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Sample records for aerospace engineering applications

  1. Cognitive engineering in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress that was made with respect to the objectives and goals of the research that is being carried out in the Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory (CSEL) under a Cooperative Agreement with NASA Ames Research Center is described. The major objective of this project is to expand the research base in Cognitive Engineering to be able to support the development and human-centered design of automated systems for aerospace applications. This research project is in support of the Aviation Safety/Automation Research plan and related NASA research goals in space applications.

  2. Engineering derivatives from biological systems for advanced aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfield, Daniel L.; Hering, Dean H.; Cole, David

    1991-01-01

    The present study consisted of a literature survey, a survey of researchers, and a workshop on bionics. These tasks produced an extensive annotated bibliography of bionics research (282 citations), a directory of bionics researchers, and a workshop report on specific bionics research topics applicable to space technology. These deliverables are included as Appendix A, Appendix B, and Section 5.0, respectively. To provide organization to this highly interdisciplinary field and to serve as a guide for interested researchers, we have also prepared a taxonomy or classification of the various subelements of natural engineering systems. Finally, we have synthesized the results of the various components of this study into a discussion of the most promising opportunities for accelerated research, seeking solutions which apply engineering principles from natural systems to advanced aerospace problems. A discussion of opportunities within the areas of materials, structures, sensors, information processing, robotics, autonomous systems, life support systems, and aeronautics is given. Following the conclusions are six discipline summaries that highlight the potential benefits of research in these areas for NASA's space technology programs.

  3. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum extraction and reservoir engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Back, L. H.; Berdahl, C. M.; Collins, E. E., Jr.; Gordon, P. G.; Houseman, J.; Humphrey, M. F.; Hsu, G. C.; Ham, J. D.; Marte, J. E.; Owen, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Through contacts with the petroleum industry, the petroleum service industry, universities and government agencies, important petroleum extraction problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified, where possible. Some of the problems were selected for further consideration. Work on these problems led to the formulation of specific concepts as candidate for development. Each concept is addressed to the solution of specific extraction problems and makes use of specific areas of aerospace technology.

  4. Aerospace engineering educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, William; Klett, David; Lai, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The principle goal of the educational component of NASA CORE is the creation of aerospace engineering options in the mechanical engineering program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To accomplish this goal, a concerted effort during the past year has resulted in detailed plans for the initiation of aerospace options in both the BSME and MSME programs in the fall of 1993. All proposed new courses and the BSME aerospace option curriculum must undergo a lengthy approval process involving two cirriculum oversight committees (School of Engineering and University level) and three levels of general faculty approval. Assuming approval is obtained from all levels, the options will officially take effect in Fall '93. In anticipation of this, certain courses in the proposed curriculum are being offered during the current academic year under special topics headings so that current junior level students may graduate in May '94 under the BSME aerospace option. The proposed undergraduate aerospace option curriculum (along with the regular mechanical engineering curriculum for reference) is attached at the end of this report, and course outlines for the new courses are included in the appendix.

  5. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  6. The new low nitrogen steel LNS -- A material for advanced aircraft engine and aerospace bearing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Berns, H.; Ebert, F.J.

    1998-12-31

    Development tendencies for future aircraft jet engines require new design concepts for rolling element bearings because of an overall increase of loads, temperatures, rotational speeds and the use of new high temperature lubricants. This paper reviews some of the key parameters which in the past led to the development and application of the known aircraft bearing steels such as M50, M50 NiL and recently Cronidur 30{reg_sign} (AMS 5898). The performance limits of the currently used aerospace bearing steels and the increasing demands on bearing performance for future aerospace applications gave the impact to the design of a new corrosion resistant steel grade of the nitrogen alloyed type, which is suitable for case hardening by nitrogen--the so called Low nitrogen steel (LNS). The development of the alloy (US pat. 5,503,797), the attainable properties and the corresponding heat treatment process are presented. Achievable hardness, case depth, residual stress pattern and corrosion resistance prove the new LNS to be a promising candidate for the next generation of aircraft engine bearings and for advanced, integrated bearing-gear-shaft design concepts.

  7. Applications of hybrid and digital computation methods in aerospace-related sciences and engineering. [problem solving methods at the University of Houston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. J.; Motard, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The computing equipment in the engineering systems simulation laboratory of the Houston University Cullen College of Engineering is described and its advantages are summarized. The application of computer techniques in aerospace-related research psychology and in chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, and mechanical engineering is described in abstracts of 84 individual projects and in reprints of published reports. Research supports programs in acoustics, energy technology, systems engineering, and environment management as well as aerospace engineering.

  8. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  9. Computers and the aerospace engineer

    SciTech Connect

    Trego, L.E.

    1990-03-01

    The use of computers in aerospace for design and analysis is described, and examples of project enhancements are presented. NASA is working toward the design of a numerical test cell that will allow integrated, multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization of propulsion systems. It is noted that with continuing advances in computer technology, including areas such as three-dimensional computer-aided design, finite element analysis, supercomputers, and artificial intelligence, the possibilities seem limitless for the aerospace engineer. Research projects are currently underway for design and/or reconfiguration of the V-22, B-767, SCRAMJET engines, F-16, and X29A using these techniques.

  10. Aerospace Engineering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. Activities such as the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) project at NASA Ames Research Center study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities will be reported.

  11. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  12. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  13. Job Prospects for Aerospace Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the recent trends in job opportunities for aerospace engineers. Mentions some of the political, technological, and economic factors affecting the overall employment picture. Includes a description of the job prospects created by the general upswing of the large commercial aircraft market. (TW)

  14. Magnetic Gearboxes for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A.; Sanchez-Garcia-Casarrubios, Juan; Cristache, Christian; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic gearboxes are contactless mechanisms for torque-speed conversion. They present no wear, no friction and no fatigue. They need no lubricant and can be customized for other mechanical properties as stiffness or damping. Additionally, they can protect structures and mechanisms against overloads, limitting the transmitted torque. In this work, spur, planetary and "magdrive" or "harmonic drive" configurations are compared considering their use in aerospace applications. The most recent test data are summarized to provide some useful help for the design engineer.

  15. Advancement and Implementation of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    companies within the aerospace industry have internal materials models, often proprietary, based on phenomenological, statistical, and neural network...distributions) it also applies to some mechanical properties (e.g., measurement of elevated temperature dwell fatigue under certain environmental conditions...many, if not all, near-term integrated ICME applications can be integrated the old-fashion-way by piping information between software programs

  16. Transducer technology transfer to bio-engineering applications. [aerospace stress transducer for heart function analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duran, E. N.; Lewis, G. W.; Feldstein, C.; Corday, E.; Meerbaum, S.; Lang, T.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a technology transfer of a miniature unidirectional stress transducer, developed for experimental stress analysis in the aerospace field, to applications in bioengineering are reported. By modification of the basic design and innovations in attachment techniques, the transducer was successfully used in vivo on the myocardium of large dogs to record the change in contractile force due to coronary occlusion, reperfusion, and intervention.

  17. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  18. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  19. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Doris J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Transfer Team is to assist NASA in achieving widespread utilization of aerospace technology in terrestrial applications. Widespread utilization implies that the application of NASA technology is to benefit a significant sector of the economy and population of the Nation. This objective is best attained by stimulating the introduction of new or improved commercially available devices incorporating aerospace technology. A methodology is presented for the team's activities as an active transfer agent linking NASA Field Centers, industry associations, user groups, and the medical community. This methodology is designed to: (1) identify priority technology requirements in industry and medicine, (2) identify applicable NASA technology that represents an opportunity for a successful solution and commercial product, (3) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process, and (4) successfully develop a new product based on NASA technology.

  20. iSTEM: The Aerospace Engineering Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed The Paper Plane Challenge as one of a three-part response to The Aerospace Engineering Challenge. The Aerospace Engineering Challenge was the second of three multi-part activities that they had developed with the teachers during the year. Their aim was to introduce students to the exciting world of engineering, where they…

  1. Application of powder metallurgy technique to produce improved bearing elements for cryogenic aerospace engine turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moxson, V. S.; Moracz, D. J.; Bhat, B. N.; Dolan, F. J.; Thom, R.

    1987-01-01

    Traditionally, vacuum melted 440C stainless steel is used for high performance bearings for aerospace cryogenic systems where corrosion due to condensation is a major concern. For the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), however, 440C performance in the high-pressure turbopumps has been marginal. A basic assumption of this study was that powder metallurgy, rather than cast/wrought, processing would provide the finest, most homogeneous bearing alloy structure. Preliminary testing of P/M alloys (hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness) was used to 'de-select' alloys which did perform as well as baseline 440C. Five out of eleven candidate materials (14-4/6V, X-405, MRC-2001, T-440V, and D-5) based on preliminary screening were selected for the actual rolling-sliding five-ball testing. The results of this test were compared with high-performance vacuum-melted M50 bearing steel. The results of the testing indicated outstanding performance of two P/M alloys, X-405 and MRC-2001, which eventually will be further evaluated by full-scale bearing testing.

  2. Probability and Statistics in Aerospace Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.; Howell, L. W.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph was prepared to give the practicing engineer a clear understanding of probability and statistics with special consideration to problems frequently encountered in aerospace engineering. It is conceived to be both a desktop reference and a refresher for aerospace engineers in government and industry. It could also be used as a supplement to standard texts for in-house training courses on the subject.

  3. Novel Nanolaminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Martin; Mazuruk, consty

    2006-01-01

    Nanolaminate manufacturing (NLM) is a new way of developing materials whose properties can far exceed those of homogeneous materials. Traditional alloys, composites and bulk laminates tend to average the properties of the materials from which they were made. With nanostructured materials, the high density of interfaces between dissimilar materials results in novel material properties. For example, materials made -from alternating nanoscale layers of metals and oxides have exhibited thermal conductivities far below those of the oxides themselves. Also, metallic nanolaminates can have peak strengths 100 times lager than the bulk constituent metals. Recent work at MSFC has focused on the development of nickel/aluminum oxide (Ni/Al2O3)) nanolaminates. Ni/Al2O3 nanolaminates are expected to have better strength, creep and fatigue resistance, oxygen compatibility, and corrosion resistance than the traditional metal-matrix composites of this material, which has been used in a variety of aerospace applications. A chemical vapor deposition (CW) system has been developed and optimized for the deposition of nanolaminates. Nanolaminates with layer thicknesses between 10 and 300 nm have been successfully grown and characterization has included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) Nanolaminates have a large variety of potential applications. They can be tailored to have both very small and anisotropic thermal conductivities and are promising as thermal coatings for both rock$ engine components and aerobraking structures. They also have the potential to be used in aerospace applications where strength at high temperatures, corrosion resistance or resistance to hydrogen embrittlement is important. Both CVD and magnetron sputtering facilities are available for the deposition of nanolayered materials. Characterization equipment includes SEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and mechanical tensile pull

  4. Impact of knowledge-based software engineering on aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peyton, Liem; Gersh, Mark A.; Swietek, Gregg

    1991-01-01

    The emergence of knowledge engineering as a software technology will dramatically alter the use of software by expanding application areas across a wide spectrum of industries. The engineering and management of large aerospace software systems could benefit from a knowledge engineering approach. An understanding of this technology can potentially make significant improvements to the current practice of software engineering, and provide new insights into future development and support practices.

  5. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  6. Critical Systems Engineering Accelerator: Aerospace Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ricardo; Fernandez, Gonzalo; Regada, Raul; Basanta, Luis; Alana, Elena; del Carmen Lomba, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays, the complexity and functionality of space systems is increasing more and more. Safety critical systems have to guarantee strong safety and dependability constraints. This paper presents CRYSTAL (Critical sYSTem engineering AcceLeration), a cross-domain ARTEMIS project for increasing the efficiency of the embedded software development in the industry through the definition of an integrated tool chain. CRYSTAL involves four major application domains: Aerospace, Automotive, Rail and Medical Healthcare. The impact in the Space Domain will be evaluated through a demonstrator implemented using CRYSTAL framework: the Low Level Software for an Avionics Control Unit, capable to run Application SW for autonomous navigation, image acquisition control, data compression and/or data handling. Finally, the results achieved will be evaluated taking into account the ECSS (European Committee for Space Standardization) standards and procedures.

  7. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  8. Automatix Incorporated in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, C.

    1983-03-01

    Robotic assembly and artificial vision applications are currently employed or have potential in aerospace manufacturing. Automatix vision guided robotics have been used for electronic component assembly, welding of aluminum alloys with both gas metal arc welding (MIG). Other applications include gas tungsten arc welding (TIG), and visual gauging. The unique control concept has provided a single robotic controller with virtual robotic arm interchangeability.

  9. Aerospace concurrent engineering: a modern global approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbert, Mariano; Li, Xiaoxing

    2009-12-01

    System engineering aspects, like concurrent engineering (CE) in the aerospace sector, has been studied by many authors. The change and evolution in this regard is continually influenced by the information technology advances. But global cooperation is only discussed by developed countries and high technology corporations. A review of CE and its ramifications in the aerospace industry is presented. Based on the current literature, the general lifecycle of a spacecraft and its phases are explained as well as the tools that are implemented in today's industry. In this paper we propose a new approach for the product development process in the spacecraft production industry the Aerospace Concurrent Engineering (ACE), which is mainly focused in the technology itself, its optimal design and environment impact rather than costs and marketing impact. And the potential of globally oriented research and implementation of space programs is discussed for its consideration.

  10. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  11. RICIS Software Engineering 90 Symposium: Aerospace Applications and Research Directions Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented at RICIS Software Engineering Symposium are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: synthesis - integrating product and process; Serpent - a user interface management system; prototyping distributed simulation networks; and software reuse.

  12. RICIS Software Engineering 90 Symposium: Aerospace Applications and Research Directions Proceedings Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented at RICIS Software Engineering Symposium are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: flight critical software; management of real-time Ada; software reuse; megaprogramming software; Ada net; POSIX and Ada integration in the Space Station Freedom Program; and assessment of formal methods for trustworthy computer systems.

  13. Engineering science research issues in high power density transmission dynamics for aerospace applications. [rotorcraft geared rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical and experimental approaches that will be needed to understand dynamic, vibro-acoustic and design characteristics of high power density rotorcraft transmissions. Complexities associated with mathematical modeling of such systems will be discussed. An overview of research work planned during the next several years will be presented, with emphasis on engineering science issues such as gear contact mechanics, multi-mesh drive dynamics, parameter uncertainties, vibration transmission through bearings, and vibro-acoustic characteristics of geared rotor systems and housing-mount structures. A few examples of work in progress are cited.

  14. Advanced Engineering Environments: Implications for Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D.

    2001-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's aerospace industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker all face the developer of aerospace systems. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments (AEEs) to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. These advances will enable modeling and simulation of manufacturing methods, which will in turn allow manufacturing considerations to be included much earlier in the system development cycle. Significant cost savings, increased quality, and decreased manufacturing cycle time are expected to result. This paper will give an overview of the NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment, the agency initiative to develop an AEE, with a focus on the anticipated benefits in aerospace manufacturing.

  15. Aerospace materials for nonaerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Dawn, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Many of the flame-resistant nonmetallic materials that were developed for the Apollo and Skylab programs are discussed for commercial and military applications. Interchanges of information are taking place with the government agencies, industries, and educational institutions, which are interested in applications of fire-safe nonmetallic materials. These materials are particularly applicable to the design of aircraft, mass transit interiors, residential and public building constructions, nursing homes and hospitals, and to other fields of fire safety applications. Figures 22, 23 and 24 show the potential nonaerospace applications of flame-resistant aerospace materials are shown.

  16. High-Fidelity Simulation in Biomedical and Aerospace Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Introduction / Background. Modeling and Simulation Challenges in Aerospace Engineering. Modeling and Simulation Challenges in Biomedical Engineering. Digital Astronaut. Project Columbia. Summary and Discussion.

  17. Lattice Structures For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Olmo, E.; Grande, E.; Samartin, C. R.; Bezdenejnykh, M.; Torres, J.; Blanco, N.; Frovel, M.; Canas, J.

    2012-07-01

    The way of mass reduction improving performances in the aerospace structures is a constant and relevant challenge in the space business. The designs, materials and manufacturing processes are permanently in evolution to explore and get mass optimization solutions at low cost. In the framework of ICARO project, EADS CASA ESPACIO (ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator which shows that lattice type of grid structures is a promising weight saving solution for replacing some traditional metallic and composite structures for space applications. A virtual testing methodology was used in order to support the design of a high modulus CFRP cylindrical lattice technology demonstrator. The manufacturing process, based on composite Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) technology developed by ECE, allows obtaining high quality low weight lattice structures potentially applicable to a wide range of aerospace structures. Launcher payload adaptors, satellite platforms, antenna towers or instrument supports are some promising candidates.

  18. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Aerospace engineers: We're tomorrow-minded people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Brief job-related autobiographical sketches of engineers working on NASA aerospace projects are presented. Career and educational guidance is offered to students thinking about entering the aerospace field.

  1. A review of multifunctional structure technology for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sairajan, K. K.; Aglietti, G. S.; Mani, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    The emerging field of multifunctional structure (MFS) technologies enables the design of systems with reduced mass and volume, thereby improving their overall efficiency. It requires developments in different engineering disciplines and their integration into a single system without degrading their individual performances. MFS is particularly suitable for aerospace applications where mass and volume are critical to the cost of the mission. This article reviews the current state of the art of multifunctional structure technologies relevant to aerospace applications.

  2. Adaptive control with aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadient, Ross

    Robust and adaptive control techniques have a rich history of theoretical development with successful application. Despite the accomplishments made, attempts to combine the best elements of each approach into robust adaptive systems has proven challenging, particularly in the area of application to real world aerospace systems. In this research, we investigate design methods for general classes of systems that may be applied to representative aerospace dynamics. By combining robust baseline control design with augmentation designs, our work aims to leverage the advantages of each approach. This research contributes the development of robust model-based control design for two classes of dynamics: 2nd order cascaded systems, and a more general MIMO framework. We present a theoretically justified method for state limiting via augmentation of a robust baseline control design. Through the development of adaptive augmentation designs, we are able to retain system performance in the presence of uncertainties. We include an extension that combines robust baseline design with both state limiting and adaptive augmentations. In addition we develop an adaptive augmentation design approach for a class of dynamic input uncertainties. We present formal stability proofs and analyses for all proposed designs in the research. Throughout the work, we present real world aerospace applications using relevant flight dynamics and flight test results. We derive robust baseline control designs with application to both piloted and unpiloted aerospace system. Using our developed methods, we add a flight envelope protecting state limiting augmentation for piloted aircraft applications and demonstrate the efficacy of our approach via both simulation and flight test. We illustrate our adaptive augmentation designs via application to relevant fixed-wing aircraft dynamics. Both a piloted example combining the state limiting and adaptive augmentation approaches, and an unpiloted example with

  3. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

  4. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  5. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  6. Summary of aerospace and nuclear engineering activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Texas A&M Nuclear and Aerospace engineering departments have worked on five different projects for the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program during the 1987/88 year. The aerospace department worked on two types of lunar tunnelers that would create habitable space. The first design used a heated cone to melt the lunar regolith, and the second used a conventional drill to bore its way through the crust. Both used a dump truck to get rid of waste heat from the reactor as well as excess regolith from the tunneling operation. The nuclear engineering department worked on three separate projects. The NEPTUNE system is a manned, outer-planetary explorer designed with Jupiter exploration as the baseline mission. The lifetime requirement for both reactor and power-conversion systems was twenty years. The second project undertaken for the power supply was a Mars Sample Return Mission power supply. This was designed to produce 2 kW of electrical power for seven years. The design consisted of a General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) utilizing a Stirling engine as the power conversion unit. A mass optimization was performed to aid in overall design. The last design was a reactor to provide power for propulsion to Mars and power on the surface. The requirements of 300 kW of electrical power output and a mass of less than 10,000 Rg were set. This allowed the reactor and power conversion unit to fit within the Space Shuttle cargo bay.

  7. Engineering Data for New Aerospace Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Inconel 718 S160 140 __ _ i- 0 l- 10 20 40 60 80 10 𔄀: Ti-6~d-4V ncoe 7780109 4 0 C355 2’ 0 A35 A35n701 _____ 0 ) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Temperature, F...AD-A098 520 BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABS OH F/B 11/6 ENGINEERING DATA FOR NEW AEROSPACE MATERIALS.(U)JUL 80 0 DEEL F33615śB-C-504O UNCLASSIFIED AFWAL-TR...80-4103 NL IlEmlllllllllu EIIIIIEIIEIIEE IIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIu EEEEEIIIIIIIIE 11 . 0 2. IIiM W211 111. M~ 36 IIILJL .4 il6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION

  8. Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

  9. Aerospace Power Technology for Potential Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace technology that is being developed for space and aeronautical applications has great potential for providing technical advances for terrestrial power systems. Some recent accomplishments arising from activities being pursued at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centers is described in this paper. Possible terrestrial applications of the new aerospace technology are also discussed.

  10. Technology Applications Team: Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Highlights of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Applications Team activities over the past quarter are presented in Section 1.0. The Team's progress in fulfilling the requirements of the contract is summarized in Section 2.0. In addition to our market-driven approach to applications project development, RTI has placed increased effort on activities to commercialize technologies developed at NASA Centers. These Technology Commercialization efforts are summarized in Section 3.0. New problem statements prepared by the Team in the reporting period are presented in Section 4.0. The Team's transfer activities for ongoing projects with the NASA Centers are presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes the status of four add-on tasks. Travel for the reporting period is described in Section 7.0. The RTI Team staff and consultants and their project responsibilities are listed in Appendix A. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of many individuals to the RTI Technology Applications Team program. The time and effort contributed by managers, engineers, and scientists throughout NASA were essential to program success. Most important to the program has been a productive working relationship with the NASA Field Center Technology Utilization (TU) Offices. The RTI Team continues to strive for improved effectiveness as a resource to these offices. Industry managers, technical staff, medical researchers, and clinicians have been cooperative and open in their participation. The RTI Team looks forward to continuing expansion of its interaction with U.S. industry to facilitate the transfer of aerospace technology to the private sector.

  11. Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Aerospace Academy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA) was established in September, 1993, by Cuyahoga Community College and the NASA Lewis Research Center. Funding for SEMAA was provided by NASA Headquarters' Office of Equal Employment Opportunities. SEMAA brought together five preexisting youth programs at Cuyahoga Community College. All the programs shared the common goals of 1) Increasing the participation of underrepresented/underserved groups in science, mathematics and engineering and technology careers. 2) Increasing "success" rates of all students interested in science and mathematics. 3) Developing partnerships to recognize and support students interested in these fields. 4) Supporting continued success of highly successful students. The framework for each preexisting program allowed SEMAA to have a student population ranging from kindergarten through the twelfth-grade. This connectivness was the foundation for the many decisions which would make SEMAA a truly innovative program.

  12. Current Trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jii

    A proposal for current trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan has been drawn from the suggestions made after a national conference of "Workshop on Aerospace Engineering Education Reform." This workshop was held in January 18-20, 1998, at the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan,…

  13. Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Aerospace Academy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is an annual report on the Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA), which is run as a collaborative effort of NASA Lewis Research Center, and Cuyahgoga Community College. The purpose of SEMA is to increase the percentage of African Americans, and Hispanics in the fields of science and technology. The SEMAA program reaches from kindergarden, to grade 12, involving the family of under-served minorities in the education of the children. The year being reported (i.e., 1996-1997) saw considerable achievement. The program served over 1,939 students, and 120 parents were involved in various seminars. The report goes on to review the program and its implementation for each grade level. It also summarizes the participation, by gender and ethnicity.

  14. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  15. Mobile Computing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Swietek, Gregory E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The use of commercial computer technology in specific aerospace mission applications can reduce the cost and project cycle time required for the development of special-purpose computer systems. Additionally, the pace of technological innovation in the commercial market has made new computer capabilities available for demonstrations and flight tests. Three areas of research and development being explored by the Portable Computer Technology Project at NASA Ames Research Center are the application of commercial client/server network computing solutions to crew support and payload operations, the analysis of requirements for portable computing devices, and testing of wireless data communication links as extensions to the wired network. This paper will present computer architectural solutions to portable workstation design including the use of standard interfaces, advanced flat-panel displays and network configurations incorporating both wired and wireless transmission media. It will describe the design tradeoffs used in selecting high-performance processors and memories, interfaces for communication and peripheral control, and high resolution displays. The packaging issues for safe and reliable operation aboard spacecraft and aircraft are presented. The current status of wireless data links for portable computers is discussed from a system design perspective. An end-to-end data flow model for payload science operations from the experiment flight rack to the principal investigator is analyzed using capabilities provided by the new generation of computer products. A future flight experiment on-board the Russian MIR space station will be described in detail including system configuration and function, the characteristics of the spacecraft operating environment, the flight qualification measures needed for safety review, and the specifications of the computing devices to be used in the experiment. The software architecture chosen shall be presented. An analysis of the

  16. Aerospace applications of pulsed plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey

    2012-10-01

    The use of a thermal equilibrium plasma for combustion control dates back more than a hundred years to the advent of internal combustion (IC) engines and spark ignition systems. The same principles are still applied today to achieve high efficiency in various applications. Recently, the potential use of nonequilibrium plasma for ignition and combustion control has garnered increasing interest due to the possibility of plasma-assisted approaches for ignition and flame stabilization. During the past decade, significant progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms of plasma chemistry interactions, energy redistribution and the nonequilibrium initiation of combustion. In addition, a wide variety of fuels have been examined using various types of discharge plasmas. Plasma application has been shown to provide additional combustion control, which is necessary for ultra-lean flames, high-speed flows, cold low-pressure conditions of high-altitude gas turbine engine (GTE) relight, detonation initiation in pulsed detonation engines (PDE) and distributed ignition control in homogeneous charge-compression ignition (HCCI) engines, among others. The present paper describes the current understanding of the nonequilibrium excitation of combustible mixtures by electrical discharges and plasma-assisted ignition and combustion. Nonequilibrium plasma demonstrates an ability to control ultra-lean, ultra-fast, low-temperature flames and appears to be an extremely promising technology for a wide range of applications, including aviation GTEs, piston engines, ramjets, scramjets and detonation initiation for pulsed detonation engines. To use nonequilibrium plasma for ignition and combustion in real energetic systems, one must understand the mechanisms of plasma-assisted ignition and combustion and be able to numerically simulate the discharge and combustion processes under various conditions.

  17. Design search and optimization in aerospace engineering.

    PubMed

    Keane, A J; Scanlan, J P

    2007-10-15

    In this paper, we take a design-led perspective on the use of computational tools in the aerospace sector. We briefly review the current state-of-the-art in design search and optimization (DSO) as applied to problems from aerospace engineering, focusing on those problems that make heavy use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This ranges over issues of representation, optimization problem formulation and computational modelling. We then follow this with a multi-objective, multi-disciplinary example of DSO applied to civil aircraft wing design, an area where this kind of approach is becoming essential for companies to maintain their competitive edge. Our example considers the structure and weight of a transonic civil transport wing, its aerodynamic performance at cruise speed and its manufacturing costs. The goals are low drag and cost while holding weight and structural performance at acceptable levels. The constraints and performance metrics are modelled by a linked series of analysis codes, the most expensive of which is a CFD analysis of the aerodynamics using an Euler code with coupled boundary layer model. Structural strength and weight are assessed using semi-empirical schemes based on typical airframe company practice. Costing is carried out using a newly developed generative approach based on a hierarchical decomposition of the key structural elements of a typical machined and bolted wing-box assembly. To carry out the DSO process in the face of multiple competing goals, a recently developed multi-objective probability of improvement formulation is invoked along with stochastic process response surface models (Krigs). This approach both mitigates the significant run times involved in CFD computation and also provides an elegant way of balancing competing goals while still allowing the deployment of the whole range of single objective optimizers commonly available to design teams.

  18. The Status and Future of Aerospace Engineering Education in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Francis J.

    There is no aerospace industry in Turkey, and the level of operational activity is low even though the potential for the exploitation of aviation is high. The government of Turkey hopes to establish an aircraft factory in conjunction with a foreign contractor and is aware of the need for aerospace engineering education. This paper describes the…

  19. Resource Management and Contingencies in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpati, Gabe; Hyde, Tupper; Peabody, Hume; Garrison, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    significant concern in designing complex systems implementing new technologies is that while knowledge about the system is acquired incrementally, substantial financial commitments, even make-or-break decisions, must be made upfront, essentially in the unknown. One practice that helps in dealing with this dichotomy is the smart embedding of contingencies and margins in the design to serve as buffers against surprises. This issue presents itself in full force in the aerospace industry, where unprecedented systems are formulated and committed to as a matter of routine. As more and more aerospace mission concepts are generated by concurrent design laboratories, it is imperative that such laboratories apply well thought-out contingency and margin structures to their designs. The first part of this publication provides an overview of resource management techniques and standards used in the aerospace industry. That is followed by a thought provoking treatise on margin policies. The expose presents the actual flight telemetry data recorded by the thermal discipline during several recent NASA Goddard Space Flight Center missions. The margins actually achieved in flight are compared against pre-flight predictions, and the appropriateness and the ramifications of having designed with rigid margins to bounding stacked worst case conditions are assessed. The second half of the paper examines the particular issues associated with the application of contingencies and margins in the concurrent engineering environment. In closure, a discipline-by-discipline disclosure of the contingency and margin policies in use at the Integrated Design Center at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center is made.

  20. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  1. Risk communication strategy development using the aerospace systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, S.; Sklar, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the goals and challenges of NASA's risk communication efforts and how the Aerospace Systems Engineering Process (ASEP) was used to map the risk communication strategy used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to achieve these goals.

  2. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  3. Aerospace applications of advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.; Langenbeck, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced metallic materials within the Al-base family are being developed for applications on current and future aerospace vehicles. These advanced materials offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved vehicle performance. Aerospace applications of advanced metallic materials include space structures, fighters, military and commercial transport aircraft, and missiles. Structural design requirements, including not only static and durability/damage tolerance criteria but also environmental considerations, drive material selections. Often trade-offs must be made regarding strength, fracture resistance, cost, reliability, and maintainability in order to select the optimum material for a specific application. These trade studies not only include various metallic materials but also many times include advanced composite materials. Details of material comparisons, aerospace applications, and material trades will be presented.

  4. Aerospace engineering curriculum for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, George J.

    1995-01-01

    The second year of the study was devoted to completing the information-gathering phase of this redesign effort, using the conclusions from that activity to prepare the initial structure for the new curriculum, publicizing activities to a wider engineering forum, and preparing the department faculty (Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at University of Cincinnati) for the roles they will play in the curriculum redesign and implementation. These activities are summarized briefly in this progress report. Attached is a paper resulting from the data acquisition of this effort, 'Educating Aerospace Engineers for the Twenty-First Century: Results of a Survey.'

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 35: The use of computer networks in aerospace engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Ann P.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    This research used survey research to explore and describe the use of computer networks by aerospace engineers. The study population included 2000 randomly selected U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who subscribed to Aerospace Engineering. A total of 950 usable questionnaires were received by the cutoff date of July 1994. Study results contribute to existing knowledge about both computer network use and the nature of engineering work and communication. We found that 74 percent of mail survey respondents personally used computer networks. Electronic mail, file transfer, and remote login were the most widely used applications. Networks were used less often than face-to-face interactions in performing work tasks, but about equally with reading and telephone conversations, and more often than mail or fax. Network use was associated with a range of technical, organizational, and personal factors: lack of compatibility across systems, cost, inadequate access and training, and unwillingness to embrace new technologies and modes of work appear to discourage network use. The greatest positive impacts from networking appear to be increases in the amount of accurate and timely information available, better exchange of ideas across organizational boundaries, and enhanced work flexibility, efficiency, and quality. Involvement with classified or proprietary data and type of organizational structure did not distinguish network users from nonusers. The findings can be used by people involved in the design and implementation of networks in engineering communities to inform the development of more effective networking systems, services, and policies.

  6. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  7. Key Issues for Aerospace Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Levine, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer significant advantages for future aerospace applications including turbine engine and liquid rocket engine components, thermal protection systems, and "hot structures". Key characteristics which establish ceramic matrix composites as attractive and often enabling choices are strength retention at high temperatures and reduced weight relative to currently used metallics. However, due to the immaturity of this class of materials which is further compounded by the lack of experience with CMC's in the aerospace industry, there are significant challenges involved in the development and implementation of ceramic matrix composites into aerospace systems. Some of the more critical challenges are attachment and load transfer methodologies; manufacturing techniques, particularly scale up to large and thick section components; operational environment resistance; damage tolerance; durability; repair techniques; reproducibility; database availability; and the lack of validated design and analysis tools. The presentation will examine the technical issues confronting the application of ceramic matrix composites to aerospace systems and identify the key material systems having potential for substantial payoff relative to the primary requirements of light weight and reduced cost for future systems. Current programs and future research opportunities will be described in the presentation which will focus on materials and processes issues.

  8. Training Engineers of Joint Programs for the European Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jurgen

    1985-01-01

    Examines topics and issues related to training engineers of joint programs for the European aerospace industry. Forms of cooperation, European educational systems, and skills needed to successfully work as an engineer in a joint program for the European aircraft industry are the major areas addressed. (JN)

  9. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  10. High density interconnects for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menozzi, Gaetan

    1988-08-01

    The technologies of large scale interconnectors were evaluated for chip and wire or leadless ceramic chip carriers. The packaging and interconnecting structures are either ceramic multilayer with multilayer thick film and cofired multilayer ceramic. Test results are given, technology status and next generation interconnects are described, and aerospace applications are presented.

  11. Engineering in the 21st century. [aerospace technology prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the nature of the aerospace technology system that might be expected by the 21st century from a reasonable evolution of the current resources and capabilities. An aerospace employment outlook is provided. The years 1977 and 1978 seem to be marking the beginning of a period of stability and moderate growth in the aerospace industry. Aerospace research and development employment increased to 70,000 in 1977 and is now occupying a near-constant 18% share of the total research and development work force. The changing job environment is considered along with the future of aerospace education. It is found that one trend is toward a more interdisciplinary education. Most trend setters in engineering education recognize that the really challenging engineering problems invariably require the judicious exercise of several disciplines for their solution. Some future trends in aerospace technology are discussed. By the year 2000 space technology will have achieved major advances in four areas, including management of information, transportation, space structures, and energy.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 39: The role of computer networks in aerospace engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Ann P.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from an empirical investigation into the use of computer networks in aerospace engineering. Such networks allow aerospace engineers to communicate with people and access remote resources through electronic mail, file transfer, and remote log-in. The study drew its subjects from private sector, government and academic organizations in the U.S. aerospace industry. Data presented here were gathered in a mail survey, conducted in Spring 1993, that was distributed to aerospace engineers performing a wide variety of jobs. Results from the mail survey provide a snapshot of the current use of computer networks in the aerospace industry, suggest factors associated with the use of networks, and identify perceived impacts of networks on aerospace engineering work and communication.

  13. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  14. High-End Computing Challenges in Aerospace Design and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F. Ronald

    2004-01-01

    High-End Computing (HEC) has had significant impact on aerospace design and engineering and is poised to make even more in the future. In this paper we describe four aerospace design and engineering challenges: Digital Flight, Launch Simulation, Rocket Fuel System and Digital Astronaut. The paper discusses modeling capabilities needed for each challenge and presents projections of future near and far-term HEC computing requirements. NASA's HEC Project Columbia is described and programming strategies presented that are necessary to achieve high real performance.

  15. Aerospace applications of nickel-cadmium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, S. )

    1993-05-01

    Some recent NASA applications of Ni-Cd batteries are Magellan, Topex/Poseidon, and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. Each of these automated spacecraft has a design lifetime of at least 3 years. Characteristics of the battery systems for each of these applications are given. Other topics discussed include the NASA standard Ni-Cd battery, the aerospace flight battery systems program, and the impact of the pending OHSA ruling.

  16. Materials Control for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The distant future of mankind and the ultimate survivability of the human race, as it is known today, will depend on mans' ability to break earthly bonds and establish new territorial positions throughout the universe. Man must therefore be positioned to not only travel to, but also, to readily adapt to numerous and varying environments. For this mass migration across the galaxies nothing is as import to the human race as is NASA's future missions into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), to the moon, and/or Mars. These missions will form the building blocks to eternity for mankind. From these missions, NASA will develop the foundations for these building blocks based on sound engineering and scientific principles, both known and yet to be discovered. The integrity of the program will lead to development, tracking and control of the most basic elements of hardware production: That being development and control of applications of space flight materials. Choosing the right material for design purposes involves many considerations, such as governmental regulations associated with manufacturing operations, both safety of usage and of manufacturing, general material usage requirements, material longevity and performance requirements, material interfacing compatibility and material usage environments. Material performance is subject to environmental considerations in as much as a given material may perform exceptionally well at standard temperatures and pressures while performing poorly under non-standard conditions. These concerns may be found true for materials relative to the extreme temperatures and vacuum gradients of high altitude usage. The only way to assure that flight worthy materials are used in design is through testing. However, as with all testing, it requires both time on schedule and cost to the operation. One alternative to this high cost testing approach is to rely on a materials control system established by NASA. The NASA community relies on the MAPTIS materials

  17. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  18. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to determine the feasibility of utilizing controllable mechanical seals for aerospace applications. A potential application was selected as a demonstration case: the buffer gas seal in a LOX (liquid oxygen) turbopump. Currently, floating ring seals are used in this application. Their replacement with controllable mechanical seals would result in substantially reduced leakage rates. This would reduce the required amount of stored buffer gas, and therefore increase the vehicle payload. For such an application, a suitable controllable mechanical seal was designed and analyzed.

