Science.gov

Sample records for aerospace manufacturing perspective

  1. Graphical simulation for aerospace manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Bien, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Simulation software has become a key technological enabler for integrating flexible manufacturing systems and streamlining the overall aerospace manufacturing process. In particular, robot simulation and offline programming software is being credited for reducing down time and labor cost, while boosting quality and significantly increasing productivity.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  3. Advanced Engineering Environments: Implications for Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D.

    2001-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's aerospace industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker all face the developer of aerospace systems. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments (AEEs) to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. These advances will enable modeling and simulation of manufacturing methods, which will in turn allow manufacturing considerations to be included much earlier in the system development cycle. Significant cost savings, increased quality, and decreased manufacturing cycle time are expected to result. This paper will give an overview of the NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment, the agency initiative to develop an AEE, with a focus on the anticipated benefits in aerospace manufacturing.

  4. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Report 43: The Technical Communication Practices of U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 Mail Survey -- Manufacturing and Production Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

  5. PREFACE: Trends in Aerospace Manufacturing 2009 International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Keith; Gault, Rosemary; Allen, Adrian

    2011-12-01

    The aerospace industry is rapidly changing. New aircraft structures are being developed and aero-engines are becoming lighter and more environmentally friendly. In both areas, innovative materials and manufacturing methods are used in an attempt to get maximum performance for minimum cost. At the same time, the structure of the industry has changed and there has been a move from large companies designing, manufacturing components and assembling aircraft to one of large global supply chains headed by large system integrators. All these changes have forced engineers and managers to bring in innovations in design, materials, manufacturing technologies and supply chain management. In September 2009, the Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) at the University of Sheffield held the inaugural Trends in Aerospace Manufacturing conference (TRAM09). This brought together 28 speakers over two days, who presented in sessions on advanced manufacturing trends for the aerospace sector. Areas covered included new materials, including composites, advanced machining, state of the art additive manufacturing techniques, assembly and supply chain issues.

  6. Heat pipe cooling of an aerospace foam mold manufacturing process

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, D.R.; Feldman, K.T.; Marjon, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    A passive heat pipe cooling system was developed to cool a Bendix foam mold used to manufacture aerospace foam parts. The cooling system consists of ten copper-water heat pipes with cooling fins implanted into the aluminum mold and cooled by a domestic size fan blowing ambient air. The number and location of the heat pipes was determined to provide the most effective cooling and mold isothermalization based on experimental measurements of mold temperatures during the exothermic foaming process and from practical considerations of the mold geometry and use. Performance tests were cnducted on an individual heat pipe and on the ten heat pipes implanted in the mold. Both exothermic foam heating and internal electrical heat input were used in the experiments. The experimental test results indicate that the heat pipe cooling system with a fan is four to six times faster than free convection cooling of the mold with no heat pipes or fan and nearly twice as fast as cooling by the fan only. Similarly fast increases in mold heating time in the cure furnace could be realized if the heat pipes are used during this part of the production process. The heat pipes also cool hot spots in the mold and help isothermalize the mold so that better quality foam parts should be produced.

  7. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  8. The Relationship of Skilled Aerospace Manufacturing Workforce Performance to Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malsberry, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    A major economic driver, the aerospace industry contributes to exports and higher wage jobs, which the United States requires to maintain robust economic health. Despite the investment in vocational educational training programs, insufficient workers have been available to aerospace companies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  9. Multistage aerospace craft. [perspective drawings of conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, D. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A conceptual design of a multi-stage aerospace craft is presented. Two perspective views of the vehicle are developed to show the two component configuration with delta wing, four vertical tail surfaces, tricycle landing gear, and two rocket exhaust nozzles at the rear of the fuselage. Engines for propulsion in the atmosphere are mounted on the fuselage in front of the wing root attachment.

  10. Computer integrated manufacturing and technology transfer for improving aerospace productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, P. A.; Sica, J.

    1992-03-01

    This paper reviews a cooperative effort, between the Alabama Industial Development Training Institute and the University of Alabama in Huntsville, to implement a prototype computer integrated manufacturing system. The primary use of this system will be to educate Alabama companies on the organizational and technological issues involved in the implementation of advanced manufacturing systems.

  11. Manufacturing and NDE of Large Composite Aerospace Structures at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann

    2000-01-01

    NASA's vision for transportation to orbit calls for new vehicles built with new materials technology. The goals of this new launch system development are to improve safety, dramatically reduce cost to orbit, and improve vehicle turn around time. Planned Space Shuttle upgrades include new reusable liquid propellant boosters to replace the solid propellant boosters. These boosters are to have wings and return to the launch site for a horizontal landing on an airport runway. New single and two stages to orbit concepts are being investigated. To reduce weight and improve performance composite materials are proposed for fuel and oxidizer tanks, fuel feedlines, valve bodies, aerostructures, turbomachinery components. For large composite structures new methods of fabrication are being proposed and developed. Containment of cryogenic fuel or oxidizer requires emphases on composite material densification and chemical compatibility. Ceramic matrix and fiber composites for hot rotating turbomachinery have been developed with new fabrication processes. The new requirements on the materials for launcher components are requiring development of new manufacturing and inspection methods. This talk will examine new and proposed manufacturing methods to fabricate the revolutionary components. New NDE methods under consideration include alternative X-ray methods, X-ray laminagraphy, advanced CT, Thermography, new ultrasonic methods, and imbedded sensors. The sizes, complexity, use environment, and contamination restrictions will challenge the inspection process. In flight self-diagnosis and rapid depot inspection are also goals of the NDE development.

  12. The aerospace technology laboratory (a perspective, then and now)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, J. F.; Hoffman, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The physical changes that have taken place in aerospace facilities since the Wright brothers' accomplishment 78 years ago are highlighted. For illustrative purposes some of the technical facilities and operations of the NASA Lewis Research Center are described. These simulation facilities were designed to support research and technology studies in aerospace propulsion.

  13. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  14. NASA specification for manufacturing and performance requirements of NASA standard aerospace nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    On November 25, 1985, the NASA Chief Engineer established a NASA-wide policy to maintain and to require the use of the NASA standard for aerospace nickel-cadmium cells and batteries. The Associate Administrator for Safety, Reliability, Maintainability, and Quality Assurance stated on December 29, 1986, the intent to retain the NASA standard cell usage policy established by the Office of the Chief Engineer. The current NASA policy is also to incorporate technological advances as they are tested and proven for spaceflight applications. This policy will be implemented by modifying the existing standard cells or by developing new NASA standards and their specifications in accordance with the NASA's Aerospace Battery Systems Program Plan. This NASA Specification for Manufacturing and Performance Requirements of NASA Standard Aerospace Nickel-Cadmium Cells is prepared to provide requirements for the NASA standard nickel-cadmium cell. It is an interim specification pending resolution of the separator material availability. This specification has evolved from over 15 years of nickel-cadmium cell experience by NASA. Consequently, considerable experience has been collected and cell performance has been well characterized from many years of ground testing and from in-flight operations in both geosynchronous (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) applications. NASA has developed and successfully used two standard flight qualified cell designs.

  15. Agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, R.G.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of agile manufacturing is to provide the ability to quickly realize high-quality, highly-customized, in-demand products at a cost commensurate with mass production. More broadly, agility in manufacturing, or any other endeavor, is defined as change-proficiency; the ability to thrive in an environment of unpredictable change. This report discusses the general direction of the agile manufacturing initiative, including research programs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Department of Energy, and other government agencies, but focuses on agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective. The role of statistics can be important because agile manufacturing requires the collection and communication of process characterization and capability information, much of which will be data-based. The statistical community should initiate collaborative work in this important area.

  16. A Digital Methodology for the Design Process of Aerospace Assemblies with Sustainable Composite Processes & Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwan, W.; Butterfield, J.

    2011-05-01

    The well established benefits of composite materials are driving a significant shift in design and manufacture strategies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Thermoplastic composites have advantages over the traditional thermosetting materials with regards to sustainability and environmental impact, features which are becoming increasingly pertinent in the aerospace arena. However, when sustainability and environmental impact are considered as design drivers, integrated methods for part design and product development must be developed so that any benefits of sustainable composite material systems can be assessed during the design process. These methods must include mechanisms to account for process induced part variation and techniques related to re-forming, recycling and decommissioning, which are in their infancy. It is proposed in this paper that predictive techniques related to material specification, part processing and product cost of thermoplastic composite components, be integrated within a Through Life Management (TLM) product development methodology as part of a larger strategy of product system modeling to improve disciplinary concurrency, realistic part performance, and to place sustainability at the heart of the design process. This paper reports the enhancement of digital manufacturing tools as a means of drawing simulated part manufacturing scenarios, real time costing mechanisms, and broader lifecycle performance data capture into the design cycle. The work demonstrates predictive processes for sustainable composite product manufacture and how a Product-Process-Resource (PPR) structure can be customised and enhanced to include design intent driven by `Real' part geometry and consequent assembly. your paper.

  17. Automated metrology and NDE measurements for increased throughput in aerospace component manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Charles N.; Pierce, S. Gareth; Morozov, Maxim; Summan, Rahul; Dobie, Gordon; McCubbin, Paul; McCubbin, Coreen; Dearie, Scott; Munro, Gavin

    2015-03-01

    Composite materials, particularly Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP), find extensive use in construction of modern airframe structures. Quality and conformance checks can be a serious limitation on production throughput in aerospace manufacturing. Traditionally Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and metrology measurements are undertaken at different stages of a product manufacture cycle using specific dedicated equipment and personnel. However, since both processes involve direct interaction with the component's surface, an opportunity exists to combine these to potentially reduce overall cycle time. In addition when considering moves towards automation of both inspection processes, it is clear that measured metrology data is an essential input parameter to the automated NDE workflow. The authors present the findings of a proof of concept combined sub-scale NDE and Metrology demonstrator cell for aerospace components. Permitting a maximum part area size of 3 × 1 m2, KUKA KR5 6 degree of freedom robotic manipulators were utilised to deploy two inspection payloads. Firstly automated non-contact photogrammetric metrology measurement was employed to inspect the structure for conformance of dimension in relation to reference designs (available from CAD). Secondly automated phased array technology was deployed to inspect and produce ultrasonic thickness mapping of components of nominal 20mm thickness. Parameters such as overall cycle time, part dimensional accuracy, robotic path accuracy and data registration are assessed in the paper to highlight both the current state of the art performance available and the future direction of required research focus.

  18. Additive Manufacturing Enabled Ubiquitous Sensing in Aerospace and Integrated Building Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantese, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Ubiquitous sensing is rapidly emerging as a means for globally optimizing systems of systems by providing both real time PHM (prognostics, diagnostics, and health monitoring), as well as expanded in-the-loop control. In closed or proprietary systems, such as in aerospace vehicles and life safety or security building systems; wireless signals and power must be supplied to a sensor network via single or multiple data concentrators in an architecture that ensures reliable/secure interconnectivity. In addition, such networks must be robust to environmental factors, including: corrosion, EMI/RFI, and thermal/mechanical variations. In this talk, we describe the use of additive manufacturing processes guided by physics based models for seamlessly embedding a sensor suite into aerospace and building system components; while maintaining their structural integrity and providing wireless power, sensor interrogation, and real-time diagnostics. We detail this approach as it specifically applies to industrial gas turbines for stationary land power. This work is supported through a grant from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), a division of the Department of Energy.

  19. A mask manufacturer's perspective on maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Peter; Biechler, Charles; Kalk, Franklin

    2005-11-01

    successful ML2 system solves the mask cost issue and thereby reduces the need and attractiveness of ML2. Are these concerns valid? In this paper we will present a perspective on maskless lithography from the considerable "direct write" experience of a mask manufacturer. We will examine the various business models proposed for ML2 insertion as well as the key technical challenges to achieving simultaneously the throughput and the lithographic quality necessary to become economically viable. We will consider the question of the economic viability of the mask industry in a post-ML2 world and will propose possible models where the mask industry can meaningfully participate.

  20. Screening EEG in Aircrew Selection: Clinical Aerospace Neurology Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Jonathan B.; Riley, Terrence

    2001-01-01

    As clinical aerospace neurologists we do not favor using screening EEG in pilot selection on unselected and otherwise asymptomatic individuals. The role of EEG in aviation screening should be as an adjunct to diagnosis, and the decision to disqualify a pilot should never be based solely on the EEG. Although a policy of using a screening EEG in an unselected population might detect an individual with a potentially increased relative risk, it would needlessly exclude many applicants who would probably never have a seizure. A diagnostic test performed on an asymptomatic individual without clinical indications, in a population with a low prevalence of disease (seizure) may be of limited or possibly detrimental value. We feel that rather than do EEGs on all candidates, a better approach would be to perform an EEG for a specific indication, such as family history of seizure, single convulsion (seizure) , history of unexplained loss of consciousness or head injury. Routine screening EEGs in unselected aviation applications are not done without clinical indication in the U.S. Air Force, Navy, or NASA. The USAF discontinued routine screening EEGs for selection in 1978, the U.S. Navy discontinued it in 1981 , and NASA discontinued it in 1995. EEG as an aeromedical screening tool in the US Navy dates back to 1939. The US Navy routinely used EEGs to screen all aeromedical personnel from 1961 to 1981. The incidence of epileptiform activity on EEG in asymptomatic flight candidates ranges from 0.11 to 2.5%. In 3 studies of asymptomatic flight candidates with epileptiform activity on EEG followed for 2 to 15 years, 1 of 31 (3.2%), 1 of 30 (3.3%), and 0 of 14 (0%) developed a seizure, for a cumulative risk of an individual with an epileptiform EEG developing a seizure of 2.67% (2 in 75). Of 28,658 student naval aviation personnel screened 31 had spikes and/or slow waves on EEG, and only 1 later developed a seizure. Of the 28,627 who had a normal EEG, 4 later developed seizures, or

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 41: Technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists: International perspective on aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The studies had the following objectives: (1) to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions, (2) to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists, (3) to investigate their use of libraries and technical information centers, (4) to investigate their use of and the importance to them of computer and information technology, (5) to examine their use of electronic networks, and (6) to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. Self-administered (mail) questionnaires were distributed to Dutch aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR) in the Netherlands, the NASA Ames Research Center in the U.S., and the NASA Langley Research Center in the U.S. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  2. Pollution from drug manufacturing: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, D. G. Joakim

    2014-01-01

    As long ago as the sixteenth century, Paracelsus recognized that ‘the dose makes the poison’. Indeed, environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals excreted by humans are limited, most importantly because a defined dose is given to just a fraction of the population. By contrast, recent studies have identified direct emission from drug manufacturing as a source of much higher environmental discharges that, in some cases, greatly exceed toxic threshold concentrations. Because production is concentrated in specific locations, the risks are not linked to usage patterns. Furthermore, as the drugs are not consumed, metabolism in the human body does not reduce concentrations. The environmental risks associated with manufacturing therefore comprise a different, wider set of pharmaceuticals compared with those associated with risks from excretion. Although pollution from manufacturing is less widespread, discharges that promote the development of drug-resistant microorganisms can still have global consequences. Risk management also differs between production and excretion in terms of accountability, incentive creation, legal opportunities, substitution possibilities and costs. Herein, I review studies about industrial emissions of pharmaceuticals and the effects associated with exposure to such effluents. I contrast environmental pollution due to manufacturing with that due to excretion in terms of their risks and management and highlight some recent initiatives. PMID:25405961

  3. Inspection of aging aircraft: A manufacturer's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagemaier, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Douglas, in conjunction with operators and regulators, has established interrelated programs to identify and address issues regarding inspection of aging aircraft. These inspection programs consist of the following: Supplemental Inspection Documents; Corrosion Prevention and Control Documents; Repair Assessment Documents; and Service Bulletin Compliance Documents. In addition, airframe manufacturers perform extended airframe fatigue tests to deal with potential problems before they can develop in the fleet. Lastly, nondestructive inspection (NDI) plays a role in all these programs through the detection of cracks, corrosion, and disbonds. However, improved and more cost effective NDI methods are needed. Some methods such as magneto-optic imaging, electronic shearography, Diffractor-Sight, and multi-parameter eddy current testing appear viable for near-term improvements in NDI of aging aircraft.

  4. Perspectives on Emerging/Novel Computing Paradigms and Future Aerospace Workforce Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2003-01-01

    The accelerating pace of the computing technology development shows no signs of abating. Computing power reaching 100 Tflop/s is likely to be reached by 2004 and Pflop/s (10(exp 15) Flop/s) by 2007. The fundamental physical limits of computation, including information storage limits, communication limits and computation rate limits will likely be reached by the middle of the present millennium. To overcome these limits, novel technologies and new computing paradigms will be developed. An attempt is made in this overview to put the diverse activities related to new computing-paradigms in perspective and to set the stage for the succeeding presentations. The presentation is divided into five parts. In the first part, a brief historical account is given of development of computer and networking technologies. The second part provides brief overviews of the three emerging computing paradigms grid, ubiquitous and autonomic computing. The third part lists future computing alternatives and the characteristics of future computing environment. The fourth part describes future aerospace workforce research, learning and design environments. The fifth part lists the objectives of the workshop and some of the sources of information on future computing paradigms.

  5. An Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Capability for Complex Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Beshears, Ron; Lambert, Dennis; Tilson, William

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to investigate some of the fundamental relationships between processing, mechanical testing, materials characterization, and NDE for additively manufactured (AM) components using the powder bed fusion direct melt laser sintered process. The goal is to understand the criticality of defects unique to the AM process and then how conventional nondestructive evaluation methods as well as some of the more non-traditional methods such as computed tomography, are effected by the AM material. Specific defects including cracking, porosity and partially/unfused powder will be addressed. Besides line-of-site NDE, as appropriate these inspection capabilities will be put into the context of complex AM geometries where hidden features obscure, or inhibit traditional NDE methods.

  6. Manufacturing Challenges Associated with the Use of Metal Matrix Composites in Aerospace Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie

    2014-01-01

    Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) consist of a metal alloy reinforced with ceramic particles or fibers. These materials possess a very high strength to weight ratio, good resistance to impact and wear, and a number of other properties which make them attractive for use in aerospace and defense applications. MMCs have found use in the space shuttle orbiter's structural tubing, the Hubble Space Telescope's antenna mast, control surfaces and propulsion systems for aircraft, and tank armors. The size of MMC components is severely limited by difficulties encountered in joining these materials using fusion welding. Melting of the material results in formation of an undesirable phase (formed when molten Aluminum reacts with the reinforcement) which leaves a strength depleted region along the joint line. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively nascent solid state joining technique developed at The Welding Institute (TWI) in 1991. The process was first used at NASA to weld the super lightweight external tank for the Space Shuttle. Today FSW is used to join structural components of the Delta IV, Atlas V, and Falcon IX rockets as well as NASA's Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and Space Launch System. A current focus of FSW research is to extend the process to new materials, such as MMCs, which are difficult to weld using conventional fusion techniques. Since Friction Stir Welding occurs below the melting point of the workpiece material, this deleterious phase is absent in FSW-ed MMC joints. FSW of MMCs is, however, plagued by rapid wear of the welding tool, a consequence of the large discrepancy in hardness between the steel tool and the reinforcement material. This chapter summarizes the challenges encountered when joining MMCs to themselves or to other materials in structures. Specific attention is paid to the influence of process variables in Friction Stir Welding on the wear process characterizes the effect of process parameters (spindle speed, traverse rate, and length

  7. A case study of the knowledge transfer practices from the perspectives of highly experienced engineers in the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Deloris

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to describe the existing knowledge transfer practices in selected aerospace companies as perceived by highly experienced engineers retiring from the company. Specifically it was designed to investigate and describe (a) the processes and procedures used to transfer knowledge, (b) the systems that encourage knowledge transfer, (c) the impact of management actions on knowledge transfer, and (d) constraining factors that might impede knowledge transfer. Methodology. A descriptive case study was the methodology applied in this study. Qualitative data were gathered from highly experienced engineers from 3 large aerospace companies in Southern California. A semistructured interview was conducted face-to-face with each participant in a private or semiprivate, non-workplace setting to obtain each engineer's perspectives on his or her company's current knowledge transfer practices. Findings. The participants in this study preferred to transfer knowledge using face-to-face methods, one-on-one, through actual troubleshooting and problem-solving scenarios. Managers in these aerospace companies were observed as having knowledge transfer as a low priority; they tend not to promote knowledge transfer among their employees. While mentoring is the most common knowledge transfer system these companies offer, it is not the preferred method of knowledge transfer among the highly experienced engineers. Job security and schedule pressures are the top constraints that impede knowledge transfer between the highly experienced engineers and their coworkers. Conclusions. The study data support the conclusion that the highly experienced engineers in the study's aerospace companies would more likely transfer their knowledge to those remaining in the industry if the transfer could occur face-to-face with management support and acknowledgement of their expertise and if their job security is not threatened. The study also supports the conclusion that managers

  8. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 7:] The NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: The DOD perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    This project will provide descriptive and analytical data regarding the flow of STI at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. It will examine both the channels used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Results of the project should provide useful information to R and D managers, information managers, and others concerned with improving access to and use of STI. Objectives include: (1) understanding the aerospace knowledge diffusion process at the individual, organizational, and national levels, placing particular emphasis on the diffusion of Federally funded aerospace STI; (2) understanding the international aerospace knowledge diffusion process at the individual and organizational levels, placing particular emphasis on the systems used to diffuse the results of Federally funded aerospace STI; (3) understanding the roles NASA/DoD technical report and aerospace librarians play in the transfer and use of knowledge derived from Federally funded aerospace R and D; (4) achieving recognition and acceptance within NASA, DoD and throughout the aerospace community that STI is a valuable strategic resource for innovation, problem solving, and productivity; and (5) providing results that can be used to optimize the effectiveness and efficiency of the Federal STI aerospace transfer system and exchange mechanism.

  9. The North Texas aerospace manufacturing and aviation industries: An explanatory case study of school-to-work collaborative networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Cynthia Ann

    The purpose of this study is to explore how educators, business partners and facilitators developed ties or networks to initiate a school-to-work collaboration to prepare students for jobs and careers in the aerospace manufacturing and aviation industries. There is growing concern about preparing a future workforce supply in these industries in North Texas. Workforce projections call for 8000 additional jobs between 2010 and 2020 (North Central Texas Council of Governments, 2013). Collaboration is recognized as a valuable asset to connect disjointed segments within the K-16 trajectory. This study explores the contradiction between the stated need for collaborative strategies and the inability of stakeholders attempting to collaborate across organizational and institutional boundaries to sustain these connections. Through the lens of networking theory, the roles of facilitators and the operation of networks and ties between and among partners are investigated. Ten participants in a high school curriculum development project were interviewed, representing a business, community college, and K-12 education. Data analysis revealed findings associated with three major themes: facilitation, project activity and relationships. Nine individuals were identified as facilitators, and facilitators were perceived as helping the project move forward. Project activity benefited from the structured curriculum development process. Although relationships characterized by strong ties helped start the project, weak ties predominated among project participants. Implications for theory include the need for more knowledge about facilitator roles and group dynamics. Further research about the functioning of weak and strong ties and facilitator skill sets relating to collaborative leadership would be valuable. Implications for practice include capturing lessons learned to apply to other industries, and overtly acknowledging the existence and importance of facilitators.

  10. Perspectives on Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and Future Aerospace Workforce Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the advanced learning technologies is given in this presentation along with a brief description of their impact on future aerospace workforce development. The presentation is divided into five parts (see Figure 1). In the first part, a brief historical account of the evolution of learning technologies is given. The second part describes the current learning activities. The third part describes some of the future aerospace systems, as examples of high-tech engineering systems, and lists their enabling technologies. The fourth part focuses on future aerospace research, learning and design environments. The fifth part lists the objectives of the workshop and some of the sources of information on learning technologies and learning networks.

  11. Analysis and Perspective from the Complex Aerospace Systems Exchange (CASE) 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Parker, Peter A.; Detweiler, Kurt N.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Dress, David A.; Kimmel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center embedded four rapporteurs at the Complex Aerospace Systems Exchange (CASE) held in August 2013 with the objective to capture the essence of the conference presentations and discussions. CASE was established to provide a discussion forum among chief engineers, program managers, and systems engineers on challenges in the engineering of complex aerospace systems. The meeting consists of invited presentations and panels from industry, academia, and government followed by discussions among attendees. This report presents the major and reoccurring themes captured throughout the meeting and provides analysis and insights to further the CASE mission.

  12. Meeting Technology and Manpower Needs through the Industry/University Interface. An Aerospace Industry Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) examined its member companies and their existing university relationships as an initial step in the process of strengthening these ties. Information drawn from background research, interviews (with company representatives and university, government, and private sector spokesmen), and a formal survey of…

  13. Higher Education's Effectiveness in Preparing Students for Professional Practice: Perspectives from the Aerospace and Banking Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Ronald E.

    The congruence of expectations of industrial managers concerning the preparation of college graduates and what university professional schools are attempting to provide was explored. The focus was the aerospace and banking industries. Interviews were conducted with 24 senior executives from 13 corporations to determine what industry requires of…

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 55: Career goals and educational preparation of aerospace engineering and science students: An international perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey of aerospace engineering and science students conducted in India, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The similarities and differences among aerospace engineering and science students from the five countries are examined in the context of two general aspects of educational experience. First, the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that led to the choice of a career in aerospace, their current levels of satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives is considered. Second, the importance of certain communications/information-use skills for professional use is examined, as well as the frequency of use and importance of specific information sources and products to meet students' educational needs. Overall, the students who participated in this research remain relatively happy with the choice of a career in aerospace engineering, despite pessimism in some quarters about the future of the industry. Regardless of national identity, aerospace engineering and science students appear to share a similar vision of the profession in terms of their career goals and aspirations. The data also indicate that aerospace engineering and science students are well aware of the importance of communications/information-use skills to professional success and that competency in these skills will help them to be productive members of their profession. Collectively, all of the students appear to use and value similar information sources and products, although some differences appear by country.

  15. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  16. NASA Perspective and Modeling of Thermal Runaway Propagation Mitigation in Aerospace Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shack, P.; Iannello, C.; Rickman, S.; Button, R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has traditionally sought to reduce the likelihood of a single cell thermal runaway (TR) in their aerospace batteries to an absolute minimum by employing rigorous screening program of the cells. There was generally a belief that TR propagation resulting in catastrophic failure of the battery was a forgone conclusion for densely packed aerospace lithium-ion batteries. As it turns out, this may not be the case. An increasing number of purportedly TR propagation-resistant batteries are appearing among NASA partners in the commercial sector and the Department of Defense. In the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. Unfortunately, there are no best-practice guidelines for this work in the Agency, so the first project team attempting to meet these requirements would have an undue burden placed upon them. A NASA engineering Safety Center (NESC) team set out to perform pathfinding activities for meeting those requirements. This presentation will provide contextual background to this effort, as well as initial results in attempting to model and simulate TR heat transfer and propagation within battery designs.

  17. Aerospace Community. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, V. V.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, emphasizes the two sides of aerospace--military aerospace and civilian aerospace. Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion on the organization of Air Force bases and missile sites in relation to their missions. Chapter 2 examines the community services provided by Air Force bases. The topics…

  18. Perspective on the National Aero-Space Plane Program instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Erbland, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A review of the requirement for, and development of, advanced measurement technology for the National Aerospace Plane program is presented. The objective is to discuss the technical need and the program commitment required to ensure that adequate and timely measurement capabilities are provided for ground and flight testing in the NASP program. The scope of the measurement problem is presented, the measurement process is described, how instrumentation technology development has been affected by NASP program evolution is examined, the national effort to define measurement requirements and assess the adequacy of current technology to support the NASP program is discussed, and the measurement requirements are summarized. The unique features of the NASP program that complicate the understanding of requirements and the development of viable solutions are illustrated.

  19. Smart structures in engineering and technology: an aerospace and automotive perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, Christian

    2003-03-01

    This paper gives an overview on what was expected to be achieved in smart structures and materials for aerospace and automotive applications about a decade ago and what so far could be achieved. Although initial goals turned out to be somewhat over-ambitious, achievements so far are worth to be discussed and pursued. Major ongoing activities being on the verge to be transferred into application are therefore summarized and referenced. A major lack in smart structures technology transfer has been identified being procedures on how to identify which technologies have the most likely chance to be transferred into application. A procedure for this successfully applied in market research and product development is therefore described and proposed here.

  20. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  1. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  2. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297.

  3. Designing in quality through design control: a manufacturer's perspective.

    PubMed

    Lasky, F D; Boser, R B

    1997-05-01

    Quality by design is a comprehensive program that begins with understanding user needs and continues through (but does not end with) monitoring customer acceptance. Management tools and processes such as ISO 9000 standards and the Food and Drug Administration Quality System Regulations exist to guide medical device manufacturers in quality practices. The goal is to deliver products acceptable for their intended use. Quality control begins with defining attributes ranging from color to accuracy and precision. Failure mode and effects analysis and risk analysis consider both probability and severity of potential malfunctions and their effects on patients or operators. Tools used to implement design and production practices include Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) charts and industry-conceived concepts, such as Six Sigma techniques. Their use varies with manufacturer, depending on product and customer needs and the manufacturer's specific quality practices. Verification confirms that input goals are met. Then, validation assures that intended clinical needs are continually satisfied by establishing adequate production specifications. Conformance is monitored to verify that stable, consistent processes are in place, and precise user instructions enable the device to satisfy its intended use. Finally, complaint tracking can help assess whether needs have been met. Modifications in service, hardware, or instructions (including quality control) might be required. Therefore, both manufacturers and users work in partnership for continual improvement. The manufacturer's knowledge of design, production, and service needs of its devices enable it to recommend appropriate quality-control protocols for clinical testing. PMID:9166255

  4. Key technologies for manufacturing and processing sheet materials: A global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeri, Mahmoud Y.

