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Sample records for aerospace materials processes

  1. Dielectric barrier discharge processing of aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. J.; Figgures, C. C.; Dixon, D. G.

    2004-08-01

    We report the use of atmospheric pressure, air based, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) to treat materials commonly used in the aerospace industries. The material samples were processed using a test-bed of a conventional DBD configuration in which the sample formed one of the electrodes and was placed in close proximity to a ceramic electrode. The discharges generated a powerful, cold oxidizing environment which was able to remove organic contaminants, etch primer and paint layers, oxidize aluminium and roughen carbon fibre composites by the selective removal of resin.

  2. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  3. Laser Materials Processing for NASA's Aerospace Structural Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagarathnam, Karthik; Hunyady, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Lasers are useful for performing operations such as joining, machining, built-up freeform fabrication, and surface treatment. Due to the multifunctional nature of a single tool and the variety of materials that can be processed, these attributes are attractive in order to support long-term missions in space. However, current laser technology also has drawbacks for space-based applications. Specifically, size, power efficiency, lack of robustness, and problems processing highly reflective materials are all concerns. With the advent of recent breakthroughs in solidstate laser (e.g., diode-pumped lasers) and fiber optic technologies, the potential to perform multiple processing techniques in space has increased significantly. A review of the historical development of lasers from their infancy to the present will be used to show how these issues may be addressed. The review will also indicate where further development is necessary to realize a laser-based materials processing capability in space. The broad utility of laser beams in synthesizing various classes of engineering materials will be illustrated using state-of-the art processing maps for select lightweight alloys typically found on spacecraft. Both short- and long-term space missions will benefit from the development of a universal laser-based tool with low power consumption, improved process flexibility, compactness (e.g., miniaturization), robustness, and automation for maximum utility with a minimum of human interaction. The potential advantages of using lasers with suitable wavelength and beam properties for future space missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will be discussed. The laser processing experiments in the present report were performed using a diode pumped, pulsed/continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (50 W max average laser power), with a 1064 nm wavelength. The processed materials included Ti-6AI-4V, Al-2219 and Al-2090. For Phase I of this project, the laser process conditions were varied and optimized

  4. Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, D. E. (Editor); Stanley, D. C. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The next millennium challenges us to produce innovative materials, processes, manufacturing, and environmental technologies that meet low-cost aerospace transportation needs while maintaining US leadership. The pursuit of advanced aerospace materials, manufacturing processes, and environmental technologies supports the development of safer, operational, next-generation, reusable, and expendable aeronautical and space vehicle systems. The Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology Conference (AMPET) provided a forum for manufacturing, environmental, materials, and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess advances in these key technology areas.

  5. Computational simulation of coupled material degradation processes for probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.

    1992-01-01

    The research included ongoing development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects or primative variables. These primative variable may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation has been randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with linear regression of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constraints for each effect or primative variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from the open literature for materials typically of interest to those studying aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 was analyzed using the developed methodology.

  6. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Psarras, P. C.; Ball, D. W.; Timko, M. T.; Wong, H.-W.; Peck, J.; Chianelli, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these non-traditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and hydrogen) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activity are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  7. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  8. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  9. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  10. Collection, processing, and reporting of damage tolerant design data for non-aerospace structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, P. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the organization, format and content of the NASA Johnson damage tolerant database which was created to store damage tolerant property data for non aerospace structural materials. The database is designed to store fracture toughness data (K(sub IC), K(sub c), J(sub IC) and CTOD(sub IC)), resistance curve data (K(sub R) VS. delta a (sub eff) and JR VS. delta a (sub eff)), as well as subcritical crack growth data (a vs. N and da/dN vs. delta K). The database contains complementary material property data for both stainless and alloy steels, as well as for aluminum, nickel, and titanium alloys which were not incorporated into the Damage Tolerant Design Handbook database.

  11. Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Research efforts to reduce the dependence of the aerospace industry on strategic metals, such as cobalt (Co), columbium (Cb), tantalum (Ta), and chromium (Cr), by providing the materials technology needed to minimize the strategic metal content of critical aerospace components for gas turbine engines are addressed. Thrusts in three technology areas are identified: near term activities in the area of strategic element substitution; intermediate-range activities in the area of materials processing; and long term, high risk activities in the area of 'new classes' of high temprature metallic materials. Specifically, the role of cobalt in nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys vital to the aerospace industry is examined along with the mechanical and physical properties of intermetallics that will contain a minimum of the stragetic metals.

  12. Aerospace materials for nonaerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Dawn, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Many of the flame-resistant nonmetallic materials that were developed for the Apollo and Skylab programs are discussed for commercial and military applications. Interchanges of information are taking place with the government agencies, industries, and educational institutions, which are interested in applications of fire-safe nonmetallic materials. These materials are particularly applicable to the design of aircraft, mass transit interiors, residential and public building constructions, nursing homes and hospitals, and to other fields of fire safety applications. Figures 22, 23 and 24 show the potential nonaerospace applications of flame-resistant aerospace materials are shown.

  13. Magnetic Processing – A Pervasive Energy Efficient Technology for Next Generation Materials for Aerospace and Specialty Steel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Ludtka, G.M.; Ray, P.; Magee, J.

    2010-09-10

    Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing is an exceptionally fertile, pervasive and cross-cutting technology that is just now being recognized by several major industry leaders for its significant potential to increase energy efficiency and materials performance for a myriad of energy intensive industries in a variety of areas and applications. ORNL has pioneered the use and development of large magnetic fields in thermomagnetically processing (T-MP) materials for altering materials phase equilibria and transformation kinetics. ORNL has discovered that using magnetic fields, we can produce unique materials responses. T-MP can produce unique phase stabilities & microstructures with improved materials performance for structural and functional applications not achieved with traditional processing techniques. These results suggest that there are unprecedented opportunities to produce significantly enhanced materials properties via atomistic level (nano-) microstructural control and manipulation. ORNL (in addition to others) have shown that grain boundary chemistry and precipitation kinetics are also affected by large magnetic fields. This CRADA has taken advantage of ORNL’s unique, custom-designed thermo-magnetic, 9 Tesla superconducting magnet facility that enables rapid heating and cooling of metallic components within the magnet bore; as well as ORNL’s expertise in high magnetic field (HMF) research. Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is a a US-based industrial company, that provides enhanced performance alloys for the Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. In this CRADA, Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is focusing on applying ORNL’s Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing (TMP) technology to improve their current and future proprietary materials’ product performance and open up new markets for their Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. Unprecedented mechanical property performance improvements have been demonstrated for a high strength bainitic alloy industrial

  14. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  15. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Current research in optical processing is reviewed. Its role in future aerospace systems is determined. The development of optical devices and components demonstrates that system concepts can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  16. Research on lock-in thermography for aerospace materials of nondestructive test based on image sequence processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junyan; Dai, Jingmin; Wang, Yang

    2008-11-01

    IR Lock in thermography is an active thermography technology based on thermal wave signal processing, especially, it has many advantages for nondestructive test of composite materials and compound structure application and has been applied on aerospace, automotive, mechanics and electric fields. In lock in thermography, given sufficient time for periodic heating, the surface temperature will evolve periodically in a sinusoidal pattern form the transient state to the steady state. In this paper, the principle of lock in thermography is introduced and the heat transferring process is analyzed by the sinusoidal variation heating flow transferred in materials by means of FEM method. In experiment, the modulating optical stimulation is applied to sample, and image sequences are collected by Jade MWIR 550 FPA IR camera. The digital filter algorithm which is Savitzky-Golay digital smoothness filters is used to remove the effects of high frequency noise. A phase image at the frequency of periodic heating can be calculated using a Fourier transform of the periodic heating frequency in transient state for defect detection. The IR lock in thermography processing software is developed by using of visual C++ programmed based image sequence collected. The experimental results show that the developed system reached up to high level of conventional steady state Lock in method.

  17. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stermer, R. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Current research in optical processing, and determination of its role in future aerospace systems was reviewed. It is shown that optical processing offers significant potential for aircraft and spacecraft control, pattern recognition, and robotics. It is demonstrated that the development of optical devices and components can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  18. Materials research. [research concerning materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported concerned with materials for aerospace applications. Areas reported include: electrical properties of glasses, oxides and metals; structural and high temperature properties of crystalline and amorphous materials; and physical properties, and microstructure of materials.

  19. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  20. Liquid Nitrogen Removal of Critical Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noah, Donald E.; Merrick, Jason; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of innovative solutions to unique materials problems is an every-day quest for members of the aerospace community. Finding a technique that will minimize costs, maximize throughput, and generate quality results is always the target. United Space Alliance Materials Engineers recently conducted such a search in their drive to return the Space Shuttle fleet to operational status. The removal of high performance thermal coatings from solid rocket motors represents a formidable task during post flight disassembly on reusable expended hardware. The removal of these coatings from unfired motors increases the complexity and safety requirements while reducing the available facilities and approved processes. A temporary solution to this problem was identified, tested and approved during the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) return to flight activities. Utilization of ultra high-pressure liquid nitrogen (LN2) to strip the protective coating from assembled space shuttle hardware marked the first such use of the technology in the aerospace industry. This process provides a configurable stream of liquid nitrogen (LN2) at pressures of up to 55,000 psig. The performance of a one-time certification for the removal of thermal ablatives from SRB hardware involved extensive testing to ensure adequate material removal without causing undesirable damage to the residual materials or aluminum substrates. Testing to establish appropriate process parameters such as flow, temperature and pressures of the liquid nitrogen stream provided an initial benchmark for process testing. Equipped with these initial parameters engineers were then able to establish more detailed test criteria that set the process limits. Quantifying the potential for aluminum hardware damage represented the greatest hurdle for satisfying engineers as to the safety of this process. Extensive testing for aluminum erosion, surface profiling, and substrate weight loss was performed. This successful project clearly

  1. Secondary aerospace batteries and battery materials: A bibliography, 1969 - 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P.; Halpert, G.; Ekpanyaskun, S.; Nche, P.

    1976-01-01

    This annotated bibliography on the subject of secondary aerospace battery materials and related physical and electrochemical processes was compiled from references to journal articles published between 1969 and 1974. A total of 332 citations are arranged in chronological order under journal titles. Indices by system and component, techniques and processes, and author are included.

  2. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  3. Materials Control for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The distant future of mankind and the ultimate survivability of the human race, as it is known today, will depend on mans' ability to break earthly bonds and establish new territorial positions throughout the universe. Man must therefore be positioned to not only travel to, but also, to readily adapt to numerous and varying environments. For this mass migration across the galaxies nothing is as import to the human race as is NASA's future missions into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), to the moon, and/or Mars. These missions will form the building blocks to eternity for mankind. From these missions, NASA will develop the foundations for these building blocks based on sound engineering and scientific principles, both known and yet to be discovered. The integrity of the program will lead to development, tracking and control of the most basic elements of hardware production: That being development and control of applications of space flight materials. Choosing the right material for design purposes involves many considerations, such as governmental regulations associated with manufacturing operations, both safety of usage and of manufacturing, general material usage requirements, material longevity and performance requirements, material interfacing compatibility and material usage environments. Material performance is subject to environmental considerations in as much as a given material may perform exceptionally well at standard temperatures and pressures while performing poorly under non-standard conditions. These concerns may be found true for materials relative to the extreme temperatures and vacuum gradients of high altitude usage. The only way to assure that flight worthy materials are used in design is through testing. However, as with all testing, it requires both time on schedule and cost to the operation. One alternative to this high cost testing approach is to rely on a materials control system established by NASA. The NASA community relies on the MAPTIS materials

  4. NASA's activities in the conservation of strategic aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The United States imports 50-100 percent of certain metals critical to the aerospace industry, namely, cobalt, columbium, chromium, and tantalum. In an effort to reduce this dependence on foreign sources, NASA is planning a program called Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM), which will provide technology minimizing strategic metal content in the components of aerospace structures such as aircraft engines. With a proposed starting date of October 1981, the program will consist of strategic element substitution, process technology development, and alternate materials research. NASA's two-fold pre-COSAM studies center on, first, substitution research involving nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys (Waspaloy, Udimet-700, MAE-M247, Rene 150, HA-188) used in turbine disks, low-pressure blades, turbine blades, and combustors; and, second, alternate materials research devoted initially to investigating possible structural applications of the intermetallic alloys nickel aluminide and iron aluminide.

  5. Acoustic emission measurements of aerospace materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Wolfgang; Gorman, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    A development status evaluation is given for aerospace applications of AE location, detection, and source characterization. Attention is given to the neural-like processing of AE signals for graphite/epoxy. It is recommended that development efforts for AE make connections between the material failure process and source dynamics, and study the effects of composite material anisotropy and inhomogeneity on the propagation of AE waves. Broadband, as well as frequency- and wave-mode selective sensors, need to be developed.

  6. NASA's activities in the conservation of strategic aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary objective of the Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM) Program is to help reduce the dependence of the United States aerospace industry on strategic metals by providing the materials technology needed to minimize the strategic metal content of critical aerospace components with prime emphasis on components for gas turbine engines. Initial emphasis was placed in the area of strategic element substinction. Specifically, the role of cobalt in nickel base and cobalt base superalloys vital to the aerospace industry is being examined in great detail by means of cooperative university-industry-government research efforts. Investigations are underway in the area of "new classes" of alloys. Specifically, a study was undertaken to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of intermetallics that contain a minimum of the strategic metals. Current plans for the much larger COSAM Program are also presented.

  7. Information processing for aerospace structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; White, Edward V.; Baumann, Erwin W.

    1998-06-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology provides a means to significantly reduce life cycle of aerospace vehicles by eliminating unnecessary inspections, minimizing inspection complexity, and providing accurate diagnostics and prognostics to support vehicle life extension. In order to accomplish this, a comprehensive SHM system will need to acquire data from a wide variety of diverse sensors including strain gages, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, crack growth gages, corrosion sensors, and piezoelectric transducers. Significant amounts of computer processing will then be required to convert this raw sensor data into meaningful information which indicates both the diagnostics of the current structural integrity as well as the prognostics necessary for planning and managing the future health of the structure in a cost effective manner. This paper provides a description of the key types of information processing technologies required in an effective SHM system. These include artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks, expert systems, and fuzzy logic for nonlinear modeling, pattern recognition, and complex decision making; signal processing techniques such as Fourier and wavelet transforms for spectral analysis and feature extraction; statistical algorithms for optimal detection, estimation, prediction, and fusion; and a wide variety of other algorithms for data analysis and visualization. The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of information processing for SHM, discuss various technologies which can contribute to accomplishing this role, and present some example applications of information processing for SHM implemented at the Boeing Company.

  8. Optical Characterization of Window Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  9. Controlling remelting processes for superalloys and aerospace Ti alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgaard, D. K.; Williamson, R. L.; Beaman, J. J.

    1998-03-01

    Remelting is performed to facilitate the production of clean, fully dense, homogeneous castings of superalloys and aerospace titanium alloys and is crucial to the defect-free production of these important materials. Modern electroslag remelting and vacuum arc remelting control systems are closed-loop, single input-single output systems that oversimplify the physical properties of the processes; the ever-increasing demand for cleaner, more highly engineered, chemically tuned alloys has pushed these control methodologies to their limit. A new generation of these controllers is being developed by the Specialty Metals Process Consortium and Sandia National Laboratories to answer the challenges of remelting control for the next generation of alloys; these control systems will use multiple sensor inputs and apply material-specific system and process models.

  10. Combustion Processes in the Aerospace Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggett, Clayton

    1969-01-01

    The aerospace environment introduces new and enhanced fire hazards because the special atmosphere employed may increase the frequency and intensity of fires, because the confinement associated with aerospace systems adversely affects the dynamics of fire development and control, and because the hostile external environments limit fire control and rescue operations. Oxygen enriched atmospheres contribute to the fire hazard in aerospace systems by extending the list of combustible fuels, increasing the probability of ignition, and increasing the rates of fire spread and energy release. A system for classifying atmospheres according to the degree of fire hazard, based on the heat capacity of the atmosphere per mole of oxygen, is suggested. A brief exploration of the dynamics of chamber fires shows that such fires will exhibit an exponential growth rate and may grow to dangerous size in a very short time. Relatively small quantities of fuel and oxygen can produce a catastrophic fire in a closed chamber.

  11. Aerospace Fuels from Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.; Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Jaworske, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer- Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA GRC is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term "green" relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Other issues of great concern include minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could de-grade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered thruster to

  12. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  13. Advanced aerospace composite material structural design using artificial intelligent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.H.; Chen, J.L.; Hwang, W.C.

    1993-12-31

    Due to the complexity in the prediction of property and behavior, composite material has not substituted for metal widely yet, though it has high specific-strength and high specific-modulus that are more important in the aerospace industry. In this paper two artificial intelligent techniques, the expert systems and neural network technology, were introduced to the structural design of composite material. Expert System which has good ability in symbolic processing can helps us to solve problem by saving experience and knowledge. It is, therefore, a reasonable way to combine expert system technology to tile composite structural design. The development of a prototype expert system to help designer during the process of composite structural design is presented. Neural network is a network similar to people`s brain that can simulate the thinking way of people and has the ability of learning from the training data by adapting the weights of network. Because of the bottleneck in knowledge acquisition processes, the application of neural network and its learning ability to strength design of composite structures are presented. Some examples are in this paper to demonstrate the idea.

  14. Fiber optic sensors for process monitoring of composite aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez Martin, Jose M.; Munoz-Esquer, Pedro; Rodriguez-Lence, Fernando; Guemes, J. Alfredo

    2002-07-01

    There are currently available many software tools for modeling the processing of composite materials, that help designers to evaluate the process constraints and the feasibility of different concepts. Nevertheless, several manufacturing tests are still required for adjustment of the control parameters before production may start. Real time monitoring is the only way to validate the numerical results and to get a deeper knowledge on the process evolution. Final objective would be a closed loop known as 'Intelligent Material Processing'.: process model - in situ sensors - predictive control, able to react on real time to small disturbances, adapting the process parameters for optimal results. This paper concentrates on the sensor development for two aerospace processes, autoclave curing and RTM, and it present the results obtained on a real aircraft structural part, a five meter diameter frame for the fuselage of Airbus A380 . An optical fiber system has been implemented to monitor the movement of the resin flow front during the injection and the internal residual strains. The procedure has the advantage of being very robust, and it may be used for complex geometry of the part. It has been demonstrated the feasibility of the procedure to work at an industrial environment; the results are being used to refine the data on the material properties, as the preform permeability, and to improve the process control.

  15. Pressure Flammability Thresholds of Selected Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Ruff, Gary A.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    A test program was performed to determine the highest pressure in oxygen where materials used in the planned NASA Constellation Program Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Crew Module (CM) would not propagate a flame if an ignition source was present. The test methodology used was similar to that previously used to determine the maximum oxygen concentration (MOC) at which self-extinguishment occurs under constant total pressure conditions. An upward limiting pressure index (ULPI) was determined, where approximately 50 percent of the materials self-extinguish in a given environment. Following this, the maximum total pressure (MTP) was identified; where all samples tested (at least five) self-extinguished following the NASA-STD-6001.A Test 1 burn length criteria. The results obtained on seven materials indicate that the non-metallic materials become flammable in oxygen between 0.4 and 0.9 psia.

  16. Characterization of Catalyst Materials for Production of Aerospace Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaRee, Ana B.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2011-01-01

    Due to environmental, economic, and security issues, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. Additionally, efforts are concentrated on reducing costs coupled with fuel production from non-conventional sources. One solution to this issue is Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid technology. Fischer-Tropsch processing of synthesis gas (CO/H2) produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fisher-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur or aromatic compounds. This process is most commonly catalyzed by heterogeneous (in this case, silver and platinum) catalysts composed of cobalt supported on alumina or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Physisorption, chemisorptions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are described to better understand the potential performance of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt on alumina catalysts promoted with silver and platinum. The overall goal is to preferentially produce C8 to C18 paraffin compounds for use as aerospace fuels. Progress towards this goal will eventually be updated and achieved by a more thorough understanding of the characterization of catalyst materials. This work was supported by NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing and In-situ Resource Utilization projects.

  17. Characterization of Catalyst Materials for Production of Aerospace Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Lauren M.; De La Ree, Ana B.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    Due to environmental, economic, and security issues, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. Additionally, efforts are concentrated on reducing costs coupled with fuel production from non-conventional sources. One solution to this issue is Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid technology. Fischer-Tropsch processing of synthesis gas (CO/H2) produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fisher-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur or aromatic compounds. This process is most commonly catalyzed by heterogeneous (in this case, silver and platinum) catalysts composed of cobalt supported on alumina or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Physisorption, chemisorptions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are described to better understand the potential performance of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt on alumina catalysts promoted with silver and platinum. The overall goal is to preferentially produce C8 to C18 paraffin compounds for use as aerospace fuels. Progress towards this goal will eventually be updated and achieved by a more thorough understanding of the characterization of catalyst materials. This work was supported by NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing and In-situ Resource Utilization projects.

  18. Thermal insulation of materials with possible aerospace application.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, W C; Bothe, D J

    1986-10-01

    Thermal insulation values for several materials that may have aerospace applications have been determined by a single method. Heat transfer across a specimen on a constant temperature heat source was measured by heat flow disc, and temperature on each side of the specimen was measured by thermistor. The data demonstrate that, with various thermal insulating materials, the primary factor in thermal insulation is the entrapped air. Where convective air currents were sufficiently reduced, insulative values for different materials varied only slightly. Reflective and nonreflective materials sandwiched into the insulators made little difference in these experiments, but if employed differently, might increase insulative values significantly. PMID:3778398

  19. Diamond: An erosion resistant aerospace material

    SciTech Connect

    Jilbert, G.H.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Coad, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD) diamond growth technology has improved to the point where complete diamond infrared domes are now a possibility. However there are still considerable barriers to be overcome to ensure that the erosion resistance of the synthetic material is comparable to that of natural diamond. The Cavendish laboratory uses two systems to assess the erosion resistance of materials. The sand erosion rig uses compressed air to accelerate 300-600 {mu}m sand particles to velocities up to ca. 250 m s{sup -1}. The rain erosion resistance of a sample is evaluated using high velocity jets designed to simulate the effects of spherical raindrop impact. Both techniques have revealed the unique erosion characteristics of CVD diamond.

  20. Probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Keating, Jerome P.; Lovelace, Thomas B.; Bast, Callie C.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a second year effort of a research program are presented. The research included development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic phenomenological constitutive relationship, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects of primitive variables. These primitive variables often originate in the environment and may include stress from loading, temperature, chemical, or radiation attack. This multifactor interaction constitutive equation is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with the multiple linear regression of that data.

