars and Sun Photometers During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Brackett, V.; Clayton, M.; Kooi, S.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Evans, K.

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and sun photometers during the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment. Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering ratio and extinction profiles measured by the ground-based NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scanning Raman lidar system, which operated from Wallops Island, Virginia (37.86 deg N, 75.51 deg W); are compared with those measured by the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) airborne lidar system aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Bias and root-mean-square differences indicate that these measurements generally agreed within about 10%. Aerosol extinction profiles and estimates of AOT are derived from both lidar measurements using a value for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio S(sub a) = 60 sr for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio, which was determined from the Raman lidar measurements. The lidar measurements of AOT are found to be generally within 25% of the AOT measured by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-6). However, during certain periods the lidar and Sun photometer measurements of AOT differed significantly, possibly because of variations in the aerosol physical characteristics (e.g., size, composition) which affect S(sub a). Estimates of PWV, derived from water vapor mixing ratio profiles measured by LASE, are within 5-10% of PWV derived from the airborne Sun photometer. Aerosol extinction profiles measured by both lidars show that aerosols were generally concentrated in the lowest 2-3 km.

  3. Carbonaceous aerosols in the Western Mediterranean during summertime and their contribution to the aerosol optical properties at ground level: First results of the ChArMEx-ADRIMED 2013 intensive campaign in Corsica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Dulac, Francois; Feron, Anais; Crenn, Vincent; Sarda Esteve, Roland; Baisnee, Dominique; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Hamonou, Eric; Mallet, Marc; Lambert, Dominique; Nicolas, Jose B.; Bourrianne, Thierry; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Favez, Olivier; Canonaco, Francesco; Prevot, Andre; Mocnik, Grisa; Drinovec, Luka; Marpillat, Alexandre; Serrie, Wilfrid

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the CORSiCA (http://www.obs-mip.fr/corsica) and the ANR-ADRIMED programs, a large set of real-time measurements of carbonaceous aerosols was deployed in June 2013 at the Cape Corsica atmospheric supersite (http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/reports.asp?StationID=2076203042). Submicron organic aerosols (OA) were monitored every 30 min using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM; Aerodyne Res. Inc. MA, USA); Fine (PM2.5) Organic Carbon (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC) were measured every 2h using an OCEC Sunset Field Instrument (Sunset Lab, OR, USA) and every 12h using a low-vol (Leckel) filter sampler running at 2.3m3/h. Equivalent Black Carbon (BC) was monitored using two Aethalometers (models AE31 and AE33, Magee Scientific, US & Aerosol d.o.o., Slovenia) and a MAAP instrument (Thermo). Quality control of this large dataset was performed through chemical mass closure studies (using co-located SMPS and TEOM-FDMS) and direct comparisons with other real-time instruments running in parallel (Particle-Into-Liquid-Sampler-Ion-Chromatograph for ions, filter sampling, ...). Source apportionment of OA was then performed using the SourceFinder software (SoFi v4.5, http://www.psi.ch/acsm-stations/me-2) allowing the distinction between hydrogen- and oxygen-like organic aerosols (HOA and OOA, respectively) and highlighting the major contribution of secondary OA in the Western Mediterranean during summer. Using this time-resolved chemical information, reconstruction of the optical aerosol properties were performed and compared with integrating nephelometer (Model 3563, TSI, US) and photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX, DMT, US) measurements performed in parallel. Results of these different closure studies (chemical/physical/optical) are presented and discussed here in details. They highlight the central role of carbonaceous aerosols on the optical properties of aerosols at ground level

  4. Study on optical and microphysical properties of mixed aerosols from lidar during the EMEP 2012 summer campaign at 45oN 26oE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talianu, Camelia; Nicolae, Doina; Belegante, Livio; Marmureanu, Luminita

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols optical and chemical properties in the upper layers of the atmosphere and near ground are variable, as function of the different mixtures of aerosol components resulting from their origin and transport over polluted areas. Due to a complex dynamics of air masses, the Romanian atmosphere has strong influences from dust and biomass-burning transported from South, West or East Europe. The dominant transport, and consequently the dominant aerosol type, depends on the season. As a result of the transport distance from the source and depending on the chemical and physical characteristics of the particles, tropospheric aerosols detected at Magurele, Romania, show different optical and microphysical properties than at the originating source. The differences are caused by the mixing with local particles, and also by the ageing processes and hygroscopic growth during the transport. This paper presents a statistical analysis of tropospheric aerosol optical properties during the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) summer campaign (08 June - 17 July 2012), as retrieved from multiwavelength Raman and depolarization lidar data. Three elastic (1064, 532 and 355 nm), two Raman (607 and 387 nm) and one depolarization channel (532 nm parallel / 532 nm cross) are used to independently retrieve the backscatter coefficient, extinction coefficient and linear particle depolarization ratio of aerosols between 0.8 and 10 km altitude. Intensive optical parameters (Angstrom exponent, color ratios and color indexes) and microphysical parameters (effective radius, complex refractive index) from multiwavelength optical data inversion of the layer mean values are obtained. During the campaign, aerosol profiles were measured daily around sunset, following EARLINET standards. An intensive 3-days continuous measurements exercise was also performed. Layers were generally present above 2 km and bellow 6 km altitude, but descent of air masses from the free troposphere to the

  5. [Aerosol Optical Properties in the Northern Suburb of Nanjing During Haze Days in January 2013].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-peng; Ma, Yan; Zheng, Jun; Cui, Fen-ping; Zhou, Yao-yao

    2016-03-15

    In January 2013 large-scale, continuous and severe haze occurred in Nanjing. Three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) was used for real-time, online and situ measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients in the northern suburb of Nanjing during January 2013. The results indicated that the average aerosol absorption and scattering coefficients were (83.20 ± 35.24) Mm⁻¹ and (670.16 ± 136.44) Mm⁻¹ during haze days, which were 3.85 and 3.45 times higher than those on clean days, respectively. The diurnal variation of absorption and scattering coefficients showed a bimodal distribution. The mean single scattering albedo and scattering Angstrom exponent were (0.89 ± 0.04) and (1.30 ± 0.27) respectively, indicating the predominance of scattering fine particles during haze days in Nanjing. Aerosols could be significantly removed by precipitation. The absorption and scattering coefficients showed negative correlations with surface wind speed, and the single scattering albedo and Angstrom exponent showed positive correlations with wind speed. Aerosol scattering coefficient was highest under southeasterly wind, whereas the absorption coefficient was highest under the southwesterly wind. In the three haze pollution events, Haze 1 and Haze 2 were mainly affected by long-range transportation of pollutants. Haze 1 was mainly affected by aging air mass from north Nanjing, Haze 2 was mainly affected by biomass burning air mass from southwest Nanjing, while Haze 3 was mainly caused by the high sulfate. PMID:27337871

  6. Production Mechanisms, Number Concentration, Size Distribution. Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Petters, Markus; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bates. Tim; O'Dowd, Colin; Reid, Jeff; Lewis, Ernie R.; Gantt, Brett; Anguelova, Magdalena D.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Bird, James; Callaghan, Adrian H.; Ceburnis, Darius; Chang, Rachel; Clark, Antony; deLeeuw, Gerrit; Deane, Grant; DeMott, Paul J.; Elliot, Scott; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fairall, Chris W.; Hawkins, Lelia; Hu, Yongxiang; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Over forty scientists from six countries convened in Raleigh, NC on June 4-6 2012 to review the status and prospects of sea spray aerosol research. Participants were researchers from the oceanography and atmospheric science communities, including academia, private industry, and government agencies. The recommendations from the working groups are summarized in a science prioritization matrix that is meant to prioritize the research agenda and identify areas of investigation by the magnitude of their impact on proposed science questions. Str

  7. Effects of spectral discrimination in high-spectral-resolution lidar on the retrieval errors for atmospheric aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongtao; Liu, Dong; Luo, Jing; Yang, Yongying; Su, Lin; Yang, Liming; Huang, Hanlu; Shen, Yibing

    2014-07-10

    This paper presents detailed analysis about the effects of spectral discrimination on the retrieval errors for atmospheric aerosol optical properties in high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on this topic comprehensively, and our goal is to provide some heuristic guidelines for the design of the spectral discrimination filter in HSRL. We first introduce a theoretical model for retrieval error evaluation of an HSRL instrument with a general three-channel configuration. The model only takes the error sources related to the spectral discrimination parameters into account, while other error sources not associated with these focused parameters are excluded on purpose. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are performed to validate the correctness of the theoretical model. Results from both the model and MC simulations agree very well, and they illustrate one important, although not well realized, fact: a large molecular transmittance and a large spectral discrimination ratio (SDR, i.e., ratio of the molecular transmittance to the aerosol transmittance) are beneficial to promote the retrieval accuracy. More specifically, we find that a large SDR can reduce retrieval errors conspicuously for atmosphere at low altitudes, while its effect on the retrieval for high altitudes is very limited. A large molecular transmittance contributes to good retrieval accuracy everywhere, particularly at high altitudes, where the signal-to-noise ratio is small. Since the molecular transmittance and SDR are often trade-offs, we suggest considering a suitable SDR for higher molecular transmittance instead of using unnecessarily high SDR when designing the spectral discrimination filter. These conclusions are expected to be applicable to most of the HSRL instruments, which have similar configurations as the one discussed here. PMID:25090057

  8. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties and Water Vapor Among Ground and Airborne Lidars and Sun Photometers During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Brackett, V.; Clayton, M.; Kooi, S.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Evans, K.; Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Holben, B.; Remer, L.; Smirnov, A.; Hobbs, P. V.

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and Sun photometers during TARFOX (Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment). Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering ratio and extinction profiles measured by the ground-based NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) system, which operated from Wallops Island, Virginia (37.86 deg N, 75.51 deg W), are compared with those measured by the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) airborne lidar system aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Bias and rms differences indicate that these measurements generally agreed within about 10%. Aerosol extinction profiles and estimates of AOT are derived from both lidar measurements using a value for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio S(sub a)=60 sr for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio, which was determined from the Raman lidar measurements.

  9. Changes in the optical properties of benzo[a]pyrene-coated aerosols upon heterogeneous reactions with NO2 and NO3.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jessica W; Flores, J Michel; Lavi, Avi; Abo-Riziq, Ali; Rudich, Yinon

    2011-04-14

    Chemical reactions can alter the chemical, physical, and optical properties of aerosols. It has been postulated that nitration of aerosols can account for atmospheric absorbance over urban areas. To study this potentially important process, the change in optical properties of laboratory-generated benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-coated aerosols following exposure to NO(2) and NO(3) was investigated at 355 nm and 532 nm by three aerosol analysis techniques. The extinction coefficient was determined at 355 nm and 532 nm from cavity ring-down aerosol spectroscopy (CRD-AS); the absorption coefficient was measured by photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at 532 nm, while an on-line aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) supplied real-time quantitative information about the chemical composition of aerosols. In this study, 240 nm polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres were thinly coated with BaP to form 300 or 310 nm aerosols that were exposed to high concentrations of NO(2) and NO(3) and measured with CRD-AS, PAS, and the AMS. The extinction efficiencies (Q(ext)) changed after exposure to NO(2) and NO(3) at both wavelengths. Prior to reaction, Q(ext) for the 355 nm and 532 nm wavelengths were 4.36 ± 0.04 and 2.39 ± 0.05, respectively, and Q(ext) increased to 5.26 ± 0.04 and 2.79 ± 0.05 after exposure. The absorption cross-section at 532 nm, determined with PAS, reached σ(abs) = (0.039 ± 0.001) × 10(-8) cm(2), indicating that absorption increased with formation of nitro-BaP, the main reaction product detected by the AMS. The single-scattering albedo (SSA), a measure of particle scattering efficiency, decreased from 1 to 0.85 ± 0.03, showing that changes in the optical properties of BaP-covered aerosols due to nitration may have implications for regional radiation budget and, hence, climate. PMID:21373662

  10. The Influence of Fog and Airmass History on Aerosol Optical, Physical and Chemical Properties at Pt. Reyes National Seashore

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Alexander, M. L.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Jobson, Bertram Thomas; Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John A.