    2001-02-01

    Modern industrial technologies continue to seek new materials and processes to produce products that meet design and functional requirements. Sheet materials made from ferrous and non-ferrous metals, laminates, composites, and reinforced plastics constitute a large percentage of today’s products, components, and systems. Major manufacturers of sheet products include automotive, aerospace, appliance, and food-packaging industries. The Second Global Symposium on Innovations in Materials Processing & Manufacturing: Sheet Materials is organized to provide a forum for presenting advances in sheet processing and manufacturing by worldwide researchers and engineers from industrial, research, and academic centers. The symposium, sponsored by the TMS Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD), was planned for the 2001 TMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, February 11 15, 2001. This article is a review of key papers submitted for publication in the concurrent volume. The selected papers present significant developments in the rapidly expanding areas of advanced sheet materials, innovative forming methods, industrial applications, primary and secondary processing, composite processing, and numerical modeling of manufacturing processes.

  5. Glass fiber manufacturing and fiber safety: the producer's perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, J R; Hadley, J G

    1994-01-01

    Historically, the potential health effects of airborne fibers have been associated with the dose, dimension, and durability. Increasing focus is being placed on the latter category. Concern about airborne fiber safety could be reduced by manufacturing fibers that are not respirable; however, due to performance and manufacturing constraints on glasswool insulations, this is not possible today. These products are an important part of today's economy and as a major manufacturer, Owens-Corning is committed to producing and marketing materials that are both safe and effective in their intended use. To this end, manufacturing technology seeks to produce materials that generate low concentrations of airborne fibers, thus minimizing exposure and irritation. The range of fiber diameters is controlled to assure effective product performance and, as far as possible, to minimize respirability. Glass compositions are designed to allow effective fiber forming and ultimate product function. Fiber dissolution is primarily a function of composition; this too, can be controlled within certain constraints. Coupled with these broad parameters is an extensive product stewardship program to assure the safety of these materials. This article will discuss the factors that influence glasswool insulation production, use, and safety. PMID:7882953

  6. The grand challenges of plasma etching: a manufacturing perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chris G. N.; Kanarik, Keren J.; Gottscho, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Plasma etching has been enabling nano-electronic fabrication since the 1980s; during this time, transistor size has shrunk by nearly two orders of magnitude, starting at 1.0 µm in the mid 80s to ˜0.01 µm today. The manufacturing of these devices requires overcoming a series of challenges, ranging from continuous innovation on device integration to extend Moore's law to breaking tradeoffs on the perennial challenge of aspect ratio-dependent etching. In this paper, we will review four key areas in etch manufacturing: uniformity, defects, surface precision and ‘sticky’/non-volatile etch materials. In the uniformity section, we will discuss the challenges for microscopic uniformity, such as localized feature dimension variations; macroscopic uniformity, such as performance at the extreme edge of the wafer; and repeatable uniformity, meaning wafer-to-wafer, lot-to-lot and chamber-to-chamber performance. While defect management is successful with in situ plasma cleans, one must be cognizant of the choice of clean chemistry. In surface precision, we look at the approach of atomic layer etching and how it can be successful in a manufacturing environment. Finally, in the non-volatile material section, we review technology drivers for DRAM (dynamic random access memory) and NAND flash memory in the microelectronics Si industry, with focus on the utilization of such materials and what it means to etch equipment manufacturers.

  7. Pharmaceutical compounding or pharmaceutical manufacturing? A regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Timko, Robert J; Crooker, Philip E M

    2014-01-01

    At one time, nearly all prescriptions were compounded preparations. There is an ongoing demand for compounded prescription medications because manufacturers cannot fulfill the needs of all individual patients. Compounding pharmacies are a long standing yet less frequently discussed element in the complex matrix of prescription drug manufacturing, distribution, and patient use. The drug shortage situation for many necessary and life-saving drug products is a complicating factor that has led to the numerous quality issues that currently plague large-scale compounding pharmacies. The states are the primary regulator of pharmacies, including community drug stores, large chains, and specialty pharmacies. Pharmacies making and distributing drugs in a way that is outside the bounds of traditional pharmacy compounding are of great concern to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The U.S. Congress has recently passed the Drug Quality and Security Act. This legislation establishes a clear boundary between traditional compounders and compounding manufacturers. It clarifies a national, uniform set of rules for compounding manufacturers while preserving the states' primary role in traditional pharmacy regulation. It clarifies the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's authority over the compounding of human drugs while requiring the Agency to engage and coordinate with states to ensure the safety of compounded drugs. PMID:24881112

  8. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  9. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  10. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, Charles; Heidel, Donna; Sayes, Christie; Hodson, Laura; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne; Brenner, Sara

    2015-01-01

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles that includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial. PMID:26435688

  11. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, “advertisement/public relations” was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, “low manpower/seeking business partners” were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers. PMID:26199635

  12. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, "advertisement/public relations" was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, "low manpower/seeking business partners" were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers. PMID:26199635

  13. It All Depends on You: A Manufacturer's Perspective on Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Phyllis

    1997-01-01

    Provides a manufacturer's perspective on ways that community colleges can better meet employers' needs, such as improving educational quality, keeping promises made, customizing programs, helping companies develop training strategies, providing on-site training and credit courses, being flexible, ensuring innovation, cooperating with companies,…

  14. Aerospace Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Jean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Sauk Rapids (Minnesota) High School aviation and aerospace curriculum that was developed by Curtis Olson and the space program developed by Gerald Mayall at Philadelphia's Northeast High School. Both were developed in conjunction with NASA. (JOW)

  15. A history of development in rotordynamics: A manufacturer's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemeld, David E.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of rotordynamics and instability problems in high performance turbomachinery has been a topic of considerable industry discussion and debate over the last 15 or so years. This paper reviews an original equipment manufacturer's history of development of concepts and equipment as applicable to multistage centrifugal compressors. The variety of industry user compression requirements and resultant problematical situations tends to confound many of the theories and analytical techniques set forth. The experiences and examples described herein support the conclusion that the successful addressing of potential rotordynamics problems is best served by a fundamental knowledge of the specific equipment. This in addition to having the appropriate analytical tools. Also, that the final proof is in the doing.

  16. Microburst model requirements for flight simulation: An airframe manufacturer's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief outline is given of topics for presentation and discussion at the workshop. As manufacturers and certifiers of transport airplanes and associated on-board systems, an interest in the prevention of wind shear related accidents and incidents is inherent. The near term objectives are to provide the customers technical support in the areas of training as well as to research existing and potentially improved on-board systems. In the future, many improved systems should be implemented. This will require certification as well as further educational activity in the use of these new systems. A set of wind models is needed for design work which characterize a wide variety of real microbursts as measured during the JAWS project. The wind models should be limited in both size and complexity to just those features which degrade aircraft performance.

  17. Facts controllers and HVDC enhance power transmission (A manufacturer`s perspective)

    SciTech Connect

    Juette, G.; Renz, K.

    1995-12-31

    Various types of FACTS as well as HVDC have been available for some time. New ones have been developed recently. Their respective benefits are well proven and have been made known. System studies have to be done to make full use of FACTS and HVDC problem solving capabilities. Siemens is offering digital models for correct representation of several FACTS devices and HVDC in widely used time-based simulation study programs. The manufacturers are doing their homework. It is up to the utility industry to make use of it now!

  18. Evaluating soft contact lens quality: a manufacturer's perspective.

    PubMed

    Seibel, E J; Trilsch, W R; Lee, D

    1988-04-01

    This study was designed to compare quality control between six aphakic contact lens brands. The methodology eliminates the sampling and experimental variables of previous studies. The lenses were all purchased new at +13.00 D power, with the same number of lenses and distribution of manufacturing batch/lots per brand. We measured or assessed 120 study lenses (20 per brand) for diameter, front sagittal height, power and image quality, center thickness, surface and edge quality, and edge design. The base curve radius was calculated accurately using lens cross-sectioning techniques. The reproducibility of measured lens parameters (precision) and conformance to label claims (accuracy) were tabulated separately and the lens brands were ranked and grouped statistically. The tabulated results are represented graphically in one spread sheet where selected American National Standards Institute (ANSI) tolerances were used as a standard to which all lens brands were compared. Lens brands coded as Brand A and Brand B rated the highest using our criterion for ranking overall quality control. PMID:3377065

  19. Nontoxic Resins Advance Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year, PETI-330, is a polyimide matrix resin that performs well at high temperatures and is easily processed into composites in a simple, short curing cycle. Invented by scientists at Langley Research Center, PETI-330 is now licensed to Ube Industries, based in Japan with its American headquarters in New York. In addition to being durable and lightweight, the resin is also nontoxic, which makes it safe for workers to handle. PETI-330 was created specifically for heat-resistant composites formed with resin transfer molding and resin infusion, which formerly could only be used with low temperature resin systems.

  20. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  1. Methodology for appreciation the manufacturing castings from perspective of circular economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soporan, V. F.; Crișan, M.; Lehene, T.; Pop, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology for studying the trends toward developing circular economy, comprising the following steps: description the field analyzed statistically and technological, establishing assessment criteria, establishing the event which will be analyzed and its description and evaluation of the event from the perspective of circular economy. The case study was designed to the manufacture castings through the analysis, after the methodology proposed, by the work of the 71-th World Foundry Congress in 2014 from Bilbao. The conclusion of this approach shows us that the manufacture castings through the trends expressed fall in the principles of circular economy. At the level of resources needed for the manufacturing process of castings - specifically immaterial resources, materials and energy, are analyzed at all levels, specific phases, namely: 1. Information analysis specific for the field; 2. Analysis preparation in terms of manufacturing technology and technological infrastructure available; 3. Analysis of manufacturing castings; 4. Analysis of the results of the manufacturing process; 5. Analysis of exploitation and disposal at end of life cycle; 6. Analysis of other phases that contribute to achieving castings; 7. Analysis of the entire process in terms of respecting the environment and sustainable development. The analysis method on a field belonging to the specific requirements of circular economy is made by analyzing a global event. This comprises the following stages: Establish specific criteria for the analyzed domain in relation to the circular economy; Specifying event works falling within the criteria set, which will be analyzed, and justification for selection.

  2. Research and development of optical measurement techniques for aerospace propulsion research: A NASA Lewis Research Center perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesco, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    The applied research effort required to develop new nonintrusive measurement techniques capable of obtaining the data required by aerospace propulsion researchers and of operating in the harsh environments encountered in research and test facilities is discussed and illustrated through several ongoing projects at NASA's Lewis Research Center. Factors including length of development time, funding levels, and collaborative support from fluid-thermal researchers are cited. Progress in developing new instrumentation via a multi-path approach, including NASA research, grant, and government-sponsored research through mechanisms like the Small Business Innovative Research program, is also described.

  3. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  4. Technology utilization. [aerospace technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    NASA developed technologies were used to tackle problems associated with safety, transportation, industry, manufacturing, construction and state and local governments. Aerospace programs were responsible for more innovations for the benefit of mankind than those brought about by either major wars, or peacetime programs. Briefly outlined are some innovations for manned space flight, satellite surveillance applications, and pollution monitoring techniques.

  5. Vaccine industry perspective of current issues of good manufacturing practices regarding product inspections and stability testing.

    PubMed

    Monahan, T R

    2001-12-15

    I address 2 important topics of current good manufacturing practices as they apply to vaccine products: product inspections and stability testing. The perspective presented is that of regulated industry. There are 2 major categories of product/facility inspections: those occurring before licensure of a vaccine product and those occurring after a vaccine product is licensed. The logistics and focus of each inspection type, the preapproval inspection, and the required biennial inspection are discussed, as are guidance and recommendations for achieving successful inspections. The requirements, guidance, and recommendations regarding the type, amount, and extensiveness of stability data for vaccine products are presented. The discussion details the potential differences in the amount and type of data required for products that are not yet licensed versus marketed products. Guidance, from a regulated industry perspective, regarding the design and implementation of a successful stability program is also discussed. PMID:11709773

  6. Aerospace gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  7. Basic Aerospace Education Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Lists the most significant resource items on aerospace education which are presently available. Includes source books, bibliographies, directories, encyclopedias, dictionaries, audiovisuals, curriculum/planning guides, aerospace statistics, aerospace education statistics and newsletters. (BR)

  8. Aerospace Education - An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the surge of interest throughout the country in aerospace education and discusses what aerospace education is, the implications in career education and the relevance of aerospace education in the curriculum. (BR)

  9. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC'S, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application, verification, compliant coatings including corrosion protection system and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  10. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Clark-Ingram, M.; Hessler, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  11. Lattice Structures For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Olmo, E.; Grande, E.; Samartin, C. R.; Bezdenejnykh, M.; Torres, J.; Blanco, N.; Frovel, M.; Canas, J.

    2012-07-01

    The way of mass reduction improving performances in the aerospace structures is a constant and relevant challenge in the space business. The designs, materials and manufacturing processes are permanently in evolution to explore and get mass optimization solutions at low cost. In the framework of ICARO project, EADS CASA ESPACIO (ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator which shows that lattice type of grid structures is a promising weight saving solution for replacing some traditional metallic and composite structures for space applications. A virtual testing methodology was used in order to support the design of a high modulus CFRP cylindrical lattice technology demonstrator. The manufacturing process, based on composite Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) technology developed by ECE, allows obtaining high quality low weight lattice structures potentially applicable to a wide range of aerospace structures. Launcher payload adaptors, satellite platforms, antenna towers or instrument supports are some promising candidates.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities Rule: Operational and economic impacts at U.S. Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) installations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.C.; Durand, G.P.; Senn, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The recently promulgated Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), found in 40 CFR 63 Subpart GG, is expected to significantly impact operations at US Air Force (USAF) bases. At the request of the USAF`s Air Combat Command (ACC), Armstrong Laboratory`s Air Quality Branch performed a compliance assessment for all ACC bases in the summer of 1996 to determine more clearly the rule`s impact on operations at these bases. This assessment included first determining the base`s current major source standing for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), as defined by Title III of the Clean Air Act. In addition, this assessment ascertained the volatile organic compound (VOC) and HAP content levels for both the primers and topcoats currently being used in base aircraft maintenance operations. Finally, the survey determined the type of solvents used in cleaning aerospace parts, as well as the types of control equipment currently in place at each base. The results of the compliance assessment suggest a prohibitive impact on operations at ACC bases, including total potential direct monetary costs of up to $25M. Additional personnel requirements will be incurred as a result of increased monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting. Substitution of low VOC/HAP primers and topcoats and/or redefining maintenance operations to meet touch-up and repair definitions are discussed as possible alternatives, but the results indicate the best solution is to reassess each ACC base`s status as a major source for HAPs, with the intent of having each base defined as a minor source for HAPs. In this manner, the ACC bases can avoid the Aerospace NESHAP compliance requirements altogether, at substantial savings to the US Air Force.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 51: Workplace communications skills and the value of communications and information-use skills instruction: Engineering students' perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that recent graduates of engineering programs are expected to possess. Feedback from industry rates communications and information use skills of entry-level engineers low. Missing from current discussions of communications and information use skills and competencies for engineering students is a clear explanation from the professional engineering community about what constitutes 'acceptable and desirable communications and information norms' within that community. To gather adequate and generalizable data about communications and information skills instruction and to provide a student perspective on the communications skills of engineers, we undertook a national study of aerospace engineering students in March 1993. The study included questions about the importance of certain communications and information skills to professional success, the instruction students had received in these skills, and perceived helpfulness of the instruction. Selected results from the study study are reported in this paper.

  14. The Aerospace Age. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is written for use only in the Air Force ROTC program and cannot be purchased on the open market. The book describes the historical development of aerospace industry. The first chapter contains a brief review of the aerospace environment and the nature of technological changes brought by the aerospace revolution. The following chapter…

  15. New environmental regulation for the aerospace industry: The aerospace NESHAP

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, J.P.; Gampper, B.P.; Baker, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    40 CFR Part 63, Subpart GG, the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities, commonly referred to as the Aerospace NESHAP, was issued on September 1, 1995 and requires compliance by September 1, 1998. The regulation affects any facility that manufactures or reworks commercial, civil, or military aircraft vehicles or components and is a major source of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). The regulation targets reducing Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) and Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) emissions to the atmosphere. Processes affected by the new regulation include aircraft painting, paint stripping, chemical milling masking, solvent cleaning, and spray gun cleaning. Regulatory requirements affecting these processes are summarized, and different compliance options compared in terms of cost-effectiveness and industry acceptance. Strategies to reduce compliance costs and minimize recordkeeping burdens are also presented.

  16. The 2000 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, J. C. (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 33nd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 14-16, 2000. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, lithium-ion, lithium-sulfur, and silver-zinc technologies.

  17. The 1999 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, J. C. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 32nd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 16-18, 1999. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the US Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies.

  18. The 2001 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeff C. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 34th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center, November 27-29, 2001. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the US Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies.

  19. The 1990 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Lewis M. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4-6, 1990. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers as well as participation in like kind from the European Space Agency member nations. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, lithium based chemistries, and advanced technologies as they relate to high reliability operations in aerospace applications.

  20. An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in the Design and Manufacturing of Large Composite Structures for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Shuart, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    An assessment of the State-of-the-Art in the design and manufacturing of large composite structures has been conducted. The focus of the assessment is large structural components in commercial and military aircraft. Applications of composites are reviewed for commercial transport aircraft, general aviation aircraft, rotorcraft, and military aircraft.

  1. An Aerospace Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill

    1972-01-01

    Describes the 16-day, 10,000 mile national tour of the nation's major aerospace research and development centers by 65 students enrolled in Central Washington State College's Summer Aerospace Workshop. (Author/MB)

  2. Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

  3. Design search and optimization in aerospace engineering.

    PubMed

    Keane, A J; Scanlan, J P

    2007-10-15

    In this paper, we take a design-led perspective on the use of computational tools in the aerospace sector. We briefly review the current state-of-the-art in design search and optimization (DSO) as applied to problems from aerospace engineering, focusing on those problems that make heavy use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This ranges over issues of representation, optimization problem formulation and computational modelling. We then follow this with a multi-objective, multi-disciplinary example of DSO applied to civil aircraft wing design, an area where this kind of approach is becoming essential for companies to maintain their competitive edge. Our example considers the structure and weight of a transonic civil transport wing, its aerodynamic performance at cruise speed and its manufacturing costs. The goals are low drag and cost while holding weight and structural performance at acceptable levels. The constraints and performance metrics are modelled by a linked series of analysis codes, the most expensive of which is a CFD analysis of the aerodynamics using an Euler code with coupled boundary layer model. Structural strength and weight are assessed using semi-empirical schemes based on typical airframe company practice. Costing is carried out using a newly developed generative approach based on a hierarchical decomposition of the key structural elements of a typical machined and bolted wing-box assembly. To carry out the DSO process in the face of multiple competing goals, a recently developed multi-objective probability of improvement formulation is invoked along with stochastic process response surface models (Krigs). This approach both mitigates the significant run times involved in CFD computation and also provides an elegant way of balancing competing goals while still allowing the deployment of the whole range of single objective optimizers commonly available to design teams. PMID:17519198

  4. An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in the Design and Manufacturing of Large Composite Structures for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Shuart, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    The results of an assessment of the state-of-the-art in the design and manufacturing of large composite structures are described. The focus of the assessment is on the use of polymeric matrix composite materials for large airframe structural components. such as those in commercial and military aircraft and space transportation vehicles. Applications of composite materials for large commercial transport aircraft, general aviation aircraft, rotorcraft, military aircraft. and unmanned rocket launch vehicles are reviewed. The results of the assessment of the state-of-the-art include a summary of lessons learned, examples of current practice, and an assessment of advanced technologies under development. The results of the assessment conclude with an evaluation of the future technology challenges associated with applications of composite materials to the primary structures of commercial transport aircraft and advanced space transportation vehicles.

  5. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  6. National Aero-Space Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the technology development management objectives thus far planned for the DOD/NASA National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The technology required by NASP will first be developed in ground-based facilities and then integrated during the design and construction of the X-30 experimental aircraft. Five airframe and three powerplant manufacturers are currently engaged in an 18-month effort encompassing design studies and tradeoff analyses. The first flight of the X-30 is scheduled for early 1993.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.

  8. Supercomputing in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Yee, Helen

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: numerical aerodynamic simulation; computational mechanics; supercomputers; aerospace propulsion systems; computational modeling in ballistics; turbulence modeling; computational chemistry; computational fluid dynamics; and computational astrophysics.

  9. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  10. Public vaccine manufacturing capacity in the Latin American and Caribbean region: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Maria de los Angeles; Cardoso, Daniel; Fitzgerald, James; DiFabio, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    The vaccine global market is currently growing at a rate of 16.52%. Nowadays the vaccine manufacturing industry is limited in the sense that not all vaccine manufacturers have the capacity to execute all the steps necessary to produce a successful product. The biological variation inherent to vaccine manufacturing and the initial investment required to bring a vaccine to the market are some of the factors that discourage vaccine manufacturing initiatives. Given the current global context in vaccine innovation and production, and the increasing participation of vaccine manufacturers from developing countries in global markets, this paper aims to review vaccine manufacturing capacity in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries with specific focus on trends in national or public sector manufacturing, presenting current challenges and future opportunities for the sector in meeting national and regional (LAC) needs. Despite the overall low vaccine manufacturing capacity reported within the LAC region within this paper, it is considered that the relatively high and concentrated capacity that exists within a number of countries, combined with political commitment of all countries within the Region, can provide the necessary platform for the continued development of capacity in vaccine development and manufacture within LAC. PMID:22033155

  11. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race. PMID:25295307

  12. Advantage management strategy in competition via technological race perspective: empirical evidence from the Taiwanese manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the "catch-up" strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race. PMID:25295307

  13. The 1993 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 26th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on 16-18 Nov. 1993. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including various bipolar designs.

  14. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference: Exectutive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The papers from this conference are being published in a separate volume as NASA CP-3298.

  15. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  16. The 1998 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 31st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on October 27-29, 1998. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, silver-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-based technologies, as well as results from destructive physical analyses on various cell chemistries.

  17. Second Conference on NDE for Aerospace Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodis, Kenneth W. (Compiler); Bryson, Craig C. (Compiler); Workman, Gary L. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation and inspection procedures must constantly improve rapidly in order to keep pace with corresponding advances being made in aerospace material and systems. In response to this need, the 1989 Conference was organized to provide a forum for discussion between the materials scientists, systems designers, and NDE engineers who produce current and future aerospace systems. It is anticipated that problems in current systems can be resolved more quickly and that new materials and structures can be designed and manufactured in such a way as to be more easily inspected and to perform reliably over the life cycle of the system.

  18. The 1992 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 23rd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 15-19, 1992. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including sodium-sulfur and various bipolar designs.

  19. The 1997 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 30th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 18-20, 1997. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, lithium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies, as well as various aspects of nickel electrode design.

  20. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  1. Aerospace NESHAP: A collaborative approach to implementation

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, M.; Lee, A.; Williamson, C.; Willenberg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of the Aerospace National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) is to minimize emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from major sources who manufacture or rework aerospace vehicles or components. The NESHAP requires emission reductions through implementation of work practices, application of slower evaporating solvents and coatings with low-HAP and low-VOC content, usage of high transfer efficiency spray equipment, and installation of high capture efficiency exhaust filtration for coatings containing metals. The rule also requires extensive monitoring, recordkeeping, and self-reporting to track compliance. For existing sources the rule becomes effective September 1,1998. Over the past year the Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency (PSAPCA) has worked with the Boeing Company and EPA to identify the requirements of the aerospace NESHAP, understand what it means in everyday practice, and develop an enforcement strategy for ensuring compliance. A workshop was held with aerospace manufacturers, local regulators, and EPA to discuss implementation of the rule. Issues regarding compliance efforts and determinations were openly discussed. Subsequent to the workshop, PSAPCA and the Boeing Company participated in several mock inspections to review facility compliance efforts before the rule became effective. Collaborative efforts also ensued to develop operating permit monitoring requirements. Aerospace NESHAP requirements were incorporated into these permits. There are still questions regarding compliance determinations that must be further discussed and resolved. But by using the collaborative approach and having regulators and sources working together, there is a process to work out answers and approaches that will lead to an increased mutual understanding of the aerospace NESHAP and eventual compliance with the standard.

  2. Aerospace Nickel-cadmium Cell Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Strawn, D. Michael; Hall, Stephen W.

    2001-01-01

    During the early years of satellites, NASA successfully flew "NASA-Standard" nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) cells manufactured by GE/Gates/SAFF on a variety of spacecraft. In 1992 a NASA Battery Review Board determined that the strategy of a NASA Standard Cell and Battery Specification and the accompanying NASA control of a standard manufacturing control document (MCD) for Ni-Cd cells and batteries was unwarranted. As a result of that determination, standards were abandoned and the use of cells other than the NASA Standard was required. In order to gain insight into the performance and characteristics of the various aerospace Ni-Cd products available, tasks were initiated within the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program that involved the procurement and testing of representative aerospace Ni-Cd cell designs. A standard set of test conditions was established in order to provide similar information about the products from various vendors. The objective of this testing was to provide independent verification of representative commercial flight cells available in the marketplace today. This paper will provide a summary of the verification tests run on cells from various manufacturers: Sanyo 35 Ampere-hour (Ali) standard and 35 Ali advanced Ni-Cd cells, SAFr 50 Ah Ni-Cd cells and Eagle-Picher 21 Ali Magnum and 21 Ali Super Ni-CdTM cells from Eagle-Picher were put through a full evaluation. A limited number of 18 and 55 Ali cells from Acme Electric were also tested to provide an initial evaluation of the Acme aerospace cell designs. Additionally, 35 Ali aerospace design Ni-MH cells from Sanyo were evaluated under the standard conditions established for this program. Ile test program is essentially complete. The cell design parameters, the verification test plan and the details of the test result will be discussed.

  3. Evaluating Aerospace Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Rex L.

    1978-01-01

    Declining enrollments in aerospace teacher workshops suggest the need for evaluation and cost effectiveness measurements. A major purpose of this article is to illustrate some typical evaluation methodologies, including the semantic differential. (MA)

  4. Aerospace bibliography, seventh edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blashfield, J. F. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Space travel, planetary probes, applications satellites, manned spaceflight, the impacts of space exploration, future space activities, astronomy, exobiology, aeronautics, energy, space and the humanities, and aerospace education are covered.

  5. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  6. Automatic assembly planning and its role in agile manufacturing: A Sandia perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.E.; Kaufman, S.G.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia has been studying automatic assembly planning of electromechanical devices for some years, based on an implemented system called Archimedes. Work done to date has focussed on automatic generation of high-level plans, and translation of these plans into robotic control code and workcell layout. More recently, the importance of an assembly planning capability as a design aid has been emphasized, as it could potentially provide early feedback to a designer on the manufacturability of the design. This paper describes the work done on assembly planning to date, plans for extending it, and its applications to agile manufacturing. In particular, we describe an agile manufacturing demonstration project underway at Sandia, and the role the Archimedes assembly planning system will play in it.

  7. Automatic assembly planning and its role in agile manufacturing: A Sandia perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. E.; Kaufman, S. G.

    Sandia was studying automatic assembly planning of electromechanical devices for some years, based on an implemented system called Archimedes. Work done to date has focused on automatic generation of high-level plans, and translation of these plans into robotic control code and workcell layout. More recently, the importance of an assembly planning capability as a design aid has been emphasized, as it could potentially provide early feedback to a designer on the manufacturability of the design. The work done on assembly planning to date, plans for extending it, and its applications to agile manufacturing are described. In particular, an agile manufacturing demonstration project underway at Sandia, and the role the Archimedes assembly planning system will play in it are described.

  8. Manufacturing Challenges Implementing Material Changes for the Super Light Weight External Tank: A Welding Process Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, K.; Jones, C.

    2001-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the manufacturing challenges in implementing welding material changes for the super lightweight external tank. Details are given on the external tank configuration, the weld purging equipment used, planning the selection of weld filler wire alloy, the initial weld microstructure, the wide panel tensile testing, and the dome cap welding.

  9. Explosion welding and cutting in aerospace engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volgin, L. A.; Koroteev, A. Ia.; Malakovich, A. P.; Petushkov, V. G.; Sitalo, V. G.; Novikov, V. K.

    The paper presents the results of works of the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute and other Soviet organizations on the development of technology for explosion-welding of multilayer transition pieces and pipes used in the manufacture of aerospace products. Equipment and accessories used for this technology are described; in particular, a powerful explosion chamber of a tubular structure for up to 200 kg of explosives is presented. Information is also given about linear explosion separation devices.

  10. Internet-Based Solutions for Manufacturing Enterprise Systems Interoperability - A Standards Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Nenad; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Jones, Albert

    2004-10-01

    This chapter reviews efforts of selected standards consortia to develop Internet-based approaches for interoperable manufacturing enterprise information systems. The focus of the chapter is on the efforts to capture common meaning of data exchanged among interoperable information systems inside and outside a manufacturing enterprise. We start this chapter by giving a general overview of the key concepts in standards approaches to enable interoperable manufacturing enterprise systems. These approaches are compared on the basis of several characteristics found in standards frameworks such as horizontal or vertical focus of the standard, the standard message content definitions, the standard process definitions, and dependence on specific standard messaging solutions. After this initial overview, we establish one basis for reasoning about interoperable information systems by recognizing key manufacturing enterprise objects managed and exchanged both inside and outside the enterprise. Such conceptual objects are coarse in granularity and are meant to drive semantic definitions of data interchanges by providing a shared context for data dictionaries detailing the semantics of these objects and interactions or processes involved in data exchange. In the case of intra-enterprise interoperability, we recognize enterprise information processing activities, responsibilities, and those high-level conceptual objects exchanged in interactions among systems to fulfill the assigned responsibilities. Here, we show a mapping of one content standard onto the identified conceptual objects. In the case of inter-enterprise interoperability, we recognize key business processes areas and enumerate high-level conceptual objects that need to be exchanged among supply chain or trading partners. Here, we also show example mappings of representative content standards onto the identified conceptual objects. We complete this chapter by providing an account of some advanced work to enhance

  11. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 47: The value of computer networks in aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Ann Peterson; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents data on the value of computer networks that were obtained from a national survey of 2000 aerospace engineers that was conducted in 1993. Survey respondents reported the extent to which they used computer networks in their work and communication and offered their assessments of the value of various network types and applications. They also provided information about the positive impacts of networks on their work, which presents another perspective on value. Finally, aerospace engineers' recommendations on network implementation present suggestions for increasing the value of computer networks within aerospace organizations.