  19. Recent GRC Aerospace Technologies Applicable to Terrestrial Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, David; Lyons, Valerie J.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Tacina, Robert R.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an overview of a wide range of recent aerospace technologies under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. The focused areas are space solar power, advanced power management and distribution systems, Stirling cycle conversion systems, fuel cells, advanced thin film photovoltaics and batteries, and combustion technologies. The aerospace-related objectives of the technologies are generation of space power, development of cost-effective and reliable, high performance power systems, cryogenic applications, energy storage, and reduction in gas-turbine emissions, with attendant clean jet engines. The terrestrial energy applications of the technologies include augmentation of bulk power in ground power distribution systems, and generation of residential, commercial and remote power, as well as promotion of pollution-free environment via reduction in combustion emissions.

  20. Projected progress in the engineering state-of-the-art. [for aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicks, O. W.

    1978-01-01

    Projected advances in discipline areas associated with aerospace engineering are discussed. The areas examined are propulsion and power, materials and structures, aerothermodynamics, and electronics. Attention is directed to interdisciplinary relationships; one example would be the application of communications technology to the solution of propulsion problems. Examples involving projected technology changes are presented, and technology integration and societal effects are considered.

  1. The Role of Computer Networks in Aerospace Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Ann Peterson

    1994-01-01

    Presents selected results from an empirical investigation into the use of computer networks in aerospace engineering based on data from a national mail survey. The need for user-based studies of electronic networking is discussed, and a copy of the questionnaire used in the survey is appended. (Contains 46 references.) (LRW)

  2. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  3. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  4. Engineers as Information Processors: A Survey of US Aerospace Engineering Faculty and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Maurita Peterson; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports on survey results from 275 faculty and 640 students, predominantly in the aerospace engineering field, concerning their behaviors about the appropriation and dissemination of information. Indicates that, as information processors, aerospace faculty and students are "information naive." Raises questions about the efficacy of…

  5. Fundamental Mechanisms, Predictive Modeling, and Novel Aerospace Applications of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Fundamental Mechanisms, Predictive Modeling, and Novel Aerospace Applications of Plasma Assisted Combustion Yiguang Ju AFOSR MURI Review Meeting...SUBTITLE Fundamental Mechanisms, Predictive Modeling, and Novel Aerospace Applications of Plasma Assisted Combustion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...stabilization • Combustion completion F135 engine: (F35, 2011) Mach 6-8 Ignition instability Plasma assisted combustion Plasma Ions/electrons Excited species

  6. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  7. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  8. Advanced Hybrid Materials for Aerospace Propulsion Applications (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Viewgraph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) February 2013- April 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced hybrid materials for aerospace propulsion applications ...Many material improvements are needed for specific aerospace propulsion applications . Because the industrial community in extremely risk-averse, the...activities focused on inert materials for solid rocket propulsion applications , including the development of alternative high-temperature thermosetting

  9. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Current research in optical processing is reviewed. Its role in future aerospace systems is determined. The development of optical devices and components demonstrates that system concepts can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  10. Potential teleoperator applications in manned aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    The trend of teleoperator development is toward digital computer controlled systems which utilize local sensor-computer-actuator loops to avoid obstacles and to sense manipulator grip-and-slip. The potential applications of advanced teleoperator technology to manned aerospace systems include long manipulator booms to be mounted on the shuttle. These can transfer cargo from the space shuttle and can acquire and retrieve objects in space. Free-flying teleoperators capable of acquiring, inspecting, repairing or refurbishing satellites in orbit are another space application. Another potential application of teleoperator technology is the concept of using an anthropomorphous teleoperator in lieu of man to control aircraft or spacecraft normally controlled by a human pilot.

  11. High Performance Fortran for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Zima, Hans; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of High Performance Fortran (HPF) for important classes of algorithms employed in aerospace applications. HPF is a set of Fortran extensions designed to provide users with a high-level interface for programming data parallel scientific applications, while delegating to the compiler/runtime system the task of generating explicitly parallel message-passing programs. We begin by providing a short overview of the HPF language. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the efficient use of HPF for applications involving multiple structured grids such as multiblock and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) codes as well as unstructured grid codes. We focus on the data structures and computational structures used in these codes and on the high-level strategies that can be expressed in HPF to optimally exploit the parallelism in these algorithms.

  12. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  13. A Knowledge-Based System Developer for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, George Z.; Wu, Kewei; Fensky, Connie S.; Lo, Ching F.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype Knowledge-Based System Developer (KBSD) has been developed for aerospace applications by utilizing artificial intelligence technology. The KBSD directly acquires knowledge from domain experts through a graphical interface then builds expert systems from that knowledge. This raises the state of the art of knowledge acquisition/expert system technology to a new level by lessening the need for skilled knowledge engineers. The feasibility, applicability , and efficiency of the proposed concept was established, making a continuation which would develop the prototype to a full-scale general-purpose knowledge-based system developer justifiable. The KBSD has great commercial potential. It will provide a marketable software shell which alleviates the need for knowledge engineers and increase productivity in the workplace. The KBSD will therefore make knowledge-based systems available to a large portion of industry.

  14. Artificial Immune System Approaches for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) combine a priori knowledge with the adapting capabilities of biological immune system to provide a powerful alternative to currently available techniques for pattern recognition, modeling, design, and control. Immunology is the science of built-in defense mechanisms that are present in all living beings to protect against external attacks. A biological immune system can be thought of as a robust, adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. Biological immune systems use a finite number of discrete "building blocks" to achieve this adaptiveness. These building blocks can be thought of as pieces of a puzzle which must be put together in a specific way-to neutralize, remove, or destroy each unique disturbance the system encounters. In this paper, we outline AIS models that are immediately applicable to aerospace problems and identify application areas that need further investigation.

  15. Technical communications in aerospace - An analysis of the practices reported by U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    The flow of scientific and technical information (STI) at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels is studied. The responses of U.S and European aerospace engineers and scientists to questionnaires concerning technical communications in aerospace are examined. Particular attention is given to the means used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Demographic data about the survey respondents are provided. The methods used to communicate technical data and the sources utilized to solve technical problems are described. The importance of technical writing skills and the use of computer technology in the aerospace field are discussed. The derived data are useful for R&D and information managers in order to improve access to and utilization of aerospace STI.

  16. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g., manufacturing and systems operation). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often lead to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost, risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographical distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative

  17. Intelligent Systems for Aerospace Engineering: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Clancey, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become extremely important for advancing the current trends in information technology. Artificially intelligent systems currently utilize computers to emulate various faculties of human intelligence and biological metaphors. They use a combination of symbolic and sub-symbolic systems capable of evolving human cognitive skills and intelligence, not just systems capable of doing things humans do not do well. Intelligent systems are ideally suited for tasks such as search and optimization, pattern recognition and matching, planning, uncertainty management, control, and adaptation. In this paper, the intelligent system technologies and their application potential are highlighted via several examples.

  18. Intelligent Systems For Aerospace Engineering: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, K.

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent systems are nature-inspired, mathematically sound, computationally intensive problem solving tools and methodologies that have become extremely important for advancing the current trends in information technology. Artificially intelligent systems currently utilize computers to emulate various faculties of human intelligence and biological metaphors. They use a combination of symbolic and sub-symbolic systems capable of evolving human cognitive skills and intelligence, not just systems capable of doing things humans do not do well. Intelligent systems are ideally suited for tasks such as search and optimization, pattern recognition and matching, planning, uncertainty management, control, and adaptation. In this paper, the intelligent system technologies and their application potential are highlighted via several examples.

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 41: Technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists: International perspective on aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The studies had the following objectives: (1) to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions, (2) to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists, (3) to investigate their use of libraries and technical information centers, (4) to investigate their use of and the importance to them of computer and information technology, (5) to examine their use of electronic networks, and (6) to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. Self-administered (mail) questionnaires were distributed to Dutch aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR) in the Netherlands, the NASA Ames Research Center in the U.S., and the NASA Langley Research Center in the U.S. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  20. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    2000-07-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g., manufacturing and systems operations). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often led to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost, risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographically distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative

  1. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    1999-01-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g. manufacturing and systems operations). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often lead to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographically distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative

  2. Aerospace Flywheel Technology Development for IPACS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLallin, Kerry L.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Fausz, Jerry; Bauer, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) are cooperating under a space act agreement to sponsor the research and development of aerospace flywheel technologies to address mutual future mission needs. Flywheel technology offers significantly enhanced capability or is an enabling technology. Generally these missions are for energy storage and/or integrated power and attitude control systems (IPACS) for mid-to-large satellites in low earth orbit. These missions require significant energy storage as well as a CMG or reaction wheel function for attitude control. A summary description of the NASA and AFRL flywheel technology development programs is provided, followed by specific descriptions of the development plans for integrated flywheel system tests for IPACS applications utilizing both fixed and actuated flywheel units. These flywheel system development tests will be conducted at facilities at AFRL and NASA Glenn Research Center and include participation by industry participants Honeywell and Lockheed Martin.

  3. Development of Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology have led to the availability of smaller and more accurate sensors. Computer power to process large amounts of data is no longer the prevailing issue; thus multiple and redundant sensors can be used to obtain more accurate and comprehensive measurements in a space vehicle. The successful integration and commercialization of micro- and nanotechnology for aerospace applications require that a close and interactive relationship be developed between the technology provider and the end user early in the project. Close coordination between the developers and the end users is critical since qualification for flight is time-consuming and expensive. The successful integration of micro- and nanotechnology into space vehicles requires a coordinated effort throughout the design, development, installation, and integration processes

  4. Physics in Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tat, Hong

    2006-12-01

    Aerospace, which includes both commercial and military applications, provides a wide variety of challenging opportunities in physics. I have worked primarily in the area of sensors with projects including airport baggage scanners and defect detection for the Space Shuttle. In my current role on the Army's Future Combat Systems, we use physical models to predict battlefield sensor performance. This talk will focus on the physical principles involved in modeling electro-optical sensor performance, including the fundamental concept of minimum resolvable contrast and minimum resolvable temperature curves. I will also touch upon my experiences at Boeing and give an overview of the range of physics-related projects at Boeing. Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, TACOM 15 SEP 2006, case 06-188

  5. IPAD applications to the design, analysis, and/or machining of aerospace structures. [Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, C. L.; Dovi, A. R.; Kurtze, W. L.; Storaasli, O. O.

    1981-01-01

    A computer software system for the processing and integration of engineering data and programs, called IPAD (Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design), is described. The ability of the system to relieve the engineer of the mundane task of input data preparation is demonstrated by the application of a prototype system to the design, analysis, and/or machining of three simple structures. Future work to further enhance the system's automated data handling and ability to handle larger and more varied design problems are also presented.

  6. [Application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in aerospace medicine].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Xie, Bao-sheng; Huang, Wei-fen

    2002-06-01

    Effects of LBNP is similar to that produced by gravitational force, especially as a stress factor on the cardiovascular system as has been concerned in the area of aerospace medicine. This paper described experimental equipment, methods and physiological effects of LBNP, especially its application in the area of aerospace medicine. Several aspects for future research were put forward.

  7. Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).

  8. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stermer, R. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Current research in optical processing, and determination of its role in future aerospace systems was reviewed. It is shown that optical processing offers significant potential for aircraft and spacecraft control, pattern recognition, and robotics. It is demonstrated that the development of optical devices and components can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  9. PMR polyimide composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.

    1982-01-01

    Fiber reinforced PMR polyimides are finding increased acceptance as engineering materials for high performance structural applications. Prepreg materials based on this novel class of highly processable, high temperature resistant polyimides, are commercially available and the PMR concept was incorporated in several industrial applications. The status of PMR polyimides is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the chemistry, processing, and applications of the first generation PMR polyimides known as PMR-15.

  10. Development and Application of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, A.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Hall, G.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring and control, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. This paper discusses the needs of space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (Nox, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. Demonstration and application these sensor technologies will be described. The demonstrations range from use of a microsystem based hydrogen sensor on the Shuttle to engine demonstration of a nanocrystalline based sensor for NO, detection. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  11. Large stable aluminum optics for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Schaefer, John P.

    2011-09-01

    Aluminum mirrors offer the advantages of lower cost, shorter fabrication time, more rugged mounting, and same material athermalization when compared to classical glass mirrors. In the past these advantages were offset by controversial dimensional stability and high surface scatter, limiting applications to IR systems. Raytheon developed processes to improve long term stability, and reduce surface scatter. Six 380 mm aperture aluminum mirrors made using these processes showed excellent stability, with figure changes of less than 0.01 wave RMS(1 wave = 633 nm) when cycled 10 times between -51 and +71 deg. C. The VQ process developed at ELCAN reduces surface scatter in bare aluminum mirrors to below 20 angstroms RMS, and has been used in thousands of production mirrors up to 300 mm aperture. These processes were employed in the fabrication of two lightweight single arch 600 mm aluminum mirrors. The two mirrors were produced in four months, with a mounted surface figure of 0.22 waves RMS and surface roughness of 20 angstroms. Mounted fundamental frequency was 218 Hz, and no figure distortion was observed at preload levels four times higher than design. Subsequently the mirrors performed well when subjected to severe environmental loadings in a Raytheon test system. This technology is being extended to ultra-lightweight sandwich mirrors, which are competitive with other material technologies used in advanced aerospace applications such as high-altitude UAV surveillance systems and satellite optics.

  12. GOAL - A test engineer oriented language. [Ground Operations Aerospace Language for coding automatic test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a test engineer oriented language has been under way at the Kennedy Space Center for several years. The result of this effort is the Ground Operations Aerospace Language, GOAL, a self-documenting, high-order language suitable for coding automatic test, checkout and launch procedures. GOAL is a highly readable, writable, retainable language that is easily learned by nonprogramming oriented engineers. It is sufficiently powerful for use at all levels of Space Shuttle ground processing, from line replaceable unit checkout to integrated launch day operations. This paper will relate the language development, and describe GOAL and its applications.

  13. A Systems Engineering Approach to Quality Assurance for Aerospace Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2014-01-01

    On the surface, it appears that AS9100 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to major aerospace test programs (or even smaller ones). It also appears that there is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge (BOK) that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination (NDE), or some type of lab or bench testing associated with the manufacturing process. However, if one examines: a) how the systems engineering (SE) processes are implemented throughout a test program; and b) how these SE processes can be mapped to the requirements of AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed. What often happens is that quality assurance during a test program is limited to inspections of the test article; what could be considered a manufacturing al fresco approach. This limits the quality professional and is a disservice to the programs and projects, since there are a number of ways that quality can enhance critical processes, and support efforts to improve risk reduction, efficiency and effectiveness. The Systems Engineering (SE) discipline is widely used in aerospace to ensure the progress from Stakeholder Expectations (the President, Congress, the taxpayers) to a successful, delivered product or service. Although this is well known, what is not well known is that these same SE processes are implemented in varying complexity, to prepare for and implement test projects that support research, development, verification and validation, qualification, and acceptance test projects. Although the test organization's terminology may vary from the SE terminology, and from one test service provider to another, the basic process is followed by successful, reliable testing organizations. For this analysis, NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 7123.1, NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements is used to illustrate the SE processes that are used for major aerospace testing. Many of these processes

  14. Biomechanics finds practical applications in aerospace research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanghe, X.

    1984-10-01

    Biomechanics is a branch of science which studies the mechanical properties of biological parts using the basic principles of mechanics and engineering. Formulas and quantitative calculations are used to analyze and understand physiological phenomena. Problems caused by weightlessness, coronary heart disease, blood circulation, use of medication, and application of biomechanics in aviation rescue are discussed.

  15. Materials research. [research concerning materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported concerned with materials for aerospace applications. Areas reported include: electrical properties of glasses, oxides and metals; structural and high temperature properties of crystalline and amorphous materials; and physical properties, and microstructure of materials.

  16. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum exploration. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1976-01-01

    Participants in the investigation of problem areas in oil exploration are listed and the data acquisition methods used to determine categories to be studied are described. Specific aerospace techniques applicable to the tasks identified are explained and their costs evaluated.

  17. NASA Engineering Safety Center NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group 2007 Proactive Task Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) chartered the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to bring forth and address critical battery-related performance/manufacturing issues for NASA and the aerospace community. A suite of tasks identifying and addressing issues related to Ni-H2 and Li-ion battery chemistries was submitted and selected for implementation. The current NESC funded are: (1) Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries (2) Binding Procurement (3) NASA Lithium-Ion Battery Guidelines (3a) Li-Ion Performance Assessment (3b) Li-Ion Guidelines Document (3b-i) Assessment of Applicability of Pouch Cells for Aerospace Missions (3b-ii) High Voltage Risk Assessment (3b-iii) Safe Charge Rates for Li-Ion Cells (4) Availability of Source Material for Li-Ion Cells (5) NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop This presentation provides a brief overview of the tasks in the 2007 plan and serves as an introduction to more detailed discussions on each of the specific tasks.

  18. Biomimetic optical sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Gorospe, George E.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Barrett, Steven F.

    2015-05-01

    We report on a fiber optic sensor based on the physiological aspects of the eye and vision-related neural layers of the common housefly (Musca domestica) that has been developed and built for aerospace applications. The intent of the research is to reproduce select features from the fly's vision system that are desirable in image processing, including high functionality in low-light and low-contrast environments, sensitivity to motion, compact size, lightweight, and low power and computation requirements. The fly uses a combination of overlapping photoreceptor responses that are well approximated by Gaussian distributions and neural superposition to detect image features, such as object motion, to a much higher degree than just the photoreceptor density would imply. The Gaussian overlap in the biomimetic sensor comes from the front-end optical design, and the neural superposition is accomplished by subsequently combining the signals using analog electronics. The fly eye sensor is being developed to perform real-time tracking of a target on a flexible aircraft wing experiencing bending and torsion loads during flight. We report on results of laboratory experiments using the fly eye sensor to sense a target moving across its field of view.

  19. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  20. Characterizing Distributed Concurrent Engineering Teams: A Descriptive Framework for Aerospace Concurrent Engineering Design Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Hihn, Jairus; Warfield, Keith

    2011-01-01

    As aerospace missions grow larger and more technically complex in the face of ever tighter budgets, it will become increasingly important to use concurrent engineering methods in the development of early conceptual designs because of their ability to facilitate rapid assessments and trades in a cost-efficient manner. To successfully accomplish these complex missions with limited funding, it is also essential to effectively leverage the strengths of individuals and teams across government, industry, academia, and international agencies by increased cooperation between organizations. As a result, the existing concurrent engineering teams will need to increasingly engage in distributed collaborative concurrent design. This paper is an extension of a recent white paper written by the Concurrent Engineering Working Group, which details the unique challenges of distributed collaborative concurrent engineering. This paper includes a short history of aerospace concurrent engineering, and defines the terms 'concurrent', 'collaborative' and 'distributed' in the context of aerospace concurrent engineering. In addition, a model for the levels of complexity of concurrent engineering teams is presented to provide a way to conceptualize information and data flow within these types of teams.

  1. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  2. Aerospace Applications Of High Temperature Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. W.

    1988-05-01

    The existence of superconductors with TcOOK (which implies device operating temper-atures the order of Top ≍45K) opens up a variety of potential applications within the aerospace/defense industry. This is partly due to the existence of well developed cooler technologies to reach this temperature regime and partly due to the present operation of some specialized components at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, LWIR focal planes may operate at 10K with some of the signal processing electronics at an intermediate temperature of 40K. Addition of high Tc superconducting components in the latter system may be "free" in the sense of additional system complexity required. The established techniques for cooling in the 20K to 50K temperature regime are either open cycle, expendable material (stored gas with Joule-Thomson expansion, liquid cryogen or solid cryogen) or mechanical refrigerators (Stirling cycle, Brayton cycle or closed cycle Joule-Thomson). The high Tc materials may also contribute to the development of coolers through magnetically levitated bearings or providing the field for a stage of magnetic refrigeration. The discovery of materials with Tc, 90K has generated a veritable shopping list of applications. The superconductor properties which are of interest for applications are (1) zero resistance, (2) Meissner effect, (3) phase coherence and (4) existence of an energy gap. The zero resistance property is significant in the development of high field magnets requiring neglible power to maintain the field. In addition to the publicized applications to rail guns and electromagnetic launcher, we can think of space born magnets for charged particle shielding or whistler mode propagation through a plasma sheath. Conductor losses dominate attenuation and dispersion in microstrip transmission lines. While the surface impedance of a superconductor is non vanishing, significant improvements in signal transmission may be obtained. The Meissner effect may be utilized

  3. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100 C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changed suddenly.

  4. Novel atmospheric extinction measurement techniques for aerospace laser system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Novel techniques for laser beam atmospheric extinction measurements, suitable for manned and unmanned aerospace vehicle applications, are presented in this paper. Extinction measurements are essential to support the engineering development and the operational employment of a variety of aerospace electro-optical sensor systems, allowing calculation of the range performance attainable with such systems in current and likely future applications. Such applications include ranging, weaponry, Earth remote sensing and possible planetary exploration missions performed by satellites and unmanned flight vehicles. Unlike traditional LIDAR methods, the proposed techniques are based on measurements of the laser energy (intensity and spatial distribution) incident on target surfaces of known geometric and reflective characteristics, by means of infrared detectors and/or infrared cameras calibrated for radiance. Various laser sources can be employed with wavelengths from the visible to the far infrared portions of the spectrum, allowing for data correlation and extended sensitivity. Errors affecting measurements performed using the proposed methods are discussed in the paper and algorithms are proposed that allow a direct determination of the atmospheric transmittance and spatial characteristics of the laser spot. These algorithms take into account a variety of linear and non-linear propagation effects. Finally, results are presented relative to some experimental activities performed to validate the proposed techniques. Particularly, data are presented relative to both ground and flight trials performed with laser systems operating in the near infrared (NIR) at λ = 1064 nm and λ = 1550 nm. This includes ground tests performed with 10 Hz and 20 kHz PRF NIR laser systems in a large variety of atmospheric conditions, and flight trials performed with a 10 Hz airborne NIR laser system installed on a TORNADO aircraft, flying up to altitudes of 22,000 ft.

  5. Space architecture education as a part of aerospace engineering curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannova, Olga; Bell, Larry

    2011-12-01

    Education is particularly important for new fields. In the case of space architecture, there are two core needs: educating the aerospace community about the architect's function and activity and design process within the enterprise; educating space architects and associated specialists about constraints, conditions, and priorities unique to human space systems. These needs can be addressed, respectively, by two key educational tools for the 21st century: introducing the space architecture discipline into the space system engineering curricula; developing space architecture as a distinct, complete training curriculum. New generations of professionals with a space architecture background can help shift professional focus from just engineering-driven transportation systems and "sortie" missions to permanent offworld human presence by offering their inherently integrative design approach to all types of space structures and facilities. Although architectural and engineering approaches share some similarities in solving problems, they also have significant differences. Architectural training teaches young professionals to operate at all scales from the "overall picture" down to the smallest details to provide directive intention - not just analysis - to design opportunities, to address the relationship between human behavior and the built environment, and to interact with many diverse fields and disciplines throughout the project lifecycle.

  6. Puncture Self-Healing Polymers for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L.; Penner, Ronald K.; Bogert, Phil B.; Yost, W. T.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2011-01-01

    Space exploration launch costs on the order of $10K per pound provide ample incentive to seek innovative, cost-effective ways to reduce structural mass without sacrificing safety and reliability. Damage-tolerant structural systems can provide a route to avoiding weight penalty while enhancing vehicle safety and reliability. Self-healing polymers capable of spontaneous puncture repair show great promise to mitigate potentially catastrophic damage from events such as micrometeoroid penetration. Effective self-repair requires these materials to heal instantaneously following projectile penetration while retaining structural integrity. Poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMMA), also known as Surlyn is an ionomer-based copolymer that undergoes puncture reversal (self-healing) following high impact puncture at high velocities. However EMMA is not a structural engineering polymer, and will not meet the demands of aerospace applications requiring self-healing engineering materials. Current efforts to identify candidate self-healing polymer materials for structural engineering systems are reported. Rheology, high speed thermography, and high speed video for self-healing semi-crystalline and amorphous polymers will be reported.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.

  8. Application of Smart Solid State Sensor Technology in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Dungan, L.K.; Makel, D.; Ward, B.; Androjna, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace applications require a range of chemical sensing technologies to monitor conditions in both space vehicles and aircraft operations. One example is the monitoring of oxygen. For example, monitoring of ambient oxygen (O2) levels is critical to ensuring the health, safety, and performance of humans living and working in space. Oxygen sensors can also be incorporated in detection systems to determine if hazardous leaks are occurring in space propulsion systems and storage facilities. In aeronautic applications, O2 detection has been investigated for fuel tank monitoring. However, as noted elsewhere, O2 is not the only species of interest in aerospace applications with a wide range of species of interest being relevant to understand an environmental or vehicle condition. These include combustion products such as CO, HF, HCN, and HCl, which are related to both the presence of a fire and monitoring of post-fire clean-up operations. This paper discusses the development of an electrochemical cell platform based on a polymer electrolyte, NAFION, and a three-electrode configuration. The approach has been to mature this basic platform for a range of applications and to test this system, combined with "Lick and Stick" electronics, for its viability to monitor an environment related to astronaut crew health and safety applications with an understanding that a broad range of applications can be addressed with a core technology.

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 49: Becoming an aerospace engineer: A cross-gender comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Laura M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a mail (self-reported) survey of 4300 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) during the spring of 1993 as a Phase 3 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. The survey was designed to explore students' career goals and aspirations, communications skills training, and their use of information sources, products, and services. We received 1723 completed questionnaires for an adjusted response rate of 42%. In this article, we compare the responses of female and male aerospace engineering students in the context of two general aspects of their educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which women and men differ in regard to factors that lead to the choice to study aerospace engineering, their current level of satisfaction with that choice, and their career-related goals and aspirations. Second, we examine students' responses to questions about communications skills training and the helpfulness of that training, and their use of and the importance to them of selected information sources, products, and services. The cross-gender comparison revealed more similarities than differences. Female students appear to be more satisfied than their male counterparts with the decision to major in aerospace engineering. Both female and male student respondents consider communications skills important for professional success, but females place a higher value than males do on oral communications skills. Women students also place a higher value than men do on the roles of other students and faculty members in satisfying their needs for information.

  10. NASA-universities relationships in aero/space engineering: A review of NASA's program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    NASA is concerned about the health of aerospace engineering departments at U.S. universities. The number of advanced degrees in aerospace engineering has declined. There is concern that universities' facilities, research equipment, and instrumentation may be aging or outmoded and therefore affect the quality of research and education. NASA requested that the National Research Council's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) review NASA's support of universities and make recommendations to improve the program's effectiveness.

  11. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

  12. Ethernet for Aerospace Applications - Ethernet Heads for the Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of aerospace applications is to reduce the cost and complexity of avionic systems. Ethernet is a highly scalable, flexible, and popular protocol. The aerospace market is large, with a forecasted production of over 50,000 turbine-powered aircraft valued at $1.7 trillion between 2012 and 2022. Boeing estimates demand for commercial aircraft by 2033 to total over 36,000 with a value of over $5 trillion. In 2014 US airlines served over 750 million passengers and this is growing over 2% yearly. Electronic fly-by-wire is now used for all airliners and high performance aircraft. Although Ethernet has been widely used for four decades, its use in aerospace applications is just beginning to become common. Ethernet is the universal solution in commercial networks because of its high bandwidths, lower cost, openness, reliability, maintainability, flexibility, and interoperability. However, when Ethernet was designed applications with time-critical, safety relevant and deterministic requirements were not given much consideration. Many aerospace applications use a variety of communication architectures that add cost and complexity. Some of them are SpaceWire, MIL-STD-1553, Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX), and Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTE). Aerospace network designers desire to decrease the number of networks to reduce cost and effort while improving scalability, flexibility, openness, maintainability, and reliability. AFDX and TTE are being considered more for critical aerospace systems because they provide redundancy, failover protection, guaranteed timing, and frame priority and are based on Ethernet IEEE 802.3. This paper explores the use of AFDX and TTE for aerospace applications.

  13. Actively Controlled Shaft Seals for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.; Wolff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with a piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changes suddenly. the experimental results were compared to the predictions from the mathematical model. The model was successful in predicting the trends in leakage rate that occurred as the balance ratio and sealed pressure changed

  14. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1995-07-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with a piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changes suddenly. the experimental results were compared to the predictions from the mathematical model. The model was successful in predicting the trends in leakage rate that occurred as the balance ratio and sealed pressure changed

  15. A Systems Engineering Approach to Quality Assurance for Aerospace Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2015-01-01

    On the surface, it appears that AS91001 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to major aerospace test programs (or even smaller ones). It also appears that there is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge (BOK)2 that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination (NDE), or some type of lab or bench testing associated with the manufacturing process. However, if one examines: a) how the systems engineering (SE) processes are implemented throughout a test program; and b) how these SE processes can be mapped to the requirements of AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed. What often happens is that quality assurance during a test program is limited to inspections of the test article; what could be considered a manufacturing al fresco approach. This limits the quality professional and is a disservice to the programs and projects, since there are a number of ways that quality can enhance critical processes, and support efforts to improve risk reduction, efficiency and effectiveness.

  16. Lightweight acoustic treatments for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naify, Christina Jeanne

    2011-12-01

    Increase in the use of composites for aerospace applications has the benefit of decreased structural weight, but at the cost of decreased acoustic performance. Stiff, lightweight structures (such as composites) are traditionally not ideal for acoustic insulation applications because of high transmission loss at low frequencies. A need has thus arisen for effective sound insulation materials for aerospace and automotive applications with low weight addition. Current approaches, such as the addition of mass law dominated materials (foams) also perform poorly when scaled to small thickness and low density. In this dissertation, methods which reduce sound transmission without adding significant weight are investigated. The methods presented are intended to be integrated into currently used lightweight structures such as honeycomb sandwich panels and to cover a wide range of frequencies. Layering gasses of differing acoustic impedances on a panel substantially reduced the amount of sound energy transmitted through the panel with respect to the panel alone or an equivalent-thickness single species gas layer. The additional transmission loss derives from successive impedance mismatches at the interfaces between gas layers and the resulting inefficient energy transfer. Attachment of additional gas layers increased the transmission loss (TL) by as much as 17 dB at high (>1 kHz) frequencies. The location and ordering of the gasses with respect to the panel were important factors in determining the magnitude of the total TL. Theoretical analysis using a transfer matrix method was used to calculate the frequency dependence of sound transmission for the different configurations tested. The method accurately predicted the relative increases in TL observed with the addition of different gas layer configurations. To address low-frequency sound insulation, membrane-type locally resonant acoustic materials (LRAM) were fabricated, characterized, and analyzed to understand their

  17. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. - Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrogation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  18. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being, developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrocation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being, applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 14: An analysis of the technical communications practices reported by Israeli and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Elazar, David; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their view about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are working in cryogenics, adaptive walls, and magnetic suspension. A slightly modified version was sent to Israeli aerospace engineers and scientists working at Israel Aircraft Industries, LTD. Responses of the Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 20: Engineers as information processors: A survey of US aerospace engineering faculty and students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Maurita Peterson; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    U.S. aerospace engineering faculty and students were surveyed as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Research Project. Faculty and students were viewed as information processors within a conceptual framework of information seeking behavior. Questionnaires were received from 275 faculty members and 640 students, which were used to determine: (1) use and importance of information sources; (2) use of specific print sources and electronic data bases; (3) use of information technology; and (4) the influence of instruction on the use of information sources and the products of faculty and students. Little evidence was found to support the belief that instruction in library or engineering information use has significant impact either on broadening the frequency or range of information products and sources used by U.S. aerospace engineering students.

  1. A standardized diode cryogenic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    2016-03-01

    The model DT-670-SD cryogenic diode temperature sensor, manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. has been used on numerous aerospace space missions since its introduction nearly 15 years ago. While the sensing element is a diode, it is operated in a non-standard manner when used as a temperature sensor over the 1.4-500 K temperature range. For this reason, the NASA and MIL-type test and performance standards designed to ensure high reliability of diode aerospace parts don't properly define the inspection and test protocol for the DT-670-SD temperature sensor as written. This requires each aerospace application to develop unique test and inspection protocols for the project, typically for a small number of sensors, resulting in expensive sensors with a long lead time. With over 30 years of experience in supplying cryogenic temperature sensors for aerospace applications, Lake Shore has developed screening and qualification inspection and test protocols to provide "commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)" DT-670-SD temperature sensors that should meet the requirements of most high-reliability applications including aerospace. Parts from acceptance and qualified lots will be available at a base sensor level with the ability to specify an interchangeability tolerance, calibration range, mounting adaptor, and/or lead extension for final configuration. This work presents details of this acceptance and qualification inspection and test protocol as well as performance characteristics of the DT-670-SD cryogenic temperature sensors when inspected and tested to this protocol.

  2. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 4:] Technical communications in aerospace: An analysis of the practices reported by US and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    Two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: (1) solicit opinions regarding the importance of technical communications; (2) determine the use and production of technical communications; (3) seek views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; (4) determine use of libraries, information centers, and online database; (5) determine use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected aerospace engineers and scientists, with a slightly modified version sent to European colleagues. Their responses to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  3. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned and technical standards. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. Systems Engineering has been defined (EINIS-632) as "an interdisciplinary approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve and verify an integrated and life-cycle balanced set of system people, product, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs". Designing reliable space-based systems has always been a goal for NASA, and many painful lessons have been learned along the way. One of the continuing functions of a system engineer is to compile development and operations "lessons learned" documents and ensure their integration into future systems development activities. They can produce insights and information for risk identification identification and characterization. on a new project. Lessons learned files from previous projects are especially valuable in risk

  4. The First "A" in NASA: Motivations for a Career in Aerospace Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This document offers a poster presentation highlighting reasons to pursue a career in aerospace engineering. These motivations are correlated with NASA's overall mission of scientific discovery and space exploration.

  5. Capillary Pumped Loops for aerospace application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschlich, Joseph M.

    1989-09-01

    The Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) is a two-phase aerospace thermal transport system with many advantageous performance characteristics. While retaining the passive nature of the heat pipe, it has demonstrated an order of magnitude greater thermal transport capacity over high performance arterial heat pipes. In this survey paper, the CPL is described and its brief history discussed. A postulated analytical design model based on thermodynamic principles is presented. Both demonstrated and potential performance advantages are given. Finally, opportunities for future research are suggested.

  6. Optical micromachined pressure sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelidis, Diogenes; Parsons, Philip

    1992-08-01

    An optical pressure sensor has been designed using silicon micromachining technology. A resonant silicon beam is mounted above a diaphragm and its resonant frequency changes with applied pressure. The sensor is temperature compensated by way of a second pressure-insensitive resonator. Both resonators are optically addressed via the same optical fiber. The sensor is designed to give an overall accuracy of 0.5 percent full-scale pressure, which is currently between 130 kPa or 3 MPa. Optical technology allows the optical pressure sensor to operate in a harsh aerospace environment where electronic pressure sensors cannot survive.

  7. High Temperature Polymer Film Dielectrics for Aerospace Power Conditioning Capacitor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2128 HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FILM DIELECTRICS FOR AEROSPACE POWER CONDITIONING CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS (Postprint...AND SUBTITLE HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FILM DIELECTRICS FOR AEROSPACE POWER CONDITIONING CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS (Postprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...development of compact capacitors which are thermally robust for operation in a variety of aerospace power conditioning applications. While such applications

  8. 77 FR 27833 - Requirements for Recognizing the Aviation and Aerospace Innovation in Science and Engineering Award

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Engineering Award AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Transportation, U.S. Department of Transportation. ACTION... ] Aviation and Aerospace Innovation in Science and Engineering) Award. Authority: 15 U.S.C. 3719 (America... an award to recognize students who develop unique scientific and engineering innovations in...

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 33: Technical communications practices and the use of information technologies as reported by Dutch and US aerospace engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Tan, Axel S. T.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (The Netherlands), and NASA ARC (U.S.), and NASA LaRC (U.S.). This paper presents responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions concerning four of the seven project objectives: determining the importance of technical communications to aerospace engineering professionals, investigating the production of technical communications, examining the use and importance of computer and information technology, and exploring the use of electronic networks.

  10. Optical Characterization of Window Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  11. Optical characterization of window materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M.

    2013-09-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  12. Suitability of 2-Wire Ethernet Solutions for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thain, A.; Le Sergent, F.; Marot, C.; Pasquier, B.

    2016-05-01

    The 100BASE-T1protocol is an Ethernet protocol allowing communications at 100 Mb/s on a single unshielded twisted pair cable. It was defined by the OPEN Alliance[1] working group that mainly comprised automobile manufacturers and suppliers, and therefore is specified for short cable lengths up to 15m. The technology originates from Broadcom who markets it as BroadR-Reach. It is of interest to the aerospace industry as a means of reducing weight, cost and installation time. In this paper we report on EMC tests performed to assess the suitability of the protocol for aerospace applications.

  13. Ceramic Integration Technologies for Energy and Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Asthana, Ralph N.