    2011-04-05

    This paper presents an analysis of the aerosol chemical composition, optical properties and size distributions for a range of conditions encountered during a field measurement campaign conducted between July 7-29, 2005 at Point Reyes National Seashore, north of San Francisco, CA. Observations are partitioned into one-hour periods when conditions were ‘clear’ or ‘foggy’ to identify evidence of cloud processing of aerosols. During the first half of the campaign (July 7-18), conditions at the site were largely maritime. However flow during the second half of the campaigns (July 18-29) was influenced by a thermal trough that added a cyclonic twist to the incoming marine air, bringing it from the south with a more extensive over-land trajectory. Neither flow regime was associated with air coming from the San Francisco Bay area to the south. Measurements by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) of the equivalent molar ratio of ammonium to the sum of sulfate, nitrate and chloride made before the onset of the thermal trough on July 18th were associated with acidic or near-neutral particles. Measurements made after July 18th appear to have excess ammonium. The AMS measurements of mass loading were an order of magnitude less than those reported by a nearby IMPROVE station. However, the AMS measures only non-refractory particles between 0.1 µm and 1 µm, which would not include sea salt. In contrast, the IMPROVE station employs filter-based techniques to measure mass for all particles < 2.5 µm. Assuming chlorine is associated with large sea salt particles at Pt. Reyes and removing this value from the IMPROVE data resulted in good agreement in the total mass fraction between these two techniques,, indicating the importance of sea salt mass in particles greater than 1 µm. Model calculations of the equilibrium gas-phase mixing ratio of NH3 suggest very high values which we attribute to agricultural practices within the park. Reported as an incidental finding is

  11. Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements in the Southern Ocean Within the Framework of Maritime Aerosol Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.; Sayer, A. M.; Sakerin, S. M.; Radionov, V. F.; Courcoux, Y.; Broccardo, S. P.; Evangelista, H.; Croot, P. L.; Disterhoft, P.; Piketh, S.; Milinevsky, G. P.; O'Neill, N. T.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol production sources over the World Ocean and various factors determining aerosol spatial and temporal distribution are important for understanding the Earth's radiation budget and aerosol-cloud interactions. The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) as a component of AERONET has been collecting aerosol optical depth data over the oceans since 2006. A significant progress has been made in data acquisition over areas that previously had very little or no coverage. Data collection included intensive study areas in the Southern Ocean and off the coast of Antarctica including a number of circumnavigation cruises in high southern latitudes. It made an important contribution to MAN and provided a valuable reference point in atmospheric aerosol optical studies. The paper presents results of this international and multi-agency effort in studying aerosol optical properties over Southern Ocean and adjacent areas. The ship-borne aerosol optical depth measurements offer an excellent opportunity for comparison with global aerosol transport models, satellite retrievals and provide useful information on aerosol distribution over the World Ocean. A public domain web-based database dedicated to the MAN activity can be found at http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/maritime_aerosol_network.html.

  12. Wavelength-Dependent Optical Absorption Properties of Artificial and Atmospheric Aerosol Measured by a Multi-Wavelength Photoacoustic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2014-12-01

    Various aspects of the photoacoustic (PA) detection method are discussed from the point of view of developing it into a routine tool for measuring the wavelength-dependent optical absorption coefficient of artificial and atmospheric aerosol. The discussion includes the issues of calibration, cross-sensitivity to gaseous molecules, background PA signal subtraction, and size-dependent particle losses within the PA system. The results in this paper are based on a recently developed four-wavelength PA system, which has operational wavelengths in the near-infrared, in the visible, and in the ultraviolet. The measured spectra of artificial and atmospheric aerosol prove the outstanding applicability of the presented PA system.

  13. Column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements at Barrax (Spain) during the Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrós, Roberto; Martinez-Lozano, Jose A.; Utrillas, Maria P.; Gómez-Amo, José L.; Tena, Fernando

    2003-09-01

    The Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) was carried out for the European Space Agency (ESA) in order to develop the potential of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy for a range of different scientific applications. DAISEX involved simultaneous data acquisitions using different airborne imaging spectrometers over test sites in southeast Spain (Barrax) and the Upper Rhine valley (Colmar, France, and Hartheim, Germany). This paper presents the results corresponding to the column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements over the Barrax area during the DAISEX campaign days in the years 1998, 1999, and 2000. The instruments used for spectral irradiance measurements were two Licor 1800 and one Optronic OL-754 spectroradiometers. The analysis of the spectral aerosol optical depth in the visible range shows in all cases the predominance of the coarse-particle mode over the fine-particle mode. The analysis of the back trajectories of the air masses indicates a predominance of marine-type aerosols in the lower atmospheric layers in all cases. Overall, the results obtained show that during the DAISEX there was a combination of maritime aerosols with smaller continental aerosols.

  14. Optical properties and vertical distribution of pollution aerosols in the Mediterranean basin in summertime: airborne observations from the Charmex SOP0, SOP1, and SOP2 campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Beekmann, Matthias; Chevallier, Servanne; Denjean, Cyrielle; Doppler, Lionel; Gaimoz, Cecile; Grand, Noel; Loisil, Rodrigue; Mallet, Marc; Pelon, Jacques; Ravetta, Francois; Sartelet, Karine; Schnitt, Sabrina; Triquet, Sylvain; Zapf, Pascal; Formenti, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin is a very complex area where high concentrations of atmospheric aerosols of different origin and types may be found. The North-Western part of the Mediterranean basin, due to its closeness with high polluted industrialized areas and coastal high populated cities, is frequently affected by severe pollution episodes. The strength of these episodes is particularly intense during summer when stable meteorological conditions favour the accumulation of pollutants in the lowermost atmospheric layers. Three intensive airborne campaigns (TRAQA, TRansport and Air QuAlity, June-July 2012), ADRIMED (Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region, June 2013) and SAFMED (Secondary Aerosol Formation in the MEDiterranean, July 2013) have been conducted over the North-Western and Central Mediterranean basin with the SAFIRE ATR-42 aircraft in the framework of the ChArMex Special Observing Periods 0 and 1. During the different campaigns the ATR-42 was equipped with a large set of instruments for the measurements of the aerosol physico-chemical (GRIMM, SMPS, PCASP, USHAS, FSSP for size distribution, and three lines for filter sampling on polycarbonate and quartz membranes in order to derive the bulk aerosol composition) and optical properties (TSI nephelometer, Magee Sci. aethalomether, and CAPS for scattering, absorption, and extinction coefficients at several wavelengths in the visible). Lidar backscatter profiles at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, meteorological parameters, upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, and atmospheric composition (H2O, CO2, CO, and O3) were also measured from aircraft instrumentation. In this work we present data on the aerosol physico-chemical and optical properties obtained during the 25 scientific flights of TRAQA, ADRIMED, and SAFMED performed in correspondence of pollution episodes. During the campaigns the Western Mediterranean basin was interested by different synoptic

  15. The use of 1572 nm Mie LiDAR for observation of the optical properties of aerosols over Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Ma, Xin; Dong, Yanni; Lin, Hong; Li, Jun

    2014-03-01

    CO2 is a major component of greenhouse gases. When CO2 concentration is measured by satellites, calibration of the lower atmosphere becomes an essential procedure. Since the 1572 nm infrared region is widely used in remote sensing of CO2, we constructed a Mie LiDAR system, designed to work at 1572 nm, for measuring the optical properties of aerosols in the lower troposphere. Based on the particle size distribution measured by the heliograph, the LiDAR ratio is independently determined for Wuhan, China. The LiDAR echo signal is then processed by the Fernald method to calculate the extinction coefficient on both clear and cloudy days. The maximum detection height is restricted by the low laser energy and quantum efficiency of the Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) used. Moreover, a simplified method for detecting the position of clouds is presented and this method is verified using a variety of passive radiation instruments that offer partial support for calibrating and verifying LiDAR data. The observed results indicate that this LiDAR system could be a reliable source of data support for the spaceborne remote sensing of CO2.

  16. Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: closure between hygroscopic growth and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. M.; Bar-Or, R. Z.; Bluvshtein, N.; Abo-Riziq, A.; Kostinski, A.; Borrmann, S.; Koren, I.; Rudich, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The extinction coefficient and growth factor of humidified aerosols, at 80% and 90% RH, and at 532 nm and 355 nm wavelengths were measured for size-selected particles for ammonium sulfate, IHSS Pahokee peat (a lightly absorbing humic-like substance proxy), nigrosine (a black dye to model highly absorbing substances), and a mixture of AS and nigrosine. The ratio of the humidified extinction coefficients to the dry (fRHext(%RH, Dry)) was explored. The measured fRHext(%RH, Dry) was compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory, using the measured growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing. The expected complex refractive indices (RIs) using the volume weighted mixing rule were compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements. Moreover, the differences between assuming a core-shell structure or a homogeneous mixing of the substances is examined. The laboratory results were used as a basis to model the change in the total extinction, the single scattering albedo (ω), and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the twilight zone of clouds at 355 nm and 532 nm. We found slightly linear to no dependency of fRH(%RH, Dry) with size for absorbing substances in contrast to the decreasing exponential behavior with size for purely scattering substances. However, no discernable difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 5% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference. Moreover, for substances with growth factor less than 1.15 there was, in average, less than 5% difference between the extinction efficiencies calculated using a core-shell model and assuming homogeneous mixing for size parameters less than 2.5. For x>2.5 the differences were greater causing and overestimation of the extinction efficiency (Qext) values if homogenous mixing was assume instead of a core-shell structure. The

  17. Global Aerosol Optical Models and Lookup Tables for the New MODIS Aerosol Retrieval over Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Loraine A.; Dubovik, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Since 2000, MODIS has been deriving aerosol properties over land from MODIS observed spectral reflectance, by matching the observed reflectance with that simulated for selected aerosol optical models, aerosol loadings, wavelengths and geometrical conditions (that are contained in a lookup table or 'LUT'). Validation exercises have showed that MODIS tends to under-predict aerosol optical depth (tau) in cases of large tau (tau greater than 1.0), signaling errors in the assumed aerosol optical properties. Using the climatology of almucantur retrievals from the hundreds of global AERONET sunphotometer sites, we found that three spherical-derived models (describing fine-sized dominated aerosol), and one spheroid-derived model (describing coarse-sized dominated aerosol, presumably dust) generally described the range of observed global aerosol properties. The fine dominated models were separated mainly by their single scattering albedo (omega(sub 0)), ranging from non-absorbing aerosol (omega(sub 0) approx. 0.95) in developed urban/industrial regions, to neutrally absorbing aerosol (omega(sub 0) approx.90) in forest fire burning and developing industrial regions, to absorbing aerosol (omega(sub 0) approx. 0.85) in regions of savanna/grassland burning. We determined the dominant model type in each region and season, to create a 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid of assumed aerosol type. We used vector radiative transfer code to create a new LUT, simulating the four aerosol models, in four MODIS channels. Independent AERONET observations of spectral tau agree with the new models, indicating that the new models are suitable for use by the MODIS aerosol retrieval.

  18. Variability in aerosol optical properties over an urban site, Kanpur, in the Indo-Gangetic Plain: A case study of haze and dust events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Kirpa; Singh, Sunita; Sarin, M. M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report on three important optical parameters, viz. absorption and scattering coefficients (babs, bscat) and single scattering abledo (SSA) based on one-year chemical-composition data collected from an urban site (Kanpur) in the Indo-Gangetic-Plain (IGP) of northern India. In addition, absorption Ängstrom exponent (AAE) was also estimated in order to understand the wavelength dependence of absorption and to decipher emission sources of carbonaceous aerosols, in particular of black carbon. The absorption and scattering coefficients ranged between 8.3 to 95.2 Mm- 1 (1 Mm- 1 = 10- 6 m- 1) and 58 to 564 Mm- 1, respectively during the study period (for n = 66; from January 2007 to March 2008) and exhibit large seasonal variability with higher values occurring in winter and lower in the summer. Single scattering albedo varied from 0.65 to 0.92 whereas AAE ranged from 0.79 to 1.40 during pre-monsoon and winter seasons, respectively. The strong seasonal variability in aerosol optical properties is attributed to varying contribution from different emission sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the IGP. A case study of haze and dust events further provide information on extreme variability in aerosol optical parameters, particularly SSA, a crucial parameter in atmospheric radiative forcing estimates.

  19. Optical Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol from cis-3-Hexenol and cis-3-Hexenyl Acetate: Effect of Chemical Composition, Humidity, and Phase.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Rebecca M; Bateman, Adam P; Jain, Shashank; Li, Yong Jie; Martin, Scot; Petrucci, Giuseppe A

    2016-05-17

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in Earth's radiative balance directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Atmospheric aerosol is dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a class of BVOCs that contribute to SOA, yet their role in the Earth's radiative budget is poorly understood. In this work we measured the scattering efficiency (at 450, 525, and 635 nm), absorption efficiency (between 190 and 900 nm), particle phase, bulk chemical properties (O:C, H:C), and molecular-level composition of SOA formed from the ozonolysis of two GLVs: cis-3-hexenol (HXL) and cis-3-hexenyl acetate (CHA). Both HXL and CHA produced SOA that was weakly absorbing, yet CHA-SOA was a more efficient absorber than HXL-SOA. The scatter efficiency of SOA from both systems was wavelength-dependent, with the stronger dependence exhibited by HXL-SOA, likely due to differences in particle size. HXL-SOA formed under both dry (10% RH) and wet (70% RH) conditions had the same bulk chemical properties (O:C), yet significantly different optical properties, which was attributed to differences in molecular-level composition. We have found that SOA derived from green leaf volatiles has the potential to affect the Earth's radiative budget, and also that bulk chemical properties can be insufficient to predict SOA optical properties. PMID:27074496

  20. Sunphotometry of the 2006-2007 aerosol optical/radiative properties at the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid (5079 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Angelini, F.; Bonasoni, P.; Verza, G. P.; Marinoni, A.; Barnaba, F.