  13. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  14. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) activities during 2002. The format of the report has been modified to capture a long-term perspective. Section II is new and highlights the Panel's view of NASA's safety progress during the year. Section III contains the pivotal safety issues facing NASA in the coming year. Section IV includes the program area findings and recommendations. The Panel has been asked by the Administrator to perform several special studies this year, and the resulting white papers appear in Appendix C. The year has been filled with significant achievements for NASA in both successful Space Shuttle operations and International Space Station (ISS) construction. Throughout the year, safety has been first and foremost in spite of many changes throughout the Agency. The relocation of the Orbiter Major Modifications (OMMs) from California to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) appears very successful. The transition of responsibilities for program management of the Space Shuttle and ISS programs from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to NASA Headquarters went smoothly. The decision to extend the life of the Space Shuttle as the primary NASA vehicle for access to space is viewed by the Panel as a prudent one. With the appropriate investments in safety improvements, in maintenance, in preserving appropriate inventories of spare parts, and in infrastructure, the Space Shuttle can provide safe and reliable support for the ISS for the foreseeable future. Indications of an aging Space Shuttle fleet occurred on more than one occasion this year. Several flaws went undetected in the early prelaunch tests and inspections. In all but one case, the problems were found prior to launch. These incidents were all handled properly and with safety as the guiding principle. Indeed, launches were postponed until the problems were fully understood and mitigating action could be taken. These incidents do, however, indicate the need to analyze the

  15. Aerospace engineering educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, William; Klett, David; Lai, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The principle goal of the educational component of NASA CORE is the creation of aerospace engineering options in the mechanical engineering program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To accomplish this goal, a concerted effort during the past year has resulted in detailed plans for the initiation of aerospace options in both the BSME and MSME programs in the fall of 1993. All proposed new courses and the BSME aerospace option curriculum must undergo a lengthy approval process involving two cirriculum oversight committees (School of Engineering and University level) and three levels of general faculty approval. Assuming approval is obtained from all levels, the options will officially take effect in Fall '93. In anticipation of this, certain courses in the proposed curriculum are being offered during the current academic year under special topics headings so that current junior level students may graduate in May '94 under the BSME aerospace option. The proposed undergraduate aerospace option curriculum (along with the regular mechanical engineering curriculum for reference) is attached at the end of this report, and course outlines for the new courses are included in the appendix.

  16. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  17. Progress in EUV lithography towards manufacturing from an exposure tool perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Jan V.; Laidler, David; Foubert, Philippe; D'havé, Koen; Cheng, Shaunee; Dusa, Mircea; Hendrickx, Eric

    2012-03-01

    EUV lithography is a candidate for device manufacturing for the 16nm node and beyond. To prepare for insertion into manufacturing, the challenges of this new technology need to be addressed. Therefore, the ASML NXE:3100 preproduction tool was installed at imec replacing the ASML EUV Alpha Demo Tool (ADT). Since the technology has moved to a pre-production phase, EUV technology has to mature and it needs to meet the strong requirements of sub 16nm devices. We discuss the CD uniformity and overlay performance of the NXE:3100. We focus on EUV specific contributions to CD and overlay control, that were identified in earlier work on the ADT. The contributions to overlay originate from the use of vacuum technology and reflective optics inside the scanner, which are needed for EUV light transmission and throughput. Because the optical column is in vacuum, both wafer and reticle are held by electrostatic chucks instead of vacuum chucks and this can affect overlay. Because the reticle is reflective, any reticle (clamp) unflatness directly translates into a distortion error on wafer (non-telecentricity). For overlay, the wafer clamping performance is not only determined by the exposure chuck, but also by the wafer type that is used. We will show wafer clamping repeatability with different wafer types and discuss the thermal stability of the wafer during exposure.

  18. Current perspectives on the use of ancillary materials for the manufacture of cellular therapies.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Jennifer; Csontos, Lynn; Clarke, Dominic; Bonyhadi, Mark; Zylberberg, Claudia; McNiece, Ian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Bell, Rosemarie; Deans, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Continued growth in the cell therapy industry and commercialization of cell therapies that successfully advance through clinical trials has led to increased awareness around the need for specialized and complex materials utilized in their manufacture. Ancillary materials (AMs) are components or reagents used during the manufacture of cell therapy products but are not intended to be part of the final products. Commonly, there are limitations in the availability of clinical-grade reagents used as AMs. Furthermore, AMs may affect the efficacy of the cell product and subsequent safety of the cell therapy for the patient. As such, AMs must be carefully selected and appropriately qualified during the cell therapy development process. However, the ongoing evolution of cell therapy research, limited number of clinical trials and registered cell therapy products results in the current absence of specific regulations governing the composition, compliance, and qualification of AMs often leads to confusion by suppliers and users in this field. Here we provide an overview and interpretation of the existing global framework surrounding AM use and investigate some common misunderstandings within the industry, with the aim of facilitating the appropriate selection and qualification of AMs. The key message we wish to emphasize is that in order to most effectively mitigate risk around cell therapy development and patient safety, users must work with their suppliers and regulators to qualify each AM to assess source, purity, identity, safety, and suitability in a given application. PMID:26596503

  19. Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, D. E. (Editor); Stanley, D. C. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The next millennium challenges us to produce innovative materials, processes, manufacturing, and environmental technologies that meet low-cost aerospace transportation needs while maintaining US leadership. The pursuit of advanced aerospace materials, manufacturing processes, and environmental technologies supports the development of safer, operational, next-generation, reusable, and expendable aeronautical and space vehicle systems. The Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology Conference (AMPET) provided a forum for manufacturing, environmental, materials, and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess advances in these key technology areas.

  20. Perspective: Materials informatics across the product lifecycle: Selection, manufacturing, and certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Gregory J.; Paradiso, Sean P.

    2016-05-01

    The process of taking a new material from invention to deployment can take 20 years or more. Since the announcement of the Materials Genome Initiative in 2011, new attention has been paid to accelerating this timeframe to address key challenges in industries from energy, to biomedical materials, to catalysis, to polymers, particularly in the development of new materials discovery techniques. Materials informatics, or algorithmically analyzing materials data at scale to gain novel insight, has been lauded as a path forward in this regard. An equal challenge to discovery, however, is the acceleration from discovery to market. In this paper, we address application of an informatics approach to materials selection, manufacturing, and qualification and identify key opportunities and challenges in each of these areas with a focus on reducing time to market for new advanced materials technologies.

  1. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  2. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The following areas of NASA's responsibilities are examined: (1) the Space Transportation System (STS) operations and evolving program elements; (2) establishment of the Space Station program organization and issuance of requests for proposals to the aerospace industry; and (3) NASA's aircraft operations, including research and development flight programs for two advanced X-type aircraft.

  3. Aerospace Bibliography. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blashfield, Jean F., Comp.

    Provided for teachers and the general adult reader is an annotated and graded list of books and reference materials dealing with aerospace subjects. Only non-fiction books and pamphlets that need to be purchased from commercial or government sources are included. Free industrial materials and educational aids are not included because they tend to…

  4. Aerospace at Saint Francis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Discusses an aviation/aerospace program as a science elective for 11th and 12th year students. This program is multi-faceted and addresses the needs of a wide variety of students. Its main objective is to present aviation and space sciences which will provide a good base for higher education in these areas. (SK)

  5. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  6. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  7. Novel Nanolaminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Martin; Mazuruk, consty

    2006-01-01

    Nanolaminate manufacturing (NLM) is a new way of developing materials whose properties can far exceed those of homogeneous materials. Traditional alloys, composites and bulk laminates tend to average the properties of the materials from which they were made. With nanostructured materials, the high density of interfaces between dissimilar materials results in novel material properties. For example, materials made -from alternating nanoscale layers of metals and oxides have exhibited thermal conductivities far below those of the oxides themselves. Also, metallic nanolaminates can have peak strengths 100 times lager than the bulk constituent metals. Recent work at MSFC has focused on the development of nickel/aluminum oxide (Ni/Al2O3)) nanolaminates. Ni/Al2O3 nanolaminates are expected to have better strength, creep and fatigue resistance, oxygen compatibility, and corrosion resistance than the traditional metal-matrix composites of this material, which has been used in a variety of aerospace applications. A chemical vapor deposition (CW) system has been developed and optimized for the deposition of nanolaminates. Nanolaminates with layer thicknesses between 10 and 300 nm have been successfully grown and characterization has included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) Nanolaminates have a large variety of potential applications. They can be tailored to have both very small and anisotropic thermal conductivities and are promising as thermal coatings for both rock$ engine components and aerobraking structures. They also have the potential to be used in aerospace applications where strength at high temperatures, corrosion resistance or resistance to hydrogen embrittlement is important. Both CVD and magnetron sputtering facilities are available for the deposition of nanolayered materials. Characterization equipment includes SEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and mechanical tensile pull

  8. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  9. Sputtering and ion plating for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1981-01-01

    Sputtering and ion plating technologies are reviewed in terms of their potential and present uses in the aerospace industry. Sputtering offers great universality and flexibility in depositing any material or in the synthesis of new ones. The sputter deposition process has two areas of interest: thin film and fabrication technology. Thin film sputtering technology is primarily used for aerospace mechanical components to reduce friction, wear, erosion, corrosion, high temperature oxidation, diffusion and fatigue, and also to sputter-construct temperature and strain sensors for aircraft engines. Sputter fabrication is used in intricate aircraft component manufacturing. Ion plating applications are discussed in terms of the high energy evaporant flux and the high throwing power. Excellent adherence and 3 dimensional coverage are the primary attributes of this technology.

  10. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the transfer of aerospace technology to solve key problems in the manufacturing sector of the economy is reported. Potential RTOP programs are summarized along with dissemination activities. The impact of transferred NASA manufacturing technology is discussed. Specific areas covered include aircraft production, robot technology, machining of alloys, and electrical switching systems.

  11. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  12. Materials for aerospace

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.A.

    1986-10-01

    Early last year the US Office of Science and Technology put forward an agenda for American aerospace activity in the coming decades. The plan established goals for subsonic, supersonic and transatmospheric hypersonic flight. Those goals, together with Reagan Administration's programs for a space station and the Strategic Defense Initiative, serve as a driving force for extensive improvements in the materials that enable airplanes and spacecraft to function efficiently. The development of materials, together with advances in the technology of fabricating parts, will play a key role in aerospace systems of the future. Among the materials developments projected for the year 2000 are new composites and alloys for structural members; superalloys, ceramics and glass composites for propulsion systems, and carbon-carbon composites (carbon fibers in a carbon matrix) for high-temperature applications in places where resistance to heat and ablation is critical. 5 figures.

  13. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  14. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Doris J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Transfer Team is to assist NASA in achieving widespread utilization of aerospace technology in terrestrial applications. Widespread utilization implies that the application of NASA technology is to benefit a significant sector of the economy and population of the Nation. This objective is best attained by stimulating the introduction of new or improved commercially available devices incorporating aerospace technology. A methodology is presented for the team's activities as an active transfer agent linking NASA Field Centers, industry associations, user groups, and the medical community. This methodology is designed to: (1) identify priority technology requirements in industry and medicine, (2) identify applicable NASA technology that represents an opportunity for a successful solution and commercial product, (3) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process, and (4) successfully develop a new product based on NASA technology.

  15. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  16. AI aerospace components

    SciTech Connect

    Heindel, T.A.; Murphy, T.B.; Rasmussen, A.N.; Mcfarland, R.Z.; Montgomery, R.E.; Pohle, G.E.; Heard, A.E.; Atkinson, D.J.; Wedlake, W.E.; Anderson, J.M. Mitre Corp., Houston, TX Unisys Corp., Houston, TX Rockwell International Corp., El Segundo, CA NASA, Kennedy Space Center, Cocoa Beach, FL JPL, Pasadena, CA Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc., Austin, TX McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Co., McLean, VA )

    1991-10-01

    An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.

  17. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  18. Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Vitko, J. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Workshop concentrated on reviewing and refining the science experiments planned for the UAV Demonstration Flights (UDF) scheduled at the Oklahoma Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in April 1994. These experiments were focused around the following sets of parameters: Clear sky, daylight; Clear-sky, night-to-day transition; Clear sky - improve/validate the accuracy of radiative fluxes derived from satellite-based measurements; Daylight, clouds of opportunity; and, Daylight, broken clouds.

  19. IPAD: Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The conference was organized to promote wider awareness of the IPAD program and its coming impact on American industry. The program focuses on technology issues that are critical to computer aided design manufacturing. Included is a description of a representative aerospace design process and its interface with manufacturing, the design of a future IPAD integrated computer aided design system, results to date in developing IPAD products and associated technology, and industry experiences and plans to exploit these products.

  20. Aerospace structures supportability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard Wesley

    1989-04-01

    This paper is about supportability in its general sense, with emphasis on aerospace structures. Reliability and maintainability (R&M) are described and defined from the standpoint of both structural analysis. Accessability, inspectability, and replaceability are described as design attributes. Reliability and probability of failure are shown to be in the domain of the analysis. Availability and replaceability are traditional logistic responsibilities which are influenced by supportability engineers. The USAF R&M 2000 process is described, and the R&M 1988 Workshop at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is also included in the description.

  1. The Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I. Instructor Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This publication provides guidelines for teachers using the textbook entitled "Aerospace Environment," published in the Aerospace Education I series. Major categories included in each chapter are objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, instructional aids, projects, and further reading. Background…

  2. A standardized Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    2014-11-01

    The success of any aerospace mission depends upon the reliability of the discrete components comprising the instrument. To this end, many test standards have been developed to define test protocols and methods for the parts used in these missions. To date, no recognized MIL-type standard exists for cryogenic temperature sensors that are used from room temperature to 20 K or below. The aerospace applications utilizing these sensors require the procuring entity to develop a specification which the sensor manufacturer uses to screen and qualify a single build lot for flight use. The individual applications often require only a small number of sensors with the end result being a relatively high cost and long delivery time. Over the past two decades, Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. has worked with many aerospace companies to supply Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensors for numerous missions. The experience gained from this work has led to the development of a manufacturing and test protocol resulting in 'off-the-shelf' cryogenic temperature sensors that should meet the requirements for many aerospace applications. Sensors will be available at the base part level with the ability to configure the delivered part with regard to lead wire material, package adapter, lead wire extensions, and calibration as appropriate or necessary for the application. This work presents details of this manufacturing, inspection, and test protocol as well as performance characteristics of Cernox™ temperature sensors when inspected and tested to this protocol.

  3. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 31: The technical communications practices of US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 1 SME mail survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists affiliated with, not necessarily belonging to, the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME).

  4. Space Station Freedom - A resource for aerospace education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the International Space Station in future U.S. aerospace education efforts is discussed from a NASA perspective. The overall design concept and scientific and technological goals of the Space Station are reviewed, and particular attention is given to education projects such as the Davis Planetarium Student Space Station, the Starship McCullough, the Space Habitat, the working Space Station model in Austin, TX, the Challenger Center for Space Life Education, Space M+A+X, and the Space Science Student Involvement Program. Also examined are learning-theory aspects of aerospace education: child vs adult learners, educational objectives, teaching methods, and instructional materials.

  5. Limitless Horizons: Careers in Aerospace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary H.

    This is a manual for acquainting students with pertinent information relating to career choices in aerospace science, engineering, and technology. The first chapter presents information about the aerospace industry by describing disciplines typical of this industry. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) classification system…

  6. Limitless Horizons. Careers in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A manual is presented for use by counselors in career guidance programs. Pertinent information is provided on choices open in aerospace sciences, engineering, and technology. Accredited institutions awarding degrees in pertinent areas are listed as well as additional sources of aerospace career information. NASA's role and fields of interest are emphasized.

  7. Aerospace Activities and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Piper, Martha

    1975-01-01

    Describes how science activities can be used to stimulate language development in the elementary grades. Two aerospace activities are described involving liquid nitrogen and the launching of a weather balloon which integrate aerospace interests into the development of language skills. (BR)

  8. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  9. Aerospace in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    National research and technology trends are introduced in the environment of accelerating change. NASA and the federal budget are discussed. The U.S. energy dependence on foreign oil, the increasing oil costs, and the U.S. petroleum use by class are presented. The $10 billion aerospace industry positive contribution to the U.S. balance of trade of 1979 is given as an indicator of the positive contribution of NASA in research to industry. The research work of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, industry, universities, and business to maintain U.S. world leadership in advanced technology.

  10. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  11. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  12. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  13. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a 5-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASAs safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are "one deep." The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting "brain drain" could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning.

  14. Risk Management Issues - An Aerospace Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2011-01-01

    Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks--risk office personnel. Each group is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk reporting and communication is an essential element of risk management and will combine both qualitative and quantitative elements.. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner, Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  15. Mobile Computing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Swietek, Gregory E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The use of commercial computer technology in specific aerospace mission applications can reduce the cost and project cycle time required for the development of special-purpose computer systems. Additionally, the pace of technological innovation in the commercial market has made new computer capabilities available for demonstrations and flight tests. Three areas of research and development being explored by the Portable Computer Technology Project at NASA Ames Research Center are the application of commercial client/server network computing solutions to crew support and payload operations, the analysis of requirements for portable computing devices, and testing of wireless data communication links as extensions to the wired network. This paper will present computer architectural solutions to portable workstation design including the use of standard interfaces, advanced flat-panel displays and network configurations incorporating both wired and wireless transmission media. It will describe the design tradeoffs used in selecting high-performance processors and memories, interfaces for communication and peripheral control, and high resolution displays. The packaging issues for safe and reliable operation aboard spacecraft and aircraft are presented. The current status of wireless data links for portable computers is discussed from a system design perspective. An end-to-end data flow model for payload science operations from the experiment flight rack to the principal investigator is analyzed using capabilities provided by the new generation of computer products. A future flight experiment on-board the Russian MIR space station will be described in detail including system configuration and function, the characteristics of the spacecraft operating environment, the flight qualification measures needed for safety review, and the specifications of the computing devices to be used in the experiment. The software architecture chosen shall be presented. An analysis of the

  16. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  17. A standardized diode cryogenic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    2016-03-01

    The model DT-670-SD cryogenic diode temperature sensor, manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. has been used on numerous aerospace space missions since its introduction nearly 15 years ago. While the sensing element is a diode, it is operated in a non-standard manner when used as a temperature sensor over the 1.4-500 K temperature range. For this reason, the NASA and MIL-type test and performance standards designed to ensure high reliability of diode aerospace parts don't properly define the inspection and test protocol for the DT-670-SD temperature sensor as written. This requires each aerospace application to develop unique test and inspection protocols for the project, typically for a small number of sensors, resulting in expensive sensors with a long lead time. With over 30 years of experience in supplying cryogenic temperature sensors for aerospace applications, Lake Shore has developed screening and qualification inspection and test protocols to provide "commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)" DT-670-SD temperature sensors that should meet the requirements of most high-reliability applications including aerospace. Parts from acceptance and qualified lots will be available at a base sensor level with the ability to specify an interchangeability tolerance, calibration range, mounting adaptor, and/or lead extension for final configuration. This work presents details of this acceptance and qualification inspection and test protocol as well as performance characteristics of the DT-670-SD cryogenic temperature sensors when inspected and tested to this protocol.

  18. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  1. Nanomaterials and future aerospace technologies: opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaia, Richard A.

    2012-06-01

    Two decades of extensive investment in nanomaterials, nanofabrication and nanometrology have provided the global engineering community a vast array of new technologies. These technologies not only promise radical change to traditional industries, such as transportation, information and aerospace, but may create whole new industries, such as personalized medicine and personalized energy harvesting and storage. The challenge today for the defense aerospace community is determining how to accelerate the conversion of these technical opportunities into concrete benefits with quantifiable impact, in conjunction with identifying the most important outstanding scientific questions that are limiting their utilization. For example, nanomaterial fabrication delivers substantial tailorablity beyond a traditional material data sheet. How can we integrate this tailorability into agile manufacturing and design methods to further optimize the performance, cost and durability of future resilient aerospace systems? The intersection of nano-based metamaterials and nanostructured devices with biotechnology epitomizes the technological promise of autonomous systems and enhanced human-machine interfaces. What then are the key materials and processes challenges that are inhibiting current lab-scale innovation from being integrated into functioning systems to increase effectiveness and productivity of our human resources? Where innovation is global, accelerating the use of breakthroughs, both for commercial and defense, is essential. Exploitation of these opportunities and finding solutions to the associated challenges for defense aerospace will rely on highly effective partnerships between commercial development, scientific innovation, systems engineering, design and manufacturing.

  2. Guidelines for the Procurement of Aerospace Nickel Cadmium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierfelder, Helmut

    1997-01-01

    NASA has been using a Modular Power System containing "standard" nickel cadmium (NiCd) batteries, composed of "standard" NiCd cells. For many years the only manufacturer of the NASA "standard" NiCd cells was General Electric Co. (subsequently Gates Aerospace and now SAFT). This standard cell was successfully used in numerous missions. However, uncontrolled technical changes, and changes in industrial restructuring require a new approach. General Electric (now SAFT Aerospace Batteries) had management changes, new manufacturers entered the market (Eagle-Picher Industries, ACME Electric Corporation, Aerospace Division, Sanyo Electric Co.) and battery technology advanced. New NASA procurements for aerospace NiCd cells will have specifications unique to the spacecraft and mission requirements. This document provides the user/customer guidelines for the new approach to procuring of and specifying performance requirements for highly reliable NiCd cells and batteries. It includes details of key parameters and their importance. The appendices contain a checklist, detailed calculations, and backup information.

  3. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  4. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  5. The FASST Aerospace Student Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Leonard

    1976-01-01

    Describes a three-day Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), at which students from 20 colleges and universities and six Soviet students discussed the application of aerospace technology to the problems of society. (MLH)

  6. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  7. Ball Aerospace AMSD Progress Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, Mark; Brown, Robert; Chaney, David; Lightsey, Paul; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The current status of the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator program being performed by Ball Aerospace is presented. The hexagonal low-areal density Beryllium mirror blank has been fabricated and undergoing polishing at the time of this presentation.

  8. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  9. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  10. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  11. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  12. Managing human fallibility in critical aerospace situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tew, Larry

    2014-11-01

    Human fallibility is pervasive in the aerospace industry with over 50% of errors attributed to human error. Consider the benefits to any organization if those errors were significantly reduced. Aerospace manufacturing involves high value, high profile systems with significant complexity and often repetitive build, assembly, and test operations. In spite of extensive analysis, planning, training, and detailed procedures, human factors can cause unexpected errors. Handling such errors involves extensive cause and corrective action analysis and invariably schedule slips and cost growth. We will discuss success stories, including those associated with electro-optical systems, where very significant reductions in human fallibility errors were achieved after receiving adapted and specialized training. In the eyes of company and customer leadership, the steps used to achieve these results lead to in a major culture change in both the workforce and the supporting management organization. This approach has proven effective in other industries like medicine, firefighting, law enforcement, and aviation. The roadmap to success and the steps to minimize human error are known. They can be used by any organization willing to accept human fallibility and take a proactive approach to incorporate the steps needed to manage and minimize error.

  13. NASA aerospace pyrotechnically actuated systems: Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Aerospace Pyrotechnically Actuated Systems (PAS) Program, a focused technology program, is being initiated to enhance the reliability, safety, and performance of pyrotechnically actuated systems. In broad terms, this Program Plan presents the approach that helps to resolve concerns raised by the NASA/DOD/DOE Aerospace Pyrotechnic Steering Committee. This Plan reflects key efforts needed in PAS technology. The resources committed to implement the Program will be identified in the Program Implementation Plan (PIP). A top level schedule is included along with major Program milestones and products. Responsibilities are defined in the PIP. The Plan identifies the goals and detailed objectives which define how those goals are to be accomplished. The Program will improve NASA's capabilities to design, develop, manufacture, and test pyrotechnically actuated systems for NASA's programs. Program benefits include the following: advanced pyrotechnic systems technology developed for NASA programs; hands-on pyrotechnic systems expertise; quick response capability to investigate and resolve pyrotechnic problems; enhanced communications and intercenter support among the technical staff; and government-industry PAS technical interchange. The PAS Program produces useful products that are of a broad-based technology nature rather than activities intended to meet specific technology objectives for individual programs. Serious problems have occurred with pyrotechnic devices although near perfect performance is demanded by users. The lack of a program to address those problems in the past is considered a serious omission. The nature of problems experienced as revealed by a survey are discussed and the origin of the program is explained.

  14. IPAD: Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Early work was performed to apply data base technology in support of the management of engineering data in the design and manufacturing environments. The principal objective of the IPAD project is to develop a computer software system for use in the design of aerospace vehicles. Two prototype systems are created for this purpose. Relational Information Manager (RIM) is a successful commercial product. The IPAD Information Processor (IPIP), a much more sophisticated system, is still under development.

  15. The 1994 27th Annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 15-17, 1994 are presented. The workshop was attended by representatives from various government agencies, as well as contractors and manufacturers, both U.S. and abroad. The subjects covered included: (1) nickel-cadium; (2) nickel-hydrogen, (3) nickel-metal hydride, and (4) lithium based technologies, as well as flight and ground test data.

  16. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  17. You can't eat moon rocks. [aerospace technology spinoffs assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1976-01-01

    The effects produced by the aerospace program are investigated. The technology developed from aerospace-related research, development, and manufacturing has been made available to the public for its use through the NASA Technology Utilization Program. A description is presented of 'spinoffs' of NASA's aerospace programs which are used on a daily basis by the public. Attention is given to the liquid cooled garment technology, meal systems for the elderly, the zinc-rich coating, the emergency blanket, the flexible urethane foam Temper Foam, the 'Fog-Away Coating', and composite graphite equipment.

  18. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  19. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report is based on the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in calendar year 2000. During this year, the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) moved into high gear. The launch of the Russian Service Module was followed by three Space Shuttle construction and logistics flights and the deployment of the Expedition One crew. Continuous habitation of the ISS has begun. To date, both the ISS and Space Shuttle programs have met or exceeded most of their flight objectives. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, it is clear that safety was always placed ahead of cost and schedule. This safety consciousness permitted the Panel to devote more of its efforts to examining the long-term picture. With ISS construction accelerating, demands on the Space Shuttle will increase. While Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft will make some flights, the Space Shuttle remains the primary vehicle to sustain the ISS and all other U.S. activities that require humans in space. Development of a next generation, human-rated vehicle has slowed due to a variety of technological problems and the absence of an approach that can accomplish the task significantly better than the Space Shuttle. Moreover, even if a viable design were currently available, the realities of funding and development cycles suggest that it would take many years to bring it to fruition. Thus, it is inescapable that for the foreseeable future the Space Shuttle will be the only human-rated vehicle available to the U.S. space program for support of the ISS and other missions requiring humans. Use of the Space Shuttle will extend well beyond current planning, and is likely to continue for the life of the ISS.

  20. Gaining the Competitive Edge: Design for Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, Stephen M.; Pinkelman, Jim; Sellar, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The successful design of a commercial aircraft which is intended to be in direct competition with existing aircraft requires a market analysis to establish design requirements, the development of a concept to achieve those goals. and the ability to economically manufacture the aircraft. It is often the case that an engineer designs system components with only the perspective of a particular discipline. The relationship of that component to the entire system is often a minor consideration. In an effort to highlight the interaction that is necessary during the design process, the students were organized into design/build teams and required to integrate aspects of market analysis, engineering design, production and economics into their concepts. In order to facilitate this process a hypothetical "Aeroworld" was established. Having been furnished relevant demographic and economic data for "Aeroworld". students were given the task of designing and building an aircraft for a specific market while achieving an economically competitive design. Involvement of the team in the evolution of the design from market definition to technical development to manufacturing allowed the students to identify critical issues in the design process and to encounter many of the conflicting requirements which arise in an aerospace systems design.

  1. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    PubMed

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these. PMID:22097645

  2. Implications of Pb-free microelectronics assembly in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, A. A.; Bonner, J. K.; Ogunseitan, D.; Saphores, J. D.; Schoenung, J.

    2003-01-01

    The commercial microelectronics industry is rapidly moving to completely Pb-free assembly strategies within the next decade. This trend is being driven by existing and proposed legislation in Europe and in Japan. The microelectronics industry has become truly global, as indicated by major U .S. firms who already adopted Pb-free implementation programs. Among these forward-looking firms are AT&T, IBM, Motorola, HP and Intel to name a few.Following Moore's law, advances in microelectronics are happening very rapidly. In many cases, commercial industry is ahead of the aerospace sector in technology. Progress by commercial industry, along with cost, drives the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts for military and space applications. We can thus anticipate that the aerospace industry will, at some point, be forced to use Pb-free components and subsystems as part of their standard business practices. In this paper we attempt to provide a snapshot of the commercial industry trends and how they may impact electronics in the aerospace environment. In addition, we also look at different strategies for implementation. Finally we present data collected on a recent NASA project to focus on finding suitable alternatives to eutectic tin-lead solders and solder pastes. The world is moving toward implementation of environmentally friendly manufacturing techniques. The aerospace industry will be forced to deal with issues related with Pb free assembly, either by availability or legislation. This paper provides some insight into some of the tradeoffs that should be considered.