    2007-01-01

    Robust and affordable integration technologies for advanced ceramics are required to improve the performance, reliability, efficiency, and durability of components, devices, and systems based on them in a wide variety of energy, aerospace, and environmental applications. Many thermochemical and thermomechanical factors including joint design, analysis, and optimization must be considered in integration of similar and dissimilar material systems.

  14. A standardized Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    2014-11-01

    The success of any aerospace mission depends upon the reliability of the discrete components comprising the instrument. To this end, many test standards have been developed to define test protocols and methods for the parts used in these missions. To date, no recognized MIL-type standard exists for cryogenic temperature sensors that are used from room temperature to 20 K or below. The aerospace applications utilizing these sensors require the procuring entity to develop a specification which the sensor manufacturer uses to screen and qualify a single build lot for flight use. The individual applications often require only a small number of sensors with the end result being a relatively high cost and long delivery time. Over the past two decades, Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. has worked with many aerospace companies to supply Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensors for numerous missions. The experience gained from this work has led to the development of a manufacturing and test protocol resulting in 'off-the-shelf' cryogenic temperature sensors that should meet the requirements for many aerospace applications. Sensors will be available at the base part level with the ability to configure the delivered part with regard to lead wire material, package adapter, lead wire extensions, and calibration as appropriate or necessary for the application. This work presents details of this manufacturing, inspection, and test protocol as well as performance characteristics of Cernox™ temperature sensors when inspected and tested to this protocol.

  15. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

  16. Titanium cholla : lightweight, high-strength structures for aerospace applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Clinton J.; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Taggart, David G.; Gill, David Dennis; Robbins, Joshua H.; Dewhurst, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Aerospace designers seek lightweight, high-strength structures to lower launch weight while creating structures that are capable of withstanding launch loadings. Most 'light-weighting' is done through an expensive, time-consuming, iterative method requiring experience and a repeated design/test/redesign sequence until an adequate solution is obtained. Little successful work has been done in the application of generalized 3D optimization due to the difficulty of analytical solutions, the large computational requirements of computerized solutions, and the inability to manufacture many optimized structures with conventional machining processes. The Titanium Cholla LDRD team set out to create generalized 3D optimization routines, a set of analytically optimized 3D structures for testing the solutions, and a method of manufacturing these complex optimized structures. The team developed two new computer optimization solutions: Advanced Topological Optimization (ATO) and FlexFEM, an optimization package utilizing the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) software for stress analysis. The team also developed several new analytically defined classes of optimized structures. Finally, the team developed a 3D capability for the Laser Engineered Net Shaping{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) additive manufacturing process including process planning for 3D optimized structures. This report gives individual examples as well as one generalized example showing the optimized solutions and an optimized metal part.

  17. Technological Innovation and Technical Communications: Their Place in Aerospace Engineering Curricula. A Survey of European, Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports on results from 260 aerospace engineers and scientists in United States, Europe, and Japan regarding their opinions about professional importance of technical communications; generation and utilization of technical communications; and relevant content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The fields of cryogenics,…

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 11: The Voice of the User: How US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists View DoD Technical Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The project examines how the results of NASA/DOD research diffuse into the aerospace R&D process, and empirically analyzes the implications of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Specific issues considered are the roles played by government technical reports, the recognition of the value of scientific and technical information (STI), and the optimization of the STI aerospace transfer system. Information-seeking habits are assessed for the U.S. aerospace community, the general community, the academic sector, and the international community. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists use 65 percent of working time to communicate STI, and prefer 'internal' STI over 'external' STI. The isolation from 'external' information is found to be detrimental to U.S. aerospace R&D in general.

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 17: A comparison of the technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and NASA Ames Research Center, and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Dutch and U.S. surveys were 55 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 31: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SME mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with, not necessarily belonging to, the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME).

  1. Concurrent Engineering Working Group White Paper Distributed Collaborative Design: The Next Step in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith; Borden, Chester

    2011-01-01

    As aerospace missions grow larger and more technically complex in the face of ever tighter budgets, it will become increasingly important to use concurrent engineering methods in the development of early conceptual designs because of their ability to facilitate rapid assessments and trades of performance, cost and schedule. To successfully accomplish these complex missions with limited funding, it is essential to effectively leverage the strengths of individuals and teams across government, industry, academia, and international agencies by increased cooperation between organizations. As a result, the existing concurrent engineering teams will need to increasingly engage in distributed collaborative concurrent design. The purpose of this white paper is to identify a near-term vision for the future of distributed collaborative concurrent engineering design for aerospace missions as well as discuss the challenges to achieving that vision. The white paper also documents the advantages of creating a working group to investigate how to engage the expertise of different teams in joint design sessions while enabling organizations to maintain their organizations competitive advantage.

  2. Aerospace Sensor Systems: From Sensor Development To Vehicle Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of years of sensor system development and application for aerospace systems. The emphasis of this work is on developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion and crew vehicle systems as well as monitoring the safety of those systems. Specific areas of work include chemical species sensors, thin film thermocouples and strain gages, heat flux gages, fuel gages, SiC based electronic devices and sensors, space qualified electronics, and MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as integrated and multifunctional sensor systems. Each sensor type has its own technical challenges related to integration and reliability in a given application. The general approach has been to develop base sensor technology using microfabrication techniques, integrate sensors with "smart" hardware and software, and demonstrate those systems in a range of aerospace applications. Descriptions of the sensor elements, their integration into sensors systems, and examples of sensor system applications will be discussed. Finally, suggestions related to the future of sensor technology will be given. It is concluded that smart micro/nano sensor technology can revolutionize aerospace applications, but significant challenges exist in maturing the technology and demonstrating its value in real-life applications.

  3. Implications of Pb-free microelectronics assembly in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, A. A.; Bonner, J. K.; Ogunseitan, D.; Saphores, J. D.; Schoenung, J.

    2003-01-01

    The commercial microelectronics industry is rapidly moving to completely Pb-free assembly strategies within the next decade. This trend is being driven by existing and proposed legislation in Europe and in Japan. The microelectronics industry has become truly global, as indicated by major U .S. firms who already adopted Pb-free implementation programs. Among these forward-looking firms are AT&T, IBM, Motorola, HP and Intel to name a few.Following Moore's law, advances in microelectronics are happening very rapidly. In many cases, commercial industry is ahead of the aerospace sector in technology. Progress by commercial industry, along with cost, drives the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts for military and space applications. We can thus anticipate that the aerospace industry will, at some point, be forced to use Pb-free components and subsystems as part of their standard business practices. In this paper we attempt to provide a snapshot of the commercial industry trends and how they may impact electronics in the aerospace environment. In addition, we also look at different strategies for implementation. Finally we present data collected on a recent NASA project to focus on finding suitable alternatives to eutectic tin-lead solders and solder pastes. The world is moving toward implementation of environmentally friendly manufacturing techniques. The aerospace industry will be forced to deal with issues related with Pb free assembly, either by availability or legislation. This paper provides some insight into some of the tradeoffs that should be considered.

  4. Aerospace System Unified Life Cycle Engineering Producibility Measurement Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    system to a heterogeneous environment with exterior large independent programs, such a Finite Element Model (FEM) or a Computational Fluid Dynamics ...presents a plan for the develop- ment of a design environment of an aerospace design synthesis model with a producibility module. Included is a description...and Tools .......................................... ES-6 E. Producibility Synthesis Model Development Plan .............................. ES-7 1. Life

  5. Wear Characteristics of Oleophobic Coatings in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Hamza; Basit, Kanza

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the wear characteristics of oleophobic coatings when applied over Inconel 718, which has widespread applications in the aerospace industry. Coatings once applied were selectively exposed to controlled uni-and then multi-directional stand storm conditions. Size and speed of sand particles colliding with the work surface were carefully moderated to simulate sand storm conditions. Study of friction was performed using Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM) coupled with standard optical microscopy. The analysis has been used to devise a coefficient of friction value and in turn suggest wear behavior of the coated surface including the time associated with exposure of the base substrate. The analysis after validation aims to suggest methods for safe usage of these coatings for aerospace applications.

  6. Wear Characteristics of Oleophobic Coatings in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Hamza; Siddiqui, Bilal A.; Saleem, Sajid

    This paper investigates the wear characteristics of oleophobic coatings when applied over Inconel 718, which has widespread applications in the aerospace industry. Coatings once applied were selectively exposed to controlled uni-and then multi-directional stand storm conditions. Size and speed of sand particles colliding with the work surface were carefully moderated to simulate sand storm conditions. Study of friction was performed using Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM) coupled with standard optical microscopy. The analysis has been used to devise a coefficient of friction value and in turn suggest wear behavior of the coated surface including the time associated with exposure of the base substrate. The analysis after validation aims to suggest methods for safe usage of these coatings for aerospace applications.

  7. Aerospace applications of high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinen, V. O.; Connolly, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Space application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials may occur before most terrestrial applications because of the passive cooling possibilities in space and because of the economic feasibility of introducing an expensive new technology which has a significant system benefit in space. NASA Lewis Research Center has an ongoing program to develop space technology capitalizing on the potential benefit of HTS materials. The applications being pursued include space communications, power and propulsion systems, and magnetic bearings. In addition, NASA Lewis is pursuing materials research to improve the performance of HTS materials for space applications.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Superalloys for Aerospace Applications (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    minimum quality standards, for example, as defined in MIL-STD 2219 , Fusion Welding for Aerospace Applications, Class A. Typical features that one...properties at room temperature and elevated temperatures, creep stress rupture, and some low cycle fatigue . Selected typical results are shown for... fatigue test results for IN 718 using the EBWD process. Strain-controlled LCF at 1000oF, A=1.0, strain=0.4%. 3 Creep testing results for IN 718 using

  9. Hybrid Control Systems: Design and Analysis for Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-28

    COVERED (From - To) 15-02-2006 - 30-11-200! 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hybrid control systems : Design and analysis for aerospace applications 5a...of this research was to contribute to the fundamental understanding of hybrid control systems and to explore the use of hybrid feedback in problems...of interest to the Air Force. We aimed to provide a solid, foundational understanding of hybrid systems that will enable the vast potential of hybrid

  10. Magnetic Gearing Versus Conventional Gearing in Actuators for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puchhammer, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic geared actuators (MGA) are designed to perform highly reliable, robust and precise motion on satellite platforms or aerospace vehicles. The design allows MGA to be used for various tasks in space applications. In contrast to conventional geared drives, the contact and lubrication free force transmitting elements lead to a considerable lifetime and range extension of drive systems. This paper describes the fundamentals of magnetic wobbling gears (MWG) and the deduced inherent characteristics, and compares conventional and magnetic gearing.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 55: Career goals and educational preparation of aerospace engineering and science students: An international perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey of aerospace engineering and science students conducted in India, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The similarities and differences among aerospace engineering and science students from the five countries are examined in the context of two general aspects of educational experience. First, the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that led to the choice of a career in aerospace, their current levels of satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives is considered. Second, the importance of certain communications/information-use skills for professional use is examined, as well as the frequency of use and importance of specific information sources and products to meet students' educational needs. Overall, the students who participated in this research remain relatively happy with the choice of a career in aerospace engineering, despite pessimism in some quarters about the future of the industry. Regardless of national identity, aerospace engineering and science students appear to share a similar vision of the profession in terms of their career goals and aspirations. The data also indicate that aerospace engineering and science students are well aware of the importance of communications/information-use skills to professional success and that competency in these skills will help them to be productive members of their profession. Collectively, all of the students appear to use and value similar information sources and products, although some differences appear by country.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 18: A comparison of the technical communication practices of aerospace engineers and scientists in India and the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of India and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Science and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the India and U.S. surveys were 48 and 53 percent, respectively. Responses of the India and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 28: The technical communication practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communication practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions; second, to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of the undergraduate course in technical communication; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to Russian aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) and to their U.S. counterparts at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Russian and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 29: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Japanese and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third; to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists in Japan and at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Japanese and U.S. surveys were 85 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Japanese and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 16: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), NASA ARC, and NASA LaRC. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. The responses of the Russian and U.S. participants, to selected questions, are presented in this report.

  16. Aerospace applications of high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J.; Heinen, V. O.; Aron, P. R.; Lazar, J.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of all the applications that are part of the NASA program to develop space technology capitalizing on the potential benefit of high temperature superconducting materials. The applications in three major areas are being pursued: sensors and cryogenic systems, space communications, and propulsion and power systems. This review places emphasis on space communications applications and the propulsion and power applications. It is concluded that the power and propulsion applications will eventually be limited by structural considerations rather than by the availability of suitable superconductors. A cursory examination of structural limitations implied by the virial theorem suggested that there is an upper limit to the size of high field magnetic systems that are feasible in space.

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 45; The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 3 US Aerospace Engineering Educators Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. Little is also known about the intermediary-based system that is used to transfer the results of federally funded R&D to the U.S. aerospace industry. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports, present a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and identified themselves as educators.

  18. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 4:] Technical communications in aerospace: An analysis of the practices reported by US and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from pilot surveys on the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. and NATO-nation aerospace scientists and engineers, undertaken as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. The survey procedures and the demographic characteristics of the 67 scientists and engineers who responded to the survey are summarized, and the results are presented in a series of tables and discussed in detail. Findings emphasized include: (1) both U.S. and NATO respondents spend around 60 percent of their work week producing or using STI products; (2) NATO respondents are more likely than their U.S. counterparts to use 'formal' STI products (like technical reports and papers) and the services of librarians and online data bases; (3) most of the respondents use computers and information technology in preparing STI products; and (4) respondents who had taken courses in technical communication agreed on the value and ideal subject matter of such courses.

  19. Electronic Components for use in Extreme Temperature Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Electrical power management and control systems designed for use in planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electronics that are capable of efficient and reliable operation under extreme temperature conditions. Space-based infra-red satellites, all-electric ships, jet engines, electromagnetic launchers, magnetic levitation transport systems, and power facilities are also typical examples where the electronics are expected to be exposed to harsh temperatures and to operate under severe thermal swings. Most commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are not designed to function under such extreme conditions and, therefore, new parts must be developed or the conventional devices need to be modified. For example, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units in order to maintain the surrounding temperature of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. At the other end, built-in radiators and coolers render the operation of electronics possible under hot conditions. These thermal measures lead to design complexity, affect development costs, and increase size and weight. Electronics capable of operation at extreme temperatures, thus, will not only tolerate the hostile operational environment, but also make the overall system efficient, more reliable, and less expensive. The Extreme Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electronics suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices, including COTS parts, for potential use under extreme temperatures. These components include semiconductor switching devices, passive devices, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators. An overview of the program will be presented along with some experimental findings.

  20. Development of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, W. H.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, fire detection, and environmental monitoring. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to issues of selectivity and cross-sensitivity, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. This paper discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  1. Aerospace Engineering Systems and the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: 1) Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; 2) Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; 3) Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and 4) Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. The Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) activity at NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities are reported.

  2. Fiber optic interferometric sensors for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses two fiber optic sensor development programs in the Photonics Laboratory, NASA Ames Research Center, one in progress and the other being initiated. The ongoing program involves development of advanced acoustic sensors for wind tunnel applications. The new undertaking involves development of a novel sensor technique for studies of aerodynamic transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

  3. Electrically conducting polymers for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Gaier, James R.; Good, Brian S.; Sharp, G. R.; Meador, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Current research on electrically conducting polymers from 1974 to the present is reviewed focusing on the development of materials for aeronautic and space applications. Problems discussed include extended pi-systems, pyrolytic polymers, charge-transfer systems, conductive matrix resins for composite materials, and prospects for the use of conducting polymers in space photovoltaics.

  4. Applications of fiber optic sensors in the aerospace and marine industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Brian

    Current and potential aerospace and marine applications of fiber-optic device technology are surveyed and illustrated with diagrams, drawings, and photographs. Consideration is given to fiber-optic gyros for guidance and navigation; temperature, pressure, displacement, smoke-detection, fuel-level and fuel-flow, vibration, and acceleration sensors for flight-control systems; sensors for turbine-engine monitoring and testing; and embedded-fiber testing and process-monitoring methods for advanced composite materials. The specifically marine applications discussed are arrays of hydrophones and magnetometers based on fibers with acoustic and magnetic coatings, respectively.

  5. Intelligent hypertext systems for aerospace engineering applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a progress report on the utilization of AI technology for assisting users locating and understanding technical information in manuals used for planning and conducting wind tunnel test. The specific goal is to create an Intelligent Hypertext System (IHS) for wind tunnel testing which combines the computerized manual in the form of hypertext and an advisory system that stores experts' knowledge and experiences. A prototype IHS for conducting transonic wind tunnel testing has been constructed with limited knowledge base. The prototype is being evaluated by potential users.

  6. Electrospun Electroactive Polymers for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlowski, Kristin J.; St.Clair, Tyler L.; McReynolds, Amber C.; Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Siochi, Emilie J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Electrospun piezoelectric polymers are being developed for use as a component on lightweight wings for micro-air vehicles (MAV). The goal is to incorporate fibers with tailored properties to permit dynamic control and maneuverability during flight. In particular, electrospun fiber mats of two piezoelectric polymers were investigated to ascertain their potential for the MAV application. In the work reported here, the typical experimental set-up for electrospinning was modified to induce fiber orientation in the spun mats. The morphologies of the resulting fibers and fiber mats were evaluated for various experimental conditions, and a comparison between oriented and unoriented fiber mats was carried out.

  7. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  8. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute are reported. A survey of more than 300 major medical device manufacturers has been initiated for the purpose of determining their interest and opinions in regard to participating in the NASA Technology Utilization Program. Design and construction has been commissioned of a permanent exhibit of NASA Biomedical Application Team accomplishments for the aerospace building of the North Carolina Museum of Life and Science at Durham, North Carolina. The team has also initiated an expansion of its activities into the Northeastern United States.

  9. Micro/Nanoscale Chemicalsensor Systems for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary; Xu, Jennifer; Evans, Laura; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin; Ward, Benjamin; Rowe, Scott; Makel, Darby; Liu, Chung Chiun; Dutta, Prabir; Berger, Gordon; VanderWal, Randy

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace industry requires development of a range of chemical-sensor technologies for applications including emissions monitoring as well as fuel-leak and fire detection. Improvements in sensing technology are necessary to increase safety, reduce emissions, and increase performance. The overall aim is to develop intelligent-vehicle systems that can autonomously monitor their state and respond to environmental changes. A range of chemical sensors is under development to meet these needs, based in part on microfabrication technology which produces sensors of minimal size, weight, and power consumption. We have fabricated a range of sensor platforms, integrated them with hardware to form complete sensor systems, and demonstrated their applicability.

  10. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel consumption, engine design and testing, computerized simulation, and lubrication systems relative to the Stirling cycle engine. Solar energy conversion research, thermodynamic efficiency, economics, and utilization for power generation and automobile engines are included. Materials used in Stirling engines are briefly evaluated. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Aerospace engineering design by systematic decomposition and multilevel optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Giles, G. L.; Barthelemy, J.-F. M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a method for systematic analysis and optimization of large engineering systems, e.g., aircraft, by decomposition of a large task into a set of smaller, self-contained subtasks that can be solved concurrently. The subtasks may be arranged in many hierarchical levels with the assembled system at the top level. Analyses are carried out in each subtask using inputs received from other subtasks, and are followed by optimizations carried out from the bottom up. Each optimization at the lower levels is augmented by analysis of its sensitivity to the inputs received from other subtasks to account for the couplings among the subtasks in a formal manner. The analysis and optimization operations alternate iteratively until they converge to a system design whose performance is maximized with all constraints satisfied. The method, which is still under development, is tentatively validated by test cases in structural applications and an aircraft configuration optimization. It is pointed out that the method is intended to be compatible with the typical engineering organization and the modern technology of distributed computing.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 45: A comparison of the information-seeking behaviors of three groups of US aerospace engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the transfer of scientific and technical information (STI) in aerospace, it is necessary to understand the characteristics and behaviors of those who create and use STI. In this paper, we analyze the similarities and differences in the scientific and technical information-seeking behaviors of three groups of US aerospace engineers and scientists. We describe some of their demographic characteristics and their duties and responsibilities as a method of understanding their STI use patterns. There is considerable diversity among aerospace engineers in their use of STI. In general, engineers engaged in research use more STI than those who are in design/development and manufacturing/production. Research engineers also use different standards to determine the STI sources and products that they will use.

  13. Aerospace engineering design by systematic decomposition and multilevel optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Barthelemy, J. F. M.; Giles, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    A method for systematic analysis and optimization of large engineering systems, by decomposition of a large task into a set of smaller subtasks that is solved concurrently is described. The subtasks may be arranged in hierarchical levels. Analyses are carried out in each subtask using inputs received from other subtasks, and are followed by optimizations carried out from the bottom up. Each optimization at the lower levels is augmented by analysis of its sensitivity to the inputs received from other subtasks to account for the couplings among the subtasks in a formal manner. The analysis and optimization operations alternate iteratively until they converge to a system design whose performance is maximized with all constraints satisfied. The method, which is still under development, is tentatively validated by test cases in structural applications and an aircraft configuration optimization.

  14. Biomedical engineering in the early U.S. aerospace program.

    PubMed

    Greatbatch, W

    1989-08-01

    Much of the bioinstrumentation in the early U.S. aerospace program in the 1950's was undertaken by the U.S. Air Force, first at Randolph Field, TX, and then at Brooks AFB, TX. We document here some of the equipment and some of the experiences encountered by the early experimenters. This period coincided with the introduction of solid-state circuitry into biomedical instrumentation and also strongly influenced research into the electrochemical interface between metal electrodes and the ionic body environment. The author recalls much of his own early work, as well as his recollections of some of the other early researchers.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 14: Engineering work and information use in aerospace: Results of a telephone survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1992-01-01

    A telephone survey of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list was conducted between August 14-26, 1991. The survey was undertaken to obtain information on the daily work activities of aerospace engineers and scientists, to measure various practices used by aerospace engineers and scientists to obtain STI, and to ask aerospace engineers and scientists about their use of electronic networks. Co-workers were found important sources of information. Co-workers are used to obtain technical information because the information they have is relevant, not because co-workers are accessible. As technical uncertainty increases, so does the need for information internal and external to the organization. Electronic networks enjoy widespread use within the aerospace community. These networks are accessible and they are used to contact people at remote sites. About 80 percent of the respondents used electronic mail, file transfer, and information or data retrieval to commercial or in-house data bases.

  16. Amplified piezoelectric actuators: from aerospace to underwater applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchilloux, Philippe; Claeyssen, Frank; Le Letty, Ronan

    2004-07-01

    Aerospace and underwater applications typically require actuators capable of large displacements, precise positioning, and fast response times. To meet these requirements, several classes of actuators based on low-voltage piezoelectric materials have been developed, and, in the case of the Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators (APA series), space qualified. The APA actuators offer large displacements (up to 1mm), large deformations (up to 3%), and large forces (up to 1kN) at low electrical power. These actuators can withstand large external forces and have successfully passed severe qualification tests such as centrifugal accelerations and vibration forces encountered during space launch. Aerospace applications of APAs include scientific instrumentation, such as telescopes and microscopes, microsatellite propulsion valves, and structural vibration control. Aeronautical applications include active flap control in aircraft wings and helicopter blades. Underwater applications focus on the silencing of ships, the piezodiagnostic (NDE) of structural defects in pipelines and hulls, and guidance systems of unmanned vehicles. This paper reviews the use of piezoelectric actuators, in particular APAs, in such applications. Qualification results, when available, are presented and discussed.

  17. The National Evaluation of NASA's Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Alina; Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    This report presents findings from a NASA requested evaluation in 2008, which contains both implementation and impact modules. The implementation study investigated how sites implement Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA) and the contextual factors important in this implementation. The implementation study used data…

  18. An Evaluation of a Course That Introduces Undergraduate Students to Authentic Aerospace Engineering Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mena, Irene B.; Schmitz, Sven; McLaughlin, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and assessment of an aerospace engineering course in which undergraduate students worked on research projects with graduate research mentors. The course was created using the principles from cooperative learning and project-based learning, and consisted of students working in small groups on a complex,…

  19. Recent Advances In Optimization Of Aerospace Structures And Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao*, J. S.

    Optimization theories have been well advanced during the last few decades; however when it came to handle real life engineering structures it has been always time consuming and approximate when the structure geometry is highly complex. Design of Experiments has helped in understanding the influence of size and shape parameters on achieving a specified objective function with required constraints and a suitable analysis platform, but has its limitations in arriving at the final optimal solution. There are several commercial codes that addressed this need to handle large size structures subjected to dynamic loads. Most advanced tools in this category are Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy available in Altair HyperWorks suite. Application of these tools in achieving optimum solutions for linear advanced aircraft structures for minimization of weight are first explained. The application of these tools for globally elastic and locally plastic nonlinear structures to reduce local plastic strains and achieve higher life under dynamic loads will then be discussed.

  20. Aerospace Concurrent Engineering Design Teams: Current State, Next Steps and a Vision for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Borden, Chester; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Over the past sixteen years, government aerospace agencies and aerospace industry have developed and evolved operational concurrent design teams to create novel spaceflight mission concepts and designs. These capabilities and teams, however, have evolved largely independently. In today's environment of increasingly complex missions with limited budgets it is becoming readily apparent that both implementing organizations and today's concurrent engineering teams will need to interact more often than they have in the past. This will require significant changes in the current state of practice. This paper documents the findings from a concurrent engineering workshop held in August 2010 to identify the key near term improvement areas for concurrent engineering capabilities and challenges to the long-term advancement of concurrent engineering practice. The paper concludes with a discussion of a proposed vision for the evolution of these teams over the next decade.

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 21: Technological innovation and technical communications: Their place in aerospace engineering curricula. A survey of European, Japanese, and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Holland, Maurita Peterson; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Aerospace engineers and scientists from Western Europe, Japan, and the United States were surveyed as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Questionnaires were used to solicit their opinions regarding the following: (1) the importance of technical communications to their profession; (2) the use and production of technical communications; and (3) their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The ability to communicate technical information effectively was very important to the aerospace engineers and scientists who participated in the study. A considerable portion of their working week is devoted to using and producing technical information. The types of technical communications used and produced varied within and among the three groups. The type of technical communication product used and produced appears to be related to respondents' professional duties. Respondents from the three groups made similar recommendations regarding the principles, mechanics, and on-the-job communications to be included in an undergraduate technical communications course for aerospace majors.

  2. A fiber optic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Tilstra, Shelle D.; Barnabo, Geoffrey A.; Thomas, David C.; Phillips, Richard W.

    1991-02-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor has been developed for aerospace applications on the basis of the time rate of decay (TRD) principle, with a view to an operational temperature range of -60 to 350 C. This TRD system has completed qualification testing and will then undergo flight tests. Attention is presently given to the design and performance of four low temperature sensors that are subelements of the larger sensor system; in order to convert analog signals into over/under temperature indications, simple comparators are implemented in software.

  3. A Survey of Power Electronics Applications in Aerospace Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Elbuluk, Malik E.

    2001-01-01

    The insertion of power electronics in aerospace technologies is becoming widespread. The application of semiconductor devices and electronic converters, as summarized in this paper, includes the International Space Station, satellite power system, and motor drives in 'more electric' technology applied to aircraft, starter/generators and reusable launch vehicles. Flywheels, servo systems embodying electromechanical actuation, and spacecraft on-board electric propulsion are discussed. Continued inroad by power electronics depends on resolving incompatibility of using variable frequency for 400 Hz-operated aircraft equipment. Dual-use electronic modules should reduce system development cost.

  4. Graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Bacon, J. F.; Dicus, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composite system is described. Although this composite is not yet a mature material, it possesses low density, attractive mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, and good environmental stability. Properties are reported for a borosilicate glass matrix unidirectionally reinforced with 60 volume percent HMS graphite fiber. The flexural strength and fatigue characteristics at room and elevated temperature, resistance to thermal cycling and continuous high temperature oxidation, and thermal expansion characteristics of the composite are reported. The properties of this new composite are compared to those of advanced resin and metal matrix composites showing that graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are attractive for aerospace applications.

  5. Smart Sensor Systems for Aerospace Applications: From Sensor Development to Application Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Dungan, L. K.; Ward, B. J.; Rowe, S.; Williams, J.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Chang, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    The application of Smart Sensor Systems for aerospace applications is a multidisciplinary process consisting of sensor element development, element integration into Smart Sensor hardware, and testing of the resulting sensor systems in application environments. This paper provides a cross-section of these activities for multiple aerospace applications illustrating the technology challenges involved. The development and application testing topics discussed are: 1) The broadening of sensitivity and operational range of silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky gas sensor elements; 2) Integration of fire detection sensor technology into a "Lick and Stick" Smart Sensor hardware platform for Crew Exploration Vehicle applications; 3) Extended testing for zirconia based oxygen sensors in the basic "Lick and Stick" platform for environmental monitoring applications. It is concluded that that both core sensor platform technology and a basic hardware platform can enhance the viability of implementing smart sensor systems in aerospace applications.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 24: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SAE mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

  7. California four cities program, 1971 - 1973. [aerospace-to-urban technology application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macomber, H. L.; Wilson, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A pilot project in aerospace-to-urban technology application is reported. Companies assigned senior engineering professionals to serve as Science and Technology Advisors to participating city governments. Technical support was provided by the companies and JPL. The cities, Anaheim, Fresno, Pasadena, and San Hose, California, provided the working environment and general service support. Each city/company team developed and carried out one or more technical or management pilot projects together with a number of less formalized technology efforts and studies. An account and evaluation is provided of the initial two-year phase of the program.

  8. Reliability issues of COTS MEMS for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Ghaffarian, Reza; Kim, Namsoo P.

    1999-08-01

    During the last decade, research and development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has shown a significant promise for a variety of commercial applications including automobile and medical purposes. For example, accelerometers are widely used for air bag in automobile and pressure sensors for various industrial applications. Some of the MEMS devices have potential to become the commercial- off-the-shelf (COTS) components. While high reliability applications including aerospace require much more sophisticated technology development, they would achieve significant cost savings if they could utilize COTS components in their systems. This paper reviews the current status of MEMS packaging technology from COTS to specific application provides lessons learned, and finally, identifies a need for a systematic approach for this purpose.

  9. Quantitative Evaluation of the Effect on System Safety Engineer Training Course for the Aerospace Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekita, Ryuichi; Yamada, Shu

    The system safety has been being applied in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) ‧s launch vehicle and satellite development projects. The engineering state of system safety has some room for improvement. Therefore, JAXA is continuously working for system safety improvement. The system safety engineer training course is the top priority for the improvement. This paper represents the practical training evaluation way using Kirkpatrick‧s 4-level approach and the actual results in JAXA system safety engineer training course. Also this paper represents the importance of the engineer training evaluation as a part of PDCA cycle in the industry field.

  10. Hybrid planar lightwave circuits for defense and aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Bidnyk, Serge; Yang, Shiquan; Balakrishnan, Ashok; Pearson, Matt; O'Keefe, Sean

    2010-04-01

    We present innovations in Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLCs) that make them ideally suited for use in advanced defense and aerospace applications. We discuss PLCs that contain no micro-optic components, no moving parts, pose no spark or fire hazard, are extremely small and lightweight, and are capable of transporting and processing a range of optical signals with exceptionally high performance. This PLC platform is designed for on-chip integration of active components such as lasers and detectors, along with transimpedance amplifiers and other electronics. These active components are hybridly integrated with our silica-on-silicon PLCs using fully-automated robotics and image recognition technology. This PLC approach has been successfully applied to the design and fabrication of multi-channel transceivers for aerospace applications. The chips contain hybrid DFB lasers and high-efficiency detectors, each capable of running over 10 Gb/s, with mixed digital and analog traffic multiplexed to a single optical fiber. This highlyintegrated functionality is combined onto a silicon chip smaller than 4 x 10 mm, weighing < 5 grams. These chip-based transceivers have been measured to withstand harsh g-forces, including sinusoidal vibrations with amplitude of 20 g acceleration, followed by mechanical shock of 500 g acceleration. The components operate over a wide range of temperatures, with no device failures after extreme temperature cycling through a range of > 125 degC, and more than 2,000 hours operating at 95 degC ambient air temperature. We believe that these recent advancements in planar lightwave circuits are poised to revolutionize optical communications and interconnects in the aerospace and defense industries.

  11. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  12. An overview of aerospace gas turbine technology of relevance to the development of the automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. G.; Miller, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA-Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has conducted, and has sponsored with industry and universities, extensive research into many of the technology areas related to gas turbine propulsion systems. This aerospace-related technology has been developed at both the component and systems level, and may have significant potential for application to the automotive gas turbine engine. This paper summarizes this technology and lists the associated references. The technology areas are system steady-state and transient performance prediction techniques, compressor and turbine design and performance prediction programs and effects of geometry, combustor technology and advanced concepts, and ceramic coatings and materials technology.

  13. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, H. C.; Beadles, R. L.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Courtney, M. W.; Rouse, D. J.; Scearce, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Medical products utilizing and incorporating aerospace technology were studied. A bipolar donor-recipient model for medical transfer is presented. The model is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and aerospace technology which constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by medical community of new medical products based on aerospace technology.

  14. Interactive Web-Based and Hands-On Engineering Education: A Freshman Aerospace Design Course at MIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Dava J.

    "Introduction to Aerospace and Design" is a 3-hour per week freshman elective course at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that culminates in a Lighter-Than-Air (LTA) vehicle design competition, exposing freshmen to the excitement of aerospace engineering design typically taught in the junior or senior years. In addition to the…

  15. Computational simulation for concurrent engineering of aerospace propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Results are summarized for an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties--fundamental to develop such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering of propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and issues needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  16. Computational simulation of concurrent engineering for aerospace propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are summarized of an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulations methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties - fundamental in developing such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering for propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and facets needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  17. Advanced Laser-Based Techniques for Gas-Phase Diagnostics in Combustion and Aerospace Engineering.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Andreas; Zhu, Jiajian; Li, Xuesong; Kiefer, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Gaining information of species, temperature, and velocity distributions in turbulent combustion and high-speed reactive flows is challenging, particularly for conducting measurements without influencing the experimental object itself. The use of optical and spectroscopic techniques, and in particular laser-based diagnostics, has shown outstanding abilities for performing non-intrusive in situ diagnostics. The development of instrumentation, such as robust lasers with high pulse energy, ultra-short pulse duration, and high repetition rate along with digitized cameras exhibiting high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and frame rates on the order of MHz, has opened up for temporally and spatially resolved volumetric measurements of extreme dynamics and complexities. The aim of this article is to present selected important laser-based techniques for gas-phase diagnostics focusing on their applications in combustion and aerospace engineering. Applicable laser-based techniques for investigations of turbulent flows and combustion such as planar laser-induced fluorescence, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, laser-induced grating scattering, particle image velocimetry, laser Doppler anemometry, and tomographic imaging are reviewed and described with some background physics. In addition, demands on instrumentation are further discussed to give insight in the possibilities that are offered by laser flow diagnostics.

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 34: How early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists produce and use information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the production and use of information by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who had changed their American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) membership from student to professional in the past five years.

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 23: The communications practices of US aerospace engineering faculty and students: Results of the phase 3 survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. aerospace engineering faculty and students.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 33: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 AIAA mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).

  1. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 5: Application Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) was designed to be used by test oriented personnel to write procedures which would be executed in a test environment. A series of discussions between NASA LV-CAP personnel and IBM resulted in some peripheral tasks which would aid in evaluating the applicability of the language in this environment, and provide enhancement for future applications. The results of these tasks are contained within this volume. The GOAL vocabulary provides a high degree of readability and retainability. To achieve these benefits, however, the procedure writer utilizes words and phrases of considerable length. Brief form study was undertaken to determine a means of relieving this burden. The study resulted in a version of GOAL which enables the writer to develop a dialect suitable to his needs and satisfy the syntax equations. The output of the compiler would continue to provide readability by printing out the standard GOAL language. This task is described.

  2. An overview of integrated flywheel technology for aerospace application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.; Groom, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    Space missions ranging from small scientific satellites to large manned spacecraft have, for many years, utilized systems of spinning flywheels to maintain vehicle attitude. These systems have included momentum and reaction wheels as well as control moment gyros. Extension of that technology to satisfy the additional tasks associated with energy storage has also been pursued. The combining of control and energy storage features into one system has been examined by NASA for space applications and demonstrated in the laboratory. The impact of technology advances in such areas as composite material rotors, magnetic suspensions, motor/generators, and electronics have prompted a re-evaluation of the viability of the flywheel storage system concept for aerospace applications. This paper summarizes the results of this re-examination and identifies shortfalls in the various technology areas.

  3. NASA technology applications team: Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two critical aspects of the Applications Engineering Program were especially successful: commercializing products of Application Projects; and leveraging NASA funds for projects by developing cofunding from industry and other agencies. Results are presented in the following areas: the excimer laser was commercialized for clearing plaque in the arteries of patients with coronary artery disease; the ultrasound burn depth analysis technology is to be licensed and commercialized; a phased commercialization plan was submitted to NASA for the intracranial pressure monitor; the Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator System (FARMS) is making progress in the development of sensors and a customized end effector for a roboticized greenhouse operation; a dual robot are controller was improved; a multisensor urodynamic pressure catherer was successful in clinical tests; commercial applications were examined for diamond like carbon coatings; further work was done on the multichannel flow cytometer; progress on the liquid airpack for fire fighters; a wind energy conversion device was tested in a low speed wind tunnel; and the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System was reviewed.