    2010-01-01

    In spite of being located at the heart of the highest mountain range in the world, the Himalayan Nepal Climate Observatory (5079 m a.s.l.) at the Ev-K2-CNR Pyramid is shown to be affected by the advection of pollution aerosols from the populated regions of southern Nepal and the Indo-Gangetic plains. Such an impact is observed along most of the period April 2006-March 2007 addressed here, with a minimum in the monsoon season. Backtrajectory-analysis indicates long-range transport episodes occurring in this period to originate mainly in the West Asian deserts. At this high altitude site, the measured aerosol optical depth is observed to be: 1) about one order of magnitude lower than the one measured at Gandhi College (60 m a.s.l.), in the Indo-Gangetic basin, and 2) maximum during the monsoon period, due to the presence of elevated (cirrus-like) particle layers. Assessment of the aerosol radiative forcing results to be hampered by the persistent presence of these high altitude particle layers, which impede a continuous measurement of both the aerosol optical depth and its radiative properties from sky radiance inversions. Even though the retrieved absorption coefficients of pollution aerosols was rather large (single scattering albedo of the order of 0.6-0.9 were observed in the month of April 2006), the corresponding low optical depths (~0.03 at 500 nm) are expected to limit the relevant radiative forcings. Still, the high specific forcing of this aerosol and its capability of altering snow surface albedo provide good reason for continuous monitoring.

  1. Optical properties of analogs of Titan's aerosols produced by dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadamcik, E.; Renard, J.-B.; Mahjoub, A.; Gautier, T.; Carrasco, N.; Cernogora, G.; Szopa, C.

    2013-10-01

    Analogs of Titan's aerosols are produced in the laboratory as grains in a gas mixture, or as layers on a substrate. This production procedure enables the methane-nitrogen mixture composition to be changed. The aim of this paper is to understand the variations observed on the linear polarization of the scattered light as a function of the production conditions. The influence of the concentration of methane injected in the plasma will be discussed and compared with the previous work of Hadamcik et al. (2009a). The diameter of the grains are measured by SEM-FEG images. The decrease of absorption with increasing wavelength, measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry on layers, is observed for a decreasing initial methane ratio and analyzed in terms of an increasing `amine' content in the materials. The phase function parameters of the linear polarization of the scattered light are discussed in terms of the diameters of the aggregates and of the constituent grains, and the variation of the refractive indices (mainly absorption). The polarization is found to be highly correlated with the constituent grain size. Finally, the experimental results are compared to polarization measurements from space of the Titan's atmosphere.

  2. Optical properties of aerosols obtained from airborne lidar and several in-situ instruments during RACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, Kevin B.; Li, Shao-Meng

    1997-05-01

    Two aircraft, the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) Convair 580 (CV580) and NRCC DHC-6 Twin Otter, along with the Yarmouth and Digby Ferries, a ground site near Yarmouth and coordination with satellite overpasses (AVHRR and LANDSAT) provided an exceptionally well rounded compliment of observing platforms to meet the project objectives for the radiation, aerosols and cloud experiment (RACE) (refer to http://www.on.doe.ca/armp/RACE/RACE.html for a complete list of instrumentation and investigators involved). The general flight plans involved upwind measurements of a selected target by the CV580 lidar, followed by coincident flights allowing the Twin Otter to perform in-situ measurements while the Convair used a variety of remote sensors from above. The CV580 then descended to perform in-situ measurements including size segregated samples through the use of a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). This paper focuses on the airborne lidar results during RACE and in particular introduces two case studies comparing the lidar with a MOUDI impactor and ASASP particle probe using Mie theory.

  3. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties During a Rare Case of Long-range Transport of Mixed Biomass Burning-polluted Dust Aerosols from the Russian Federation-kazakhstan to Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayannis, Alexandros; Argyrouli, Athina; Kokkalis, Panayotis; Tsaknakis, Georgios; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Solomos, Stavros; Kazadzis, Stylianos; Samaras, Stefanos; Böckmann, Christine; Raptis, Panagiotis; Amiridis, Vassilis

    2016-06-01

    Multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar measurements with elastic depolarization at 532 nm were combined with sun photometry during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece, on May-June 2014. We retrieved the aerosol optical [3 aerosol backscatter profiles (baer) at 355-532-1064 nm, 2 aerosol extinction (aaer) profiles at 355-532 nm and the aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ) at 532 nm] and microphysical properties [effective radius (reff), complex refractive index (m), single scattering albedo (ω)]. We present a case study of a long distance transport (~3.500-4.000 km) of biomass burning particles mixed with dust from the Russian Federation-Kazakhstan regions arriving over Athens on 21-23 May 2014 (1.7-3.5 km height). On 23 May, between 2-2.75 km we measured mean lidar ratios (LR) of 35 sr (355 nm) and 42 sr (532 nm), while the mean Ångström exponent (AE) aerosol backscatter-related values (355nm/532nm and 532nm/1064nm) were 2.05 and 1.22, respectively; the mean value of δ at 532 nm was measured to be 9%. For that day the retrieved mean aerosol microphysical properties at 2-2.75 km height were: reff=0.26 μm (fine mode), reff=2.15 μm (coarse mode), m=1.36+0.00024i, ω=0.999 (355 nm, fine mode), ω=0.992(355 nm, coarse mode), ω=0.997 (532 nm, fine mode), and ω=0.980 (532 nm, coarse mode).

  4. Aerosol Optical Properties and Black Carbon Measurements (Ambient and Thermally-Denuded) from Detling, UK During the ClearfLo IOP in Winter 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkowski, K.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Herndon, S. C.; Williams, L. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Freedman, A.; Ng, N. L.; Allan, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    aerosol optical properties to date in terms of the aerosol sources sampled and the number of measurements.

  5. Quantification of Optical and Physical Properties of Combustion-Generated Carbonaceous Aerosols (

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Inoka Eranda; Litton, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to quantify and characterize the optical and physical properties of combustion-generated aerosols during both flaming and smoldering combustion of three materials common to underground mines—Pittsburgh Seam coal, Styrene Butadiene Rubber (a common mine conveyor belt material), and Douglas-fir wood—using a combination of analytical and gravimetric measurements. Laser photometers were utilized in the experiments for continuous measurement of aerosol mass concentrations and for comparison to measurements made using gravimetric filter samples. The aerosols of interest lie in the size range of tens to a few hundred nanometers, out of range of the standard photometer calibration. To correct for these uncertainties, the photometer mass concentrations were compared to gravimetric samples to determine if consistent correlations existed. The response of a calibrated and modified combination ionization/photoelectric smoke detector was also used. In addition, the responses of this sensor and a similar, prototype ionization/photoelectric sensor, along with discrete angular scattering, total scattering, and total extinction measurements, were used to define in real time the size, morphology, and radiative transfer properties of these differing aerosols that are generally in the form of fractal aggregates. SEM/TEM images were also obtained in order to compare qualitatively the real-time, continuous experimental measurements with the visual microscopic measurements. These data clearly show that significant differences exist between aerosols from flaming and from smoldering combustion and that these differences produce very different scattering and absorption signatures. The data also indicate that ionization/photoelectric sensors can be utilized to measure continuously and in real time aerosol properties over a broad spectrum of applications related to adverse environmental and health effects.

  6. High Spectral Resolution Lidar and MPLNET Micro Pulse Lidar Aerosol Optical Property Retrieval Intercomparison During the 2012 7-SEAS Field Campaign at Singapore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lolli, Simone; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Eloranta, Edwin; Holben, Brent N.; Chew, Boon Ning; Salinas, Santo V.

    2014-01-01

    From August 2012 to February 2013 a High Resolution Spectral Lidar (HSRL; 532 nm) was deployed at that National University of Singapore near a NASA Micro Pulse Lidar NETwork (MPLNET; 527 nm) site. A primary objective of the MPLNET lidar project is the production and dissemination of reliable Level 1 measurements and Level 2 retrieval products. This paper characterizes and quantifies error in Level 2 aerosol optical property retrievals conducted through inversion techniques that derive backscattering and extinction coefficients from MPLNET elastic single-wavelength datasets. MPLNET Level 2 retrievals for aerosol optical depth and extinction/backscatter coefficient profiles are compared with corresponding HSRL datasets, for which the instrument collects direct measurements of each using a unique optical configuration that segregates aerosol and cloud backscattered signal from molecular signal. The intercomparison is performed, and error matrices reported, for lower (0-5km) and the upper (>5km) troposphere, respectively, to distinguish uncertainties observed within and above the MPLNET instrument optical overlap regime.

  7. Comparison of Bulk Carbon Concentrations and Optical Properties of Carbonaceous Aerosols in the North Slope Alaska from Summer 2012 and Summer 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheesley, R. J.; Barrett, T. E.; Moffett, C.; Gunsch, M.; Pratt, K.

    2015-12-01

    With recent drilling permits being issued for exploratory drilling in the Chukchi Sea, there is a need for characterization of carbonaceous aerosols in the Arctic both prior to and during the exploratory drilling phase. A month-long field sampling campaign will be conducted in Barrow, AK, at the confluence of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas, from August to September 2015. Total suspended particulate (TSP) aerosol samples will be collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Barrow, AK, USA. Samples will be analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) on a Sunset carbon analyzer utilizing the NIOSH 5040 method. Samples will also be analyzed for water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) using a water extraction method and subsequent analysis on a Shimadzu Total Carbon Analyzer. Optical properties of the aqueous extracts will also be measured using an Agilent ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. OC, EC and WSOC concentrations will then be compared to aerosol samples collected at the same location in summer 2012, prior to the onset of exploratory drilling in the Chukchi Sea. Back trajectory (BT) analysis will be performed for each sampling campaign to help assess the impact of source region on the carbonaceous aerosol budget and to identify any changes in source region between the two campaigns. A comparison of samples from the same location and season both prior to and post drilling will allow for a more accurate characterization and tracking of the potential impacts of new aerosol emission sources in the region.

  8. A novel approach for the characterisation of transport and optical properties of aerosol particles near sources - Part II: Microphysics-chemistry-transport model development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdebenito B, Álvaro M.; Pal, Sandip; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Lammel, Gerhard

    2011-06-01

    A new high-resolution microphysics-chemistry-transport model (LES-AOP) was developed and applied for the investigation of aerosol transformation and transport in the vicinity of a livestock facility in northern Germany (PLUS1 field campaign). The model is an extension of a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model. The PLUS1 field campaign included the first deployment of the new eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar system of the University of Hohenheim. In a combined approach, model and lidar results were used to characterise a faint aerosol source. The farm plume structure was investigated and the absolute value of its particle backscatter coefficient was determined. Aerosol optical properties were predicted on spatial and temporal resolutions below 100 m and 1 min, upon initialisation by measured meteorological and size-resolved particulate matter mass concentration and composition data. Faint aerosol plumes corresponding to a particle backscatter coefficient down to 10 -6 sr -1 m -1 were measured and realistically simulated. Budget-related quantities such as the emission flux and change of the particulate matter mass, were estimated from model results and ground measurements.

  9. Setup and first airborne application of an aerosol optical properties package for the In-service Aircraft Global Observing System IAGOS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, Ulrich; Freedman, Andrew; Herber, Andreas; Mattis, Ina; Berg, Marcel; De Faira, Julia; Petzold, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosol influences the climate twofold via the direct interaction with solar radiation and indirectly effecting microphysical properties of clouds. The latter has the largest uncertainty according to the last IPPC Report. A measured in situ climatology of the aerosol microphysical and optical properties is needed to reduce the reported uncertainty of the aerosol climate impact. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. The prototype of the IAGOS Aerosol Package (IAGOS-P2E) consists of two modified CAPS (Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift) instruments from Aerodyne Research, Inc. and one optical particle counter (Model Grimm Sky OPC 1.129). The CAPS PMex monitor provides a measurement of the optical extinction (the sum of scattering and absorption) of an ambient sample of particles. There is a choice of 5 different wavelengths - blue (450 nm), green (530 nm), red (630 nm), far red (660 nm) and near infrared (780 nm) - which match the spectral bands of most other particle optical properties measurement equipment. In our prototype setup we used the instrument operating at 630nm wavelength (red). The second CAPS instrument we have chosen is the CAPS NO2 monitor. This instrument provides a direct absorption measurement of nitrogen dioxide in the blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum (450 nm). Unlike standard chemiluminescence-based monitors, the instrument requires no conversion of NO2 to another species and thus is not sensitive to other nitro-containing species. In the final IAGOS Setup, up to 4 CAPS might be used to get additional aerosol properties using the

  10. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  11. Temporal heterogeneity in aerosol characteristics and the resulting radiative impact at a tropical coastal station - Part 1: Microphysical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, S. Suresh; Satheesh, S. K.