  1. A Study of Aerospace Education Workshops Which Utilize NASA Materials and Resource Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, Robert Dale

    1974-01-01

    Reports findings from two questionnaires administered to participants of aerospace workshops which utilized the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) materials and resource personnel. The findings gave a broad picture of aerospace workshops across the United States. (BR)

  2. Aerospace Structural Materials Handbook Supplement GRCop-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor); Nathel, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    GRCop-84 is a high strength-high conductivity copper-based alloy developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for combustion chamber liners of regeneratively cooled rocket engines. It also has promise for other high heat flux applications operating at temperatures up to 700 C (1292 F) and potentially higher. The alloy must be made by powder metallurgy techniques such as gas atomization. Slower cooling rates such as those experienced during casting do not develop a proper microstructure. Once made into powder, the alloy exhibits excellent processability using conventional consolidation and forming techniques, e.g., extrusion and rolling. GRCop-84 is strengthened by a combination of dispersion and precipitation strengthening by fine (50-500 nanometer (2-20 microinch)) Cr2Nb particles and Hall-Petch strengthening from a fine copper grain size. The presence of a high volume fraction of particles prevents grain boundary sliding at high temperatures and contributes to the alloy's overall good high temperature mechanical properties. Maximum thermal conductivity is obtained by using two alloying elements (Cr, Nb) with limited solubility in solid Cu that form a high temperature intermetallic compound with an even lower solid solubility. The resulting matrix of the alloy is nearly pure copper. The limited solubility also minimizes Cr2Nb particle coarsening at elevated temperatures and enhances microstructural and mechanical property stability. Further enhancement of the microstructural stability is obtained by using a high volume fraction (approx. 14 vol.%) of Cr2Nb particles that effectively pin grain growth.

  3. Bibliography of the space processing program. Volume 1: A compilation through June 1974, Parts 1 and 2. [space manufacturing/spacecraft construction materials - aerospace environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoultz, M. B.; Mcclurken, E. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of NASA research efforts in the area of space environmental effects on materials and processes is presented. Topics considered are: (1) fluid mechanics and heat transfer; (2) crystal growth and containerless melts; (3) acoustics; (4) glass and ceramics; (5) electrophoresis; (6) welding; and (7) exobiology.

  4. Pressure Flammability Thresholds in Oxygen of Selected Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Harper, Susana; Beeson, Harold; Ruff, Gary; Pedley, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The experimental approach consisted of concentrating the testing in the flammability transition zone following the Bruceton Up-and-Down Method. For attribute data, the method has been shown to be very repeatable and most efficient. Other methods for characterization of critical levels (Karberand Probit) were also considered. The data yielded the upward limiting pressure index (ULPI), the pressure level where approx.50% of materials self-extinguish in a given environment.Parametric flammability thresholds other than oxygen concentration can be determined with the methodology proposed for evaluating the MOC when extinguishment occurs. In this case, a pressure threshold in 99.8% oxygen was determined with the methodology and found to be 0.4 to 0.9 psia for typical spacecraft materials. Correlation of flammability thresholds obtained with chemical, hot wire, and other ignition sources will be conducted to provide recommendations for using alternate ignition sources to evaluate flammability of aerospace materials.

  5. Polymeric Materials for Aerospace Power and Propulsion-NASA Glenn Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Use of lightweight materials in aerospace power and propulsion components can lead to significant reductions in vehicle weight and improvements in performance and efficiency. Polymeric materials are well suited for many of these applications, but improvements in processability, durability and performance are required for their successful use in these components. Polymers Research at NASA Glenn is focused on utilizing a combination of traditional polymer science and engineering approaches and nanotechnology to develop new materials with enhanced processability, performance and durability. An overview of these efforts will be presented.

  6. VARTM Process Modeling of Aerospace Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Xiao-Lan; Grimsley, Brian W.; Hubert, Pascal; Cano, Roberto J.; Loos, Alfred C.

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional model was developed to simulate the VARTM composite manufacturing process. The model considers the two important mechanisms that occur during the process: resin flow, and compaction and relaxation of the preform. The model was used to simulate infiltration of a carbon preform with an epoxy resin by the VARTM process. The model predicted flow patterns and preform thickness changes agreed qualitatively with the measured values. However, the predicted total infiltration times were much longer than measured most likely due to the inaccurate preform permeability values used in the simulation.

  7. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  8. Rapid adhesive bonding and field repair of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process are often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid Adhesive Bonding concepts are developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens can be cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press or autoclave bonding. The development of Rapid Adhesive Bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1002 and D3163), for aerospace panel or component bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric-matrix composite structures is reviewed. Equipment and procedures are described for bonding and repairing thin sheets, simple geometries, and honeycomb core panels.

  9. Micromechanical Machining Processes and their Application to Aerospace Structures, Devices and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedrich, Craig R.; Warrington, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Micromechanical machining processes are those micro fabrication techniques which directly remove work piece material by either a physical cutting tool or an energy process. These processes are direct and therefore they can help reduce the cost and time for prototype development of micro mechanical components and systems. This is especially true for aerospace applications where size and weight are critical, and reliability and the operating environment are an integral part of the design and development process. The micromechanical machining processes are rapidly being recognized as a complementary set of tools to traditional lithographic processes (such as LIGA) for the fabrication of micromechanical components. Worldwide efforts in the U.S., Germany, and Japan are leading to results which sometimes rival lithography at a fraction of the time and cost. Efforts to develop processes and systems specific to aerospace applications are well underway.

  10. Research on materials for advanced electronic and aerospace application. [including optical and magnetic data processing, stress corrosion and H2 interaction, and polymeric systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Development and understanding of materials most suitable for use in compact magnetic and optical memory systems are discussed. Suppression of metal deterioration by hydrogen is studied. Improvement of mechanical properties of polymers is considered, emphasizing low temperature ductility and compatibility with high modulus fiber materials.

  11. Strain characterization of embedded aerospace smart materials using shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Andrei G.; Müller, Bernhard; Sinke, Jos; Groves, Roger M.

    2015-04-01

    The development of smart materials for embedding in aerospace composites provides enhanced functionality for future aircraft structures. Critical flight conditions like icing of the leading edges can affect the aircraft functionality and controllability. Hence, anti-icing and de-icing capabilities are used. In case of leading edges made of fibre metal laminates heater elements can be embedded between composite layers. However this local heating causes strains and stresses in the structure due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the different laminated materials. In order to characterize the structural behaviour during thermal loading full-field strain and shape measurement can be used. In this research, a shearography instrument with three spatially-distributed shearing cameras is used to measure surface displacement gradients which give a quantitative estimation of the in- and out-of-plane surface strain components. For the experimental part, two GLARE (Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy) specimens with six different embedded copper heater elements were manufactured: two copper mesh shapes (straight and S-shape), three connection techniques (soldered, spot welded and overlapped) and one straight heater element with delaminations. The surface strain behaviour of the specimens due to thermal loading was measured and analysed. The comparison of the connection techniques of heater element parts showed that the overlapped connection has the smallest effect on the surface strain distribution. Furthermore, the possibility of defect detection and defect depth characterisation close to the heater elements was also investigated.

  12. A Digital Methodology for the Design Process of Aerospace Assemblies with Sustainable Composite Processes & Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwan, W.; Butterfield, J.

    2011-05-01

    The well established benefits of composite materials are driving a significant shift in design and manufacture strategies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Thermoplastic composites have advantages over the traditional thermosetting materials with regards to sustainability and environmental impact, features which are becoming increasingly pertinent in the aerospace arena. However, when sustainability and environmental impact are considered as design drivers, integrated methods for part design and product development must be developed so that any benefits of sustainable composite material systems can be assessed during the design process. These methods must include mechanisms to account for process induced part variation and techniques related to re-forming, recycling and decommissioning, which are in their infancy. It is proposed in this paper that predictive techniques related to material specification, part processing and product cost of thermoplastic composite components, be integrated within a Through Life Management (TLM) product development methodology as part of a larger strategy of product system modeling to improve disciplinary concurrency, realistic part performance, and to place sustainability at the heart of the design process. This paper reports the enhancement of digital manufacturing tools as a means of drawing simulated part manufacturing scenarios, real time costing mechanisms, and broader lifecycle performance data capture into the design cycle. The work demonstrates predictive processes for sustainable composite product manufacture and how a Product-Process-Resource (PPR) structure can be customised and enhanced to include design intent driven by `Real' part geometry and consequent assembly. your paper.

  13. Development and Processing Improvement of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisagor, W. Barry; Bales, Thomas T.

    2007-01-01

    This final report, in multiple presentation format, describes a comprehensive multi-tasked contract study to improve the overall property response of selected aerospace alloys, explore further a newly-developed and registered alloy, and correlate the processing, metallurgical structure, and subsequent properties achieved with particular emphasis on the crystallographic orientation texture developed. Modifications to plate processing, specifically hot rolling practices, were evaluated for Al-Li alloys 2195 and 2297, for the recently registered Al-Cu-Ag alloy, 2139, and for the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, 7050. For all of the alloys evaluated, the processing modifications resulted in significant improvements in mechanical properties. Analyses also resulted in an enhanced understanding of the correlation of processing, crystallographic texture, and mechanical properties.

  14. Environmental, Safety, and Health Considerations: Composite Materials in the Aerospace Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Huai-Pu (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Aerospace Industries Association, Suppliers of Advanced Composite Materials Association, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration co-sponsored a conference on 'Environmental, Safety, and Health Considerations--Composite Materials in the Aerospace Industry.' The conference was held in Mesa, Arizona, on October 20-21, 1994. Seventeen papers were presented in four sessions including general information, safety, waste, and emissions from composites. Topics range from product stewardship, best work practice, biotransformation of uncured composite materials, to hazardous waste determination and offgassing of composite materials.

  15. Heat pipe cooling of an aerospace foam mold manufacturing process

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, D.R.; Feldman, K.T.; Marjon, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    A passive heat pipe cooling system was developed to cool a Bendix foam mold used to manufacture aerospace foam parts. The cooling system consists of ten copper-water heat pipes with cooling fins implanted into the aluminum mold and cooled by a domestic size fan blowing ambient air. The number and location of the heat pipes was determined to provide the most effective cooling and mold isothermalization based on experimental measurements of mold temperatures during the exothermic foaming process and from practical considerations of the mold geometry and use. Performance tests were cnducted on an individual heat pipe and on the ten heat pipes implanted in the mold. Both exothermic foam heating and internal electrical heat input were used in the experiments. The experimental test results indicate that the heat pipe cooling system with a fan is four to six times faster than free convection cooling of the mold with no heat pipes or fan and nearly twice as fast as cooling by the fan only. Similarly fast increases in mold heating time in the cure furnace could be realized if the heat pipes are used during this part of the production process. The heat pipes also cool hot spots in the mold and help isothermalize the mold so that better quality foam parts should be produced.

  16. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  17. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

  18. Advanced fusion welding processes, solid state joining and a successful marriage. [production of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. R.

    1972-01-01

    Joining processes for aerospace systems combine fusion welding and solid state joining during production of metal structures. Detailed characteristics of electron beam welding, plasma arc welding, diffusion welding, inertia welding and weldbond processes are discussed.

  19. Spacecraft materials studies on the Aerospace Corporation tray on EOIM-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, Wayne K.; Hemminger, Carol S.; Steckel, Gary L.; Hills, Malina M.; Hilton, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    A passive tray was flown on the Effects of Oxygen Interaction with Materials experiment on STS-46 (EOIM-3) with 82 samples from The Aerospace Corporation. A variety of advanced materials related to potential uses on future spacecraft were included for evaluation representing optical coatings, lubricants, polymers, composites, carbon-carbon composite protective coatings, graphite protective coatings, thermal-control materials, and some samples of current materials. An overview of the available results from the investigations of these materials is presented.

  20. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Workshop: Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Robin C. (Editor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Fourth Annual Conference on Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications was to provide a forum for technical dialogue on numerous topics in the area of smart materials. The proceedings presented herein represent the technical contributions of the participants of the workshop. Topics addressed include shape memory alloys, ferroelectrics, fiber optics, finite element simulation, and active control.

  1. A Conceptual Aerospace Vehicle Structural System Modeling, Analysis and Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    A process for aerospace structural concept analysis and design is presented, with examples of a blended-wing-body fuselage, a multi-bubble fuselage concept, a notional crew exploration vehicle, and a high altitude long endurance aircraft. Aerospace vehicle structures must withstand all anticipated mission loads, yet must be designed to have optimal structural weight with the required safety margins. For a viable systems study of advanced concepts, these conflicting requirements must be imposed and analyzed early in the conceptual design cycle, preferably with a high degree of fidelity. In this design process, integrated multidisciplinary analysis tools are used in a collaborative engineering environment. First, parametric solid and surface models including the internal structural layout are developed for detailed finite element analyses. Multiple design scenarios are generated for analyzing several structural configurations and material alternatives. The structural stress, deflection, strain, and margins of safety distributions are visualized and the design is improved. Over several design cycles, the refined vehicle parts and assembly models are generated. The accumulated design data is used for the structural mass comparison and concept ranking. The present application focus on the blended-wing-body vehicle structure and advanced composite material are also discussed.

  2. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297.

  3. Aerospace applications of sodium batteries using novel cathode materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary fundamental investigations aimed at evaluating sodium metal chloride systems for future aerospace applications are described. Since the sodium metal chloride systems are relatively new, the approach has been to characterize their fundamental properties in order to understand their limitations. To this end, a series of fundamental electrochemical investigations have been carried out, the results of which are reported here. The metal chloride cathodes show high exchange current densities which corroborate their good reversibility in a battery application. The reduction mechanisms appear to be complex and involve multielectron transfer steps and intermediates. Such intermediates in the reaction mechanism have already been identified in the case of FeCl2. Similar mechanisms may be operative in the case of NiCl2. CuCl2, however, exhibits a second relaxation loop in the impedance plot at low frequencies and also a sloping discharge curve, unlike FeCl2 and NiCl2, which may indicate the existence of monovalent copper in the reduction mechanism.

  4. Additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V using welding wire: comparison of laser and arc beam deposition and evaluation with respect to aerospace material specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandl, E.; Baufeld, B.; Leyens, C.; Gault, R.

    In this paper, the results of two different wire based additive-layer-manufacturing systems are compared: in one system Ti-6Al4V is deposited by a Nd:YAG laser beam, in the other by an arc beam (tungsten inert gas process). Mechanical properties of the deposits and of plate material are presented and evaluated with respect to aerospace material specifications. The mechanical tests including static tension and high cycle fatigue were performed in as-built, stress-relieved and annealed conditions. Generally, the mechanical properties of the components are competitive to cast and even wrought material properties and can attain properties suitable for space or aerospace applications.

  5. Evaluation of the Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Program for the Aerospace Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; March, J. F.

    The Aerospace Materials Information Center (AMIC) Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) program was evaluated by an interview technique after one year of operation. The data base for the SDI consists of the periodic document index records input to the AMIC system. The users are 63 engineers, scientists, and technical administrators at the…

  6. Development of uniform and predictable battery materials for nickel-cadmium aerospace cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze battery materials and manufacturing methods with the aim of developing uniform and predictable battery plates for nickel cadmium aerospace cells. The results are presented of an extensive factorially-designed experiment aimed at illuminating, in a comparative study, the effect of plaque preparation, plaque thickness, impregnation process, and loading level with active material. The following impregnation processes were investigated: (1) chemical conversion, (2) electrochemical conversion, and (3) high temperature electrochemical impregnation. The test parameter on which the conclusion regarding the manufacturing variables are based was the capacity change during a simulated near-earth orbit cycle regime. As operational variables, the effect of various charge and discharge rates was investigated. During the 100 test cycles, overall capacity changes of positive plates and the differences between the various plates were found to be small. Plates prepared by the high temperature electrochemical impregnation of slurry-coated plaque (at the conditions used) showed surface buildup of active material. They also retained slightly less of their capacity during cycling compared to other plate preparations.

  7. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Innovatory Incremental-Forming Process Dedicated to the Aerospace Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyndler, Joanna; Grosman, Franciszek; Tkocz, Marek; Madej, Lukasz

    2016-11-01

    The main goal of this work is development of the incremental-forming (IF) process for manufacturing integral elements applicable to the aerospace industry. A description of the proposed incremental-forming concept based on division of large die into a series of small anvils pressed into the material by a moving roll is presented within this article. A unique laboratory device has been developed to investigate the effects of process parameters on the material flow and the press loads. Additionally, a developed numerical model of this process with specific boundary conditions is also presented and validated to prove its predictive capabilities. However, main attention is placed on development of the process window. Thus, detailed investigation of the process parameters that can influence material behavior during plastic deformation, namely, roll size and roll frequency, is presented. Proper understanding of the material flow to improve the IF process, as well as press prototype, and to increase its technological readiness is the goal of this article. Results in the form of, e.g., strain distribution or recorded forging loads are presented and discussed.

  8. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Innovatory Incremental-Forming Process Dedicated to the Aerospace Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyndler, Joanna; Grosman, Franciszek; Tkocz, Marek; Madej, Lukasz

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of this work is development of the incremental-forming (IF) process for manufacturing integral elements applicable to the aerospace industry. A description of the proposed incremental-forming concept based on division of large die into a series of small anvils pressed into the material by a moving roll is presented within this article. A unique laboratory device has been developed to investigate the effects of process parameters on the material flow and the press loads. Additionally, a developed numerical model of this process with specific boundary conditions is also presented and validated to prove its predictive capabilities. However, main attention is placed on development of the process window. Thus, detailed investigation of the process parameters that can influence material behavior during plastic deformation, namely, roll size and roll frequency, is presented. Proper understanding of the material flow to improve the IF process, as well as press prototype, and to increase its technological readiness is the goal of this article. Results in the form of, e.g., strain distribution or recorded forging loads are presented and discussed.

  9. Advances in processing of NiAl intermetallic alloys and composites for high temperature aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenek, Kamil; Basista, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades intermetallic compounds such as NiAl have been considered as potential high temperature structural materials for aerospace industry. A large number of investigations have been reported describing complex fabrication routes, introducing various reinforcing/alloying elements along with theoretical analyses. These research works were mainly focused on the overcoming of main disadvantage of nickel aluminides that still restricts their application range, i.e. brittleness at room temperature. In this paper we present an overview of research on NiAl processing and indicate methods that are promising in solving the low fracture toughness issue at room temperature. Other material properties relevant for high temperature applications are also addressed. The analysis is primarily done from the perspective of NiAl application in aero engines in temperature regimes from room up to the operating temperature (over 1150 °C) of turbine blades.

  10. A Survey of Emerging Materials for Revolutionary Aerospace Vehicle Structures and Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Shuart, Mark J.; Gray, Hugh R.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan identifies the long-term goal of providing safe and affordable space access, orbital transfer, and interplanetary transportation capabilities to enable scientific research, human, and robotic exploration, and the commercial development of space. Numerous scientific and engineering breakthroughs will be required to develop the technology required to achieve this goal. Critical technologies include advanced vehicle primary and secondary structure, radiation protection, propulsion and power systems, fuel storage, electronics and devices, sensors and science instruments, and medical diagnostics and treatment. Advanced materials with revolutionary new capabilities are an essential element of each of these technologies. A survey of emerging materials with applications to aerospace vehicle structures and propulsion systems was conducted to assist in long-term Agency mission planning. The comprehensive survey identified materials already under development that could be available in 5 to 10 years and those that are still in the early research phase and may not be available for another 20 to 30 years. The survey includes typical properties, a description of the material and processing methods, the current development status, and the critical issues that must be overcome to achieve commercial viability.

  11. Alternative, Green Processes for the Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Phillip R.; Grandelli, Heather Eilenfield; Devor, Robert; Hintze, Paul E.; Loftin, Kathleen B.; Tomlin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning is necessary to ensure the proper functioning of aerospace hardware, particularly those systems that come in contact with liquid oxygen or hypergolic fuels. Components that have not been cleaned to the appropriate levels may experience problems ranging from impaired performance to catastrophic failure. Traditionally, this has been achieved using various halogenated solvents. However, as information on the toxicological and/or environmental impacts of each came to light, they were subsequently regulated out of use. The solvent currently used in Kennedy Space Center (KSC) precision cleaning operations is Vertrel MCA. Environmental sampling at KSC indicates that continued use of this or similar solvents may lead to high remediation costs that must be borne by the Program for years to come. In response to this problem, the Green Solvents Project seeks to develop state-of-the-art, green technologies designed to meet KSCs precision cleaning needs.Initially, 23 solvents were identified as potential replacements for the current Vertrel MCA-based process. Highly halogenated solvents were deliberately omitted since historical precedents indicate that as the long-term consequences of these solvents become known, they will eventually be regulated out of practical use, often with significant financial burdens for the user. Three solvent-less cleaning processes (plasma, supercritical carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide snow) were also chosen since they produce essentially no waste stream. Next, experimental and analytical procedures were developed to compare the relative effectiveness of these solvents and technologies to the current KSC standard of Vertrel MCA. Individually numbered Swagelok fittings were used to represent the hardware in the cleaning process. First, the fittings were cleaned using Vertrel MCA in order to determine their true cleaned mass. Next, the fittings were dipped into stock solutions of five commonly encountered contaminants and were

  12. Optical fiber sensors for damage analysis in aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, Paul; May, Russell; Claus, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Under this grant, fiber optic sensors were investigated for use in the nondestructive evaluation of aging aircraft. Specifically, optical fiber sensors for detection and location of impacts on a surface, and for detection of corrosion in metals were developed. The use of neural networks was investigated for determining impact location by processing the output of a network of fiberoptic strain sensors distributed on a surface. This approach employs triangulation to determine location by comparing the arrival times at several sensors, of the acoustic signal generated by the impact. For this study, a neural network simulator running on a personal computer was used to train a network using a back-propagation algorithm. Fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) strain sensors are attached to or embedded in the surface, so that stress waves emanating from an impact can be detected. The ability of the network to determine impact location by time-or-arrival of acoustic signals was assessed by comparing network outputs with actual experimental results using impacts on a panel instrumented with optical fiber sensors. Using the neural network to process the sensor outputs, the impact location can be inferred to centimeter range accuracy directly from the arrival time data. In addition, the network can be trained to determine impact location, regardless of material anisotropy. Results demonstrate that a back-propagation network identifies impact location for an anisotropic graphite/bismaleimide plate with the same accuracy as that for an isotropic aluminum plate. Two different approaches were investigated for the development of fiber optic sensors for corrosion detection in metals, both utilizing optical fiber sensors with metal coatings. In the first approach, an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber optic strain sensor was placed under tensile stress, and while in the resulting strained position, a thick coating of metal was applied. Due to an increase in

  13. Materials for defense/aerospace applications (NON-SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, A. R.

    2012-03-01

    Through this effort, Sandia and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM Aero) sought to assess the feasibility of (1) applying special materials to a defense application; (2) developing a piezoelectric-based micro thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell; and (3) building and delivering a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. This project supported the Stockpile Research & Development Program by contributing to the development of radio frequency (RF) MEMS- and optical MEMS-based components - such as switches, phase shifters, oscillators, and filters - with improved performance and reduced weight and size. Investigation of failure mechanisms and solutions helped to ensure that MEMS-based technology will meet performance requirements and long term reliability goals in the specified environments dictated by Lockheed Martin's commercial and defense applications. The objectives of this project were to (1) fabricate and test materials for military applications; (2) perform a feasibility study of a piezoelectric-based micro TPV cell; and (3) build and deliver a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. Sandia fabricated and tested properties of materials, studied options for manufacturing scale-up, and delivered a prototype IR Emissometer. LM Aero provided material requirements and designs. Both participated in the investigation of attachment methods and environmental effects on material performance, a feasibility study of piezoelectric TPV cells, an investigation and development of new approaches to implement the required material functionality, and analysis and validation of material performance physics, numerical models, and experimental metrology.