  3. Key Issues for Aerospace Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Levine, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer significant advantages for future aerospace applications including turbine engine and liquid rocket engine components, thermal protection systems, and "hot structures". Key characteristics which establish ceramic matrix composites as attractive and often enabling choices are strength retention at high temperatures and reduced weight relative to currently used metallics. However, due to the immaturity of this class of materials which is further compounded by the lack of experience with CMC's in the aerospace industry, there are significant challenges involved in the development and implementation of ceramic matrix composites into aerospace systems. Some of the more critical challenges are attachment and load transfer methodologies; manufacturing techniques, particularly scale up to large and thick section components; operational environment resistance; damage tolerance; durability; repair techniques; reproducibility; database availability; and the lack of validated design and analysis tools. The presentation will examine the technical issues confronting the application of ceramic matrix composites to aerospace systems and identify the key material systems having potential for substantial payoff relative to the primary requirements of light weight and reduced cost for future systems. Current programs and future research opportunities will be described in the presentation which will focus on materials and processes issues.

  4. Aerospace Education for the Melting Pot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joels, Kerry M.

    1979-01-01

    Aerospace education is eminently suited to provide a framework for multicultural education. Effective programs accommodating minorities' frames of reference to the rapidly developing disciplines of aerospace studies have been developed. (RE)

  5. Aerospace Education and the Elementary Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This articles attempts to stimulate otherwise reluctant school teachers to involve aerospace education in their content repertoire. Suggestions are made to aid the teacher in getting started with aerospace education. (MDR)

  6. Accommodation of Nontraditional Aerospace Degree Aspirants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukert, Michael A.

    1977-01-01

    Presents results of a national survey of institutions offering college level aerospace studies. Primary survey concern is the availability of nontraditional aerospace education programs; however, information pertaining to institution characteristics, program characteristics, and staffing are also included. (SL)

  7. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Current research in optical processing is reviewed. Its role in future aerospace systems is determined. The development of optical devices and components demonstrates that system concepts can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  8. The very large airplane: safety, health, and comfort considerations. Air Transport Medicine Committee, Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    In recent years, aircraft manufacturers have been considering a very large airplane with a capacity of 600-1000 passengers. The human factors aspects of such an unprecedented enterprise demand that the aerospace medicine community take an active role early on in the design phase. Consequently, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an international task force to prepare a paper containing pertinent human factors recommendations for the manufacturers. This paper, including the recommendations herein, has been forwarded to Boeing and Airbus as well as to 50 major airlines of the world. PMID:9327122

  9. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  10. Job Prospects for Aerospace Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the recent trends in job opportunities for aerospace engineers. Mentions some of the political, technological, and economic factors affecting the overall employment picture. Includes a description of the job prospects created by the general upswing of the large commercial aircraft market. (TW)

  11. 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    The proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held in Pasadena Hilton, Pasadena, California on May 16-18, 2012. Lockheed Martin Space Systems cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include gimbals and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and Mars Science Laboratory mechanisms.

  12. 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of the 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Ames Research Center hosted the conference, which was held at the Four Points Sheraton, Sunnyvale, California, on May 9-11, 2001. The symposium was sponsored by the Mechanisms Education Association. Technology areas covered included bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; and other mechanisms for spacecraft and large space structures.

  13. Careers in the Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.

    The document briefly presents career information in the field of aerospace industry. Employment exists in three areas: (1) professional and technical occupations in research and development (engineers, scientists, and technicians); (2) administrative, clerical, and related occupations (engineers, scientists, technicians, clerks, secretaries,…

  14. Ball Aerospace Actuator Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Lana; Lightsey, Paul; Quigley, Phil; Rutkowski, Joel; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ambient testing characterizing step size and repeatability for the Ball Aerospace Cryogenic Nano-Positioner actuators for the AMSD (Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator) program has been completed and are presented. Current cryogenic testing is underway. Earlier cryogenic test results for a pre-cursor engineering model are presented.

  15. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  16. Aerospace for the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This packet includes games and activities concerning aerospace education for the very young. It is designed to develop and strengthen basic concepts and skills in a non-threatening atmosphere of fun. Activities include: (1) "The Sun, Our Nearest Star"; (2) "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, How I Wonder Where You Are"; (3) "Shadows"; (4) "The Earth…

  17. Aerospace/Aviation Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.

    The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study aviation and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of aviation science and occupational…

  18. 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Litty, Edward C. (Compiler); Sevilla, Donald R. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held at the Pasadena Conference and Exhibition Center, Pasadena, California, on May 19-21, 1999. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  19. National meeting to review IPAD status and goals. [Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    A joint NASA/industry project called Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD) is described, which has the goal of raising aerospace-industry productivity through the application of computers to integrate company-wide management of engineering data. Basically a general-purpose interactive computing system developed to support engineering design processes, the IPAD design is composed of three major software components: the executive, data management, and geometry and graphics software. Results of IPAD activities include a comprehensive description of a future representative aerospace vehicle design process and its interface to manufacturing, and requirements and preliminary design of a future IPAD software system to integrate engineering activities of an aerospace company having several products under simultaneous development.

  20. Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides lightning protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of lightning. Generic descriptions of the lightning environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for lightning protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.

  1. Applications of aerospace technology in the public interest: Pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heins, C. F.; Johnson, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    This study of selected NASA contributions to the improvement of pollution measurement examines the pervasiveness and complexity of the economic, political, and social issues in the environmental field; provides a perspective on the relationship between the conduct of aerospace R and D and specific improvements in on site air pollution monitoring equipment now in use; describes the basic relationship between the development of satellite-based monitoring systems and their influence on long-term progress in improving environmental quality; and comments on how both instrumentation and satellite remote sensing are contributing to an improved environment. Examples of specific gains that have been made in applying aerospace R and D to environmental problem-solving are included.

  2. Comprehensive Design Reliability Activities for Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, R. L.; Whitley, M. R.; Knight, K. C.

    2000-01-01

    This technical publication describes the methodology, model, software tool, input data, and analysis result that support aerospace design reliability studies. The focus of these activities is on propulsion systems mechanical design reliability. The goal of these activities is to support design from a reliability perspective. Paralleling performance analyses in schedule and method, this requires the proper use of metrics in a validated reliability model useful for design, sensitivity, and trade studies. Design reliability analysis in this view is one of several critical design functions. A design reliability method is detailed and two example analyses are provided-one qualitative and the other quantitative. The use of aerospace and commercial data sources for quantification is discussed and sources listed. A tool that was developed to support both types of analyses is presented. Finally, special topics discussed include the development of design criteria, issues of reliability quantification, quality control, and reliability verification.

  3. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Shari; Camerini, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Asylum office. Uses the perspective of two movie producers as they filmed a documentary film, "Well-founded Fear", about asylum and refugee protection. Includes information on how to order a classroom aid and the film. (CMK)

  4. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  5. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/industry project designated Intergrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 representatives from aerospace and computer companies.

  6. 38th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 38th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 38th AMs, hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center in Williamsburg, Virginia, was held May 17-19, 2006. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals, tribology, actuators, aircraft mechanisms, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  7. 37th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is reporting problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 37th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 37th AMS, hosted by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Galveston, Texas, was held May 19, 20 and 21, 2004. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, tribology, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station and Mars Rover mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  8. 39th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 39th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the United States and abroad. The 39th AMS was held in Huntsville, Alabama, May 7-9, 2008. During these 3 days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals and positioning mechanisms, tribology, actuators, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and sensors. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  9. 34th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for organizing the AMS. Now in its 34th year, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 34th AMS, hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, was held May 10, 11 and 12, 2000. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the vendor fair gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  10. Third Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Cross, D. R. (Editor); Caruso, S. V. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, other ozone depleting chemicals, and specific hazardous materials is well underway. The phaseout of these chemicals has mandated changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. We are beyond discovery and initiation of these new developments and are now in the implementation phase. This conference provided a forum for materials and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess the evolving replacement and clean propulsion technologies from the standpoint of their significance, application, impact on aerospace systems, and utilization by the research and development community. The use of these new technologies, their selection and qualification, their implementation, and the needs and plans for further developments are presented.

  11. Liquid Nitrogen Removal of Critical Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noah, Donald E.; Merrick, Jason; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of innovative solutions to unique materials problems is an every-day quest for members of the aerospace community. Finding a technique that will minimize costs, maximize throughput, and generate quality results is always the target. United Space Alliance Materials Engineers recently conducted such a search in their drive to return the Space Shuttle fleet to operational status. The removal of high performance thermal coatings from solid rocket motors represents a formidable task during post flight disassembly on reusable expended hardware. The removal of these coatings from unfired motors increases the complexity and safety requirements while reducing the available facilities and approved processes. A temporary solution to this problem was identified, tested and approved during the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) return to flight activities. Utilization of ultra high-pressure liquid nitrogen (LN2) to strip the protective coating from assembled space shuttle hardware marked the first such use of the technology in the aerospace industry. This process provides a configurable stream of liquid nitrogen (LN2) at pressures of up to 55,000 psig. The performance of a one-time certification for the removal of thermal ablatives from SRB hardware involved extensive testing to ensure adequate material removal without causing undesirable damage to the residual materials or aluminum substrates. Testing to establish appropriate process parameters such as flow, temperature and pressures of the liquid nitrogen stream provided an initial benchmark for process testing. Equipped with these initial parameters engineers were then able to establish more detailed test criteria that set the process limits. Quantifying the potential for aluminum hardware damage represented the greatest hurdle for satisfying engineers as to the safety of this process. Extensive testing for aluminum erosion, surface profiling, and substrate weight loss was performed. This successful project clearly

  12. Magnetic Gearboxes for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A.; Sanchez-Garcia-Casarrubios, Juan; Cristache, Christian; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic gearboxes are contactless mechanisms for torque-speed conversion. They present no wear, no friction and no fatigue. They need no lubricant and can be customized for other mechanical properties as stiffness or damping. Additionally, they can protect structures and mechanisms against overloads, limitting the transmitted torque. In this work, spur, planetary and "magdrive" or "harmonic drive" configurations are compared considering their use in aerospace applications. The most recent test data are summarized to provide some useful help for the design engineer.

  13. Soft impacts on aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrate, Serge

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the literature dealing with three types of soft impacts of concern for the aerospace applications, namely impacts of rain drops, hailstones and birds against aircraft. It describes the physics of the problem as it has become better understood through experiments, analyses, and numerical simulations. Some emphasis has been placed on the material models and the numerical approaches used in modeling these three types of projectiles.

  14. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Obie H., Jr. (Compiler); Rogers, John F. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  15. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on industry KIBO is postulated in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo entomocole industry is the first production company in Europe to human food, it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and in the universities of Angers, Nantes, Lille.

  16. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on this postulate KIBO in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo industry is the first entomocole production company creat in Europe to human food; it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and various universities in France.

  17. Ball Aerospace Hybrid Space Cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, W.; Glaister, D. S.; Hendershott, P.; Kotsubo, V.; Lock, J. S.; Marquardt, E.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the design, development, testing, and performance at Ball Aerospace of a long-life hybrid (combination of Stirling and Joule-Thomson [J-T] thermodynamic cycles) space cryocooler. Hybrid coolers are synergistic combinations of two thermodynamic cycles that combine advantages of each cycle to yield overall improved performance. Hybrid cooler performance advantages include: 1) load leveling of large heat loads; 2) remote cryogenic cooling with very low to negligible induced vibration and jitter; 3) very low redundant (off state) cooler penalties; 4) high power efficiency, especially at low temperatures; and 5) simplified system integration with capability to cross gimbals and no need for thermal straps or switches. Ball Aerospace is currently developing several different hybrid cooler systems. The 35 K hybrid cooler provides 2.0 W at 35 K and 8.5 W at 85 K with an emphasis on load leveling of high transient heat loads and remote, low vibration cooling. The 10 K hybrid cooler provides 200 mW at 10 K, 700 mW at 15 K, and 10.7 W at 85 K with an emphasis on power efficiency. In addition, Ball Aerospace built and tested a complete hybrid cooler that met the requirements of the JWST Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) cooler including providing 80 mW at 6 K and 100 mW at 18 K for a total system (28 V) power of 310 W.

  18. Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) work practices report for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luca, Jackie

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to gain a better understanding of effective safety and health work practice controls for composite manufacturing operations, the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) Occupational Safety and Health Committee established a Composites Task Group. The group's task was to provide AIA members with recommendations for minimizing occupational exposure risk and to determine research needs and information gaps. The strategy included a review of toxicological information on composites, a review of member company experience and control methods, and interaction with other professional organizations who share an interest in composite work practices.

  19. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute are reported. A survey of more than 300 major medical device manufacturers has been initiated for the purpose of determining their interest and opinions in regard to participating in the NASA Technology Utilization Program. Design and construction has been commissioned of a permanent exhibit of NASA Biomedical Application Team accomplishments for the aerospace building of the North Carolina Museum of Life and Science at Durham, North Carolina. The team has also initiated an expansion of its activities into the Northeastern United States.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 45: A comparison of the information-seeking behaviors of three groups of US aerospace engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the transfer of scientific and technical information (STI) in aerospace, it is necessary to understand the characteristics and behaviors of those who create and use STI. In this paper, we analyze the similarities and differences in the scientific and technical information-seeking behaviors of three groups of US aerospace engineers and scientists. We describe some of their demographic characteristics and their duties and responsibilities as a method of understanding their STI use patterns. There is considerable diversity among aerospace engineers in their use of STI. In general, engineers engaged in research use more STI than those who are in design/development and manufacturing/production. Research engineers also use different standards to determine the STI sources and products that they will use.

  1. The role of human-at-work systems in business sustainability: perspectives based on expert and qualified production workers in a manufacturing enterprise.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Maria M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal

    2010-04-01

    A community of highly qualified employees is desirable for the workforce to become a competitive business advantage, improving and sustaining corporate health. Currently, the scientific literature is limited on information comparing the assessment of expert and qualified workers for the employee-work environment interface. Such information would be valuable for industrial managers to obtain and act on the different perspectives of its workers for business improvement and survivability. A primary objective of this study is to explore the perspectives of expert and qualified workers on the quality of the employee-work environment interface in a manufacturing enterprise. This investigation was performed in a production department in a small manufacturing enterprise. Two expert workers participated in the study, with each being in the company for 30 years and having performed all jobs in the production department as well as supervisory and line management responsibilities. A total of 13 qualified workers from day and night shifts were used in the study, with the great majority of workers possessing 10 or more years of on-the-job experience but not acquiring the same specialised knowledge required for operating the technological resources in the department. The work compatibility methodology was used to assess the quality of employee-work environment interface for both expert and qualified workers. Both expert and qualified workers provided similar trends in terms of their compatibility assessment of experienced and acting work domains. In general, the compatibility levels for the day shift were poorer than those obtained for the night shift for acting work domains. The similarities in assessment between the expert and qualified workers were much closer for factors impacting job performance at the task and immediate surrounding levels (i.e. physical and mental task content, physical environment). There were greater differences at the macro level, that is, at the process

  2. The pultrusion process for structures on advanced aerospace transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Macconochie, Ian O.; Johnson, Gary S.

    1986-01-01

    The pultrusion process, which has the potential for use in the manufacture of structures for aerospace hardware, is described. In this process, reinforcing fibers are pulled continuously through a resin system for wetting and subsequently through a heated die for polymerization. By using this process, fabrication of very long lengths of high strength, lightweight structures with consistently high quality for aerospace applications is possible. The more conventional processes involve hand lay-up, vacuum bagging, autoclaving or oven curing techniques such that lengths of structural elements produced are limited by the lengths of autoclaves or curing ovens. Several types of developmental structural elements are described in which fiberglass, aramid, graphite, and hybrid fiber systems have been used as reinforcements in an epoxy matrix and their flexural properties compared. Reinforcement fibers having tailor-made orientations which achieve tailor-made strength in the pultrusions are described. The potential aerospace applications for the pultruded products are described with advantages cited over conventional hand lay-up methods.

  3. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  4. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  5. Requirements for effective use of CFD in aerospace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective on the requirements that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology must meet for its effective use in aerospace design. General observations are made on current aerospace design practices and deficiencies are noted that must be rectified for the U.S. aerospace industry to maintain its leadership position in the global marketplace. In order to rectify deficiencies, industry is transitioning to an integrated product and process development (IPPD) environment and design processes are undergoing radical changes. The role of CFD in producing data that design teams need to support flight vehicle development is briefly discussed. An overview of the current state of the art in CFD is given to provide an assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the variety of methods currently available, or under development, to produce aerodynamic data. Effectiveness requirements are examined from a customer/supplier view point with design team as customer and CFD practitioner as supplier. Partnership between the design team and CFD team is identified as an essential requirement for effective use of CFD. Rapid turnaround, reliable accuracy, and affordability are offered as three key requirements that CFD community must address if CFD is to play its rightful role in supporting the IPPD design environment needed to produce high quality yet affordable designs.

  6. An outbreak of illness among aerospace workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, P. J.; Simon, G. E.; Katon, W. J.; Altman, L. C.; Ayars, G. H.; Johnson, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    A multispecialty panel of physicians evaluated a case series of 53 composite-materials workers in a large aircraft manufacturing facility who filed workers' compensation claims for illness labeled by the media as the "aerospace syndrome." Possible skin and respiratory tract exposures included formaldehyde, phenol, particulates, epoxy resins, and trace organic solvents, but measured concentrations were well below all regulatory and consensus standards. Most workers had histories of transient skin or respiratory tract irritation consistent with the known potential toxicity of these materials. None of the workers tested had immunoglobulin IgG or IgE antibodies to human serum albumin complexed with formaldehyde. A majority (74%) met DSM-III-R [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition, revised] criteria for major depression, panic disorder, or both. Most of these psychiatric disorders were of a recent onset, correlating in time with the use of phenol- and formaldehyde-impregnated composite material. Psychosocial factors were thought to have played a major role in the high prevalence of illness in this group and should be evaluated directly in well-controlled epidemiologic studies of similar crisis-building situations in the future. PMID:2098006

  7. Silicon Carbide Technologies for Lightweighted Aerospace Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, L.; Chen, M.; Deblonk, B.; Palusinski, I.

    The use of monolithic glass and beryllium to produce lightweighted aerospace mirror systems has reached its limits due to the long lead times, high processing costs, environmental effects and launch load/weight requirements. New material solutions and manufacturing processes are required to meet DoD's directed energy weapons, reconnaissance/surveillance, and secured communications needs. Over the past several years the Air Force, MDA, and NASA has focused their efforts on the fabrication, lightweighting, and scale-up of numerous silicon carbide (SiC) based materials. It is anticipated that SiC can be utilized for most applications from cryogenic to high temperatures. This talk will focus on describing the SOA for these (near term) SiC technology solutions for making mirror structural substrates, figuring and finishing technologies being investigated to reduce cost time and cost, and non-destructive evaluation methods being investigated to help eliminate risk. Mirror structural substrates made out of advanced engineered materials (far term solutions) such as composites, foams, and microsphere arrays for ultra lightweighting will also be briefly discussed.

  8. Unification - An international aerospace information issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific and Technical Information (STI) represents the results of large investments in research and development (R&D) and the expertise of a nation and is a valuable resource. For more than four decades, NASA and its predecessor organizations have developed and managed the preeminent aerospace information system. NASA obtains foreign materials through its international exchange relationships, continually increasing the comprehensiveness of the NASA Aerospace Database (NAD). The NAD is de facto the international aerospace database. This paper reviews current NASA goals and activities with a view toward maintaining compatibility among international aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  9. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  10. Aerospace Activities in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Wiggins, Kenneth E.

    1974-01-01

    Describes 17 activities which are aerospace oriented and yet provide an interdisciplinary approach to learning. Some of the activities described involve paper airplanes, parachutes, model rockets, etc. (BR)

  11. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that manufacturing output in America…

  12. National Center for Advanced Manufacturing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing, with an emphasis on Aerospace Materials, Processes and Environmental Technology. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Mission; 3) Technology Development Approach; 4) Space Transportation Significance; 5) Partnering; 6) NCAM MAF Project; 7) NASA & Calhoun Community College; 8) Educational Development; and 9) Intelligent Synthesis Environment. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  13. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  14. Cognitive engineering in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress that was made with respect to the objectives and goals of the research that is being carried out in the Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory (CSEL) under a Cooperative Agreement with NASA Ames Research Center is described. The major objective of this project is to expand the research base in Cognitive Engineering to be able to support the development and human-centered design of automated systems for aerospace applications. This research project is in support of the Aviation Safety/Automation Research plan and related NASA research goals in space applications.

  15. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  16. Aerospace materials for nonaerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Dawn, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Many of the flame-resistant nonmetallic materials that were developed for the Apollo and Skylab programs are discussed for commercial and military applications. Interchanges of information are taking place with the government agencies, industries, and educational institutions, which are interested in applications of fire-safe nonmetallic materials. These materials are particularly applicable to the design of aircraft, mass transit interiors, residential and public building constructions, nursing homes and hospitals, and to other fields of fire safety applications. Figures 22, 23 and 24 show the potential nonaerospace applications of flame-resistant aerospace materials are shown.

  17. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  18. Aerospace Payloads Leak Test Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovsky, Oleg; Grayson, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized and sealed aerospace payloads can leak on orbit. When dealing with toxic or hazardous materials, requirements for fluid and gas leakage rates have to be properly established, and most importantly, reliably verified using the best Nondestructive Test (NDT) method available. Such verification can be implemented through application of various leak test methods that will be the subject of this paper, with a purpose to show what approach to payload leakage rate requirement verification is taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scope of this paper will be mostly a detailed description of 14 leak test methods recommended.

  19. 76 FR 58776 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    .... 10:30-11:00 Coffee Break-- Networking. 11:00-12:30 Presentations: Canada's Aerospace Market, Quebec's... aerospace sub-markets was often in the top 5. Industry estimates expected Canada's aerospace sector...

  20. Nanotechnology research for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, Forrest J.; Lozano, Karen; Gutierrez, Jose M.; Chipara, Mircea; Thapa, Ram; Chow, Alice

    2009-04-01

    Nanotechnology is impacting the future of the military and aerospace. The increasing demands for high performance and property-specific applications are forcing the scientific world to take novel approaches in developing programs and accelerating output. CONTACT or Consortium for Nanomaterials for Aerospace Commerce and Technology is a cooperative nanotechnology research program in Texas building on an infrastructure that promotes collaboration between universities and transitioning to industry. The participants of the program include the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), five campuses of the University of Texas (Brownsville, Pan American, Arlington, Austin, and Dallas), the University of Houston, and Rice University. Through the various partnerships between the intellectual centers and the interactions with AFRL and CONTACT's industrial associates, the program represents a model that addresses the needs of the changing and competitive technological world. Into the second year, CONTACT has expanded to twelve projects that cover four areas of research: Adaptive Coatings and Surface Engineering, Nano Energetics, Electromagnetic Sensors, and Power Generation and Storage. This paper provides an overview of the CONTACT program and its projects including the research and development of new electrorheological fluids with nanoladen suspensions and composites and the potential applications.

  1. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  2. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stermer, R. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Current research in optical processing, and determination of its role in future aerospace systems was reviewed. It is shown that optical processing offers significant potential for aircraft and spacecraft control, pattern recognition, and robotics. It is demonstrated that the development of optical devices and components can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  3. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  4. The 42nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor); Hakun, Claef (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development, and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  5. NASA Elementary Aerospace Activities Free to Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes the contents of Elementary School Aerospace Activities: A Resource for Teachers. Activities examine a variety of topics in aerospace education and are intended to be used with children ages 5-11. The book is available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) for $3.00. (CP)

  6. Aerospace Power Technology for Potential Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace technology that is being developed for space and aeronautical applications has great potential for providing technical advances for terrestrial power systems. Some recent accomplishments arising from activities being pursued at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centers is described in this paper. Possible terrestrial applications of the new aerospace technology are also discussed.

  7. The 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by NASA Johnson Space Center and held at the South Shore Harbour Conference Facility on May 17-19, 1995, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  8. The 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings of the 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held at the Cleveland Marriott Society Center on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  9. The 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center on May 13, 14, and 15, 1992 are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  10. Aerospace Resources for Science and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald, Ed.; Smith, Kenneth L., Ed.

    This publication on Aerospace Programs is a special edition of "Technology Education" featuring descriptions of 15 select aerospace education programs from diverse localities spanning the full range of instructional levels. Following introductory material, the monograph contains the following largely unedited program descriptions: (1) summaries of…

  11. The 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, Ron (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at ARC, Moffett Field, California, on 12-14 May 1993, are reported. Technological areas covered include the following: actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  12. iSTEM: The Aerospace Engineering Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed The Paper Plane Challenge as one of a three-part response to The Aerospace Engineering Challenge. The Aerospace Engineering Challenge was the second of three multi-part activities that they had developed with the teachers during the year. Their aim was to introduce students to the exciting world of engineering, where they…

  13. Proceedings of the 40th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, Alan C.; Mueller, Robert P.; Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 40th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 40th AMS, hosted by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Cocoa Beach, Florida, was held May 12, 13 and 14, 2010. During these three days, 38 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals and positioning mechanisms, CubeSats, actuators, Mars rovers, and Space Station mechanisms. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  14. Effects of Aerospace MACT Standard on coating operations at DoD facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pelton, D.J.; Narayanan, R.

    1997-12-31

    DoD facilities that are a major source of HAPs and that manufacture, repair or rework any aerospace vehicle will have to contend with the aerospace National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). The rule which becomes effective September 1, 1998 requires reductions in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP). Reductions will be achieved by use of primers and topcoats that meet regulatory limits for VOC or organic HAP or using air pollution control systems. At some DoD facilities preparations have been made to comply with the standard when the standard is in effect. The requirements of 40 CFR Part 63 Subpart GG (aerospace NESHAP) are briefly summarized. The impacts that have been experienced at an Air Force base that is currently practicing most of the NESHAP requirements in order to comply with existing state requirements are discussed.

  15. The K-1 reusable aerospace vehicle: managing to achieve low cost.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller (HM), George E.; Lepore, Debra Facktor

    2000-03-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is developing the world's first privately funded, fully reusable aerospace vehicle, the K-1. This vehicle represents a new implementation of proven technologies, designed by an elite, experienced team of engineers and managers and implemented by the best manufacturing capability in the United States. Kistler Aerospace expects to begin commercial operations of the K-1 in 2000. Market researchers predict that during the next decade telecommunications satellite ventures will require launch services for over 1,400 payloads to LEO. This prediction greatly exceeds the current available industry capacity. The K-1 was designed primarily to meet this anticipated growth in demand. Significant progress has been made in constructing the K-1 vehicle fleet. The fully reusable K-1 vehicle is designed to lower the cost of access to space, increase launch reliability, and reduce lead-time-to-launch requirements. The K-1 will offer significant cost benefits and aircraft type reliability based on a proven flight record.

  16. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  17. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  18. Automated design of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Mccomb, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in structural analysis of aerospace vehicles is characterized, automated design technology is discussed, and an indication is given of the future direction of research in analysis and automated design. Representative computer programs for analysis typical of those in routine use in vehicle design activities are described, and results are shown for some selected analysis problems. Recent and planned advances in analysis capability are indicated. Techniques used to automate the more routine aspects of structural design are discussed, and some recently developed automated design computer programs are described. Finally, discussion is presented of early accomplishments in interdisciplinary automated design systems, and some indication of the future thrust of research in this field is given.

  19. ASAP Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the First Quarterly Report for the newly reconstituted Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP). The NASA Administrator rechartered the Panel on November 18,2003, to provide an independent, vigilant, and long-term oversight of NASA's safety policies and programs well beyond Return to Flight of the Space Shuttle. The charter was revised to be consistent with the original intent of Congress in enacting the statute establishing ASAP in 1967 to focus on NASA's safety and quality systems, including industrial and systems safety, risk-management and trend analysis, and the management of these activities.The charter also was revised to provide more timely feedback to NASA by requiring quarterly rather than annual reports, and by requiring ASAP to perform special assessments with immediate feedback to NASA. ASAP was positioned to help institutionalize the safety culture of NASA in the post- Stafford-Covey Return to Flight environment.

  20. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  1. Linear-array systems for aerospace NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert A.; Willsher, Stephen J.; Bending, Jamie M.

    1999-12-02

    Rapid large-area inspection of composite structures for impact damage and multi-layered aluminum skins for corrosion has been a recognized priority for several years in both military and civil aerospace applications. Approaches to this requirement have followed two clearly different routes: the development of novel large-area inspection systems, and the enhancement of current ultrasonic or eddy-current methods to reduce inspection times. Ultrasonic inspection is possible with standard flaw detection equipment but the addition of a linear ultrasonic array could reduce inspection times considerably. In order to investigate their potential, 9-element and 17-element linear ultrasonic arrays for composites, and 64-element arrays for aluminum skins, have been developed to DERA specifications for use with the ANDSCAN area scanning system. A 5 m{sup 2} composite wing surface has been scanned with a scan resolution of approximately 3 mm in 6 hours. With subsequent software and hardware improvements all four composite wing surfaces (top/bottom, left/right) of a military fighter aircraft can potentially be inspected in less than a day. Array technology has been very widely used in the medical ultrasound field although rarely above 10 MHz, whereas lap-joint inspection requires a pulse center-frequency of 12 to 20 MHz in order to resolve the separate interfaces in the lap joint. A 128 mm-long multi-element array of 5 mmx2 mm ultrasonic elements for use with the ANDSCAN scanning software was produced to a DERA specification by an NDT manufacturer with experience in the medical imaging field. This paper analyses the performance of the transducers that have been produced and evaluates their use in scanning systems of different configurations.

  2. Linear-array systems for aerospace NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert A.; Willsher, Stephen J.; Bending, Jamie M.