    2007-11-01

    In Part 1 of this two-part paper, we present the results of extensive and collocated measurements of the columnar and near-surface (in the well mixed region) properties of atmospheric aerosol particles at a tropical coastal location, Trivandrum (8.55° N; 76.97° E), located close to the southwest tip of Indian peninsula. These are used to evolve average, climatological pictures of the optical and microphysical properties and to delineate the distinct changes associated with the contrasting monsoon seasons as well as the transition from one season to the other. Our observations show a dramatic change in the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra, being steep during winter monsoon season (WMS, months of December through March) and becoming quite flat during summer monsoon season (SMS, June through September). The derived Ångström exponent (α) decreases from a mean value of 1.1±0.03 in WMS to 0.32±0.02 in SMS, signifying a change in columnar aerosol size spectrum from an accumulation mode dominance in WMS to a coarse mode dominance in SMS. The composite aerosols near the surface follow suit with the share of the accumulation mode to the total mass concentration decreasing from ~70% to 34% from WMS to SMS. The overall mass burden also decreases in tandem. The changes in α are well correlated to those in the accumulation fraction of the mass concentration. Long-term measurements of the concentration of aerosol black carbon (BC), show prominent annual variations, with its mean value decreasing from as high as 6 μg m-3 in WMS to 2 μg m-3 in SMS. Correspondingly, its mass mixing ratio to the composite aerosols comes down from 11% to 4%. The changes in AOD and α are significantly positively correlated to those of BC concentration. The columnar properties are, in general well associated with the features near the surface. The implications of these changes to the optical properties and single scattering albedo and the resulting impact on direct radiative

  12. Black and Brown Carbon in Biogenic Settings with Different Levels of Anthropogenic Influence, and The Effect of Semivolatile Compounds on Aerosol Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasoglou, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Khlystov, A.; Saha, P.; Grieshop, A. P.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major contributor to the global aerosol burden. Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate warming agent, while light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon, BrC), also impacts the atmospheric radiative balance. The optical properties of ambient aerosols can be affected by biogenic SOA through the lensing effect (coating of BC cores by semivolatile SOA), and by the potential formation of BrC from biogenic sources influenced by anthropogenic sources. To evaluate these effects, measurements of ambient aerosol optical properties and BC concentrations were made in rural Centreville, AL (a remote site with little anthropogenic influence) in summer 2013 and at Duke Forest in Chapel Hill, NC (a site close to high density vehicular traffic and industrial sources), during summer 2015. Photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX, 405 nm and 532 nm) measured particulate light absorption and a single particle soot photometer (SP2) measured BC mass at both locations. A seven-wavelength Aethalometer and a three-wavelength nephelometer were also deployed at Duke Forest. A third PAX (870 nm) was deployed at Centreville. For absorption and BC measurements, the sample was cycled between a dry line and a dry/thermally-denuded line. Hourly samples were collected with a steam jet aerosol collector (SJAC) for online (2013) and offline (2015) chemical composition analysis. BC concentrations were generally higher at Duke Forest compared to the rural Centreville site. The Aethalometer readings at Duke Forest show greater absorption at the shorter wavelengths (370 nm and 470 nm) than expected from the absorption at 880 nm coupled with an inverse wavelength dependence, suggesting the presence of brown carbon. This presentation will examine the evidence for brown carbon at the two sites, as well as the effect of non-BC coatings on BC light absorption (the lensing effect.)

  13. Column-integrated aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing based on sun photometer measurements at a semi-arid rural site in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunfei; Zhu, Jun; Che, Huizheng; Xia, Xiangao; Zhang, Renjian

    2015-04-01

    Ground and satellite remote sensing measurements have revealed heavy aerosol loading in China; however, aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing in Northeast China - important in climate modeling and remote sensing - have not been widely studied. We studied four years of continuous sun photometer measurements at Tongyu, a typical semi-arid rural site in Northeast China, to better understand column-integrated aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing. The annual average aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.20 ± 0.26; the Ångström exponent (AE) between 440 and 870 nm was 1.37 ± 0.64; and the single scattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm was 0.91 ± 0.05. The AOD at this rural site was a quarter of that observed in the polluted North China Plain and Yangtze River Delta regions. Anthropogenic fine-mode particles were the dominant contributor to AOD. The AOD and AE showed generally opposite seasonal variation patterns. Relatively higher AOD values in summer (0.26 ± 0.27) and spring (0.24 ± 0.30) were likely related to long-range transportation of anthropogenic aerosols from southern industrial regions in summer, and the increased contribution of dust events in spring. The minimum AOD (0.16 ± 0.22) was concurrent with the maximum AE (1.75 ± 0.76), observed in winter. On average, the absorption AOD (AAOD) at 440 nm and its absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) between 440 and 870 nm were 0.06 ± 0.03 and 1.04 ± 0.43, respectively. The mean AAE was considerably higher than 1 in autumn and winter, indicating that brown carbon from biomass burning contributed greatly to aerosol absorption. The AAE was lower than 1 in summer and spring, related to the coating of black carbon particles. Large negative aerosol direct radiative forcing was estimated at the bottom of the atmosphere, with relatively lower values estimated at the top of the atmosphere; the means were - 26.28 and - 9.42 W m- 2, respectively. This resulted in a strong cooling

  14. The optical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian Antarctic stations during southern hemispheric summer of the International Polar Year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, Jai Prakash; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, S. Suresh; Nair, Vijayakumar S.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of background aerosols and their dependence on meteorological, geographical and human influence are examined using measured spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), total mass concentration (MT) and derived number size distribution (NSD) over two distinct coastal locations of Antarctica; Maitri (70° S, 12° E, 123 m m.s.l.) and Larsemann Hills (LH; 69° S, 77° E, 48 m m.s.l.) during southern hemispheric summer of 2007-2008 as a part of the 27th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) during International Polar Year (IPY). Our investigations showed comparable values for the mean columnar AOD at 500 nm over Maitri (0.034±0.005) and LH (0.032±0.006) indicating good spatial homogeneity in the columnar aerosol properties over the coastal Antarctica. Estimation of Angstrom exponent α showed accumulation mode dominance at Maitri (α~1.2±0.3) and coarse mode dominance at LH (0.7±0.2). On the other hand, mass concentration (MT) of ambient aerosols showed relatively high values (≈8.25±2.87 μg m-3) at Maitri in comparison to LH (6.03±1.33 μg m-3).

  15. Volcanic Aerosol Radiative Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Large sporadic volcanic eruptions inject large amounts of sulfur bearing gases into the stratosphere which then get photochemically converted to sulfuric acid aerosol droplets that exert a radiative cooling effect on the global climate system lasting for several years.

  16. Using the OMI Aerosol Index and Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth to Evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Govindaraju, R.

    2014-12-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV Aerosol Index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). In this presentation we show comparisons of model produced AI with the corresponding OMI measurements during several months of 2007 characterized by a good sampling of dust and biomass burning events. In parallel, model produced Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AAOD) were compared to OMI AAOD for the same period, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols were deficient. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors, aerosol retrievals from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain misplacement of plume height by the model.

  17. Optical properties of mineral dust aerosol including analysis of particle size, composition, and shape effects, and the impact of physical and chemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer Mary

    Atmospheric mineral dust has a large impact on the earth's radiation balance and climate. The radiative effects of mineral dust depend on factors including, particle size, shape, and composition which can all be extremely complex. Mineral dust particles are typically irregular in shape and can include sharp edges, voids, and fine scale surface roughness. Particle shape can also depend on the type of mineral and can vary as a function of particle size. In addition, atmospheric mineral dust is a complex mixture of different minerals as well as other, possibly organic, components that have been mixed in while these particles are suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosol optical properties are investigated in this work, including studies of the effect of particle size, shape, and composition on the infrared (IR) extinction and visible scattering properties in order to achieve more accurate modeling methods. Studies of particle shape effects on dust optical properties for single component mineral samples of silicate clay and diatomaceous earth are carried out here first. Experimental measurements are modeled using T-matrix theory in a uniform spheroid approximation. Previous efforts to simulate the measured optical properties of silicate clay, using models that assumed particle shape was independent of particle size, have achieved only limited success. However, a model which accounts for a correlation between particle size and shape for the silicate clays offers a large improvement over earlier modeling approaches. Diatomaceous earth is also studied as an example of a single component mineral dust aerosol with extreme particle shapes. A particle shape distribution, determined by fitting the experimental IR extinction data, used as a basis for modeling the visible light scattering properties. While the visible simulations show only modestly good agreement with the scattering data, the fits are generally better than those obtained using more commonly invoked particle shape

  18. Comparision of aerosol optical properties observed over two AERONET sites of Nepal during pre-to post monsoon season of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, B. D.; Aryal, R. P.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties (AOP) deduced from CIMEL sun photometer measurements at two AERONET sites EVK2-CNR (located at elevation 5050m,in the foot hill of Mount Everest) and Kathmandu_univ (located at elevation 1510 m, near Kathmandu city) during pre-monsoon to post-monsoon season of 2009 are compared. We present time series of key climate significant AOP such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), absorption angstrom exponent, single scattering albedo, absorption AOD, lidar ratio over these two sites. The lidar ratio (LR), single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption AOD due to the total aerosol particles (diameter (d)<10microns) were derived at 500nm using the volume size distribution and refractive index from AERONET inversion products. The variation of absorption AOD at two sites show the same nature with the lowest at monsoon period and highest at pre-monsoon season. This absorption value is higher over kathmandu_univ site than over the EVK2-CNR site by the factor of ~2 in all seasons. The retrieved absorption angstrom exponent over the EVK2-CNR site is near 1(the theoretical value for black carbon) and with low SSA value 0.55(+-0.089) during pre-monsoon period indicating presence of black carbon. We will also discuss the seasonal variability of these properties based on regional and long-range air mass sources at two sites.

  19. Perovskite LaFeO3 nanoparticles synthesized by the reverse microemulsion nanoreactors in the presence of aerosol-OT: Morphology, crystal structure, and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazari, Reza; Sanati, Soheila

    2013-12-01

    Orthorhombic structure of lanthanum ferrite nanoparticles (LaFeO3 NPs) with perovskite type phase has been synthesized with water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion consisted of water/dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium (aerosol-OT)/isooctane at room temperature. It has been shown that aerosol-OT reverse microemulsion solution is appropriate for synthesizing perovskite LaFeO3 NPs in the absence of any co-surfactants. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) have been adopted for characterization of surface morphology, size, phase composition, structure, and optical properties of the considered NPs. Furthermore, the optical properties of LaFeO3 NPs have been further analyzed via photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. As shown by the physicochemical characterizations, our prepared NPs via aerosol-OT reverse microemulsion solution are spherical and nearly uniform (with a size of about 24.65 nm). Besides, they include an orthorhombic phase while no impurities are observed. Single phase lanthanum ferrite NPs have successfully been prepared at 500 °C. Moreover, UV-Vis spectrum indicates that the LaFeO3 NPs synthesized through this technique can be considered as a type of photo-catalytic materials.

  20. An evaluation of uncertainty in the aerosol optical properties as represented by satellites and an ensemble of chemistry-climate coupled models over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios-Peña, Laura; Baró, Rocío; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The changes in Earth's climate are produced by forcing agents such as greenhouse gases, clouds and atmospheric aerosols. The latter modify the Earth's radiative budget due to their optical, microphysical and chemical properties, and are considered to be the most uncertain forcing agent. There are two main approaches to the study of aerosols: (1) ground-based and remote sensing observations and (2) atmospheric modelling. With the aim of characterizing the uncertainties associated with these approaches, and estimating the radiative forcing caused by aerosols, the main objective of this work is to assess the representation of aerosol optical properties by different remote sensing sensors and online-coupled chemistry-climate models and to determine whether the inclusion of aerosol radiative feedbacks in this type of models improves the modelling outputs over Europe. Two case studies have been selected under the framework of the EuMetChem COST Action ES1004, when important aerosol episodes during 2010 over Europe took place: a Russian wildfires episode and a Saharan desert dust outbreak covering most of Europe. Model data comes from an ensemble of regional air quality-climate simulations performed by the working group 2 of EuMetChem, that investigates the importance of different processes and feedbacks in on-line coupled chemistry-climate models. These simulations are run for three different configurations for each model, differing in the inclusion (or not) of aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. The remote sensing data comes from three different sensors, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and SeaWIFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor). The evaluation has been performed by using classical statistical metrics, comparing modelled and remotely sensed data versus a ground-based instrument network (AERONET). The evaluated variables are aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the Angström exponent (AE) at

  1. Graphical aerosol classification method using aerosol relative optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi-Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Shuai, Yong; Tan, He-Ping

    2016-06-01

    A simple graphical method is presented to classify aerosol types based on a combination of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and aerosol relative optical thickness (AROT). Six aerosol types, including maritime (MA), desert dust (DD), continental (CO), sub-continental (SC), urban industry (UI) and biomass burning (BB), are discriminated in a two dimensional space of AOT440 and AROT1020/440. Numerical calculations are performed using MIE theory based on a multi log-normal particle size distribution, and the AROT ranges for each aerosol type are determined. More than 5 years of daily observations from 8 representative aerosol sites are applied to the method to confirm spatial applicability. Finally, 3 individual cases are analyzed according to their specific aerosol status. The outcomes indicate that the new graphical method coordinates well with regional characteristics and is also able to distinguish aerosol variations in individual situations. This technique demonstrates a novel way to estimate different aerosol types and provide information on radiative forcing calculations and satellite data corrections.

  2. Long term characterization of aerosol optical properties: Implications for radiative forcing over the desert region of Jodhpur, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, V. Vizaya; Safai, P. D.; Raju, M. P.