  14. An Approach to the Flammability Testing of Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation reviews: (1) Current approach to evaluation of spacecraft materials flammability (2) The need for and the approach to alternative routes (3) Examples of applications of the approach recommended a) Crew Module splash down b) Crew Module depressurization c) Applicability of NASA's flammability test data to other sample configurations d) Applicability of NASA's ground flammability test data to spacecraft environments

  15. Orientation Characterisation of Aerospace Materials by Spatially Resolved Acoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenqi; Coulson, Jethro; Aveson, John W.; Smith, Richard J.; Clark, Matt; Somekh, Michael G.; Sharples, Steve D.

    2014-06-01

    Material characteristics in metals such as strength, stiffness and fracture resistance are strongly related to the underlying microstructure. The crystallographic structure and orientation are related to the ultrasonic properties through the stiffness matrix. In individual grains it is possible to analytically determine the ultrasonic velocity from the orientation and stiffness, or determine the stiffness from the known orientation and measured velocity. In this paper we present a technique for imaging the crystallographic orientation of grains in metals using spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) and a novel inverse solver that can determine the crystallographic orientation from the known stiffness matrix for the material and the SRAS velocity measurement. Previously we have shown the ability of this technique to determine the orientation on single crystal nickel samples; we extended the technique to multigrain industrial metals, such as aluminium, nickel and Inconel. The comparison between SRAS and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) on the nickel sample is presented. SRAS is a fast, accurate, quantitative and robust technique for imaging material microstructure and orientation over a wide range of scales and industrial materials.

  16. Mechanically Strong Lightweight Materials for Aerospace Applications (x-aerogels)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The X-Aerogel is a new NASA-developed strong lightweight material made by reacting the mesoporous surfaces of 3-D networks of inorganic nanoparticles with polymeric crosslinkers. Since the relative amount of the crosslinker and the backbone are comparable, X-Aerogels can be viewed either as aerogels modified by templated accumulation of polymer on the skeletal nanoparticles, or as nanoporous polymers made by templated casting of polymeric precursors on a nanostructured framework. The most striking feature of X-Aerogels is that for a nominal 3-fold increase in density (still a ultralightweight material), the mechanical strength can be up to 300 times higher than the strength of the underlying native aerogel. Thus, X-Aerogels combine a multiple of the specific compressive strength of steel, with the thermal conductivity of styrofoam. XAerogels have been demonstrated with several polymers such as polyurethanes/polyureas, epoxies and polyolefins, while crosslinking of approximately 35 different oxide aerogels yields a wide variety of dimensionally stable, porous lightweight materials with interesting structural, magnetic and optical properties. X-Aerogels are evaluated for cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks and for Advanced EVA suits, where they will play the dual role of the thermal insulator/structural material. Along the same lines, major impact is also expected by the use of X-Aerogels in structural components/thermal protection for small satellites, spacecrafts, planetary vehicles and habitats.

  17. Cyber Technology for Materials and Structures in Aeronautics and Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipes, R. Byron

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes efforts undertaken during the 1998-99 program year and includes a survey of the field of computational mechanics, a discussion of biomimetics and intelligent simulation, a survey of the field of biomimetics, an illustration of biomimetics and computational mechanics through the example of the high performance composite tensile structure. In addition, the preliminary results of a state-of-the art survey of composite materials technology is presented.

  18. Cyber Technology for Materials and Structures in Aeronautics and Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipes, R. Byron

    2002-01-01

    The evolution of composites applications in aeronautics from 1970 to the present is discussed. The barriers and challenges to economic application and to certification are presented and recommendations for accelerated development are outlined. The potential benefits of emerging technologies to aeronautics and their foundation in composite materials are described and the resulting benefits in vehicle take off gross weight are quantified. Finally, a 21st century vision for aeronautics in which human mobility is increased by an order of magnitude is articulated.

  19. Automotive/aerospace synergism in computer-aided composite processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Johnny R.

    1991-04-01

    The use of the dielectric cure monitoring technology in a manufacturing process representing a combination of filament winding and compression molding is considered. The measurement of dielectric properties in monitoring chemical reactions in organic materials is reviewed, and emphasis is placed on the collection of real-time data and its interpretation. A microdielectrometer-based system providing dielectric data is described. This information is used to control the application of lower mold pressures at discrete intervals in the early molding cycle; the resulting slower fiber compaction allows additional time for resin and the void flow before gelation. Reduced void content, increased interlaminar strength, and improved surface appearance are observed.

  20. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Aerospace Structures and Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Allison, Sidney G.

    2009-01-01

    A new technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in materials and structures by performing temperature measurements with fiber Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of structures with subsurface defects or thickness variations. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. The data obtained from grating sensors were further analyzed with thermal modeling to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. These results were found to be consistent with those from conventional thermography techniques. Limitations of the technique were investigated using both experimental and numerical simulation techniques. Methods for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  1. The JPL Cryogenic Dilatometer: Measuring the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halverson, Peter G.; Dudick, Matthew J.; Karlmann, Paul; Klein, Kerry J.; Levine, Marie; Marcin, Martin; Parker, Tyler J.; Peters, Robert D.; Shaklan, Stuart; VanBuren, David

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation details the cryogenic dilatometer, which is used by JPL to measure the thermal expansion coefficient of materials used in Aerospace. Included is a system diagram, a picture of the dilatometer chamber and the laser source, a description of the laser source, pictures of the interferometer, block diagrams of the electronics and software and a picture of the electronics, and software. Also there is a brief review of the accurace.error budget. The materials tested are also described, and the results are shown in strain curves, JPL measured strain fits are described, and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is also shown for the materials tested.

  2. Proficiency Testing for Evaluating Aerospace Materials Test Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, D.; Motto, S.; Peyton, S.; Beeson, H.

    2006-01-01

    ASTM G 86 and ASTM G 74 are commonly used to evaluate materials susceptibility to ignition in liquid and gaseous oxygen systems. However, the methods have been known for their lack of repeatability. The inherent problems identified with the test logic would either not allow precise identification or the magnitude of problems related to running the tests, such as lack of consistency of systems performance, lack of adherence to procedures, etc. Excessive variability leads to increasing instances of accepting the null hypothesis erroneously, and so to the false logical deduction that problems are nonexistent when they really do exist. This paper attempts to develop and recommend an approach that could lead to increased accuracy in problem diagnostics by using the 50% reactivity point, which has been shown to be more repeatable. The initial tests conducted indicate that PTFE and Viton A (for pneumatic impact) and Buna S (for mechanical impact) would be good choices for additional testing and consideration for inter-laboratory evaluations. The approach presented could also be used to evaluate variable effects with increased confidence and tolerance optimization.

  3. Subcritical crack growth of selected aerospace pressure vessel materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. R.; Bixler, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    This experimental program was undertaken to determine the effects of combined cyclic/sustained loads, stress level, and crack shape on the fatigue crack growth rate behavior of cracks subjected to plane strain conditions. Material/environment combinations tested included: 2219-T87 aluminum plate in gaseous helium, room air, and 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen; 5Al-2.5 Sn (ELI) titanium plate in liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen and 6AL-4V (ELI) STA titanium plate in gaseous helium and methanol at room temperature. Most testing was accomplished using surface flawed specimens instrumented with a clip gage to continuously monitor crack opening displacements at the specimen surface. Tapered double cantilever beam specimens were also tested. Static fracture and ten hour sustained load tests were conducted to determine fracture toughness and apparent threshold stress intensity values. Cyclic tests were performed using sinusoidal loading profiles at 333 MHz (20 cpm) and trapezoidal loading profiles at both 8.3 MHz (0.5 cpm) and 3.3 MHz (0.2 cpm). Data were evaluated using modified linear elastic fracture mechanics parameters.

  4. Cross-validated detection of crack initiation in aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanniamparambil, Prashanth A.; Cuadra, Jefferson; Guclu, Utku; Bartoli, Ivan; Kontsos, Antonios

    2014-03-01

    A cross-validated nondestructive evaluation approach was employed to in situ detect the onset of damage in an Aluminum alloy compact tension specimen. The approach consisted of the coordinated use primarily the acoustic emission, combined with the infrared thermography and digital image correlation methods. Both tensile loads were applied and the specimen was continuously monitored using the nondestructive approach. Crack initiation was witnessed visually and was confirmed by the characteristic load drop accompanying the ductile fracture process. The full field deformation map provided by the nondestructive approach validated the formation of a pronounced plasticity zone near the crack tip. At the time of crack initiation, a burst in the temperature field ahead of the crack tip as well as a sudden increase of the acoustic recordings were observed. Although such experiments have been attempted and reported before in the literature, the presented approach provides for the first time a cross-validated nondestructive dataset that can be used for quantitative analyses of the crack initiation information content. It further allows future development of automated procedures for real-time identification of damage precursors including the rarely explored crack incubation stage in fatigue conditions.

  5. Materials Opportunity to Electronic Composite Enclosures for Aerospace and Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Roland; Kistner, Mark; Colleary, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Transition in spacecraft development from aluminum to light weight/high performance avionic composite enclosures will be reviewed that influences the new initiative in aerospace thrust, including missile application. Discussion will focus on the type of processed hybrid cooled and passive composite enclosures and internal lightweight, high conductivity composite and graphitic thermal plane heat sinks. Applications are for electronic circuit boards for spacecraft up to 40W/card (VME, PCI architectures) to 120W/card for aircraft application.

  6. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  7. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  8. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Kelly, Robert G.; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1986, the NASA-Langley Research Center has sponsored the NASA-UVa Light Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program at the University of Virginia (UVa). The fundamental objective of the LA2ST program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures. The LA2ST program has aimed to product relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The scope of the LA2ST Program is broad. Research areas include: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals and Composites, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, (3) Mechanics of materials for Aerospace Structures, and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures. A substantial series of semi-annual progress reports issued since 1987 documents the technical objectives, experimental or analytical procedures, and detailed results of graduate student research in these topical areas.

  9. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC'S, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application, verification, compliant coatings including corrosion protection system and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  10. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Clark-Ingram, M.; Hessler, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  11. Processing science and materials development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gegel, Harold L.

    1988-08-01

    The development of advanced technologies for the fabrication of close-tolerance parts, in conjunction with the development of advanced materials, plays a key role in the design and manufacturing of affordable aerospace systems. New process and product-design concepts must be evolved in parallel with the development of advanced materials for future systems in order to exploit the achievements being made in materials science and to tailor specific properties while simultaneously producing controlled geometrical shapes. A scientific description of production equipment and, in general, physical objects, media, fields, and interface and material-related phenomena requires theoretical models which are capable of predicting the response of the fabricating system to the initial inputs. The design of a product and the corresponding manufacturing process generally requires both deterministic models and expert systems which utilize designer intuition and logic in finding acceptable solutions. Reviewed here are some of the recent developments in process modeling as related primarily to metalworking systems and how they aid in the understanding of the role of computer and human expertise in modern computer-aided engineering (CAE).

  12. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

  13. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, A.F.

    1995-03-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC`s, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297. Separate abstracts have been prepared for some articles from this report.

  14. Certification Processes for Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    This document is a quick reference guide with an overview of the processes required to certify safety-critical and mission-critical flight software at selected NASA centers and the FAA. Researchers and software developers can use this guide to jumpstart their understanding of how to get new or enhanced software onboard an aircraft or spacecraft. The introduction contains aerospace industry definitions of safety and safety-critical software, as well as, the current rationale for certification of safety-critical software. The Standards for Safety-Critical Aerospace Software section lists and describes current standards including NASA standards and RTCA DO-178B. The Mission-Critical versus Safety-Critical software section explains the difference between two important classes of software: safety-critical software involving the potential for loss of life due to software failure and mission-critical software involving the potential for aborting a mission due to software failure. The DO-178B Safety-critical Certification Requirements section describes special processes and methods required to obtain a safety-critical certification for aerospace software flying on vehicles under auspices of the FAA. The final two sections give an overview of the certification process used at Dryden Flight Research Center and the approval process at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL).

  15. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Integrated information processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The engineering-specified requirements for integrated information processing by means of the Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system are presented. A data model is described and is based on the design process of a typical aerospace vehicle. General data management requirements are specified for data storage, retrieval, generation, communication, and maintenance. Information management requirements are specified for a two-component data model. In the general portion, data sets are managed as entities, and in the specific portion, data elements and the relationships between elements are managed by the system, allowing user access to individual elements for the purpose of query. Computer program management requirements are specified for support of a computer program library, control of computer programs, and installation of computer programs into IPAD.

  16. Aerospace structural design process improvement using systematic evolutionary structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert Michael

    2000-10-01

    A multidisciplinary team tasked with an aircraft design problem must understand the problem requirements and metrics to produce a successful design. This understanding entails not only knowledge of what these requirements and metrics are, but also how they interact, which are most important (to the customer as well as to aircraft performance), and who in the organization can provide pertinent knowledge for each. In recent years, product development researchers and organizations have developed and successfully applied a variety of tools such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to coordinate multidisciplinary team members. The effectiveness of these methods, however, depends on the quality and fidelity of the information that team members can input. In conceptual aircraft design, structural information is of lower quality compared to aerodynamics or performance because it is based on experience rather than theory. This dissertation shows how advanced structural design tools can be used in a multidisciplinary team setting to improve structural information generation and communication through a systematic evolution of structural detail. When applied to conceptual design, finite element-based structural design tools elevate structural information to the same level as other computationally supported disciplines. This improved ability to generate and communicate structural information enables a design team to better identify and meet structural design requirements, consider producibility issues earlier, and evaluate structural concepts. A design process experiment of a wing structural layout in collaboration with an industrial partner illustrates and validates the approach.

  17. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-29

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  18. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-01

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  19. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and possible advantages of processing materials in a nongravitational field are considered. Areas of investigation include biomedical applications, the processing of inorganic materials, and flight programs and funding.

  20. The new low nitrogen steel LNS -- A material for advanced aircraft engine and aerospace bearing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Berns, H.; Ebert, F.J.

    1998-12-31

    Development tendencies for future aircraft jet engines require new design concepts for rolling element bearings because of an overall increase of loads, temperatures, rotational speeds and the use of new high temperature lubricants. This paper reviews some of the key parameters which in the past led to the development and application of the known aircraft bearing steels such as M50, M50 NiL and recently Cronidur 30{reg_sign} (AMS 5898). The performance limits of the currently used aerospace bearing steels and the increasing demands on bearing performance for future aerospace applications gave the impact to the design of a new corrosion resistant steel grade of the nitrogen alloyed type, which is suitable for case hardening by nitrogen--the so called Low nitrogen steel (LNS). The development of the alloy (US pat. 5,503,797), the attainable properties and the corresponding heat treatment process are presented. Achievable hardness, case depth, residual stress pattern and corrosion resistance prove the new LNS to be a promising candidate for the next generation of aircraft engine bearings and for advanced, integrated bearing-gear-shaft design concepts.

  1. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  2. Compilation and development of K-6 aerospace materials for implementation in NASA spacelink electronic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Jean A.

    1987-01-01

    Spacelink is an electronic information service to be operated by the Marshall Space Flight Center. It will provide NASA news and educational resources including software programs that can be accessed by anyone with a computer and modem. Spacelink is currently being installed and will soon begin service. It will provide daily updates of NASA programs, information about NASA educational services, manned space flight, unmanned space flight, aeronautics, NASA itself, lesson plans and activities, and space program spinoffs. Lesson plans and activities were extracted from existing NASA publications on aerospace activities for the elementary school. These materials were arranged into 206 documents which have been entered into the Spacelink program for use in grades K-6.

  3. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Processing-refining of raw materials from extraterrestrial sources is detailed for a space materials handling facility. The discussion is constrained to those steps necessary to separate desired components from raw or altered input ores, semi-purified feedstocks, or process scrap and convert the material into elements, alloys, and consumables. The materials are regarded as originating from dead satellites and boosters, lunar materials, and asteroids. Strong attention will be given to recycling reagent substances to avoid the necessity of transporting replacements. It is assumed that since no aqueous processes exist on the moon, the distribution of minerals will be homogeneous. The processing-refining scenario will include hydrochemical, pyrochemical, electrochemical, and physical techniques selected for the output mass rate/unit plant mass ratio. Flow charts of the various materials processing operations which could be performed with lunar materials are provided, noting the necessity of delivering several alloying elements from the earth due to scarcities on the moon.

  4. Artificial intelligence in the materials processing laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Materials science and engineering provides a vast arena for applications of artificial intelligence. Advanced materials research is an area in which challenging requirements confront the researcher, from the drawing board through production and into service. Advanced techniques results in the development of new materials for specialized applications. Hand-in-hand with these new materials are also requirements for state-of-the-art inspection methods to determine the integrity or fitness for service of structures fabricated from these materials. Two problems of current interest to the Materials Processing Laboratory at UAH are an expert system to assist in eddy current inspection of graphite epoxy components for aerospace and an expert system to assist in the design of superalloys for high temperature applications. Each project requires a different approach to reach the defined goals. Results to date are described for the eddy current analysis, but only the original concepts and approaches considered are given for the expert system to design superalloys.

  5. 1999 IEEE Aerospace Conference. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The following topics are dealt with: 21st century space missions; aerospace technologies; small satellites; on-board digital processing; high-density interconnect boards manufacture; reconfigurable hardware; aircraft navigation; GPS applications; aircraft flight testing; space-based radar; antennas; opto-electronics; uncooled sensors; computer vision; space interferometry; infrared polarimetry; IR sensors; remote sensing; target tracking; aerospace computing; software engineering; aerospace simulation; aerospace testing; data communication; space multidisciplinary processes; and aerospace education.

  6. Computational simulation of probabilistic lifetime strength for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.; Trimble, Greg A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a fourth year effort of a research program, conducted for NASA-LeRC by the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The research included on-going development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subject to a number of effects or primitive variables. These primitive variables may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation has been randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above-described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with regression analysis of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constants for each effect or primitive variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from industry and the open literature for materials typically for applications in aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 has been analyzed using the developed methodology.

  7. Computational simulation of probabilistic lifetime strength for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.; Trimble, Greg A.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a fourth year effort of a research program conducted for NASA-LeRC by The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) are presented. The research included on-going development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects or primitive variables. These primitive variables may include high temperature, fatigue, or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation was randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above-described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with regression analysis of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constants for each effect or primitive variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from industry and the open literature for materials typically for applications in aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 was analyzed using the developed methodology.

  8. Tethers as Debris: Hydrocode Simulation of Impacts of Tether Fragments on Planar Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Steven W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Tethers promise to find use in a variety of space applications. Despite being narrow objects, their great lengths result in them having large total areas, and so tethers are quite susceptible to being severed by orbital debris. Extensive work has been done designing tethers that resist severs by small debris objects, and hence have longer working lives. It is from this perspective that most recent work has considered the tether - debris question. The potential of intact tethers, or severed tether fragments, as debris to pose a significant collision risk to other spacecraft has been less well studied. Understanding the consequences of such encounters is important in assessing the risks to other spacecraft posed by tethers. In this paper I discuss the damage that two types of tethers may produce on planar aerospace materials, as revealed by hyper- velocity impact simulations using the SPHC hydrodynamic code. Tether types considered include a single nylon line and a complex design including metal wires. Target materials considered include the aluminum plates typically used in debris shielding, and solar panels.

  9. Advanced materials for aerospace and biomedical applications: New glasses for hermetic titanium seals

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Tallant, D.R.; Crowder, S.V.

    1996-11-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys have an outstanding strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance and so are materials of choice for a variety of aerospace and biomedical applications. Such applications are limited by the lack of a viable hermetic glass sealing technology. Conventional silicate sealing glasses are readily reduced by titanium to form interfacial silicides that are incompatible with a robust glass/metal seal. Borate-based glasses undergo a similar thermochemistry and are reduced to a titanium boride. The kinetics of this reactions, however, are apparently slower and so a deleterious interface does not form. Chemically durable lanthanoborate glasses were examined as candidate sealing compositions. The compositions, properties, and structures of several alkaline earth, alumina, and titania lanthanoborate glass forming systems were evaluated and this information was used as the basis for a designed experiment to optimize compositions for Ti-sealing. A number of viable compositions were identified and sealing procedures established. Finally, glass formation, properties, and structure of biocompatible Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and TiO{sub 2}-doped calcium phosphate systems were also evaluated.

  10. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  11. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B. C., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to making high-aspect ratio cuts in metals with no heat-affected zone are made possible by this technology For material removal at reasonable rates, we developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  12. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B

    1998-08-05

    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area. Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to precision cuts in composites are possible by using this technology. For material removal at reasonable rates, we have developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  13. Extraterrestrial materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The first year results of a multi-year study of processing extraterrestrial materials for use in space are summarized. Theoretically, there are potential major advantages to be derived from the use of such materials for future space endeavors. The types of known or postulated starting raw materials are described including silicate-rich mixed oxides on the Moon, some asteroids and Mars; free metals in some asteroids and in small quantities in the lunar soil; and probably volatiles like water and CO2 on Mars and some asteroids. Candidate processes for space materials are likely to be significantly different from their terrestrial counterparts largely because of: absence of atmosphere; lack of of readily available working fluids; low- or micro-gravity; no carbon-based fuels; readily available solar energy; and severe constraints on manned intervention. The extraction of metals and oxygen from lunar material by magma electrolysis or by vapor/ion phase separation appears practical.

  14. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  15. Superconducting materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, John S.; Karikari, Emmanuel K.; Hiamang, S. O.; Danjaji, M.; Bassey, Affiong; Morgan, Andre

    1995-01-01

    The effects of materials processing on the properties and behavior of high temperature yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconductors were investigated. Electrical, magnetic, and structural characteristics of thin films (300 nm) YBA2CU3O(delta) structures grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates were used to evaluate processing. Pole projection and thin film diffraction measurements were used to establish grain orientation and verify structural integrity of the samples. Susceptibility magnetization, and transport measurements were used to evaluate the magnetic and electrical transport properties of the samples. Our results verified that an unfortunate consequence of processing is inherent changes to the internal structure of the material. This effect translates into modifications in the properties of the materials, and undesired feature that makes it very difficult to consistently predict material behavior. The results show that processing evaluation must incorporate a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the materials. Future studies will emphasize microstructural characteristics of the materials, in particular, those microscopic properties that map macroscopic behavior.

  16. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference: Exectutive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, A.F.

    1995-03-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC`s, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The papers from this conference are being published in a separate volume as NASA CP-3298.

  17. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference: Exectutive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The papers from this conference are being published in a separate volume as NASA CP-3298.

  18. Integration of educational and scientific-technological areas during the process of education of aerospace engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorova, Vera

    2011-09-01

    test-beds for quick and affordable trial-and-test of new technologies and design solutions in aerospace followed by implementation of selected efficiencies in the industry; development and improvement of ground control infrastructure based in the university, which includes the Mission Control Center and the Earth Remote Sensing Center; development of cooperative partnerships with international partners in the field of microsatellite technologies with the goal of sharing experience, uniting efforts in preparing and running scientific and educational experiments and creating next-generation spacecraft by multi-national student groups. Such approaches allow creating seamless environment that unites educational, scientific and innovative processes. This allows students to develop high professionalism, modern engineering thinking and stable engineering skills at an early stage of education at the university.