    1999-12-01

    Rapid large-area inspection of composite structures for impact damage and multi-layered aluminum skins for corrosion has been a recognized priority for several years in both military and civil aerospace applications. Approaches to this requirement have followed two clearly different routes: the development of novel large-area inspection systems, and the enhancement of current ultrasonic or eddy-current methods to reduce inspection times. Ultrasonic inspection is possible with standard flaw detection equipment but the addition of a linear ultrasonic array could reduce inspection times considerably. In order to investigate their potential, 9-element and 17-element linear ultrasonic arrays for composites, and 64-element arrays for aluminum skins, have been developed to DERA specifications for use with the ANDSCAN® area scanning system. A 5 m2 composite wing surface has been scanned with a scan resolution of approximately 3 mm in 6 hours. With subsequent software and hardware improvements all four composite wing surfaces (top/bottom, left/right) of a military fighter aircraft can potentially be inspected in less than a day. Array technology has been very widely used in the medical ultrasound field although rarely above 10 MHz, whereas lap-joint inspection requires a pulse center-frequency of 12 to 20 MHz in order to resolve the separate interfaces in the lap joint. A 128 mm-long multi-element array of 5 mm×2 mm ultrasonic elements for use with the ANDSCAN® scanning software was produced to a DERA specification by an NDT manufacturer with experience in the medical imaging field. This paper analyses the performance of the transducers that have been produced and evaluates their use in scanning systems of different configurations.

  3. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  4. "S" Glass Manufacturing Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, Dean, A.; McCollister, Howard, L.

    1988-06-01

    A glass-ceramic-to metal sealing technology patented by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) was developed by MRC-Mound for use in the manufacture of weapon components. Successful implementation attracted increasingly widespread weapon use of this technology. "S-glass" manufacturing technology was transferred to commercial vendors to ensure that weapons production schedules would be met in the coming years. Such transfer also provided sources of this fledgling technology for the Department of Defense (DOD), aerospace and other commercial uses. The steps involved in the technology transfer are described, from the initial cooperative development work of Sandia and Mound scientists and technologists to the final phase of qualifying commercial vendors for component manufacture.

  5. Comparison and analysis of two modern methods in the structural health monitoring techniques in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Role of air transport in the development and expansion of world trade leading to economic growth of different countries is undeniable. Continuing the world's trade sustainability without expansion of aerospace is next to impossible. Based on enormous expenses for design, manufacturing and maintenance of different aerospace structures, correct and timely diagnosis of defects in those structures to provide for maximum safety has the highest importance. Amid all this, manufacturers of commercial and even military aircrafts are after production of less expensive, lighter, higher fuel economy and nonetheless, higher safety. As such, two events has prevailed in the aerospace industries: (1) Utilization of composites for the fuselage as well as other airplane parts, (2) using modern manufacturing methods. Arrival of two these points have created the need for upgrading of the present systems as well as innovating newer methods in diagnosing and detection of defects in aerospace structures. Despite applicability of nondestructive testing (NDT) methods in aerospace for decades, due to some limitations in the defect detection's certainty, particularly for composite material and complex geometries, shadow of doubt has fallen on maintaining complete confidence in using NDT. These days, two principal approach are ahead to tackle the above mentioned problems. First, approach for the short range is the creative and combinational mean to increase the reliability of NDT and for the long run, innovation of new methods on the basis of structural health monitoring (SHM) is in order. This has led to new philosophy in the maintenance area and in some instances; field of design has also been affected by it.

  6. Unification - An international aerospace information opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Science and technology projects are becoming more and more international and interdisciplinary. Other parts of the world, notably Europe, are increasingly powerful players in the aerospace industry. This change has led to the development of various aerospace information initiatives in other countries. With scarce resources in all areas of government and industry, the NASA STI Program is reviewing its current acquisition and exchange practices and policies to factor in the changing requirements and new opportunities within the international community. Current NASA goals and activities are reviewed with a new view toward developing a scenario for establishing an international aerospace database, maintaining compatibility among national aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  7. Fire response test methods for aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Fire response methods which may be suitable for materials intended for aircraft and aerospace applications are presented. They address ignitability, smolder susceptibility, oxygen requirement, flash fire propensity, fire spread, heat release, fire containment, smoke evolution, and toxic gas evolution.

  8. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: Cumulative index, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 190 through 201 of 'Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography.' It includes three indexes-subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  9. Fred Haise Honored at Aerospace Appreciation Night

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired NASA astronaut and test pilot Fred Haise was honored recently by the Lancaster, Calif., Jethawks baseball team at its Aerospace Appreciation Night. Best known as one of the Apollo 13 crew, ...

  10. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  11. Unification: An international aerospace information issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1991-01-01

    Science and technology projects are becoming more and more international and interdisciplinary. Other parts of the world, notably Europe, are increasingly powerful players in the aerospace business. This change has led to the development of various aerospace information initiatives in other countries. With scarce resources in all areas of government and industry, the NASA STI Program is reviewing its current acquisition and exchange practices and policies to factor in the changing requirements and new opportunities within the international community. Current NASA goals and activities are reviewed with a view toward developing a scenario for establishing an international aerospace data base, maintaining compatibility among national aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  12. The 11th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical devices and drives developed for aerospace applications are described. Satellite flywheels, magnetic bearings, a missile umbilical system, a cartridge firing device, and an oiler for satellite bearing lubrication are among the topics discussed.

  13. The 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Numerous topics related to aerospace mechanisms were discussed. Deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, hydraulic actuators, positioning mechanisms, electric motors, communication satellite instruments, redundancy, lubricants, bearings, space stations, rotating joints, and teleoperators are among the topics covered.

  14. The 11th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Various mechanisms in aerospace engineering were presented at this conference. Specifications, design, and use of spacecraft and missile components are discussed, such as tail assemblies, radiometers, magnetormeters, pins, reaction wheels, ball bearings, actuators, mirrors, nutation dampers, airfoils, solar arrays, etc.

  15. The 25th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two papers are documented regarding aeronautical and spacecraft hardware. Technological areas include actuators, latches, cryogenic mechanisms, vacuum tribology, bearings, robotics, ground support equipment for aerospace applications, and other mechanisms.

  16. Unification: An international aerospace information opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.; Carroll, Bonnie C.

    1992-01-01

    Science and technology projects are becoming more and more international and interdisciplinary. Other parts of the world, notably Europe, are increasingly powerful players in the aerospace industry. This change has led to the development of various aerospace information initiatives in other countries. With scarce resources in all areas of government and industry, the NASA STI Program is reviewing its current acquisition and exchange practices and policies to factor in the changing requirements and new opportunities within the international community. Current NASA goals and activities are reviewed with a new view toward developing a scenario for establishing an international aerospace database, maintaining compatibility among national aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  17. The 24th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings of the symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  18. The 12th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mechanisms developed for various aerospace applications are discussed. Specific topics covered include: boom release mechanisms, separation on space shuttle orbiter/Boeing 747 aircraft, payload handling, spaceborne platform support, and deployment of spaceborne antennas and telescopes.

  19. Probability and Statistics in Aerospace Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.; Howell, L. W.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph was prepared to give the practicing engineer a clear understanding of probability and statistics with special consideration to problems frequently encountered in aerospace engineering. It is conceived to be both a desktop reference and a refresher for aerospace engineers in government and industry. It could also be used as a supplement to standard texts for in-house training courses on the subject.

  20. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  1. NASA Ames aerospace systems directorate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The Aerospace Systems Directorate is one of four research directorates at the NASA Ames Research Center. The Directorate conducts research and technology development for advanced aircraft and aircraft systems in intelligent computational systems and human-machine systems for aeronautics and space. The Directorate manages research and aircraft technology development projects, and operates and maintains major wind tunnels and flight simulation facilities. The Aerospace Systems Directorate's research and technology as it relates to NASA agency goals and specific strategic thrusts are discussed.

  2. Crew factors in the aerospace workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of technological change in the aerospace workplace on pilot performance are discussed. Attention is given to individual and physiological problems, crew and interpersonal problems, environmental and task problems, organization and management problems, training and intervention problems. A philosophy and conceptual framework for conducting research on these problems are presented and two aerospace studies are examined which investigated: (1) the effect of leader personality on crew effectiveness and (2) the working undersea habitat known as Aquarius.

  3. Aerospace Technology Innovation. Volume 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Janelle (Editor); Cousins, Liz (Editor); Bennett, Evonne (Editor); Vendette, Joel (Editor); West, Kenyon (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Whether finding new applications for existing NASA technologies or developing unique marketing strategies to demonstrate them, NASA's offices are committed to identifying unique partnering opportunities. Through their efforts NASA leverages resources through joint research and development, and gains new insight into the core areas relevant to all NASA field centers. One of the most satisfying aspects of my job comes when I learn of a mission-driven technology that can be spun-off to touch the lives of everyday people. NASA's New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging is one such initiative. Not only does it promise to provide greater dividends for the country's investment in aerospace research, but also to enhance the American quality of life. This issue of Innovation highlights the new NASA-sponsored initiative in medical imaging. Early in 2001, NASA announced the launch of the New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging initiative to promote the partnership and commercialization of NASA technologies in the medical imaging industry. NASA and the medical imaging industry share a number of crosscutting technologies in areas such as high-performance detectors and image-processing tools. Many of the opportunities for joint development and technology transfer to the medical imaging market also hold the promise for future spin back to NASA.

  4. Graphite Nanoreinforcements for Aerospace Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drzal, Lawrence T.

    2005-01-01

    New advances in the reinforcement of polymer matrix composite materials are critical for advancement of the aerospace industry. Reinforcements are required to have good mechanical and thermal properties, large aspect ratio, excellent adhesion to the matrix, and cost effectiveness. To fulfill the requirements, nanocomposites in which the matrix is filled with nanoscopic reinforcing phases having dimensions typically in the range of 1nm to 100 nm show considerably higher strength and modulus with far lower reinforcement content than their conventional counterparts. Graphite is a layered material whose layers have dimensions in the nanometer range and are held together by weak Van der Waals forces. Once these layers are exfoliated and dispersed in a polymer matrix as nano platelets, they have large aspect ratios. Graphite has an elastic modulus that is equal to the stiffest carbon fiber and 10-15 times that of other inorganic reinforcements, and it is also electrically and thermally conductive. If the appropriate surface treatment can be found for graphite, its exfoliation and dispersion in a polymer matrix will result in a composite with excellent mechanical properties, superior thermal stability, and very good electrical and thermal properties at very low reinforcement loadings.

  5. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  6. Manufacturing cost/design system: A CAD/CAM dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshigian, H. H.; Rachowitz, B. I.; Judson, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the Manufacturing Cost/Design System (MC/DS) will provide the aerospace design engineer a tool with which to perform heretofore impractical design manufacturing cost tradeoffs. The Air Force Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Office has initiated the development and demonstration of an MC/DS which, when fully implemented, will integrate both design and manufacturing data bases to provide real time visibility into the manufacturing costs associated with various design options. The first release of a computerized system will be made before the end of 1981.

  7. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  8. Composites in manufacturing - Case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, A.B. )

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume focus on 19 cases of applied technology in composites design and manufacturing, all of them dealing with specific products. Topics covered include design using composite in aerospace, innovative materials and processing, tooling, fasteners and adhesives, finishing, repair, specialty applications of composites, and applications in the automotive industry. Papers are presented on the filament winding of isogrid fuselage structures; design and use of aramid fiber in aircraft structures; resin transfer molding of a complex composite aircraft structure; and field repair of an advanced helicopter vertical fin structure.

  9. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

  10. Development of integrated programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product program management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, J. M.; Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) is a computing system to support company-wide design information processing. This document presents a brief description of the management system used to direct and control a product-oriented program. This document, together with the reference design process (CR 2981) and the manufacture interactions with the design process (CR 2982), comprises the reference information that forms the basis for specifying IPAD system requirements.

  11. Polymer-based composites for aerospace: An overview of IMAST results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milella, Eva; Cammarano, Aniello

    2016-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of technological results, achieved by IMAST, the Technological Cluster on Engineering of Polymeric Composite Materials and Structures, in the completed Research Projects in the aerospace field. In this sector, the Cluster developed different solutions: lightweight multifunctional fiber-reinforced polymer composites for aeronautic structures, advanced manufacturing processes (for the optimization of energy consumption and waste reduction) and multifunctional components (e.g., thermal, electrical, acoustic and fire resistance).

  12. Aerogel: From Aerospace to Apparel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Aspen Systems Inc. developed an aerogel-manufacturing process solved the handling problems associated with aerogel-based insulation products. Their aerogels can now be manufactured into blankets, thin sheets, beads, and molded parts; and may be transparent, translucent, or opaque. Aspen made the material effective for window and skylight insulation, non-flammable building insulation, and inexpensive firewall insulation that will withstand fires in homes and buildings, and also assist in the prevention of forest fires. Another Aspen product is Spaceloft(TM); an inexpensive, flexible blanket that incorporates a thin layer of aerogel embedded directly into the fabric. Spaceloft, is incorporated into jackets intended for wear in extremely harsh conditions and activities, such as Antarctic expeditions.

  13. Solar photovoltaics - An aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    Specific problems affecting the development of low-cost silicon solar array power sources are discussed, taking into account the potential of realizing less than $0.50/per peak watt of silicon solar array technology. A utilization of less expensive processes for the manufacture of pure silicon and more economical procedures of silicon crystal and wafer production appear desirable. Attention is given to a sheet growth process example and a concept of pulsed processing for automated cell production.

  14. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Blue, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing holds tremendous promise in terms of revolutionizing manufacturing. However, fundamental hurdles limit mass adoption of the technology. First, production rates are extremely low. Second, the physical size of parts is generally small, less than a cubic foot. Third, while there is much excitement about metal additive manufacturing, the major growth area is in polymer additive manufacturing systems. Unfortunately, the mechanical properties of the polymer parts are poor, limiting the potential for direct part replacement. To address this issue, we describe three benefits of blending carbon fiber with polymer additive manufacturing. First, development of carbon fiber reinforced polymers for additive manufacturing achieves specific strengths approaching aerospace quality aluminum. Second, carbon fiber radically changes the behavior of the material during deposition, enabling large scale, out-of-the-oven, high deposition rate manufacturing. Finally, carbon fiber technology and additive manufacturing complement each other. Merging the two manufacturing processes enables the construction of complex components that would not be possible otherwise.

  15. An overview of Ball Aerospace cryogen storage and delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, J.; Keller, J.; Mills, G.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Starting on the Gemini program in the 1960s, Beech Aircraft (now Ball Aerospace) has been designing and manufacturing dewars for a variety of cryogens including liquid hydrogen and oxygen. These dewars flew on the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle spacecraft providing fuel cell reactants resulting in over 150 manned spaceflights. Since Space Shuttle, Ball has also built the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for the Boeing Phantom Eye unmanned aerial vehicle. Returning back to its fuel cell days, Ball has designed, built and tested a volume-constrained liquid hydrogen and oxygen tank system for reactant delivery to fuel cells on unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). Herein past history of Ball technology is described. Testing has been completed on the UUV specific design, which will be described.

  16. Assessment of avionics technology in European aerospace organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinec, D. A.; Baumbick, Robert; Hitt, Ellis; Leondes, Cornelius; Mayton, Monica; Schwind, Joseph; Traybar, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the observations and recommendations made by a technical panel formed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The panel, comprising prominent experts in the avionics field, was tasked to visit various organizations in Europe to assess the level of technology planned for use in manufactured civil avionics in the future. The primary purpose of the study was to assess avionics systems planned for implementation or already employed on civil aircraft and to evaluate future research, development, and engineering (RD&E) programs, address avionic systems and aircraft programs. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the technology addressed by NASa programs is commensurate with the needs of the aerospace industry at an international level. The panel focused on specific technologies, including guidance and control systems, advanced cockpit displays, sensors and data networks, and fly-by-wire/fly-by-light systems. However, discussions the panel had with the European organizations were not limited to these topics.

  17. Prediction of residual strength of impact damaged aerospace composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, A.C.

    1993-12-31

    The importance of composites for aerospace structures is well known and therefore its increased use is being made for such structural components. However, these structures may be damaged as a result of various causes. One of the important causes is the impact damage either during manufacture or service. The amount of damage by impact created in the structure depends on several parameters such as impactor mass and velocity (impact energy), the structure material and support conditions. Since the magnitude of damage depends on impact energy, the residual strength may be expressed as a function of impact energy. Using a three parametric approach, a model is proposed to predict the residual strength behavior of impact damaged structure. The predicted behavior is shown to compare favorably with the available test data.

  18. Bipolar Nickel-hydrogen Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Vanommering, G.; Puester, N. H.; Puglisi, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    A bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery which effectively addresses all key requirements for a spacecraft power system, including long-term reliability and low mass, is discussed. The design of this battery is discussed in the context of system requirements and nickel-hydrogen battery technology in general. To achieve the ultimate goal of an aerospace application of a bipolar Ni-H2 battery several objectives must be met in the design and development of the system. These objectives include: maximization of reliability and life; high specific energy and energy density; reasonable cost of manufacture, test, and integration; and ease in scaling for growth in power requirements. These basic objectives translate into a number of specific design requirements, which are discussed.

  19. Review of aerospace engineering cost modelling: The genetic causal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, R.; Raghunathan, S.; Price, M.

    2004-11-01

    The primary intention of this paper is to review the current state of the art in engineering cost modelling as applied to aerospace. This is a topic of current interest and in addressing the literature, the presented work also sets out some of the recognised definitions of cost that relate to the engineering domain. The paper does not attempt to address the higher-level financial sector but rather focuses on the costing issues directly relevant to the engineering process, primarily those of design and manufacture. This is of more contemporary interest as there is now a shift towards the analysis of the influence of cost, as defined in more engineering related terms; in an attempt to link into integrated product and process development (IPPD) within a concurrent engineering environment. Consequently, the cost definitions are reviewed in the context of the nature of cost as applicable to the engineering process stages: from bidding through to design, to manufacture, to procurement and ultimately, to operation. The linkage and integration of design and manufacture is addressed in some detail. This leads naturally to the concept of engineers influencing and controlling cost within their own domain rather than trusting this to financers who have little control over the cause of cost. In terms of influence, the engineer creates the potential for cost and in a concurrent environment this requires models that integrate cost into the decision making process.

  20. Titanium cholla : lightweight, high-strength structures for aerospace applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Clinton J.; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Taggart, David G.; Gill, David Dennis; Robbins, Joshua H.; Dewhurst, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Aerospace designers seek lightweight, high-strength structures to lower launch weight while creating structures that are capable of withstanding launch loadings. Most 'light-weighting' is done through an expensive, time-consuming, iterative method requiring experience and a repeated design/test/redesign sequence until an adequate solution is obtained. Little successful work has been done in the application of generalized 3D optimization due to the difficulty of analytical solutions, the large computational requirements of computerized solutions, and the inability to manufacture many optimized structures with conventional machining processes. The Titanium Cholla LDRD team set out to create generalized 3D optimization routines, a set of analytically optimized 3D structures for testing the solutions, and a method of manufacturing these complex optimized structures. The team developed two new computer optimization solutions: Advanced Topological Optimization (ATO) and FlexFEM, an optimization package utilizing the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) software for stress analysis. The team also developed several new analytically defined classes of optimized structures. Finally, the team developed a 3D capability for the Laser Engineered Net Shaping{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) additive manufacturing process including process planning for 3D optimized structures. This report gives individual examples as well as one generalized example showing the optimized solutions and an optimized metal part.

  1. An Evidence-Based Environmental Perspective Of Manufactured Silver Nanoparticle In Syntheses And Applications: A Systematic Review And Critical Appraisal Of Peer-Reviewed Scientific Papers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most recently, renewed interest has arisen in manufactured silver nanoparticles because of their unusually enhanced physiochemical properties and biological activities compared to the bulk parent materials. A wide range of applications has emerged in consumer products ranging fr...

  2. Experimental process development and aerospace alloy formability studies for hydroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojarad Farimani, Saeed

    In tube hydroforming process, a pressurized liquid is used to expand a thin walled tube inside a closed die in order to fill the die cavity. Tube hydroforming has many advantages that make it interesting for different industries such as automotive and aerospace, but due to the effects of different factors, such as formability of the material, load path (end feeding force and internal pressure during the process), tool geometry and friction, it is a quite complex manufacturing process. Therefore, finite element simulation along with optimization methods can significantly reduce the cost of trial and error approach used in conventional manufacturing methods. In this work, to investigate the effects of different process parameters such as friction condition, tube thickness and end feeding on the final product, tube hydroforming experiments were performed using a round to square-shape die. Experiments were performed on stainless steel 321 tubes with 50.8 mm (2 in) diameter and two different thicknesses; 0.9 mm and 1.2 mm. Experimental load paths were obtained via the data acquisition system of the hydroforming press, which is fully instrumented. An automated deformation measurement system, Argus, was used to measure the strains on the hydroformed tubes. Data collected from the initial experiments were used to simulate and then optimize the process. The process was simulated and optimized using Ls-Dyna and Ls-Opt software, respectively. Strains and thickness variations measured from experiments were compared to FE simulation results at critical sections. The comparison of the results from FE simulations and experiments were in good agreement, indicating that the approach can be used for predicting the final shape and thickness variations of the hydroformed parts for aerospace applications.

  3. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  4. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  5. A Systems Engineering Approach to Quality Assurance for Aerospace Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2014-01-01

    On the surface, it appears that AS9100 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to major aerospace test programs (or even smaller ones). It also appears that there is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge (BOK) that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination (NDE), or some type of lab or bench testing associated with the manufacturing process. However, if one examines: a) how the systems engineering (SE) processes are implemented throughout a test program; and b) how these SE processes can be mapped to the requirements of AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed. What often happens is that quality assurance during a test program is limited to inspections of the test article; what could be considered a manufacturing al fresco approach. This limits the quality professional and is a disservice to the programs and projects, since there are a number of ways that quality can enhance critical processes, and support efforts to improve risk reduction, efficiency and effectiveness. The Systems Engineering (SE) discipline is widely used in aerospace to ensure the progress from Stakeholder Expectations (the President, Congress, the taxpayers) to a successful, delivered product or service. Although this is well known, what is not well known is that these same SE processes are implemented in varying complexity, to prepare for and implement test projects that support research, development, verification and validation, qualification, and acceptance test projects. Although the test organization's terminology may vary from the SE terminology, and from one test service provider to another, the basic process is followed by successful, reliable testing organizations. For this analysis, NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 7123.1, NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements is used to illustrate the SE processes that are used for major aerospace testing. Many of these processes

  6. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-28

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  7. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-30

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  8. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices. PMID:26368398

  9. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  10. Combustion Processes in the Aerospace Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggett, Clayton

    1969-01-01

    The aerospace environment introduces new and enhanced fire hazards because the special atmosphere employed may increase the frequency and intensity of fires, because the confinement associated with aerospace systems adversely affects the dynamics of fire development and control, and because the hostile external environments limit fire control and rescue operations. Oxygen enriched atmospheres contribute to the fire hazard in aerospace systems by extending the list of combustible fuels, increasing the probability of ignition, and increasing the rates of fire spread and energy release. A system for classifying atmospheres according to the degree of fire hazard, based on the heat capacity of the atmosphere per mole of oxygen, is suggested. A brief exploration of the dynamics of chamber fires shows that such fires will exhibit an exponential growth rate and may grow to dangerous size in a very short time. Relatively small quantities of fuel and oxygen can produce a catastrophic fire in a closed chamber.

  11. Heart-Lung Interactions in Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, Gordon Kim

    1991-01-01

    Few of the heart-lung interactions that are discussed have been studied in any detail in the aerospace environment, but is seems that many such interactions must occur in the setting of altered accelerative loadings and pressure breathing. That few investigations are in progress suggests that clinical and academic laboratory investigators and aerospace organizations are further apart than during the pioneering work on pressure breathing and acceleration tolerance in the 1940s. The purpose is to reintroduce some of the perennial problems of aviation physiology as well as some newer aerospace concerns that may be of interest. Many possible heart-lung interactions are pondered, by necessity often drawing on data from within the aviation field, collected before the modern understanding of these interactions developed, or on recent laboratory data that may not be strictly applicable. In the field of zero-gravity effects, speculation inevitably outruns the sparse available data.

  12. NSWC Crane Aerospace Cell Test History Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harry; Moore, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    The Aerospace Cell Test History Database was developed to provide project engineers and scientists ready access to the data obtained from testing of aerospace cell designs at Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division. The database is intended for use by all aerospace engineers and scientists involved in the design of power systems for satellites. Specifically, the database will provide a tool for project engineers to review the progress of their test at Crane and to have ready access to data for evaluation. Additionally, the database will provide a history of test results that designers can draw upon to answer questions about cell performance under certain test conditions and aid in selection of a cell for a satellite battery. Viewgraphs are included.

  13. Sealed aerospace metal-hydride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine

    1992-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride and silver metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications. There is a growing market for smaller, lower cost satellites which require higher energy density power sources than aerospace nickel-cadmium at a lower cost than space nickel-hydrogen. These include small LEO satellites, tactical military satellites and satellite constellation programs such as Iridium and Brilliant Pebbles. Small satellites typically do not have the spacecraft volume or the budget required for nickel-hydrogen batteries. NiCd's do not have adequate energy density as well as other problems such as overcharge capability and memory effort. Metal hydride batteries provide the ideal solution for these applications. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems.

  14. Knowledge-based diagnosis for aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The need for automated diagnosis in aerospace systems and the approach of using knowledge-based systems are examined. Research issues in knowledge-based diagnosis which are important for aerospace applications are treated along with a review of recent relevant research developments in Artificial Intelligence. The design and operation of some existing knowledge-based diagnosis systems are described. The systems described and compared include the LES expert system for liquid oxygen loading at NASA Kennedy Space Center, the FAITH diagnosis system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the PES procedural expert system developed at SRI International, the CSRL approach developed at Ohio State University, the StarPlan system developed by Ford Aerospace, the IDM integrated diagnostic model, and the DRAPhys diagnostic system developed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  15. Directory of aerospace safety specialized information sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, E. A.; Rubens, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    A directory is presented to make available to the aerospace safety community a handbook of organizations and experts in specific, well-defined areas of safety technology. It is designed for the safety specialist as an aid for locating both information sources and individual points of contact (experts) in engineering related fields. The file covers sources of data in aerospace design, tests, as well as information in hazard and failure cause identification, accident analysis, materials characteristics, and other related subject areas. These 171 organizations and their staff members, hopefully, should provide technical information in the form of documentation, data and consulting expertise. These will be sources that have assembled and collated their information, so that it will be useful in the solution of engineering problems. One of the goals of the project in the United States that have and are willing to share data of value to the aerospace safety community.

  16. Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Research efforts to reduce the dependence of the aerospace industry on strategic metals, such as cobalt (Co), columbium (Cb), tantalum (Ta), and chromium (Cr), by providing the materials technology needed to minimize the strategic metal content of critical aerospace components for gas turbine engines are addressed. Thrusts in three technology areas are identified: near term activities in the area of strategic element substitution; intermediate-range activities in the area of materials processing; and long term, high risk activities in the area of 'new classes' of high temprature metallic materials. Specifically, the role of cobalt in nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys vital to the aerospace industry is examined along with the mechanical and physical properties of intermetallics that will contain a minimum of the stragetic metals.

  17. Aerospace applications of advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.; Langenbeck, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced metallic materials within the Al-base family are being developed for applications on current and future aerospace vehicles. These advanced materials offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved vehicle performance. Aerospace applications of advanced metallic materials include space structures, fighters, military and commercial transport aircraft, and missiles. Structural design requirements, including not only static and durability/damage tolerance criteria but also environmental considerations, drive material selections. Often trade-offs must be made regarding strength, fracture resistance, cost, reliability, and maintainability in order to select the optimum material for a specific application. These trade studies not only include various metallic materials but also many times include advanced composite materials. Details of material comparisons, aerospace applications, and material trades will be presented.

  18. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  19. Aerospace manpower transfer to small business enterprises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a program to effect transfer of aerospace professional people from the ranks of the unemployed into gainful employment in the small business community was investigated. The effectiveness of accomplishing transfer of technology from the aerospace effort into the private sector through migration of people rather than products or hardware alone was also studied. Two basic methodologies were developed. One involves the matching of ex-aerospace professionals and small companies according to their mutual needs. A training and indoctrination program is aimed at familiarizing the professional with the small company environment, and a program of follow-up counseling is defined. The second methodology incorporates efforts to inform and arouse interest among the nonaerospace business community toward affirmative action programs that will serve mutual self-interests of the individuals, companies, and communities involved.

  20. Machine intelligence and autonomy for aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Ewald (Editor); Lum, Henry (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present volume discusses progress toward intelligent robot systems in aerospace applications, NASA Space Program automation and robotics efforts, the supervisory control of telerobotics in space, machine intelligence and crew/vehicle interfaces, expert-system terms and building tools, and knowledge-acquisition for autonomous systems. Also discussed are methods for validation of knowledge-based systems, a design methodology for knowledge-based management systems, knowledge-based simulation for aerospace systems, knowledge-based diagnosis, planning and scheduling methods in AI, the treatment of uncertainty in AI, vision-sensing techniques in aerospace applications, image-understanding techniques, tactile sensing for robots, distributed sensor integration, and the control of articulated and deformable space structures.

  1. The comprehensive aerospace index (CASI): Tracking the economic performance of the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattedi, Adriana Prest; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Ramos, Fernando Manuel; Rosa, Reinaldo Roberto

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we described the Comprehensive AeroSpace Index (CASI), a financial index aimed at representing the economic performance of the aerospace industry. CASI is build upon a data set of approximately 20 years of daily close prices set, from January 1987 to June 2007, from a comprehensive sample of leading aerospace-related companies with stocks negotiated on the New York Exchange (NYSE) and on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. We also introduced the sub-indices CASI-AERO, for aeronautical segment, and CASI-SAT, for satellite segment, and considered the relation between them. These three indices are compared to others aerospace indices and to more traditional general financial indices like DJIA, S&P500 and Nasdaq. Our results have shown that the CASI is an index that describes very well the aerospace sector behavior, since it is able to reflect the aeronautical segment comportment as well as the satellite one. Therefore, in this sense, it can be considered as a representative index of the aerospace sector. Moreover, the creation of two sub-indices, the CASI-AERO and the CASI-SAT, allows to elucidate capital movements within the aerospace sector, particularly those of speculative nature, like the dot.com bubble and crash of 1998-2001.