    2015-08-01

    AOT data for eight years period (2004-2012) using the MICROTOPS II Sun photometer has been used to study the wavelength dependent optical characteristics of aerosols over Jodhpur, situated in the desert region in NW India. The daily mean AOT at 500 nm for the present study period was 0.66 ± 0.14 with an average Angstrom exponent as 0.71 ± 0.20. Linear regression analysis of monthly AOT and Angstrom Exponent indicated an increasing trend of both. Seasonal variations of daily AOT and α as well as spectral dependence of seasonal mean AOT are presented. Diurnal variation of AOT and α in different season is studied. Impact of dust storm events on the aerosol characteristics over Jodhpur during the study period is studied. AOT values derived from MICROTOPS II were cross checked with Sun Sky Radiometer (Model POM-01, Prede Inc.) data for the period from May 2011 to April 2012 and were found to be in good agreement. Short wave aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) was computed for one year period of May 2011 to April 2012. Spectral variation of AOT, SSA and ASP showed more AOT and ASP during pre monsoon period when SSA was comparatively low; indicating towards more prevalence of coarse size absorbing dust in this period. The ARF at SUF and TOA was negative during all the seasons indicating dominance of scattering type aerosols mainly dust particles whereas that at ATM was positive in all the seasons indicating heating of the atmosphere, especially more during pre monsoon (+40.5 W/m2) than during rest of the year (+19.5 W/m2). A high degree of correlation between ARF at the SUF with AOT (R2 = 0.94) indicated that ARF is a strong function of AOT. The radiative forcing efficiency inferred to scattering nature of aerosols at SUF (-4.2 W/m2/AOD) and TOA (-63.2 W/m2/AOD) indicating cooling at surface and top of the atmosphere whereas, there was warming of the atmosphere in between (+59 W/m2/AOD). The atmospheric heating rates varied from 0.49 K/day in post monsoon to 1.13 K/day in

  3. Optical properties of mineral dust aerosol including analysis of particle size, composition, and shape effects, and the impact of physical and chemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer Mary

    Atmospheric mineral dust has a large impact on the earth's radiation balance and climate. The radiative effects of mineral dust depend on factors including, particle size, shape, and composition which can all be extremely complex. Mineral dust particles are typically irregular in shape and can include sharp edges, voids, and fine scale surface roughness. Particle shape can also depend on the type of mineral and can vary as a function of particle size. In addition, atmospheric mineral dust is a complex mixture of different minerals as well as other, possibly organic, components that have been mixed in while these particles are suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosol optical properties are investigated in this work, including studies of the effect of particle size, shape, and composition on the infrared (IR) extinction and visible scattering properties in order to achieve more accurate modeling methods. Studies of particle shape effects on dust optical properties for single component mineral samples of silicate clay and diatomaceous earth are carried out here first. Experimental measurements are modeled using T-matrix theory in a uniform spheroid approximation. Previous efforts to simulate the measured optical properties of silicate clay, using models that assumed particle shape was independent of particle size, have achieved only limited success. However, a model which accounts for a correlation between particle size and shape for the silicate clays offers a large improvement over earlier modeling approaches. Diatomaceous earth is also studied as an example of a single component mineral dust aerosol with extreme particle shapes. A particle shape distribution, determined by fitting the experimental IR extinction data, used as a basis for modeling the visible light scattering properties. While the visible simulations show only modestly good agreement with the scattering data, the fits are generally better than those obtained using more commonly invoked particle shape

  4. Effect of Aerosol Size and Hygroscopicity on Aerosol Optical Depth in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Charles; Wagner, Nick; Gordon, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is affected by the size, optical characteristics, and hygroscopicity of particles, confounding attempts to link remote sensing observations of AOD to measured or modeled aerosol mass concentrations. In situ airborne observations of aerosol optical, chemical, microphysical and hygroscopic properties were made in the southeastern United States in the daytime in summer 2013. We use these observations to constrain a simple model that is used to test the sensitivity of AOD to the various measured parameters. As expected, the AOD was found to be most sensitive to aerosol mass concentration and to aerosol water content, which is controlled by aerosol hygroscopicity and the ambient relative humidity. However, AOD was also fairly sensitive to the mean particle diameter and the width of the size distribution. These parameters are often prescribed in global models that use simplified modal parameterizations to describe the aerosol, suggesting that the values chosen could substantially bias the calculated relationship between aerosol mass and optical extinction, AOD, and radiative forcing.

  5. Column Aerosol Optical Properties and Aerosol Radiative Forcing During a Serious Haze-Fog Month over North China Plain in 2013 Based on Ground-Based Sunphotometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Che, H.; Xia, X.; Zhu, J.; Li, Z.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, Brent N.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Estelles, V.; Cuevas-Agullo, E.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, North China Plain experienced several serious haze events. Cimel sunphotometer measurements at seven sites over rural, suburban and urban regions of North China Plain from 1 to 30 January 2013 were used to further our understanding of spatial-temporal variation of aerosol optical parameters and aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). It was found that Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm (AOD500nm) during non-pollution periods at all stations was lower than 0.30 and increased significantly to greater than 1.00 as pollution events developed. The Angstrom exponent (Alpha) was larger than 0.80 for all stations most of the time. AOD500nm averages increased from north to south during both polluted and non-polluted periods on the three urban sites in Beijing. The fine mode AOD during pollution periods is about a factor of 2.5 times larger than that during the non-pollution period at urban sites but a factor of 5.0 at suburban and rural sites. The fine mode fraction of AOD675nm was higher than 80% for all sites during January 2013. The absorption AOD675nm at rural sites was only about 0.01 during pollution periods, while 0.03-0.07 and 0.01-0.03 during pollution and non-pollution periods at other sites, respectively. Single scattering albedo varied between 0.87 and 0.95 during January 2013 over North China Plain. The size distribution showed an obvious tri-peak pattern during the most serious period. The fine mode effective radius in the pollution period was about 0.01-0.08 microns larger than during nonpollution periods, while the coarse mode radius in pollution periods was about 0.06-0.38 microns less than that during nonpollution periods. The total, fine and coarse mode particle volumes varied by about 0.06-0.34 cu microns, 0.03-0.23 cu microns, and 0.03-0.10 cu microns, respectively, throughout January 2013. During the most intense period (1-16 January), ARF at the surface exceeded -50W/sq m, -180W/sq m, and -200W/sq m at rural, suburban, and urban sites

  6. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL

  7. Evaluating aerosol optical properties observed by ground-based and satellite remote sensing over the Mediterranean and the Middle East in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Meij, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluates the spatial and temporal variation of the aerosol optical depth (AOD), the particle size characteristics (Ångström coefficients) and single scattering albedos during selected episodes over the Mediterranean area in 2006, based on independent observational datasets. We compare the satellite data of MODIS and MISR with those of the ground-based AERONET and in situ measurements. In general the yearly mean MODIS and MISR AODs as well as their temporal variation are in good agreement with AERONET. The highest AODs are caused by mineral dust outbreaks and the accumulation of anthropogenic aerosols during stagnant meteorological conditions. The comparison of MODIS with MISR aerosol optical properties for June corroborates that the AODs, Ångström coefficients and single scattering albedos agree well, and indicates the presence of high dust loads over the Mediterranean. Later in summer, however, MISR AOD is generally lower than MODIS, which is consistent with previous studies that show that MISR tends to underestimate and MODIS tends to overestimate AOD over land when compared to AERONET observations. Comparing MODIS Aqua Deep Blue with MISR for June over the Saharan desert reveals some differences in the location and the maxima of the AODs. Over the eastern Mediterranean highest dust loads occur during spring and autumn. Biomass burning activities around the Black Sea during July and August cause high AODs (e.g. by agricultural waste burning), and the particulate pollution is transported to the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East by the prevailing northerly Etesian winds.

  8. Toward Creating A Global Retrospective Climatology of Aerosol Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Robert J.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosols are thought to cause a significant direct and indirect climate forcing, but the magnitude of this forcing remains highly uncertain because of poor knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and their temporal changes. The standard long-term global product, the one-channel Advanced Very-High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness over the ocean, relies on a single predefined aerosol model and can be inaccurate in many cases. Furthermore, it provides no information on aerosol column number density, thus making it impossible to estimate the indirect aerosol effect on climate. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data can be used to detect absorbing aerosols over land, but are insensitive to aerosols located below one kilometer. It is thus clear that innovative approaches must be employed in order to extract a more quantitative and accurate aerosol climatology from available satellite and other measurements, thus enabling more reliable estimates of the direct and indirect aerosol forcings. The Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP) was established in 1998 as part of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). Its main objective is to analyze satellite radiance measurements and field observations to infer the global distribution of aerosols, their properties, and their seasonal and interannual variations. The overall goal is to develop advanced global aerosol climatologies for the period of satellite data and to make the aerosol climatologies broadly available through the GACP web site.

  9. Retrieval of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities and aerosol optical properties form MAXDOAS measurements in Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Nan; Van. Roozendael, Michel; Ding, Aijun; Zhou, Bin; Hendrick, François; Shen, Yicheng; Wang, Tin; Valks, Pieter

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in developing Asian countries like China. Due to huge consumption of fossil fuels and rapid increase of traffic emissions in the past decades, many regions in China have been experiencing heavy air pollution. The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region includes the mega-city Shanghai and the well-industrialized and urbanized areas of Zhejiang Province and Jiangsu Province, with over ten large cities, such as Hangzhou, Suzhou and Nanjing. Covering only 2% land area, this region produces over 20% of China's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which makes it the most densely populated region and one of the most polluted regions in China. For instance, there more than 60% of a year was haze days with poor visibility in Shanghai over the last few years. In the YRD region, knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of the source and transport of air pollutants because only few measurement studies have been conducted. MAX-DOAS measurements were performed in Shanghai city center and Wujiang (border of Shanghai and Jiangsu Province) from 2010 to 2012 and in Nanjing (capital of Jiangsu Province) from April 2013. A retrieval algorithm, based on an on-line implementation of the radiative transfer code LIDORT and the optimal estimation technique, has been used to provide information on aerosol extinction vertical profiles. The total aerosol optical depths (AODs) calculated from the retrieved profiles were compared to MODIS, AERONET and local PM measurements. The aerosol information was input to LIDORT to calculate NO2 air mass factors. The retrieved tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) were compared to in-situ and satellite NO2 measurements.

  10. Investigation on the monthly variation of cirrus optical properties over the Indian subcontinent using cloud-aerosol lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observation (Calipso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaman, Reji K.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Krishnakumar, V.

    2016-05-01

    Cirrus clouds have been identified as one of the atmospheric component which influence the radiative processes in the atmosphere and plays a key role in the Earth Radiation Budget. CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) is a joint NASA-CNES satellite mission designed to provide insight in understanding of the role of aerosols and clouds in the climate system. This paper reports the study on the variation of cirrus cloud optical properties of over the Indian sub - continent for a period of two years from January 2009 to December 2010, using cloud-aerosol lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observations (Calipso). Indian Ocean and Indian continent is one of the regions where cirrus occurrence is maximum particularly during the monsoon periods. It is found that during the south-west monsoon periods there is a large cirrus cloud distribution over the southern Indian land masses. Also it is observed that the north-east monsoon periods had optical thick clouds hugging the coast line. The summer had large cloud formation in the Arabian Sea. It is also found that the land masses near to the sea had large cirrus presence. These cirrus clouds were of high altitude and optical depth. The dependence of cirrus cloud properties on cirrus cloud mid-cloud temperature and geometrical thickness are generally similar to the results derived from the ground-based lidar. However, the difference in macrophysical parameter variability shows the limits of space-borne-lidar and dissimilarities in regional climate variability and the nature and source of cloud nuclei in different geographical regions.

  11. A European aerosol phenomenology -5: climatology of black carbon optical properties at 9 regional background sites across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanatta, Marco; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Gysel, Martin; Weingartner, Ernest; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Putaud, Jean Philippe; Müller, Thomas; Baltensperger, Urs; Laj, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    A reliable assessment of the optical properties of atmospheric black carbon is of crucial importance for an accurate estimation of radiative forcing. In this study we investigate the spatio-temporal variability of the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of atmospheric black carbon, defined as light absorption coefficient (σap) divided by elemental carbon mass concentration (mEC). σap and mEC have been monitored at supersites of the ACTRIS network for a minimum period of one year. The 9 rural background sites considered in this study cover southern Scandinavia, central Europe and the Mediterranean. σap was determined using filter based absorption photometers and mEC using a thermo-optical technique. Homogeneity of the data set was ensured by harmonization of the instruments deployed at all sites during extensive intercomparison exercises at the European Center for Aerosol Calibration. Annual mean values of σap at a wavelength of 637 nm vary between 0.75 - 1.6 Mm-1 in southern Scandinavia, 4.1 - 11 Mm-1 in central Europen and 2.3-2.8 Mm-1 in the Mediterranean region. Annual mean values of mEC vary between 0.75 and 1.6 μg m-3 in southern Scandinavia, 0.28-1.1 in Central Europe and British Isles, and 0.22-0.26 in the Mediterranean. Both σap and mEC in southern Scandinavia and central Europe have a distinct seasonality with maxima during the cold season and minima during summer, whereas at the Mediterranean sites an opposite trend was observed. Annual mean MAC values were quite similar across all sites and the seasonal variability was small at most sites such that a MAC value of 10± 2.5 m2 g-1 (mean ± SD of station means) at a wavelength of 637 nm can be considered to be representative of the mixed boundary layer at European background sites. This is rather small spatial variability compared to the variability of values in previous literature, indicating that the harmonization efforts resulted in substantially increased precision of the reported MAC. However

  12. Accuracy of near-surface aerosol extinction determined from columnar aerosol optical depth measurements in Reno, NV, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present work is a detailed analysis of aerosol columnar optical depth as a tool to determine near-surface aerosol extinction in Reno, Nevada, USA, during the summer of 2012. Ground and columnar aerosol optical properties were obtained by use of in situ Photoacoustic and Integrated Nephelometer and Cimel CE-318 Sun photometer instruments, respectively. Both techniques showed that seasonal weather changes and fire plumes had enormous influence on local aerosol optics. The apparent optical height followed the shape but not magnitude of the development of the convective boundary layer when fire conditions were not present. Back trajectory analysis demonstrated that a local flow known as the Washoe Zephyr circulation often induced aerosol transport from Northern California over the Sierra Nevada Mountains that increased the aerosol optical depth at 500 nm during afternoons when compared with mornings. Aerosol fine mode fraction indicated that afternoon aerosols in June and July and fire plumes in August were dominated by submicron particles, suggesting upwind urban plume biogenically enhanced evolution toward substantial secondary aerosol formation. This fine particle optical depth was inferred to be beyond the surface, thereby complicating use of remote sensing measurements for near-ground aerosol extinction measurements. It is likely that coarse mode depletes fine mode aerosol near the surface by coagulation and condensation of precursor gases.