  19. New Effective Material Couple--Oxide Ceramic and Carbon Nanotube-- Developed for Aerospace Microsystem and Micromachine Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; VanderWal, Randall L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.

    2004-01-01

    The prime driving force for using microsystem and micromachine technologies in transport vehicles, such as spacecraft, aircraft, and automobiles, is to reduce the weight, power consumption, and volume of components and systems to lower costs and increase affordability and reliability. However, a number of specific issues need to be addressed with respect to using microsystems and micromachines in aerospace applications--such as the lack of understanding of material characteristics; methods for producing and testing the materials in small batches; the limited proven durability and lifetime of current microcomponents, packaging, and interconnections; a cultural change with respect to system designs; and the use of embedded software, which will require new product assurance guidelines. In regards to material characteristics, there are significant adhesion, friction, and wear issues in using microdevices. Because these issues are directly related to surface phenomena, they cannot be scaled down linearly and they become increasingly important as the devices become smaller. When microsystems have contacting surfaces in relative motion, the adhesion and friction affect performance, energy consumption, wear damage, maintenance, lifetime and catastrophic failure, and reliability. Ceramics, for the most part, do not have inherently good friction and wear properties. For example, coefficients of friction in excess of 0.7 have been reported for ceramics and ceramic composite materials. Under Alternate Fuels Foundation Technologies funding, two-phase oxide ceramics developed for superior high-temperature wear resistance in NASA's High Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) project and new two-layered carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings (CNT topcoat/iron bondcoat/quartz substrate) developed in NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) project have been chosen as a materials couple for aerospace applications, including micromachines, in the nanotechnology

  20. Lasers in materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.I.; Rockower, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    A status report on the uranium Laser Isotope Separation (LIS) Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented. Prior to this status report, process economic analysis is presented so as to understand how the unique properties of laser photons can be best utilized in the production of materials and components despite the high cost of laser energy. The characteristics of potential applications that are necessary for success are identified, and those factors that have up to now frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser induced chemical and physical process for the production of new or existing materials are pointed out.

  1. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of high-energy ultrasonic vibration in metals and alloys generates oscillating strain and stress fields in solids, and introduces nonlinear effects such as cavitation, acoustic streaming, and radiation pressure in molten materials. These nonlinear effects can be utilized to assist conventional material processing processes. This article describes recent research at Oak Ridge National Labs and Purdue University on using high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations for degassing molten aluminum, processing particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites, refining metals and alloys during solidification process and welding, and producing bulk nanostructures in solid metals and alloys. Research results suggest that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration is capable of degassing and dispersing small particles in molten alloys, reducing grain size during alloy solidification, and inducing nanostructures in solid metals.

  2. A status review of NASA's COSAM (Conservation Of Strategic Aerospace Materials) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The use and supply of strategic elements in nickel base superalloys for gas turbine engines are reviewed. Substitution of strategic elements, advanced processing concepts, and the identification of alternate materials are considered. Cobalt, tantalum, columbium, and chromium, the supplies of which are 91-100% imported, are the materials of major concern.

  3. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.

    1997-02-01

    The use femtosecond pulses for materials processing results in very precise cutting and drilling with high efficiency. Energy deposited in the electrons is not coupled into the bulk during the pulse, resulting in negligible shock or thermal loading to adjacent areas.

  4. Laser material processing system

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos

    2015-04-28

    A laser material processing system and method are provided. A further aspect of the present invention employs a laser for micromachining. In another aspect of the present invention, the system uses a hollow waveguide. In another aspect of the present invention, a laser beam pulse is given broad bandwidth for workpiece modification.

  5. Processing Materials in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoller, L. K.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested program of material processing experiments in space described in 81 page report. For each experiment, report discusses influence of such gravitational effects as convection, buoyancy, sedimentation, and hydrostatic pressure. Report contains estimates of power and mission duration required for each experiment. Lists necessary equipment and appropriate spacecraft.

  6. Materials and Processes Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.; And Others

    This instructional resource guide is intended to assist the industrial arts (IA) teacher in implementing a comprehensive materials and Processes Technology program at the technical level in Virginia high schools. The course is designed to help students make informed educational and occupational choices and prepare them for advanced technical or…

  7. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  8. Delivering Value In A Global Aerospace Manufacturer Through The Effective Use Of Numerical Process Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, M. J.; Walløe, S. J.

    2004-06-01

    Numerical models are used extensively in the aerospace sector to identify appropriate manufacturing parameters, and to minimize the risk associated with new product introduction and manufacturing change. This usage is equally prevalent in original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and in their supply chains. The wide range of manufacturing processes and production environments involved, coupled with the varying degrees of technology maturity associated with numerical models of different processes leads to a situation of significant complexity from the OEM perspective. In addition, the intended use of simulation technology can vary considerably between applications, from simple geometric assessment of die shape at one extreme, to full process design or development at the other. Consequently there is an increasing trend towards multi-scale modelling, i.e. the use of several different model types, with differing attributes in terms of accuracy and speed to support a range of different new product introduction decisions. This makes the allocation of appropriate levels of activity to the research and implementation of new capabilities a difficult problem. This paper uses a number of industrial cases studies to illustrate a framework for making such allocation decisions such that value to the OEM is maximized, and investigates how such a framework is likely to shift over the next few years based on technological developments.

  9. Third Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Cross, D. R. (Editor); Caruso, S. V. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, other ozone depleting chemicals, and specific hazardous materials is well underway. The phaseout of these chemicals has mandated changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. We are beyond discovery and initiation of these new developments and are now in the implementation phase. This conference provided a forum for materials and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess the evolving replacement and clean propulsion technologies from the standpoint of their significance, application, impact on aerospace systems, and utilization by the research and development community. The use of these new technologies, their selection and qualification, their implementation, and the needs and plans for further developments are presented.

  10. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  11. Polymeric Materials for Aerospace Power and Propulsion: Overview of Polymer Research at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Weight, durability and performance are all major concerns for any NASA mission. Use of lightweight materials, such as fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites can lead to significant reductions in vehicle weight and improvements in vehicle performance. Research in the Polymeric Materials Branch at NASA Glenn is focused on improving the durability, properties, processability and performance of polymeric materials by utilizing both conventional polymer science and engineering as well as nanotechnology and bioinspired approaches. This presentation will provide an overview of these efforts and highlight recent progress.

  12. An Approach to Evaluate Precision and Inter-Laboratory Variability of Flammability Test Methods for Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Beeson, Harold D.

    2005-01-01

    Materials selection for spacecraft is based on conventional flammability or ignition sensitivity acceptance tests. Current procedures for determining the inter-laboratory repeatability and reproducibility of aerospace materials flammability tests are not considering the dependence of data variability on test conditions and consequently attempts to characterize the precision of these methods were not successful. The inter-laboratory data variability is determined with tests conducted under arbitrary conditions, which consequently may not provide sufficient information to enable adequate determination of a method's precision. For evaluating the precision of NASA's flammability test methods, the protocol recommended includes selecting critical parameters and determining the 50% failure point by considering the specific failure criteria of each method using the critical parameter as a variable. Upon performing inter-laboratory round robin testing using this approach, the laboratories' performance could be evaluated by comparing the repeatability of the 50% failure point and/or the repeatability of critical conditions where the probabilities of passing and failing are unity, i.e., the transition zone repeatability. When a sufficient amount of data has been acquired with this method, an adequate estimation of precision of aerospace materials flammability test methods will be possible.

  13. Study of low-cost fabrication methods for aerospace composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    Flat and hat section specimens of graphite/epoxy composite materials have been fabricated by the resin bath or wet pultrusion process. This demonstrated the feasibility of incorporating crossplied graphite fiber reinforcements in conjunction with epoxy resin systems in the wet pultrusion process. However, the thickness constraints of the pultrusion process, the lack of dimensional stability of the crossply materials and equipment limitations affect the quality of the hat section pultrusions. The wet pultrusion process shows promise of being a low cost method for producing composite parts with constant cross section along the length. A cost analysis showed at least 80 percent cost reduction for the hat section and 40 percent for flat panel by pultrusion over the conventional manual and automated lay-up.

  14. Intelligent HIP processing of a Spraycast-X{reg_sign} superalloy for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zahrah, T.F.; Dalal, R.; Kissinger, R.

    1996-12-31

    An eddy current sensor system has been developed to monitor densification during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of Spraycast-X{reg_sign} superalloy components for aerospace applications. The sensor system was designed, implemented and demonstrated by MATSYS personnel at the Howmet Corporation HIP facility. The eddy current sensor was used to monitor densification of Spraycast-X{reg_sign} Rene`41 ring segments from 95 to 98 percent relative density to full density. The sensor data were verified and validated by metallographic examinations of HIPed specimens. The grain size of the Spraycast-X{reg_sign} Rene`41 was not affected by HIP at both 1,066 C (1,950 F) and 1,121 C (2,050 F). Tensile strengths and 0.2% creep rupture properties were not sensitive to changes in HIP processing conditions. However, tensile ductilities and low cycle properties showed a strong correlation to HIP time at 1,121 C/103 MPa (2,050 F/15 KSI). As hole time at maximum temperature and pressure was increased from 1 to 4 hours, tensile ductilities and low cycle fatigue lives increased. The sensor system can be integrated with an intelligent closed loop control system to monitor and control densification rate and shape distortion.

  15. Holographic non-destructive testing for composite materials used in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Smet, M.-A.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis and comparisons are presented for the holographic interferometry and ultrasonic methods' results concerning the function of the application of external fields to a composite material test specimen. Holographic interferometry is judged capable of yielding systematic process control data; it is noted that a slight temperature elevation allows such defects as composite fiber breaks, delaminations and disbonds to be visualized.

  16. Alternative Processing of High Temperature Hafnium and Zirconium Based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Gusman, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Irby, Edward; Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of refractory hafnium and zirconium based materials are being investigated at NASA Ames as part of ongoing research aimed at developing superior heat resistant materials for aerospace applications. Hafnium and zirconium diboride based materials have shown high temperature capabilities in simulated reentry environments indicating that these materials may successfully operate as reusable oxidation resistant components for leading edge applications. Due to the refractory nature of these materials, processing of fine-grained uniform microstructures poses a number of challenges. To better understand the process-property-microstructure relationship, processing of these materials has been carried out with conventional hot pressing in addition to the novel approach of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The two processing methods are compared and contrasted in an evaluation of the sintering behavior of high temperature diboride based materials and preliminary physical and mechanical properties are presented.

  17. Lunar materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper surveys current information, describes some important unknowns about lunar materials, and discusses ways to gain more scientific and engineering knowledge concerning the industrial processes that could be used on the moon for the production of products useful in future enterprises in space. Lunar rocks and soils are rich in oxygen, but it is mostly chemically bound in silicates, so that chemical or thermal energy must be supplied to recover it. Iron and titanium are abundant and, in some of their known forms, readily recoverable; aluminum is plentiful but harder to extract. Methods for recovering lunar oxygen and metals fall into three classes: chemical, electrolytic, and dissociative, broadly characterized by their respective process temperatures. Examples of these methods are briefly discussed.

  18. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  19. Prepsolv (TM): The optimum alternative to 1,1,1-trichloroethane and methyl ethyl ketone for hand-wipe cleaning of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. Scott; Purvis, John A.; Moran, Wade W.

    1995-01-01

    Engineers at Hercules Aerospace, a rocket motor manufacturer in Utah, have worked closely with chemists at Glidco Organics to study the feasibility of using terpenes for zero-residue wipe cleaning. The result of this work is a technological breakthrough, in which the barrier to ultra-low non-volatile residue formation has been broken. After 2 years of development and testing, SCM Glidco Organics has announced the availability of Glidsafe(registered trademark) Prepsolv(TM): a state-of-the-art ultra-low residue terpene wipe cleaning agent that does not require rinsing. Prepsolv(TM) can successfully be used in simple hand-wipe cleaning processes without fear of leaving surface residues. Industry testing has confirmed that Prepsolv(TM) is not only highly effective, but can even be less expensive to use than traditional cleaning solvents like methyl chloroform. This paper addresses the features and benefits of Prepsolv(TM), and presents performance and material compatibility data that characterizes this unique cleaning agent. Since its commercialization, Hercules Aerospace has chosen Prepsolv(TM) as the optimum cleaning agent to replace ozone-depleting solvents in their weapons factory in Magna, UT. Likewise, Boeing has approved Prepsolv(TM) for cleaning components in the manufacture of commercial aircraft at their facilities in Seattle, WA and Wichita, KS. Additional approvals are forthcoming for this uniquely safe and effective solvent.

  20. Computational Modeling in Structural Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    High temperature materials such as silicon carbide, a variety of nitrides, and ceramic matrix composites find use in aerospace, automotive, machine tool industries and in high speed civil transport applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used in processing such structural materials. Variations of CVD include deposition on substrates, coating of fibers, inside cavities and on complex objects, and infiltration within preforms called chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Our current knowledge of the process mechanisms, ability to optimize processes, and scale-up for large scale manufacturing is limited. In this regard, computational modeling of the processes is valuable since a validated model can be used as a design tool. The effort is similar to traditional chemically reacting flow modeling with emphasis on multicomponent diffusion, thermal diffusion, large sets of homogeneous reactions, and surface chemistry. In the case of CVI, models for pore infiltration are needed. In the present talk, examples of SiC nitride, and Boron deposition from the author's past work will be used to illustrate the utility of computational process modeling.

  1. Analysis and Evaluation of Novel Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Aerospace Alloy Strip Produced Using the Horizontal Single Belt Casting (HSBC) Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Sa; Celikin, Mert; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.

    2015-04-01

    Horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) is a near net shape casting process in which molten metal is directly cast into thin strips, at high cooling rates (order of several 100 °C/s), with the potential for high volume, friction free, continuous production of metal strips. This casting process was used in the present work to produce strips of Al-Mg alloys in the AA5000 series, with additions of Sc and Zr. Such aluminum alloys show exceptional potential as a structural material for transportation/aerospace applications. To demonstrate the suitability of the HSBC process to manufacture competitive strip products of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr, the mechanical properties and microstructures of the strips produced using the HSBC process were compared with conventionally cast products. The effects of annealing on the mechanical properties of the strip-cast Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys were also investigated.

  2. Material modeling for multistage tube hydroforming process simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saboori, Mehdi

    The Aerospace industries of the 21st century demand the use of cutting edge materials and manufacturing technology. New manufacturing methods such as hydroforming are relatively new and are being used to produce commercial vehicles. This process allows for part consolidation and reducing the number of parts in an assembly compared to conventional methods such as stamping, press forming and welding of multiple components. Hydroforming in particular, provides an endless opportunity to achieve multiple crosssectional shapes in a single tube. A single tube can be pre-bent and subsequently hydroformed to create an entire component assembly instead of welding many smaller sheet metal sections together. The knowledge of tube hydroforming for aerospace materials is not well developed yet, thus new methods are required to predict and study the formability, and the critical forming limits for aerospace materials. In order to have a better understanding of the formability and the mechanical properties of aerospace materials, a novel online measurement approach based on free expansion test is developed using a 3D automated deformation measurement system (AramisRTM) to extract the coordinates of the bulge profile during the test. These coordinates are used to calculate the circumferential and longitudinal curvatures, which are utilized to determine the effective stresses and effective strains at different stages of the tube hydroforming process. In the second step, two different methods, a weighted average method and a new hardening function are utilized to define accurately the true stress-strain curve for post-necking regime of different aerospace alloys, such as inconel 718 (IN 718), stainless steel 321 (SS 321) and titanium (Ti6Al4V). The flow curves are employed in the simulation of the dome height test, which is utilized for generating the forming limit diagrams (FLDs). Then, the effect of stress triaxiality, the stress concentration factor and the effective plastic

  3. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from July 1, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) Ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) Powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) Rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  4. Candidate materials for high-strength fastener applications in both the aerospace and automotive industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, J. G.

    2005-12-01

    There are many commercially available titanium alloys that have exhibited the capability of achieving high strength. Many of these alloys have not been seriously considered for fastener applications due to their cost or availability as coil or bar product. However, because new designs, increased material requirements, and larger aircraft are being built, the need to reduce weight and improve performance continues to be a major issue. The possibility of reducing weight by replacing currently used steel or Ni-based fasteners in various sizes is a great incentive. Over the past few years, many of these titanium alloys have been processed to bar and coil products to evaluate their capabilities as potential fastener materials. This article will review and summarize the mechanical properties, tensile, shear, notch tensile, and available fatigue, as well as the microstructure of these candidate alloys.

  5. Lightweight TiC/Ti alloy wear resistant coatings for lightweight materials in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W.; Mohanty, M.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma spray deposition of titanium and up to 80 vol% titanium carbide (TiC)/titanium matrix composite materials have been investigated for their applicability as wear resistant coatings for protecting light weight substrate materials, such as aluminum. Studies of the air and low pressure plasma sprayed TiC/Ti coatings were completed and are reported. The coatings were characterized and the influence of processing methods on structure and the subsequent wear behavior of the coatings is reported. The investigation includes the effects of spraying in air, controlled atmosphere and in shrouded spray systems. Coating hardness values are reported and wear rates and friction behavior on aluminum substrates in ASTM C99-93 Pin-on-Disk (P.O.D.) wear testing are characterized.

  6. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  7. Lattice Structures For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Olmo, E.; Grande, E.; Samartin, C. R.; Bezdenejnykh, M.; Torres, J.; Blanco, N.; Frovel, M.; Canas, J.

    2012-07-01

    The way of mass reduction improving performances in the aerospace structures is a constant and relevant challenge in the space business. The designs, materials and manufacturing processes are permanently in evolution to explore and get mass optimization solutions at low cost. In the framework of ICARO project, EADS CASA ESPACIO (ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator which shows that lattice type of grid structures is a promising weight saving solution for replacing some traditional metallic and composite structures for space applications. A virtual testing methodology was used in order to support the design of a high modulus CFRP cylindrical lattice technology demonstrator. The manufacturing process, based on composite Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) technology developed by ECE, allows obtaining high quality low weight lattice structures potentially applicable to a wide range of aerospace structures. Launcher payload adaptors, satellite platforms, antenna towers or instrument supports are some promising candidates.

  8. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  9. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  10. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Bowen, H. K.; Kenney, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The goals and activities of the center are discussed. The center activities encompass all engineering materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, composites, superconductors, and thin films. Processes include crystallization, solidification, nucleation, and polymer synthesis.

  11. Determination of the Consistency of Relevance Judgments and the Reliability of Search Strategies Among Information Specialists for the Aerospace Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; March, J. F.

    The ability of various Aerospace Materials Information Center (AMIC) information specialists to prepare search strategies for document retrieval was studied by providing ten typical search request statements to seven information specialists. Each specialist prepared search strategies independently. Significant variations occurred among the…

  12. Effects of cryogenic temperatures on materials properties. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenic effects on mechanical, magnetic, electrical, and other physical properties of materials are described. Titanium, aluminum, copper, nickel, steels, ice, carbides, cermets, ceramics, composites, alloys, and polymers are among the materials discussed. Strength of materials at low temperatures, with particular regard to fatigue and shear cracking, is included.

  13. Aerospace Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Jean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Sauk Rapids (Minnesota) High School aviation and aerospace curriculum that was developed by Curtis Olson and the space program developed by Gerald Mayall at Philadelphia's Northeast High School. Both were developed in conjunction with NASA. (JOW)

  14. Materials And Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) LDEF materials data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Data Base was developed by the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). The LDEF Materials Data Base is envisioned to eventually contain the wide variety and vast quantity of materials data generated from LDEF. The data is searchable by optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, exposure parameters (such as atomic oxygen flux) and author(s) or principal investigator(s). Tne LDEF Materials Data Base was incorporated into the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS). MAPTIS is a collection of materials data which has been computerized and is available to engineers, designers, and researchers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. The LDEF Materials Data Base is described and step-by-step example searches using the data base are included. Information on how to become an authorized user of the system is included.

  15. Aerospace Bibliography. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blashfield, Jean F., Comp.

    Provided for teachers and the general adult reader is an annotated and graded list of books and reference materials dealing with aerospace subjects. Only non-fiction books and pamphlets that need to be purchased from commercial or government sources are included. Free industrial materials and educational aids are not included because they tend to…

  16. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  17. Laser ablation of maskant used in chemical milling process for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, C.; Lopresto, V.; Memola Capece Minutolo, F.; de Iorio, I.; Rinaldi, N.

    2010-09-01

    Chemical etching is a non-traditional machining process where a chemical solution is used to remove unwanted material by dissolution. To shape the etched area, before the process, a chemical inert paint (maskant) is applied on the surface. Then the maskant is trimmed away and the uncovered area is subject to the etching. The maskant cut could be obtained mechanically or by laser ablation. In this work, the effect of process parameters, cutting speed and beam power, on interaction phenomena and defect formation in laser cutting of polymeric maskant is studied, using a 30W CO2 laser source.

  18. Effects of cryogenic temperatures on materials properties. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenic effects on mechanical, magnetic, electrical, and other physical properties of materials are described. Titanium, aluminum, copper, nickel, steels, ice, carbides, cermets, ceramics, composites, alloys, and polymers are among the materials discussed. Strength of materials at low temperatures, with particular regard to fatigue and shear cracking, is included. Cryogenic cooling systems are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Processing composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The fabrication of several composite structural articles including DC-10 upper aft rudders, L-1011 vertical fins and composite biomedical appliances are discussed. Innovative composite processing methods are included.

  20. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.; Wert, John A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and associated thermal gradient structures. Individual technical objectives are established for each project. Efforts aim to produce basic understanding of material behavior, monolithic and composite alloys, processing methods, solid and mechanics analyses, measurement advances, and a pool of educated graduate students. Progress is reported for 11 areas of study.

  1. ASTM E 1559 method for measuring material outgassing/deposition kinetics has applications to aerospace, electronics, and semiconductor industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, J. W.; Glassford, A. P. M.; Steakley, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials has published a new standard test method for characterizing time and temperature-dependence of material outgassing kinetics and the deposition kinetics of outgassed species on surfaces at various temperatures. This new ASTM standard, E 1559(1), uses the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) collection measurement approach. The test method was originally developed under a program sponsored by the United States Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) to create a standard test method for obtaining outgassing and deposition kinetics data for spacecraft materials. Standardization by ASTM recognizes that the method has applications beyond aerospace. In particular, the method will provide data of use to the electronics, semiconductor, and high vacuum industries. In ASTM E 1559 the material sample is held in vacuum in a temperature-controlled effusion cell, while its outgassing flux impinges on several QCM's which view the orifice of the effusion cell. Sample isothermal total mass loss (TML) is measured as a function of time from the mass collected on one of the QCM's which is cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the view factor from this QCM to the cell. The amount of outgassed volatile condensable material (VCM) on surfaces at higher temperatures is measured as a function of time during the isothermal outgassing test by controlling the temperatures of the remaining QCM's to selected values. The VCM on surfaces at temperatures in between those of the collector QCM's is determined at the end of the isothermal test by heating the QCM's at a controlled rate and measuring the mass loss from the end of the QCM's as a function of time and temperature. This reevaporation of the deposit collected on the QCM's is referred to as QCM thermogravimetric analysis. Isothermal outgassing and deposition rates can be determined by differentiating the isothermal TML and VCM data, respectively, while the evaporation rates of the species can be obtained as a

  2. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  3. Effects of cryogenic temperatures on materials properties. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenic effects on mechanical, magnetic, electrical, and other physical properties of materials are described. Titanium, aluminum, copper, nickel, steels, ice, carbides, cermets, ceramics, composites, alloys, and polymers are among the materials discussed. Strength of materials at low temperatures, with particular regard to fatigue and shear cracking, is included. Cryogenic cooling systems are discussed in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Effects of cryogenic temperatures on materials properties. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenic effects on mechanical, magnetic, electrical, and other physical properties of materials are described. Titanium, aluminum, copper, nickel, steels, ice, carbides, cermets, ceramics, composites, alloys, and polymers are among the materials discussed. Strength of materials at low temperatures, with particular regard to fatigue and shear cracking, is included. Cryogenic cooling systems are discussed in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 8: Zero-g technology. [experimental designispace processing and aerospace engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of liquids in zero gravity environments is discussed with emphasis on foams, wetting, and wicks. A multipurpose electric furnace (MA-010) for the high temperature processing of metals and salts in zero-g is described. Experiments discussed include: monolectic and synthetic alloys (MA-041); multiple material melting point (MA-150); zero-g processing of metals (MA-070); surface tension induced convection (MA-041); halide eutectic growth; interface markings in crystals (MA-060); crystal growth from the vapor phase (MA-085); and photography of crystal growth (MA-028).