  2. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  3. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  4. Additive Manufacturing by selective laser melting the realizer desktop machine and its application for the dental industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Andreas; Schmidt, Frank-Michael; Hötter, Jan-Steffen; Sokalla, Wolfgang; Sokalla, Patrick

    Additive Manufacturing of metal parts by Selective Laser Melting has become a powerful tool for the direct manufacturing of complex parts mainly for the aerospace and medical industry. With the introduction of its desktop machine, Realizer targeted the dental market. The contribution describes the special features of the machine, discusses details of the process and shows manufacturing results focused on metal dental devices.

  5. The Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    The aerospace vehicle interactive design (AVID) is a computer aided design that was developed for the conceptual and preliminary design of aerospace vehicles. The AVID system evolved from the application of several design approaches in an advanced concepts environment in which both mission requirements and vehicle configurations are continually changing. The basic AVID software facilitates the integration of independent analysis programs into a design system where the programs can be executed individually for analysis or executed in groups for design iterations and parametric studies. Programs integrated into an AVID system for launch vehicle design include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, mass properties, and economics.

  6. Aerospace Applications of Integer and Combinatorial Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in formulating and solving integer and combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem, for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on an orbiting platform and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  7. Aerospace applications on integer and combinatorial optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in formulating and solving integer and combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem. for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on an orbiting platform and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  8. Aerospace applications of integer and combinatorial optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in solving combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem, for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on a large space structure and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  9. NASA aerospace database subject scope: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Outlined here is the subject scope of the NASA Aerospace Database, a publicly available subset of the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) Database. Topics of interest to NASA are outlined and placed within the framework of the following broad aerospace subject categories: aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry and materials, engineering, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical and computer sciences, physics, social sciences, space sciences, and general. A brief discussion of the subject scope is given for each broad area, followed by a similar explanation of each of the narrower subject fields that follow. The subject category code is listed for each entry.

  10. NASA Engineering Safety Center NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group 2007 Proactive Task Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) chartered the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to bring forth and address critical battery-related performance/manufacturing issues for NASA and the aerospace community. A suite of tasks identifying and addressing issues related to Ni-H2 and Li-ion battery chemistries was submitted and selected for implementation. The current NESC funded are: (1) Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries (2) Binding Procurement (3) NASA Lithium-Ion Battery Guidelines (3a) Li-Ion Performance Assessment (3b) Li-Ion Guidelines Document (3b-i) Assessment of Applicability of Pouch Cells for Aerospace Missions (3b-ii) High Voltage Risk Assessment (3b-iii) Safe Charge Rates for Li-Ion Cells (4) Availability of Source Material for Li-Ion Cells (5) NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop This presentation provides a brief overview of the tasks in the 2007 plan and serves as an introduction to more detailed discussions on each of the specific tasks.

  11. Recent manufacturing advances for spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Bill, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command (AVSCOM), through the Propulsion Directorate at NASA LRC, has recently sponsored projects to advance the manufacturing process for spiral bevel gears. This type of gear is a critical component in rotary-wing propulsion systems. Two successfully completed contracted projects are described. The first project addresses the automated inspection of spiral bevel gears through the use of coordinate measuring machines. The second project entails the computer-numerical-control (CNC) conversion of a spiral bevel gear grinding machine that is used for all aerospace spiral bevel gears. The results of these projects are described with regard to the savings effected in manufacturing time.

  12. Recent manufacturing advances for spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Bill, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command (AVSCOM), through the Propulsion Directorate at NASA Lewis Research Center, has recently sponsored projects to advance the manufacturing process for spiral bevel gears. This type of gear is a critical component in rotary-wing propulsion systems. Two successfully completed contracted projects are described. The first project addresses the automated inspection of spiral bevel gears through the use of coordinate measuring machines. The second project entails the computer-numerical-control (CNC) conversion of a spiral bevel gear grinding machine that is used for all aerospace spiral bevel gears. The results of these projects are described with regard to the savings effected in manufacturing time.

  13. Reach and its Impact: NASA and US Aerospace Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    REACH is a European law that threatens to impact materials used within the US aerospace communities, including NASA. The presentation briefly covers REACH and generally, its perceived impacts to NASA and the aerospace community within the US.

  14. Aerospace engineers: We're tomorrow-minded people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Brief job-related autobiographical sketches of engineers working on NASA aerospace projects are presented. Career and educational guidance is offered to students thinking about entering the aerospace field.

  15. 76 FR 1600 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Sector Panel: Deloitte Touche, AIAC, Minister of Transport, NRC. 10:30-11:00 Coffee break-- Networking... 2009 Canada was the United States' 6th largest aerospace export market, and in many aerospace...

  16. Aerospace Technicians: We're Tomorrow-Minded People

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Brief job-related autobiographical sketches of technicians working on NASA aerospace projects are presented. Career and educational guidance is offered to students thinking about entering the field of aerospace technology.

  17. A student project to quantify machinability of plastics using corn ethanol co-products as biofiller – an educational perspective for green manufacturing applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn ethanol processing by-products are primarily used as animal feeds. Other potential applications include the manufacture of biodegradable plastic composites. This, however, requires subsequent processing, adding cost to the final product. Thus, it is necessary to investigate alternative methods ...

  18. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The general objective of the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program was to conduct research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and associated thermal gradient structures. The following research areas were actively investigated: (1) mechanical and environmental degradation mechanisms in advanced light metals and composites; (2) aerospace materials science; (3) mechanics of materials and composites for aerospace structures; and (4) thermal gradient structures.

  19. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  20. 77 FR 38090 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, July 20, 2012, 11:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. EDT... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive...

  1. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, H. C.; Beadles, R. L.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Courtney, M. W.; Rouse, D. J.; Scearce, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Medical products utilizing and incorporating aerospace technology were studied. A bipolar donor-recipient model for medical transfer is presented. The model is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and aerospace technology which constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by medical community of new medical products based on aerospace technology.

  2. Teachers, Aerospace, Involvement: The Ingredients for Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Rex; Bell, Michael L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a two week workshop which concentrated on involving teachers in action oriented aerospace activities and sharing ideas and materials for the application of aerospace concepts in the classroom. Research was also done to see if participants' attitudes toward aerospace education could be positively influenced to enhance personal teaching…

  3. 76 FR 62455 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, October 21, 2011, 12:30 to 2 p.m. Central.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Susan Burch, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel...

  4. 77 FR 1955 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, January 27, 2012, Time 11 a.m.-12:30 p.m... CONTACT: Ms. Susan Burch, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Administrative Officer, National Aeronautics...

  5. 76 FR 65750 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and... Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. SUMMARY: Pursuant to sections 14(b)(1) and 9(c) of the Federal Advisory... of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel is in the public interest in connection with...

  6. Aerospace Concepts at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents materials compiled to assist the elementary teacher in preparing teaching units in aerospace education. Suggests specific and general objectives and lists important concepts and questions pertaining to areas such as: history of flight, weather and flying, airplanes, jets, rockets, space travel, and the solar system. (MLH)

  7. Aircraft of Today. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.

    This textbook gives a brief idea about the modern aircraft used in defense and for commercial purposes. Aerospace technology in its present form has developed along certain basic principles of aerodynamic forces. Different parts in an airplane have different functions to balance the aircraft in air, provide a thrust, and control the general…

  8. NASA's Software Bank (Heath Tecna Aerospace)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Heath Tecna Aerospace used a COSMIC program, "Analysis of Filament Reinforced Metal Shell Pressure Vessels," to predict stresses in motorcase walls in a composite hybrid rocket and calculate the ideal geometry for the domes at either end of the filament-wound pressure vessel. The COSMIC program predictions were confirmed in testing.

  9. The 17th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings of the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft tether, magnetic bearing suspension, explosive welding, and a deployable/retractable mast are also described.

  10. Atmospheric statistics for aerospace vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical analysis of atmospheric variables was performed for the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) design trade studies and the establishment of launch commit criteria. Atmospheric constraint statistics have been developed for the NASP test flight, the Advanced Launch System, and the National Launch System. The concepts and analysis techniques discussed in the paper are applicable to the design and operations of any future aerospace vehicle.

  11. The 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. L. (Compiler); Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings of the 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Topics covered include: robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  12. Using Aerospace Technology To Design Orthopedic Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    Technology originally developed to optimize designs of composite-material aerospace structural components used to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants. Development effort focused on designing knee implants, long-term goal to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants in general.

  13. Aerospace Education Curriculum Guide (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    GRADES OR AGES: K-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Aerospace education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into two main sections, one each for primary and secondary levels. Each section is further subdivided into several parts. The guide is printed and staple bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: Activities at each level…

  14. International Space Programs. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmer, S. B.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, is a collection of the diverse information available regarding the international space programs. The five goals listed for the book are: to examine the Soviet space program, to understand the future of Soviet space activity, to examine other national and international space programs, to…

  15. Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casula, G.; Lenzi, F.; Vitiello, C.

    2008-08-01

    Mechanical and thermo-physical properties of composites materials with thermoplastic matrix (PEEK/IM7, TPI/IM7 and PPS/IM7) used for aerospace applications have been analyzed as function of two different process techniques: compression molding and fiber placement process "hot gas assisted."

  16. The 21st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    During the symposium technical topics addressed included deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, actuators, latching devices, positioning mechanisms, robotic manipulators, and automated mechanisms synthesis. A summary of the 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium panel discussions is included as an appendix. However, panel discussions on robotics for space and large space structures which were held are not presented herein.

  17. The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

  18. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 242 through 253 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes six indexes--subject, personal author, corporate source, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  19. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This revised textbook, one in the Aerospace Education II series, provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of…

  20. Aerospace Science Education, A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilburn, Paul

    This curriculum guide was developed by the Alaska State Department of Education for the purpose of aiding elementary and secondary school teachers in incorporating elements of aerospace science in the classroom. The section of the guide designed for elementary school teachers includes chapters under the headings: Aircraft, Airports, Weather,…

  1. Advanced lightweight alloys for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.; Lee, Eui W.; Donnellan, Mary E.; Thompson, James J.

    1989-05-01

    The design requirements of the next generation of advanced aerospace vehicles and propulsion systems necessitate the development of structural materials with properties vastly superior to those which are currently achievable. Recognizing that each class of materials possesses its own unique set of advantages and disadvantages, the designers of tomorrow's aircraft must choose wisely from the plethora of available alloys.

  2. Aerospace Management, Volume 5 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaprielyan, S. Peter

    Presented are articles and reports dealing with aspects of the aerospace programs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Of major concern are the technological and managerial challenges within the space station and space shuttle programs. Other reports are given on: (1) medical experiments, (2) satellites, (3) international…

  3. Spacecraft and their Boosters. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, provides a description of some of the discoveries that spacecraft have made possible and of the experience that American astronauts have had in piloting spacecraft. The basic principles behind the operation of spacecraft and their boosters are explained. Descriptions are also included on…

  4. The 15th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technological areas covered include: aerospace propulsion; aerodynamic devices; crew safety; space vehicle control; spacecraft deployment, positioning, and pointing; deployable antennas/reflectors; and large space structures. Devices for payload deployment, payload retention, and crew extravehicular activities on the space shuttle orbiter are also described.

  5. Trajectory optimization for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this second phase research is to investigate the optimal ascent trajectory for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) from runway take-off to orbital insertion and address the unique problems associated with the hypersonic flight trajectory optimization. The trajectory optimization problem for an aerospace plane is a highly challenging problem because of the complexity involved. Previous work has been successful in obtaining sub-optimal trajectories by using energy-state approximation and time-scale decomposition techniques. But it is known that the energy-state approximation is not valid in certain portions of the trajectory. This research aims at employing full dynamics of the aerospace plane and emphasizing direct trajectory optimization methods. The major accomplishments of this research include the first-time development of an inverse dynamics approach in trajectory optimization which enables us to generate optimal trajectories for the aerospace plane efficiently and reliably, and general analytical solutions to constrained hypersonic trajectories that has wide application in trajectory optimization as well as in guidance and flight dynamics. Optimal trajectories in abort landing and ascent augmented with rocket propulsion and thrust vectoring control were also investigated. Motivated by this study, a new global trajectory optimization tool using continuous simulated annealing and a nonlinear predictive feedback guidance law have been under investigation and some promising results have been obtained, which may well lead to more significant development and application in the near future.

  6. Novel Adaptive Fixturing for Thin Walled Aerospace Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, Angelo; Ricciardi, Donato; Salvi, Edoardo; Fantinati, Dario; Iorio, Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    In the aerospace industry the monolithic structures have been introduced to reduce the costs of assembling large numbers of components. The expected benefit of using thin walled monolithic parts is given by a large reduction in the overall manufacturing costs, nevertheless this kind of component encounters a critical phase in fixturing. Fixtures are used to locate and hold workpieces during manufacturing. Because workpiece surface errors and fixture set-up errors (called source errors) always exist, the fixtured workpiece will consequently have position and/or orientation errors (called resultant errors) that will definitely affect the final machining accuracy. Most often the current clamping procedure is not straightforward, it implies several steps and the success of the operation hardly depends by the skill of the human operator. It is estimated that fixturing could constitute 10-20% of the total manufacturing costs, assuming that the fixtures are amortized over relatively small batches. Fixturing devices must satisfy two requisites, which, in some terms, are opposite: to provide relatively high forces in order to guarantee that the workpiece will be maintained in position under the maximum cutting forces to reduce as much as possible strains induced in the workpiece. Limiting the strains induced in the workpiece is crucial because of elastic strain recovery: releasing the clamped workpiece would result in an unwanted final deformation. In this paper a novel adaptive fixturing based on active clamping forces (supplied by piezoelectric actuators) is presented: a real aerospace part case study, - a Nozzle Guide Vane (NGV) -, is introduced, the related problems are identified, and the adopted solutions shown. The proposed adaptive fixturing device can lead to the following advantages: to perform an automatic errors-free workpiece clamping and then drastically reduce the overall fixturing set up time; to recover unwanted strains induced to the workpiece, in order to

  7. Materials Control for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The distant future of mankind and the ultimate survivability of the human race, as it is known today, will depend on mans' ability to break earthly bonds and establish new territorial positions throughout the universe. Man must therefore be positioned to not only travel to, but also, to readily adapt to numerous and varying environments. For this mass migration across the galaxies nothing is as import to the human race as is NASA's future missions into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), to the moon, and/or Mars. These missions will form the building blocks to eternity for mankind. From these missions, NASA will develop the foundations for these building blocks based on sound engineering and scientific principles, both known and yet to be discovered. The integrity of the program will lead to development, tracking and control of the most basic elements of hardware production: That being development and control of applications of space flight materials. Choosing the right material for design purposes involves many considerations, such as governmental regulations associated with manufacturing operations, both safety of usage and of manufacturing, general material usage requirements, material longevity and performance requirements, material interfacing compatibility and material usage environments. Material performance is subject to environmental considerations in as much as a given material may perform exceptionally well at standard temperatures and pressures while performing poorly under non-standard conditions. These concerns may be found true for materials relative to the extreme temperatures and vacuum gradients of high altitude usage. The only way to assure that flight worthy materials are used in design is through testing. However, as with all testing, it requires both time on schedule and cost to the operation. One alternative to this high cost testing approach is to rely on a materials control system established by NASA. The NASA community relies on the MAPTIS materials

  8. A Systems Engineering Approach to Quality Assurance for Aerospace Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2015-01-01

    On the surface, it appears that AS91001 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to major aerospace test programs (or even smaller ones). It also appears that there is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge (BOK)2 that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination (NDE), or some type of lab or bench testing associated with the manufacturing process. However, if one examines: a) how the systems engineering (SE) processes are implemented throughout a test program; and b) how these SE processes can be mapped to the requirements of AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed. What often happens is that quality assurance during a test program is limited to inspections of the test article; what could be considered a manufacturing al fresco approach. This limits the quality professional and is a disservice to the programs and projects, since there are a number of ways that quality can enhance critical processes, and support efforts to improve risk reduction, efficiency and effectiveness.

  9. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing. PMID:25898070

  10. A perspective on future directions in aerospace propulsion system simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Brent A.; Szuch, John R.; Gaugler, Raymond E.; Wood, Jerry R.

    1989-01-01

    The design and development of aircraft engines is a lengthy and costly process using today's methodology. This is due, in large measure, to the fact that present methods rely heavily on experimental testing to verify the operability, performance, and structural integrity of components and systems. The potential exists for achieving significant speedups in the propulsion development process through increased use of computational techniques for simulation, analysis, and optimization. This paper outlines the concept and technology requirements for a Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) that would provide capabilities to do interactive, multidisciplinary simulations of complete propulsion systems. By combining high performance computing hardware and software with state-of-the-art propulsion system models, the NPSS will permit the rapid calculation, assessment, and optimization of subcomponent, component, and system performance, durability, reliability and weight-before committing to building hardware.

  11. Thermographic Inspection of Aerospace Tankage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouvier, Carl; Russell, Samuel; Walker, James; Wilkerson, Chuck

    2003-01-01

    Thermography has been shown to be the ideal technical and economic inspection method for two applications - post-machining evaluations and for field inspections of damage and repair. For most manufacturing applications ultrasonic inspections are already available and established. There is no question about the detectability or cost when inspecting hardware out of the autoclave. But when the part is too large to bring to the scanning inspection system or you do not want to remove the hardware from its current setup then a more portable or field applicable inspection is required. This paper will describe two applications of thermography on composite inspections. The NASA NDE Team and Lockheed Martin conducted the work at NASA s George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The first application was inspecting machined hardware. The technique and example data will be presented along with the advantages of thermography. Examples of drilling holes and trimming the edges will be discussed. The second application will be the evaluation of damage in a composite part and the subsequent repair of the region will be presented. The technique, data, and benefits of this application will also be presented along with the follow-up inspection of the post- repaired hardware.

  12. Aerospace Meteorology Lessons Learned Relative to Aerospace Vehicle Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Aerospace Meteorology came into being in the 1950s as the development of rockets for military and civilian usage grew in the United States. The term was coined to identify those involved in the development of natural environment models, design/operational requirements, and environment measurement systems to support the needs of aerospace vehicles, both launch vehicles and spacecraft. It encompassed the atmospheric environment of the Earth, including Earth orbit environments. Several groups within the United States were active in this area, including the Department of Defense, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and a few of the aerospace industry groups. Some aerospace meteorology efforts were similar to those being undertaken relative to aviation interests. As part of the aerospace meteorology activities a number of lessons learned resulted that produced follow on efforts which benefited from these experiences, thus leading to the rather efficient and technologically current descriptions of terrestrial environment design requirements, prelaunch monitoring systems, and forecast capabilities available to support the development and operations of aerospace vehicles.

  13. Face Gear Technology for Aerospace Power Transmission Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The use of face gears in an advanced rotorcraft transmission design was first proposed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company during their contracted effort with the U.S. Army under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program. Face gears would be used to turn the corner between the horizontal gas turbine engine and the vertical output rotor shaft--a function currently done by spiral bevel gears. This novel gearing arrangement would substantially lower the drive system weight partly because a face gear mesh would be used to split the input power between two output gears. However, the use of face gears and their ability to operate successfully at the speeds and loads required for an aerospace environment was unknown. Therefore a proof-of-concept phase with an existing test stand at the NASA Lewis Research Center was pursued. Hardware was designed that could be tested in Lewis' Spiral Bevel Gear Test Rig. The initial testing indicated that the face gear mesh was a feasible design that could be used at high speeds and load. Surface pitting fatigue was the typical failure mode, and that could lead to tooth fracture. An interim project was conducted to see if slight modifications to the gear tooth geometry or an alternative heat treating process could overcome the surface fatigue problems. From the initial and interim tests, it was apparent that for the surface fatigue problems to be overcome the manufacturing process used for this component would have to be developed to the level used for spiral bevel gears. The current state of the art for face gear manufacturing required using less than optimal gear materials and manufacturing techniques because the surface of the tooth form does not receive final finishing after heat treatment as it does for spiral bevel gears. This resulted in less than desirable surface hardness and manufacturing tolerances. An Advanced Research and Projects Agency (ARPA) Technology Reinvestment Project has been funded to investigate

  14. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    2000-07-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g., manufacturing and systems operations). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often led to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost, risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographically distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative

  15. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    1999-01-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g. manufacturing and systems operations). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often lead to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographically distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative

  16. Aerospace Systems Design in NASA's Collaborative Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monell, Donald W.; Piland, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Past designs of complex aerospace systems involved an environment consisting of collocated design teams with project managers, technical discipline experts, and other experts (e.g., manufacturing and systems operation). These experts were generally qualified only on the basis of past design experience and typically had access to a limited set of integrated analysis tools. These environments provided less than desirable design fidelity, often lead to the inability of assessing critical programmatic and technical issues (e.g., cost, risk, technical impacts), and generally derived a design that was not necessarily optimized across the entire system. The continually changing, modern aerospace industry demands systems design processes that involve the best talent available (no matter where it resides) and access to the the best design and analysis tools. A solution to these demands involves a design environment referred to as collaborative engineering. The collaborative engineering environment evolving within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a capability that enables the Agency's engineering infrastructure to interact and use the best state-of-the-art tools and data across organizational boundaries. Using collaborative engineering, the collocated team is replaced with an interactive team structure where the team members are geographical distributed and the best engineering talent can be applied to the design effort regardless of physical location. In addition, a more efficient, higher quality design product is delivered by bringing together the best engineering talent with more up-to-date design and analysis tools. These tools are focused on interactive, multidisciplinary design and analysis with emphasis on the complete life cycle of the system, and they include nontraditional, integrated tools for life cycle cost estimation and risk assessment. NASA has made substantial progress during the last two years in developing a collaborative

  17. Economic interrelationships and impacts of the aviation/aerospace industry in the state of Florida using input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whealan George, Kelly

    The study provided a detailed description of the interrelatedness of the aviation and aerospace industry with principal industries in Florida and Volusia County (VC) using Input-Output (IO) analysis. Additionally, this research provided an economic impact analysis of the creation of a university research park in Daytona Beach (DB). The economic impact measures included not only direct economic output and industry employment descriptions but also described the multiplier effects in the form of indirect and induced impacts using data for 2012. This research concluded the average labor income of the aviation and aerospace industry was higher than average labor income in Florida and VC. A substantive difference between the Florida and VC average labor income for the aviation and aerospace industry existed because VC's aerospace sector was only concentrated in the search, detection, and navigation instruments manufacturing sector. VC's transport by air sector was one-fifth the size of Florida's. Differences in the aviation and aerospace industry composition between Florida and VC are important because the economic impacts from a shock to the entire aviation and aerospace industry will be distributed differently. Since the aviation and aerospace average labor income is higher than the average labor income in Florida and VC, it would be a positive move for Florida's economy to attract and grow the aviation and aerospace industry. It would be highly unlikely that the entirety of newly created jobs would be resourced from the local population. Nonetheless, growing the aviation and aerospace industry jobs would have a positive influence on the region's economy and tax revenues. It would be a desirable course of action to spur the growth of this sector, as its direct effect would culminate with additional jobs in Florida that would bring higher wage jobs to the state. The interdependencies of the aviation and aerospace industry in Florida and VC with other industries had a

  18. Microgravity Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing capability in outer space remains one of the critical milestones to surpass to allow humans to conduct long-duration manned space exploration. The high cost-to-orbit for leaving the Earth's gravitational field continues to be the limiting factor in carrying sufficient hardware to maintain extended life support in microgravity or on other planets. Additive manufacturing techniques, or 'chipless' fabrication, like RP are being considered as the most promising technologies for achieving in situ or remote processing of hardware components, as well as for the repair of existing hardware. At least three RP technologies are currently being explored for use in microgravity and extraterrestrial fabrication.

  19. Automation technology for aerospace power management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The growing size and complexity of spacecraft power systems coupled with limited space/ground communications necessitate increasingly automated onboard control systems. Research in computer science, particularly artificial intelligence has developed methods and techniques for constructing man-machine systems with problem-solving expertise in limited domains which may contribute to the automation of power systems. Since these systems perform tasks which are typically performed by human experts they have become known as Expert Systems. A review of the current state of the art in expert systems technology is presented, and potential applications in power systems management are considered. It is concluded that expert systems appear to have significant potential for improving the productivity of operations personnel in aerospace applications, and in automating the control of many aerospace systems.

  20. IT Data Mining Tool Uses in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Gilena A.; Freeman, Kenneth; Jones, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Data mining has a broad spectrum of uses throughout the realms of aerospace and information technology. Each of these areas has useful methods for processing, distributing, and storing its corresponding data. This paper focuses on ways to leverage the data mining tools and resources used in NASA's information technology area to meet the similar data mining needs of aviation and aerospace domains. This paper details the searching, alerting, reporting, and application functionalities of the Splunk system, used by NASA's Security Operations Center (SOC), and their potential shared solutions to address aircraft and spacecraft flight and ground systems data mining requirements. This paper also touches on capacity and security requirements when addressing sizeable amounts of data across a large data infrastructure.

  1. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; O'Donnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high-performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  2. NASA aerospace flight battery systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  3. Aerospace Applications of Optimization under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon; Gumbert, Clyde; Li, Wu

    2003-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) Branch at NASA Langley Research Center develops new methods and investigates opportunities for applying optimization to aerospace vehicle design. This paper describes MDO Branch experiences with three applications of optimization under uncertainty: (1) improved impact dynamics for airframes, (2) transonic airfoil optimization for low drag, and (3) coupled aerodynamic/structures optimization of a 3-D wing. For each case, a brief overview of the problem and references to previous publications are provided. The three cases are aerospace examples of the challenges and opportunities presented by optimization under uncertainty. The present paper will illustrate a variety of needs for this technology, summarize promising methods, and uncover fruitful areas for new research.

  4. Aerospace Applications of Optimization under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon; Gumbert, Clyde; Li, Wu

    2006-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) Branch at NASA Langley Research Center develops new methods and investigates opportunities for applying optimization to aerospace vehicle design. This paper describes MDO Branch experiences with three applications of optimization under uncertainty: (1) improved impact dynamics for airframes, (2) transonic airfoil optimization for low drag, and (3) coupled aerodynamic/structures optimization of a 3-D wing. For each case, a brief overview of the problem and references to previous publications are provided. The three cases are aerospace examples of the challenges and opportunities presented by optimization under uncertainty. The present paper will illustrate a variety of needs for this technology, summarize promising methods, and uncover fruitful areas for new research.

  5. Cloud manufacturing: from concept to practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Lei; Zhang, Lin; Tao, Fei; Zhao, Chun; Chai, Xudong; Zhao, Xinpei

    2015-02-01

    The concept of cloud manufacturing is emerging as a new promising manufacturing paradigm, as well as a business model, which is reshaping the service-oriented, highly collaborative, knowledge-intensive and eco-efficient manufacturing industry. However, the basic concepts about cloud manufacturing are still in discussion. Both academia and industry will need to have a commonly accepted definition of cloud manufacturing, as well as further guidance and recommendations on how to develop and implement cloud manufacturing. In this paper, we review some of the research work and clarify some fundamental terminologies in this field. Further, we developed a cloud manufacturing systems which may serve as an application example. From a systematic and practical perspective, the key requirements of cloud manufacturing platforms are investigated, and then we propose a cloud manufacturing platform prototype, MfgCloud. Finally, a public cloud manufacturing system for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) is presented. This paper presents a new perspective for cloud manufacturing, as well as a cloud-to-ground solution. The integrated solution proposed in this paper, including the terminology, MfgCloud, and applications, can push forward this new paradigm from concept to practice.

  6. Integration of pyrotechnics into aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1993-01-01

    The application of pyrotechnics to aerospace systems has been resisted because normal engineering methods cannot be used in design and evaluation. Commonly used approaches for energy sources, such as electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic, do not apply to explosive and pyrotechnic devices. This paper introduces the unique characteristics of pyrotechnic devices, describes how functional evaluations can be conducted, and demonstrates an engineering approach for pyrotechnic integration. Logic is presented that allows evaluation of two basic types of pyrotechnic systems to demonstrate functional margin.

  7. Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajamani, Ravi; Saxena, Abhinav; Kramer, Frank; Augustin, Mike; Schroeder, John B.; Goebel, Kai; Shao, Ginger; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a "real-world" example related to designing a landing gear system. The team hopes that this paper and presentation will help start a dialog with the larger aerospace community and that the feedback can be used to improve the ARP and subsequently the practice of IVHM from a systems engineering point-of-view.

  8. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  9. Recent advances in AM OLED technologies for application to aerospace and military systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri R.; Roush, Jerry; Chanley, Charles

    2012-06-01

    While initial AM OLED products have been introduced in the market about a decade ago, truly successful commercialization of OLEDs has started only a couple of years ago, by Samsung Mobile Display (SMD), with small high performance displays for smart phone applications. This success by Samsung has catalyzed significant interest in AM OLED technology advancement and commercialization by other display manufacturers. Currently, significant manufacturing capacity for AM OLED displays is being established by the industry to serve the growing demand for these displays. The current development in the AM OLED industry are now focused on the development and commercialization of medium size (~10") AM OLED panels for Tablet PC applications and large size (~55") panels for TV applications. This significant progress in commercialization of AM OLED technology is enabled by major advances in various enabling technologies that include TFT backplanes, OLED materials and device structures and manufacturing know-how. In this paper we will discuss these recent advances, particularly as they relate to supporting high performance applications such as aerospace and military systems, and then discuss the results of the OLED testing for aerospace applications.