  13. Aerosol optical absorption measurements with photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    Many parameters related to radiative forcing in climate research are known only with large uncertainties. And one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing is the contribution from aerosols. Aerosols can scatter or absorb the electromagnetic radiation, thus may have negative or positive effects on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, respectively [1]. And the magnitude of the effect is directly related to the quantity of light absorbed by aerosols [2,3]. Thus, sensitivity and precision measurement of aerosol optical absorption is crucial for climate research. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the light absorption of aerosols [4]. A PAS based sensor for aerosol optical absorption measurement was developed. A 532 nm semiconductor laser with an effective power of 160 mW was used as a light source of the PAS sensor. The PAS sensor was calibrated by using known concentration NO2. The minimum detectable optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosol was determined to be 1 Mm-1. 24 hours continues measurement of OAC of aerosol in the ambient air was carried out. And a novel three wavelength PAS aerosol OAC sensor is in development for analysis of aerosol wavelength-dependent absorption Angstrom coefficient. Reference [1] U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715-737 (2005) [2] M. Z. Jacobson, Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature 409, 695-697 (2001) [3] V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichae, Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, nature geoscience 1, 221-227 (2008) [4] W.P Arnott, H. Moosmuller, C. F. Rogers, T. Jin, and R. Bruch, Photoacoustic spectrometer for measuring light absorption by aerosol: instrument description. Atmos. Environ. 33, 2845-2852 (1999).

  14. Vertical structure and optical properties of Titan's aerosols from radiance measurements made inside and outside the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doose, Lyn R.; Karkoschka, Erich; Tomasko, Martin G.; Anderson, Carrie M.

    2016-05-01

    Prompted by the detection of stratospheric cloud layers by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS; see Anderson, C.M., Samuelson, R.E. [2011]. Icarus 212, 762-778), we have re-examined the observations made by the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) in the atmosphere of Titan together with two constraints from measurements made outside the atmosphere. No evidence of thin layers (<1 km) in the DISR image data sets is seen beyond the three previously reported layers at 21 km, 11 km, and 7 km by Karkoschka and Tomasko (Karkoschka, E., Tomasko, M.G. [2009]. Icarus 199, 442-448). On the other hand, there is evidence of a thicker layer centered at about 55 km. A rise in radiance gradients in the Downward-Looking Visible Spectrometer (DLVS) data below 55 km indicates an increase in the volume extinction coefficient near this altitude. To fit the geometric albedo measured from outside the atmosphere the decrease in the single scattering albedo of Titan's aerosols at high altitudes, noted in earlier studies of DISR data, must continue to much higher altitudes. The altitude of Titan's limb as a function of wavelength requires that the scale height of the aerosols decrease with altitude from the 65 km value seen in the DISR observations below 140 km to the 45 km value at higher altitudes. We compared the variation of radiance with nadir angle observed in the DISR images to improve our aerosol model. Our new aerosol model fits the altitude and wavelength variations of the observations at small and intermediate nadir angles but not for large nadir angles, indicating an effect that is not reproduced by our radiative transfer model. The volume extinction profiles are modeled by continuous functions except near the enhancement level near 55 km altitude. The wavelength dependence of the extinction optical depth is similar to earlier results at wavelengths from 500 to 700 nm, but is smaller at shorter wavelengths and larger toward longer wavelengths. A Hapke

  15. Relating Aerosol Mass and Optical Depth in the Summertime Continental Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, C. A.; Wagner, N.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Attwood, A. R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Brown, S. S.; McComiskey, A. C.; Gordon, T. D.; Welti, A.; Carlton, A. G.; Murphy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD), the column-integrated ambient aerosol light extinction, is determined from satellite and ground-based remote sensing measurements. AOD is the parameter most often used to validate earth system model simulations of aerosol mass. Relating aerosol mass to AOD, however, is problematic due to issues including aerosol water uptake as a function of relative humidity (RH) and the complicated relationship between aerosol physicochemical properties and light extinction. Measurements of aerosol microphysical, chemical, and optical properties help to constrain the relationship between aerosol mass and optical depth because aerosol extinction at ambient RH is a function of the abundance, composition and size distribution of the aerosol. We use vertical profiles of humidity and dry aerosol extinction observed in the southeastern United States (U.S.) to examine the relationship between submicron aerosol mass concentration and extinction at ambient RH. We show that the κ-Köhler parameterization directly, and without additional Mie calculations, describes the change in extinction with varying RH as a function of composition for both aged aerosols typical of the polluted summertime continental boundary layer and the biomass burning aerosols we encountered. We calculate how AOD and the direct radiative effect in the eastern U.S. have likely changed due to trends in aerosol composition in recent decades. We also examine the sensitivity of AOD to the RH profile and to aerosol composition, size distribution and abundance.

  16. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  17. Particle-resolved simulation of aerosol size, composition, mixing state, and the associated optical and cloud condensation nuclei activation properties in an evolving urban plume

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Barnard, James C.; Easter, Richard C.; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew

    2010-09-11

    The recently developed particle-resolved aerosol box model PartMC-MOSAIC was used to simulate the evolution of aerosol mixing state and the associated optical and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation properties in an idealized urban plume. The model explicitly resolved the size and composition of individual particles from a number of sources and tracked their evolution due to condensation/evaporation, coagulation, emission, and dilution. The ensemble black carbon (BC) specific absorption cross section increased by 40% over the course of two days as a result of BC aging by condensation and coagulation. Three- and four-fold enhancements in CCN/CN ratios were predicted to occur within 6 hours for 0.2% and 0.5% supersaturations (S), respectively. The particle-resolved results were used to evaluate the errors in the optical and CCN activation properties that would be predicted by a conventional sectional framework that assumes monodisperse, internally-mixed particles within each bin. This assumption artificially increased the ensemble BC specific absorption by 14-30% and decreased the single scattering albedo by 0.03-0.07 while the bin resolution had a negligible effect. In contrast, the errors in CCN/CN ratios were sensitive to the bin resolution, and they depended on the chosen supersaturation. For S = 0.2%, the CCN/CN ratio predicted using 100 internally-mixed bins was up to 25% higher than the particle-resolved results, while it was up to 125% higher using 10 internally-mixed bins. Errors introduced in the predicted optical and CCN properties by neglecting coagulation were also quantified.

  18. Impact of the March 2009 dust event in Saudi Arabia on aerosol optical properties, meteorological parameters, sky temperature and emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrabi, A.; Alharbi, B.; Tapper, N.

    2011-04-01

    On 10th March 2009 a widespread and severe dust storm event that lasted several hours struck Riyadh, and represented one of the most intense dust storms experienced in Saudi Arabia in the last two decades. This short-lived storm caused widespread and heavy dust deposition, zero visibility and total airport shutdown, as well as extensive damage to buildings, vehicles, power poles and trees across the city of Riyadh. Changes in Meteorological parameters, aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent α, infrared (IR) sky temperature and atmospheric emissivity were investigated before, during, and after the storm. The analysis showed significant changes in all of the above parameters due to this event. Shortly after the storm arrived, air pressure rapidly increased by 4 hPa, temperature decreased by 6 °C, relative humidly increased from 10% to 30%, the wind direction became northerly and the wind speed increased to a maximum of 30 m s -1. AOD at 550 nm increased from 0.396 to 1.71. The Angstrom exponent α rapidly decreased from 0.192 to -0.078. The mean AOD at 550 nm on the day of the storm was 0.953 higher than during the previous clear day, while α was -0.049 in comparison with 0.323 during the previous day. Theoretical simulations using SMART software showed remarkable changes in both spectral and broadband solar radiation components. The global and direct radiation components decreased by 42% and 68%, respectively, and the diffuse components increased by 44% in comparison with the previous clear day. IR sky temperatures and sky emissivity increased by 24 °C and 0.3, respectively, 2 h after the arrival of the storm. The effect of aerosol loading by the storm on IR atmospheric emission was investigated using MODTRAN software. It was found that the effect of aerosols caused an increase of the atmospheric emission in the atmospheric window (8-14 μm) such that the window emissions resembled those of a blackbody and the atmospheric window was almost closed.

  19. Aerosol optical thickness measurements during FIFE '89

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Markham, Brian L.

    1990-01-01

    The measurements used for correction and calibration are presented which permit the estimation of atmospheric effects on reflected and transmitted solar radiation. Four sun-photometers are calibrated and used to derive aerosol optical thicknesses that agree with expected uncertainties, and lower values and higher values are associated with cool dry northerly flows and warm humid southerly flows, respectively. The rapid increase in the vertical aerosol optical thickness after sunrise is related to the growth of the mixing layer which can be inferred from the 2D maps of the instantaneous aerosol number densities.

  20. Optical-microphysical properties of Saharan dust aerosols and composition relationship using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, in situ sensors and modelling: a case study analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayannis, A.; Mamouri, R. E.; Amiridis, V.; Remoundaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kokkalis, P.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Nenes, A.; Fountoukis, C.

    2012-05-01

    A strong Saharan dust event that occurred over the city of Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E) between 27 March and 3 April 2009 was followed by a synergy of three instruments: a 6-wavelength Raman lidar, a CIMEL sun-sky radiometer and the MODIS sensor. The BSC-DREAM model was used to forecast the dust event and to simulate the vertical profiles of the aerosol concentration. Due to mixture of dust particles with low clouds during most of the reported period, the dust event could be followed by the lidar only during the cloud-free day of 2 April 2009. The lidar data obtained were used to retrieve the vertical profile of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients) properties of aerosols in the troposphere. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) values derived from the CIMEL ranged from 0.33-0.91 (355 nm) to 0.18-0.60 (532 nm), while the lidar ratio (LR) values retrieved from the Raman lidar ranged within 75-100 sr (355 nm) and 45-75 sr (532 nm). Inside a selected dust layer region, between 1.8 and 3.5 km height, mean LR values were 83 ± 7 and 54 ± 7 sr, at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, while the Ångström-backscatter-related (ABR355/532) and Ångström-extinction-related (AER355/532) were found larger than 1 (1.17 ± 0.08 and 1.11 ± 0.02, respectively), indicating mixing of dust with other particles. Additionally, a retrieval technique representing dust as a mixture of spheres and spheroids was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean and effective radius, number, surface and volume density, and mean refractive index) inside the selected atmospheric layers. Thus, the mean value of the retrieved refractive index was found to be 1.49( ± 0.10) + 0.007( ± 0.007)i, and that of the effective radiuses was 0.30 ± 0.18 μm. The final data set of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties along with the water vapor profiles obtained by Raman lidar were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to provide a possible aerosol composition

  1. Sunphotometer network for monitoring aerosol properties in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, Brent N.; Eck, T. F.; Setzer, A.; Pereira, Alfredo; Vermote, E.; Reagan, J. A.; Kaufman, Y. A.; Tanre, D.; Slutsker, I.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite platforms have provided a methodology for regional and global remote sensing of aerosols. New systems will significantly improve that capability during the EOS era; however, the voluminous 20 year record of satellite data has produced only regional snapshots of aerosol loading and have not yielded a data base of the optical properties of those aerosols which are fundamental to our understanding of their influence on climate change. The prospect of fully understanding the properties of the aerosols with respect to climate change is small without validation and augmentation by ancillary ground based observations. Sun photometry was demonstrated to be an effective tool for ground based measurements of aerosol optical properties from fire emissions. Newer technology has expanded routine sun photometer measurements to spectral observations of solar aureole and almucantar allowing retrievals of size distribution, scattering phase function, and refractive index. A series of such observations were made in Brazil's Amazon basin from a network of six simultaneously recording instruments deployed in Sep. 1992. The instruments were located in areas removed from local aerosol sources such that sites are representative of regional aerosol conditions. The overall network was designed to cover the counter clockwise tropospheric circulation of the Amazon Basin. Spectral measurements of sun, aureole and sky data for retrieval of aerosol optical thickness, particle size distribution, and scattering phase function as well as measurements of precipitable water were made during noncloudy conditions.

  2. The Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Thickness Using the MERIS Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, L.; Rozanov, V. V.; Vountas, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Levy, R. C.; Lotz, W.