  6. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from January 1, 1992 to June 30, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  7. Oxygen Concentration Flammability Thresholds of Selected Aerospace Materials Considered for the Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Harper, Susan A.; Beeson, Harold; Pedley, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Materials selection for spacecraft is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest expected oxygen concentration environment. The test conditions and its pass/fail test logic do not provide sufficient quantitative materials flammability information for an advanced space exploration program. A modified approach has been suggested determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. The flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk from oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats. This paper provides data on oxygen concentration self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions for selected materials considered for the Constellation Program.

  8. On the cyclic stress-strain behavior and low cycle fatigue of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, J.

    1972-01-01

    The elastic-plastic deformation behavior under cyclic stress of a number of different engineering materials was experimentally investigated with the aid of high-precision methods of measuring, some of which had been newly developed. Experiments made with a variety of steels, the titanium alloy Ti-A16-V4, a cobalt (tungsten) alloy, the high-temperature material Nimonic 90 and Dural (A1-Cu) are reported. The theory given in an attempt to explain these experiments is aimed at finding general formulas for the cyclic stress-strain behavior materials.

  9. Aerospace Education: Is the Sky the Limit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little Soldier, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Provides suggestions on ways to include aerospace education in an integrated elementary school curriculum that focuses on content from the social and physical sciences and emphasizes process skills. Activities that build understanding of aerospace concepts are described. (BB)

  10. Applicability of Aerospace Materials Ground Flammability Test Data to Spacecraft Environments Theory and Applied Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ground test data in reference to flammability to spacecraft environments. It reviews the current approach to spacecraft fire safety, the challenges to fire safety that the Constellation program poses, the current trends in the evaluation of the Constellation materials flammability, and the correlation of test data from ground flammability tests with the spacecraft environment. Included is a proposal for testing and the design of experiments to test the flammability of materials under similar spacecraft conditions.

  11. Synthesis of Hafnium-Based Ceramic Materials for Ultra-High Temperature Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Feldman, Jay

    2004-01-01

    This project involved the synthesis of hafnium (Hf)-based ceramic powders and Hf-based precursor solutions that were suitable for preparation of Hf-based ceramics. The Hf-based ceramic materials of interest in this project were hafnium carbide (with nominal composition HE) and hafnium dioxide (HfO2). The materials were prepared at Georgia Institute of Technology and then supplied to research collaborators Dr. Sylvia Johnson and Dr. Jay Feldman) at NASA Ames Research Center.

  12. Pressure Effects on the Self-Extinguishment Limits of Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Haas, Jon P.; Beeson, Harold D.; Ruff, Gary A.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Module (CM) is being designed to operate in an atmosphere of up to 30% oxygen at a pressure of 10.2 psia for lunar missions. Spacecraft materials selection is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a closed chamber under the worst expected conditions of pressure and oxygen concentration. Material flammability depends on both oxygen concentration and pressure but, since oxygen concentration is the primary driver, all materials are certified in the 30% oxygen, 10.2 psia environment. Extensive data exist from the Shuttle Program at this condition which used relatively the same test methodology as currently used in the Constellation Program. When the CM returns to Earth, a snorkel device will be activated after splashdown to provide outside air to the crew; however, for operational reasons, it is desirable to maximize the time the crew is able to breathe cabin air before the snorkel device is activated. To maximize this time, it has been proposed to raise the partial pressure of oxygen in the CM immediately before reentry while maintaining the total cabin pressure at 14.7 psia. In addition, it has been proposed to leak-test the Orion CM with ambient air at a maximum pressure of 17.3 psia. No data exist to assess how high the cabin oxygen concentration can be at 14.7 psia or 17.3 psia. One is to re-test a large number of materials at these pressures at a significant cost. However, since the maximum oxygen concentration (MOC) at which a material will self-extinguish has been determined for a variety of spacecraft materials as a function of pressure, a second alternative is to use existing data to estimate the MOC at 14.7 psia and 17.3 psia. This data will be examined in this paper and an analysis presented to determine the oxygen concentrations at the increased pressures that will result in self-extinguishment of a material. This analysis showed that the oxygen concentration for the Orion CM at 14.7 psia cannot be set higher

  13. Telerobotic electronic materials processing experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, Stanford

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Commercial Programs (OCP), working in conjunction with NASA engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center, is supporting research efforts in robot technology and microelectronics materials processing that will provide many spinoffs for science and industry. The Telerobotic Materials Processing Experiment (TRMPX) is a Shuttle-launched materials processing test payload using a Get Away Special can. The objectives of the project are to define, develop, and demonstrate an automated materials processing capability under realistic flight conditions. TRMPX will provide the capability to test the production processes that are dependent on microgravity. The processes proposed for testing include the annealing of amorphous silicon to increase grain size for more efficient solar cells, thin film deposition to demonstrate the potential of fabricating solar cells in orbit, and the annealing of radiation damaged solar cells.

  14. Laboratory test methods for evaluating the fire response of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The test methods which were developed or evaluated were intended to serve as means of comparing materials on the basis of specific responses under specific sets of test conditions, using apparatus, facilities, and personnel that would be within the capabilities of perhaps the majority of laboratories. Priority was given to test methods which showed promise of addressing the pre-ignition state of a potential fire. These test methods were intended to indicate which materials may present more hazard than others under specific test conditions. These test methods are discussed and arranged according to the stage of a fire to which they are most relevant. Some observations of material performance which resulted from this work are also discussed.

  15. Characterization of physio-chemical properties of polymeric and electrochemical materials for aerospace flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.; Kunigahalli, V.; Khan, S.; Mcnair, A.

    1984-01-01

    Sealed nickel cadmium cells having undergone a large number of cycles were discharged using the Hg/HgO reference electrode. The negative electrode exhibited the second plateau. SEM of negative plates of such cells show clusters of large crystals of cadmium hydroxide. These large crystals on the negative plates disappear after continuous overcharging in flooded cells. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard wet chemical methods are being used to determine the cell materials viz: nickel, cadmium, cobalt, potassum and carbonate. The anodes and cathodes are analyzed after careful examination and the condition of the separator material is evaluated.

  16. PROCESS OF FORMING POWDERED MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Glatter, J.; Schaner, B.E.

    1961-07-14

    A process of forming high-density compacts of a powdered ceramic material is described by agglomerating the powdered ceramic material with a heat- decompossble binder, adding a heat-decompossble lubricant to the agglomerated material, placing a quantity of the material into a die cavity, pressing the material to form a compact, pretreating the compacts in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to remove the binder and lubricant, and sintering the compacts. When this process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel elements, the ceramic material is an oxide powder of a fissionsble material and after forming, the compacts are placed in a cladding tube which is closed at its ends by vapor tight end caps, so that the sintered compacts are held in close contact with each other and with the interior wall of the cladding tube.

  17. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of available terrestrial skills to the gathering of lunar materials and the processing of raw lunar materials into industrial feed stock were investigated. The literature on lunar soils and rocks was reviewed and the chemical processes by which major oxides and chemical elements can be extracted were identified. The gathering of lunar soil by means of excavation equipment was studied in terms of terrestrial experience with strip mining operations on earth. The application of electrostatic benefication techniques was examined for use on the moon to minimize the quantity of materials requiring surface transport and to optimize the stream of raw materials to be transported off the moon for subsequent industrial use.

  18. Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

  19. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  20. Advanced Materials Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Composites, polymer science, metallic materials (aluminum, titanium, and superalloys), materials processing technology, materials durability in the aerospace environment, ceramics, fatigue and fracture mechanics, tribology, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are discussed. Research and development activities are introduced to the nonaerospace industry. In order to provide a convenient means to help transfer aerospace technology to the commercial mainstream in a systematic manner.

  1. A study of the applicability of gallium arsenide and silicon carbide as aerospace sensor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, John S.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the piezoresistive sensors, to date, are made of silicon and germanium. Unfortunately, such materials are severly restricted in high temperature environments. By comparing the effects of temperature on the impurity concentrations and piezoresistive coefficients of silicon, gallium arsenide, and silicon carbide, it is being determined if gallium arsenide and silicon carbide are better suited materials for piezoresistive sensors in high temperature environments. The results show that the melting point for gallium arsenide prevents it from solely being used in high temperature situations, however, when used in the alloy Al(x)Ga(1-x)As, not only the advantage of the wider energy band gas is obtained, but also the higher desire melting temperature. Silicon carbide, with its wide energy band gap and higher melting temperature suggests promise as a high temperature piezoresistive sensor.

  2. Laser supported detonation wave source of atomic oxygen for aerospace material testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, Robert H.; Caledonia, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A pulsed high-flux source of nearly monoenergetic atomic oxygen was developed to perform accelerated erosion testing of spacecraft materials in a simulated low-earth orbit (LEO) environment. Molecular oxygen is introduced into an evacuated conical expansion nozzle at several atmospheres pressure through a pulsed molecular beam valve. A laser-induced breakdown is generated in the nozzle throat by a pulsed CO2 TEA laser. The resulting plasma is heated by the ensuing laser-supported detonation wave, and then it rapidly expands and cools. An atomic oxygen beam is generated with fluxes above 10 to the 18th atoms per pulse at 8 + or - 1.6 km/s with an ion content below 1 percent for LEO testing. Materials testing yielded the same surface oxygen enrichment in polyethylene samples as observed on the STS mission, and scanning electron micrographs of the irradiated polymer surfaces showed an erosion morphology similar to that obtained on low earth orbit.

  3. Pressure Effects on Oxygen Concentration Flammability Thresholds of Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft materials selection is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest-expected oxygen-concentration environment. However, NASA s advanced space exploration program is anticipating using various habitable environments. Because limited data is available to support current program requirements, a different test logic is suggested to address these expanded atmospheric environments through the determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. This paper provides additional pressure effects data on oxygen concentration and partial pressure self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions. For the range of total pressures tested, the oxygen concentration and oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds show a near linear function of total pressure. The oxygen concentration/oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds depend on the total pressure and appear to increase with increasing oxygen concentration (and oxygen partial pressure). For the Constellation Program, the flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk because of oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats.

  4. Aerospace engineering educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, William; Klett, David; Lai, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The principle goal of the educational component of NASA CORE is the creation of aerospace engineering options in the mechanical engineering program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To accomplish this goal, a concerted effort during the past year has resulted in detailed plans for the initiation of aerospace options in both the BSME and MSME programs in the fall of 1993. All proposed new courses and the BSME aerospace option curriculum must undergo a lengthy approval process involving two cirriculum oversight committees (School of Engineering and University level) and three levels of general faculty approval. Assuming approval is obtained from all levels, the options will officially take effect in Fall '93. In anticipation of this, certain courses in the proposed curriculum are being offered during the current academic year under special topics headings so that current junior level students may graduate in May '94 under the BSME aerospace option. The proposed undergraduate aerospace option curriculum (along with the regular mechanical engineering curriculum for reference) is attached at the end of this report, and course outlines for the new courses are included in the appendix.

  5. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, John R.; Shiflet, Gary J.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program was initiated in 1986 and continues with a high level of activity. The objective of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are presented for each research project. We generally aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. Three research areas are being actively investigated, including: (1) Mechanical and environmental degradation mechanisms in advanced light metals, (2) Aerospace materials science, and (3) Mechanics of materials for light aerospace structures.

  6. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program (LA(sup 2)ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The general objective of the Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA(sup 2)ST) Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are established for each research project. We aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material behavior and microstructure, new monolithic and composite alloys, advanced processing methods, new solid and fluid mechanics analyses, measurement advances, and critically, a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. Four research areas are being actively investigated, including: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals and Composites; (2) Aerospace Materials Science; (3) Mechanics of Materials and Composites for Aerospace Structures; and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures.

  7. Processes for treating cellulosic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladisch, Michael R. (Inventor); Kohlman, Karen L. (Inventor); Westgate, Paul L. (Inventor); Weil, Joseph R. (Inventor); Yang, Yiqi (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed are processes for pretreating cellulosic materials in liquid water by heating the materials in liquid water at a temperature at or above their glass transition temperature but not substantially exceeding 220.degree. C., while maintaining the pH of the reaction medium in a range that avoids substantial autohydrolysis of the cellulosic materials. Such pretreatments minimize chemical changes to the cellulose while leading to physical changes which substantially increase susceptibility to hydrolysis in the presence of cellulase.

  8. Microstructural processes in irradiated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Morgan, Dane; Jiao, Zhijie; Almer, Jonathan; Brown, Donald

    2016-04-01

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at two symposia, the Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials (MPIM) and Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials and Components with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation, held in the TMS 2015, 144th Annual Meeting & Exhibition at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA on March 15-19, 2015.

  9. Energy Implications of Materials Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Earl T.

    1976-01-01

    Processing of materials could become energy-limited rather than resource-limited. Methods to extract metals, industrial minerals, and energy materials and convert them to useful states requires more than one-fifth of the United States energy budget. Energy accounting by industries must include a total systems analysis of costs to insure net energy…

  10. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  11. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.

    1978-01-01

    Materials intended for use in spacecraft are routinely tested at low pressures, and outgassed substances are condensed on cold surfaces at liquid nitrogen temperature, -196 C. These condensates are then analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromotography-mass spectroscopy. The polymers were tested and allowed to outgas isothermally at 125 C and 0.000001 torr or less. Valuable information was obtained by extending the temperature range below and above 125 C. The performance of substances of interest to NASA were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) from room temperature to 450 C or until the substance decomposed. Thermogravimetric analysis of a substance is a useful technique for studying its thermal nature in both static and dynamic thermal environments. It gives considerable insight into the stability and characterization of substances and the changes they undergo in varying thermal environments. The system is able to get pressures down to 1 micron or 0.001 torr.

  12. The Development of Materials for Structures and Radiation Shielding in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Polymeric materials on space vehicles and high-altitude aircraft win be exposed to highly penetrating radiations. These radiations come from solar flares and galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Radiation from solar flares consists primarily of protons with energies less than 1 GeV. On the other hand, GCR consist of nuclei with energies as high as 10(exp 10) GeV. Over 90% of the nuclei in GCR are protons and alpha particles, however there is a small but significant component of particles with atomic numbers greater than ten. Particles with high atomic number (Z) and high energy interact with very high specific ionization and thus represent a serious hazard for humans and electronic equipment on a spacecraft or on high-altitude commercial aircraft (most importantly for crew members who would have long exposures). Neutrons generated by reactions with the high energy particles also represent a hazard both for humans and electronic equipment.

  13. CPT Word Processing Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaymaker, Josephine; Eakman, Donna

    A project to develop a student word processing manual was developed by using input from: (1) information specialists, employees, and educators; and (2) students using the manual. These instructional materials provide workbook assignments and reading for an individualized unit on CPT word processing to be used by 30 to 40 high school students per…

  14. Materials processing in space - A strategy for commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Major aerospace companies are talking about space factories manufacturing billions of dollars worth of high technology materials per year. On the other hand, a recent National Academy of Sciences study team saw little prospect for space manufacturing because, in their opinion, most of the disturbing effects of gravity in the processes they considered could be overcome on the ground for much less expenditure. This paper presents a current assessment of the problems and promises of the Materials Processing in Space Program and outlines a strategy for developing the first products of commercial value. These early products are expected to serve as paradigms of what can be accomplished by manufacturing in space and should stimulate industry to develop space manufacturing to whatever degree is economically justifiable.

  15. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  16. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  17. Materials processing in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Work is reported on the Materials Processing Low Gravity Program in which the University of Alabama worked with scientists and engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center to design, implement and perform low gravity experiments with various scientific investigators in materials processing science through March 15, 1989. The facilities used in these short duration low gravity experiments include the Drop Tube and Drop Tower at MSFC, and the KC-135 aircraft at Ellington Field. The utilization of these ground-based low gravity facilities for materials processing was instrumental in determining the feasibility of either performing a particular experiment in the microgravity of Space or continuing on-going activities which may have been delayed due to the absence of shuttle flights during this contractual effort.

  18. Residual stresses in material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Watkins, T.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then adresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  19. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  20. Thermal oscillations in materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The use of thermosolutal and thermocapillary convection in materials processing is experimentally investigated. The flow patterns, unsteady mass transfer, and unsteady temperature variations seen in thermosolutal convection in enclosures are examined. An extensive research program to understand the role of thermocapillary convection in crystal growth for a variety of configurations is reviewed.

  1. Aerospace gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  2. Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Zhang, Shanshan; Lassell, Austin; Zandinejad, Amirali; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Custom ceramic structures possess significant potentials in many applications such as dentistry and aerospace where extreme environments are present. Specifically, highly customized geometries with adequate performance are needed for various dental prostheses applications. This paper demonstrates the development of process and post-process parameters for a dental porcelain ceramic material using binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM). Various process parameters such as binder amount, drying power level, drying time and powder spread speed were studied experimentally for their effect on geometrical and mechanical characteristics of green parts. In addition, the effects of sintering and printing parameters on the qualities of the densified ceramic structures were also investigated experimentally. The results provide insights into the process-property relationships for the binder jetting AM process, and some of the challenges of the process that need to be further characterized for the successful adoption of the binder jetting technology in high quality ceramic fabrications are discussed.

  3. Aerospace Education - An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the surge of interest throughout the country in aerospace education and discusses what aerospace education is, the implications in career education and the relevance of aerospace education in the curriculum. (BR)

  4. Basic Aerospace Education Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Lists the most significant resource items on aerospace education which are presently available. Includes source books, bibliographies, directories, encyclopedias, dictionaries, audiovisuals, curriculum/planning guides, aerospace statistics, aerospace education statistics and newsletters. (BR)

  5. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  6. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  7. Space processing of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

    1975-01-01

    Materials and processes for the testing of aluminum-base fiber and particle composites, and of metal foams under extended-time low-g conditions were investigated. A wetting and dispersion technique was developed, based on the theory that under the absence of a gas phase all solids are wetted by liquids. The process is characterized by a high vacuum environment and a high temperature cycle. Successful wetting and dispersion experiments were carried out with sapphire fibers, whiskers and particles, and with fibers of silicon carbide, pyrolytic graphite and tungsten. The developed process and facilities permit the preparation of a precomposite which serves as sample material for flight experiments. Low-g processing consists then merely in the uniform redistribution of the reinforcements during a melting cycle. For the preparation of metal foams, gas generation by means of a thermally decomposing compound was found most adaptable to flight experiments. For flight experiments, the use of compacted mixture of the component materials limits low-g processing to a simple melt cycle.

  8. Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides lightning protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of lightning. Generic descriptions of the lightning environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for lightning protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.

  9. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  10. Materials processing in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The final report of the Materials Processing in Low Gravity Program in which The University of Alabama in Huntsville designed, fabricated and performed various low gravity experiments in materials processing from November 7, 1989 through November 6, 1990 is presented. The facilities used in these short duration low gravity experiments include the Drop Tube and Drop Tower at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the KC-135 aircraft at Ellington Field. During the performance of this contract, the utilization of these ground-based low gravity facilities for materials processing experiments have been instrumental in providing the opportunity to determine the feasibility of performing a number of experiments in the microgravity of Space, without the expense of a space-based experiment. Since the KC-135 was out for repairs during the latter part of the reporting period, a number of the KC-135 activities concentrated on repair and maintenance of the equipment that normally is flown on the aircraft. A number of periodic reports were given to the TCOR during the course of this contract, hence this final report is meant only to summarize the many activities performed and not redundantly cover materials already submitted.

  11. Process for preparing energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2011-12-13

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  12. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  13. Industrial Materials Processing Laser Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Followwill, Dorman

    1989-03-01

    The way I would like to handle this morning is first, to give you an overview before I put anything up in terms of slides. An overview of the study that we produced a couple of months ago. It is entitled "Industrial Materials Processing Laser Markets", and if you want information on that particular study, then you can speak with me at the coffee break.

  14. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51... material. (a) General. A proprietor may produce processing material or receive processing material produced elsewhere. Fermented processing material may not be used in the manufacture of concentrate....

  15. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51... material. (a) General. A proprietor may produce processing material or receive processing material produced elsewhere. Fermented processing material may not be used in the manufacture of concentrate....

  16. The Aerospace Age. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is written for use only in the Air Force ROTC program and cannot be purchased on the open market. The book describes the historical development of aerospace industry. The first chapter contains a brief review of the aerospace environment and the nature of technological changes brought by the aerospace revolution. The following chapter…

  17. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  18. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  19. Advanced Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Terahertz Inspections on Aerospace Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Long Buu

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle's external fuel tank is thermally insulated by the closed cell foams. However, natural voids composed of air and trapped gas are found as by-products when the foams are cured. Detection of foam voids and foam de-bonding is a formidable task owing to the small index of refraction contrast between foam and air (1.04:1). In the presence of a denser binding matrix agent that bonds two different foam materials, time-differentiation of filtered terahertz signals can be employed to magnify information prior to the main substrate reflections. In the absence of a matrix binder, de-convolution of the filtered time differential terahertz signals is performed to reduce the masking effects of antenna ringing. The goal is simply to increase probability of void detection through image enhancement and to determine the depth of the void.

  20. Optimal Composite Material for Low Cost Fabrication of Large Composite Aerospace Structures using NASA Resins or POSS Nanoparticle Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamontia, Mark A.; Gruber, Mark B.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    Thermoplastic laminates in situ consolidated via tape or tow placement require full mechanical properties. Realizing full properties requires resin crystallinity to be controlled - partial crystallinity leads to unacceptably low laminate compression properties. There are two approaches: utilize an amorphous matrix resin; or place material made from a semi-crystalline resin featuring kinetics faster than the process. In this paper, a matrix resin evaluation and trade study was completed with commercial and NASA amorphous polyimides on the one hand, and with PEKK mixed with POSS nanoparticles for accelerated crystallinity growth on the other. A new thermoplastic impregnated material, 6 mm wide (0.25-in) AS-4 carbon/LaRC(TradeMark)8515 dry polyimide tow, was fabricated. Since LaRC(TradeMark)8515 is fully amorphous, it attains full properties following in situ consolidation, with no post processing required to build crystallinity. The tow in situ processing was demonstrated via in situ thermoplastic filament winding it into rings.