  10. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  11. Manufacture of Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Stoeser, D. B.; Weinstein, M. A.; Edmunson, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    The manufacture of lunar regolith simulants can use many technologies unfamiliar to the aerospace industry. Many of these technologies are extensively used in the mining industry. Rock crushing, grinding, process control as a function of particle size, as well as other essential concepts are explained here. Notes are provided on special considerations necessary, given the unusual nature of the desired final product. For example, wet grinding, which is an industry norm, can alter the behavior of simulant materials. As the geologic materials used for simulants can contain minerals such as quartz and pyrite, guidance is provided regarding concepts, risks, measurement, and handling. Extractive metallurgy can be used to produce high-grade components for subsequent manufacture, reducing the compromises inherent in using just rock. Several of the components needed in simulants such as glasses, agglutinates, and breccias are simply not available or not reasonably matched by existing terrestrial resources. Therefore, techniques to produce these in useful quantities were developed and used. Included in this list is the synthesis of specific minerals. The manufacture of two simulants, NU-LHT-1M and NU-LHT-2M, is covered in detail.

  12. Design and Test of Low-Profile Composite Aerospace Tank Dome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the design, analysis, manufacture, and test of a subscale, low-profile composite aerospace dome under internal pressure. A low-profile dome has a radius-to-height ratio greater than the square root of two. This effort demonstrated that a low-profile composite dome with a radius-to-height ratio of three was a feasible design and could adequately withstand the varying stress states resulting from internal pressurization. Test data for strain and displacement versus pressure are provided to validate the design.

  13. Access to Japanese aerospace-related scientific and technical information: The NASA Aerospace Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoetker, Glenn P.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    With Japan's growing R&D strength in aerospace-related fields, it is increasingly important for U.S. researchers to be aware of Japanese advances. However, several factors make it difficult to do so. After reviewing the diffusion of aerospace STI in Japan, four factors which make it difficult for U.S. researchers to gather this information are discussed: language, the human network, information scatter, and document acquisition. NASA activities to alleviate these difficulties are described, beginning with a general overview of the NASA STI Program. The effects of the new National Level Agreement between NASA and NASDA are discussed.

  14. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  15. Benefits briefing notebook: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy is presented. The contents of this notebook are divided into three sections: (1) benefit cases, (2) transfer overview, and (3) indexes. Transfer examples relevant to each subject area are presented. Pertinent transfer data are given. The Transfer Overview section provides a general perspective for technology transfer from NASA to other organizations. In addition to a description of the basic transfer modes, the selection criteria for notebook examples and the kinds of benefit data they contain are also presented.

  16. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  17. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  18. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  19. "Fly-by-Wireless": A Revolution in Aerospace Vehicle Architecture for Instrumentation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace vehicle programs have always counted on the cables and connectors to provide power, grounding, data and time synchronization throughout a vehicle's life-cycle. Even with numerous improvements, wiring and connector problems and sensors continue to be key failure points, causing many hours of troubleshooting and replacement. Costly flight delays have been precipitated by the need to troubleshoot cables/connections, and/or repair a sensor. Wiring continues to be too expensive to remove once it is installed, even with the weight penalties. Miles of test instrumentation and low flight sensor wires still plague the aerospace industry. New technology options for data connectivity, processing and micro/nano manufacturing are making it possible to retrofit existing vehicles, like the Space Shuttle. New vehicles can now develop architectures that provide for and take advantage of alternatives to wired connectivity. This project motivates the aerospace industry and technology providers to establish: (1) A new emphasis for system engineering approaches to reduce cables and connectors. (2) Provisions for modularity and accessibility in the vehicle architecture. (3) A set of technologies that support alternatives to wired connectivity.

  20. ASRC Aerospace Corporation Selects Dynamically Reconfigurable Anadigm(Registered Trademark) FPAA For Advanced Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.

    2003-01-01

    Anadigm(registered trademark) today announced that ASRC Aerospace Corporation has designed Anadigm's dynamically reconfigurable Field Programmable Analog Array (FPAA) technology into an advanced data acquisition system developed under contract for NASA. ASRC Aerospace designed in the Anadigm(registered trademark) FPAA to provide complex analog signal conditioning in its intelligent, self-calibrating, and self-healing advanced data acquisition system (ADAS). The ADAS has potential applications in industrial, manufacturing, and aerospace markets. This system offers highly reliable operation while reducing the need for user interaction. Anadigm(registered trademark)'s dynamically reconfigurable FPAAs can be reconfigured in-system by the designer or on the fly by a microprocessor. A single device can thus be programmed to implement multiple analog functions and/or to adapt on-the-fly to maintain precision operation despite system degradation and aging. In the case of the ASRC advanced data acquisition system, the FPAA helps ensure that the system will continue to operating at 100% functionality despite changes in the environment, component degradation, and/or component failures.

  1. Index of aerospace mechanisms symposia proceedings 1-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinaldo, A.; Wilson, J.

    1986-01-01

    This index, organized in five sections (by symposium, by title, by author, by subject, and by project), brings together information on the first 19 Aerospace Mechanisms symposia. Key words are included, cross-referencing all the symposia, and the eighteenth and nineteenth symposia are cross-indexed by project. The Aerospace Mechanisms symposia are devoted to discussions of design, fabrication, test, and operational use of aerospace mechanisms; this is the first index that compiles information on symposia held from 1966 through 1985.

  2. An international aerospace information system - A cooperative opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blados, Walter R.; Cotter, Gladys A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents for consideration new possibilities for uniting the various aerospace database efforts toward a cooperative international aerospace database initiative that can optimize the cost-benefit equation for all members. The development of astronautics and aeronautics in individual nations has led to initiatives for national aerospace databases. Technological developments in information technology and science, as well as the reality of scarce resources, makes it necessary to reconsider the mutually beneficial possibilities offered by cooperation and international resource sharing.

  3. Parts Selection for Space Systems - An Overview and Radiation Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the selection of electronic parts for aerospace systems from a space radiation perspective. The topics include: 1) The Trade Space Involved with Part Selection; 2) Understanding Risk; 3) Technical/Design Aspects; 4) Programmatic Overview; 5) Radiation Perspective; 6) Reliability Considerations; 7) An Example Ad hoc Battle; and 8) Sources of Radiation Data.

  4. Strain characterization of embedded aerospace smart materials using shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Andrei G.; Müller, Bernhard; Sinke, Jos; Groves, Roger M.

    2015-04-01

    The development of smart materials for embedding in aerospace composites provides enhanced functionality for future aircraft structures. Critical flight conditions like icing of the leading edges can affect the aircraft functionality and controllability. Hence, anti-icing and de-icing capabilities are used. In case of leading edges made of fibre metal laminates heater elements can be embedded between composite layers. However this local heating causes strains and stresses in the structure due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the different laminated materials. In order to characterize the structural behaviour during thermal loading full-field strain and shape measurement can be used. In this research, a shearography instrument with three spatially-distributed shearing cameras is used to measure surface displacement gradients which give a quantitative estimation of the in- and out-of-plane surface strain components. For the experimental part, two GLARE (Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy) specimens with six different embedded copper heater elements were manufactured: two copper mesh shapes (straight and S-shape), three connection techniques (soldered, spot welded and overlapped) and one straight heater element with delaminations. The surface strain behaviour of the specimens due to thermal loading was measured and analysed. The comparison of the connection techniques of heater element parts showed that the overlapped connection has the smallest effect on the surface strain distribution. Furthermore, the possibility of defect detection and defect depth characterisation close to the heater elements was also investigated.

  5. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, B.; Beall, H. C.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Eakes, R. E.; Kizakevich, P. N.; Mccartney, M.; Rouse, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Utilization of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) technology in medicine is discussed. The objective is best obtained by stimulation of the introduction of new or improved commercially available medical products incorporating aerospace technology. A bipolar donor/recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented to provide a basis for the team's methodology. That methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and NASA technology that, in combination, constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial transfers were completed: the Stowaway, a lightweight wheelchair that provides mobility for the disabled and elderly in the cabin of commercial aircraft, and Micromed, a portable medication infusion pump for the reliable, continuous infusion of medications such as heparin or insulin. The marketing and manufacturing factors critical to the commercialization of the lightweight walker incorporating composite materials were studied. Progress was made in the development and commercialization of each of the 18 currently active projects.

  6. Finite element analysis of composites materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhaniza, M.; Ariffin, M. K. A.; Ali, Aidy; Mustapha, F.; Noraini, A. W.

    2010-05-01

    Composites materials are intended to be used more extensively as an alternative of aluminum structure in aircraft and aerospace applications. This is due to their attractive properties as high strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness-to-weight ratio. Besides that it clarifies the growing interest for composites materials due to advantages of lightweight, high strength, high stiffness, superior fatigue life, tremendous corrosion resistance and low cost manufacturing. In this study, a finite element analysis (FEA) of fiberglass unidirectional E-type was analyzed in the framework of ABAQUS finite element commercial software. The analysis was done to quantify the mechanical properties and response of unidirectional E-glass in term of tensile, compression and thermal responses. From the analysis, the maximum and minimum values of stress and strain for E-glass 21xK43 Gevetex and Silenka E-glass 1200tex were obtained and stress-strain curve is presented. The ultimate load of failure, elastic behavior, tensile strength and other properties for each laminated plates under tensile and thermal-stress are determined from stress-strain curves. The simulation will run twice for each material where the first simulation based on orientation angles of 45° for ply-1, -45° for ply-2 and 90° for ply-3 while the second simulation, the orientation angles is 0° for all plies. The simulation is successfully conducted and verified by experimental data.

  7. Compliance with the Aerospace MACT Standard at Lockheed Martin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurucz, K.L.; Vicars, S.; Fetter, S.; Mueller, T.

    1997-12-31

    Actions taken and planned at four Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) facilities to comply with the Aerospace MACT Standard are reviewed. Many LMC sites have taken proactive steps to reduce emissions and implement low VOC coating technology. Significant administrative, facility, and material challenges remain to achieve compliance with the upcoming NESHAP and Control Technology Guideline (CTG) standards. The facilities discussed herein set up programs to develop and implement compliance strategies. These facilities manufacture military aircraft, missiles, satellites, rockets, and electronic guidance and communications systems. Some of the facilities are gearing up for new production lines subject to new source MACT standards. At this time the facilities are reviewing compliance status of all primers, topcoats, maskants and solvents subject to the standard. Facility personnel are searching for the most efficient methods of satisfying the recordkeeping, reporting and monitoring, sections of the standards while simultaneously preparing or reviewing their Title V permit applications. Facility decisions on paint booths are the next highest priority. Existing dry filter paint booths will be subject to the filtration standard for existing paint booths which requires the use of two-stage filters. Planned paint booths for the F-22 program, and other new booths must comply with the standard for new and rebuilt booths which requires three stage or HEPA filters. Facilities looking to replace existing water wash paint booths, and those required to retrofit the air handling equipment to accommodate the two-stage filters, are reviewing issues surrounding the rebuilt source definition.

  8. High-Fidelity Simulation in Biomedical and Aerospace Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Introduction / Background. Modeling and Simulation Challenges in Aerospace Engineering. Modeling and Simulation Challenges in Biomedical Engineering. Digital Astronaut. Project Columbia. Summary and Discussion.

  9. Silicon Valley's Processing Needs versus San Jose State University's Manufacturing Systems Processing Component: Implications for Industrial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing professionals within universities tend to view manufacturing systems from a global perspective. This perspective tends to assume that manufacturing processes are employed equally in every manufacturing enterprise, irrespective of the geography and the needs of the people in those diverse regions. But in reality local and societal…

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 39: The role of computer networks in aerospace engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Ann P.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from an empirical investigation into the use of computer networks in aerospace engineering. Such networks allow aerospace engineers to communicate with people and access remote resources through electronic mail, file transfer, and remote log-in. The study drew its subjects from private sector, government and academic organizations in the U.S. aerospace industry. Data presented here were gathered in a mail survey, conducted in Spring 1993, that was distributed to aerospace engineers performing a wide variety of jobs. Results from the mail survey provide a snapshot of the current use of computer networks in the aerospace industry, suggest factors associated with the use of networks, and identify perceived impacts of networks on aerospace engineering work and communication.

  11. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

  12. Oklahoma Aerospace Intellectual Capital/Educational Recommendations: An Inquiry of Oklahoma Aerospace Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Erin M.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to conduct detailed personal interviews with aerospace industry executives/managers from both the private and military sectors from across Oklahoma to determine their perceptions of intellectual capital needs of the industry. Interviews with industry executives regarding…

  13. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter.

  15. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems cryocooler overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, J.; Tward, E.

    2010-09-01

    Mechanical long life cryocoolers are an enabling technology used to cool a wide variety of detectors in space applications. These coolers provide cooling over a range of temperatures from 2 K to 200 K, cooling powers from tens of mW to tens of watts. Typical applications are missile warning, Earth and climate sciences, astronomy and cryogenic propellant management. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) has delivered many of the US flight cooler systems and has 12 long life pulse tube and Stirling coolers on orbit with two having over 11 years of continuous operation. This paper will provide an overview of the NGAS cryocooler capabilities.

  16. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sowle, D.

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  17. Infrared signature studies of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahulikar, Shripad P.; Sonawane, Hemant R.; Arvind Rao, G.

    2007-10-01

    Infrared (IR) emissions from aircraft are used to detect, track, and lock-on to the target. MAN Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS) have emerged as a major cause of aircraft and helicopter loss. Therefore, IR signature studies are important to counter this threat for survivability enhancement, and are an important aspect of stealth technology. This paper reviews contemporary developments in this discipline, with particular emphasis on IR signature prediction from aerospace vehicles. The role of atmosphere in IR signature analysis, and relation between IR signature level and target susceptibility are illustrated. Also, IR signature suppression systems and countermeasure techniques are discussed, to highlight their effectiveness and implications in terms of penalties.

  18. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tank, Ming H.

    1991-01-01

    A program to develop the technology for reusable airbreathing hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles is addressed. Information on the following topics is presented in viewgraph form: (1) the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program schedule; (2) the NASP program organization; (3) competitive strategy; (4) propulsion options; (5) wind tunnel data available for NASP; (6) ground track of envelope expansion; and (7) altitude vs. Mach number. A NASP/Space Shuttle comparison, NASP configuration matrix, and the propulsion concept of a high speed scramjet are also briefly addressed.

  19. Computational composite mechanics for aerospace propulsion structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Specialty methods are presented for the computational simulation of specific composite behavior. These methods encompass all aspects of composite mechanics, impact, progressive fracture and component specific simulation. Some of these methods are structured to computationally simulate, in parallel, the composite behavior and history from the initial fabrication through several missions and even to fracture. Select methods and typical results obtained from such simulations are described in detail in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of computationally simulating (1) complex composite structural behavior in general and (2) specific aerospace propulsion structural components in particular.

  20. Computational composite mechanics for aerospace propulsion structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1987-01-01

    Specialty methods are presented for the computational simulation of specific composite behavior. These methods encompass all aspects of composite mechanics, impact, progressive fracture and component specific simulation. Some of these methods are structured to computationally simulate, in parallel, the composite behavior and history from the initial frabrication through several missions and even to fracture. Select methods and typical results obtained from such simulations are described in detail in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of computationally simulating: (1) complex composite structural behavior in general, and (2) specific aerospace propulsion structural components in particular.

  1. Interdisciplinary optimum design. [of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1986-01-01

    Problems related to interdisciplinary interactions in the design of a complex engineering systems are examined with reference to aerospace applications. The interdisciplinary optimization problems examined include those dealing with controls and structures, materials and structures, control and stability, structure and aerodynamics, and structure and thermodynamics. The discussion is illustrated by the following specific applications: integrated aerodynamic/structural optimization of glider wing; optimization of an antenna parabolic dish structure for minimum weight and prescribed emitted signal gain; and a multilevel optimization study of a transport aircraft.

  2. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  3. 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of the 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, on May 7-9, 1986, is documented herein. During the 3 days, 23 technical papers were presented by experts from the United States and Western Europe. A panel discussion by an International group of experts on future directions In mechanisms was also presented; this discussion, however, is not documented herein. The technical topics addressed included deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, thermal/mechanical/hydraulic actuators, latching devices, positioning mechanisms, robotic manipulators, and computerized mechanisms synthesis.

  4. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to determine the feasibility of utilizing controllable mechanical seals for aerospace applications. A potential application was selected as a demonstration case: the buffer gas seal in a LOX (liquid oxygen) turbopump. Currently, floating ring seals are used in this application. Their replacement with controllable mechanical seals would result in substantially reduced leakage rates. This would reduce the required amount of stored buffer gas, and therefore increase the vehicle payload. For such an application, a suitable controllable mechanical seal was designed and analyzed.

  5. Structural Optimization of Conceptual Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace vehicle structures must be optimized for mass to maximize the mission payload. During the conceptual design phase, structures must be optimized to accurately predict the mass of the design. Analysis methods that are used in sizing members should allow for the selection of a variety of metallic and composite materials and user-defined geometry constraints. Rapid vehicle structural analysis is often necessary to improve the fidelity and the results that are obtained during the preliminary design. Recent experiences are highlighted that utilize the Collier Research Corporation's Hypersizer toolset to optimize structural concepts.

  6. Fiber optic smart structures for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric

    Fiber optic smart structures as applied to aerospace platforms are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on advantages of these structures which include weight saving for equivalent performance, immunity to electromagnetic interference, the ability to multiplex a number of fiber optic sensors along a single line, the inherent high bandwidth of fiber optic sensors and the data links supporting them, the ability to perform in extremely hostile environments at high temperatures, vibration, and shock loadings. It is concluded that fiber optic smart structures have a considerable potential to enhance the value of future aircraft and spacecraft through improved reliability, maintainability, and flight performance augmentation.

  7. CAD/CAM in packaging aerospace electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargione, F.

    1980-04-01

    It is noted that hard-wired, welded circuits hold an important place in aerospace systems because they allow short production runs to be prepared quickly. However, the electronic system designs are very complicated and demanding to work on manually. The article describes a design process which saves time and effort without reducing the designer's freedom. It is shown that the CAD/CAM equipment produces all the drawings and extracts from the data needed to generate NC tapes for drilling and welding boards. In addition, it produces the artwork for etching the boards. Discussion covers the advance the system represents in cost effectiveness, versatility, and reliability.

  8. Knowledge-based simulation for aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Ralph W.; Sliwa, Nancy E.; Harrison, F. Wallace, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge-based techniques, which offer many features that are desirable in the simulation and development of aerospace vehicle operations, exhibit many similarities to traditional simulation packages. The eventual solution of these systems' current symbolic processing/numeric processing interface problem will lead to continuous and discrete-event simulation capabilities in a single language, such as TS-PROLOG. Qualitative, totally-symbolic simulation methods are noted to possess several intrinsic characteristics that are especially revelatory of the system being simulated, and capable of insuring that all possible behaviors are considered.

  9. Regulatory and quality considerations for continuous manufacturing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Allison, Gretchen; Cain, Yanxi Tan; Cooney, Charles; Garcia, Tom; Bizjak, Tara Gooen; Holte, Oyvind; Jagota, Nirdosh; Komas, Bekki; Korakianiti, Evdokia; Kourti, Dora; Madurawe, Rapti; Morefield, Elaine; Montgomery, Frank; Nasr, Moheb; Randolph, William; Robert, Jean-Louis; Rudd, Dave; Zezza, Diane

    2015-03-01

    This paper assesses the current regulatory environment, relevant regulations and guidelines, and their impact on continuous manufacturing. It summarizes current regulatory experience and learning from both review and inspection perspectives. It outlines key regulatory aspects, including continuous manufacturing process description and control strategy in regulatory files, process validation, and key Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) requirements. In addition, the paper identifies regulatory gaps and challenges and proposes a way forward to facilitate implementation. PMID:25830179

  10. Challenges and Opportunities While Developing a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine Within a Product Development Partnership: A Manufacturer's Perspective From the Serum Institute of India

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Socquet, Muriel; Jadhav, Suresh S.; Kapre, Subhash V.; LaForce, F. Marc; Poonawalla, Cyrus S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2002, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) chose the Serum Institute of India, Ltd (SIIL), as its manufacturing partner to establish a product development partnership (PDP) with the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP). MVP was a collaboration between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop meningococcal conjugate vaccines for sub-Saharan Africa. Method. From the outset, SIIL recognized that a partnership with MVP carried some risk but also offered important opportunities for accessing new conjugate vaccine technology and know-how. Over 3 years, SIIL successfully accepted technology transfer for the group A meningococcal polysaccharide from SynCo Bio Partners and a conjugation method from the US Food and Drug Administration. Results. SIIL successfully scaled up production of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine that used SIIL tetanus toxoid as the carrier protein. Phase 1 studies began in India in 2005, followed by phase 2/3 studies in Africa and India. A regulatory dossier was submitted to the Indian authorities in April 2009 and WHO in September 2009. Export license was granted in December 2009, and WHO prequalification was obtained in June 2010. Vaccine was introduced at public scale in Burkina Faso that December. The group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was named MenAfriVac, and is the first internationally qualified vaccine developed outside of big pharma. Conclusions. The project proved to be a sound investment for SIIL and is a concrete example of the potential for PDPs to provide needed products for resource-poor countries. PMID:26553678

  11. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  12. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  13. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future. PMID:24764230

  14. Integrated design and manufacturing for the high speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae Moon; Gupta, Anurag; Mueller, Craig; Morrisette, Monica; Dec, John; Brewer, Jason; Donofrio, Kevin; Sturisky, Hilton; Smick, Doug; An, Meng Lin

    1994-01-01

    In June 1992, the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Tech was awarded a three year NASA University Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) grant to address issues associated with the Integrated Design and Manufacturing of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations in its graduate Aerospace Systems Design courses. This report provides an overview of the on-going Georgia Tech initiative to address these design/manufacturing issues during the preliminary design phases of an HSCT concept. The new design methodology presented here has been incorporated in the graduate aerospace design curriculum and is based on the concept of Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD). The selection of the HSCT as a pilot project was motivated by its potential global transportation payoffs; its technological, environmental, and economic challenges; and its impact on U.S. global competitiveness. This pilot project was the focus of each of the five design courses that form the graduate level aerospace systems design curriculum. This year's main objective was the development of a systematic approach to preliminary design and optimization and its implementation to an HSCT wing/propulsion configuration. The new methodology, based on the Taguchi Parameter Design Optimization Method (PDOM), was established and was used to carry out a parametric study where various feasible alternative configurations were evaluated. The comparison criterion selected for this evaluation was the economic impact of this aircraft, measured in terms of average yield per revenue passenger mile ($/RPM).

  15. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Selected Aerospace Education Workshops in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maupin, Pauline Hicks

    1976-01-01

    Data from questionnaires indicated that the Tennessee Aerospace Education Workshops were successful in reaching their stated goals, which included developing a greater awareness of aerospace education and helping teachers incorporate more aerospace education in classroom activities. (MLH)

  16. Pathways and Challenges to Innovation in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrile, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores impediments to innovation in aerospace and suggests how successful pathways from other industries can be adopted to facilitate greater innovation. Because of its nature, space exploration would seem to be a ripe field of technical innovation. However, engineering can also be a frustratingly conservative endeavor when the realities of cost and risk are included. Impediments like the "find the fault" engineering culture, the treatment of technical risk as almost always evaluated in terms of negative impact, the difficult to account for expansive Moore's Law growth when making predictions, and the stove-piped structural organization of most large aerospace companies and federally funded research laboratories tend to inhibit cross-cutting technical innovation. One successful example of a multi-use cross cutting application that can scale with Moore's Law is the Evolutionary Computational Methods (ECM) technique developed at the Jet Propulsion Lab for automated spectral retrieval. Future innovations like computational engineering and automated design optimization can potentially redefine space exploration, but will require learning lessons from successful innovators.

  17. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Choi, Jachoon; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1990-01-01

    High- and low-frequency methods to analyze various radiation elements located on aerospace vehicles with combinations of conducting, nonconducting, and energy absorbing surfaces and interfaces. The focus was on developing fundamental concepts, techniques, and algorithms which would remove some of the present limitations in predicting radiation characteristics of antennas on complex aerospace vehicles. In order to accomplish this, the following subjects were examined: (1) the development of techniques for rigorous analysis of surface discontinuities of metallic and nonmetallic surfaces using the equivalent surface impedance concept and Green's function; (2) the effects of anisotropic material on antenna radiation patterns through the use of an equivalent surface impedance concept which is incorporated into the existing numerical electromagnetics computer codes; and (3) the fundamental concepts of precipitation static (P-Static), such as formulations and analytical models. A computer code was used to model the P-Static process on a simple structure. Measurement techniques were also developed to characterized the electrical properties at microwave frequencies. Samples of typical materials used in airframes were tested and the results are included.

  18. [Aerospace radiobiology: 35 years (1960-1995)].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Davydov, B I

    1996-01-01

    The paper gives a brief history of the birth and development of aerospace radiobiology at the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. It covers from the first radiobiological investigations in space to the insurance of radiation safety for helicopter air crews who took part in cleaning-up operations of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The workers of the Radiobiological Laboratory have performed some research theoretical and practical tasks in the interests of aviation and space, civil and military medicine: the impact of gravitation and radiation on genetic structures has been studied, a radiation safety system for vehicles of different use has been developed, new principles in the standardization of EMF for radiofrequency and microwave bands have been proposed, the new radioprotective agent indralin (B, B-190) has been discovered, which is accepted for supply and used in rotary wing aircraft pilots during liquidation works at the Chernobyl atomic power station. New experimental data on the combined effects of radiation and non-radiation flight factors have been obtained. Basically new data on the mechanism of action of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on the brain have been also gained, a system for assessing the health and rehabilitation of pilots that cleaned-up the Chernobyl accident has been developed. Professor Pavel Petrovich Saksonov, RF Honoured Scientist, has the honour to create a school of aerospace radiobiology. PMID:8963185

  19. Summary of aerospace and nuclear engineering activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Texas A&M Nuclear and Aerospace engineering departments have worked on five different projects for the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program during the 1987/88 year. The aerospace department worked on two types of lunar tunnelers that would create habitable space. The first design used a heated cone to melt the lunar regolith, and the second used a conventional drill to bore its way through the crust. Both used a dump truck to get rid of waste heat from the reactor as well as excess regolith from the tunneling operation. The nuclear engineering department worked on three separate projects. The NEPTUNE system is a manned, outer-planetary explorer designed with Jupiter exploration as the baseline mission. The lifetime requirement for both reactor and power-conversion systems was twenty years. The second project undertaken for the power supply was a Mars Sample Return Mission power supply. This was designed to produce 2 kW of electrical power for seven years. The design consisted of a General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) utilizing a Stirling engine as the power conversion unit. A mass optimization was performed to aid in overall design. The last design was a reactor to provide power for propulsion to Mars and power on the surface. The requirements of 300 kW of electrical power output and a mass of less than 10,000 Rg were set. This allowed the reactor and power conversion unit to fit within the Space Shuttle cargo bay.

  20. Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

  1. Hybrid techniques for complex aerospace electromagnetics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberle, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Important aerospace electromagnetics problems include the evaluation of antenna performance on aircraft and the prediction and control of the aircraft's electromagnetic signature. Due to the ever increasing complexity and expense of aircraft design, aerospace engineers have become increasingly dependent on computer solutions. Traditionally, computational electromagnetics (CEM) has relied primarily on four disparate techniques: the method of moments (MoM), the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, the finite element method (FEM), and high frequency asymptotic techniques (HFAT) such as ray tracing. Each of these techniques has distinct advantages and disadvantages, and no single technique is capable of accurately solving all problems of interest on computers that are available now or will be available in the foreseeable future. As a result, new approaches that overcome the deficiencies of traditional techniques are beginning to attract a great deal of interest in the CEM community. Among these new approaches are hybrid methods which combine two or more of these techniques into a coherent model. During the ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program a hybrid FEM/MoM computer code was developed and applied to a geometry containing features found on many modern aircraft.

  2. Research Opportunities in Advanced Aerospace Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Bangert, Linda S.; Garber, Donald P.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McKinley, Robert E.; Sutton, Kenneth; Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Weinstein, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    This report is a review of a team effort that focuses on advanced aerospace concepts of the 21st Century. The paper emphasis advanced technologies, rather than cataloging every unusual aircraft that has ever been attempted. To dispel the myth that "aerodynamics is a mature science" an extensive list of "What we cannot do, or do not know" was enumerated. A zeit geist, a feeling for the spirit of the times, was developed, based on existing research goals. Technological drivers and the constraints that might influence these technological developments in a future society were also examined. The present status of aeronautics, space exploration, and non-aerospace applications, both military and commercial, including enabling technologies are discussed. A discussion of non-technological issues affecting advanced concepts research is presented. The benefit of using the study of advanced vehicles as a tool to uncover new directions for technology development is often necessary. An appendix is provided containing examples of advanced vehicle configurations currently of interest.

  3. Comments on a military transatmospheric aerospace plane

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The conceptual design of a military transatmospheric aerospace plane candidate involves the selection of the mission(s), operating environment, operational concept, payload definition, specific design choices, and a close look at the technology base. A broad range of missions and concepts were reviewed prior to the selection of the mission and concepts presented in this paper. The mission selected was CONUS based global strike. The flight profile selected was a boost-glide-skip unrefuled global range trajectory. Two concepts were selected. The first was a rocket-powered design and the second was a combined air-breathing and rocket powered design. The rocket-powered configuration is a high lift-to-drag ratio modified lifting body. The rocket engine is an advanced dual fuel linear aero-spike. The air-breathing powered configuration is a modified waverider configuration. The engine for the air-breather is a rocket based combined cycle engine. Performance and technology readiness comparisons are presented for the two concepts. The paper closes with a discussion of lessons learned about military transatmospheric aerospace planes over the past twenty years. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Overview of the Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venneri, S. L.

    1983-01-01

    To respond to national needs for improved productivity in engineering design and manufacturing, a NASA supported joint industry/government project is underway denoted Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD). The objective is to improve engineering productivity through better use of computer technology. It focuses on development of data base management technology and associated software for integrated company wide management of engineering and manufacturing information. Results to date on the IPAD project include an in depth documentation of a representative design process for a large engineering project, the definition and design of computer aided design software needed to support that process, and the release of prototype software to manage engineering information. This paper provides an overview of the IPAD project and summarizes progress to date and future plans.