    2015-12-01

    Retrieval of aerosol properties for satellite instruments without shortwave-IR spectral information, multi-viewing, polarization and/or high-temporal observation ability is a challenging problem for spaceborne aerosol remote sensing. However, space based instruments like the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and the successor, Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) with high calibration accuracy and high spatial resolution provide unique abilities for obtaining valuable aerosol information for a better understanding of the impact of aerosols on climate, which is still one of the largest uncertainties of global climate change evaluation. In this study, a new Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) retrieval algorithm (XBAER: eXtensible Bremen AErosol Retrieval) is presented. XBAER utilizes the global surface spectral library database for the determination of surface properties while the MODIS collection 6 aerosol type treatment is adapted for the aerosol type selection. In order to take the surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) effect into account for the MERIS reduce resolution (1km) retrieval, a modified Ross-Li mode is used. The AOT is determined in the algorithm using lookup tables including polarization created using Radiative Transfer Model SCIATRAN3.4, by minimizing the difference between atmospheric corrected surface reflectance with given AOT and the surface reflectance calculated from the spectral library. The global comparison with operational MODIS C6 product, Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) product, Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) aerosol product and the validation using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) show promising results. The current XBAER algorithm is only valid for aerosol remote sensing over land and a similar method will be extended to ocean later.

  3. CALIPSO Observations of Aerosol Properties Near Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Yang, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Clouds are surrounded by a transition zone of rapidly changing aerosol properties. Characterizing this zone is important for better understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects as well as for improving satellite measurements of aerosol properties. We present a statistical analysis of a global dataset of CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) Lidar observations over oceans. The results show that the transition zone extends as far as 15 km away from clouds and it is ubiquitous over all oceans. The use of only high confidence level cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD) data confirms the findings. However, the results underline the need for caution to avoid biases in studies of satellite aerosol products, aerosol-cloud interactions, and aerosol direct radiative effects.

  4. Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2009-03-05

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  5. Photoacoustic optical properties at UV, VIS, and near IR wavelengths for laboratory generated and winter time ambient urban aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, M.; Arnott, W. P.; Zaveri, R. A.; Song, C.; Moosmüller, H.; Liu, L.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Green, M. C.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.

    2012-03-01

    We present the laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA) measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet wavelength (i.e., 355 nm) and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory-generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009 and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols) and relatively clean (aged aerosols) conditions. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively) and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion) days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood burning. The analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), Ångström exponent of absorption (AEA), and Ångström exponent of scattering (AES) for clean and polluted days provides evidences that the aerosol aging and coating process is suppressed by strong temperature inversion under cloudy conditions. In general, measured UV

  6. Photoacoustic optical properties at UV, VIS, and near IR wavelengths for laboratory generated and winter time ambient urban aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Gyawali, Madhu S.; Arnott, W. Patrick; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Song, Chen; Moosmuller, H.; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, M.; Chen, L-W A.; Green, M.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.

    2012-03-08

    We present the laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA) measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet wavelength (i.e., 355 nm) and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009 and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols) and relatively clean (aged aerosols) conditions. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m, respectively) and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}). The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion) days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood burning. The analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA), and Angstrom exponent of scattering (AES) for clean and polluted days provides evidences that the aerosol aging and coating process is suppressed by strong temperature inversion under cloudy conditions. In general

  7. Photoacoustic Optical Properties at UV, VIS, and near IR Wavelengths for Laboratory Generated and Winter Time Ambient Urban Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyawali, M.; Arnott, W. P.; Zaveri, R. A.; Song, C.; Moosmuller, H.; Liu, L.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Chen, L.-W.A.; Green, M. C.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    We present the laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA) measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet wavelength (i.e., 355 nm) and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009 and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols) and relatively clean (aged aerosols) conditions. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM (sub 2.5) and PM( sub 10) (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers, respectively) and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion) days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood burning. The analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA), and Angstrom exponent of scattering (AES) for clean and polluted days provides evidences that the aerosol aging and coating process is suppressed by strong temperature inversion under cloudy conditions. In

  8. Aerosol optical depth measuring network - project description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, A.; Koskela, K.; Lihavainen, L.

    2003-04-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), in collaboration with Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN), Argentina, is constructing a network for aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Measurements are to be started in the summer 2003 with three sunphotometers, model PFR, Davos. One of them will be sited in Marambio (64°S), Antarctica, and the rest two in the Observatory of Jokioinen (61°N) and Sodankylä GAW station (67°N), Finland. Each instrument consists of a precision filter radiometer and a suntracker. Due to the harsh climate conditions special solutions had to be introduced to keep the instrument warm and free from snow. Aerosol optical depth measured at Pallas-Sodankylä GAW station can be compared with estimated aerosol extinction, which is calculated from ground base aerosol scattering and absorption coefficient measurements.

  9. Probing the bulk viscosity of particles using aerosol optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Rory; Bones, David L.; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2012-10-01

    Holographic aerosol optical tweezers can be used to trap arrays of aerosol particles allowing detailed studies of particle properties and processes at the single particle level. Recent observations have suggested that secondary organic aerosol may exist as ultra-viscous liquids or glassy states at low relative humidity, potentially a significant factor in influencing their role in the atmosphere and their activation to form cloud droplets. A decrease in relative humidity surrounding a particle leads to an increased concentration of solute in the droplet as the droplet returns to equilibrium and, thus, an increase in the bulk viscosity. We demonstrate that the timescales for condensation and evaporation processes correlate with particle viscosity, showing significant inhibition in mass transfer kinetics using ternary sucrose/sodium chloride/water droplets as a proxy to atmospheric multi-component aerosol. We go on to study the fundamental process of aerosol coagulation in aerosol particle arrays, observing the relaxation of non-spherical composite particles formed on coalescence. We demonstrate the use of bright-field imaging and elastic light scattering to make measurements of the timescale for the process of binary coalescence contrasting the rheological properties of aqueous sucrose and sodium chloride aerosol over a range of relative humidities.

  10. Chemical Properties of Combustion Aerosols: An Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of pyrogenic and anthropogenic sources emit fine aerosols to the atmosphere. The physical and chemical properties of these aerosols are of interest due to their influence on climate, human health, and visibility. Aerosol chemical composition is remarkably complex. ...

  11. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    PubMed

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  12. Aerosol properties derived from spectral actinic flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H.; Schmidt, K. S.; Pilewskie, P.; Cozic, J.; Wollny, A. G.; Brock, C. A.; Baynard, T.; Lack, D.; Parrish, D. D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2008-12-01

    Measurement of aerosol properties is very important for understanding climate change. Aerosol optical properties influence solar radiation throughout the troposphere. According to the Working Group I report of the intergovernmental panel for climate change [IPCC, 2007], aerosols have a direct radiative forcing of - 0.5±0.4 W/m2 with a medium to low level of scientific understanding. This relatively large uncertainty indicates the need for more frequent and precise measurements of aerosol properties. We will show how actinic flux measurements can be used to derive important optical aerosol parameters such as aerosol optical thickness and depth, surface albedo, angstrom exponent, radiative forcing by clouds and aerosols, aerosol extinction, and others. The instrument used for this study is a combination of two spectroradiometers measuring actinic flux in the ultraviolet and visible radiation range from 280 to 690 nm with a resolution of 1 nm. Actinic flux is measured as the radiation incident on a spherical surface with sensitivity independent of direction. In contrast, irradiance is measured as the radiation incident on a plane surface, which depends on the cosine of the incident angle. Our goal is to assess the capabilities of using spectral actinic flux measurements to derive various aerosol properties. Here we will compare 1) actinic flux measurements to irradiance measurements from the spectral solar flux radiometer (SSFR), 2) derived aerosol size distributions with measurements from a white light optical particle counter (WLOPC) and ultra high sensitivity aerosol size spectrometer (UHSAS), and 3) derived aerosol optical extinction with measurements from a cavity ringdown aerosol extinction spectrometer (CRD-AES). These comparisons will utilize data from three recent field campaigns over New England and the Atlantic Ocean (ICARTT 2004), Texas and the Gulf of Mexico during (TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006), and Alaska and the Arctic Ocean (ARCPAC 2008) when the instruments

  13. Photoacoustic optical properties at UV, VIS, and near IR wavelengths for laboratory generated and winter time ambient urban aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, M.; Arnott, W. P.; Zaveri, R. A.; Song, C.; Moosmüller, H.; Liu, L.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Green, M. C.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    We present the first laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA) measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet (UV) wavelength (i.e. 355 nm) and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA';s acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory-generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Exact T-matrix method calculations were used to model the absorption and scattering characteristics of fractal-like agglomerates of different compactness and varying number of monomers. With these calculations, we attempted to estimate the number of monomers and fractal dimension of laboratory generated kerosene soot. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009, and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols) and relatively clean (aged aerosols) conditions. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively) and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion) days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood

  14. Optical Characterization of Metallic Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Wenbo; Lin, Bing

    2005-01-01

    Airborne metallic particulates from industry and urban sources are highly conducting aerosols. The characterization of these pollutant particles is important for environment monitoring and protection. Because these metallic particulates are highly reflective, their effect on local weather or regional radiation budget may also need to be studied. In this work, light scattering characteristics of these metallic aerosols are studied using exact solutions on perfectly conducting spherical and cylindrical particles. It is found that for perfectly conducting spheres and cylinders, when scattering angle is larger than approx. 90 deg. the linear polarization degree of the scattered light is very close to zero. This light scattering characteristics of perfectly conducting particles is significantly different from that of other aerosols. When these perfectly conducting particles are immersed in an absorbing medium, this light scattering characteristics does not show significant change. Therefore, measuring the linear polarization of scattered lights at backward scattering angles can detect and distinguish metallic particulates from other aerosols. This result provides a great potential of metallic aerosol detection and monitoring for environmental protection.

  15. Overview of ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Investigations on Aerosol Radiative Effects and Related Aerosol Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Valero, F. P. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Bergin, M.; Holben, B.; Nakajima, T.; Pilewskie, P.; Bergstrom, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A primary, ACE-Asia objective was to quantify the interactions between aerosols and radiation in the Asia-Pacific region. Toward this end, radiometric and related aerosol measurements were made from ocean, land, air and space platforms. Models that predict aerosol fields guided the measurements and are helping integrate and interpret results. Companion overview's survey these measurement and modeling components. Here we illustrate how these components were combined to determine aerosol radiative. impacts and their relation to aerosol properties. Because clouds can obscure or change aerosol direct radiative effects, aircraft and ship sorties to measure these effects depended on predicting and finding cloud-free areas and times with interesting aerosols present. Pre-experiment satellite cloud climatologies, pre-flight aerosol and cloud forecasts, and in-flight guidance from satellite imagery all helped achieve this. Assessments of aerosol regional radiative impacts benefit from the spatiotemporal coverage of satellites, provided satellite-retrieved aerosol properties are accurate. Therefore, ACE-Asia included satellite retrieval tests, as part of many comparisons to judge the consistency (closure) among, diverse measurements. Early results include: (1) Solar spectrally resolved and broadband irradiances and optical depth measurements from the C-130 aircraft and at Kosan, Korea yielded aerosol radiative forcing efficiencies, permitting comparisons between efficiencies of ACE-Asia and INDOEX aerosols, and between dust and "pollution" aerosols. Detailed results will be presented in separate papers. (2) Based on measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo the estimated 24-h a average aerosol radiative forcing efficiency at the surface for photosynthetically active radiation (400 - 700 nm) in Yulin, China is approx. 30 W sq m per AOD(500 nm). (3) The R/V Brown cruise from Honolulu to Sea of Japan sampled an aerosol optical

  16. Optical extinction of highly porous aerosol following atmospheric freeze drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Gabriela; Haspel, Carynelisa; Moise, Tamar; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-06-01

    Porous glassy particles are a potentially significant but unexplored component of atmospheric aerosol that can form by aerosol processing through the ice phase of high convective clouds. The optical properties of porous glassy aerosols formed from a freeze-dry cycle simulating freezing and sublimation of ice particles were measured using a cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS) at 532 nm and 355 nm wavelength. The measured extinction efficiency was significantly reduced for porous organic and mixed organic-ammonium sulfate particles as compared to the extinction efficiency of the homogeneous aerosol of the same composition prior to the freeze-drying process. A number of theoretical approaches for modeling the optical extinction of porous aerosols were explored. These include effective medium approximations, extended effective medium approximations, multilayer concentric sphere models, Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory, and the discrete dipole approximation. Though such approaches are commonly used to describe porous particles in astrophysical and atmospheric contexts, in the current study, these approaches predicted an even lower extinction than the measured one. Rather, the best representation of the measured extinction was obtained with an effective refractive index retrieved from a fit to Mie scattering theory assuming spherical particles with a fixed void content. The single-scattering albedo of the porous glassy aerosols was derived using this effective refractive index and was found to be lower than that of the corresponding homogeneous aerosol, indicating stronger relative absorption at the wavelengths measured. The reduced extinction and increased absorption may be of significance in assessing direct, indirect, and semidirect forcing in regions where porous aerosols are expected to be prevalent.

  17. Aerosol activation properties and CCN closure during TCAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, F.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Shilling, J. E.; Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.; Chand, D.; Comstock, J. M.; Hubbe, J.; Berg, L. K.; Schmid, B.