  4. Studies in automatic speech recognition and its application in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michael Robinson

    Human communication is characterized in terms of the spectral and temporal dimensions of speech waveforms. Electronic speech recognition strategies based on Dynamic Time Warping and Markov Model algorithms are described and typical digit recognition error rates are tabulated. The application of Direct Voice Input (DVI) as an interface between man and machine is explored within the context of civil and military aerospace programmes. Sources of physical and emotional stress affecting speech production within military high performance aircraft are identified. Experimental results are reported which quantify fundamental frequency and coarse temporal dimensions of male speech as a function of the vibration, linear acceleration and noise levels typical of aerospace environments; preliminary indications of acoustic phonetic variability reported by other researchers are summarized. Connected whole-word pattern recognition error rates are presented for digits spoken under controlled Gz sinusoidal whole-body vibration. Correlations are made between significant increases in recognition error rate and resonance of the abdomen-thorax and head subsystems of the body. The phenomenon of vibrato style speech produced under low frequency whole-body Gz vibration is also examined. Interactive DVI system architectures and avionic data bus integration concepts are outlined together with design procedures for the efficient development of pilot-vehicle command and control protocols.

  5. Smart Aerospace eCommerce: Using Intelligent Agents in a NASA Mission Services Ordering Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moleski, Walt; Luczak, Ed; Morris, Kim; Clayton, Bill; Scherf, Patricia; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes how intelligent agent technology was successfully prototyped and then deployed in a smart eCommerce application for NASA. An intelligent software agent called the Intelligent Service Validation Agent (ISVA) was added to an existing web-based ordering application to validate complex orders for spacecraft mission services. This integration of intelligent agent technology with conventional web technology satisfies an immediate NASA need to reduce manual order processing costs. The ISVA agent checks orders for completeness, consistency, and correctness, and notifies users of detected problems. ISVA uses NASA business rules and a knowledge base of NASA services, and is implemented using the Java Expert System Shell (Jess), a fast rule-based inference engine. The paper discusses the design of the agent and knowledge base, and the prototyping and deployment approach. It also discusses future directions and other applications, and discusses lessons-learned that may help other projects make their aerospace eCommerce applications smarter.

  6. Full-Range Mathematical Modeling of Turboshaft Engine in Aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Hanlin; Zhang, Tianhong; Jiang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an approximate computation method of low-speed component characteristics in aeroengine is used and full-range component characteristics is obtained by combining experimental data above idle. Moreover, based on components matching method and variable specific heat method, a full-range static and dynamic mathematical model of turboshaft engine is built, including start-up state. And the numerical simulation result of the engine whole working process is also showed in this paper. The comparison result between the simulation result and the experimental data shows that, the full-range model built by the computation method of low-speed component characteristics is of a certain accuracy, which can meet the needs of a turboshaft engine semi-physical simulation.

  7. Interdisciplinary and multilevel optimum design. [in aerospace structural engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1987-01-01

    Interactions among engineering disciplines and subsystems in engineering system design are surveyed and specific instances of such interactions are described. Examination of the interactions that a traditional design process in which the numerical values of major design variables are decided consecutively is likely to lead to a suboptimal design. Supporting numerical examples are a glider and a space antenna. Under an alternative approach introduced, the design and its sensitivity data from the subsystems and disciplines are generated concurrently and then made available to the system designer enabling him to modify the system design so as to improve its performance. Examples of a framework structure and an airliner wing illustrate that approach.

  8. The effect of generation on retention of women engineers in aerospace and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiernan, Kristine Maria

    The purpose of this dissertation was to determine the nature and extent of differences between generational cohorts regarding the effect of family factors on retention of women in engineering, with an emphasis on women in the aerospace industry. While 6% of the aerospace workforce is made up of aeronautical engineers, an additional 11.2% of the aerospace workforce is drawn from other engineering disciplines. Therefore, the analysis included all engineering sub-disciplines. In order to include women who had left the workforce, women in all industries were used as a proxy for women in aerospace. Exits to other fields were modeled separately from exits out of the workforce. The source of data was the National Survey of College Graduates. Women engineers were divided into the Baby Boom cohort (born 1945-1964), the Generation X cohort (born 1965-1980), and the Millennial cohort (born 1981-1997). A time-lag design was used to compare generational cohorts when they were the same age. The results of this study showed that generational cohort did not affect retention of women in engineering. However, generational cohort affected family formation decisions, with Millennial women marrying and having children later than their counterparts in the Generation X and Baby Boom cohorts. Generational cohort also affected the influence of motherhood on retention in the workforce, with Generation X and Millennial mothers more likely to stay in the workforce than their counterparts in the Baby Boom cohort. There was no significant difference between Generation X and Millennial women in the proportion of mothers who stayed in the workforce. Generational cohort influenced the reasons women left the workforce. Women in the Millennial cohort were more likely to cite not needing or wanting to work, while women in the Generation X cohort were more likely to cite family responsibilities. Among mothers in the Millennial cohort who were out of the workforce, the proportion who cited not needing

  9. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. D.; Heins, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Existing applications of NASA contributions to disciplines such as combustion engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science, quality assurance and computer control are outlined to illustrate how space technology is used in the electric power industry. Corporate strategies to acquire relevant space technology are described.

  10. Evaluation of Li/CF(x)Cells For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Panasonic commercialized LiICF(x) cell technology in the 1970's. This technology was a promising primary battery for Aerospace applications such as: Exploration missions, Launch vehicles, Tools and more. This technology offers Wide operation temperature range, Low self-discharge and High specific energy CF(x) cathode material has a theoretical specific energy of 2260 Wh/Kg. Specific energy however achieved as of now is only 10% of theoretical value unless used at a very low rate of C/1000. Research both at Government Labs and Industries is currently in progress to improve the performance. This viewgraph presentation describes the cells, and reviews the results of some of the research using tables and charts.

  11. High-Temperature Strain Sensing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony; Richards, Lance W.; Hudson, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are utilizing advanced materials that operate at temperatures that exceed abilities to measure structural performance. Robust strain sensors that operate accurately and reliably beyond 1800 F are needed but do not exist. These shortcomings hinder the ability to validate analysis and modeling techniques and hinders the ability to optimize structural designs. This presentation examines high-temperature strain sensing for aerospace applications and, more specifically, seeks to provide strain data for validating finite element models and thermal-structural analyses. Efforts have been made to develop sensor attachment techniques for relevant structural materials at the small test specimen level and to perform laboratory tests to characterize sensor and generate corrections to apply to indicated strains. Areas highlighted in this presentation include sensors, sensor attachment techniques, laboratory evaluation/characterization of strain measurement, and sensor use in large-scale structures.

  12. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Kordatos, Evangelos Z.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. PMID:23935428

  13. Nondestructive damage evaluation in ceramic matrix composites for aerospace applications.

    PubMed

    Dassios, Konstantinos G; Kordatos, Evangelos Z; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Matikas, Theodore E

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately.

  14. Bipolar Nickel-hydrogen Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Vanommering, G.; Puester, N. H.; Puglisi, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    A bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery which effectively addresses all key requirements for a spacecraft power system, including long-term reliability and low mass, is discussed. The design of this battery is discussed in the context of system requirements and nickel-hydrogen battery technology in general. To achieve the ultimate goal of an aerospace application of a bipolar Ni-H2 battery several objectives must be met in the design and development of the system. These objectives include: maximization of reliability and life; high specific energy and energy density; reasonable cost of manufacture, test, and integration; and ease in scaling for growth in power requirements. These basic objectives translate into a number of specific design requirements, which are discussed.

  15. Towards Requirements in Systems Engineering for Aerospace IVHM Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Health management (HM) technologies have been employed for safety critical system for decades, but a coherent systematic process to integrate HM into the system design is not yet clear. Consequently, in most cases, health management resorts to be an after-thought or 'band-aid' solution. Moreover, limited guidance exists for carrying out systems engineering (SE) on the subject of writing requirements for designs with integrated vehicle health management (IVHM). It is well accepted that requirements are key to developing a successful IVHM system right from the concept stage to development, verification, utilization, and support. However, writing requirements for systems with IVHM capability have unique challenges that require the designers to look beyond their own domains and consider the constraints and specifications of other interlinked systems. In this paper we look at various stages in the SE process and identify activities specific to IVHM design and development. More importantly, several relevant questions are posed that system engineers must address at various design and development stages. Addressing these questions should provide some guidance to systems engineers towards writing IVHM related requirements to ensure that appropriate IVHM functions are built into the system design.

  16. Advances in processing of NiAl intermetallic alloys and composites for high temperature aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenek, Kamil; Basista, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades intermetallic compounds such as NiAl have been considered as potential high temperature structural materials for aerospace industry. A large number of investigations have been reported describing complex fabrication routes, introducing various reinforcing/alloying elements along with theoretical analyses. These research works were mainly focused on the overcoming of main disadvantage of nickel aluminides that still restricts their application range, i.e. brittleness at room temperature. In this paper we present an overview of research on NiAl processing and indicate methods that are promising in solving the low fracture toughness issue at room temperature. Other material properties relevant for high temperature applications are also addressed. The analysis is primarily done from the perspective of NiAl application in aero engines in temperature regimes from room up to the operating temperature (over 1150 °C) of turbine blades.

  17. Application of thermal spray coatings to aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, H.L.

    1994-12-31

    Reusable launch vehicles located by the ocean are subject to harsh seacoast environments before launch and immersion after splashdown at sea and tow back to the refurbishment facility. The use of various thermal spray processes for depositing corrosion and erosion protective materials to the alloy substrates has potential for enhancing the corrosion/erosion resistance and useful life of those expensive large reusable aerospace structures. Thermal spray processes such as high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF), plasma, arc spray and conventional oxygen fuel spray and the IVD process (pure aluminum only) have been used to coat test panels and scrap flight hardware with various applied materials. Pure aluminum, aluminum/aluminum oxide matrix (DURALCAN), and pure zinc have been applied over 2219-T87 aluminum alloy, 4340 steel alloy substrates. Salt spray testing has been conducted in accordance with ASTM B-117 as well as beach exposure tests at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Adhesion tests have been performed for all materials applied to the various substrates as well as monitoring of substrate temperatures during the spray process. The pure aluminum, zinc, and aluminum/aluminum oxide matrix material afforded excellent corrosion protection in both beach exposure and salt spray environments. in conclusion, tests and actual applications have shown that the various thermal spray processes and coating materials have significant potential for enhancing corrosion/erosion resistance and extending the useful service life of expensive aerospace structures exposed to marine environments. The ability to effectively repair damaged IVD aluminum coated substrates using arc sprayed material adds flexibility to the maintenance process. Due to the excellent adhesion and corrosion protection of the substrate, tests are underway to determine if chromate conversion coating can be eliminated prior to primer/topcoat application.

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 36: Technical uncertainty as a correlate of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exploratory study that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty on the use of information and information sources by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists in completing or solving a project, task, or problem. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Survey participants were U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists whose names appeared on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list. The results support the findings of previous research and the following study assumptions. Information and information-source use differ for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty. As technical uncertainty increases, information-source use changes from internal to external and from informal to formal sources. As technical uncertainty increases, so too does the use of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D). The use of formal information sources to learn about federally funded aerospace R&D differs for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty.

  19. Closed form solutions of constrained trajectories - Application in optimal ascent of aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping; Samsundar, John

    1992-01-01

    The present consideration of the flight trajectory of hypersonic aerospace vehicles subject to a class of path constraints notes the constrained dynamics to constitute a natural two-timescale system, so that problems of trajectory optimization and guidance can be dramatically simplified by means of the asymptotic analytical solutions thus obtained. An illustrative application in ascent trajectory optimization for an aerospace vehicle is presented.

  20. Development of lightweight structural health monitoring systems for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Matthew

    This thesis investigates the development of structural health monitoring systems (SHM) for aerospace applications. The work focuses on each aspect of a SHM system covering novel transducer technologies and damage detection techniques to detect and locate damage in metallic and composite structures. Secondly the potential of energy harvesting and power arrangement methodologies to provide a stable power source is assessed. Finally culminating in the realisation of smart SHM structures. 1. Transducer Technology A thorough experimental study of low profile, low weight novel transducers not normally used for acoustic emission (AE) and acousto-ultrasonics (AU) damage detection was conducted. This included assessment of their performance when exposed to aircraft environments and feasibility of embedding these transducers in composites specimens in order to realise smart structures. 2. Damage Detection An extensive experimental programme into damage detection utilising AE and AU were conducted in both composites and metallic structures. These techniques were used to assess different damage mechanism within these materials. The same transducers were used for novel AE location techniques coupled with AU similarity assessment to successfully detect and locate damage in a variety of structures. 3. Energy Harvesting and Power Management Experimental investigations and numerical simulations were undertaken to assess the power generation levels of piezoelectric and thermoelectric generators for typical vibration and temperature differentials which exist in the aerospace environment. Furthermore a power management system was assessed to demonstrate the ability of the system to take the varying nature of the input power and condition it to a stable power source for a system. 4. Smart Structures The research conducted is brought together into a smart carbon fibre wing showcasing the novel embedded transducers for AE and AU damage detection and location, as well as vibration energy

  1. Leak Detection and Location Technology Assessment for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Coffey, Neil C.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2008-01-01

    Micro Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) and other impacts can cause leaks in the International Space Station and other aerospace vehicles. The early detection and location of leaks is paramount to astronaut safety. Therefore this document surveys the state of the art in leak detection and location technology for aerospace vehicles.

  2. Contamination control engineering design guidelines for the aerospace community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tribble, A. C. (Principal Investigator); Boyadjian, B.; Davis, J.; Haffner, J.; McCullough, E.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces, solar arrays, and optical devices may be adversely affected by a small quantity of molecular and/or particulate contamination. What is rarely discussed is how one: (1) quantifies the level of contamination that must be maintained in order for the system to function properly, and (2) enforces contamination control to ensure compliance with requirements. This document is designed to address these specific issues and is intended to serve as a handbook on contamination control for the reader, illustrating process and methodology while providing direction to more detailed references when needed. The effects of molecular contamination on reflecting and transmitting surfaces are examined and quantified in accordance with MIL STD 1246C. The generation, transportation, and deposition of molecular contamination is reviewed and specific examples are worked to illustrate the process a design engineer can use to estimate end of life cleanliness levels required by solar arrays, thermal control surfaces, and optical surfaces. A similar process is used to describe the effect of particulate contamination as related to percent area coverage (PAC) and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). Relationships between PAC and surface cleanliness, which include the effects of submicron sized particles, are developed and BRDF is related to specific sensor design parameters such as Point Source Transmittance (PST). The pros and cons of various methods of preventing, monitoring, and cleaning surfaces are examined and discussed.

  3. Introduction to System Health Engineering and Management in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a technical overview of Integrated System Health Engineering and Management (ISHEM). We define ISHEM as "the paper provides a techniques, and technologies used to design, analyze, build, verify, and operate a system to prevent faults and/or minimize their effects." This includes design and manufacturing techniques as well operational and managerial methods. ISHEM is not a "purely technical issue" as it also involves and must account for organizational, communicative, and cognitive f&ms of humans as social beings and as individuals. Thus the paper will discuss in more detail why all of these elements, h m the technical to the cognitive and social, are necessary to build dependable human-machine systems. The paper outlines a functional homework and architecture for ISHEM operations, describes the processes needed to implement ISHEM in the system life-cycle, and provides a theoretical framework to understand the relationship between the different aspects of the discipline. It then derives from these and the social and cognitive bases a set of design and operational principles for ISHEM.

  4. Advanced bearing materials for cryogenic aerospace engine turbopump requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, G.; Bhat, B. N.

    1986-01-01

    The properties of eleven alloys were investigated to select an improved bearing material for the High Pressure Oxygen Turbo Pump which delivers liquid oxygen to the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The alloys, selected through detailed literature analysis, X 405, MRC-2001, T440V, 14-4/6V, D-5, V-M Pyromet 350, Stellite 3, FerroTic CS-40, Tribaloy 800, WD-65, and CBS-600. The alloys were tested in hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness tests, and their performance was compared with the baseline 440C test alloy. As a result, five alloys were eliminated, leaving the remaining six (X 405, MRC-2001, T440V, 14-4/6V, D-5, and WD-65 to be evaluated in the next phase of NASA tests which will include fracture toughness, rolling contact fatigue, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. From these, three alloys will be selected, which will be made into ninety bearings for subsequent testing.

  5. Future aerospace ground test facility requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, Mark E.; Baron, Judson R.; Bogdonoff, Seymour M.; Carter, Donald I.; Couch, Lana M.; Fanning, Arthur E.; Heiser, William H.; Koff, Bernard L.; Melnik, Robert E.; Mercer, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans were extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 52: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Japanese and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 13: Source selection and information use by US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of a telephone survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.

    1992-01-01

    A telephone survey of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists belonging to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was conducted between December 4, 1991 and January 5, 1992. The survey was undertaken to (1) validate the telephone survey as an appropriate technique for collecting data from U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists; (2) collect information about how the results of NASA/DoD aerospace research are used in the R&D process; (3) identify those selection criteria which affect the use of federally-funded aerospace R&D; and (4) obtain information that could be used to develop a self-administered mail questionnaire for use with the same population. The average rating of importance of U.S. government technical reports was 2.5 (on a 4-point scale); The mean/median number of times U.S. government technical reports were used per 6 months was 8/2. Factors scoring highest for U.S. government technical reports were technical accuracy (2.9), reliable data and technical information (2.8), and contains comprehensive data and information (2.7) on a 4-point system. The factors scoring highest for influencing the use of U.S. government technical reports were relevance (3.1), technical accuracy (3.06), and reliable data/information (3.02). Ease of use, familiarity, technical accuracy, and relevance correlated with use of U.S. government technical reports. Survey demographics, survey questionnaire, and the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project publications list are included.

  8. Metals Technology for Aerospace Applications in 2020: Development of High Temperature Aluminum Alloys For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The role of trace additions on the nucleation and stability of the primary strengthening phase, omega, is of paramount importance for the enhancement of mechanical properties for moderate temperature application of Al-Cu-Mg-(Ag) alloys. In order to better understand the competition for solute, which governs the microstructural evolution of these alloys, a series of Al-Cu-Mg-Si quaternary alloys were prepared to investigate the role of trace Si additions on the nucleation of the omega phase. Si additions were found to quell omega nucleation in conjunction with the enhanced matrix precipitation of competing phases. These initial results indicate that it is necessary to overcome a critical Mg/Si ratio for omega precipitation, rather than a particular Si content.

  9. Stirling engine application study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  10. Fiber optic oxygen sensor using fluorescence quenching for aerospace application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, Allen

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we explore Fluorescence Technology as applied to the design and development of O2 sensors that can be used for aerospace application and discuss the various test and measurement techniques used to estimate the O2 gas concentration. Jet fuel comprised of heavier hydrocarbon components is much less volatile, than jet fuel having a flash point of approximately 37° C and JP-4 having a flash point of approximately -17° C. In contrast, straight-run gasoline has a flash point of approximately -40°C. The flash point is the minimum temperature where a liquid fuel can generate enough vapor to form a flammable mixture with air. If the temperature is below the flash point there isn't enough fuel evaporating to form a flammable fuel-air mixture. Since jet fuel and gasoline have similar flammable concentration limits, gasoline must produce much more vapor at a given temperature to have such a low flash point; hence gasoline is much more volatile than jet fuel. We compare the various intensity based approaches and contrast them with the frequency domain techniques that measure phase to extract fluorescent lifetimes. An innovate compact measurement system using the frequency heterodyning cross correlation technique that can be used for various applications is described in detail while the benefits are explored together with some test data collected. The various inerting fuel tank requirements are explained.

  11. Electron Beam Irradiated Intercalated CNT Yarns For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Deborah L.; Gaier, James R.; Williams, Tiffany S.; Lopez Calero, Johnny E.; Ramirez, Christopher; Meador, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-walled CNT yarns have been experimentally and commercially created to yield lightweight, high conductivity fibers with good tensile properties for application as electrical wiring and multifunctional tendons. Multifunctional tendons are needed as the cable structures in tensegrity robots for use in planetary exploration. These lightweight robust tendons can provide mechanical strength for movement of the robot in addition to power distribution and data transmission. In aerospace vehicles, such as Orion, electrical wiring and harnessing mass can approach half of the avionics mass. Use of CNT yarns as electrical power and data cables could reduce mass of the wiring by thirty to seventy percent. These fibers have been intercalated with mixed halogens to increase their specific electrical conductivity to that near copper. This conductivity, combined with the superior strength and fatigue resistance makes it an attractive alternative to copper for wiring and multifunctional tendon applications. Electron beam irradiation has been shown to increase mechanical strength in pristine CNT fibers through increased cross-linking. Both pristine and intercalated CNT yarns have been irradiated using a 5-megavolt electron beam for various durations and the conductivities and tensile properties will be discussed. Structural information obtained using a field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy will correlate microstructural details with bulk properties.

  12. Lubricative coatings of copper oxide for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masahiro; Kasahara, Akira; Oishi, Tetsuo; Konishi, Youko; Tosa, Masahiro

    2003-08-01

    Lubricative coatings of copper oxide on a stainless-steel substrate were synthesized by a rf magnetron sputter deposition method with a different gas ratio of oxygen and argon in sputter plasma. The crystal structure of the coatings was analyzed with x-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The friction force of the coating films in atmospheric pressure and in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) was evaluated by a vacuum pin-on-disk tribometer with different ball probes. Friction coefficients (μ) as low as 0.03 and 0.05 for a stainless-steel ball were achieved in atmospheric pressure and in an UHV, respectively. A value of μ=0.04 was also realized for a silicon nitride ball both in atmospheric pressure and in an UHV. Surface energy was analyzed by a contact angle measuring method which reveals that the behavior of the frictional properties correspond with that of the surface energy. Since the coatings consist of oxide, they will be applicable to a low-frictional coating with resistance to oxidation for aerospace applications in a low Earth orbit environment.

  13. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Utilization of NASA technology and its application to medicine is discussed. The introduction of new or improved commercially available medical products and incorporation of aerospace technology is outlined. A biopolar donor-recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented to provide a basis for the methodology. The methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and NASA technology that, in combination, constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial transfers were completed: the ocular screening device, a system for quick detection of vision problems in preschool children, and Porta-Fib III, a hospital monitoring unit. Two institutional transfers were completed: implant materials testing, the application of NASA fracture control technology to improve reliability of metallic prostheses, and incinerator monitoring, a quadrupole mass spectrometer to monitor combustion products of municipal incinerators. Mobility aids for the blind and ultrasound diagnosis of burn depth are also studied.

  14. Aerospace applications of sodium batteries using novel cathode materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary fundamental investigations aimed at evaluating sodium metal chloride systems for future aerospace applications are described. Since the sodium metal chloride systems are relatively new, the approach has been to characterize their fundamental properties in order to understand their limitations. To this end, a series of fundamental electrochemical investigations have been carried out, the results of which are reported here. The metal chloride cathodes show high exchange current densities which corroborate their good reversibility in a battery application. The reduction mechanisms appear to be complex and involve multielectron transfer steps and intermediates. Such intermediates in the reaction mechanism have already been identified in the case of FeCl2. Similar mechanisms may be operative in the case of NiCl2. CuCl2, however, exhibits a second relaxation loop in the impedance plot at low frequencies and also a sloping discharge curve, unlike FeCl2 and NiCl2, which may indicate the existence of monovalent copper in the reduction mechanism.

  15. High efficiency digital cooler electronics for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkconnell, C. S.; Luong, T. T.; Shaw, L. S.; Murphy, J. B.; Moody, E. A.; Lisiecki, A. L.; Ellis, M. J.

    2014-06-01

    Closed-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, or cryocoolers, are an enabling technology for a wide range of aerospace applications, mostly related to infrared (IR) sensors. While the industry focus has tended to be on the mechanical cryocooler thermo mechanical unit (TMU) alone, implementation on a platform necessarily consists of the combination of the TMU and a mating set of command and control electronics. For some applications the cryocooler electronics (CCE) are technologically simple and low cost relative to the TMU, but this is not always the case. The relative cost and complexity of the CCE for a space-borne application can easily exceed that of the TMU, primarily due to the technical constraints and cost impacts introduced by the typical space radiation hardness and reliability requirements. High end tactical IR sensor applications also challenge the state of the art in cryocooler electronics, such as those for which temperature setpoint and frequency must be adjustable, or those where an informative telemetry set must be supported, etc. Generally speaking for both space and tactical applications, it is often the CCE that limits the rated lifetime and reliability of the cryocooler system. A family of high end digital cryocooler electronics has been developed to address these needs. These electronics are readily scalable from 10W to 500W output capacity; experimental performance data for nominally 25W and 100W variants are presented. The combination of a FPGA-based controller and dual H-bridge motor drive architectures yields high efficiency (>92% typical) and precision temperature control (+/- 30 mK typical) for a wide range of Stirling-class mechanical cryocooler types and vendors. This paper focuses on recent testing with the AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) SX030 and AIM SF100 cryocoolers.

  16. Technical Uncertainty and Project Complexity as Correlates of Information Use by U.S. Industry-Affiliated Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of an Exploratory Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Project Complexity as Correlates of Information Use by U.S. Industry-Affiliated Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of an Exploratory Investigation...information environment in which U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists work and the factors that influence their use of scientific and technical...aerospace engineers and scientists. The work of Paisley (1980), Wilson (1981), Roberts (1982), Dervin (1983), and Taylor (1991) regarding "information

  17. Study on application of aerospace technology to improve surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Youngblood, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The areas where aerospace technology could be used to improve the reliability and performance of metallic, orthopedic implants was assessed. Specifically, comparisons were made of material controls, design approaches, analytical methods and inspection approaches being used in the implant industry with hardware for the aerospace industries. Several areas for possible improvement were noted such as increased use of finite element stress analysis and fracture control programs on devices where the needs exist for maximum reliability and high structural performance.

  18. 75 FR 60721 - Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China; Recruitment Reopened for Additional Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China; Recruitment Reopened for Additional Applications AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION:...

  19. Current Trends on the Applicability of Ground Aerospace Materials Test Data to Space System Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the application of testing aerospace materials to the environment of space for flammability. Test environments include use of drop towers, and the parabolic flight to simulate the low gravity environment of space.

  20. SEPEC conference proceedings: Hypermedia and Information Reconstruction. Aerospace applications and research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on hypermedia and information reconstruction are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: real-world hypermedia projects, aerospace applications, and future directions in hypermedia research and development.

  1. Perceived leader integrity and employee job satisfaction: A quantitative study of U.S. aerospace engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Kay E.

    The goal of this quantitative study was to determine if there is a significant relationship between perceived leader integrity and employee job satisfaction. The population selected to be analyzed was U.S. Aerospace engineers. Two existing valid and reliable survey instruments were used to collect data. One of the surveys was the Perceived Leader Integrity Scale developed by Craig and Gustafson. The second survey was the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire created by Weiss, Dawis, England, and Lofquist. The public professional networking site LinkedIn was used to invite U.S. Aerospace engineers to participate. The survey results were monitored by Survey Monkey and the sample data was analyzed using SPSS software. 184 responses were collected and of those, 96 were incomplete. 91 usable survey responses were left to be analyzed. When the results were plotted on an x-y plot, the data line had a slight negative slope. The plotted data showed a very small negative relationship between perceived leader integrity and employee job satisfaction. This relationship could be interpreted to mean that as perceived leader integrity improved, employee job satisfaction decreased only slightly. One explanation for this result could be that employees focused on their negative feelings about their current job assignment when they did not have to be concerned about the level of integrity with which their leader acted. The findings of this study reinforce the importance of employee's perception of a critical leader quality - integrity. For future research, a longitudinal study utilizing another sampling method other than convenience sampling may better statistically capture the relationship between perceived leader integrity and employee job satisfaction for U.S. aerospace engineers.

  2. Finite element analysis of composites materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhaniza, M.; Ariffin, M. K. A.; Ali, Aidy; Mustapha, F.; Noraini, A. W.

    2010-05-01

    Composites materials are intended to be used more extensively as an alternative of aluminum structure in aircraft and aerospace applications. This is due to their attractive properties as high strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness-to-weight ratio. Besides that it clarifies the growing interest for composites materials due to advantages of lightweight, high strength, high stiffness, superior fatigue life, tremendous corrosion resistance and low cost manufacturing. In this study, a finite element analysis (FEA) of fiberglass unidirectional E-type was analyzed in the framework of ABAQUS finite element commercial software. The analysis was done to quantify the mechanical properties and response of unidirectional E-glass in term of tensile, compression and thermal responses. From the analysis, the maximum and minimum values of stress and strain for E-glass 21xK43 Gevetex and Silenka E-glass 1200tex were obtained and stress-strain curve is presented. The ultimate load of failure, elastic behavior, tensile strength and other properties for each laminated plates under tensile and thermal-stress are determined from stress-strain curves. The simulation will run twice for each material where the first simulation based on orientation angles of 45° for ply-1, -45° for ply-2 and 90° for ply-3 while the second simulation, the orientation angles is 0° for all plies. The simulation is successfully conducted and verified by experimental data.

  3. An overview of SAFENET and its implications for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, George C.; Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    The survivable, adaptable fiber optic embeddable network (SAFENET) is a draft standard for local area networking (LAN) developed by the Navy which, when adopted, will become a military standard. The standard is being developed for procurement specifications of computer resources to be used on ships and aircraft and has some of the real-time concerns that network standards for space vehicles have. Architecture and survivability are considered. It is noted that the token-ring LAN must implement the IEEE 802.5 recommended practice for dual ring reconfiguration, which is currently being reviewed for inclusion into the IEEE standard. A trunk coupling unit is used at each station to isolate a station from the ring in case of failure. Up to five stations can be bypassed in this fashion. Communication architecture has an OSI profile but differs from the standard concept of the seven layers by allowing alternate suits and breaking the layers into three groupings of services to allow for physical interfacing. It also provides several paths, even if only one profile is used. Management and synchronization protocols are discussed and security issues are addressed. Implications for aerospace applications are considered and it is projected that interoperability with the Navy and other U.S. Government systems may require SAFENET specifications for NASA systems.

  4. High efficiency pulse tube cryocoolers for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Haizheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances in Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for aerospace applications in the author's group. Due to the special environment featuring the limited power supply and adverse rejection condition, high cooler efficiencies are emphasized and thus the approaches to realize them are stressed. The cold fingers involve three geometries, and designs and optimizations on key dimensional parameters of coaxial and in-line ones for given compressors are discussed and compared. The high performance moving-coil linear compressors are studied, and the optimizations on linear motor and flexure springs are briefly reviewed as examples of studies on the key compressor technologies. The mature single-stage coolers cover 25-200 K with the capacities varying from milliwatt levels to over 30 W, and the high efficiencies at typical temperatures such as 40 K, 60 K, 80 K and 95 K are presented. The two-stage arrangement is becoming another trend to achieve cooling below 25 K and also to simultaneously provide cooling powers at both stages. Some typical development programs are introduced and a brief overview of the data package is updated.

  5. The National Aero-Space Plane, the guidance and control engineer's dream or nightmare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Felix

    Major technical challenges associated with the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) Program are discussed, including the ones viewed from a controls perspective. Design and engineering challenges encountered in the propulsion system, the structural material selection, and the computational fluid dynamic mechanisms to predict Mach 8+ regimes, are briefly discussed. Emphasis is put on those significant challenges in the guidance and control fields relating to vehicle management systems, integrated propulsion/flight control, optimal vehicle trajectory control, and challenges in the associated fields on instrumentation and information systems. An insight into the complexity of the problem is provided, and the importance of guidance and control in future NASP achievements is highlighted.

  6. 76 FR 63822 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, Limit Engine Torque Loads...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...) Model G280 Airplane, Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine Stoppage AGENCY: Federal Aviation... conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) model G280 airplane. This airplane will have a...: Federal Aviation Administration, Transport Airplane Directorate, Attn: Rules Docket (ANM-113), Docket...

  7. Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-03

    AND SUBTITLE Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle...Center program to be able to expose Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) space-inspired science centers for DC Metro beltway schools

  8. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. N.

    1974-01-01

    The results of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute are presented. The RTI team, a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers, acted as an information and technology interface between NASA and individuals, institutions, and agencies involved in biomedical research and clinical medicine. The Team has identified 40 new problems for investigation, has accomplished 7 technology applications, 6 potential technology application, 4 impacts, has closed 54 old problems, and has a total of 47 problems under active investigation.

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 44: Becoming an aerospace engineer: Some thoughts on the career goals and educational preparation of AIAA student members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Hecht, Laura M.

    1994-01-01

    Similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate engineering students in the context of two general aspects of educational experience are described. Considered first is the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that led to the choice of a career in aerospace engineering, their current levels of satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, the importance of certain information-use skills for professional success, and the frequency of use and importance of specific information sources and products to meet students' educational needs, are explored.

  10. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXXIII - Technical communications practices and the use of information technologies as reported by Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Tan, Axel S. T.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (The Netherlands), and NASA Ames Research Center (U.S.), and the NASA Langley Research Center (U.S.). This paper presents responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions about four of the seven project objectives: determining the importance of technical communications to aerospace engineering professionals, investigating the production of technical communications, examining the use and importance of computer and information technology, and exploring the use of electronic networks.

  11. The prospects for European aerospace transporters. III - Applications of aerospace transporters. IV - Historical and political considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. Q.; Ashford, D. M.

    1989-03-01

    A small, near-term-developed aerospace transporter would be useful for launching small satellites, servicing satellites in orbit, and supplying space stations, as well as furnishing a technology-development base for subsequent, larger vehicles. These larger vehicles have a potential cost/flight that is estimated to be of the order of 1000 times lower than that of the NASA Space Shuttle, at traffic levels typical of their use in tourism. An additional part of this work notes that the evolution of space transportation to date has been driven by considerations of defense policy and international prestige, with little priority given to the launch cost reductions that would be of paramount importance to passenger-carrying commercial ventures.

  12. Case study of the science, engineering, mathematics, and aerospace academy: Participant and parental perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Catherine

    The science, engineering, mathematics, and aerospace academy (SEMAA) is a federally-funded national out-of-school time (OST) science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) program that provides K-12 grade participants with hands-on activities and access to an aerospace education laboratory with the goals of increasing participants' engagement and interest in STEM and STEM careers. The SEMAA also provides support, resources, and training for SEMAA participants' parents through the Family Cafe. This multiple-case study investigated participants' and their parents' reasons for enrolling in the SEMAA and characterized the SEMAA in terms of its operations and infrastructure, instructors, learning environment, curriculum and instruction, and parental engagement. This study also assessed the role of the SEMAA in supporting participants' STEM college degree and career interests. Additionally, this study assessed the participants' attitudes towards science and science motivation factors. The findings of this study have implications for SEMAA and other OST STEM program providers related to: (a) recruitment and retention, (b) operations and infrastructure, (c) learning environments, (d) instructors, (e) curriculum and instruction, (f) parental engagement, and (g) OST STEM program outcomes.

  13. A Unified Model for Predicting the Open Hole Tensile and Compressive Strengths of Composite Laminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Paul; Pineda, Evan J.; Heinrich, Christian; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The open hole tensile and compressive strengths are important design parameters in qualifying fiber reinforced laminates for a wide variety of structural applications in the aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a unified model that can be used for predicting both these strengths (tensile and compressive) using the same set of coupon level, material property data. As a prelude to the unified computational model that follows, simplified approaches, referred to as "zeroth order", "first order", etc. with increasing levels of fidelity are first presented. The results and methods presented are practical and validated against experimental data. They serve as an introductory step in establishing a virtual building block, bottom-up approach to designing future airframe structures with composite materials. The results are useful for aerospace design engineers, particularly those that deal with airframe design.

  14. Establishment of Educating Program for Engineering Standard Utilization in Aerospace Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekita, Ryuichi; Yamada, Shu

    The preventing accidents is the key to the success of large-scale project like the aerospace R&D. The daily life accidents data from NITE shows the no-decreasing tendency of accidents number, and JAXA has experienced the mission failures of both rocket and spacecraft in the beginning of 21st century. Some companies improve standards as counter measures for the preventing accidents. On the other hand, JAXA has been developing new set of spacecraft design standard as the preventing failures. Now, the utilization of engineering standards plays an increasingly important role as the tool of assuring the safety and mission success. This paper provide the analysis results for the effective utilization of the standard from the questionnaire survey data and discuss the nature of engineer educating program.

  15. Project-based introduction to aerospace engineering course: A model rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, Sanjay; Boyer, Lawrence; George, John; Ravindra, K.; Mitchell, Kyle

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a model rocket project suitable for sophomore aerospace engineering students is described. This project encompasses elements of drag estimation, thrust determination and analysis using digital data acquisition, statistical analysis of data, computer aided drafting, programming, team work and written communication skills. The student built rockets are launched in the university baseball field with the objective of carrying a specific amount of payload so that the rocket achieves a specific altitude before the parachute is deployed. During the course of the project, the students are introduced to real-world engineering practice through written report submission of their designs. Over the years, the project has proven to enhance the learning objectives, yet cost effective and has provided good outcome measures.