  1. Computational Material Processing in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Working with Professor David Matthiesen at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) a computer model of the DPIMS (Diffusion Processes in Molten Semiconductors) space experiment was developed that is able to predict the thermal field, flow field and concentration profile within a molten germanium capillary under both ground-based and microgravity conditions as illustrated. These models are coupled with a novel nonlinear statistical methodology for estimating the diffusion coefficient from measured concentration values after a given time that yields a more accurate estimate than traditional methods. This code was integrated into a web-based application that has become a standard tool used by engineers in the Materials Science Department at CWRU.

  2. The processing of semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Five experiments involving the processing of semiconductor materials were performed during the Skylab mission. After discussions on semiconductors and their unique electronic properties, and techniques of crystal growth, these five experiments are presented. Four melt growth experiments were attempted: (1) steady state growth and segregation under zero gravity (InSb); (2) seeded, containerless solidification of InSb; (3) influence of gravity-free solidification on microsegregation; and (4) directional solidification of InSb-GaSb alloys. One vapor growth experiment, crystal growth by vapor transport, was attempted.

  3. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murawczyk, C.

    1973-01-01

    The work is described accomplished in compiling information needed to establish the current water supply and waste water processing requirements for dwellings, and for developing a preliminary design for a waste water to potable water management system. Data generated was used in formulation of design criteria for the preliminary design of the waste water to potable water recycling system. The system as defined was sized for a group of 500 dwelling units. Study tasks summarized include: water consumption, nature of domestic water, consumer appliances for low water consumption, water quality monitoring, baseline concept, and current and projected costs.

  4. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications, Report on NASA-Kamatics SAA3-1288

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Under NASA Space Act Agreement (SAA3-1288), NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54 kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  5. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Doris J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Transfer Team is to assist NASA in achieving widespread utilization of aerospace technology in terrestrial applications. Widespread utilization implies that the application of NASA technology is to benefit a significant sector of the economy and population of the Nation. This objective is best attained by stimulating the introduction of new or improved commercially available devices incorporating aerospace technology. A methodology is presented for the team's activities as an active transfer agent linking NASA Field Centers, industry associations, user groups, and the medical community. This methodology is designed to: (1) identify priority technology requirements in industry and medicine, (2) identify applicable NASA technology that represents an opportunity for a successful solution and commercial product, (3) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process, and (4) successfully develop a new product based on NASA technology.

  6. Reach and its Impact: NASA and US Aerospace Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    REACH is a European law that threatens to impact materials used within the US aerospace communities, including NASA. The presentation briefly covers REACH and generally, its perceived impacts to NASA and the aerospace community within the US.

  7. Versatile self-reconfigurable digital processing platform for satellite and aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichocki, A.; Nowosielski, W.; Orleanski, P.

    2012-05-01

    This document presents the concept and implementation of a reconfigurable digital processing platform for airborne and satellite systems. Some recent trends visible in the technology development of on-board electronics were taken under consideration during the conceptual phase of the design. They were, namely, use of commercial-of-the-shelf (or COTS) components, utilization of FPGAs, common interfaces and system re-programmability. On the other hand, a matter that is constantly being a challenge for these types of applications that must be considered as crucial is the reliability. The key feature of described prototype device is a fusion of two different approaches: static functionality and ability of a self-reconfiguration on the fly, while retaining high availability of a system, especially when the configuration is altered by space radiation.

  8. Sputtering and ion plating for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1981-01-01

    Sputtering and ion plating technologies are reviewed in terms of their potential and present uses in the aerospace industry. Sputtering offers great universality and flexibility in depositing any material or in the synthesis of new ones. The sputter deposition process has two areas of interest: thin film and fabrication technology. Thin film sputtering technology is primarily used for aerospace mechanical components to reduce friction, wear, erosion, corrosion, high temperature oxidation, diffusion and fatigue, and also to sputter-construct temperature and strain sensors for aircraft engines. Sputter fabrication is used in intricate aircraft component manufacturing. Ion plating applications are discussed in terms of the high energy evaporant flux and the high throwing power. Excellent adherence and 3 dimensional coverage are the primary attributes of this technology.

  9. Examples of Current and Future Uses of Neural-Net Image Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2004-01-01

    Feed forward artificial neural networks are very convenient for performing correlated interpolation of pairs of complex noisy data sets as well as detecting small changes in image data. Image-to-image, image-to-variable and image-to-index applications have been tested at Glenn. Early demonstration applications are summarized including image-directed alignment of optics, tomography, flow-visualization control of wind-tunnel operations and structural-model-trained neural networks. A practical application is reviewed that employs neural-net detection of structural damage from interference fringe patterns. Both sensor-based and optics-only calibration procedures are available for this technique. These accomplishments have generated the knowledge necessary to suggest some other applications for NASA and Government programs. A tomography application is discussed to support Glenn's Icing Research tomography effort. The self-regularizing capability of a neural net is shown to predict the expected performance of the tomography geometry and to augment fast data processing. Other potential applications involve the quantum technologies. It may be possible to use a neural net as an image-to-image controller of an optical tweezers being used for diagnostics of isolated nano structures. The image-to-image transformation properties also offer the potential for simulating quantum computing. Computer resources are detailed for implementing the black box calibration features of the neural nets.

  10. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The general objective of the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program was to conduct research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and associated thermal gradient structures. The following research areas were actively investigated: (1) mechanical and environmental degradation mechanisms in advanced light metals and composites; (2) aerospace materials science; (3) mechanics of materials and composites for aerospace structures; and (4) thermal gradient structures.

  11. Unification - An international aerospace information issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific and Technical Information (STI) represents the results of large investments in research and development (R&D) and the expertise of a nation and is a valuable resource. For more than four decades, NASA and its predecessor organizations have developed and managed the preeminent aerospace information system. NASA obtains foreign materials through its international exchange relationships, continually increasing the comprehensiveness of the NASA Aerospace Database (NAD). The NAD is de facto the international aerospace database. This paper reviews current NASA goals and activities with a view toward maintaining compatibility among international aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  12. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  13. Lunar materials processing system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this paper is that governmental resources will not permit the simultaneous development of all viable lunar materials processing (LMP) candidates. Choices will inevitably be made, based on the results of system integration trade studies comparing candidates to each other for high-leverage applications. It is in the best long-term interest of the LMP community to lead the selection process itself, quickly and practically. The paper is in five parts. The first part explains what systems integration means and why the specialized field of LMP needs this activity now. The second part defines the integration context for LMP -- by outlining potential lunar base functions, their interrelationships and constraints. The third part establishes perspective for prioritizing the development of LMP methods, by estimating realistic scope, scale, and timing of lunar operations. The fourth part describes the use of one type of analytical tool for gaining understanding of system interactions: the input/output model. A simple example solved with linear algebra is used to illustrate. The fifth and closing part identifies specific steps needed to refine the current ability to study lunar base system integration. Research specialists have a crucial role to play now in providing the data upon which this refinement process must be based.

  14. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  15. Aerospace Resources for Science and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald, Ed.; Smith, Kenneth L., Ed.

    This publication on Aerospace Programs is a special edition of "Technology Education" featuring descriptions of 15 select aerospace education programs from diverse localities spanning the full range of instructional levels. Following introductory material, the monograph contains the following largely unedited program descriptions: (1) summaries of…

  16. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  17. Sol-gel hybrid materials for aerospace applications: Chemical characterization and comparative investigation of the magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catauro, Michelina; Mozzati, Maria Cristina; Bollino, Flavia

    2015-12-01

    In the material science field, weightless conditions can be successfully used to understand the relationship between manufacturing process, structure and properties of the obtained materials. Aerogels with controlled microstructure could be obtained by sol-gel methods in microgravity environment, simulated using magnetic levitation if they are diamagnetic. In the present work, a sol-gel route was used to synthesize class I, organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials. Two different formulations were prepared: the former consisted in a SiO2 matrix in which different percentages of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were incorporated, the latter was a ZrO2 matrix entrapping different amounts of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) detected that the organic and the inorganic components in both the formulation interact by means of hydrogen bonds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis highlighted the amorphous nature of the synthesized materials and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed that they have homogeneous morphology and are nanocomposites. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry confirmed the expected diamagnetic character of those hybrid systems. The obtained results were compared to those achieved in previous studies regarding the influence of the polymer amount on the magnetic properties of SiO2/PCL and ZiO2/PEG hybrids, in order to understand how the diamagnetic susceptibility is influenced by variation of both the inorganic matrix and organic component.

  18. Two-sided friction stir riveting by extrusion: A process for joining dissimilar materials

    DOE PAGES

    Evans, William T.; Cox, Chase D.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.; Gibson, Brian T.

    2016-06-25

    Two-sided friction stir riveting (FSR) by extrusion is an innovative process developed to rapidly, efficiently, and securely join dissimilar materials. This process extends a previously developed one sided friction stir extrusion process to create a strong and robust joint by producing a continuous, rivet-like structure through a preformed hole in one of the materials with a simultaneous, two-sided friction stir spot weld. The two-sided FSR by extrusion process securely joins the dissimilar materials together and effectively locks them in place without the use of any separate materials or fasteners. Lastly, in this paper we demonstrate the process by joining aluminummore » to steel and illustrate its potential application to automotive and aerospace manufacturing processes.« less

  19. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  20. An Aerospace Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill

    1972-01-01

    Describes the 16-day, 10,000 mile national tour of the nation's major aerospace research and development centers by 65 students enrolled in Central Washington State College's Summer Aerospace Workshop. (Author/MB)

  1. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology (LAST) Program continues to maintain a high level of activity, with projects being conducted by graduate students and faculty advisors in the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia. This work is funded by the NASA-Langley Research Center under Grant NAG-1-745. Here, we report on progress achieved between January 1 and June 30, 1992. The objectives of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of the next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with Langley researchers. Technical objectives are established for each research project. We aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement advances; and critically, a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The accomplishments presented in this report cover topics including: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advance Light Metals and Composites; (2) Aerospace Materials Science; (3) Mechanics of Materials and Composites for Aerospace Structures; and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures.

  2. Aerospace Education: A Pilot Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlovich, Jack; Fagle, David

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of K-12 aerospace education materials. The ninth-grade component, adopted as a pilot program, consists of four parts: history, applications (principles of flight, weather, navigation), spin-offs of research, and careers/organizations. Program evaluation results are reported. (JN)

  3. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  4. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  5. Key Issues for Aerospace Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Levine, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer significant advantages for future aerospace applications including turbine engine and liquid rocket engine components, thermal protection systems, and "hot structures". Key characteristics which establish ceramic matrix composites as attractive and often enabling choices are strength retention at high temperatures and reduced weight relative to currently used metallics. However, due to the immaturity of this class of materials which is further compounded by the lack of experience with CMC's in the aerospace industry, there are significant challenges involved in the development and implementation of ceramic matrix composites into aerospace systems. Some of the more critical challenges are attachment and load transfer methodologies; manufacturing techniques, particularly scale up to large and thick section components; operational environment resistance; damage tolerance; durability; repair techniques; reproducibility; database availability; and the lack of validated design and analysis tools. The presentation will examine the technical issues confronting the application of ceramic matrix composites to aerospace systems and identify the key material systems having potential for substantial payoff relative to the primary requirements of light weight and reduced cost for future systems. Current programs and future research opportunities will be described in the presentation which will focus on materials and processes issues.

  6. Materials processing in space: Early experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Herring, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of the space environment were reviewed. Potential applications of space processing are discussed and include metallurgical processing, and processing of semiconductor materials. The behavior of fluid in low gravity is described. The evolution of apparatus for materials processing in space was reviewed.

  7. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  8. Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

  9. NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report is concerned with 'Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft' which was initiated to identify the technology needs associated with advanced, low-cost aluminum base materials for use as primary structural materials. Using a reference baseline aircraft, these materials concept will be further developed and evaluated both technically and economically to determine the most attractive combinations of designs, materials, and manufacturing techniques for major structural sections of an HSCT. Once this has been accomplished, the baseline aircraft will be resized, if applicable, and performance objectives and economic evaluations made to determine aircraft operating costs. The two primary objectives of this study are: (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials, and (2) to assess these materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT.

  10. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, H. C.; Beadles, R. L.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Courtney, M. W.; Rouse, D. J.; Scearce, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Medical products utilizing and incorporating aerospace technology were studied. A bipolar donor-recipient model for medical transfer is presented. The model is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and aerospace technology which constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by medical community of new medical products based on aerospace technology.

  11. Culture, social networks, and information sharing: An exploratory study of Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes and habits in light of cultural factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuko

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of culture and language on Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The Japanese sample consisted of 162 members of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences (JSASS). U.S. aerospace engineers served as a reference point, consisting of 213 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey method was utilized in gathering data using self-administered mail questionnaires in order to explore the following eight areas: (1) the content and use of information resources; (2) production and use of information products; (3) methods of accessing information service providers; (4) foreign language skills; (5) studying/researching/collaborating abroad as a tool in expanding information resources; (6) scientific and technical societies as networking tools; (7) alumni associations (school/class reunions) as networking tools; and (8) social, corporate, civic and health/fitness clubs as networking tools. Nine Japanese cultural factors expressed as statements about Japanese society are as follows: (1) information is neither autonomous, objective, nor independent of the subject of cognition; (2) information and knowledge are not readily accessible to the public; (3) emphasis on groups is reinforced in a hierarchical society; (4) social networks thrive as information-sharing vehicles; (5) high context is a predominant form of communication in which most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, transmitted part of the message; (6) obligations based on mutual trust dictate social behaviors instead of contractual agreements; (7) a surface message is what is presented while a bottom-line message is true feeling privately held; (8) various religious beliefs uphold a work ethic based on harmony; (9) ideas from outside are readily assimilated into its own society. The result of the

  12. Aqueous Processing Material Accountability Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean

    2007-09-01

    Increased use of nuclear power will require new facilities. The U.S. has not built a new spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility for decades. Reprocessing facilities must maintain accountability of their nuclear fuel. This survey report on the techniques used in current aqueous reprocessing facilities, and provides references to source materials to assist facility design efforts.

  13. Aerospace applications of advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.; Langenbeck, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced metallic materials within the Al-base family are being developed for applications on current and future aerospace vehicles. These advanced materials offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved vehicle performance. Aerospace applications of advanced metallic materials include space structures, fighters, military and commercial transport aircraft, and missiles. Structural design requirements, including not only static and durability/damage tolerance criteria but also environmental considerations, drive material selections. Often trade-offs must be made regarding strength, fracture resistance, cost, reliability, and maintainability in order to select the optimum material for a specific application. These trade studies not only include various metallic materials but also many times include advanced composite materials. Details of material comparisons, aerospace applications, and material trades will be presented.

  14. Graphical simulation for aerospace manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Bien, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Simulation software has become a key technological enabler for integrating flexible manufacturing systems and streamlining the overall aerospace manufacturing process. In particular, robot simulation and offline programming software is being credited for reducing down time and labor cost, while boosting quality and significantly increasing productivity.

  15. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  16. Nanomaterials and future aerospace technologies: opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaia, Richard A.

    2012-06-01

    Two decades of extensive investment in nanomaterials, nanofabrication and nanometrology have provided the global engineering community a vast array of new technologies. These technologies not only promise radical change to traditional industries, such as transportation, information and aerospace, but may create whole new industries, such as personalized medicine and personalized energy harvesting and storage. The challenge today for the defense aerospace community is determining how to accelerate the conversion of these technical opportunities into concrete benefits with quantifiable impact, in conjunction with identifying the most important outstanding scientific questions that are limiting their utilization. For example, nanomaterial fabrication delivers substantial tailorablity beyond a traditional material data sheet. How can we integrate this tailorability into agile manufacturing and design methods to further optimize the performance, cost and durability of future resilient aerospace systems? The intersection of nano-based metamaterials and nanostructured devices with biotechnology epitomizes the technological promise of autonomous systems and enhanced human-machine interfaces. What then are the key materials and processes challenges that are inhibiting current lab-scale innovation from being integrated into functioning systems to increase effectiveness and productivity of our human resources? Where innovation is global, accelerating the use of breakthroughs, both for commercial and defense, is essential. Exploitation of these opportunities and finding solutions to the associated challenges for defense aerospace will rely on highly effective partnerships between commercial development, scientific innovation, systems engineering, design and manufacturing.

  17. Materials processing in space bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Literature dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes or with ground based activities that provide supporting research is listed. Included are Government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles. Subdivisions of the bibliography include the five categories: crystal growth; metals, alloys, and composites, fluids and transport; glasses and ceramics; and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies, in addition to a list of patents and a compilation of anonymously authored collections and reports and a cross reference index.

  18. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  19. Pyroelectric Materials for Uncooled Infrared Detectors: Processing, Properties, and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Batra, A. K.; Guggilla, P.; Edwards, M. E.; Penn, B. G.; Currie, J. R., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Uncooled pyroelectric detectors find applications in diverse and wide areas such as industrial production; automotive; aerospace applications for satellite-borne ozone sensors assembled with an infrared spectrometer; health care; space exploration; imaging systems for ships, cars, and aircraft; and military and security surveillance systems. These detectors are the prime candidates for NASA s thermal infrared detector requirements. In this Technical Memorandum, the physical phenomena underlying the operation and advantages of pyroelectric infrared detectors is introduced. A list and applications of important ferroelectrics is given, which is a subclass of pyroelectrics. The basic concepts of processing of important pyroelectrics in various forms are described: single crystal growth, ceramic processing, polymer-composites preparation, and thin- and thick-film fabrications. The present status of materials and their characteristics and detectors figures-of-merit are presented in detail. In the end, the unique techniques demonstrated for improving/enhancing the performance of pyroelectric detectors are illustrated. Emphasis is placed on recent advances and emerging technologies such as thin-film array devices and novel single crystal sensors.

  20. Possibilities of Laser Processing of Paper Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Saukkonen, Esa; Piili, Heidi

    Nowadays, lasers are applied in many industrial processes: the most developed technologies include such processes as laser welding, hybrid welding, laser cutting of steel, etc. In addition to laser processing of metallic materials, there are also many industrial applications of laser processing of non-metallic materials, like laser welding of polymers, laser marking of glass and laser cutting of wood-based materials. It is commonly known that laser beam is suitable for cutting of paper materials as well as all natural wood-fiber based materials. This study reveals the potential and gives overview of laser application in processing of paper materials. In 1990's laser technology increased its volume in papermaking industry; lasers at paper industry gained acceptance for different perforating and scoring applications. Nowadays, with reduction in the cost of equipment and development of laser technology (especially development of CO2 technology), laser processing of paper material has started to become more widely used and more efficient. However, there exists quite little published research results and reviews about laser processing of paper materials. In addition, forest industry products with pulp and paper products in particular are among major contributors for the Finnish economy with 20% share of total exports in the year 2013. This has been the standpoint of view and motivation for writing this literature review article: when there exists more published research work, knowledge of laser technology can be increased to apply it for processing of paper materials.

  1. Space processing of electronic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    The bulk growth of solid solution alloys of mercury telluride and cadmium telluride is discussed. These alloys are usually described by the formula Hg1-xCdxTe, and are useful for the construction of infrared detectors. The electronic energy band gap can be controlled between zero and 1.6 electron volts by adjusting the composition x. The most useful materials are at x approximately 20%, suitable for detection wavelengths of about 10 micrometers. The problems of growing large crystals are rooted in the wide phase diagram of the HgTe-CdTe pseudobinary system which leads to exaggerate segregation in freezing, constitutional supercooling, and other difficulties, and in the high vapor pressure of mercury at the growth temperatures, which leads to loss of stoichiometry and to the necessity of working in strong, pressure resistant sealed containers.

  2. Laser Material Processing for Microengineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helvajian, H.

    1995-01-01

    The processing of materials via laser irradiation is presented in a brief survey. Various techniques currently used in laser processing are outlined and the significance to the development of space qualified microinstrumentation are identified. In general the laser processing technique permits the transferring of patterns (i.e. lithography), machining (i.e. with nanometer precision), material deposition (e.g., metals, dielectrics), the removal of contaminants/debris/passivation layers and the ability to provide process control through spectroscopy.

  3. Infrared Database for Process Support Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, K. E.; Boothe, R. E.; Burns, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    Process support materials' compatibility with cleaning processes is critical to ensure final hardware cleanliness and that performance requirements are met. Previous discovery of potential contaminants in process materials shows the need for incoming materials testing and establishment of a process materials database. The Contamination Control Team of the Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing (MP&M) Department at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has initiated the development of such an infrared (IR) database, called the MSFC Process Materials IR database, of the common process support materials used at MSFC. These process support materials include solvents, wiper cloths, gloves, bagging materials, etc. Testing includes evaluation of the potential of gloves, wiper cloths, and other items to transfer contamination to handled articles in the absence of solvent exposure, and the potential for solvent exposure to induce material degradation. This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the initial testing completed through December 2002. It is anticipated that additional testing will be conducted with updates provided in future TMs.Materials were analyzed using two different IR techniques: (1) Dry transference and (2) liquid extraction testing. The first of these techniques utilized the Nicolet Magna 750 IR spectrometer outfitted with a horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR) crystal accessory. The region from 650 to 4,000 wave numbers was analyzed, and 50 scans were performed per IR spectrum. A dry transference test was conducted by applying each sample with hand pressure to the HATR crystal to first obtain a spectrum of the parent material. The material was then removed from the HATR crystal and analyzed to determine the presence of any residues. If volatile, liquid samples were examined both prior to and following evaporation.The second technique was to perform an extraction test with each sample in five different solvents.Once the scans were complete for

  4. Roadmap for Process Equipment Materials Technology

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-10-01

    This Technology Roadmap addresses the ever-changing material needs of the chemical and allied process industries, and the energy, economic and environmental burdens associated with corrosion and other materials performance and lifetime issues. This Technology Roadmap outlines the most critical of these R&D needs, and how they can impact the challenges facing today’s materials of construction.

  5. Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to the Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN), which was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory of NASA-Marshall. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. The data base is NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) to be hazardous to the environment. The data base also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these materials.

  6. Precision grinding process development for brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L; Davis, P J; Piscotty, M A

    1999-04-01

    High performance, brittle materials are the materials of choice for many of today's engineering applications. This paper describes three separate precision grinding processes developed at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory to machine precision ceramic components. Included in the discussion of the precision processes is a variety of grinding wheel dressing, truing and profiling techniques.

  7. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  8. Supercomputing in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Yee, Helen

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: numerical aerodynamic simulation; computational mechanics; supercomputers; aerospace propulsion systems; computational modeling in ballistics; turbulence modeling; computational chemistry; computational fluid dynamics; and computational astrophysics.