  5. Quality control and health monitoring of aerospace composites via quadrupole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Catherine; Vierkoetter, Stephanie A.

    2005-05-01

    Techniques for quality control and health monitoring of aerospace composite structures must be reliable, nonintrusive and preferably, non-contacting. Quadrupole resonance (QR) spectroscopy can fill this need. Previously, we have demonstrated that Quadrupole Resonance can be used for nondestructive inspection of polymeric fiber-reinforced composites, which can be exploited for both in-service inspection and on-going structural health monitoring.1-6 In this paper we present an extension of this work, applying the QR method to the quality control of composite parts manufactured via pultrusion. In order to use the QR method for quality control of composite parts they must contain a small amount of tiny crystals of a QR active compound. These crystals are embedded in the part during the manufacture by blending it into the uncured resin. The QR active crystals sense any residual strains that may form inside the part during the manufacturing process. The crystals are interrogated via a single-side coil detector head, which transmits radio frequency (RF) pulses into the composite part. The strain-dependent QR response from the crystals is picked up by the same detector head. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the QR method is very successful at distinguishing composites parts manufactured under optimal conditions from those that were manufactured with a misaligned die or at reduced temperatures. Both QR frequency and line widths were used as a distinguishing parameter.

  6. 77 FR 25502 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, May 25, 2012, 10:00-11:00 a.m. CST... Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington,...

  7. 32 CFR 705.30 - Aerospace Education Workshop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aerospace Education Workshop. 705.30 Section 705... REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.30 Aerospace Education Workshop. (a) This... education programs. (b) Appropriate commands are encouraged to provide assistance to...

  8. 32 CFR 705.30 - Aerospace Education Workshop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aerospace Education Workshop. 705.30 Section 705... REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.30 Aerospace Education Workshop. (a) This... education programs. (b) Appropriate commands are encouraged to provide assistance to...

  9. 32 CFR 705.30 - Aerospace Education Workshop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerospace Education Workshop. 705.30 Section 705... REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.30 Aerospace Education Workshop. (a) This... education programs. (b) Appropriate commands are encouraged to provide assistance to...

  10. 32 CFR 705.30 - Aerospace Education Workshop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aerospace Education Workshop. 705.30 Section 705... REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.30 Aerospace Education Workshop. (a) This... education programs. (b) Appropriate commands are encouraged to provide assistance to...

  11. State Aerospace Education Resource/Interest Survey Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukert, Michael A.

    1974-01-01

    Study consisted of a six-item questionnaire sent to 155 district school superintendents, to advise Montana's secondary program planners of the availability and nationwide popularity of high school aerospace education offerings and to solicit input concerning interest in on-site capability of supporting a one and two semester aerospace elective in…

  12. A RESOURCE BOOK OF AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Public Schools, NE.

    THIS RESOURCE BOOK OF ACTIVITIES WAS WRITTEN FOR TEACHERS OF GRADES K-6, TO HELP THEM INTEGRATE AEROSPACE SCIENCE WITH THE REGULAR LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF THE CLASSROOM. SUGGESTIONS ARE MADE FOR INTRODUCING AEROSPACE CONCEPTS INTO THE VARIOUS SUBJECT FIELDS SUCH AS LANGUAGE ARTS, MATHEMATICS, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, SOCIAL STUDIES, AND OTHERS. SUBJECT…

  13. Leak Detection and Location Technology Assessment for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Coffey, Neil C.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2008-01-01

    Micro Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) and other impacts can cause leaks in the International Space Station and other aerospace vehicles. The early detection and location of leaks is paramount to astronaut safety. Therefore this document surveys the state of the art in leak detection and location technology for aerospace vehicles.

  14. Aerospace Technology Curriculum Guide. Invest in Success. Vo. Ed. #260.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains standards for an articulated secondary and postsecondary curriculum in aerospace technology. The curriculum standards can be used to ensure that vocational programs meet the needs of local business and industry. The first part of the document contains a task list and student performance standards for the aerospace technology…

  15. Current Trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jii

    A proposal for current trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan has been drawn from the suggestions made after a national conference of "Workshop on Aerospace Engineering Education Reform." This workshop was held in January 18-20, 1998, at the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan,…

  16. 75 FR 6407 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Flight Center Launch Abort System Responsibilities; and Marshall Space Flight Center Industrial Safety... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Wednesday, February 24, 2010, 12:30 p.m. to 2:30...

  17. 32 CFR 705.30 - Aerospace Education Workshop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerospace Education Workshop. 705.30 Section 705... REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.30 Aerospace Education Workshop. (a) This... education programs. (b) Appropriate commands are encouraged to provide assistance to...

  18. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  19. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 10: The NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge DIffusion Research Project in helping to maintain U.S. competitiveness is addressed. The phases of the project are examined in terms of the focus, emphasis, subjects, methods, and desired outcomes. The importance of the project to aerospace R&D is emphasized.

  1. AI in manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, John E.; Minato, Rick; Smith, David M.; Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    AI techniques are shown to have been useful in such aerospace industry tasks as vehicle configuration layouts, process planning, tool design, numerically-controlled programming of tools, production scheduling, and equipment testing and diagnosis. Accounts are given of illustrative experiences at the production facilities of three major aerospace defense contractors. Also discussed is NASA's autonomous Intelligent Computer-Aided Training System, for such ambitious manned programs as Space Station Freedom, which employs five different modules to constitute its job-independent training architecture.

  2. AI in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, John E.; Minato, Rick; Smith, David M.; Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-10-01

    AI techniques are shown to have been useful in such aerospace industry tasks as vehicle configuration layouts, process planning, tool design, numerically-controlled programming of tools, production scheduling, and equipment testing and diagnosis. Accounts are given of illustrative experiences at the production facilities of three major aerospace defense contractors. Also discussed is NASA's autonomous Intelligent Computer-Aided Training System, for such ambitious manned programs as Space Station Freedom, which employs five different modules to constitute its job-independent training architecture.

  3. Technical communications in aerospace - An analysis of the practices reported by U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    The flow of scientific and technical information (STI) at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels is studied. The responses of U.S and European aerospace engineers and scientists to questionnaires concerning technical communications in aerospace are examined. Particular attention is given to the means used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Demographic data about the survey respondents are provided. The methods used to communicate technical data and the sources utilized to solve technical problems are described. The importance of technical writing skills and the use of computer technology in the aerospace field are discussed. The derived data are useful for R&D and information managers in order to improve access to and utilization of aerospace STI.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 19: Computer and information technology and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Bishop, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    To remain a world leader in aerospace, the US must improve and maintain the professional competency of its engineers and scientists, increase the research and development (R&D) knowledge base, improve productivity, and maximize the integration of recent technological developments into the R&D process. How well these objectives are met, and at what cost, depends on a variety of factors, but largely on the ability of US aerospace engineers and scientists to acquire and process the results of federally funded R&D. The Federal Government's commitment to high speed computing and networking systems presupposes that computer and information technology will play a major role in the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. However, we know little about information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The use of computer and information technology by US aerospace engineers and scientists in academia, government, and industry is reported.

  5. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    significantly reduced cost. I acquired and improved manufacturing and prototyping skills during my tour including learning about a CAD (Computer-Aided Design) program called Creo (Creo Parametric; design software), gaining valuable conventional machining experience with lathes, CNC (Computer Numerical Control) milling machines and various other tools, and improving my engineering project communication and collaboration skills. The internship also allowed me to better understand operations at NASA. I plan to work in the aerospace industry or do academic research benefitting space science and exploration, and this internship experience will enable me to have insight into manufacturing processes for research and development.

  6. High Performance Fortran for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Zima, Hans; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of High Performance Fortran (HPF) for important classes of algorithms employed in aerospace applications. HPF is a set of Fortran extensions designed to provide users with a high-level interface for programming data parallel scientific applications, while delegating to the compiler/runtime system the task of generating explicitly parallel message-passing programs. We begin by providing a short overview of the HPF language. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the efficient use of HPF for applications involving multiple structured grids such as multiblock and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) codes as well as unstructured grid codes. We focus on the data structures and computational structures used in these codes and on the high-level strategies that can be expressed in HPF to optimally exploit the parallelism in these algorithms.

  7. Analytical prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Piersol, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given recently to the formulation and validation of analytical models for the prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration response to acoustic and fluctuating pressures. This paper summarizes the development of such analytical models for two applications, (1) structural vibrations of the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle due to broadband rocket noise and aerodynamic boundary layer turbulence, and (2) structural vibrations of general aviation aircraft due to discrete frequency propeller and reciprocating engine exhaust noise. In both cases, the spatial exterior excitations are convected pressure fields which are described on the basis of measured cross spectra (coherence and phase) information. Structural modal data are obtained from analytical predictions, and structural responses to appropriate excitation fields are calculated. The results are compared with test data, and the strengths and weaknesses of the analytical models are assessed.

  8. Development of Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology have led to the availability of smaller and more accurate sensors. Computer power to process large amounts of data is no longer the prevailing issue; thus multiple and redundant sensors can be used to obtain more accurate and comprehensive measurements in a space vehicle. The successful integration and commercialization of micro- and nanotechnology for aerospace applications require that a close and interactive relationship be developed between the technology provider and the end user early in the project. Close coordination between the developers and the end users is critical since qualification for flight is time-consuming and expensive. The successful integration of micro- and nanotechnology into space vehicles requires a coordinated effort throughout the design, development, installation, and integration processes

  9. An adaptive guidance algorithm for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradt, J. E.; Hardtla, J. W.; Cramer, E. J.

    The specifications for proposed space transportation systems are placing more emphasis on developing reusable avionics subsystems which have the capability to respond to vehicle evolution and diverse missions while at the same time reducing the cost of ground support for mission planning, contingency response and verification and validation. An innovative approach to meeting these goals is to specify the guidance problem as a multi-point boundary value problen and solve that problem using modern control theory and nonlinear constrained optimization techniques. This approach has been implemented as Gamma Guidance (Hardtla, 1978) and has been successfully flown in the Inertial Upper Stage. The adaptive guidance algorithm described in this paper is a generalized formulation of Gamma Guidance. The basic equations are presented and then applied to four diverse aerospace vehicles to demonstrate the feasibility of using a reusable, explicit, adaptive guidance algorithm for diverse applications and vehicles.

  10. Fatigue crack propagation in aerospace aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, R. P.; Piascik, R. S.; Dicus, D. L.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews fracture mechanics based, damage tolerant characterizations and predictions of fatigue crack growth in aerospace aluminum alloys. The results of laboratory experimentation and modeling are summarized in the areas of: (1) fatigue crack closure, (2) the wide range crack growth rate response of conventional aluminum alloys, (3) the fatigue behavior of advanced monolithic aluminum alloys and metal matrix composites, (4) the short crack problem, (5) environmental fatigue, and (6) variable amplitude loading. Remaining uncertainties and necessary research are identified. This work provides a foundation for the development of fatigue resistant alloys and composites, next generation life prediction codes for new structural designs and extreme environments, and to counter the problem of aging components.

  11. Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Shen, Ji Yao

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish a distributed parameter modeling technique for structural analysis, parameter estimation, vibration suppression and control synthesis of large flexible aerospace structures. This report concentrates on the research outputs produced in the last two years of the project. The main accomplishments can be summarized as follows. A new version of the PDEMOD Code had been completed. A theoretical investigation of the NASA MSFC two-dimensional ground-based manipulator facility by using distributed parameter modelling technique has been conducted. A new mathematical treatment for dynamic analysis and control of large flexible manipulator systems has been conceived, which may provide a embryonic form of a more sophisticated mathematical model for future modified versions of the PDEMOD Codes.

  12. Physics in Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tat, Hong

    2006-12-01

    Aerospace, which includes both commercial and military applications, provides a wide variety of challenging opportunities in physics. I have worked primarily in the area of sensors with projects including airport baggage scanners and defect detection for the Space Shuttle. In my current role on the Army's Future Combat Systems, we use physical models to predict battlefield sensor performance. This talk will focus on the physical principles involved in modeling electro-optical sensor performance, including the fundamental concept of minimum resolvable contrast and minimum resolvable temperature curves. I will also touch upon my experiences at Boeing and give an overview of the range of physics-related projects at Boeing. Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, TACOM 15 SEP 2006, case 06-188

  13. Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwan, Rafaela (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program was established by Dr. Samuel E. Massenberg in 1986. The program has increased from 20 participants in 1986 to 114 participants in 1995. The program is LaRC-unique and is administered by Hampton University. The program was established for the benefit of undergraduate juniors and seniors and first-year graduate students who are pursuing degrees in aeronautical engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, material science, computer science, atmospheric science, astrophysics, physics, and chemistry. Two primary elements of the LARSS Program are: (1) a research project to be completed by each participant under the supervision of a researcher who will assume the role of a mentor for the summer, and (2) technical lectures by prominent engineers and scientists. Additional elements of this program include tours of LARC wind tunnels, computational facilities, and laboratories. Library and computer facilities will be available for use by the participants.

  14. Analytical prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Piersol, A. G.

    1981-09-01

    Considerable attention has been given recently to the formulation and validation of analytical models for the prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration response to acoustic and fluctuating pressures. This paper summarizes the development of such analytical models for two applications, (1) structural vibrations of the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle due to broadband rocket noise and aerodynamic boundary layer turbulence, and (2) structural vibrations of general aviation aircraft due to discrete frequency propeller and reciprocating engine exhaust noise. In both cases, the spatial exterior excitations are convected pressure fields which are described on the basis of measured cross spectra (coherence and phase) information. Structural modal data are obtained from analytical predictions, and structural responses to appropriate excitation fields are calculated. The results are compared with test data, and the strengths and weaknesses of the analytical models are assessed.

  15. The national aero-space plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane is an extremely versatile and adaptable aircraft. It can be developed into an Orient Express that would dramatically improve trade with countries in Asia and elsewhere: a commuter transport to ferry men and materials to space, an advanced tactical fighter or bomber, and an unparalleled high altitude spy-plane to observe troubled spots all over the globe. Utilizing the technology developed by this pilot program, it will be possible to quickly and easily get to low Earth orbit, go halfway around the world in a fraction of the time it previously took, and lead the world in the development of advanced technology to improve our lives and the lives of many others.

  16. Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Aerospace Academy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is an annual report on the Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA), which is run as a collaborative effort of NASA Lewis Research Center, and Cuyahgoga Community College. The purpose of SEMA is to increase the percentage of African Americans, and Hispanics in the fields of science and technology. The SEMAA program reaches from kindergarden, to grade 12, involving the family of under-served minorities in the education of the children. The year being reported (i.e., 1996-1997) saw considerable achievement. The program served over 1,939 students, and 120 parents were involved in various seminars. The report goes on to review the program and its implementation for each grade level. It also summarizes the participation, by gender and ethnicity.

  17. Critical Systems Engineering Accelerator: Aerospace Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ricardo; Fernandez, Gonzalo; Regada, Raul; Basanta, Luis; Alana, Elena; Del Carmen Lomba, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays, the complexity and functionality of space systems is increasing more and more. Safety critical systems have to guarantee strong safety and dependability constraints. This paper presents CRYSTAL (Critical sYSTem engineering AcceLeration), a cross-domain ARTEMIS project for increasing the efficiency of the embedded software development in the industry through the definition of an integrated tool chain. CRYSTAL involves four major application domains: Aerospace, Automotive, Rail and Medical Healthcare. The impact in the Space Domain will be evaluated through a demonstrator implemented using CRYSTAL framework: the Low Level Software for an Avionics Control Unit, capable to run Application SW for autonomous navigation, image acquisition control, data compression and/or data handling. Finally, the results achieved will be evaluated taking into account the ECSS (European Committee for Space Standardization) standards and procedures.

  18. Optical Measurements for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2003-01-01

    There is growing interest in applying intelligent technologies to aerospace propulsion systems to reap expected benefits in cost, performance, and environmental compliance. Cost benefits span the engine life cycle from development, operations, and maintenance. Performance gains are anticipated in reduced fuel consumption, increased thrust-toweight ratios, and operability. Environmental benefits include generating fewer pollutants and less noise. Critical enabling technologies to realize these potential benefits include sensors, actuators, logic, electronics, materials, and structures. For propulsion applications, the challenge is to increase the robustness of these technologies so that they can withstand harsh temperatures, vibrations, and grime while providing extremely reliable performance. This paper addresses the role that optical metrology is playing in providing solutions to these challenges. Optics for ground-based testing (development cycle), flight sensing (operations), and inspection (maintenance) are described. Opportunities for future work are presented.

  19. Variant terminology. [for aerospace information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    A system called Variant Terminology Switching (VTS) is set forth that is intended to provide computer-assisted spellings for terms that have American and British versions. VTS is based on the use of brackets, parentheses, and other symbols in conjunction with letters that distinguish American and British spellings. The symbols are used in the systems as indicators of actions such as deleting, adding, and replacing letters as well as replacing entire words and concepts. The system is shown to be useful for the intended purpose and also for the recognition of misspellings and for the standardization of computerized input/output. The VTS system is of interest to the development of international retrieval systems for aerospace and other technical databases that enhance the use by the global scientific community.

  20. Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Aerospace Academy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA) was established in September, 1993, by Cuyahoga Community College and the NASA Lewis Research Center. Funding for SEMAA was provided by NASA Headquarters' Office of Equal Employment Opportunities. SEMAA brought together five preexisting youth programs at Cuyahoga Community College. All the programs shared the common goals of 1) Increasing the participation of underrepresented/underserved groups in science, mathematics and engineering and technology careers. 2) Increasing "success" rates of all students interested in science and mathematics. 3) Developing partnerships to recognize and support students interested in these fields. 4) Supporting continued success of highly successful students. The framework for each preexisting program allowed SEMAA to have a student population ranging from kindergarten through the twelfth-grade. This connectivness was the foundation for the many decisions which would make SEMAA a truly innovative program.

  1. Formal Safety Certification of Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    In principle, formal methods offer many advantages for aerospace software development: they can help to achieve ultra-high reliability, and they can be used to provide evidence of the reliability claims which can then be subjected to external scrutiny. However, despite years of research and many advances in the underlying formalisms of specification, semantics, and logic, formal methods are not much used in practice. In our opinion this is related to three major shortcomings. First, the application of formal methods is still expensive because they are labor- and knowledge-intensive. Second, they are difficult to scale up to complex systems because they are based on deep mathematical insights about the behavior of the systems (t.e., they rely on the "heroic proof"). Third, the proofs can be difficult to interpret, and typically stand in isolation from the original code. In this paper, we describe a tool for formally demonstrating safety-relevant aspects of aerospace software, which largely circumvents these problems. We focus on safely properties because it has been observed that safety violations such as out-of-bounds memory accesses or use of uninitialized variables constitute the majority of the errors found in the aerospace domain. In our approach, safety means that the program will not violate a set of rules that can range for the simple memory access rules to high-level flight rules. These different safety properties are formalized as different safety policies in Hoare logic, which are then used by a verification condition generator along with the code and logical annotations in order to derive formal safety conditions; these are then proven using an automated theorem prover. Our certification system is currently integrated into a model-based code generation toolset that generates the annotations together with the code. However, this automated formal certification technology is not exclusively constrained to our code generator and could, in principle, also be

  2. Internally Cooled Monolithic Silicon Nitride Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Jonathan E.; Cawley, James D.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Fox, Dennis S.; Lang, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A set of rapid prototyping (RP) processes have been combined with gelcasting to make ceramic aerospace components that contain internal cooling geometry. A mold and core combination is made using a MM6Pro (Sanders Prototyping, Inc.) and SLA-250/40 (3Dsystems, Inc.). The MM6Pro produces cores from ProtoBuild (trademarked) wax that are dissolved in room temperature ethanol following gelcasting. The SLA-250/40 yields epoxy/acrylate reusable molds. Parts produced by this method include two types of specimens containing a high density of thin long cooling channels, thin-walled cylinders and plates, as well as a model hollow airfoil shape that can be used for burner rig evaluation of coatings. Both uncoated and mullite-coated hollow airfoils has been tested in a Mach 0.3 burner rig with cooling air demonstrating internal cooling and confirming the effectiveness of mullite coatings.

  3. Trajectory optimization for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an efficient and robust trajectory optimization tool for the optimal ascent problem of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). This report is organized in the following order to summarize the complete work: Section two states the formulation and models of the trajectory optimization problem. An inverse dynamics approach to the problem is introduced in Section three. Optimal trajectories corresponding to various conditions and performance parameters are presented in Section four. A midcourse nonlinear feedback controller is developed in Section five. Section six demonstrates the performance of the inverse dynamics approach and midcourse controller during disturbances. Section seven discusses rocket assisted ascent which may be beneficial when orbital altitude is high. Finally, Section eight recommends areas of future research.

  4. Artificial Immune System Approaches for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) combine a priori knowledge with the adapting capabilities of biological immune system to provide a powerful alternative to currently available techniques for pattern recognition, modeling, design, and control. Immunology is the science of built-in defense mechanisms that are present in all living beings to protect against external attacks. A biological immune system can be thought of as a robust, adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. Biological immune systems use a finite number of discrete "building blocks" to achieve this adaptiveness. These building blocks can be thought of as pieces of a puzzle which must be put together in a specific way-to neutralize, remove, or destroy each unique disturbance the system encounters. In this paper, we outline AIS models that are immediately applicable to aerospace problems and identify application areas that need further investigation.

  5. Aerospace Flywheel Technology Development for IPACS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLallin, Kerry L.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Fausz, Jerry; Bauer, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) are cooperating under a space act agreement to sponsor the research and development of aerospace flywheel technologies to address mutual future mission needs. Flywheel technology offers significantly enhanced capability or is an enabling technology. Generally these missions are for energy storage and/or integrated power and attitude control systems (IPACS) for mid-to-large satellites in low earth orbit. These missions require significant energy storage as well as a CMG or reaction wheel function for attitude control. A summary description of the NASA and AFRL flywheel technology development programs is provided, followed by specific descriptions of the development plans for integrated flywheel system tests for IPACS applications utilizing both fixed and actuated flywheel units. These flywheel system development tests will be conducted at facilities at AFRL and NASA Glenn Research Center and include participation by industry participants Honeywell and Lockheed Martin.

  6. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  7. Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

  8. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  9. Optimisation of EDM fast hole drilling for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leao, F. N.

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) fast hole drilling is a thermo-electric manufacturing process in which material removal is achieved by sparks taking place between a tool electrode and the workpiece being drilled; both covered in dielectric fluid and connected to a generator delivering periodic pulses of energy at very high frequencies. There is no physical contact between the workpiece and the electrode, and the small gap separating them is maintained under servo control. EDM fast hole drilling plays a vital role in the aerospace industry. The operating temperatures of aero-engine often exceed the melting point of the materials used in its components. Hence, it is required to artificially cool different types of components including turbine blades. This is accomplished by directing bypass air into internal passages of the blade; the air flows continuality through small holes, having diameters ranging from 0.4 to 3mm and are drilled at steep angles to the baled surfaces. With EDM it is possible to drill these holes. The EDM drilling, however, operates with very high levels of relative electrode wear and high variations in cycle times making the process rather inconsistent. Using the DOE (Design of Experiments) approach, a series of studies have been carried out with the purpose of optimising the drilling process through the evaluation of water-based dielectric fluids and electrode materials, via analysis of drilling time, electrode wear, surface integrity, dimensional accuracy and costs. Factors such as the electrode length, geometry and dielectric flushing have also been studied. This work has shown that drilling times and electrode wear can be reduced by 50% and 35% respectively depending on the type of dielectric fluid/electrode material used and on the optimisation criteria employed. Significant reductions in the variations of drilling times have also been observed. Moreover, drilling time and electrode wear can be decreased by 165% and 25% respectively

  10. Charged and Neutral Particle Interactions on Aerospace Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Wilkins, Richard; Huff, Harold

    2002-07-01

    Various candidate aircraft and spacecraft materials were analyzed and compared in a neutron environment using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code and in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) and Trapped environments using the HZETRN code. These candidate materials are being used in aerospace vehicles, have been tested in particle beams, or seemed reasonable to analyze in this manner before deciding to manufacture and test them. This analysis shows that hydrogen bearing materials are better than the metal alloys for reducing the number of reflected and transmitted particles. It also shows that neutrons above 1 MeV are reflected out of the face of the slab better when larger quantities of carbon are present in the material. If a neutron absorber is added to the material, fewer neutrons are transmitted through and reflected from the material. This analysis focused on combinations of scatterers and absorbers to optimize these reaction channels on the higher energy neutron component. The absorber addition did not substantially change the charged particle transmission from the value obtained for polyethylene. The ultimate goal of this type of analysis is the selection of a layered material or material type that will optimize dose, dose equivalent, and electronic error rates inside the vehicle (and outside the vehicle if necessary for the mission). This analysis focuses on how the different material types and additives behave in the atmospheric and space related particle fields. As a secondary issue, as the amount of hydrogen bearing materials increase, larger fluxes of thermal neutrons are expected. It has been observed experimentally that large thicknesses of hydrogen bearing materials increase the error rates per neutron that occurs in SRAM memory chips. This effect is still being investigated, but it has been narrowed down to the larger mean neutron energy produced by the hydrogen bearing material. (authors)

  11. Cloud manufacturing: a new manufacturing paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yongliang; Tao, Fei; Li, Bo Hu; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Anrui; Liu, Yongkui

    2014-03-01

    Combining with the emerged technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of things, service-oriented technologies and high performance computing, a new manufacturing paradigm - cloud manufacturing (CMfg) - for solving the bottlenecks in the informatisation development and manufacturing applications is introduced. The concept of CMfg, including its architecture, typical characteristics and the key technologies for implementing a CMfg service platform, is discussed. Three core components for constructing a CMfg system, i.e. CMfg resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud are studied, and the constructing method for manufacturing cloud is investigated. Finally, a prototype of CMfg and the existing related works conducted by the authors' group on CMfg are briefly presented.

  12. An Examination of the Indiana State University Aerospace Administration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwab, Gregory L.

    2005-01-01

    Declining enrollments in the Indiana State University (ISU) aerospace administration program prompted this case study. which evaluates the program in comparison with parallel programs at other universities, industry standards, and an independent audit. Survey instruments were administered to graduates, faculty, and employers for their views on competencies of an excellent aerospace administration program Results show the deficiency of the ISU program. Graduates, faculty, and employers rated all competencies-from moderate to considerable importance-similarly for an excellent program. Recommendations for program improvement were made, and suggestions for further research include studies to evaluate the effectiveness of a revised aerospace administration program.

  13. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION ON PESTICIDES MANUFACTURING FOR SOURCE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report addresses the selection of relevant factors to gain perspective of the pollution potential from pesticides manufacturing and formulating operations and leads to the evolvement and defense of decision criteria for assessing the need for development of emissions control ...

  15. Spectroscopic Measurement Techniques for Aerospace Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Hurley, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    The conditions that characterize aerospace flows are so varied, that a single diagnostic technique is not sufficient for its measurement. Fluid dynamists use knowledge of similarity to help categorize and focus on different flow conditions. For example, the Reynolds number represents the ratio of inertial to viscous forces in a flow. When the velocity scales, length scales, and gas density are large and the magnitude of the molecular viscosity is low, the Reynolds number becomes large. This corresponds to large scale vehicles (e.g Airbus A380), fast moving objects (e.g. artillery projectiles), vehicles in dense fluids (e.g. submarine in water), or flows with low dynamic viscosity (e.g. skydiver in air). In each of these cases, the inertial forces dominate viscous forces, and unsteady turbulent fluctuations in the flow variables are observed. In contrast, flows with small length scales (e.g. dispersion of micro-particles in a solid rocket nozzle), slow moving objects (e.g. micro aerial vehicles), flows with low density gases (e.g. atmospheric re-entry), or fluids with a large magnitude of viscosity (e.g. engine coolant flow), all have low Reynolds numbers. In these cases, viscous forces become very important and often the flows can be steady and laminar. The Mach number, which is the ratio of the velocity to the speed of sound in the medium, also helps to differentiate types of flows. At very low Mach numbers, acoustic waves travel much faster than the object, and the flow can be assumed to be incompressible (e.g. Cessna 172 aircraft). As the object speed approaches the speed of sound, the gas density can become variable (e.g. flow over wing of Learjet 85). When the object speed is higher than the speed of sound (Ma > 1), the presences of shock waves and other gas dynamic features can become important to the vehicle performance (e.g. SR-71 Blackbird). In the hypersonic flow regime (Ma > 5), large changes in temperature begin to affect flow properties, causing real

  16. Aviation/Aerospace Teacher Education Workshops: Program Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mavis F.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an aviation/aerospace teacher-education workshop that allows elementary school teachers to become familiar with aviation fundamentals and issues and with ways to incorporate aviation topics into their curricula. (JOW)

  17. NASA's activities in the conservation of strategic aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary objective of the Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM) Program is to help reduce the dependence of the United States aerospace industry on strategic metals by providing the materials technology needed to minimize the strategic metal content of critical aerospace components with prime emphasis on components for gas turbine engines. Initial emphasis was placed in the area of strategic element substinction. Specifically, the role of cobalt in nickel base and cobalt base superalloys vital to the aerospace industry is being examined in great detail by means of cooperative university-industry-government research efforts. Investigations are underway in the area of "new classes" of alloys. Specifically, a study was undertaken to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of intermetallics that contain a minimum of the strategic metals. Current plans for the much larger COSAM Program are also presented.

  18. Risk communication strategy development using the aerospace systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, S.; Sklar, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the goals and challenges of NASA's risk communication efforts and how the Aerospace Systems Engineering Process (ASEP) was used to map the risk communication strategy used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to achieve these goals.

  19. 78 FR 57903 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and..., National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546-0001. Patricia D. Rausch, Advisory Committee Management Officer, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. BILLING......

  20. 76 FR 19147 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space..., Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announce a forthcoming... Director, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC 20546, (202)......