  16. NASA technology applications team. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Discussed here are the activities of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1990 through 30 September 1991. Topics researched include automated data acquisition and analysis of highway pavement cracking, thermal insulation for refrigerators, the containment of paint removed from steel structures, improved technologies for Kuwait oil well control, sprayed zinc coatings for corrosion control of reinforcing steel in bridges, and the monitoring and life support of medically fragile children in the educational setting.

  17. NASA technology applications team: Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1992 through 30 September 1993. The work reported herein was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Contract No. NASW-4367. Highlights of the RTI Applications Team activities over the past year are presented in Section 1.0. The Team's progress in fulfilling the requirements of the contract is summarized in Section 2.0. In addition to our market-driven approach to applications project development, RTI has placed increased effort on activities to commercialize technologies developed at NASA Centers. These Technology Commercialization efforts are summarized in Section 3.0. New problem statements prepared by the Team in the reporting period are presented in Section 4.0. The Team's transfer activities for ongoing projects with the NASA Centers are presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes the status of four add-on tasks. Travel for the reporting period is described in Section 7.0. The RTI Team staff and consultants and their project responsibilities are listed in Appendix A. Appendix B includes Technology Opportunity Announcements and Spinoff! Sheets prepared by the Team while Appendix C contains a series of technology transfer articles prepared by the Team.

  18. The Brazilian Research and Teaching Center in Biomedicine and Aerospace Biomedical Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Russomano, T; Falcao, P F; Dalmarco, G; Martinelli, L; Cardoso, R; Santos, M A; Sparenberg, A

    2008-01-01

    The recent engagement of Brazil in the construction and utilization of the International Space Station has motivated several Brazilian research institutions and universities to establish study centers related to Space Sciences. The Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) is no exception. Method: The University initiated in 1993 the first degree course training students to operate commercial aircraft in South America (the School of Aeronautical Sciences. A further step was the decision to build the first Brazilian laboratory dedicated to the conduct of experiments in ground-based microgravity simulation. Established in 1998, the Microgravity Laboratory, which was located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas (IPCT), was supported by the Schools of Medicine, Aeronautical Sciences and Electrical Engineering/Biomedical Engineering. At the end of 2006, the Microgravity Laboratory became a Center and was transferred to the School of Engineering. Results: The principal activities of the Microgravity Centre are the development of research projects related to human physiology before, during and after ground-based microgravity simulation and parabolic flights, to aviation medicine in the 21st century and to aerospace biomedical engineering. Conclusion: The history of Brazilian, and why not say worldwide, space science should unquestionably go through PUCRS. As time passes, the pioneering spirit of our University in the aerospace area has become undeniable. This is due to the group of professionals, students, technicians and staff in general that have once worked or are still working in the Center of Microgravity, a group of faculty and students that excel in their undeniable technical-scientific qualifications. PMID:19048090

  19. Application of System Identification in Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natke, H. G.

    System identification is a powerful tool in engineering. Its various methods in the frequency and in the time domain have been extensively discussed in earlier CISM courses. The aim of this course is to describe the state of the art in specific application areas, such as estimation of eigenquantities (in the aerospace industry, in civil engineering, in naval engineering etc.), noise source detection, fault detection by investigation of dynamic properties, such as machine sound characteristics, and the identification of the dynamic behaviour of flow induced systems (e.g. aerolastic problems). Geotechnical applications are also among the fields of interest. The lecture notes contain demonstrations of several methods and include a valuation by combining various kinds of experience. Such complex information includes not only theoretical aspects of identification but also advice on practical handling, for example concerning testing effort and data handling.

  20. Velcro-Inspired SiC Fuzzy Fibers for Aerospace Applications.

    PubMed

    Hart, Amelia H C; Koizumi, Ryota; Hamel, John; Owuor, Peter Samora; Ito, Yusuke; Ozden, Sehmus; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Syed Amanulla, Syed Asif; Tsafack, Thierry; Keyshar, Kunttal; Mital, Rahul; Hurst, Janet; Vajtai, Robert; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2017-04-05

    The most recent and innovative silicon carbide (SiC) fiber ceramic matrix composites, used for lightweight high-heat engine parts in aerospace applications, are woven, layered, and then surrounded by a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC). To further improve both the mechanical properties and thermal and oxidative resistance abilities of this material, SiC nanotubes and nanowires (SiCNT/NWs) are grown on the surface of the SiC fiber via carbon nanotube conversion. This conversion utilizes the shape memory synthesis (SMS) method, starting with carbon nanotube (CNT) growth on the SiC fiber surface, to capitalize on the ease of dense surface morphology optimization and the ability to effectively engineer the CNT-SiC fiber interface to create a secure nanotube-fiber attachment. Then, by converting the CNTs to SiCNT/NWs, the relative morphology, advantageous mechanical properties, and secure connection of the initial CNT-SiC fiber architecture are retained, with the addition of high temperature and oxidation resistance. The resultant SiCNT/NW-SiC fiber can be used inside the SiC ceramic matrix composite for a high-heat turbo engine part with longer fatigue life and higher temperature resistance. The differing sides of the woven SiCNT/NWs act as the "hook and loop" mechanism of Velcro but in much smaller scale.

  1. Multi-application controls: Robust nonlinear multivariable aerospace controls applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enns, Dale F.; Bugajski, Daniel J.; Carter, John; Antoniewicz, Bob

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the general methodology used to apply Honywell's Multi-Application Control (MACH) and the specific application to the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) including piloted simulation handling qualities evaluation. The general steps include insertion of modeling data for geometry and mass properties, aerodynamics, propulsion data and assumptions, requirements and specifications, e.g. definition of control variables, handling qualities, stability margins and statements for bandwidth, control power, priorities, position and rate limits. The specific steps include choice of independent variables for least squares fits to aerodynamic and propulsion data, modifications to the management of the controls with regard to integrator windup and actuation limiting and priorities, e.g. pitch priority over roll, and command limiting to prevent departures and/or undesirable inertial coupling or inability to recover to a stable trim condition. The HARV control problem is characterized by significant nonlinearities and multivariable interactions in the low speed, high angle-of-attack, high angular rate flight regime. Systematic approaches to the control of vehicle motions modeled with coupled nonlinear equations of motion have been developed. This paper will discuss the dynamic inversion approach which explicity accounts for nonlinearities in the control design. Multiple control effectors (including aerodynamic control surfaces and thrust vectoring control) and sensors are used to control the motions of the vehicles in several degrees-of-freedom. Several maneuvers will be used to illustrate performance of MACH in the high angle-of-attack flight regime. Analytical methods for assessing the robust performance of the multivariable control system in the presence of math modeling uncertainty, disturbances, and commands have reached a high level of maturity. The structured singular value (mu) frequency response methodology is presented

  2. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is pleased to report the results of NASA contract NASW-4367, 'Operation of a Technology Applications Team'. Through a period of significant change within NASA, the RTI Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. RTI's ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed an implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs; (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology; and (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  3. Advantage of resonant power conversion in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, I. G.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic, sinusoidal aerospace power distribution system is shown to have many advantages over other candidate power systems. These advantages include light weight, ease of fault clearing, versatility in handling many loads including motors, and the capability of production within the limits of present technology. References are cited that demonstrate the state of resonant converter technology and support these conclusions.

  4. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies, that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. The RTI Team has been successful in the development of NASA/industry partnerships and commercialization of NASA technologies. RTI ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed and implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs. (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology. And (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  5. A Model-Based Approach to Engineering Behavior of Complex Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, Michel; Day, John; Donahue, Kenneth; Kadesch, Alex; Kennedy, Andrew; Khan, Mohammed Omair; Post, Ethan; Standley, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging yet poorly defined aspects of engineering a complex aerospace system is behavior engineering, including definition, specification, design, implementation, and verification and validation of the system's behaviors. This is especially true for behaviors of highly autonomous and intelligent systems. Behavior engineering is more of an art than a science. As a process it is generally ad-hoc, poorly specified, and inconsistently applied from one project to the next. It uses largely informal representations, and results in system behavior being documented in a wide variety of disparate documents. To address this problem, JPL has undertaken a pilot project to apply its institutional capabilities in Model-Based Systems Engineering to the challenge of specifying complex spacecraft system behavior. This paper describes the results of the work in progress on this project. In particular, we discuss our approach to modeling spacecraft behavior including 1) requirements and design flowdown from system-level to subsystem-level, 2) patterns for behavior decomposition, 3) allocation of behaviors to physical elements in the system, and 4) patterns for capturing V&V activities associated with behavioral requirements. We provide examples of interesting behavior specification patterns, and discuss findings from the pilot project.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 26: The technical communication practices of aerospace engineering students: Results of the phase 3 AIAA National Student Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate engineering students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an engineer, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication practices, habits, and training of aerospace engineering students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey was undertaken as a phase 3 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance; use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign language technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 53: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the technical communications practices of early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information-use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that early career-stage aerospace engineers and scientists must possess to be successful. Feedback from industry rates communications and information-use skills high in terms of their importance to engineering practice; however, this same feedback rates the communications and information-use skills of early career-stage engineers low. To gather adequate and generalizable data about the communications and information-related activities of entry-level aerospace engineers and scientists, we surveyed 264 members of the AIAA who have no more than 1-5 years of aerospace engineering work experience. To learn more about the concomitant communications norms, we compared the results of this study with data (1,673 responses) we collected from student members of the AIAA and with data (341 responses) we collected from a study of aerospace engineering professionals. In this paper, we report selected results from these studies that focused on the communications practices and information-related activities of early career-stage U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists in the workplace.

  8. Liquid-crystal variable retarders for aerospace polarimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Heredero, R L; Uribe-Patarroyo, N; Belenguer, T; Ramos, G; Sánchez, A; Reina, M; Pillet, V Martínez; Alvarez-Herrero, A

    2007-02-10

    We present the optical effects of different tests that simulate the aerospace environment on the liquid-crystal variable retarders (LCVRs) used in the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment postfocal instrument of the SUNRISE payload within the NASA Long Duration Balloon program. Analysis of the influence of vacuum, temperature, vibration, and gamma and ultraviolet radiation is performed by measuring the effects of these tests on the optical retardance, the response time, the wavefront distortion, and the transmittance, including some in situ measurements. Outgassing measurements of the different parts of the LCVRs are also shown. From the results obtained it can be concluded that these optical devices are suitable and seem to be excellent candidates for aerospace platforms.

  9. Applications of aerospace technology in the public interest: Pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heins, C. F.; Johnson, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    This study of selected NASA contributions to the improvement of pollution measurement examines the pervasiveness and complexity of the economic, political, and social issues in the environmental field; provides a perspective on the relationship between the conduct of aerospace R and D and specific improvements in on site air pollution monitoring equipment now in use; describes the basic relationship between the development of satellite-based monitoring systems and their influence on long-term progress in improving environmental quality; and comments on how both instrumentation and satellite remote sensing are contributing to an improved environment. Examples of specific gains that have been made in applying aerospace R and D to environmental problem-solving are included.

  10. Mars Navigator: An Interactive Multimedia Program about Mars, Aerospace Engineering, Astronomy, and the JPL Mars Missions. [CD-ROM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramoll, Kurt

    This CD-ROM introduces basic astronomy and aerospace engineering by examining the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions to Mars. It contains numerous animations and narrations in addition to detailed graphics and text. Six interactive laboratories are included to help understand topics such as the…

  11. A Solution to the Small Enrollment Problem in Aerospace Engineering--Self-Paced Materials Used in an Independent Studies Mode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Wallace T.; Watkins, R. D.

    With the decline in enrollment in the early 1970's, many aerospace engineering departments had too few students to offer some required courses. At the University of Texas at Austin, a set of personalized system of instruction (PSI) materials for the aircraft performance, stability, and control course was developed. The paper includes a description…

  12. Output Feedback M-MRAC Backstepping With Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Sriniva

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a certainty equivalence output feedback backstepping adaptive control design method for the systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties without over-parametrization. It uses a fast prediction model to estimate the unknown parameters, which is independent of the control design. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters. The approach is applied to aerospace control problems and tested in numerical simulations.

  13. Smart structures in engineering and technology: an aerospace and automotive perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, Christian

    2003-03-01

    This paper gives an overview on what was expected to be achieved in smart structures and materials for aerospace and automotive applications about a decade ago and what so far could be achieved. Although initial goals turned out to be somewhat over-ambitious, achievements so far are worth to be discussed and pursued. Major ongoing activities being on the verge to be transferred into application are therefore summarized and referenced. A major lack in smart structures technology transfer has been identified being procedures on how to identify which technologies have the most likely chance to be transferred into application. A procedure for this successfully applied in market research and product development is therefore described and proposed here.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1: The value of scientific and technical information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R/D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is based on the premise that scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace research and development (R&D) process are related. We intend to support this premise with data gathered from numerous studies concerned with STI, the relationship of STI to the performance and management of R&D activities, and the information use and seeking behavior of engineers in general and aerospace engineers and scientists in particular. We intend to develop and present a synthesized appreciation of how aerospace R&D managers can improve the efficacy of the R&D process by understanding the role and value of STI in this process.

  15. Integration of educational and scientific-technological areas during the process of education of aerospace engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorova, Vera

    2011-09-01

    test-beds for quick and affordable trial-and-test of new technologies and design solutions in aerospace followed by implementation of selected efficiencies in the industry; development and improvement of ground control infrastructure based in the university, which includes the Mission Control Center and the Earth Remote Sensing Center; development of cooperative partnerships with international partners in the field of microsatellite technologies with the goal of sharing experience, uniting efforts in preparing and running scientific and educational experiments and creating next-generation spacecraft by multi-national student groups. Such approaches allow creating seamless environment that unites educational, scientific and innovative processes. This allows students to develop high professionalism, modern engineering thinking and stable engineering skills at an early stage of education at the university.

  16. Modular photonic power and VCSEL-based data links for aerospace and military applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.

    1997-02-01

    If photonic data and power transfer links are constructed in a modular fashion, they can be easily adapted into various forms to meet a wide range of needs for aerospace and military applications. The performance specifications associated with these needs can vary widely according to application. Alignment tolerance needs also tend to vary greatly, as can requirements on power consumption. An example of a modular photonic data and/or power transfer link that can be applied to military and aerospace needs is presented. In this approach, a link is designed for low (<10 kb/s) data rates, ultra-low electrical power consumption, large alignment tolerance, and power transfer to provide complete electrical shielding in a remote module that might be found in a military or aerospace application.

  17. Titanium/beryllium laminates - Fabrication, mechanical properties, and potential aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation to assess the fabricability, mechanical properties, and possible aerospace applications of adhesively-bonded titanium/beryllium Tiber laminates. The results of the investigation indicate that structural laminates can be made which have: a modulus of elasticity comparable to steel, fracture strength comparable to the yield strength of titanium, density comparable to aluminum, impact resistance comparable to titanium, and little or no notch sensitivity. These laminates can have stiffness and weight advantages over other materials, including advanced fiber composites, in some aerospace applications where buckling resistance, vibration frequencies, and weight considerations control the design.

  18. Engineering electrochemical capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John R.

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical capacitor (EC) applications have broadened tremendously since EC energy storage devices were introduced in 1978. Then typical applications operated below 10 V at power levels below 1 W. Today many EC applications operate at voltages approaching 1000 V at power levels above 100 kW. This paper briefly reviews EC energy storage technology, shows representative applications using EC storage, and describes engineering approaches to design EC storage systems. Comparisons are made among storage systems designed to meet the same application power requirement but using different commercial electrochemical capacitor products.

  19. Standardization of shape memory alloy test methods toward certification of aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, D. J.; Mabe, J. H.; Benafan, O.; Coda, A.; Conduit, B.; Padan, R.; Van Doren, B.

    2015-08-01

    The response of shape memory alloy (SMA) components employed as actuators has enabled a number of adaptable aero-structural solutions. However, there are currently no industry or government-accepted standardized test methods for SMA materials when used as actuators and their transition to commercialization and production has been hindered. This brief fast track communication introduces to the community a recently initiated collaborative and pre-competitive SMA specification and standardization effort that is expected to deliver the first ever regulatory agency-accepted material specification and test standards for SMA as employed as actuators for commercial and military aviation applications. In the first phase of this effort, described herein, the team is working to review past efforts and deliver a set of agreed-upon properties to be included in future material certification specifications as well as the associated experiments needed to obtain them in a consistent manner. Essential for the success of this project is the participation and input from a number of organizations and individuals, including engineers and designers working in materials and processing development, application design, SMA component fabrication, and testing at the material, component, and system level. Going forward, strong consensus among this diverse body of participants and the SMA research community at large is needed to advance standardization concepts for universal adoption by the greater aerospace community and especially regulatory bodies. It is expected that the development and release of public standards will be done in collaboration with an established standards development organization.

  20. Advances in SiC/SiC Composites for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, supported by a variety of materials development programs, NASA Glenn Research Center has significantly increased the thermostructural capability of SiC/SiC composite materials for high-temperature aerospace applications. These state-of-the-art advances have occurred in every key constituent of the composite: fiber, fiber coating, matrix, and environmental barrier coating, as well as processes for forming the fiber architectures needed for complex-shaped components such as turbine vanes for gas turbine engines. This presentation will briefly elaborate on the nature of these advances in terms of performance data and underlying mechanisms. Based on a list of first-order property goals for typical high-temperature applications, key data from a variety of laboratory tests are presented which demonstrate that the NASA-developed constituent materials and processes do indeed result in SiC/SiC systems with the desired thermal and structural capabilities. Remaining process and microstructural issues for further property enhancement are discussed, as well as on-going approaches at NASA to solve these issues. NASA efforts to develop physics-based property models that can be used not only for component design and life modeling, but also for constituent material and process improvement will also be discussed.

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 15: Technical uncertainty and project complexity as correlates of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of an exploratory investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1993-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty and project complexity on information use by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists. The study utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list served as the study population. The adjusted response rate was 67 percent. The survey instrument is appendix C to this report. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and information use. Statistically significant relationships were found to exist between technical uncertainty, project complexity, and the use of federally funded aerospace R&D. The results of this investigation are relevant to researchers investigating information-seeking behavior of aerospace engineers. They are also relevant to R&D managers and policy planners concerned with transferring the results of federally funded aerospace R&D to the U.S. aerospace industry.

  2. Integrity assessment of preforms and thick textile reinforced composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saboktakin Rizi, Abbasali

    bundle occurred around tufting reinforcements. The variation of preform geometry was achieved by laser scanning. Furthermore, the CT capability was investigated as a means for recognizing the shapes and locations of voids in composites. Tufted composites with transverse tufting suffer less reduction in the tensile strength than those with longitudinal tufting. Tufted composites are found to have lower fatigue life ithan untufted composites, while an improved compressive strength and tensile strength at high strain rate are observed. Tufting improves the mechanical properties of tufted honeycomb composites under local compression and bending loadings. Mostly, the damage initiates from resin-rich regions around the tufting reinforcements. The acceptance of 3D tufted composites for use in primary aerospace structures is highly dependent on the accuracy and reliability of experimental data to recognize the degree to which tufting reinforcements improve or degrade the mechanical properties. In this thesis, the correlation between the tufted preforms and composite properties and the changes to mechanical properties is discussed for a specific tufting configuration. Experimental data are reported on both the low-rate and high-rate static and fatigue strengths at various stress levels. Microstructural examination is carried out by using the high resolution microscopy and CT techniques. The results of this thesis contribute to the investigation of the integrity and damage tolerance in 3D tufted composites toward certifying purposes for future transport aircraft. Since the certification of tufted composites for aerospace applications is still problematic due to the lack of dependable non-destructive evaluation techniques for their inspection and those manufacturing factors can considerably influence their performance, this is an important problem to tackle in the field of aerospace composite engineering.

  3. A case study of the knowledge transfer practices from the perspectives of highly experienced engineers in the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Deloris

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to describe the existing knowledge transfer practices in selected aerospace companies as perceived by highly experienced engineers retiring from the company. Specifically it was designed to investigate and describe (a) the processes and procedures used to transfer knowledge, (b) the systems that encourage knowledge transfer, (c) the impact of management actions on knowledge transfer, and (d) constraining factors that might impede knowledge transfer. Methodology. A descriptive case study was the methodology applied in this study. Qualitative data were gathered from highly experienced engineers from 3 large aerospace companies in Southern California. A semistructured interview was conducted face-to-face with each participant in a private or semiprivate, non-workplace setting to obtain each engineer's perspectives on his or her company's current knowledge transfer practices. Findings. The participants in this study preferred to transfer knowledge using face-to-face methods, one-on-one, through actual troubleshooting and problem-solving scenarios. Managers in these aerospace companies were observed as having knowledge transfer as a low priority; they tend not to promote knowledge transfer among their employees. While mentoring is the most common knowledge transfer system these companies offer, it is not the preferred method of knowledge transfer among the highly experienced engineers. Job security and schedule pressures are the top constraints that impede knowledge transfer between the highly experienced engineers and their coworkers. Conclusions. The study data support the conclusion that the highly experienced engineers in the study's aerospace companies would more likely transfer their knowledge to those remaining in the industry if the transfer could occur face-to-face with management support and acknowledgement of their expertise and if their job security is not threatened. The study also supports the conclusion that managers

  4. Health monitoring studies on composite structures for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.

  5. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  6. A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  7. An overview of interferometric metrology and NDT techniques and applications for the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, Marc P.; Thizy, Cédric; Languy, Fabian; Vandenrijt, Jean-François

    2016-08-01

    We review some full-field interferometric techniques which have been successfully applied in different applications related to the aerospace industry. The first part of the paper concerns the long-wave infrared (LWIR) digital holographic interferometry which allows the measurement large displacements that occur when space structures undergo large temperature excursions. A second part of the paper concerns different developments in interferometric nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques intended to improve their usability in aerospace industrial environments. Among others, we discuss LWIR speckle interferometry for simultaneous deformation and temperature variation measurements and new post-processing techniques applied to shearography for an easier detection of flaws in composite structures.

  8. Early stopping of aerospace medical trials: application of sequential principles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K V; Powell, M R; Waligora, J M

    1994-06-01

    A two-period, crossover trial was conducted in the hypobaric chamber on human subjects to compare the influence of inflight exercise (experimental) and restricted activity (control) on altitude decompression sickness (DCS) during simulated extravehicular activities. Out of 39 pairs (total of 78 exposures), 4 cases of DCS occurred under control and 5 occurred under experimental conditions. Analysis of the crossover results showed that the P values for differences in DCS occurrence was 0.56. Under these circumstances, it was necessary to decide whether additional information would be obtained by accruing more subjects. This problem was examined by using a skew sequential design in which the "stopping rule" was based on an alpha of 0.05 (one-sided) and power of 80%. The result of this analysis was in favor of the null hypothesis, and the trial was terminated. The authors recommend the use of similar stopping rules in aerospace trials to optimize sample size without compromising statistical validity.

  9. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Workshop: Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Robin C. (Editor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Fourth Annual Conference on Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications was to provide a forum for technical dialogue on numerous topics in the area of smart materials. The proceedings presented herein represent the technical contributions of the participants of the workshop. Topics addressed include shape memory alloys, ferroelectrics, fiber optics, finite element simulation, and active control.

  10. A preliminary investigation of the potential applicability of the IPAD system to non-aerospace industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbert, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the applicability of the planned Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system to the design activities of non-aerospace industries was carried out. It was determined that IPAD could be of significant benefit to a number of industries, with the most likely users being the heavy construction and automotive industries. Two additional short studies were initiated to investigate the possible impact of IPAD on a national energy program and on urban and regional planning activities of local and state governments. These initial studies indicated the possibility of significant payoff in these areas and the need for further investigations. It was also determined that utilization of IPAD by non-aerospace industries will probably involve a long stepwise process, since these industries maintain a policy of gradual introduction of new technology.

  11. Mechanical Behavior of Advanced Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, Ignancy (Technical Monitor); Kantzos, Peter; Shannon, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) loading has any deleterious synergistic effect on life when combined with the typical Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) loading present in engine disks. This interaction is particularly important in the rim region of blisk applications, where fatigue initiations from vibratory stresses (HCF) may be propagated to the disk by LCF. The primary effort in this study was focused on determining and documenting initiation sites and damage mechanisms. Under LCF loading conditions the failures were predominantly surface initiated, while HCF loading favored internal initiations. Deleterious HCF/LCF interactions would always result in a transition from internal to surface initiations. The results indicated that under the relative stress conditions evaluated there was no interaction between HCF and LCF. In FY99 this effort was extended to investigate several other loading conditions (R-ratio effects) as well as interactions between LCF and two-hour tensile dwells. The results will be published as a NASA Technical Memorandum.

  12. Summary of the Active Microwave Workshop, chapter 1. [utilization in applications and aerospace programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the utility, feasibility, and advantages of active microwave sensors for a broad range of applications, including aerospace. In many instances, the material provides an in-depth examination of the applicability and/or the technology of microwave remote sensing, and considerable documentation is presented in support of these techniques. An assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of active microwave sensor data indicates that satisfactory data are obtainable for several significant applications.

  13. Multi-agent systems design for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waslander, Steven L.

    2007-12-01

    Engineering systems with independent decision makers are becoming increasingly prevalent and present many challenges in coordinating actions to achieve systems goals. In particular, this work investigates the applications of air traffic flow control and autonomous vehicles as motivation to define algorithms that allow agents to agree to safe, efficient and equitable solutions in a distributed manner. To ensure system requirements will be satisfied in practice, each method is evaluated for a specific model of agent behavior, be it cooperative or non-cooperative. The air traffic flow control problem is investigated from the point of view of the airlines, whose costs are directly affected by resource allocation decisions made by the Federal Aviation Administration in order to mitigate traffic disruptions caused by weather. Airlines are first modeled as cooperative, and a distributed algorithm is presented with various global cost metrics which balance efficient and equitable use of resources differently. Next, a competitive airline model is assumed and two market mechanisms are developed for allocating contested airspace resources. The resource market mechanism provides a solution for which convergence to an efficient solution can be guaranteed, and each airline will improve on the solution that would occur without its inclusion in the decision process. A lump-sum market is then introduced as an alternative mechanism, for which efficiency loss bounds exist if airlines attempt to manipulate prices. Initial convergence results for lump-sum markets are presented for simplified problems with a single resource. To validate these algorithms, two air traffic flow models are developed which extend previous techniques, the first a convenient convex model made possible by assuming constant velocity flow, and the second a more complex flow model with full inflow, velocity and rerouting control. Autonomous vehicle teams are envisaged for many applications including mobile sensing

  14. Technical evaluation report on Propulsion and Energetics Panel 38th Meeting on Inlets and Nozzles for Aerospace Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowditch, D. N.; Monti, R.

    1972-01-01

    The application and use of inlets and nozzles in aerospace, V/STOL, and hypersonic propulsion systems are discussed. Data cover test techniques and facilities, experimental results from small rig tests to flight tests, and theoretical analysis of propulsion system flows. The problems associated with such a system are also discussed.

  15. Engineering Work and Information Use in Aerospace: Results of a Telephone Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    and Rebecca 0. Barclay. "The NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project." Government Information Quarterly 8.2 (1991): 219-233. Polanyi...Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Reprinteo .om Government Information Quarterly , Volume 8, No. 2 (1991): 219-233. (Available from AIAA

  16. Advances in Ceramic Matrix Composite Blade Damping Characteristics for Aerospace Turbomachinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Harris, Donald L.; Ting, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    For advanced aerospace propulsion systems, development of ceramic matrix composite integrally-bladed turbine disk technology is attractive for a number of reasons. The high strength-to-weight ratio of ceramic composites helps to reduce engine weight and the one-piece construction of a blisk will result in fewer parts count, which should translate into reduced operational costs. One shortcoming with blisk construction, however, is that blisks may be prone to high cycle fatigue due to their structural response to high vibration environments. Use of ceramic composites is expected to provide some internal damping to reduce the vibratory stresses encountered due to unsteady flow loads through the bladed turbine regions. A goal of our research was to characterize the vibration viscous damping behavior of C/SiC composites. The vibration damping properties were measured and calculated. Damping appeared to decrease with an increase in the natural frequency. While the critical damping amount of approximately 2% is required for typical aerospace turbomachinery engines, the C/SiC damping at high frequencies was less than 0.2% from our study. The advanced high-performance aerospace propulsion systems almost certainly will require even more damping than what current vehicles require. A purpose of this paper is to review some work on C/SiC vibration damping by the authors for the NASA CMC turbine blisk development program and address an importance of the further investigation of the blade vibration damping characteristics on candidate CMC materials for the NASA s advanced aerospace turbomachinery engine systems.

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 28: The technical communication practices of aerospace engineering and science students: Results of the phase 4 cross-national surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate aerospace engineering and science students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an aerospace engineer or a scientist, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication skills, practices, habits, and training of aerospace engineering and science students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of students enrolled in aerospace engineering and science programs at universities in India, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. The surveys were undertaken as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance, use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign language technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  18. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, B.; Beall, H. C.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Eakes, R. E.; Kizakevich, P. N.; Mccartney, M.; Rouse, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Utilization of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) technology in medicine is discussed. The objective is best obtained by stimulation of the introduction of new or improved commercially available medical products incorporating aerospace technology. A bipolar donor/recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented to provide a basis for the team's methodology. That methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and NASA technology that, in combination, constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial transfers were completed: the Stowaway, a lightweight wheelchair that provides mobility for the disabled and elderly in the cabin of commercial aircraft, and Micromed, a portable medication infusion pump for the reliable, continuous infusion of medications such as heparin or insulin. The marketing and manufacturing factors critical to the commercialization of the lightweight walker incorporating composite materials were studied. Progress was made in the development and commercialization of each of the 18 currently active projects.

  19. High Resolution Aerospace Applications using the NASA Columbia Supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Berger, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the parallel performance of two high-performance aerodynamic simulation packages on the newly installed NASA Columbia supercomputer. These packages include both a high-fidelity, unstructured, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver, and a fully-automated inviscid flow package for cut-cell Cartesian grids. The complementary combination of these two simulation codes enables high-fidelity characterization of aerospace vehicle design performance over the entire flight envelope through extensive parametric analysis and detailed simulation of critical regions of the flight envelope. Both packages. are industrial-level codes designed for complex geometry and incorpor.ats. CuStomized multigrid solution algorithms. The performance of these codes on Columbia is examined using both MPI and OpenMP and using both the NUMAlink and InfiniBand interconnect fabrics. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability on up to 2016 CPUs using the NUMAIink4 interconnect, with measured computational rates in the vicinity of 3 TFLOP/s, while InfiniBand showed some performance degradation at high CPU counts, particularly with multigrid. Nonetheless, the results are encouraging enough to indicate that larger test cases using combined MPI/OpenMP communication should scale well on even more processors.

  20. Modeling, Detection, and Disambiguation of Sensor Faults for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, Edward; Saxena, Abhinav; Bansal, Prasun; Goebel, Kai F.; Curran, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Sensor faults continue to be a major hurdle for systems health management to reach its full potential. At the same time, few recorded instances of sensor faults exist. It is equally difficult to seed particular sensor faults. Therefore, research is underway to better understand the different fault modes seen in sensors and to model the faults. The fault models can then be used in simulated sensor fault scenarios to ensure that algorithms can distinguish between sensor faults and system faults. The paper illustrates the work with data collected from an electro-mechanical actuator in an aerospace setting, equipped with temperature, vibration, current, and position sensors. The most common sensor faults, such as bias, drift, scaling, and dropout were simulated and injected into the experimental data, with the goal of making these simulations as realistic as feasible. A neural network based classifier was then created and tested on both experimental data and the more challenging randomized data sequences. Additional studies were also conducted to determine sensitivity of detection and disambiguation efficacy to severity of fault conditions.

  1. Prediction of three sigma maximum dispersed density for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Terri L.; Nitschke, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    Free molecular heating (FMH) is caused by the transfer of energy during collisions between the upper atmosphere molecules and a space vehicle. The dispersed free molecular heating on a surface is an important constraint for space vehicle thermal analyses since it can be a significant source of heating. To reduce FMH to a spacecraft, the parking orbit is often designed to a higher altitude at the expense of payload capability. Dispersed FMH is a function of both space vehicle velocity and atmospheric density, however, the space vehicle velocity variations are insignificant when compared to the atmospheric density variations. The density of the upper atmosphere molecules is a function of altitude, but also varies with other environmental factors, such as solar activity, geomagnetic activity, location, and time. A method has been developed to predict three sigma maximum dispersed density for up to 15 years into the future. This method uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric density code, MSIS 86, along with 50 years of solar data, NASA and NOAA solar activity predictions for the next 15 years, and an Aerospace Corporation correlation to account for density code inaccuracies to generate dispersed maximum density ratios denoted as 'K-factors'. The calculated K-factors can be used on a mission unique basis to calculate dispersed density, and hence dispersed free molecular heating rates. These more accurate K-factors can allow lower parking orbit altitudes, resulting in increased payload capability.

  2. Development and analysis of insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenski, George A.; Woodford, Lynn M.

    1993-03-01

    The Wright Laboratory Materials Directorate at WPAFB, Ohio recently completed a research and development program under contract with the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Company, St. Louis, Missouri. Program objectives were to develop wire insulation performance requirements, evaluate candidate insulations, and prepare preliminary specification sheets on the most promising candidates. Aircraft wiring continues to be a high maintenance item and a major contributor to electrically-related aircraft mishaps. Mishap data on aircraft show that chafing of insulation is the most common mode of wire failure. Improved wiring constructions are expected to increase aircraft performance and decrease costs by reducing maintenance actions. In the laboratory program, new insulation constructions were identified that had overall improved performance in evaluation tests when compared to currently available MIL-W-81381 and MIL-W-22759 wiring. These insulations are principally aromatic polyimide and crosslinked ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), respectively. Candidate insulations identified in preliminary specification sheets were principally fluoropolymers with a polyimide inner layer. Examples of insulation properties evaluated included flammability, high temperature mechanical and electrical performance, fluid immersion, and susceptibility to arc propagation under applied power chafing conditions. Potential next generation wire insulation materials are also reviewed.

  3. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Report 43: The Technical Communication Practices of U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 Mail Survey -- Manufacturing and Production Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

  4. Integration of piezoceramic actuators in fiber-reinforced structures for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Johannes K.; Herold-Schmidt, Ursula; Zaglauer, Helmut W.; Arendts, Franz J.

    1998-06-01

    Up to now experimental and theoretical research on active structures for aerospace applications has put the focus mainly on surface bonded actuators. Simultaneously peizoceramics became the major type of actuating device being investigated for smart structures.In this context various techniques of insulating, bonding and operating these actuators have been developed. However, especially with regard to actuators only a few investigations have dealt with embedding of these components into the load bearing structure so far. With increasing shares of fiber- reinforced plastics applied in aerospace products the option of integrating the actuation capability into the components should be reconsidered during the design process. This paper deals with different aspects related to the integration of piezoceramic actuators into fiber reinforced aerospace structures. An outline of the basic possibilities of either bonding an actuator to the structure's surface or embedding it into the composite is given while the emphasis is put on different aspects related to the latter technology. Subsequently recent efforts at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier concerning aircraft components with surface bonded actuators are presented. Design considerations regarding embedded piezoceramic actuators are discussed. Finally some techniques of non-destructive testing applicable to structures with surface bonded as well as embedded piezoelectric actuators are described.

  5. The design and fabrication of microstrip omnidirectional array antennas for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, T. G.; Appleton, M. W.; Lusby, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    A microstrip antenna design concept was developed that will provide quasi-omnidirectional radiation pattern characteristics about cylindrical and conical aerospace structures. L-band and S-band antenna arrays were designed, fabricated, and, in some cases, flight tested for rocket, satellite, and aircraft drone applications. Each type of array design is discussed along with a thermal cover design that was required for the sounding rocket applications.

  6. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1:] The value of Scientific and Technical Information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R&D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace R&D process is examined. Data are presented from studies of the role of STI in the performance and management of R&D activities and the behavior of engineers when using and seeking information. Consideration is given to the information sources used to solve technical problems, the production and use of technical communications, and the use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases.

  7. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute. Fourteen medical organizations are presently participating in the RTI Application Team Program: The accomplishments of the Research Triangle Institute Application Team during the reporting period were as follows: The team identified 21 new problems for investigation, accomplished 4 technology applications and 3 potential technology applications, closed 21 old problems, and on February 28, 1973, had a total of 57 problems under active investigation.

  8. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute. The accomplishments of the Research Triangle Institute Application Team during the reporting period are as follows: The team has identified 44 new problems for investigation, has accomplished 8 technology applications and 8 potential technology applications, has closed 88 old problems, and reactivated 3 old problems, and on August 31, 1972, has a total of 57 problems under active investigation.

  9. The 1990 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Lewis M. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4-6, 1990. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers as well as participation in like kind from the European Space Agency member nations. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, lithium based chemistries, and advanced technologies as they relate to high reliability operations in aerospace applications.

  10. Applications of aerospace technology in the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Zimmerman, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    Current activities of the program to accelerate specific applications of space related technology in major public sector problem areas are summarized for the period 1 June 1971 through 30 November 1971. An overview of NASA technology, technology applications, and supporting activities are presented. Specific technology applications in biomedicine are reported including cancer detection, treatment and research; cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis, and treatment; medical instrumentation; kidney function disorders, treatment, and research; and rehabilitation medicine.

  11. Advancement of braiding/resin transfer molding from commercial to aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpless, Garrett C.