    2013-12-01

    The indirect effects of atmospheric aerosols currently remain the most uncertain components in forcing of climate change over the industrial period (IPCC, 2007). This large uncertainty is partially due to our incomplete understanding of the ability of particles to form cloud droplets under atmospherically relevant supersaturation. In addition, there is a large uncertainty in the aerosol optical depth (AOD) simulated by climate models near the North American coast and a wide variety in the types of clouds are observed over this region. The goal of the US Department of Energy Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) is to understand the processes responsible for producing and maintaining aerosol distributions and associated radiative and cloud forcing off the coast of North America. During the TCAP study, aerosol total number concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra and aerosol chemical composition were in-situ measured from the DOE Gulfstream 1 (G-1) research aircraft during two Intensive Operations Periods (IOPs), one conducted in July 2012 and the other in February 2013. An overall aerosol size distribution was achieved by merging the observations from several instruments, including Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer - Airborne (UHSAS-A, DMT), Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-200, DMT), and Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS, DMT). Aerosol chemical composition was characterized using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, Aerodyne Inc.) and single particle mass spectrometer, mini-SPLAT. Based on the aerosol size distribution, CCN number concentration (characterized by a DMT dual column CCN counter with a range from 0.1% to 0.4%), and chemical composition, a CCN closure was obtained. The sensitivity of CCN closure to organic hygroscopicity was investigated. The differences in aerosol/CCN properties between two columns, and between two phases, will be discussed.

  18. Identifying Aerosol Type/Mixture from Aerosol Absorption Properties Using AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Slutsker, I.; Li, Z.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Zibordi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aerosols are generated in the atmosphere through anthropogenic and natural mechanisms. These sources have signatures in the aerosol optical and microphysical properties that can be used to identify the aerosol type/mixture. Spectral aerosol absorption information (absorption Angstrom exponent; AAE) used in conjunction with the particle size parameterization (extinction Angstrom exponent; EAE) can only identify the dominant absorbing aerosol type in the sample volume (e.g., black carbon vs. iron oxides in dust). This AAE/EAE relationship can be expanded to also identify non-absorbing aerosol types/mixtures by applying an absorption weighting. This new relationship provides improved aerosol type distinction when the magnitude of absorption is not equal (e.g, black carbon vs. sulfates). The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data provide spectral aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo - key parameters used to determine EAE and AAE. The proposed aerosol type/mixture relationship is demonstrated using the long-term data archive acquired at AERONET sites within various source regions. The preliminary analysis has found that dust, sulfate, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosol types/mixtures can be determined from this AAE/EAE relationship when applying the absorption weighting for each available wavelength (Le., 440, 675, 870nm). Large, non-spherical dust particles absorb in the shorter wavelengths and the application of 440nm wavelength absorption weighting produced the best particle type definition. Sulfate particles scatter light efficiently and organic carbon particles are small near the source and aggregate over time to form larger less absorbing particles. Both sulfates and organic carbon showed generally better definition using the 870nm wavelength absorption weighting. Black carbon generation results from varying combustion rates from a number of sources including industrial processes and biomass burning. Cases with primarily black carbon showed

  19. Modeling the Relationships Between Aerosol Properties and the Direct and Indirect Effects of Aerosols on Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.

    1994-01-01

    Aerosols may affect climate directly by scattering and absorbing visible and infrared energy, They may also affect climate indirectly by modifying the properties of clouds through microphysical processes, and by altering abundances of radiatively important gases through heterogeneous chemistry. Researchers understand which aerosol properties control the direct effect of aerosols on the radiation budget. Unfortunately, despite an abundance of data on certain types of aerosols, much work remains to be done to determine the values of these properties. For instance we have little idea about the global distribution, seasonal variation, or interannual variability of the aerosol optical depth. Also we do not know the visible light absorption properties of tropical aerosols which may contain much debris from slash and burn agriculture. A positive correlation between aerosol concentrations and albedos of marine stratus clouds is observed, and the causative microphysics is understood. However, models suggest that it is difficult to produce new particles in the marine boundary layer. Some modelers have suggested that the particles in the marine boundary layer may originate in the free troposphere and be transported into the boundary layer. Others argue that the aerosols are created in the marine boundary layer. There are no data linking aerosol concentration and cirrus cloud albedo, and models suggest cirrus properties may not be very sensitive to aerosol abundance. There is clear evidence of a radiatively significant change in the global lower stratospheric ozone abundance during the past few decades. These changes are caused by heterogeneous chemical reactions occurring on the surfaces of particles. The rates of these reactions depend upon the chemical composition of the particles. Although rapid advances in understanding heterogeneous chemistry have been made, much remains to be done.

  20. Modeling the Optical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosols: Young Smoke Aerosols From Savanna Fires and Comparisons to Observations from SAFARI 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matichuk, R. I.; Smith, J. A.; Toon, O. B.; Colarso, P. R.

    2006-01-01

    Annually, farmers in southern Africa manage their land resources and prepare their fields for cultivation by burning crop residual debris, with a peak in the burning season occurring during August and September. The emissions from these fires in southern Africa are among the greatest from fires worldwide, and the gases and aerosol particles produced adversely affect air quality large distances from their source regions, and can even be tracked in satellite imagery as they cross the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. During August and September 2000 an international group of researchers participating in the Southern African Regional Science Initiate field experiment (SAFARI 2000) made extensive ground-based, airborne, and satellite measurements of these gases and aerosols in order to quantify their amounts and effects on Earth's atmosphere. In this study we interpreted the measurements of smoke aerosol particles made during SAFARI 2000 in order to better represent these particles in a numerical model simulating their transport and fate. Typically, smoke aerosols emitted from fires are concentrated by mass in particles about 0.3 micrometers in diameter (1,000,000 micrometers = 1 meter, about 3 feet); for comparison, the thickness of a human hair is about 50 micrometers, almost 200 times as great. Because of the size of these particles, at the surface they can be easily inhaled into the lungs, and in high concentrations have deleterious health effects on humans. Additionally, these particles reflect and absorb sunlight, impacting both visibility and the balance of sunlight reaching -Earth's surface, and ultimately play a role in modulating Earth's climate. Because of these important effects, it is important that numerical models used to estimate Earth's climate response to changes in atmospheric composition accurately represent the quantity and evolution of smoke particles. In our model, called the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) we used

  1. Optical Modeling and Interpretation of TRACE-P Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, W. B.; Anderson, B. E.; Browell, E. V.; Butler, C. F.; Brackett, V. G.; Jordan, C. E.

    2002-12-01

    The NASA Langley airborne UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system participated in the NASA-sponsored Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Pacific (TRACE-P) mission, designed to study transport and transformation of emissions from Asia, from February 26 to April 9, 2001. The UV DIAL system measures backscatter in both nadir and zenith at 1064, 600, and 300 nm and depolarization ratio in the nadir at 600 nm. From the lidar backscatter measurement, the aerosol scattering ratio (ASR) is determined. The ASR is the ratio of aerosol backscatter to molecular backscatter and is derived by dividing the total backscatter by a standard atmosphere molecular density profile then normalizing in some low-aerosol region of the atmosphere. The wavelength dependence of aerosol backscatter, which is related to aerosol size, is determined from the ASRs at 1064 and 600 nm. The depolarization ratio, which is sensitive to irregularly shaped particles, is used to determine the presence of dust. Dust encountered during this mission originated primarily in China, but also in India and Africa. In situ instruments onboard the DC-8 provide additional information such as meteorological parameters, aerosol size distributions and chemical composition, and gas concentrations. These in situ data are being used along with the ASRs to help determine the aerosol optical properties. These optical properties will then enable the use of the extensive lidar profiles to achieve the goal of estimating the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing of the atmosphere over the western Pacific as well as over Asia near the coast.

  2. Relating hygroscopicity and optical properties to chemical composition and structure of secondary organic aerosol particles generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Katrib, Y.; Giorio, C.; Tapparo, A.; Monod, A.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Decorse, P.; Mangeney, C.; Doussin, J. F.

    2015-03-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene in the CESAM (French acronym for Experimental Multiphasic Atmospheric Simulation Chamber) simulation chamber. The SOA formation and aging were studied by following their optical, hygroscopic and chemical properties. The optical properties were investigated by determining the particle complex refractive index (CRI). The hygroscopicity was quantified by measuring the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the particle size (size growth factor, GF) and on the scattering coefficient (scattering growth factor, f(RH)). The oxygen to carbon atomic ratios (O : C) of the particle surface and bulk were used as a sensitive parameter to correlate the changes in hygroscopic and optical properties of the SOA composition during their formation and aging in CESAM. The real CRI at 525 nm wavelength decreased from 1.43-1.60 (±0.02) to 1.32-1.38 (±0.02) during the SOA formation. The decrease in the real CRI correlated to the O : C decrease from 0.68 (±0.20) to 0.55 (±0.16). In contrast, the GF remained roughly constant over the reaction time, with values of 1.02-1.07 (±0.02) at 90% (±4.2%) RH. Simultaneous measurements of O : C of the particle surface revealed that the SOA was not composed of a homogeneous mixture, but contained less oxidised species at the surface which may limit water absorption. In addition, an apparent change in both mobility diameter and scattering coefficient with increasing RH from 0 to 30% was observed for SOA after 14 h of reaction. We postulate that this change could be due to a change in the viscosity of the SOA from a predominantly glassy state to a predominantly liquid state.

  3. A study of the physical, chemical, and optical properties of ambient aerosol particles in Southeast Asia during hazy and nonhazy days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, S. W.; Balasubramanian, R.; Wang, W.

    2006-05-01

    Many Southeast Asian countries have been constantly plagued by recurring smoke haze episodes as a result of traditional slash-and-burn practices in agricultural areas to clear crop lands or uncontrolled forest fires. However, our current knowledge on the physiochemical and optical properties of ambient aerosols associated with regional haze phenomenon is still fairly limited. Therefore a comprehensive field study was carried out in Singapore from March 2001 to March 2002 under varying weather conditions to gain a better understanding of the characteristics. The physical (size distribution of mass and number concentrations), chemical (mass concentrations of chemical components: 14 ions, 24 metals, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC)), and optical (light absorption (bap) and scattering (bsp) by particles) characteristics of ambient aerosol particles were investigated. The results are reported separately for clear and hazy days by categorizing the days as clear or hazy on the basis of visibility data. It was observed that the average concentrations of PM2.5 and most chemical components increased approximately by a factor of 2 on hazy days. Backward air trajectories together with the hot spot distributions in the region indicated that the degradation in Singapore's air quality on hazy days was attributable to large-scale forest fires in Sumatra. This visibility degradation was quantitatively measured on the basis of the light absorption and scattering by particles. As expected, scattering rather than absorption controlled atmospheric visibility, and PM2.5 particles present on hazy days were more efficient at scattering light than those found on clear days.

  4. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I—Overview and impact of elevated aerosol layers on aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, Kathleen; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A.; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail; Rogers, Ray R.; Russell, Philip B.; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek, Arthur J.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere between and within two atmospheric columns; one fixed near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second moveable column over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed at the base of the Cape Cod column, and the ARM Aerial Facility was utilized for the summer and winter intensive observation periods. One important finding from TCAP is that four of six nearly cloud-free flight days had aerosol layers aloft in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). These layers contributed up to 60% of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. In addition, while there was a great deal of spatial and day-to-day variability in the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties, no systematic differences between the two columns were observed.

  5. Optical measurement of medical aerosol media parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkany, Josif P.; Zhytov, Nikolay B.; Sichka, Mikhail J.; Lemko, Ivan S.; Pintye, Josif L.; Chonka, Yaroslav V.

    2000-07-01

    The problem of aerosol media parameters measurements are presented in the work and these media are used for the treatment of the patients with bronchial asthma moreover we show the results of the development and the concentration and dispersity of the particles for the long-term monitoring under such conditions when the aggressive surroundings are available. The system for concentration measurements is developed, which consists of two identical photometers permitting to carry out the measurements of the transmission changes and the light dispersion depending on the concentration of the particles. The given system permits to take into account the error, connected with the deposition of the salt particles on the optical windows and the mirrors in the course of the long-term monitoring. For the controlling of the dispersity of the aggressive media aerosols the optical system is developed and used for the non-stop analysis of the Fure-spectra of the aerosols which deposit on the lavsan film. The registration of the information is performed with the help of the rule of the photoreceivers or CCD-chamber which are located in the Fure- plane. With the help of the developed optical system the measurements of the concentration and dispersity of the rock-salt aerosols were made in the medical mines of Solotvino (Ukraine) and in the artificial chambers of the aerosol therapy.

  6. Toward Investigating Optically Trapped Organic Aerosols with CARS Microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, L. F.

    2009-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change notes the huge uncertainty in the effect that atmospheric aerosols play in determining overall global temperature, specifically in their ability to nucleate clouds. To better understand aerosol chemistry, the novel coupling of gradient force optical trapping with broad bandwidth coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is being developed to study single particles suspended in air. Building on successful designs employed separately for the techniques, this hybrid technology will be used to explain how the oxidation of organic compounds changes the chemical and physical properties of aerosols. By trapping the particles, an individual aerosol can be studied for up to several days. Using a broad bandwidth pulse for one of the incident beams will result in a Raman vibrational spectrum from every laser pulse. Combined with signal enhancement due to resonance and coherence of nonlinear CARS spectroscopy, this technique will allow for acquisition of data on the millisecond time scale, facilitating the study of dynamic processes. This will provide insights on how aerosols react with and absorb species from the gas phase. These experiments will increase understanding of aerosol oxidation and growth mechanisms and the effects that aerosols have on our atmosphere and climate. Progress in efforts developing this novel technique to study model systems is presented.

  7. Composition and physical properties of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer and the North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Pengfei; Toon, Owen B; Neely, Ryan R; Martinsson, Bengt G; Brenninkmei