  9. Thermal plasma processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J.

    1992-02-01

    Emphasis has been on plasma synthesis of fine powders, plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), on related diagnostics, and on modeling work. Since plasma synthesis as well as plasma CVD make frequent use of plasma jets, the beginning has been devoted of plasma jets and behavior of particulates injected into such plasma jets. Although most of the construction of the Triple-Torch Plasma Reactor (TTPR) has already been done, modifications have been made in particular modifications required for plasma CVD of diamond. A new reactor designed for Counter-Flow Liquid Injection Plasma Synthesis (CFLIPS) proved to be an excellent tool for synthesis of fine powders as well as for plasma CVD. An attempt was made to model flow and temperature fields in this reactor. Substantial efforts were made to single out those parameters which govern particle size, size distribution, and powder quality in our plasma synthesis experiments. This knowledge is crucial for controlling the process and for meaningful diagnostics and modeling work. Plasma CVD of diamond films using both reactors has been very successful and we have been approached by a number of companies interested in using this technology for coating of tools.

  10. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of the study "Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft" which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX without Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys, and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  11. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  12. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Choi, Jachoon; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1990-01-01

    High- and low-frequency methods to analyze various radiation elements located on aerospace vehicles with combinations of conducting, nonconducting, and energy absorbing surfaces and interfaces. The focus was on developing fundamental concepts, techniques, and algorithms which would remove some of the present limitations in predicting radiation characteristics of antennas on complex aerospace vehicles. In order to accomplish this, the following subjects were examined: (1) the development of techniques for rigorous analysis of surface discontinuities of metallic and nonmetallic surfaces using the equivalent surface impedance concept and Green's function; (2) the effects of anisotropic material on antenna radiation patterns through the use of an equivalent surface impedance concept which is incorporated into the existing numerical electromagnetics computer codes; and (3) the fundamental concepts of precipitation static (P-Static), such as formulations and analytical models. A computer code was used to model the P-Static process on a simple structure. Measurement techniques were also developed to characterized the electrical properties at microwave frequencies. Samples of typical materials used in airframes were tested and the results are included.

  13. Materials micro-processing using femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabu, R.; Zamfirescu, M.; Anghel, I.; Jipa, F.

    2013-06-01

    Nonlinear optical phenomena which dominate the interaction of tightly focused femtosecond laser beams with materials are discussed. Different femtosecond laser based techniques for material processing such as laser ablation, two-photon photo-polymerization, and material surface nano-structuring are described. For the computer controlled micro-processing of materials, near-infrared Ti:sapphire femtosecond lasers, with nano-Joule/micro-Joule pulse energy, were coupled with direct laser writing workstations. Laser fabricated micro-nanostructures and their applications are presented.

  14. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 2, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This report contains the Appendices to the findings from the first year of the program's operations.

  15. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  16. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  17. Planning for Materials Processing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A systems design study to describe the conceptual evolution, the institutional interrelationshiphs, and the basic physical requirements to implement materials processing in space was conducted. Planning for a processing era, rather than hardware design, was emphasized. Product development in space was examined in terms of fluid phenomena, phase separation, and heat and mass transfer. The effect of materials processing on the environment was studied. A concept for modular, unmanned orbiting facilities using the modified external tank of the space shuttle is presented. Organizational and finding structures which would provide for the efficient movement of materials from user to space are discussed.

  18. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  19. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  20. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a 5-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASAs safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are "one deep." The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting "brain drain" could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning.

  1. The processing of materials in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S. H.; Colling, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Zero-gravity environment may lead to fabrication of new and improved materials. According to comprehensive study of application of this promising technology to superconducting and electrical contact materials, outer space processing could improve microstructure and homogeneity of many single and multicomponent systems formed from solidification of fluid phases. New structures that are impossible to form terrestrially may also be accessible in space environment.

  2. High-precision Non-Contact Measurement of Creep of Ultra-High Temperature Materials for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan R.; Hyers, Robert

    2008-01-01

    For high-temperature applications (greater than 2,000 C) such as solid rocket motors, hypersonic aircraft, nuclear electric/thermal propulsion for spacecraft, and more efficient jet engines, creep becomes one of the most important design factors to be considered. Conventional creep-testing methods, where the specimen and test apparatus are in contact with each other, are limited to temperatures approximately 1,700 C. Development of alloys for higher-temperature applications is limited by the availability of testing methods at temperatures above 2000 C. Development of alloys for applications requiring a long service life at temperatures as low as 1500 C, such as the next generation of jet turbine superalloys, is limited by the difficulty of accelerated testing at temperatures above 1700 C. For these reasons, a new, non-contact creep-measurement technique is needed for higher temperature applications. A new non-contact method for creep measurements of ultra-high-temperature metals and ceramics has been developed and validated. Using the electrostatic levitation (ESL) facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, a spherical sample is rotated quickly enough to cause creep deformation due to centrifugal acceleration. Very accurate measurement of the deformed shape through digital image analysis allows the stress exponent n to be determined very precisely from a single test, rather than from numerous conventional tests. Validation tests on single-crystal niobium spheres showed excellent agreement with conventional tests at 1985 C; however the non-contact method provides much greater precision while using only about 40 milligrams of material. This method is being applied to materials including metals and ceramics for non-eroding throats in solid rockets and next-generation superalloys for turbine engines. Recent advances in the method and the current state of these new measurements will be presented.

  3. Aqueous processing in materials science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooiman, Michael B.; Sole, Kathryn C.

    1994-06-01

    Reviews of aqueous processing in JOM have traditionally focused on hydrometallurgical process routes. This article, however, addresses the application of aqueous processing in materials engineering and presents some promising developments that employ aqueous-based routes for the manufacture of high-tech components and specialty products. Such applications include producing metallic and ceramic powders; etching; surface modification by electroplating and electroless plating; manufacturing jewelry and intricate components by electroforming; and producing advanced ceramics, composites, and nanophase materials by sol-gel and biomimetic processing.

  4. Electronic materials processing and the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, A. F.

    1988-01-01

    The nature and origin of deficiencies in bulk electronic materials for device fabrication are analyzed. It is found that gravity generated perturbations during their formation account largely for the introduction of critical chemical and crystalline defects and, moreover, are responsible for the still existing gap between theory and experiment and thus for excessive reliance on proprietary empiricism in processing technology. Exploration of the potential of reduced gravity environment for electronic materials processing is found to be not only desirable but mandatory.

  5. Plasma-assisted microwave processing of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin (Inventor); Ylin, Tzu-yuan (Inventor); Jackson, Henry (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave plasma assisted method and system for heating and joining materials. The invention uses a microwave induced plasma to controllably preheat workpiece materials that are poorly microwave absorbing. The plasma preheats the workpiece to a temperature that improves the materials' ability to absorb microwave energy. The plasma is extinguished and microwave energy is able to volumetrically heat the workpiece. Localized heating of good microwave absorbing materials is done by shielding certain parts of the workpiece and igniting the plasma in the areas not shielded. Microwave induced plasma is also used to induce self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) process for the joining of materials. Preferably, a microwave induced plasma preheats the material and then microwave energy ignites the center of the material, thereby causing a high temperature spherical wave front from the center outward.

  6. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction. [space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.; Mckenzie, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Three different chemical processing schemes were identified for separating lunar soils into the major oxides and elements. Feedstock production for space industry; an HF acid leach process; electrorefining processes for lunar free metal and metal derived from chemical processing of lunar soils; production and use of silanes and spectrally selective materials; glass, ceramics, and electrochemistry workshops; and an econometric model of bootstrapping space industry are discussed.

  7. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Kelly, Robert G.; Scully, John R.; Shiflet, Gary J.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program was initiated in 1986 and continues with a high level of activity. Here, we report on progress achieved between July I and December 31, 1996. The objective of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are presented for each research project. We generally aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The accomplishments presented in this report are summarized as follows. Three research areas are being actively investigated, including: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, and (3) Mechanics of Materials for Light Aerospace Structures.

  8. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    PubMed

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware. PMID:17772808

  9. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    PubMed

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  10. Materials Processing in Space (MPS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Insight is provided into the scientific rotationale for materials processing in space (MPS), and a comprehensive and cohesive approach for implementation and integration of the many, diverse aspects of MPS is described. The programmatic and management functions apply to all projects and activities implemented under MPS. It is intended that specific project plans, providing project unique details, will be appended to this document for endeavors such as the Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) Project, the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA) Project, the MPS/Spacelab (MPS/SL) Project, and the Materials Experiment Carrier (MEC) Payloads.

  11. Functionally graded materials: Design, processing and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Y.; Kaysser, W.A.; Rabin, B.H.; Kawasaki, A.; Ford, R.G.

    1999-09-01

    In a Functionally Graded Material (FGM), the composition and structure gradually change over volume, resulting in corresponding changes in the properties of the material. By applying the many possibilities inherent in the FGM concept, it is anticipated that materials will be improved and new functions for them created. A comprehensive description of design, modeling, processing, and evaluation of FGMs as well as their applications is covered in this book. The contents include: lessons from nature; graded microstructures; modeling and design; characterization of properties; processing and fabrication; applications; and summary and outlook.

  12. Mimicry of natural material designs and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, G.M.; Richman, R.H.; McNaughton, W.P.

    1995-06-01

    Biological structural materials, although composed of unremarkable substances synthesized at low temperatures, often exhibit superior mechanical properties. In particular, the quality in which nearly all biologically derived materials excel is toughness. The advantageous mechanical properties are attributable to the hierarchical, composite, structural arrangements common to biological systems. Materials scientists and engineers have increasingly recognized that biological designs or processing approaches applied to man-made materials (biomimesis) may offer improvements in performance over conventional designs and fabrication methods. In this survey, the structures and processing routes of marine shells, avian eggshells, wood, bone, and insect cuticle are briefly reviewed, and biomimesis research inspired by these materials is discussed. In addition, this paper describes and summarizes the applications of biomineralization, self-assembly, and templating with proteins to the fabrication of thin ceramic films and nanostructure devices.

  13. Commercial use of materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoller, L. K.; Brown, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the scientific and commercial aspects of Materials Processing in the Space program. The elimination of gravity driven convection in molten materials can preclude undesirable stirring and mixing during crystal growth, and improve the casting of alloys and composites, chemical reactions, and the separation of biological materials. The elimination of hydrostatic pressure will allow alloy heat-treatment without distortion and growth of heavy crystals, such as thorium oxide, and containerless processing of liquids and molten materials. On the other hand, more sophisticated process control and diagnostic methods in sample preparation and temperature control must be developed, concluding that space made products of commercial interest are likely to be low volume, high value items.

  14. Second Conference on NDE for Aerospace Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodis, Kenneth W. (Compiler); Bryson, Craig C. (Compiler); Workman, Gary L. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation and inspection procedures must constantly improve rapidly in order to keep pace with corresponding advances being made in aerospace material and systems. In response to this need, the 1989 Conference was organized to provide a forum for discussion between the materials scientists, systems designers, and NDE engineers who produce current and future aerospace systems. It is anticipated that problems in current systems can be resolved more quickly and that new materials and structures can be designed and manufactured in such a way as to be more easily inspected and to perform reliably over the life cycle of the system.

  15. Space Environmental Effects on Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabbann, Leslie M.

    2009-01-01

    The Materials and Processes (M&P) Branch of the Structural Engineering Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) seeks to uphold the production of dependable space hardware through materials research, which fits into NASA's purpose of advancing human exploration, use, and development of space. The Space Environmental Effects projects fully support these Agency goals. Two tasks were assigned to support M&P. Both assignments were to further the research of material behavior outside of Earth's atmosphere in order to determine which materials are most durable and safe to use in space for mitigating risks. One project, the Materials on International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) task, was to compile data from International Space Station (ISS) experiments to pinpoint beneficial space hardware. The other project was researching the effects on composite materials of exposure to high doses of radiation for a Lunar habitat project.

  16. Microwave processing of radioactive materials-I

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Berry, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers that reviews the major past and present applications of microwave energy for processing radioactive materials, with particular emphasis on processing radioactive wastes. Microwave heating occurs through the internal friction produced inside a dielectric material when its molecules vibrate in response to an oscillating microwave field. For this presentation, we shall focus on the two FCC-approved microwave frequencies for industrial, scientific, and medical use, 915 and 2450 MHz. Also, because of space limitations, we shall postpone addressing plasma processing of hazardous wastes using microwave energy until a later date. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  17. An improved approach for process monitoring in laser material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Hans-Georg; Pütsch, Oliver; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Process monitoring is used in many different laser material processes due to the demand for reliable and stable processes. Among different methods, on-axis process monitoring offers multiple advantages. To observe a laser material process it is unavoidable to choose a wavelength for observation that is different to the one used for material processing, otherwise the light of the processing laser would outshine the picture of the process. By choosing a different wavelength, lateral chromatic aberration occurs in not chromatically corrected optical systems with optical scanning units and f-Theta lenses. These aberrations lead to a truncated image of the process on the camera or the pyrometer, respectively. This is the reason for adulterated measurements and non-satisfying images of the process. A new approach for solving the problem of field dependent lateral chromatic aberration in process monitoring is presented. Therefore, the scanner-based optical system is reproduced in a simulation environment, to predict the occurring lateral chromatic aberrations. In addition, a second deflecting system is integrated into the system. By using simulation, a predictive control is designed that uses the additional deflecting system to introduce reverse lateral deviations in order to compensate the lateral effect of chromatic aberration. This paper illustrates the concept and the implementation of the predictive control, which is used to eliminate lateral chromatic aberrations in process monitoring, the simulation on which the system is based the optical system as well as the control concept.

  18. Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

  19. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    Papers on the following subjects are presented: (1) multivariable flight control synthesis and literal robustness analysis for an aeroelastic vehicles; (2) numerical and literal aeroelastic-vehicle-model reduction for feedback control synthesis; and (3) dynamics of aerospace vehicles.

  20. Aerospace bibliography, seventh edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blashfield, J. F. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Space travel, planetary probes, applications satellites, manned spaceflight, the impacts of space exploration, future space activities, astronomy, exobiology, aeronautics, energy, space and the humanities, and aerospace education are covered.

  1. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  2. Sol-gel processing of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.H.; Fox, G.L.; Simpson, R.L.; Lee, R.W.; Swansiger, R.W.; Simpson, L.R.

    1997-08-18

    As part of a new materials effort, we are exploring the use of sol- gel chemistry to manufacture energetic materials. Traditional manufacturing of energetic materials involves processing of granular solids. One application is the production of detonators where powders of energetic material and a binder are typically mixed and compacted at high pressure to make pellets. Performance properties are strongly dependent on particle size distribution, surface area of its constituents, homogeneity of the mix, and void volume. The goal is to produce detonators with fast energy release rate the are insensitive to unintended initiation. In this paper, we report results of our early work in this field of research, including the preparation of detonators from xerogel molding powders and aerogels, comparing the material properties with present state-of-the-art technology.

  3. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  4. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  5. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  6. Metals and Alloys Material Stabilization Process Plan

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.; BURK, R.A.

    2000-05-18

    This Plan outlines the process for brushing metal and alloys in accordance with the path forward discussed in the Integrated Project Management Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617, and requirements set forth in the Project Management Plan for Materials Stabilization, HNF-3605. This plan provides the basis for selection of the location to process, the processes involved, equipment to be used, and the characterization of the contents of the can. The scope of the process is from retrieval of metals and alloys from storage to transfer back to storage in a repackaged configuration.

  7. Coprecal: materials accounting in the modified process

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Shipley, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an advanced materials accounting system for a uranium-plutonium nitrate-to-oxide coconversion facility based on the General Electric Coprecal process as modified by Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and DuPont Engineering. The modifications include adding small aliquot tanks to feed the process and reconfiguring the calciner filter systems. Diversion detection sensitivities for the modified Coprecal process are somewhat better than the original Coprecal design, but they are still significantly worse than a same-sized conversion facility based on the oxalate (III) precipitation process.

  8. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  9. Simulation of materials processing: Fantasy or reality?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Thomas J.; Bright, Victor M.

    1994-01-01

    This experiment introduces students to the application of computer-aided design (CAD) and analysis of materials processing in the context of integrated circuit (IC) fabrication. The fabrication of modern IC's is a complex process which consists of several sequential steps. These steps involve the precise control of processing variables such as temperature, humidity, and ambient gas composition. In essence, the particular process employed during the fabrication becomes a 'recipe'. Due to economic and other considerations, CAD is becoming an indispensable part of the development of new recipes for IC fabrication. In particular, this experiment permits the students to explore the CAD of the thermal oxidation of silicon.

  10. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    The general objective of the Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and associated thermal gradient structures in close collaboration with Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are established for each research project. Relevant data and basic understanding of material behavior and microstructure, new monolithic and composite alloys, advanced processing methods, new solid and fluid mechanic analyses, measurement advances, and a pool of educated graduate students are sought.

  11. Thermoplastics as engineering materials: The mechanics, materials, design, processing link

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, V.K.

    1995-10-01

    While the use of plastics has been growing at a significant pace because of weight reduction, ease of fabrication of complex shapes, and cost reduction resulting from function integration, the engineering applications of plastics have only become important in the past fifteen years. An inadequate understanding of the mechanics issues underlying the close coupling among the design, the processing (fabrication), and the assembly with these materials is a barrier to their use in structural applications. Recent progress on some issues relating to the engineering uses of plastics is surveyed, highlighting the need for a better understanding of plastics and how processing affects the performance of plastic parts. Topics addressed include the large deformation behavior of ductile resins, fiber orientation in chopped-fiber filled materials, structural foams, random glass mat composites, modeling of thickness distributions in blow-molded and thermoformed parts, dimensional stability (shrinkage, warpage, and residual stresses) in injection-molded parts, and welding of thermoplastics.

  12. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived.

  13. Materials evaluation for a transuranic processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, S.A., Schwenk, E.B. ); Divine, J.R. )

    1990-11-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company, with the assistance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is developing a transuranium extraction process for preheating double-shell tank wastes at the Hanford Site to reduce the volume of transuranic waste being sent to a repository. The bench- scale transuranium extraction process development is reaching a stage where a pilot plant design has begun for the construction of a facility in the existing B Plant. Because of the potential corrosivity of neutralized cladding removal waste process streams, existing embedded piping alloys in B Plant are being evaluated and new'' alloys are being selected for the full-scale plant screening corrosion tests. Once the waste is acidified with HNO{sub 3}, some of the process streams that are high in F{sup {minus}} and low in Al and zr can produce corrosion rates exceeding 30,000 mil/yr in austenitic alloys. Initial results results are reported concerning the applicability of existing plant materials to withstand expected process solutions and conditions to help determine the feasibility of locating the plant at the selected facility. In addition, process changes are presented that should make the process solutions less corrosive to the existing materials. Experimental work confirms that Hastelloy B is unsatisfactory for the expected process solutions; type 304L, 347 and 309S stainless steels are satisfactory for service at room temperature and 60{degrees}C, if process stream complexing is performed. Inconel 625 was satisfactory for all solutions. 17 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. An e-learning platform for aerospace medicine.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, P D; Konstantinidis, S; Papadelis, C L; Perantoni, E; Styliadis, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Pappas, C

    2008-08-01

    The appeal of online education and distance learning as an educational alternative is ever increasing. To support and accommodate the over-specialized knowledge available by different experts, information technology can be employed to develop virtual distributed pools of autonomous specialized educational modules and provide the mechanisms for retrieving and sharing them. New educational standards such as SCORM and Healthcare LOM enhance this process of sharing by offering qualities like interoperability, accessibility, and reusability, so that learning material remains credible, up-to-date and tracks changes and developments of medical techniques and standards through time. Given that only a few e-learning courses exist in aerospace medicine the material of which may be exchanged among teachers, the aim of this paper is to illustrate the procedure of creating a SCORM compliant course that incorporates notions of recent advances in social web technologies. The course is in accordance with main educational and technological details and is specific to pulmonary disorders in aerospace medicine. As new educational trends place much emphasis in continuing medical education, the expansion of a general practitioner's knowledge in topics such as aviation and aerospace pulmonary disorders for crew and passengers becomes a societal requirement.

  15. An e-learning platform for Aerospace Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bamidis, P D; Konstantinidis, S; Papadelis, C L; Perantoni, E; Styliadis, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Pappas, C

    2008-01-01

    The appeal of online education and distance learning as an educational alternative is ever increasing. To support and accommodate the over-specialized knowledge available by different experts, information technology can be employed to develop virtual distributed pools of autonomous specialized educational modules and provide the mechanisms for retrieving and sharing them. New educational standards such as SCORM and Healthcare LOM enhance this process of sharing by offering qualities like interoperability, accessibility, and reusability, so that learning material remains credible, up-to-date and tracks changes and developments of medical techniques and standards through time. Given that only a few e-learning courses exist in aerospace medicine the material of which may be exchanged among teachers, the aim of this paper is to illustrate the procedure of creating a SCORM compliant course that incorporates notions of recent advances in social web technologies. The course is in accordance with main educational and technological details and is specific to pulmonary disorders in aerospace medicine. As new educational trends place much emphasis in continuing medical education, the expansion of a general practitioner's knowledge in topics such as aviation and aerospace pulmonary disorders for crew and passengers becomes a societal requirement. PMID:19048088

  16. Applications of membrane processes for in-process materials recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.M.; Thornton, R.F.; Shapiro, A.P.; Freshour, A.R.; El-Shoubary, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Zero discharge of wastes should be the ultimate goal of manufacturers. Waste reduction lowers costs and lessens liability associated with plant effluents. One approach toward this goal is elimination or minimization of wastes by in-process recycling of waste materials. We have examined opportunities for waste minimization for many equipment manufacturing plants and have evaluated membrane processes for in-process recycling. Membrane processes evaluated include vibrating membranes for suspended solid removal, ion exchange membranes for acid recovery, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for dissolved salt removal, microporous membranes for recycling of machining coolants, oil emulsions, alkaline cleaners and others. This paper presents several examples of evaluations of membrane processes for materials recycling in manufacturing plants. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Alternative starting materials for industrial processes.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J W

    1992-01-01

    In the manufacture of chemical feedstocks and subsequent processing into derivatives and materials, the U.S. chemical industry sets the current standard of excellence for technological competitiveness. This world-class leadership is attributed to the innovation and advancement of chemical engineering process technology. Whether this status is sustained over the next decade depends strongly on meeting increasingly demanding challenges stimulated by growing concerns about the safe production and use of chemicals without harmful impacts on the environment. To comply with stringent environmental regulations while remaining economically competitive, industry must exploit alternative benign starting materials and develop environmentally neutral industrial processes. Opportunities are described for development of environmentally compatible alternatives and substitutes for some of the most abundantly produced, potentially hazardous industrial chemicals now labeled as "high-priority toxic chemicals." For several other uniquely important commodity chemicals where no economically competitive, environmentally satisfactory, nontoxic alternative starting material exists, we advocate the development of new dynamic processes for the on-demand generation of toxic chemicals. In this general concept, which obviates mass storage and transportation of chemicals, toxic raw materials are produced in real time, where possible, from less-hazardous starting materials and then chemically transformed immediately into the final product. As a selected example for semiconductor technology, recent progress is reviewed for the on-demand production of arsine in turnkey electrochemical generators. Innovation of on-demand chemical generators and alternative processes provide rich areas for environmentally responsive chemical engineering processing research and development for next-generation technology. Images PMID:11607260

  18. Plasma characterization studies for materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J.

    1995-12-31

    New applications for plasma processing of materials require a more detailed understanding of the fundamental processes occurring in the processing reactors. We have developed reactors offering specific advantages for materials processing, and we are using modeling and diagnostic techniques for the characterization of these reactors. The emphasis is in part set by the interest shown by industry pursuing specific plasma processing applications. In this paper we report on the modeling of radio frequency plasma reactors for use in materials synthesis, and on the characterization of the high rate diamond deposition process using liquid precursors. In the radio frequency plasma torch model, the influence of specific design changes such as the location of the excitation coil on the enthalpy flow distribution is investigated for oxygen and air as plasma gases. The diamond deposition with liquid precursors has identified the efficient mass transport in form of liquid droplets into the boundary layer as responsible for high growth, and the chemical properties of the liquid for the film morphology.