    1991-03-01

    The braiding process, which produces dry fiber preforms fabricated to net shape for subsequent molding, and its compatible marriage to the resin transfer molding (RTM) process is producing a wide variety of composite products for commercial, recreational, and aircraft/aerospace applications. The design and fabrication of net-shaped braided preforms is the first step in the manufacture of braided/RTM composite parts. In most cases, braiding is the process of choice because the desired preform shape is usually complex. The stability of a braided structure makes it ideal for use in a subsequent RTM operation. The problems and techniques involved in the braiding of various complex preforms are discussed. The RTM process is then examined, along with its compatibility and flexibility with the braiding process in manufacturing. Examples are then presented of structurally demanding applications for braided/RTM composites in the aircraft and aerospace industries.

  12. Micromechanical Machining Processes and their Application to Aerospace Structures, Devices and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedrich, Craig R.; Warrington, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Micromechanical machining processes are those micro fabrication techniques which directly remove work piece material by either a physical cutting tool or an energy process. These processes are direct and therefore they can help reduce the cost and time for prototype development of micro mechanical components and systems. This is especially true for aerospace applications where size and weight are critical, and reliability and the operating environment are an integral part of the design and development process. The micromechanical machining processes are rapidly being recognized as a complementary set of tools to traditional lithographic processes (such as LIGA) for the fabrication of micromechanical components. Worldwide efforts in the U.S., Germany, and Japan are leading to results which sometimes rival lithography at a fraction of the time and cost. Efforts to develop processes and systems specific to aerospace applications are well underway.

  13. Aerospace Application of Fiber Optic Strain Measurement Technology in Cryogenic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Tadahito; Takeda, Nobuo

    Strain and temperature measurement, especially in cryogenic environments, was studied using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for the purpose of the aerospace structural health monitoring. Although the relationship between the applied strain and the Bragg wavelength shift was the same as that at room temperature, the temperature-wavelength relationship became non-linear under cryogenic environment. In order to show the applicability of the sensor in aerospace applications, FBG strain and temperature sensors were embedded in a composite liquid hydrogen tank and measured in the cryogenic and pressurized environment. Encapsulated and small-size temperature sensors were used in this article and the temperature drift of the strain sensor was compensated by using the output of the temperature sensor. It was revealed throughout the experiment that the optical power loss could be critical in the case of existing large temperature difference. The practical solution for this issue was also discussed in this article.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 25: The technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 4 RAeS mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report No. 36: The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 NASA Langley Research Center Mail Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were assigned to the Research and Technology Group (RTG) at the NASA Langley Research Center in September 1995.

  16. Development of aerospace nursing.

    PubMed

    Barron, N J

    1975-04-01

    In the initial development, the primary purpose of the USAF aerospace nursing program was to prepare the nurse to function as an integral member of the aerospace medical team in support of bioastronautics, occupational health and aerospace medical research programs. The absence of an expanded manned space program has required the aerospace nurse to redirect her energies toward the immediate needs of the aerospace medicine program. Many of the aerospace nurse's more specific functions are dependent upon the mission objectives of the command and military base to which she is assigned. Aerospace nursing reflects a concern for the total health needs of the Air Force community and the application of a holistic approach. It includes all aspects of health and all environmental hazards which alter health. The development of aerospace nursing paves the way for this expanded view of nursing practice.

  17. Titanium/beryllium laminates: Fabrication, mechanical properties, and potential aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation indicated that structural laminates can be made which have: a modulus of elasticity comparable to steel, fracture strength of comparable to the yield strength of titanium, density comparable to aluminum, impact resistance comparable to titanium, and little or no notch sensitivity. These laminates can have stiffness and weight advantages over other materials including advanced fiber composites, in some aerospace applications where buckling resistance, vibration frequencies, and weight considerations control the design.

  18. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A benefits briefing notebook is presented for the NASA Technology Utilization Office in which 515 applications of NASA aerospace technology to other sections of the economy are described. An overview of technology transfer is given. Benefit cases are cited in 19 categories along with pertinent information, such as communication link, DRI transfer example file, and individual case number. General, organization, geographic, and field center indexes are provided.

  19. Application of thermal life prediction model to high-temperature aerospace alloys B1900+Hf and Haynes 188

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.; Saltsman, James F.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Arya, Vinod K.

    1990-01-01

    The results of the application of a newly proposed thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction method to a series of laboratory TMF results on two high-temperature aerospace engine alloys are presented. The method, referred to as TMF/TS-SRP, is based on three relatively recent developments: the total strain version of the method of Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP), the bithermal testing technique for characterizing TMF behavior, and advanced viscoplastic constitutive models. The high-temperature data reported in a companion publication are used to evaluate the constants in the model and to provide the TMF verification data to check its accuracy. Predicted lives are in agreement with the experimental lives to within a factor of approximately 2.

  20. The Role of Aerospace Technology in Agriculture. The 1977 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Possibilities were examined for improving agricultural productivity through the application of aerospace technology. An overview of agriculture and of the problems of feeding a growing world population are presented. The present state of agriculture, of plant and animal culture, and agri-business are reviewed. Also analyzed are the various systems for remote sensing, particularly applications to agriculture. The report recommends additional research and technology in the areas of aerial application of chemicals, of remote sensing systems, of weather and climate investigations, and of air vehicle design. Also considered in detail are the social, legal, economic, and political results of intensification of technical applications to agriculture.

  1. Qualifying of metallic materials and structures for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.; Polakovics, Donald; Koegel, Wayne

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Navy’s certification and qualification process for materials and structures is undertaken to ensure the flight safety and full mission capability of naval aviation weapon systems. A building-block process is practiced in which validated engineering data and concepts provide the foundation for continued technological development and innovation. For example, prior to developing material-property standards, the manufacturing process is frozen and fully characterized. The customer’s cost, schedule, and performance requirements must be carefully considered. Technologies are selected for immediate use or further R&D based upon a risk assessment that takes into account many factors, including technological maturity, lessons learned, the sponsor budget and schedule constraints, affordability, return on investment, and life-cycle cost impact. This paper explores the process that the navy uses to qualify its airframe alloys and structures.

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. A Comparison of the Technical Communication Practices of Aerospace Engineers and Scientists in India and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    34The NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project." Government Information Quarterly 8:2 (1991): 219-233. 35 APPENDIX A AEROSPACE KNOWLEDGE... Government Information Quarterly , Volume 8, No. 2 (1991): 219-233. (Available from AIAA 91A35455.) 1 1 Pinelli, Thomas E. and John M. Kennedy. The

  3. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report Number 14. Engineering Work and Information Use in Aerospace: Results of a Telephone Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Kennedy; and Rebecca 0. Barclay. "The NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project." Government Information Quarterly 8.2 (1991): 219-233...Rebecca 0. Barclay. The NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Reprinted from Government Information Quarterly , Volume 8, "’). 2

  4. Thick Films: Electronic Applications. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, fabrication, and evaluation of thick film electronic devices. Thick film solar cells, thick films for radiation conduction, deposition processes, conductive inks are among the topics discussed. Applications in military and civilian avionics are examined.

  5. Directionally Solidified Eutectic Ceramics for Multifunctional Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    the challenges associated with ceramics are improving strength, toughness and creep resistance retaining the mechanical properties at elevated...applications: (1) the challenges associated with ceramics are improving strength, toughness and creep resistance retaining the mechanical properties at...mechanical properties of polyphase Al2Ti05 - A1203 system eutectic, which showed superior mechanical properties than the either constituent alone due

  6. Applications of aerospace technology in the environmental sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detailed information is reported on the operations and accomplishments of the RTI Technology Application Team for the period October 11, 1971 to March 10, 1972. Mathematical models for prediction of pollutant formation during combustion are discussed along with generic areas of air pollution problems, which NASA technology offers a high potential for solving. Recommendations for future work are included.

  7. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-10

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  8. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-01

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  9. A Hydrogen Leak Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

    1995-01-01

    Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

  10. A hydrogen leak detection system for aerospace and commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

    1995-10-01

    Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

  11. Directionally Solidified Eutectic Ceramics for Multifunctional Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    creep resistance retaining the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and (2) to elucidate and demonstrate the multifunctional potential of...applications. We report progress on three different areas: 1. The mechanical properties of polyphase Al2TiO5 - Al2O3 system eutectic, which showed...superior mechanical properties than the either constituent alone due to the strong constraining effects provided by the coherent interfaces and

  12. Materials for defense/aerospace applications (NON-SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, A. R.

    2012-03-01

    Through this effort, Sandia and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM Aero) sought to assess the feasibility of (1) applying special materials to a defense application; (2) developing a piezoelectric-based micro thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell; and (3) building and delivering a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. This project supported the Stockpile Research & Development Program by contributing to the development of radio frequency (RF) MEMS- and optical MEMS-based components - such as switches, phase shifters, oscillators, and filters - with improved performance and reduced weight and size. Investigation of failure mechanisms and solutions helped to ensure that MEMS-based technology will meet performance requirements and long term reliability goals in the specified environments dictated by Lockheed Martin's commercial and defense applications. The objectives of this project were to (1) fabricate and test materials for military applications; (2) perform a feasibility study of a piezoelectric-based micro TPV cell; and (3) build and deliver a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. Sandia fabricated and tested properties of materials, studied options for manufacturing scale-up, and delivered a prototype IR Emissometer. LM Aero provided material requirements and designs. Both participated in the investigation of attachment methods and environmental effects on material performance, a feasibility study of piezoelectric TPV cells, an investigation and development of new approaches to implement the required material functionality, and analysis and validation of material performance physics, numerical models, and experimental metrology.

  13. X-ray backscatter imaging for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shedlock, Daniel; Edwards, Talion; Toh, Chin

    2011-06-23

    Scatter x-ray imaging (SXI) is a real time, digital, x-ray backscatter imaging technique that allows radiographs to be taken from one side of an object. This x-ray backscatter imaging technique offers many advantages over conventional transmission radiography that include single-sided access and extremely low radiation fields compared to conventional open source industrial radiography. Examples of some applications include the detection of corrosion, foreign object debris, water intrusion, cracking, impact damage and leak detection in a variety of material such as aluminum, composites, honeycomb structures, and titanium.

  14. Cognitive engineering in aerospace application: Pilot interaction with cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, Nadine R.; Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Because of recent incidents involving glass-cockpit aircraft, there is growing concern with cockpit automation and its potential effects on pilot performance. However, little is known about the nature and causes of problems that arise in pilot-automation interaction. The results of two studies that provide converging, complementary data on pilots' difficulties with understanding and operating one of the core systems of cockpit automation, the Flight Management System (FMS) is reported. A survey asking pilots to describe specific incidents with the FMS and observations of pilots undergoing transition training to a glass cockpit aircraft served as vehicles to gather a corpus on the nature and variety of FMS-related problems. The results of both studies indicate that pilots become proficient in standard FMS operations through ground training and subsequent line experience. But even with considerable line experience, they still have difficulties tracking FMS status and behavior in certain flight contexts, and they show gaps in their understanding of the functional structure of the system. The results suggest that design-related factors such as opaque interfaces contribute to these difficulties which can affect pilots' situation awareness. The results of this research are relevant for both the design of cockpit automation and the development of training curricula specifically tailored to the needs of glass cockpits.

  15. Thermally stable, low dielectric polyquinolines for aerospace and electronics applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Neil H.; Marrocco, Matthew L.; Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1990-01-01

    Four new high molecular weight, linear chain polyquinolines have been synthesized and fabricated into high quality free standing films. These polymers are characterized by moderate to high glass transition temperatures, excellent thermal and thermooxidative stability, extremely low dielectric constants and good planarizing characteristics. The polymers absorb very low quantities of moisture. As a consequence, the dielectric constant of one new polyquinoline has been shown to be quite insensitive to exposure to warm/wet conditions. Isothermal aging of one new derivative in air has been carried out at elevated temperatures (250 C to 345 C). The results demonstrate truly outstanding thermooxidative stability. Additional characterizations include molecular weight determinations, solubilities and film-forming characteristics, density measurements, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The data acquired to date suggest that the polymers may find use as refractive films and coatings and as interlevel planarizers in microelectronics applications.

  16. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, E. J.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Cano, R. J.; Wincheski, R. A.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Czabaj, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at the nanoscale suggest their potential to enable significantly lighter structures of interest for space applications. However, their utility depends on the retention of these properties in bulk material formats that permit practical fabrication of large structures. This presentation summarizes recent progress made to produce carbon nanotube composites with specific tensile properties that begin to rival those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. CNT content in these nanocomposites was greater than 70% by weight. Tested nanocomposite specimens were fabricated from kilometers or tens of square meters of CNT, depending on the starting material format. Processing methods to yield these results, and characterization and testing to evaluate the performance of these composites will be discussed. The final objective is the demonstration of a CNT composite overwrapped pressure vessel to be flight tested in the Fall of 2016.

  17. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A robust, accurate, broad-band, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low and high voltage 60 Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400 Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The technology contained in the sensor is examined and the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range are given. The results of early EMI tests are also given.

  18. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A robust, accurate, broadband, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low- and high-voltage 60-Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400-Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically EMI (electromagnetic interference) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The authors report on the technology contained in the sensor and also relate the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range. The results of early EMI tests are shown.

  19. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A robust, accurate, broadband, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low and high voltage 60-Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400-Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The technology used in the sensor is examined and the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range are given. The results of early EMI tests are also given.

  20. Some contributions to energetics by the Lewis Research Center and a review of their potential non-aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Gutstein, M. U.

    1972-01-01

    The primary technology areas are aerospace propulsion, power and materials. As examples in these technologies, the programs in the fields of cryogenics and liquid metals are reviewed and potential non-aerospace applications for the results of these programs are discussed. These include such possibilities as: hydrogen as a non-polluting industrial fuel; more efficient central power stations; and powerplants for advanced ground transportation.

  1. Teaching an Aerospace Engineering Design Course via Virtual Worlds: A Comparative Assessment of Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okutsu, Masataka; DeLaurentis, Daniel; Brophy, Sean; Lambert, Jason

    2013-01-01

    To test the concept of multiuser 3D virtual environments as media to teach semester-long courses, we developed a software prototype called Aeroquest. An aerospace design course--offered to 135 second-year students for university credits in Fall 2009--was divided into two groups: the real-world group attending lectures, physically, in a campus hall…

  2. Aerospace Employment Project: Finding New Careers in Local Government for Unemployed Engineers and Scientists. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Conference of Mayors, Washington, DC.

    "If we can put a man on the moon, why can't we solve the problems of our cities?" The demand for urban services and the manpower needs of local governments were increasing dramatically. Skilled professional personnel were unemployed. The Aerospace Employment Project was set up as a special pilot project to test whether unemployed professional…

  3. Mechanical Characterization of Composites and Foams for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, D. R.; Glinsey, C.; Webb, M. M.; Norman, M.; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies to investigate the mechanical properties of ultra-lightweight polyimide foams for space applications, compression after impact (CAI) properties for low velocity impact of sandwich composites, and aspen fiber/polypropylene composites containing an interface adhesive additive, Maleic Anhydride Grafted Polypropylene (MAPP), were performed at Clark Atlanta University. Tensile, compression, flexural, and shear modulus tests were performed on TEEK foams categorized by their densities and relative cost according to ASTM specifications. Results showed that the mechanical properties of the foams increased as a function of higher price and increasing density. The CAI properties of Nomex/phenolic honeycomb core, fiberglass/epoxy facesheet sandwich composites for two damage arrangements were compared using different levels of impact energy ranging from 0 - 452 Joules. Impact on the thin side showed slightly more retention of CAI strength at low impact levels, whereas higher residual compressive strength was observed from impact on the thick side at higher impact levels. The aspen fiber/polypropylene composites studied are composed of various percentages (by weight) of aspen fiber and polypropylene ranging from 30%-60% and 40%-100%, respectively. Results showed that the MAPP increases tensile and flexural strength, while having no significant influence on tensile and flexural modulus.

  4. Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nuñez, M.; Tropea, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

  5. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Aerospace Fire Detection Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Fralick, Gustave; Thomas, Valarie; Makel, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Wu, Q. H.

    2001-01-01

    The detection of fires on-board commercial aircraft is extremely important for safety reasons. Although dependable fire detection equipment presently exists within the cabin, detection of fire within the cargo hold has been less reliable and susceptible to false alarms. A second, independent method of fire detection to complement the conventional smoke detection techniques, such as the measurement of chemical species indicative of a fire, will help reduce false alarms and improve aircraft safety. Although many chemical species are indicative of a fire, two species of particular interest are CO and CO2. This paper discusses microfabricated chemical sensor development tailored to meet the needs of fire safety applications. This development is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The individual sensor being developed and their level of maturity will be presented.

  6. Microfabricated hydrogen sensor technology for aerospace and commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Bickford, R. L.; Jansa, E. D.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

    1994-08-01

    Leaks on the Space Shuttle while on the Launch Pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. An effective leak monitoring system requires reliable hydrogen sensors, hardware, and software to monitor the sensors. The system should process the sensor outputs and provide real-time leak monitoring information to the operator. This paper discusses the progress in developing such a complete leak monitoring system. Advanced microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Gencorp Aerojet (Aerojet). Changes in the hydrogen concentrations are detected using a PdAg on silicon Schottky diode structure. Sensor temperature control is achieved with a temperature sensor and heater fabricated onto the sensor chip. Results of the characterization of these sensors are presented. These sensors can detect low concentrations of hydrogen in inert environments with high sensitivity and quick response time. Aerojet is developing the hardware and software for a multipoint leak monitoring system designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Work has commenced on integrating the NASA LeRC-CWRU hydrogen sensors with the Aerojet designed monitoring system. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. Possible commercialization of the system will also be discussed.

  7. Microfabricated hydrogen sensor technology for aerospace and commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Bickford, Randall L.; Jansa, E. D.; Makel, Darby B.; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, William T.

    1994-10-01

    Leaks on the Space Shuttle while on the Launch Pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. An effective leak monitoring system requires reliable hydrogen sensors, hardware, and software to monitor the sensors. The system should process the sensor outputs and provide real-time leak monitoring information to the operator. This paper discusses the progress in developing such a complete leak monitoring system. Advanced microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Gencorp Aerojet (Aerojet). Changes in the hydrogen concentrations are detected using a PdAg on silicon Schottky diode structure. Sensor temperature control is achieved with a temperature sensor and heater fabricated onto the sensor chip. Results of the characterization of these sensors are presented. These sensors can detect low concentrations of hydrogen in inert environments with high sensitivity and quick response time. Aerojet is developing the hardware and software for a multipoint leak monitoring system designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Work has commenced on integrating the NASA LeRC-CWRU hydrogen sensors with the Aerojet designed monitoring system. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. Possible commercialization of the system will also be discussed.

  8. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, Emilie J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Czabaj, Michael; Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Reported nanoscale mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suggest that their use may enable the fabrication of significantly lighter structures for use in space applications. To be useful in the fabrication of large structures, however, their attractive nanoscale properties must be retained as they are scaled up to bulk materials and converted into practically useful forms. Advances in CNT production have significantly increased the quantities available for use in manufacturing processes, but challenges remain with the retention of nanoscale properties in larger assemblies of CNTs. This work summarizes recent progress in producing carbon nanotube composites with tensile properties approaching those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. These advances were achieved in nanocomposites with CNT content of 70% by weight. The processing methods explored to yield these CNT composite properties will be discussed, as will the characterization and test methods that were developed to provide insight into the factors that contribute to the enhanced tensile properties. Technology maturation was guided by parallel advancements in computational modeling tools that aided in the interpretation of experimental data.

  9. Structural Efficiency of Composite Struts for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Wu, K. Chauncey; McKenney, Martin J.; Oremont, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The structural efficiency of carbon-epoxy tapered struts is considered through trade studies, detailed analysis, manufacturing and experimentation. Since some of the lunar lander struts are more highly loaded than struts used in applications such as satellites and telescopes, the primary focus of the effort is on these highly loaded struts. Lunar lander requirements include that the strut has to be tapered on both ends, complicating the design and limiting the manufacturing process. Optimal stacking sequences, geometries, and materials are determined and the sensitivity of the strut weight to each parameter is evaluated. The trade study results indicate that the most efficient carbon-epoxy struts are 30 percent lighter than the most efficient aluminum-lithium struts. Structurally efficient, highly loaded struts were fabricated and loaded in tension and compression to determine if they met the design requirements and to verify the accuracy of the analyses. Experimental evaluation of some of these struts demonstrated that they could meet the greatest Altair loading requirements in both tension and compression. These results could be applied to other vehicles requiring struts with high loading and light weight.

  10. Low cost split stirling cryogenic cooler for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Zechtzer, Semeon; Pundak, Nachman; Riabzev, Sergey; Kirckconnel, C.; Freeman, Jeremy

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic coolers are used in association with sensitive electronics and sensors for military, commercial or scientific space payloads. The general requirements are high reliability and power efficiency, low vibration export and ability to survive launch vibration extremes and long-term exposure to space radiation. A long standing paradigm of using exclusively space heritage derivatives of legendary "Oxford" cryocoolers featuring linear actuators, flexural bearings, contactless seals and active vibration cancellation is so far the best known practice aiming at delivering high reliability components for the critical and usually expensive space missions. The recent tendency of developing mini and micro satellites for the budget constrained missions has spurred attempts to adapt leading-edge tactical cryogenic coolers to meet the space requirements. The authors are disclosing theoretical and practical aspects of a collaborative effort on developing a space qualified cryogenic refrigerator based on the Ricor model K527 tactical cooler and Iris Technology radiation hardened, low cost cryocooler electronics. The initially targeted applications are cost-sensitive flight experiments, but should the results show promise, some long-life "traditional" cryocooler missions may well be satisfied by this approach.

  11. Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application

    SciTech Connect

    Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nunez, M.; Tropea, S. E.

    2008-01-21

    The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

  12. NASA biomedical applications team. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, D. J.; Beadles, R.; Beall, H. C.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Courtney, M. W.; Mccartney, M.; Scearce, R. W.; Wilson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a bipolar donor-recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented. That methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and aerospace technology that in combination constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on aerospace technology. Problem descriptions and activity reports and the results of a market study on the tissue freezing device are presented.

  13. Recent advances in AM OLED technologies for application to aerospace and military systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri R.; Roush, Jerry; Chanley, Charles

    2012-06-01

    While initial AM OLED products have been introduced in the market about a decade ago, truly successful commercialization of OLEDs has started only a couple of years ago, by Samsung Mobile Display (SMD), with small high performance displays for smart phone applications. This success by Samsung has catalyzed significant interest in AM OLED technology advancement and commercialization by other display manufacturers. Currently, significant manufacturing capacity for AM OLED displays is being established by the industry to serve the growing demand for these displays. The current development in the AM OLED industry are now focused on the development and commercialization of medium size (~10") AM OLED panels for Tablet PC applications and large size (~55") panels for TV applications. This significant progress in commercialization of AM OLED technology is enabled by major advances in various enabling technologies that include TFT backplanes, OLED materials and device structures and manufacturing know-how. In this paper we will discuss these recent advances, particularly as they relate to supporting high performance applications such as aerospace and military systems, and then discuss the results of the OLED testing for aerospace applications.

  14. An Integrated MEMS Sensor Cluster System for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahng, Seun; Scott, Michael A.; Beeler, George B.; Bartlett, James E.; Collins, Richard S.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to reduce viscous drag on airfoils could results in a considerable saving for the operation of flight vehicles including those of space transportation. This reduction of viscous drag effort requires measurement and active control of boundary layer flow property on an airfoil. Measurement of viscous drag of the boundary layer flow over an airfoil with minimal flow disturbance is achievable with newly developed MEMS sensor clusters. These sensor clusters provide information that can be used to actively control actuators to obtain desired flow properties or design a vehicle to satisfy particular boundary layer flow criteria. A series of MEMS sensor clusters has been developed with a data acquisition and control module for local measurements of shear stress, pressure, and temperature on an airfoil. The sensor cluster consists of two shear stress sensors, two pressure sensors, and two temperature sensors on a surface area of 1.24 mm x 1.86 mm. Each sensor is 300 microns square and is placed on a flexible polyimide sheet. The shear stress sensor is a polysilicon hot-film resistor, which is insulated by a vacuum cavity of 200 x 200 x 2 microns. The pressure sensors are silicon piezoresistive type, and the temperature sensors are also hot film polysilicon resistors. The total size of the cluster including sensors and electrical leads is 1 Omm x 1 Omm x 0.1 mm. A typical sensitivity of shear stress sensor is 150 mV/Pascal, the pressure sensors are an absolute type with a measurement range from 9 to 36 psia with 0.8mV/V/psi sensitivity, and the temperature sensors have a measurement resolution of 0.1 degree C. The sensor clusters are interfaced to a data acquisition and control module that consists of two custom ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) and a micro-controller. The data acquisition and control module transfers data to a host PC that configures and controls a total of three sensor clusters. Functionality of the entire system has been tested in

  15. Chemical exposures of rocket-engine test-stand personnel and cancer mortality in a cohort of aerospace workers.

    PubMed

    Ritz, B; Morgenstern, H; Froines, J; Moncau, J

    1999-10-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6107 aerospace workers to examine whether exposure to chemicals--primarily hydrazine fuels--during rocket-engine fueling and testing affects cancer mortality. When conditional logistic regression analysis was applied and adjusted for confounding variables, the estimated rate ratio for lung cancer mortality, comparing exposed to unexposed workers from the same facility, ranged from 1.68 (95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.52) to 2.10 (95% confidence interval, 1.36 to 3.25), depending on job-duration threshold (6 or 24 months) and lag (0 to 15 years). Similar results were obtained for hemato- and lymphopoietic cancer and for bladder and kidney cancer mortality, but estimates for these cancers were imprecise. We concluded that occupational exposure to hydrazine or other chemicals associated with rocket-engine testing jobs increased the risk of dying from lung cancer, and possibly other cancers, in this population of aerospace workers; however, our results need to be replicated in other populations.

  16. The development of nickel-metal hydride technology for use in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampel, Guy; Johnson, Herschel; dell, Dan; Wu, Tony; Puglisi, Vince

    1992-02-01

    The nickel metal hydride technology for battery application is relatively immature even though this technology was made widely known by Philips' scientists as long ago as 1970. Recently, because of the international environmental regulatory pressures being placed on cadmium in the workplace and in disposal practices, battery companies have initiated extensive development programs to make this technology a viable commercial operation. These hydrides do not pose a toxilogical threat as does cadmium. Also, they provide a higher energy density and specific energy when compared to the other nickel based battery technologies. For these reasons, the nickel metal hydride electrochemisty is being evaluated as the next power source for varied applications such as laptop computers, cellular telephones, electric vehicles, and satellites. A parallel development effort is under way to look at aerospace applications for nickel metal hydride cells. This effort is focused on life testing of small wound cells of the commercial type to validate design options and development of prismatic design cells for aerospace applications.

  17. The development of nickel-metal hydride technology for use in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampel, Guy; Johnson, Herschel; Dell, Dan; Wu, Tony; Puglisi, Vince

    1992-01-01

    The nickel metal hydride technology for battery application is relatively immature even though this technology was made widely known by Philips' scientists as long ago as 1970. Recently, because of the international environmental regulatory pressures being placed on cadmium in the workplace and in disposal practices, battery companies have initiated extensive development programs to make this technology a viable commercial operation. These hydrides do not pose a toxilogical threat as does cadmium. Also, they provide a higher energy density and specific energy when compared to the other nickel based battery technologies. For these reasons, the nickel metal hydride electrochemisty is being evaluated as the next power source for varied applications such as laptop computers, cellular telephones, electric vehicles, and satellites. A parallel development effort is under way to look at aerospace applications for nickel metal hydride cells. This effort is focused on life testing of small wound cells of the commercial type to validate design options and development of prismatic design cells for aerospace applications.

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 47: The value of computer networks in aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Ann Peterson; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents data on the value of computer networks that were obtained from a national survey of 2000 aerospace engineers that was conducted in 1993. Survey respondents reported the extent to which they used computer networks in their work and communication and offered their assessments of the value of various network types and applications. They also provided information about the positive impacts of networks on their work, which presents another perspective on value. Finally, aerospace engineers' recommendations on network implementation present suggestions for increasing the value of computer networks within aerospace organizations.

  19. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  20. Evaluation of Sc-Bearing Aluminum Alloy C557 for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Dicus, Dennis L.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of the Al-Mg-Sc alloy C557 was evaluated to assess its potential for a broad range of aerospace applications, including airframe and launch vehicle structures. Of specific interest were mechanical properties at anticipated service temperatures and thermal stability of the alloy. Performance was compared with conventional airframe aluminum alloys and with other emerging aluminum alloys developed for specific service environments. Mechanical properties and metallurgical structure were evaluated for commercially rolled sheet in the as-received H116 condition and after thermal exposures at 107 C. Metallurgical analyses were performed to de.ne grain morphology and texture, strengthening precipitates, and to assess the effect of thermal exposure.

  1. Morphology-Dependent Resonances and Their Applications to Sensing in Aerospace Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Otugen, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in Morphology-Dependent Resonance (MDR)-based sensors for aerospace applications. The sensor concept is based on the detection of small shifts of optical resonances (also called the whispering gallery modes or WGM) of dielectric spheres caused by external effects. Recent developments in MRD-based micro-optical sensors for temperature, force, pressure, and concentration are discussed. In addition to the experimental configurations used in each type of prototype sensor, a brief overview is also given for analytical approaches to describe the sensor principle.

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 17: The relationship between seven variables and the use of US government technical reports by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Nanci; Demerath, Loren

    1991-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the use of U.S. government technical reports by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists and seven selected sociometric variables. Data were collected by means of a self-administered mail survey which was distributed to a randomly drawn sample of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) members. Two research questions concerning the use of conference meeting papers, journal articles, in-house technical reports, and U.S. government technical reports were investigated. Relevance, technical quality, and accessibility were found to be more important determinants of the overall extent to which U.S. government technical reports and three other information products were used by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  3. Combinatorial Optimization Algorithms for Dynamic Multiple Fault Diagnosis in Automotive and Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodali, Anuradha

    facility, respectively. The set-covering matrix encapsulates the relationship among the rows (tests or demand points) and columns (faults or locations) of the system at each time. By relaxing the coupling constraints using Lagrange multipliers, the DSC problem can be decoupled into independent subproblems, one for each column. Each subproblem is solved using the Viterbi decoding algorithm, and a primal feasible solution is constructed by modifying the Viterbi solutions via a heuristic. The proposed Viterbi-Lagrangian relaxation algorithm (VLRA) provides a measure of suboptimality via an approximate duality gap. As a major practical extension of the above problem, we also consider the problem of diagnosing faults with delayed test outcomes, termed delay-dynamic set-covering (DDSC), and experiment with real-world problems that exhibit masking faults. Also, we present simulation results on OR-library datasets (set-covering formulations are predominantly validated on these matrices in the literature), posed as facility location problems. Finally, we implement these algorithms to solve problems in aerospace and automotive applications. Firstly, we address the diagnostic ambiguity problem in aerospace and automotive applications by developing a dynamic fusion framework that includes dynamic multiple fault diagnosis algorithms. This improves the correct fault isolation rate, while minimizing the false alarm rates, by considering multiple faults instead of the traditional data-driven techniques based on single fault (class)-single epoch (static) assumption. The dynamic fusion problem is formulated as a maximum a posteriori decision problem of inferring the fault sequence based on uncertain outcomes of multiple binary classifiers over time. The fusion process involves three steps: the first step transforms the multi-class problem into dichotomies using error correcting output codes (ECOC), thereby solving the concomitant binary classification problems; the second step fuses the

  4. Predicted reliability of aerospace electronics: Application of two advanced probabilistic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.

    Two advanced probabilistic design-for-reliability (PDfR) concepts are addressed and discussed in application to the prediction, quantification and assurance of the aerospace electronics reliability: 1) Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) model, which is an extension of the currently widely used Arrhenius model and, in combination with the exponential law of reliability, enables one to obtain a simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful formula for the evaluation of the probability of failure (PoF) of a material or a device after the given time in operation at the given temperature and under the given stress (not necessarily mechanical), and 2) Extreme Value Distribution (EVD) technique that can be used to assess the number of repetitive loadings that result in the material/device degradation and eventually lead to its failure by closing, in a step-wise fashion, the gap between the bearing capacity (stress-free activation energy) of the material or the device and the demand (loading). It is shown that the material degradation (aging, damage accumulation, flaw propagation, etc.) can be viewed, when BAZ model is considered, as a Markovian process, and that the BAZ model can be obtained as the ultimate steady-state solution to the well-known Fokker-Planck equation in the theory of Markovian processes. It is shown also that the BAZ model addresses the worst, but a reasonably conservative, situation. It is suggested therefore that the transient period preceding the condition addressed by the steady-state BAZ model need not be accounted for in engineering evaluations. However, when there is an interest in understanding the transient degradation process, the obtained solution to the Fokker-Planck equation can be used for this purpose. As to the EVD concept, it attributes the degradation process to the accumulation of damages caused by a train of repetitive high-level loadings, while loadings of levels that are considerably lower than their extreme values do not contribute

  5. Shape memory polymers and their composites in aerospace applications: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanju; Du, Haiyang; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2014-02-01

    As a new class of smart materials, shape memory polymers and their composites (SMPs and SMPCs) can respond to specific external stimulus and remember the original shape. There are many types of stimulus methods to actuate the deformation of SMPs and SMPCs, of which the thermal- and electro-responsive components and structures are common. In this review, the general mechanism of SMPs and SMPCs are first introduced, the stimulus methods are then discussed to demonstrate the shape recovery effect, and finally, the applications of SMPs and SMPCs that are reinforced with fiber materials in aerospace are reviewed. SMPC hinges and booms are discussed in the part on components; the booms can be divided again into foldable SMPC truss booms, coilable SMPC truss booms and storable tubular extendible member (STEM) booms. In terms of SMPC structures, the solar array and deployable panel, reflector antenna and morphing wing are introduced in detail. Considering the factors of weight, recovery force and shock effect, SMPCs are expected to have great potential applications in aerospace.

  6. The triumph and decline of the "squares": Grumman Aerospace engineers and production workers in the Apollo era, 1957--1973

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onkst, David Hugh

    This dissertation is a social, cultural, and economic history of the men and women of the Grumman Aerospace Company of Bethpage, New York from 1957 through 1973. These "Grummanites" were the engineers and production workers who designed and built the Apollo Lunar Modules that allowed humans to land on the Moon. This study provides unique insights into the impact that the Apollo Program---a large state-initiated and -supported program---had on those "squares," people whom many contemporaries saw as a vital part of mainstream 1960s American society. By the beginning of the Space Age in 1957, Grumman, Long Island's single largest employer, had firmly established a workplace culture of paternalism that Grummanites largely embraced. Company officials believed strongly in worker retention and had established a policy of providing every sort of benefit their employees seemingly desired, including a highly personal and participatory form of management. Many Grummanites had joined the firm during the early years of the Apollo Program because they believed in the promise of permanent employment on exciting projects that would explore the endless frontier of space. But, as many of these mainly self-reliant, individualistic "squares" would bitterly discover, their dedication to Grumman did little to secure their livelihoods during the aerospace industry's early 1970s downsizing; their individual successes were too largely tied to federal spending and declined when Americans grew disenchanted with space exploration. This dissertation demonstrates how the cultural bond of paternalism between aerospace workers and their company unraveled in the 1960s, and then ended in the early 1970s, because of forces within the company, the economy, and the American state. The word "triumph" in this study's title not only applies to Grummanites' triumphs with the Lunar Modules, but also their individual socioeconomic victories. The term "decline" refers to the early 1970s downsizing of more

  7. Ceramic applications in turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.; Heitman, P. W.; Lindgren, L. C.; Thrasher, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The application of ceramic components to demonstrate improved cycle efficiency by raising the operating temperature of the existing Allison IGI 404 vehicular gas turbine engine is discussed. This effort was called the Ceramic Applications in Turbine Engines (CATE) program and has successfully demonstrated ceramic components. Among these components are two design configurations featuring stationary and rotating caramic components in the IGT 404 engine. A complete discussion of all phases of the program, design, materials development, fabrication of ceramic components, and testing-including rig, engine, and vehicle demonstation test are presented. During the CATE program, a ceramic technology base was established that is now being applied to automotive and other gas turbine engine programs. This technology base is outlined and also provides a description of the CATE program accomplishments.

  8. Aerospace Community. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, V. V.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, emphasizes the two sides of aerospace--military aerospace and civilian aerospace. Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion on the organization of Air Force bases and missile sites in relation to their missions. Chapter 2 examines the community services provided by Air Force bases. The topics…

  9. Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Japanese (n=94) and U.S. (n=340) aerospace scientists/engineers described time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, importance of technical communication courses, and the use of libraries, computer networks, and technical reports. Japanese respondents had greater language fluency; U.S. respondents spent more time with…

  10. The Relationship between Seven Variables and the Use of U.S. Government Technical Reports by U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a project sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense that investigated the relationship between the use of U.S. government technical reports by aerospace engineers and scientists and seven independent sociometric variables. The conceptual framework is explained, and relevant…

  11. From Student to Entry-Level Professional: Examining the Role of Language and Written Communications in the Reacculturation of Aerospace Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, T. E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Argues that language and written communication play a critical role in the reacculturation process that enables individuals to make a successful transition from the academic world to a professional environment. Reports results of a mail survey examining the technical communications abilities of aerospace engineering students and the technical…

  12. Fuzzy Logic Approaches to Multi-Objective Decision-Making in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    Fuzzy logic allows for the quantitative representation of multi-objective decision-making problems which have vague or fuzzy objectives and parameters. As such, fuzzy logic approaches are well-suited to situations where alternatives must be assessed by using criteria that are subjective and of unequal importance. This paper presents an overview of fuzzy logic and provides sample applications from the aerospace industry. Applications include an evaluation of vendor proposals, an analysis of future space vehicle options, and the selection of a future space propulsion system. On the basis of the results provided in this study, fuzzy logic provides a unique perspective on the decision-making process, allowing the evaluator to assess the degree to which each option meets the evaluation criteria. Future decision-making should take full advantage of fuzzy logic methods to complement existing approaches in the selection of alternatives.

  13. Development of a non-explosive release device for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, John D.; Purdy, William E.; Johnson, A. David

    1992-01-01

    A simple, non-explosive, high load capacity release mechanism using a shape memory alloy is currently being developed for space flight. This device, the Frangibolt, could replace most pyrotechnic devices in applications where the need for safety, reliability, non-destructive testing, and minimal mechanical shock is more crucial than the need for rapid actuation. Prototype hardware has been designed, tested, and proven in laboratory conditions. Orientation and demonstration of these devices evidenced reliable and repeatable performance, clearly indicating that extensive testing for flight qualification is warranted. Here, the Frangibolt design is discussed, recent test results of laboratory units are described, and the work that must be performed in the upcoming months to qualify the device for aerospace applications is addressed.

  14. Lithium-Ion Polymer Rechargeable Battery Developed for Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, orman H.

    1999-01-01

    A recently completed 3 -year project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Technology Reinvestment Program has resulted in the development and scaleup of new lithium-ion polymer battery technology for military and aerospace applications. The contractors for this cost-shared project were Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space and Ultralife Batteries, Inc. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided contract management and technical oversight. The final products of the project were a portable 15-volt (V), 10-ampere-hour (A-hr) military radio battery and a 30-V, 50-A-hr marine/aerospace battery. Lewis will test the 50-A-hr battery. The new lithium-ion polymer battery technology offers a threefold or fourfold reduction in mass and volume, relative to today s commonly used nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This is of special importance for orbiting satellites. It has been determined for a particular commercial communications satellite that the replacement of 1 kg of battery mass with 1 kg of transponder mass could increase the annual revenue flow by $100 000! Since this lithium-ion polymer technology offers battery mass reductions on the order of hundreds of kilograms for some satellites, the potential revenue increases are impressive.

  15. Calibration of fiber Bragg gratings for optical sensing (FIBOS) for an aerospace application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredero, R. L.; Frovel, M.; Laguna, H.; Belenguer-Dávila, T.

    2009-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating Sensors, FBGs, have been widely used as optical sensors for structural health monitoring of different materials. They can be embedded in composite structures or attached on their surface to monitor the entire life cycle of the material or to measure different physical parameters. FIBOS contains two FBGs and will be used to measure temperature and strain during the aerospace mission OPTOS. OPTOS is a picosatellite, designed and manufactured by the Spanish Institute for Aerospace Technology, INTA that will be launched during the summer 2009. The main goal of the mission is to demonstrate the possibility of using some novel technologies for space applications inside a miniaturized space and with big restrictions in terms of mass and power consumption. The paper describes the different units that constitute the FIBOS payload: one tunable laser, two FBGs mounted onto one steel mechanical structure to monitor independently temperature and strain and the processing unit that include all the electronics to control and connect the payload with the DOT of the satellite. Calibration measurements at different temperatures inside a thermalvacuum chamber as well as FIBOS operation during the mission are also presented.

  16. Integration of pyrotechnics into aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1993-01-01

    The application of pyrotechnics to aerospace systems has been resisted because normal engineering methods cannot be used in design and evaluation. Commonly used approaches for energy sources, such as electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic, do not apply to explosive and pyrotechnic devices. This paper introduces the unique characteristics of pyrotechnic devices, describes how functional evaluations can be conducted, and demonstrates an engineering approach for pyrotechnic integration. Logic is presented that allows evaluation of two basic types of pyrotechnic systems to demonstrate functional margin.

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 60: Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk- sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a 'program participant' in the production of the Boeing Company's 777; the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decisionmaking-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information- seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this paper, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

  18. ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisdorf, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Surface electrical geophysical methods have been used in such engineering applications as locating and delineating shallow gravel deposits, depth to bedrock, faults, clay zones, and other geological phenomena. Other engineering applications include determining water quality, tracing ground water contaminant plumes and locating dam seepages. Various methods and electrode arrays are employed to solve particular geological problems. The sensitivity of a particular method or electrode array depends upon the physics on which the method is based, the array geometry, the electrical contrast between the target and host materials, and the depth to the target. Each of the available electrical methods has its own particular advantages and applications which the paper discusses.

  19. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation with Solid Targets for Space and Aerospace Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, R. M.; Goncalves, J. A. N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, G.; Baba, K.

    2009-01-05

    This paper describes successful results obtained by a new type of plasma source, named as Vaporization of Solid Targets (VAST), for treatment of materials for space and aerospace applications, by means of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D). Here, the solid element is vaporized in a high pressure glow discharge, being further ionized and implanted/deposited in a low pressure cycle, with the aid of an extra electrode. First experiments in VAST were run using lithium as the solid target. Samples of silicon and aluminum alloy (2024) were immersed into highly ionized lithium plasma, whose density was measured by a double Langmuir probe. Measurements performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed clear modification of the cross-sectioned treated silicon samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that lithium was implanted/deposited into/onto the surface of the silicon. Implantation depth profiles may vary according to the condition of operation of VAST. One direct application of this treatment concerns the protection against radiation damage for silicon solar cells. For the case of the aluminum alloy, X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the appearance of prominent new peaks. Surface modification of A12024 by lithium implantation/deposition can lower the coefficient of friction and improve the resistance to fatigue of this alloy. Recently, cadmium was vaporized and ionized in VAST. The main benefit of this element is associated with the improvement of corrosion resistance of metallic substrates. Besides lithium and cadmium, VAST allows to performing PIII and D with other species, leading to the modification of the near-surface of materials for distinct purposes, including applications in the space and aerospace areas.

  20. Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) technology development for application to the National Aerospace Plane (NASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, Richard L.; Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.; Richter, G. Paul

    1989-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program is giving us the opportunity to reach new unique answers in a number of engineering categories. The answers are considered enhancing technology or enabling technology. Airframe materials and densified propellants are examples of enabling technology. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center has the task of providing the technology data which will be used as the basis to decide if slush hydrogen (SLH2) will be the fuel of choice for the NASP. The objectives of this NASA Lewis program are: (1) to provide, where possible, verified numerical models of fluid production, storage, transfer, and feed systems, and (2) to provide verified design criteria for other engineered aspects of SLH2 systems germane to a NASP. This program is a multiyear multimillion dollar effort. The present pursuit of the above listed objectives is multidimensional, covers a range of problem areas, works these to different levels of depth, and takes advantage of the resources available in private industry, academia, and the U.S. Government. The NASA Lewis overall program plan is summarized. The initial implementation of the plan will be unfolded and the present level of efforts in each of the resource areas will be discussed. Results already in hand will be pointed out. A description of additionally planned near-term experimental and analytical work is described.

  1. Activities of the NASA sponsored SRI technology applications team in transferring aerospace technology to the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berke, J. G.

    1971-01-01

    The organization and functions of an interdisciplinary team for the application of aerospace generated technology to the solution of discrete technological problems within the public sector are presented. The interdisciplinary group formed at Stanford Research Institute, California is discussed. The functions of the group are to develop and conduct a program not only optimizing the match between public sector technological problems in criminalistics, transportation, and the postal services and potential solutions found in the aerospace data base, but ensuring that appropriate solutions are acutally utilized. The work accomplished during the period from July 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971 is reported.

  2. The 1992 NASA Langley Measurement Technology Conference: Measurement Technology for Aerospace Applications in High-Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J. (Editor); Antcliff, Richard R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    An intensive 2-day conference to discuss the current status of measurement technology in the areas of temperature/heat flux, stress/strain, pressure, and flowfield diagnostics for high temperature aerospace applications was held at Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, on April 22 and 23, 1993. Complete texts of the papers presented at the Conference are included in these proceedings.

  3. Prediction of the mechanical properties of zeolite pellets for aerospace molecular decontamination applications

    PubMed Central

    Rioland, Guillaume; Faye, Delphine; Patarin, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Zeolite pellets containing 5 wt % of binder (methylcellulose or sodium metasilicate) were formed with a hydraulic press. This paper describes a mathematical model to predict the mechanical properties (uniaxial and diametric compression) of these pellets for arbitrary dimensions (height and diameter) using a design of experiments (DOE) methodology. A second-degree polynomial equation including interactions was used to approximate the experimental results. This leads to an empirical model for the estimation of the mechanical properties of zeolite pellets with 5 wt % of binder. The model was verified by additional experimental tests including pellets of different dimensions created with different applied pressures. The optimum dimensions were found to be a diameter of 10–23 mm, a height of 1–3.5 mm and an applied pressure higher than 200 MPa. These pellets are promising for technological uses in molecular decontamination for aerospace-based applications. PMID:28144526

  4. Prediction of the mechanical properties of zeolite pellets for aerospace molecular decontamination applications.

    PubMed

    Rioland, Guillaume; Dutournié, Patrick; Faye, Delphine; Daou, T Jean; Patarin, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Zeolite pellets containing 5 wt % of binder (methylcellulose or sodium metasilicate) were formed with a hydraulic press. This paper describes a mathematical model to predict the mechanical properties (uniaxial and diametric compression) of these pellets for arbitrary dimensions (height and diameter) using a design of experiments (DOE) methodology. A second-degree polynomial equation including interactions was used to approximate the experimental results. This leads to an empirical model for the estimation of the mechanical properties of zeolite pellets with 5 wt % of binder. The model was verified by additional experimental tests including pellets of different dimensions created with different applied pressures. The optimum dimensions were found to be a diameter of 10-23 mm, a height of 1-3.5 mm and an applied pressure higher than 200 MPa. These pellets are promising for technological uses in molecular decontamination for aerospace-based applications.

  5. Multilayered graphene in K(a)-band: nanoscale coating for aerospace applications.

    PubMed

    Kuzhir, P; Volynets, N; Maksimenko, S; Kaplas, T; Svirko, Yu

    2013-08-01

    We report on the experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) properties of multilayered graphene in K(a)-band synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in between nanometrically thin Cu catalyst film and dielectric (SiO2) substrate. The quality of the produced multilayered graphene samples was monitored by Raman spectroscopy. The thickness of graphene films was controlled by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and was found to be a few nanometers (up to 5 nm). We discovered, that the fabricated graphene, being only some thousandth of skin depth, provided remarkably high EM shielding efficiency caused by absorption losses at the level of 35-43% of incident power. Being highly conductive at room temperature, multilayer graphene emerges as a promising material for manufacturing ultrathin microwave coatings to be used in aerospace applications.

  6. Boron-bearing species in ceramic matrix composites for long-term aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naslain, R.; Guette, A.; Rebillat, F.; Pailler, R.; Langlais, F.; Bourrat, X.

    2004-02-01

    Boron-bearing refractory species are introduced in non-oxide ceramic matrix fibrous composites (such as SiC/SiC composites) to improve their oxidation resistance under load at high temperatures with a view to applications in the aerospace field. B-doped pyrocarbon and hex-BN have been successfully used as interphase (instead of pure pyrocarbon) either as homogeneous or multilayered fiber coatings, to arrest and deflect matrix cracks formed under load (mechanical fuse function) and to give toughness to the materials. A self-healing multilayered matrix is designed and used in a model composite, which combines B-doped pyrocarbon mechanical fuse layers and B- and Si-bearing compound (namely B 4C and SiC) layers forming B 2O 3-based fluid healing phases when exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere. All the materials are deposited by chemical vapor infiltration. Lifetimes under tensile loading of several hundreds hours at high temperatures are reported.

  7. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  8. Applications of artificial intelligence to engineering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Adey, R.A.; Sriram, D.

    1987-01-01

    The conference covered general sessions on AI techniques suitable for engineering applications, e.g. knowledge representation, natural language, probability, design methodologies and constraints. This was followed by sessions covering application in mechanical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, and general engineering. Further sessions covered robotics and tools and techniques for building knowledge based systems.

  9. System engineering of aerospace and advanced technology programs at an astronautics company (record of study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Mike O.

    An internship with the Martin Marietta Astronautics Group that was performed in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Engineering degree is documented. The internship included assignments with two Martin Marietta companies, on three different programs and in four areas of engineering. A first-hand look is taken at system engineering, SDI and advanced program management, and the way Martin Marietta conducts business. The five internship objectives were related to assignments in system modeling, system integration, engineering analysis and technical management: (1) The effects of thermally and mechanically induced mirror surface distortions upon the wavefront intensity field of a high energy laser beam passing through the optical train of a space-based laser system were modeled. (2) The restrictive as opposed to the broad interpretation of the 1972 ABM Treaty, and the capability of the Strategic Defense Initiative Zenith Star Program to comply with the Treaty were evaluated. (3) The capability of Martin Marietta to develop an automated analysis system to integrate and analyze Superconducting Super Collider detector designs was investigated. (4) The thermal models that were developed in support of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile flight tests were described. (5) The technical management role of the Product Integrity Engineer assigned to the Zenith Star spacecraft's Beam Control and Transfer Subsystem was discussed. The relationships between the engineering, business, security and social concerns associated with the practice of engineering and the management of programs by a major defense contractor are explored.

  10. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  11. Polymers for engineering applications

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the world of engineering plastics. It discusses the polymers, their properties strengths and limitations. There are 11 chapters, organized so that each chapter builds on the knowledge of the previous material. Coverage includes important polymer concepts, such as molecular structure, bonding, morphology and molecular weight, and polymer properties, such as thermal expansion, thermal transition, electrical properties and viscoelasticity. Details are provided on methods of processing fabrication and on specific families of polymers. The general-purpose polymers are discussed, such as natural and synthetic rubbers, rayon, acrylic and alkyd coatings, polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). There's information on high-performance polymers - fibers, elastomers, and coatings. A thorough explanation of the characteristics and qualities of nylons, polyesters, polyimides, neoprene, silicones, polyurethanes and other polymers is given in the same section. Functional polymers with special properties, such as photoconductivity, electric conductivity, piezoelectricity, light sensitivity, and ion exchange; and polymers that are superior to general-purpose plastics, such as ABS, filled polypropylene, and glass-reinforced plastics, are also covered.

  12. Third Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Cross, D. R. (Editor); Caruso, S. V. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, other ozone depleting chemicals, and specific hazardous materials is well underway. The phaseout of these chemicals has mandated changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. We are beyond discovery and initiation of these new developments and are now in the implementation phase. This conference provided a forum for materials and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess the evolving replacement and clean propulsion technologies from the standpoint of their significance, application, impact on aerospace systems, and utilization by the research and development community. The use of these new technologies, their selection and qualification, their implementation, and the needs and plans for further developments are presented.

  13. Atmospheric Models for Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Justus, C. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will review the historical development of reference and standard atmosphere models and their applications. The evolution of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere will be addressed, along with the Range Reference Atmospheres and, in particular, the NASA Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM). The extensive scope and content of the GRAM will be addressed since it represents the most extensive and complete 'Reference' atmosphere model in use today. Its origin was for engineering applications and that remains today as its principal use.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 50: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the role of language and written communications in the reacculturation of aerospace engineering students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.; Hecht, Laura F.

    1995-01-01

    When students graduate and enter the world of work, they must make the transition from an academic to a professional knowledge community. Kenneth Bruffee's model of the social construction of knowledge suggests that language and written communication play a critical role in the reacculturation process that enables successful movement from one knowledge community to another. We present the results of a national (mail) survey that examined the technical communications abilities, skills, and competencies of 1,673 aerospace engineering students, who represent an academic knowledge community. These results are examined within the context of the technical communications behaviors and practices reported by 2,355 aerospace engineers and scientists employed in government and industry, who represent a professional knowledge community that the students expect to join. Bruffee's claim of the importance of language and written communication in the successful transition from an academic to a professional knowledge community is supported by the responses from the two communities we surveyed. Implications are offered for facilitating the reacculturation process of students to entry-level engineering professionals.

  15. New Mass Properties Engineers Aerospace Ballasting Challenge Facilitated by the SAWE Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutright, Amanda; Shaughnessy, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of Mass Properties Engineering tends to find the engineers; not typically vice versa. In this case, two engineers quickly found their new responsibilities deep in many aspects of mass properties engineering and required to meet technical challenges in a fast paced environment. As part of NASA's Constellation Program, a series of flight tests will be conducted to evaluate components of the new spacecraft launch vehicles. One of these tests is the Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test which will test the Launch Abort System (LAS), a system designed to provide escape for astronauts in the event of an emergency. The Flight Test Articles (FTA) used in this flight test are required to match mass properties corresponding to the operational vehicle, which has a continually evolving design. Additionally, since the structure and subsystems for the Orion Crew Module (CM) FTA are simplified versions of the final product, thousands of pounds of ballast are necessary to achieve the desired mass properties. These new mass properties engineers are responsible for many mass properties aspects in support of the flight test, including meeting the ballasting challenge for the CM Boilerplate FTA. SAWE expert and experienced mass properties engineers, both those that are directly on the team and many that supported via a variety of Society venues, significantly contributed to facilitating the success of addressing this particular mass properties ballasting challenge, in addition to many other challenges along the way. This paper discusses the details regarding the technical aspects of this particular mass properties challenge, as well as identifies recommendations for new mass properties engineers that were learned from the SAWE community along the way.

  16. System Engineering of Aerospace and Advanced Technology Programs at AN Astronautics Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Mike O.

    The purpose of this Record of Study is to document an internship with the Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado that was performed in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Engineering degree at Texas A&M University, and to demonstrate that the internship objectives have been met. The internship included assignments with two Martin Marietta companies, on three different programs and in four areas of engineering. The Record of Study takes a first-hand look at system engineering, SDI and advanced program management, and the way Martin Marietta conducts business. The five internship objectives were related to assignments in system modeling, system integration, engineering analysis and technical management. In support of the first objective, the effects of thermally and mechanically induced mirror surface distortions upon the wavefront intensity field of a high energy laser beam passing through the optical train of a space-based laser system were modeled. To satisfy the second objective, the restrictive as opposed to the broad interpretation of the 1972 ABM Treaty, and the capability of the Strategic Defense Initiative Zenith Star Program to comply with the Treaty were evaluated. For the third objective, the capability of Martin Marietta to develop an automated analysis system to integrate and analyze Superconducting Super Collider detector designs was investigated. For the fourth objective, the thermal models that were developed in support of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile flight tests were described. And in response to the fifth objective, the technical management role of the Product Integrity Engineer assigned to the Zenith Star spacecraft's Beam Control and Transfer Subsystem was discussed. This Record of Study explores the relationships between the engineering, business, security and social concerns associated with the practice of engineering and the management of programs by a major defense contractor.

  17. Aerospace bibliography, seventh edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blashfield, J. F. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Space travel, planetary probes, applications satellites, manned spaceflight, the impacts of space exploration, future space activities, astronomy, exobiology, aeronautics, energy, space and the humanities, and aerospace education are covered.

  18. Trajectory optimization and guidance law development for national aerospace plane applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Corban, J. E.; Flandro, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of onboard trajectory optimization for an airbreathing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle is examined. A simple model representative of the aerospace plane concept, including a dual-mode propulsion system composed of scramjet and rocket engines, is presented. Consideration is restricted to hypersonic flight within the atmosphere. An energy state approximation is used in a four-state model for flight of a point mass in a vertical plane. Trajectory constraints, including those of dynamic pressure and aerodynamic heating, are initially ignored. Singular perturbation methods are applied in solving the optimal control problem of minimum fuel climb. The resulting reduced solution for the energy state dynamics provides an optimal altitude profile dependent on energy level and control for rocket thrust. A boundary-layer analysis produces an approximate lift control solution in feedback form and accounts for altitude and flight path angle dynamics. The reduced solution optimal climb path is presented for the unconstrained case and the case for which a maximum dynamic pressure constraint is enforced.

  19. Low electrical resistivity carbon nanotube and polyethylene nanocomposites for aerospace and energy exploration applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloney, Padraig G.

    An investigation was conducted towards the development and optimization of low electrical resistivity carbon nanotube (CNT) and thermoplastic composites as potential materials for future wire and cable applications in aerospace and energy exploration. Fundamental properties of the polymer, medium density polyethylene (MDPE), such as crystallinity were studied and improved for composite use. A parallel effort was undertaken on a broad selection of CNT, including single wall, double wall and multi wall carbon nanotubes, and included research of material aspects relevant to composite application and low resistivity such as purity, diameter and chirality. With an emphasis on scalability, manufacturing and purification methods were developed, and a solvent-based composite fabrication method was optimized. CNT MDPE composites were characterized via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and multiple routes of electron microscopy. Techniques including annealing and pressure treatments were used to further improve the composites' resulting electrical performance. Enhancement of conductivity was explored via exposure to a focused microwave beam. A novel doping method was developed using antimony pentafluoride (SbF5) to reduce the resistivity of the bulk CNT. Flexible composites, malleable under heat and pressure, were produced with exceptional electrical resistivities reaching as low as 2*10-6O·m (5*105S/m). A unique gas sensor application utilizing the unique electrical resistivities of the produced CNT-MDPE composites was developed. The materials proved suitable as a low weight and low energy sensing material for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a nerve gas simulant.

  20. Industrial and Systems Engineering Applications in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the many applications of Industrial and Systems Engineering used for safe NASA missions is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Information; 2) Industrial Engineering; 3) Systems Engineering; and 4) Major NASA Programs.

  1. AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development) Engine Disc Cooperative Test Programme,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    4薗ii 759 so A AOR!nRU spa A44 IFOR I L J32 I 2 11I1L2 1. 1111. BBIC fiLL W;UV AGARM36R-766 AGARD REPORT No.766 AGARD Engine Disc Cooperative Test...J \\ND MlR I ItON \\I (MROi\\NIS.\\I ION 1)t I RiNI Ir iIM I 1~ .\\%NII I NORIp A(6ARI) Report No.700 AGARD ENGINE DISC (’O )PERAI IVE TEST PROG;RAMME h...cim p, met for manyv years. In I 9X2 a Suh-comrnittee on ’-Damage Tolerance Concepts for Critical Engine Comiponents’ "as formed ito studs the

  2. Development and test of the Ball Aerospace optical frequency comb: a versatile measurement tool for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachs, Jordan; Leitch, James; Knight, Scott; Pierce, Robert; Adkins, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Ball Fiber Optical Comb Demo is a lab-based system which is used to develop space applications for optical frequency combs. These developments utilize the broadband optical coherence of the frequency comb to expand the capabilities of ground test and orbital systems used for optical wave-front measurement, control of adaptive optics, precision ranging, and reference frequency stabilization. The work expands upon a NIST-developed all-fiber frequency comb that exhibits high stability in a compact, enclosed package. Previously demonstrated applications for frequency combs include: Spectroscopy, distance and velocity measurement, frequency conversion, and timing transfer. Results from the Ball system show the characterization and performance of a frequency comb system with a technological path-to-space. Demonstrations in high precision metrology and long distance ranging are also presented for application in adaptive and multi-body optical systems.

  3. A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Dutch U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists. Number 17

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    T. E.; J. M. Kennedy; and R. 0. Barclay. "The NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project." Government Information Quarterly 8:2 (1991...Barclay. The NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Reprinted from Government Information Quarterly , Volume 8, No. 2 (1991): 219

  4. Advanced materials for aerospace and biomedical applications: New glasses for hermetic titanium seals

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Tallant, D.R.; Crowder, S.V.

    1996-11-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys have an outstanding strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance and so are materials of choice for a variety of aerospace and biomedical applications. Such applications are limited by the lack of a viable hermetic glass sealing technology. Conventional silicate sealing glasses are readily reduced by titanium to form interfacial silicides that are incompatible with a robust glass/metal seal. Borate-based glasses undergo a similar thermochemistry and are reduced to a titanium boride. The kinetics of this reactions, however, are apparently slower and so a deleterious interface does not form. Chemically durable lanthanoborate glasses were examined as candidate sealing compositions. The compositions, properties, and structures of several alkaline earth, alumina, and titania lanthanoborate glass forming systems were evaluated and this information was used as the basis for a designed experiment to optimize compositions for Ti-sealing. A number of viable compositions were identified and sealing procedures established. Finally, glass formation, properties, and structure of biocompatible Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and TiO{sub 2}-doped calcium phosphate systems were also evaluated.

  5. Correlating Hardness Retention and Phase Transformations of Al and Mg Cast Alloys for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, W.; Czerwinski, F.; Niewczas, M.; Chen, D. L.

    2015-03-01

    The methodology based on correlating hardness and phase transformations was developed and applied to determine the maximum temperature of hardness retention of selected Al-based and Mg-based alloys for aerospace applications. The Al alloys: A356, F357, and C355 experienced 34-66% reduction of the initial hardness, in comparison to 4-22% hardness reduction observed in Mg alloys: QE22A, EV31A, ZE41A, and WE43B after the same annealing to 450 °C. For Al alloys the hardness reduction showed a steep transition between 220 and 238 °C. In contrast, Mg alloys showed a gradual hardness decrease occurring at somewhat higher temperatures between 238 and 250 °C. The hardness data were correlated with corresponding phase transformation kinetics examined by dilatometer and electrical resistivity measurements. Although Mg alloys preserved hardness to higher temperatures, their room temperature tensile strength and hardness were lower than Al alloys. The experimental methodology used in the present studies appears to be very useful in evaluating the softening temperature of commercial Al- and Mg-based alloys, permitting to assess their suitability for high-temperature applications.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 64: Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the large commercial aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk-sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a program participant in the production of the Boeing Company's 777. The aspects of Japanese culture and workplace communications will be examined: 1.) the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; 2.) those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decision making-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; 3.) and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information-seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this article, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

  7. ESPACE - a geodetic Master's program for the education of Satellite Application Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, K.; Kirschner, S.; Seitz, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades there has been a rapid development of new geodetic and other Earth observation satellites. Applications of these satellites such as car navigation systems, weather predictions, and, digital maps (such as Google Earth or Google Maps) play a more and more important role in our daily life. For geosciences, satellite applications such as remote sensing and precise positioning/navigation have turned out to be extremely useful and are meanwhile indispensable. Today, researchers within geodesy, climatology, oceanography, meteorology as well as within Earth system science are all dependent on up-to-date satellite data. Design, development and handling of these missions require experts with knowledge not only in space engineering, but also in the specific applications. That gives rise to a new kind of engineers - satellite application engineers. The study program for these engineers combines parts of different classical disciplines such as geodesy, aerospace engineering or electronic engineering. The satellite application engineering program Earth Oriented Space Science and Technology (ESPACE) was founded in 2005 at the Technische Universität München, mainly from institutions involved in geodesy and aerospace engineering. It is an international, interdisciplinary Master's program, and is open to students with a BSc in both Science (e.g. Geodesy, Mathematics, Informatics, Geophysics) and Engineering (e.g. Aerospace, Electronical and Mechanical Engineering). The program is completely conducted in English. ESPACE benefits from and utilizes its location in Munich with its unique concentration of expertise related to space science and technology. Teaching staff from 3 universities (Technische Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilian University, University of the Federal Armed Forces), research institutions (such as the German Aerospace Center, DLR and the German Geodetic Research Institute, DGFI) and space industry (such as EADS or Kayser-Threde) are

  8. Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides lightning protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of lightning. Generic descriptions of the lightning environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for lightning protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.

  9. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum exploration. Volume 1: Efforts and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of applying aerospace techniques to help solve significant problems in petroleum exploration is studied. Through contacts with petroleum industry and petroleum service industry, important petroleum exploration problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified where possible. Topics selected for investigation include: seismic reflection systems; down-hole acoustic techniques; identification of geological analogies; drilling methods; remote geological sensing; and sea floor imaging and mapping. Specific areas of aerospace technology are applied to 21 concepts formulated from the topics of concern.

  10. Development and Use of Engineering Standards for Computational Fluid Dynamics for Complex Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hyung B.; Ghia, Urmila; Bayyuk, Sami; Oberkampf, William L.; Roy, Christopher J.; Benek, John A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Powers, Joseph M.; Bush, Robert H.; Mani, Mortaza

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other advanced modeling and simulation (M&S) methods are increasingly relied on for predictive performance, reliability and safety of engineering systems. Analysts, designers, decision makers, and project managers, who must depend on simulation, need practical techniques and methods for assessing simulation credibility. The AIAA Guide for Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations (AIAA G-077-1998 (2002)), originally published in 1998, was the first engineering standards document available to the engineering community for verification and validation (V&V) of simulations. Much progress has been made in these areas since 1998. The AIAA Committee on Standards for CFD is currently updating this Guide to incorporate in it the important developments that have taken place in V&V concepts, methods, and practices, particularly with regard to the broader context of predictive capability and uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods and approaches. This paper will provide an overview of the changes and extensions currently underway to update the AIAA Guide. Specifically, a framework for predictive capability will be described for incorporating a wide range of error and uncertainty sources identified during the modeling, verification, and validation processes, with the goal of estimating the total prediction uncertainty of the simulation. The Guide's goal is to provide a foundation for understanding and addressing major issues and concepts in predictive CFD. However, this Guide will not recommend specific approaches in these areas as the field is rapidly evolving. It is hoped that the guidelines provided in this paper, and explained in more detail in the Guide, will aid in the research, development, and use of CFD in engineering decision-making.

  11. Bringing Back the Social Affordances of the Paper Memo to Aerospace Systems Engineering Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidoff, Scott; Holloway, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) is a relatively new field that brings together the interdisciplinary study of technological components of a project (systems engineering) with a model-based ontology to express the hierarchical and behavioral relationships between the components (computational modeling). Despite the compelling promises of the benefits of MBSE, such as improved communication and productivity due to an underlying language and data model, we observed hesitation to its adoption at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. To investigate, we conducted a six-month ethnographic field investigation and needs validation with 19 systems engineers. This paper contributes our observations of a generational shift in one of JPL's core technologies. We report on a cultural misunderstanding between communities of practice that bolsters the existing technology drag. Given the high cost of failure, we springboard our observations into a design hypothesis - an intervention that blends the social affordances of the narrative-based work flow with the rich technological advantages of explicit data references and relationships of the model-based approach. We provide a design rationale, and the results of our evaluation.

  12. Resilience Engineering in Critical Long Term Aerospace Software Systems: A New Approach to Spacecraft Software Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulo, D. A.

    Safety critical software systems permeate spacecraft, and in a long term venture like a starship would be pervasive in every system of the spacecraft. Yet software failure today continues to plague both the systems and the organizations that develop them resulting in the loss of life, time, money, and valuable system platforms. A starship cannot afford this type of software failure in long journeys away from home. A single software failure could have catastrophic results for the spaceship and the crew onboard. This paper will offer a new approach to developing safe reliable software systems through focusing not on the traditional safety/reliability engineering paradigms but rather by focusing on a new paradigm: Resilience and Failure Obviation Engineering. The foremost objective of this approach is the obviation of failure, coupled with the ability of a software system to prevent or adapt to complex changing conditions in real time as a safety valve should failure occur to ensure safe system continuity. Through this approach, safety is ensured through foresight to anticipate failure and to adapt to risk in real time before failure occurs. In a starship, this type of software engineering is vital. Through software developed in a resilient manner, a starship would have reduced or eliminated software failure, and would have the ability to rapidly adapt should a software system become unstable or unsafe. As a result, long term software safety, reliability, and resilience would be present for a successful long term starship mission.

  13. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 37: The impact of political control on technical communications: A comparative study of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Until the recent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party exerted a strict control of access to and dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI). This article presents models of the Soviet-style information society and the Western-style information society and discusses the effects of centralized governmental control of information on Russian technical communication practices. The effects of political control on technical communication are then used to interpret the results of a survey of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the time devoted to technical communication, their collaborative writing practices and their attitudes toward collaboration, the kinds of technical documents they produce and use, and their use of computer technology, and their use of and the importance to them of libraries and technical information centers. The data are discussed in terms of tentative conclusions drawn from the literature. Finally, we conclude with four questions concerning government policy, collaboration, and the flow of STI between Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  15. Limitless Horizons. Careers in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A manual is presented for use by counselors in career guidance programs. Pertinent information is provided on choices open in aerospace sciences, engineering, and technology. Accredited institutions awarding degrees in pertinent areas are listed as well as additional sources of aerospace career information. NASA's role and fields of interest are emphasized.

  16. Limitless Horizons: Careers in Aerospace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary H.

    This is a manual for acquainting students with pertinent information relating to career choices in aerospace science, engineering, and technology. The first chapter presents information about the aerospace industry by describing disciplines typical of this industry. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) classification system…

  17. Application of intelligent robotic welding systems for fabrication of aerospace hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. S.; Watson, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    The application of robots to complex on-orbit tasks will require a high degree of adaptability. This paper describes a project which is developing very adaptive robotic systems for welding of the Space Shuttle main engine. A number of the developments which will arise from this program will serve as useful starting points for more advanced systems to be used on-orbit.

  18. The application of thermoelastic stress analysis to full-scale aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruehmann, R. K.; Dulieu-Barton, J. M.; Quinn, S.; Peton-Walter, J.; Mousty, P. A. N.

    2012-08-01

    Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that can be applied in-situ are particularly relevant to the testing of large scale structures that cannot easily be taken into a laboratory for inspection. The application of established laboratory based techniques to the inspection of such structures therefore brings with it a new set of challenges associated with the change in operating environment between the laboratory and 'the field'. The current work investigates the use of thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) to inspect carbon fibre composite aerospace components for manufacturing defects and in-service damage. An initial study using single transient loads to obtain a measureable change in temperature that can be related to the change in the sum of the principal stresses showed a good agreement with the traditional methodology. However, for large structures, the energy required to obtain a sufficiently large stress change to obtain a resolvable measurement may require an actuator that is not easily portable. Hence a number of ideas have been proposed to reduce the power requirement and deal with small signal to noise ratios. This paper describes the use of natural frequency vibration modes to enable large stress changes to be generated with minimal power input. Established signal processing in the form of a lock-in amplifier and Fourier signal analysis is applied. Tests on a laboratory scale flat plate and full-scale representative wing skin and stringer specimen are presented.

  19. Point-of-care ultrasound in aerospace medicine: known and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael S; Garcia, Kathleen; Martin, David S

    2014-07-01

    Since its initial introduction into the bedside assessment of the trauma patient via the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) exam, the use of point-of-care ultrasound has expanded rapidly. A growing body of literature demonstrates ultrasound can be used by nonradiologists as an extension of the physical exam to accurately diagnose or exclude a variety of conditions. These conditions include, but are not limited to, hemoperitoneum, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, long-bone fracture, deep vein thrombosis, and elevated intracranial pressure. As ultrasound machines have become more compact and portable, their use has extended outside of hospitals to places where the physical exam and diagnostic capabilities may be limited, including the aviation environment. A number of studies using focused sonography have been performed to meet the diagnostic challenges of space medicine. The following article reviews the available literature on portable ultrasound use in aerospace medicine and highlights both known and potential applications of point-of-care ultrasound for the aeromedical clinician.

  20. Intelligent HIP processing of a Spraycast-X{reg_sign} superalloy for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zahrah, T.F.; Dalal, R.; Kissinger, R.

    1996-12-31

    An eddy current sensor system has been developed to monitor densification during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of Spraycast-X{reg_sign} superalloy components for aerospace applications. The sensor system was designed, implemented and demonstrated by MATSYS personnel at the Howmet Corporation HIP facility. The eddy current sensor was used to monitor densification of Spraycast-X{reg_sign} Rene`41 ring segments from 95 to 98 percent relative density to full density. The sensor data were verified and validated by metallographic examinations of HIPed specimens. The grain size of the Spraycast-X{reg_sign} Rene`41 was not affected by HIP at both 1,066 C (1,950 F) and 1,121 C (2,050 F). Tensile strengths and 0.2% creep rupture properties were not sensitive to changes in HIP processing conditions. However, tensile ductilities and low cycle properties showed a strong correlation to HIP time at 1,121 C/103 MPa (2,050 F/15 KSI). As hole time at maximum temperature and pressure was increased from 1 to 4 hours, tensile ductilities and low cycle fatigue lives increased. The sensor system can be integrated with an intelligent closed loop control system to monitor and control densification rate and shape distortion.

  1. The Advantages of Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell Power Systems for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark; Burke, Kenneth; Jakupca, Ian

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been developing proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems for the past decade, as an upgraded technology to the alkaline fuel cells which presently provide power for the Shuttle Orbiter. All fuel cell power systems consist of one or more fuel cell stacks in combination with appropriate balance-of-plant hardware. Traditional PEM fuel cells are characterized as flow-through, in which recirculating reactant streams remove product water from the fuel cell stack. NASA recently embarked on the development of non-flow-through fuel cell systems, in which reactants are dead-ended into the fuel cell stack and product water is removed by internal wicks. This simplifies the fuel cell power system by eliminating the need for pumps to provide reactant circulation, and mechanical water separators to remove the product water from the recirculating reactant streams. By eliminating these mechanical components, the resulting fuel cell power system has lower mass, volume, and parasitic power requirements, along with higher reliability and longer life. These improved non-flow-through fuel cell power systems therefore offer significant advantages for many aerospace applications.

  2. Multifunctional Nanotube Polymer Nanocomposites for Aerospace Applications: Adhesion between SWCNT and Polymer Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol; Wise, Kristopher E.; Kang, Jin Ho; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Lowther, Sharon E.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Smith, Michael W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Jordan, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Multifunctional structural materials can enable a novel design space for advanced aerospace structures. A promising route to multifunctionality is the use of nanotubes possessing the desired combination of properties to enhance the characteristics of structural polymers. Recent nanotube-polymer nanocomposite studies have revealed that these materials have the potential to provide structural integrity as well as sensing and/or actuation capabilities. Judicious selection or modification of the polymer matrix to promote donor acceptor and/or dispersion interactions can improve adhesion at the interface between the nanotubes and the polymer matrix significantly. The effect of nanotube incorporation on the modulus and toughness of the polymer matrix will be presented. Very small loadings of single wall nanotubes in a polyimide matrix yield an effective sensor material that responds to strain, stress, pressure, and temperature. These materials also exhibit significant actuation in response to applied electric fields. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that physical properties of multifunctional material systems can be tailored for specific applications by controlling nanotube treatment (different types of nanotubes), concentration, and degree of alignment.

  3. Mould design and manufacturing considerations of honeycomb biocomposites with transverse fibre direction for aerospace application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, N. H.; Majid, D. L.; Romli, F. I.

    2016-10-01

    Sandwich structures with honeycomb core are known to significantly improve stiffness at lower weight and possess high flexural rigidity. They have found wide applications in aerospace as part of the primary structures, as well as the interior paneling and floors. High performance aluminum and aramid are the typical materials used for the purpose of honeycomb core whereas in other industries, materials such as fibre glass, carbon fibre, Nomex and also Kevlar reinforced with polymer are used. Recently, growing interest in developing composite structures with natural fibre reinforcement has also spurred research in natural fibre honeycomb material. The majority of the researches done, however, have generally emphasized on the usage of random chopped fibre and only a few are reported on development of honeycomb structure using unidirectional fibre as the reinforcement. This is mainly due to its processing difficulties, which often involve several stages to account for the arrangement of fibres and curing. Since the use of unidirectional fibre supports greater strength compared to random chopped fibre, a single-stage process in conjunction with vacuum infusion is suggested with a mould design that supports fibre arrangement in the direction of honeycomb loading.

  4. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 2:] External Information Sources and aerospace R&D: The use and importance of technical reports by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blados, Walter R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper formulates and studies two propositions. Proposition 1 states that information that is external to the aerospace organization tends to be used less than internal sources of information; the more geographically removed the information is from the organization, the less likely it is to be used. Proposition 2 states that of the various sociometric variables assumed to influence the use of an information channel or source, perceived accessibility exerts the greatest influence. Preliminary analysis based on surveys supports Proposition 1. This analysis does not support Proposition 2, however. Evidence here indicates that reliability and relevance influence the use of an information source more than the idea of perceived accessibility.

  5. Engineering Drawing Practices - Volume I of II: Aerospace and Ground Support Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwindt, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual establishes the essential requirements and reference documents for the preparation and revision of digital product definition data sets prepared for or by NASA at KSC. This volume is only applicable to KSC in-house programs/projects. These requirements do not apply to the preparation of illustrations, artwork, or figures in technical publications.

  6. Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Robert G.; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2004-03-01

    The world's coastlines, dividing land from sea, are geological environments that are unique in their composition and the physical processes affecting them. At the dynamically active intersection of land and the oceans, humans have been building structures throughout history. Initially used for naval and commercial purposes, more recently recreation and tourism have increased activity in the coastal zone dramatically. Shoreline development is now causing a significant conflict with natural coastal processes. This text on coastal engineering will help the reader understand these coastal processes and develop strategies to cope effectively with shoreline erosion. The book is organized in four parts: (1) an overview of coastal engineering, using case studies to illustrate problems; (2) hydrodynamics of the coastal zone, reviewing storm surges, water waves, and low frequency motions within the nearshore and surf zone; (3) coastal responses including equilibrium beach profiles and sediment transport; (4) applications such as erosion mitigation, beach nourishment, coastal armoring, tidal inlets, and shoreline management.

  7. An overview of aerospace gas turbine technology of relevance to the development of the automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. G.; Miller, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Technology areas related to gas turbine propulsion systems with potential for application to the automotive gas turbine engine are discussed. Areas included are: system steady-state and transient performance prediction techniques, compressor and turbine design and performance prediction programs and effects of geometry, combustor technology and advanced concepts, and ceramic coatings and materials technology.

  8. Multiwavelength Pyrometer Developed for Use at Elevated Temperatures in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel L.

    2003-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have developed a unique multiwavelength pyrometer for aerospace applications. It has been shown to be a useful and versatile instrument for measuring the surface temperatures of ceramic zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and alumina, even when their emissivity is unknown. The introduction of fiber optics into the pyrometer has greatly increased the ease of using this instrument. Direct comparison of measurements obtained using the pyrometer and thin film thermocouples on a sample provided independent verification of pyrometry temperature measurement. Application of the pyrometer has also included simultaneous surface and bulk temperature measurement in a transparent material, the measurement of combustion gas temperatures in the flames of an atmospheric burner, the measurement of the temperature distribution appearing on a large surface from the recording of just a single radiation spectrum emitted from this nonuniform temperature surface, and the measurement of some optical properties for special aeronautical materials-such as nanostructured layers. The multiwavelength pyrometer temperature is obtained from a radiation spectrum recorded over a broad wavelength region by transforming it into a straight line segment(s) in part or all of the spectral region. The intercept of the line segment(s) with the vertical axis at zero wavelength gives the inverse of the temperature. In a two-color pyrometer, the two data points are also amenable to this analysis to determine the unknown temperature. Implicit in a two-color pyrometer is the assumption of wavelength-independent emissivity. Its two (and minimum) pieces of data are sufficient to determine this straight line. However, a multiwavelength pyrometer not only has improved accuracy but also confirms that the wavelength-independent emissivity assumption is valid when a multitude of data points are shown to lie on a simple straight line.

  9. Low vibration microminiature split Stirling cryogenic cooler for infrared aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Zechtzer, S.; Pundak, N.; Kirkconnel, C.; Freeman, J.; Riabzev, S.

    2011-06-01

    The operation of the thermo-mechanical unit of a cryogenic cooler may originate a resonant excitation of the spacecraft frame, optical bench or components of the optical train. This may result in degraded functionality of the inherently vibration sensitive space-borne infrared imager directly associated with the cooler or neighboring instrumentation typically requiring a quiet micro-g environment. The best practice for controlling cooler induced vibration relies on the principle of active momentum cancellation. In particular, the pressure wave generator typically contains two oppositely actuated piston compressors, while the single piston expander is counterbalanced by an auxiliary active counter-balancer. Active vibration cancellation is supervised by a dedicated DSP feed-forward controller, where the error signals are delivered by the vibration sensors (accelerometers or load cells). This can result in oversized, overweight and overpriced cryogenic coolers with degraded electromechanical performance and impaired reliability. The authors are advocating a reliable, compact, cost and power saving approach capitalizing on the combined application of a passive tuned dynamic absorber and a low frequency vibration isolator. This concept appears to be especially suitable for low budget missions involving mini and micro satellites, where price, size, weight and power consumption are of concern. The authors reveal the results of theoretical study and experimentation on the attainable performance using a fullscale technology demonstrator relying on a Ricor model K527 tactical split Stirling cryogenic cooler. The theoretical predictions are in fair agreement with the experimental data. From experimentation, the residual vibration export is quite suitable for demanding wide range of aerospace applications. The authors give practical recommendations on heatsinking and further maximizing performance.

  10. Use of a Multiwavelength Pyrometer in Several Elevated Temperature Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

    2001-01-01

    A multiwavelength pyrometer was developed for applications unique to aerospace environments. It was shown to be a useful and versatile technique for measuring temperature, even when the emissivity is unknown. It has also been used to measure the surface temperatures of ceramic zircomia thermal barrier coatings and alumina. The close agreement between pyrometer and thin film thermocouple temperatures provided an independent check. Other applications of the multiwavelength pyrometer are simultaneous surface and bulk temperature measurements of a transparent material, and combustion gas temperature measurement using a special probe interfaced to the multiwavelength pyrometer via an optical fiber. The multiwavelength pyrometer determined temperature by transforming the radiation spectrum in a broad wavelength region to produce a straight line (in a certain spectral region), whose intercept in the vertical axis gives the temperature. Implicit in a two-color pyrometer is the assumption of wavelength independent emissivity. Though the two data points of a two-color pyrometer similarly processed would result immediately in a similar straight line to give the unknown temperature, the two-color pyrometer lacks the greater data redundancy of the multiwavelength pyrometer, which enables it to do so with improved accuracy. It also confirms that emissivity is indeed wavelength independent, as evidenced by a multitude of the data lying on a simple straight line. The multiwavelength pyrometer was also used to study the optical transmission properties of a nanostructured material from which a quadratic exponential functional frequency dependence of its spectral transmission was determined. Finally, by operating the multiwavelength pyrometer in a very wide field of view mode, the surface temperature distribution of a large hot surface was obtained through measurement of just a single radiation spectrum.

  11. Development of a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid System Model for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeh, Joshua E.; Pratt, Joseph W.; Brouwer, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Recent interest in fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid applications for the aerospace industry has led to the need for accurate computer simulation models to aid in system design and performance evaluation. To meet this requirement, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and fuel processor models have been developed and incorporated into the Numerical Propulsion Systems Simulation (NPSS) software package. The SOFC and reformer models solve systems of equations governing steady-state performance using common theoretical and semi-empirical terms. An example hybrid configuration is presented that demonstrates the new capability as well as the interaction with pre-existing gas turbine and heat exchanger models. Finally, a comparison of calculated SOFC performance with experimental data is presented to demonstrate model validity. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Reformer, System Model, Aerospace, Hybrid System, NPSS

  12. Development of environmental criteria guidelines for aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    The types of guideline data on natural environmental conditions for the various major geographic locations that are applicable to the design of aerospace vehicles and associated equipment are discussed. Since relationships between aerospace vehicle parameters and atmospheric variables cannot always be clearly defined, there should be a close working relationship and team philosophy between the design/operational engineer and the respective organizations' aerospace meteorologists. Consideration should be given to protecting aerospace vehicles from some extremes by using support equipment and specialized monitoring personnel to advise on the expected occurrence of critical environmental conditions. It is pointed out that the services of these specialized personnel may be very economical in comparison with the more expensive designing that would be necessary to cope with all environmental possibilities. The environment considered here includes wind, atmospheric electricity, upper atmospheric density, and solar wind.

  13. NASA Application Team Program: Application of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program in technology application for the reporting period September 1, 1972, to August 31, 1973 are reported. The accomplishments of the application team during the reporting period are as follows: The team has identified 39 new problems for investigation, has accomplished 7 technology applications, 4 potential technology applications, 2 impacts, has closed 38 old problems, and has a total of 59 problems under active investigation.

  14. The 1975 NASA/ASEE summer faculty fellowship research program. [research in the areas of aerospace engineering, aerospace systems, and information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A research program was conducted to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members, to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA engineers and scientists, and to enrich the research activities of the participants' institutions. Abstracts of reports submitted at the end of the program are presented. Topics investigated include multispectral photography, logic circuits, gravitation theories, information systems, fracture mechanics, holographic interferometry, surface acoustic wave technology, ion beams in the upper atmosphere, and hybrid microcircuits.

  15. Industrial Applications of LES in Mechanical Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013624 TITLE: Industrial Applications of LES in Mechanical Engineering DISTRIBUTION...compilation report: ADP013620 thru ADP013707 UNCLASSIFIED INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF LES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CHISACHI KATO Institute of Industrial...Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan MASAYUKI KAIHO, AKIRA MANABE Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory Hitachi LTD., Ibaraki, Japan Abstract

  16. New vistas in the determination of hydrogen in aerospace engine metal alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    The application of diffusion theory to the analysis of hydrogen desorption data has been studied. From these analyses, important information concerning hydrogen solubilities and the nature of the hydrogen distributions in the metal has been obtained. Two nickel base alloys, Rene' 41 and Waspaloy, and one ferrous alloy, 4340 steel, were studied in this work. For the nickel base alloys, it was found that the hydrogen distributions after electrolytic charging conformed closely to those which would be predicted by diffusion theory. The hydrogen distributions in electrolytically charged 4340 steel, on the other hand, were essentially uniform in nature, which would not be predicted by diffusion theory. Finally, it has been found that the hydrogen desorption is completely explained by the nature of the hydrogen distribution in the metal, and that the 'fast' hydrogen is not due to surface and subsurface hydride formation, as was originally proposed.

  17. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  18. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 61: The Technical Communications Practices of ESL Aerospace Engineering Students in the United States: Results of a National Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, John R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    When engineering students graduate and enter the world of work, they make the transition from an academic to a professional community of knowledge. The importance of oral and written communication to the professional success and advancement of engineers is well documented. For example, studies such as those conducted by Mailloux (1989) indicate that communicating data, information, and knowledge takes up as much as 80% of an engineer's time. However, these same studies also indicate that many engineering graduates cannot (a) write technical reports that effectively inform and influence decisionmaking, (b) present their ideas persuasively, and (c) communicate with their peers. If these statements are true, how is learning to communicate effectively in their professional knowledge community different for engineering students educated in the United States but who come from other cultures-cultures in which English is not the primary language of communication? Answering this question requires adequate and generalizable data about these students' communications abilities, skills, and competencies. To contribute to the answer, we undertook a national (mail) survey of 1,727 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The focus of our analysis and this paper is a comparison of the responses of 297 student members for whom English is a second language with the responses of 1,430 native English speaking students to queries regarding career choice, bilingualism and language fluency, communication skills, collaborative writing, computer use, and the use of electronic (computer) networks.

  20. A Study On The Practical Application Of Repair Development Methods For Aerospace Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moedano, Jesus A.

    In the industry of manufacturing, each gas turbine engine component begins in a raw state such as bar stock and is routed through manufacturing processes to define its final form before being installed on the engine. What is the follow-up to this part? What happens when over time and usage it wears? Several factors have created a section of the manufacturing industry known as aftermarket to support the customer in their need for restoration and repair of their original product. Once a product has reached a wear factor or cycle limit that cannot be ignored, one of the options is to have it repaired to maintain use of the core. This research investigated the study into the creation and application of repair development methodology that can be utilized by current and new manufacturing engineers of the world. Those who have been in this field for some time will find the process thought provoking while the engineering students can develop a foundation of thinking to prepare for the common engineering problems they will be tasked to resolve. The examples, figures and tables are true issues of the industry though the data will have been changed due to proprietary factors. The results of the study reveals, under most scenarios, a solid process can be followed to proceed with the best options for repair based on the initial discrepancy. However, this methodology will not be a "catch-all" process but a guidance that will develop the proper thinking in evaluation of the repair options and the possible failure modes of each choice. As with any continuous improvement tool, further research is needed to test the applicability of this process in other fields.

  1. New Method Developed To Purify Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes have attracted considerable attention because of their remarkable mechanical properties and electrical and thermal conductivities. Use of these materials as primary or secondary reinforcements in polymers or ceramics could lead to new materials with significantly enhanced mechanical strength and electrical and thermal conductivity. Use of carbon-nanotube-reinforced materials in aerospace components will enable substantial reductions in component weight and improvements in durability and safety. Potential applications for single wall carbon nanotubes include lightweight components for vehicle structures and propulsion systems, fuel cell components (bipolar plates and electrodes) and battery electrodes, and ultra-lightweight materials for use in solar sails. A major barrier to the successful use of carbon nanotubes in these components is the need for methods to economically produce pure carbon nanotubes in large enough quantities to not only evaluate their suitability for certain applications but also produce actual components. Most carbon nanotube synthesis methods, including the HiPCO (high pressure carbon monoxide) method developed by Smalley and others, employ metal catalysts that remain trapped in the final product. These catalyst impurities can affect nanotube properties and accelerate their decomposition. The development of techniques to remove most, if not all, of these impurities is essential to their successful use in practical applications. A new method has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to purify gram-scale quantities of single wall carbon nanotubes. This method, a modification of a gas phase purification technique previously reported by Smalley and others, uses a combination of high-temperature oxidations and repeated extractions with nitric and hydrochloric acid. This improved procedure significantly reduces the amount of impurities (catalyst and nonnanotube forms of carbon) within the nanotubes, increasing

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 51: Workplace communications skills and the value of communications and information-use skills instruction: Engineering students' perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that recent graduates of engineering programs are expected to possess. Feedback from industry rates communications and information use skills of entry-level engineers low. Missing from current discussions of communications and information use skills and competencies for engineering students is a clear explanation from the professional engineering community about what constitutes 'acceptable and desirable communications and information norms' within that community. To gather adequate and generalizable data about communications and information skills instruction and to provide a student perspective on the communications skills of engineers, we undertook a national study of aerospace engineering students in March 1993. The study included questions about the importance of certain communications and information skills to professional success, the instruction students had received in these skills, and perceived helpfulness of the instruction. Selected results from the study study are reported in this paper.

  3. Aerospace Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Jean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Sauk Rapids (Minnesota) High School aviation and aerospace curriculum that was developed by Curtis Olson and the space program developed by Gerald Mayall at Philadelphia's Northeast High School. Both were developed in conjunction with NASA. (JOW)

  4. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  5. Numerical simulation methods of incompressible flows and an application to the Space Shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J. L. C.; Kwak, D.; Rogers, S. E.; Yang, R.-J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods with an emphasis on the pseudocompressibility method. A steady-state flow solver based on the pseudocompressibility approach is then described. This flow solver code has been used to analyze the internal flow in the Space Shuttle main engine hot-gas manifold. Salient features associated with this three-dimensional realistic flow simulation are discussed. Numerical solutions relevant to the current engine analysis and the redesign effort are discussed along with experimental results. This example demonstrates the potential of computational fluid dynamics as a design tool for aerospace applications.

  6. Numerical simulation methods of incompressible flows and an application to the space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J. L. C.; Kwak, D.; Rogers, S. E.; Yang, R.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods are discussed with an emphasis on the pseudocompressibility method. A steady-state flow solver based on the pseudocompressibility approach is then described. This flow-solver code was used to analyze the internal flow in the Space Shuttle main engine hot-gas manifold. Salient features associated with this three-dimensional realistic flow simulation are discussed. Numerical solutions relevant to the current engine analysis and the redesign effort are discussed along with experimental results. This example demonstrates the potential of computational fluid dynamics as a design tool for aerospace applications.

  7. Culture, social networks, and information sharing: An exploratory study of Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes and habits in light of cultural factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuko

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of culture and language on Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The Japanese sample consisted of 162 members of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences (JSASS). U.S. aerospace engineers served as a reference point, consisting of 213 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey method was utilized in gathering data using self-administered mail questionnaires in order to explore the following eight areas: (1) the content and use of information resources; (2) production and use of information products; (3) methods of accessing information service providers; (4) foreign language skills; (5) studying/researching/collaborating abroad as a tool in expanding information resources; (6) scientific and technical societies as networking tools; (7) alumni associations (school/class reunions) as networking tools; and (8) social, corporate, civic and health/fitness clubs as networking tools. Nine Japanese cultural factors expressed as statements about Japanese society are as follows: (1) information is neither autonomous, objective, nor independent of the subject of cognition; (2) information and knowledge are not readily accessible to the public; (3) emphasis on groups is reinforced in a hierarchical society; (4) social networks thrive as information-sharing vehicles; (5) high context is a predominant form of communication in which most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, transmitted part of the message; (6) obligations based on mutual trust dictate social behaviors instead of contractual agreements; (7) a surface message is what is presented while a bottom-line message is true feeling privately held; (8) various religious beliefs uphold a work ethic based on harmony; (9) ideas from outside are readily assimilated into its own society. The result of the

  8. Development and Deployment of an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) Compliant Measurement System for nvPM Certification Measurements of Aircraft Engines - Current Status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitefield, P. D.; Hagen, D. E.; Lobo, P.; Miake-Lye, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aircraft Exhaust Emissions Measurement Committee (E-31) has published an Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6241 detailing the sampling system for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) from aircraft engines (SAE 2013). The system is designed to operate in parallel with existing International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 16 compliant combustion gas sampling systems used for emissions certification from aircraft engines captured by conventional (Annex 16) gas sampling rakes (ICAO, 2008). The SAE E-31 committee is also working to ballot an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) that will provide the methodology and system specification to measure nvPM from aircraft engines. The ARP is currently in preparation and is expected to be ready for ballot in 2015. A prototype AIR-compliant nvPM measurement system - The North American Reference System (NARS) has been built and evaluated at the MSTCOE under the joint sponsorship of the FAA, EPA and Transport Canada. It has been used to validate the performance characteristics of OEM AIR-compliant systems and is being used in engine certification type testing at OEM facilities to obtain data from a set of representative engines in the fleet. The data collected during these tests will be used by ICAO/CAEP/WG3/PMTG to develop a metric on which on the regulation for nvPM emissions will be based. This paper will review the salient features of the NARS including: (1) emissions sample transport from probe tip to the key diagnostic tools, (2) the mass and number-based diagnostic tools for nvPM mass and number concentration measurement and (3) methods employed to assess the extent of nvPM loss throughout the sampling system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of the recent results from inter-comparison studies conducted with other US - based systems that gives credence to the ARP's readiness for ballot.

  9. National meeting to review IPAD status and goals. [Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    A joint NASA/industry project called Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD) is described, which has the goal of raising aerospace-industry productivity through the application of computers to integrate company-wide management of engineering data. Basically a general-purpose interactive computing system developed to support engineering design processes, the IPAD design is composed of three major software components: the executive, data management, and geometry and graphics software. Results of IPAD activities include a comprehensive description of a future representative aerospace vehicle design process and its interface to manufacturing, and requirements and preliminary design of a future IPAD software system to integrate engineering activities of an aerospace company having several products under simultaneous development.

  10. Progress in High Power Density SOFC Material Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, Thomas L.; Sofie, Stephen W.; Setlock, John A.; Misra, Ajay K.

    2004-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems for aircraft applications require order of magnitude increase in specific power density and long life under aircraft operating conditions. Advanced SOFC materials and fabrication processes are being developed at NASA GRC to increase specific power density and durability of SOFC cell and stack. Initial research efforts for increasing specific power density are directed toward increasing the operating temperature for the SOFC system and reducing the weight of the stack. While significant research is underway to develop anode supported SOFC system operating at temperatures in the range of 650 - 850 C for ground power generation applications, such temperatures may not yield the power densities required for aircraft applications. For electrode-supported cells, SOFC stacks with power densities greater than 1.0 W/sq cm are favorable at temperatures in excess of 900 C. The performance of various commercial and developmental anode supported cells is currently being evaluated in the temperature range of 900 to 1000 C to assess the performance gains and materials reliability. The results from these studies will be presented. Since metal interconnects developed for lower temperature operation are not practical at these high temperatures, advanced perovskite based ceramic interconnects with high electronic conductivity and lower sintering temperatures are being developed. Another option for increasing specific power density of SOFC stacks is to decrease the stack weight. Since the interconnect contributes to a significant portion of the stack weight, considerable weight benefits can be derived by decreasing its thickness. Eliminating the gas channels in the interconnect by engineering the pore structure in both anode and cathode can offer significant reduction in thickness of the ceramic interconnect material. New solid oxide fuel cells are being developed with porous engineered electrode supported structures with a 10 - 20 micron thin

  11. Application of numerical methods to heat transfer and thermal stress analysis of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieting, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a thermal-structural design analysis study of a fuel-injection strut for a hydrogen-cooled scramjet engine for a supersonic transport, utilizing finite-element methodology. Applications of finite-element and finite-difference codes to the thermal-structural design-analysis of space transports and structures are discussed. The interaction between the thermal and structural analyses has led to development of finite-element thermal methodology to improve the integration between these two disciplines. The integrated thermal-structural analysis capability developed within the framework of a computer code is outlined.

  12. Clustering-based multiple imputation via gray relational analysis for missing data and its application to aerospace field.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Yu, Bing; Yu, Dan; Ma, Shilong

    2013-01-01

    A large number of scientific researches and industrial applications commonly suffer from missing data. Some inappropriate techniques of missing value treatment compromise data quality, which detrimentally influences the knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose a missing data completion method named CBGMI. Firstly, it separates the nonmissing data instances into several clusters by excluding the missing-valued entries. Then, it utilizes the entropy of the proximal category for each incomplete instance in terms of the similarity metric based on gray relational analysis. Experiments on UCI datasets and aerospace datasets demonstrate that the superiority of our algorithm to other approaches on validity.

  13. Clustering-Based Multiple Imputation via Gray Relational Analysis for Missing Data and Its Application to Aerospace Field

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jing; Yu, Dan; Ma, Shilong

    2013-01-01

    A large number of scientific researches and industrial applications commonly suffer from missing data. Some inappropriate techniques of missing value treatment compromise data quality, which detrimentally influences the knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose a missing data completion method named CBGMI. Firstly, it separates the nonmissing data instances into several clusters by excluding the missing-valued entries. Then, it utilizes the entropy of the proximal category for each incomplete instance in terms of the similarity metric based on gray relational analysis. Experiments on UCI datasets and aerospace datasets demonstrate that the superiority of our algorithm to other approaches on validity. PMID:23737724

  14. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the

  15. In-situ phosphatizing coatings for aerospace, OEM and coil coating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuder, Heather Aurelia

    dispersed into an ISPC and the performance of the final coating formulation is evaluated. Successful ISPCs formulated for multiple coating systems exhibited excellent adhesion, hardness and gloss, which supports their suitability as a chrome-free, single-step alternative for aerospace, original equipment manufacturing (OEM) and coil coating applications.

  16. The Feasibility of Developing a Non-Engineering Aeronautical/Aerospace Science Doctoral Degree Program in U.S. Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey Alan; Lehrer, Henry R.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 101 college aviation faculty that received a 79% response indicated that 68.3% agree on the current need and 75.9% on the future need for a nonengineering doctoral program in aeronautical/aerospace sciences; 51% believe the Council on Aviation Accreditation would be more willing to accredit institutions with such programs. (SK)

  17. Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E. (Editor); Sato, Yuko (Editor); Barclay, Rebecca O. (Editor); Kennedy, John M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the large commercial aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk-sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a program participant in the production of the Boeing Company's 777. The aspects of Japanese culture and workplace communications will be examined: (1) the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; (2) those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decision making-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; (3) and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information-seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this article, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

  18. Development of a 70 Ah Li-Ion Cell for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGruson, Jim

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the development of Li-ion cells at the Li-Ion Technology Center in Missouri. The Li-ion test area is described, as well as the aerospace design and cell construction equipment. Test results are shown for typical charge and discharge, pulse test, and calculated impedance at various temperatures. Near future activities are discussed, including the incorporation of an alternate electrolyte and the optimization of the anode and cathode.

  19. 1993 IEEE Aerospace Applications Conference, 14th, Steamboat Springs, CO, Jan. 31-Feb. 5, 1993, Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topics discussed include communications and radar systems, devices, and components. Attention is also given to system concepts and aerospace manufacturing and instrumentation. Particular papers are presented on the performance modeling of simultaneous TDRSS support of the Space Station and the Space Shuttle, a wide swath SAR and radar altimeter, microwave feed systems for NASA's beam-waveguide reflector antennas, the development of the Cassini flight computer requirements, and EMI shielding materials.

  20. Environmentally Assisted Cracking Properties of AA7249 Extrusions for Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    USNA Chemistry Department for allowing me access to their DSC unit. Dr. Iulian Gheorghe ( ALU Menziken Aerospace / Universal Alloy Corporation) not...that environmental attacks is now becoming a significant concern. Structural components in the P-3C are currently composed of aluminum alloy AA7075-T6...effects of processing on wide panel extrusions. The results of this study will contribute to the ongoing evaluation of these alloys for replacement

  1. Multi-Segment Hemodynamic and Volume Assessment With Impedance Plethysmography: Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Definition of multi-segmental circulatory and volume changes in the human body provides an understanding of the physiologic responses to various aerospace conditions. We have developed instrumentation and testing procedures at NASA Ames Research Center that may be useful in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. Specialized two, four, and six channel impedance systems will be described that have been used to measure calf, thigh, thoracic, arm, and cerebral hemodynamic and volume changes during various experimental investigations.

  2. Performances and reliability predictions of optical data transmission links using a system simulator for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechou, L.; Deshayes, Y.; Aupetit-Berthelemot, C.; Guerin, A.; Tronche, C.

    - requency carrier) on system performances (eye diagram, quality factor and BER). The studied link consists in 4× 2.5 Gbits/s WDM channels with direct modulation and equally spaced (0,8 nm) around the 1550 nm central wavelength. Results clearly show that variation of fundamental parameters such as bias current or central wavelength induces a penalization of dynamic performances of the complete WDM link. In addition different degradation kinetics of aged Laser diodes from a same batch have been implemented to build the final distribution of Q-factor and BER values after 25 years. When considering long optical distance, fiber attenuation, EDFA noise, dispersion, PMD, ... penalize network performances that can be compensated using Forward Error Correction (FEC) coding. Three methods have been investigated in the case of On-Off Keying (OOK) transmission over an unipolar optical channel corrupted by Gaussian noise. Such system simulations highlight the impact of component parameter degradations on the whole network performances allowing to optimize various time and cost consuming sensitivity analyses at the early stage of the system development. Thus the validity of failure criteria in relation with mission profiles can be evaluated representing a significant part of the general PDfR effort in particular for aerospace applications.

  3. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 6: The relationship between the use of US government technical reports by US aerospace engineers and scientists and selected institutional and sociometric variables. Ph.D. Thesis - Indiana Univ., Nov. 1990 No. 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between the use of U.S. government technical reports by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists and selected institutional and sociometric variables was investigated. The methodology used for this study was survey research. Data were collected by means of a self-administered mail questionnaire. The approximately 34,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronauts (AIAA) served as the study population. The response rate for the survey was 70 percent. A dependent relationship was found to exist between the use of U.S. government technical reports and three of the institutional variables (academic preparation, years of professional aerospace work experience, and technical discipline). The use of U.S. government technical reports was found to be independent of all of the sociometric variables. The institutional variables best explain the use of U.S. government technical reports by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  4. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 1: Model development and applications, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The development, fabrication and evaluation of a prototype electromechanical actuator (EMA) is discussed. Application of the EMA as a motor for control surfaces in aerospace flight is examined. A mathematical model of the EMA is developed for design optimization. Nonlinearities which complicate the mathematical model are discussed. The dynamics of the EMA from the underlying physical principles are determined and a discussion of similating the control logic by means of equivalent boolean expressions is presented.

  5. 78 FR 11567 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate..., Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue...

  6. 77 FR 44432 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate...., Washington, DC. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Groves, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch,...

  7. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  8. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297.

  9. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  10. Interdisciplinary optimum design. [of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1986-01-01

    Problems related to interdisciplinary interactions in the design of a complex engineering systems are examined with reference to aerospace applications. The interdisciplinary optimization problems examined include those dealing with controls and structures, materials and structures, control and stability, structure and aerodynamics, and structure and thermodynamics. The discussion is illustrated by the following specific applications: integrated aerodynamic/structural optimization of glider wing; optimization of an antenna parabolic dish structure for minimum weight and prescribed emitted signal gain; and a multilevel optimization study of a transport aircraft.

  11. Nastran's Application in Agricultural Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwicklen, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Finite element analysis has been recognized as a valuable solution method by agricultural engineers. NASTRAN has been obtained by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Georgia. The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer has been used in the teaching program for an undergraduate course in heat transfer and will be used for a new graduate course in finite element analysis. The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer has also been applied to several research problems in the Agricultural Engineering Department.

  12. Biocatalysts: application and engineering for industrial purposes.

    PubMed

    Jemli, Sonia; Ayadi-Zouari, Dorra; Hlima, Hajer Ben; Bejar, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes are widely applied in various industrial applications and processes, including the food and beverage, animal feed, textile, detergent and medical industries. Enzymes screened from natural origins are often engineered before entering the market place because their native forms do not meet the requirements for industrial application. Protein engineering is concerned with the design and construction of novel enzymes with tailored functional properties, including stability, catalytic activity, reaction product inhibition and substrate specificity. Two broad approaches have been used for enzyme engineering, namely, rational design and directed evolution. The powerful and revolutionary techniques so far developed for protein engineering provide excellent opportunities for the design of industrial enzymes with specific properties and production of high-value products at lower production costs. The present review seeks to highlight the major fields of enzyme application and to provide an updated overview on previous protein engineering studies wherein natural enzymes were modified to meet the operational conditions required for industrial application.

  13. The applicability of turbulence models to aerodynamic and propulsion flowfields at McDonnell-Douglas Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kral, Linda D.; Ladd, John A.; Mani, Mori

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to evaluate turbulence models for integrated aircraft components such as the forebody, wing, inlet, diffuser, nozzle, and afterbody. The one-equation models have replaced the algebraic models as the baseline turbulence models. The Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model consistently performs better than the Baldwin-Barth model, particularly in the log-layer and free shear layers. Also, the Sparlart-Allmaras model is not grid dependent like the Baldwin-Barth model. No general turbulence model exists for all engineering applications. The Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model and the Chien k-epsilon models are the preferred turbulence models. Although the two-equation models often better predict the flow field, they may take from two to five times the CPU time. Future directions are in further benchmarking the Menter blended k-w/k-epsilon and algorithmic improvements to reduce CPU time of the two-equation model.

  14. Microbiome engineering: Current applications and its future.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jee Loon; Ling, Hua; Lee, Yung Seng; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2017-03-01

    Microbiomes exist in all ecosystems and are composed of diverse microbial communities. Perturbation to microbiomes brings about undesirable phenotypes in the hosts, resulting in diseases and disorders, and disturbs the balance of the associated ecosystems. Engineering of microbiomes can be used to modify structures of the microbiota and restore ecological balance. Consequently, microbiome engineering has been employed for improving human health and agricultural productivity. The importance and current applications of microbiome engineering, particularly in humans, animals, plants and soil is reviewed. Furthermore, we explore the challenges in engineering microbiome and the future of this field, thus providing perspectives and outlook of microbiome engineering.

  15. Trajectory optimization and guidance law development for national aerospace plane applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.; Corban, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The work completed to date is comprised of the following: a simple vehicle model representative of the aerospace plane concept in the hypersonic flight regime, fuel-optimal climb profiles for the unconstrained and dynamic pressure constrained cases generated using a reduced order dynamic model, an analytic switching condition for transition to rocket powered flight as orbital velocity is approached, simple feedback guidance laws for both the unconstrained and dynamic pressure constrained cases derived via singular perturbation theory and a nonlinear transformation technique, and numerical simulation results for ascent to orbit in the dynamic pressure constrained case.

  16. Space Benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Some 585 examples of the beneficial use of NASA aerospace technology by public and private organizations are described to demonstrate the effects of mission-oriented programs on technological progress in the United States. General observations regarding technology transfer activity are presented. Benefit cases are listed in 20 categories along with pertinent information such as communication link with NASA; the DRI transfer example file number; and individual case numbers associated with the technology and examples used; and the date of the latest contract with user organizations. Subject, organization, geographic, and field center indexes are included.

  17. Benefits briefing notebook: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy is presented. The contents of this notebook are divided into three sections: (1) benefit cases, (2) transfer overview, and (3) indexes. Transfer examples relevant to each subject area are presented. Pertinent transfer data are given. The Transfer Overview section provides a general perspective for technology transfer from NASA to other organizations. In addition to a description of the basic transfer modes, the selection criteria for notebook examples and the kinds of benefit data they contain are also presented.

  18. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  19. Careers in the Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.

    The document briefly presents career information in the field of aerospace industry. Employment exists in three areas: (1) professional and technical occupations in research and development (engineers, scientists, and technicians); (2) administrative, clerical, and related occupations (engineers, scientists, technicians, clerks, secretaries,…

  20. Imaging strategies for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung Yun; Ricles, Laura M; Suggs, Laura J; Emelianov, Stanislav Y

    2015-02-01

    Tissue engineering has evolved with multifaceted research being conducted using advanced technologies, and it is progressing toward clinical applications. As tissue engineering technology significantly advances, it proceeds toward increasing sophistication, including nanoscale strategies for material construction and synergetic methods for combining with cells, growth factors, or other macromolecules. Therefore, to assess advanced tissue-engineered constructs, tissue engineers need versatile imaging methods capable of monitoring not only morphological but also functional and molecular information. However, there is no single imaging modality that is suitable for all tissue-engineered constructs. Each imaging method has its own range of applications and provides information based on the specific properties of the imaging technique. Therefore, according to the requirements of the tissue engineering studies, the most appropriate tool should be selected among a variety of imaging modalities. The goal of this review article is to describe available biomedical imaging methods to assess tissue engineering applications and to provide tissue engineers with criteria and insights for determining the best imaging strategies. Commonly used biomedical imaging modalities, including X-ray and computed tomography, positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, optical imaging, and emerging techniques and multimodal imaging, will be discussed, focusing on the latest trends of their applications in recent tissue engineering studies.