  19. PREFACE: Processing, Microstructure and Performance of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yu Lung; Chen, John J. J.; Hodgson, Michael A.; Thambyah, Ashvin

    2009-07-01

    A workshop on Processing, Microstructure and Performance of Materials was held at the University of Auckland, School of Engineering, on 8-9 April 2009. Organised by the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland, this meeting consisted of international participants and aimed at addressing the state-of-the-art research activities in processing, microstructure characterization and performance integrity investigation of materials. This two-day conference brought together scientists and engineers from New Zealand, Australia, Hong Kong, France, and the United Kingdom. Undoubtedly, this diverse group of participants brought a very international flair to the proceedings which also featured original research papers on areas such as Materials processing; Microstructure characterisation and microanalysis; Mechanical response at different length scales, Biomaterials and Material Structural integrity. There were a total of 10 invited speakers, 16 paper presentations, and 14 poster presentations. Consequently, the presentations were carefully considered by the scientific committee and participants were invited to submit full papers for this volume. All the invited paper submissions for this volume have been peer reviewed by experts in the various fields represented in this conference, this in accordance to the expected standards of the journal's Peer review policy for IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The works in this publication consists of new and original research as well as several expert reviews of current state-of-the art technologies and scientific developments. Knowing some of the real constraints on hard-copy publishing of high quality, high resolution images, the editors are grateful to IOP Publishing for this opportunity to have the papers from this conference published on the online open-access platform. Listed in this volume are papers on a range of topics on materials research, including Ferguson's high strain

  20. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51 Section 18.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.51...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TOOLS FOR MATERIAL AND PROCESS SELECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of tools are being used within the Sustainable Technology Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide decision-makers with information on environmentally favorable materials and processes. These tools include LCA (Life Cycle Assessment), GREENSCOPE (...

  2. Materials processing in space: Future technology trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barter, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    NASA's materials processing in space- (MPS) program involves both ground and space-based research and looks to frequent and cost effective access to the space environment for necessary progress. The first generation payloads for research are under active design and development. They will be hosted by the Space Shuttle/Spacelab on Earth orbital flights in the early 1980's. hese missions will focus on the acquisition of materials behavior research data, the potential enhancement of Earth based technology, and the implementation of space based processing for specialized, high value materials. Some materials to be studied in these payloads may provide future breakthroughs for stronger alloys, ultrapure glasses, superior electronic components, and new or better chemicals. An operational 25 kW power system is expected to be operational to support sustained, systematic space processing activity beyond shuttle capability for second generation payload systems for SPACELAB and free flyer missions to study solidification and crystal growth and to process metal/alloys, glasses/ceramics, and chemicals and biologicals.

  3. Materials processing in space program support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin; Vanalstine, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Activities in support of NASA's Materials Processing in Space (MPS) program are reported. The overall task of the MPS project support contract was to provide the organization and administration of colloquiums, science reviews, workshops, technical meetings, bibliographic services, and visiting scientist programs. The research objectives and accomplishments of the University Space Research Association visiting scientist team are also summarized.

  4. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The history, strategy, and overall goal of NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications program for materials processing in space are described as well as the organizational structures and personnel involved. An overview of each research task is presented and recent publications are listed.

  5. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  6. Advanced laser processing of glass materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Obata, Kotaro; Cheng, Ya; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2003-09-01

    Three kinds of advanced technologies using lasers for glass microprocessing are reviewed. Simultaneous irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser beam, which possesses extremely small laser fluence, with ultraviolet (UV) laser achieves enhanced high surface and edge quality ablation in fused silica and other hard materials with little debris deposition as well as high-speed and high-efficiency refractive index modification of fused silica (VUV-UV multiwavelength excitation processing). Metal plasma generated by the laser beam effectively assists high-quality ablation of transparent materials, resulting in surface microstructuring, high-speed holes drilling, crack-free marking, color marking, painting and metal interconnection for the various kinds of glass materials (laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA)). In the meanwhile, a nature of multiphoton absorption of femtosecond laser by transparent materials realizes fabrication of true three-dimensional microstructures embedded in photosensitive glass.

  7. Processing of materials for uniform field emission

    DOEpatents

    Pam, Lawrence S.; Felter, Thomas E.; Talin, Alec; Ohlberg, Douglas; Fox, Ciaran; Han, Sung

    1999-01-01

    This method produces a field emitter material having a uniform electron emitting surface and a low turn-on voltage. Field emitter materials having uniform electron emitting surfaces as large as 1 square meter and turn-on voltages as low as 16V/.mu.m can be produced from films of electron emitting materials such as polycrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon by the method of the present invention. The process involves conditioning the surface of a field emitter material by applying an electric field to the surface, preferably by scanning the surface of the field emitter material with an electrode maintained at a fixed distance of at least 3 .mu.m above the surface of the field emitter material and at a voltage of at least 500V. In order to enhance the uniformity of electron emission the step of conditioning can be preceeded by ion implanting carbon, nitrogen, argon, oxygen or hydrogen into the surface layers of the field emitter material.

  8. Processing of materials for uniform field emission

    DOEpatents

    Pam, L.S.; Felter, T.E.; Talin, A.; Ohlberg, D.; Fox, C.; Han, S.

    1999-01-12

    This method produces a field emitter material having a uniform electron emitting surface and a low turn-on voltage. Field emitter materials having uniform electron emitting surfaces as large as 1 square meter and turn-on voltages as low as 16V/{micro}m can be produced from films of electron emitting materials such as polycrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon by the method of the present invention. The process involves conditioning the surface of a field emitter material by applying an electric field to the surface, preferably by scanning the surface of the field emitter material with an electrode maintained at a fixed distance of at least 3 {micro}m above the surface of the field emitter material and at a voltage of at least 500V. In order to enhance the uniformity of electron emission the step of conditioning can be preceded by ion implanting carbon, nitrogen, argon, oxygen or hydrogen into the surface layers of the field emitter material. 2 figs.

  9. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Supplement: Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the progress achieved over the past 6 to 12 months on four graduate student projects conducted within the NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program. These studies were aimed specifically at light metallic alloy issues relevant to the High Speed Civil Transport. Research on Hydrogen-Enhanced Fracture of High-Strength Titanium Alloy Sheet refined successfully the high resolution R-curve method necessary to characterize initiation and growth fracture toughnesses. For solution treated and aged Low Cost Beta without hydrogen precharging, fracture is by ductile transgranular processes at 25 C, but standardized initiation toughnesses are somewhat low and crack extension is resolved at still lower K-levels. This fracture resistance is degraded substantially, by between 700 and 1000 wppm of dissolved hydrogen, and a fracture mode change is affected. The surface oxide on P-titanium alloys hinders hydrogen uptake and complicates the electrochemical introduction of low hydrogen concentrations that are critical to applications of these alloys. Ti-15-3 sheet was obtained for study during the next reporting period. Research on Mechanisms of deformation and Fracture in High-Strength Titanium Alloys is examining the microstructure and fatigue resistance of very thin sheet. Aging experiments on 0. 14 mm thick (0.0055 inch) foil show microstructural agility that may be used to enhance fatigue performance. Fatigue testing of Ti-15-3 sheet has begun. The effects of various thermo-mechanical processing regimens on mechanical properties will be examined and deformation modes identified. Research on the Effect of Texture and Precipitates on Mechanical Property Anisotropy of Al-Cu-Mg-X and Al-Cu alloys demonstrated that models predict a minor influence of stress-induced alignment of Phi, caused by the application of a tensile stress during aging, on the yield stress anisotropy of both modified AA2519 and a model Al-Cu binary alloy. This project

  10. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  11. Aerospace Payloads Leak Test Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovsky, Oleg; Grayson, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized and sealed aerospace payloads can leak on orbit. When dealing with toxic or hazardous materials, requirements for fluid and gas leakage rates have to be properly established, and most importantly, reliably verified using the best Nondestructive Test (NDT) method available. Such verification can be implemented through application of various leak test methods that will be the subject of this paper, with a purpose to show what approach to payload leakage rate requirement verification is taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scope of this paper will be mostly a detailed description of 14 leak test methods recommended.

  12. Materials for Conoco zinc chloride hydrocracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Use of zinc chloride to augment hydrogenation of coal and yield a high-octane gasoline product is the most significant feature of a coal liquefaction process being developed by Conoco Coal Development Company. The zinc chloride catalyst is regenerated in a fluidized sand bed, where the spent melt is mixed with air and hydrogen chloride at about 1000/sup 0/C. Recovery is completed at 370/sup 0/C in a condenser, where the zinc chloride is collected and the oxygen and sulfur are separated as H/sub 2/O and SO/sub 2/. The economic viability of the entire process is highly dependent on almost complete recovery of the zinc chloride. The severe environmental conditions of this recovery process cause unique materials problems. Although high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation are being studied in related programs, suitable materials to resist their combined effects along with those of chlorides have not yet been specifically addressed. Common engineering materials, such as the austenitic stainless steels and many nickel-base alloys, are unsuitable because of their inability to tolerate the elevated temperatures and sulfidation, respectively. The objectives of this task are to screen various metallic and ceramic materials for resistance to the zinc chloride recovery system environment and to determine the nature of the attack by exposing coupons to the simulated environment in the laboratory.

  13. Development of methodologies for the estimation of thermal properties associated with aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal stress analyses are an important aspect in the development of aerospace vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at NASA-LaRC. These analyses require knowledge of the temperature within the structures which consequently necessitates the need for thermal property data. The initial goal of this research effort was to develop a methodology for the estimation of thermal properties of aerospace structural materials at room temperature and to develop a procedure to optimize the estimation process. The estimation procedure was implemented utilizing a general purpose finite element code. In addition, an optimization procedure was developed and implemented to determine critical experimental parameters to optimize the estimation procedure. Finally, preliminary experiments were conducted at the Aircraft Structures Branch (ASB) laboratory.

  14. Early space experiments in materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the flight experiments conducted in conjunction with the United States Materials Processing in Space Program is presented. Also included are a brief description of the conditions prevailing in an orbiting spacecraft and the research implications provided by this unique environment. What was done and what was learned are summarized in order to serve as a background for future experiments. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of the physical sciences but no background in spaceflight experimentation or in the materials science per se.

  15. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.

  17. Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

  18. 76 FR 72902 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee (MPETAC) will meet... controls applicable to materials processing equipment and related technology. Agenda Open Session...

  19. Limited reaction processing for semiconductor materials preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, J. L.

    1991-07-01

    Limited Reaction Processing (LRP) is a layer deposition technique based upon a combination of rapid thermal processing (RTP) and chemical vapor deposition. The versatility of LRP was shwon in research on epitaxial growth in three different materials systems. Research was spurred at several other laboratories in the area of epitaxial growth and applications involving RTP techniques, particularly in the Si(1-x)Ge(x) materials system. The first CVD grown Si/Si(1-x)Ge(x) heterojunction bipolar transistors were fabricated using this technique, with maximum oscillation frequencies on the order of 40 GHz. In the III-V area, arsine alternative sources were explored for GaAs expitaxy which greatly improve the safety of MOCVD. A new atomic layer growth technique was developed by combining LRP with an alternating gas pulse method.

  20. Tubular filamentation for laser material processing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chen; Jukna, Vytautas; Milián, Carles; Giust, Remo; Ouadghiri-Idrissi, Ismail; Itina, Tatiana; Dudley, John M.; Couairon, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Francois

    2015-01-01

    An open challenge in the important field of femtosecond laser material processing is the controlled internal structuring of dielectric materials. Although the availability of high energy high repetition rate femtosecond lasers has led to many advances in this field, writing structures within transparent dielectrics at intensities exceeding 1013 W/cm2 has remained difficult as it is associated with significant nonlinear spatial distortion. This letter reports the existence of a new propagation regime for femtosecond pulses at high power that overcomes this challenge, associated with the generation of a hollow uniform and intense light tube that remains propagation invariant even at intensities associated with dense plasma formation. This regime is seeded from higher order nondiffracting Bessel beams, which carry an optical vortex charge. Numerical simulations are quantitatively confirmed by experiments where a novel experimental approach allows direct imaging of the 3D fluence distribution within transparent solids. We also analyze the transitions to other propagation regimes in near and far fields. We demonstrate how the generation of plasma in this tubular geometry can lead to applications in ultrafast laser material processing in terms of single shot index writing, and discuss how it opens important perspectives for material compression and filamentation guiding in atmosphere. PMID:25753215

  1. Tubular filamentation for laser material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chen; Jukna, Vytautas; Milián, Carles; Giust, Remo; Ouadghiri-Idrissi, Ismail; Itina, Tatiana; Dudley, John M.; Couairon, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Francois

    2015-03-01

    An open challenge in the important field of femtosecond laser material processing is the controlled internal structuring of dielectric materials. Although the availability of high energy high repetition rate femtosecond lasers has led to many advances in this field, writing structures within transparent dielectrics at intensities exceeding 1013 W/cm2 has remained difficult as it is associated with significant nonlinear spatial distortion. This letter reports the existence of a new propagation regime for femtosecond pulses at high power that overcomes this challenge, associated with the generation of a hollow uniform and intense light tube that remains propagation invariant even at intensities associated with dense plasma formation. This regime is seeded from higher order nondiffracting Bessel beams, which carry an optical vortex charge. Numerical simulations are quantitatively confirmed by experiments where a novel experimental approach allows direct imaging of the 3D fluence distribution within transparent solids. We also analyze the transitions to other propagation regimes in near and far fields. We demonstrate how the generation of plasma in this tubular geometry can lead to applications in ultrafast laser material processing in terms of single shot index writing, and discuss how it opens important perspectives for material compression and filamentation guiding in atmosphere.

  2. Tubular filamentation for laser material processing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chen; Jukna, Vytautas; Milián, Carles; Giust, Remo; Ouadghiri-Idrissi, Ismail; Itina, Tatiana; Dudley, John M; Couairon, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Francois

    2015-01-01

    An open challenge in the important field of femtosecond laser material processing is the controlled internal structuring of dielectric materials. Although the availability of high energy high repetition rate femtosecond lasers has led to many advances in this field, writing structures within transparent dielectrics at intensities exceeding 10(13) W/cm(2) has remained difficult as it is associated with significant nonlinear spatial distortion. This letter reports the existence of a new propagation regime for femtosecond pulses at high power that overcomes this challenge, associated with the generation of a hollow uniform and intense light tube that remains propagation invariant even at intensities associated with dense plasma formation. This regime is seeded from higher order nondiffracting Bessel beams, which carry an optical vortex charge. Numerical simulations are quantitatively confirmed by experiments where a novel experimental approach allows direct imaging of the 3D fluence distribution within transparent solids. We also analyze the transitions to other propagation regimes in near and far fields. We demonstrate how the generation of plasma in this tubular geometry can lead to applications in ultrafast laser material processing in terms of single shot index writing, and discuss how it opens important perspectives for material compression and filamentation guiding in atmosphere. PMID:25753215

  3. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckannan, E. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A list of active research tasks as of the end of 1978 of the Materials Processing in Space Program of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, involving several NASA Centers and other organizations is reported. An overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university and government communities is provided. The program, its history, strategy and overall goal; the organizational structures and people involved; and each research task are described. Tasks are categorized by ground based research according to four process areas. Cross references to the performing organizations and principal investigators are provided.

  4. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  5. Large stable aluminum optics for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Schaefer, John P.

    2011-09-01

    Aluminum mirrors offer the advantages of lower cost, shorter fabrication time, more rugged mounting, and same material athermalization when compared to classical glass mirrors. In the past these advantages were offset by controversial dimensional stability and high surface scatter, limiting applications to IR systems. Raytheon developed processes to improve long term stability, and reduce surface scatter. Six 380 mm aperture aluminum mirrors made using these processes showed excellent stability, with figure changes of less than 0.01 wave RMS(1 wave = 633 nm) when cycled 10 times between -51 and +71 deg. C. The VQ process developed at ELCAN reduces surface scatter in bare aluminum mirrors to below 20 angstroms RMS, and has been used in thousands of production mirrors up to 300 mm aperture. These processes were employed in the fabrication of two lightweight single arch 600 mm aluminum mirrors. The two mirrors were produced in four months, with a mounted surface figure of 0.22 waves RMS and surface roughness of 20 angstroms. Mounted fundamental frequency was 218 Hz, and no figure distortion was observed at preload levels four times higher than design. Subsequently the mirrors performed well when subjected to severe environmental loadings in a Raytheon test system. This technology is being extended to ultra-lightweight sandwich mirrors, which are competitive with other material technologies used in advanced aerospace applications such as high-altitude UAV surveillance systems and satellite optics.

  6. Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    This study of water reclamation and waste disposal is directed toward a more efficient utilization of natural resources. From an ecological standpoint improved methods of land use, water processing equipment, and ideal population profiles are investigated. Methods are described whereby significant reduction in water usage can be achieved by the adoption of presently available and practically applied technological concepts. Allowances are made for social, natural, and economic contingencies which are likely to occur up to the year 2000.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 26: The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the US and Japanese aerospace industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  8. NASA aerospace database subject scope: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Outlined here is the subject scope of the NASA Aerospace Database, a publicly available subset of the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) Database. Topics of interest to NASA are outlined and placed within the framework of the following broad aerospace subject categories: aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry and materials, engineering, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical and computer sciences, physics, social sciences, space sciences, and general. A brief discussion of the subject scope is given for each broad area, followed by a similar explanation of each of the narrower subject fields that follow. The subject category code is listed for each entry.

  9. Using Aerospace Technology To Design Orthopedic Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    Technology originally developed to optimize designs of composite-material aerospace structural components used to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants. Development effort focused on designing knee implants, long-term goal to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants in general.

  10. Aerospace Concepts at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents materials compiled to assist the elementary teacher in preparing teaching units in aerospace education. Suggests specific and general objectives and lists important concepts and questions pertaining to areas such as: history of flight, weather and flying, airplanes, jets, rockets, space travel, and the solar system. (MLH)

  11. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  12. Femtosecond laser processing of fuel injectors - a materials processing evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B C; Wynne, A

    2000-12-16

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a new laser-based machining technology that utilizes ultrashort-pulse (0.1-1.0 picosecond) lasers to cut materials with negligible generation of heat or shock. The ultrashort pulse laser, developed for the Department of Energy (Defense Programs) has numerous applications in operations requiring high precision machining. Due to the extremely short duration of the laser pulse, material removal occurs by a different physical mechanism than in conventional machining. As a result, any material (e.g., hardened steel, ceramics, diamond, silicon, etc.) can be machined with minimal heat-affected zone or damage to the remaining material. As a result of the threshold nature of the process, shaped holes, cuts, and textures can be achieved with simple beam shaping. Conventional laser tools used for cutting or high-precision machining (e.g., sculpting, drilling) use long laser pulses (10{sup -8} to over 1 sec) to remove material by heating it to the melting or boiling point (Figure 1.1a). This often results in significant damage to the remaining material and produces considerable slag (Figure 1.2a). With ultrashort laser pulses, material is removed by ionizing the material (Figure 1.1b). The ionized plasma expands away from the surface too quickly for significant energy transfer to the remaining material. This distinct mechanism produces extremely precise and clean-edged holes without melting or degrading the remaining material (Figures 1.2 and 1.3). Since only a very small amount of material ({approx} <0.5 microns) is removed per laser pulse, extremely precise machining can be achieved. High machining speed is achieved by operating the lasers at repetition rates up to 10,000 pulses per second. As a diagnostic, the character of the short-pulse laser produced plasma enables determination of the material being machined between pulses. This feature allows the machining of multilayer materials, metal on metal or metal on

  13. Directory of aerospace safety specialized information sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, E. A.; Rubens, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    A directory is presented to make available to the aerospace safety community a handbook of organizations and experts in specific, well-defined areas of safety technology. It is designed for the safety specialist as an aid for locating both information sources and individual points of contact (experts) in engineering related fields. The file covers sources of data in aerospace design, tests, as well as information in hazard and failure cause identification, accident analysis, materials characteristics, and other related subject areas. These 171 organizations and their staff members, hopefully, should provide technical information in the form of documentation, data and consulting expertise. These will be sources that have assembled and collated their information, so that it will be useful in the solution of engineering problems. One of the goals of the project in the United States that have and are willing to share data of value to the aerospace safety community.

  14. Process Research of Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A passivation process (hydrogenation) that will improve the power generation of solar cells fabricated from presently produced, large grain, cast polycrystalline silicon (Semix), a potentially low cost material are developed. The first objective is to verify the operation of a DC plasma hydrogenation system and to investigate the effect of hydrogen on the electrical performance of a variety of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. The second objective is to parameterize and optimize a hydrogenation process for cast polycrystalline silicon, and will include a process sensitivity analysis. The sample preparation for the first phase is outlined. The hydrogenation system is described, and some early results that were obtained using the hydrogenation system without a plasma are summarized. Light beam induced current (LBIC) measurements of minicell samples, and their correlation to dark current voltage characteristics, are discussed.

  15. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Active research areas as of the end of the fiscal year 1982 of the Materials Processing in Space Program, NASA-Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, involving several NASA centers and other organizations are highlighted to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program is described as well as its history, strategy and overall goal; the organizational structures and people involved are identified and each research task is described together with a list of recent publications. The tasks are grouped into four categories: crystal growth; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, transports, and chemical processes; and ultrahigh vacuum and containerless processing technologies.

  16. Development and Processing Improvement of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys-Development of AL-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloy (2139)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Alex; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bales, Thomas T.

    2007-01-01

    This final report supplement in presentation format describes a comprehensive multi-tasked contract study to continue the development of the silver bearing alloy now registered as aluminum alloy 2139 by the Aluminum Association. Two commercial scale ingots were processed into nominal plate gauges of two, four and six inches, and were extensively characterized in terms of metallurgical and crystallographic structure, and resulting mechanical properties. This report includes comparisons of the property combinations for this alloy and 2XXX and 7XXX alloys more widely used in high performance applications. Alloy 2139 shows dramatic improvement in all combinations of properties, moreover, the properties of this alloy are retained in all gauge thicknesses, contrary to typical reductions observed in thicker gauges of the other alloys in the comparison. The advancements achieved in this study are expected to result in rapid, widespread use of this alloy in a broad range of ground based, aircraft, and spacecraft applications.

  17. Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The manner in which current and advanced technology can be applied to develop practical solutions to existing and emerging water supply and waste disposal problems is evaluated. An overview of water resource factors as they affect new community planning, and requirements imposed on residential waste treatment systems are presented. The results of equipment surveys contain information describing: commercially available devices and appliances designed to conserve water; devices and techniques for monitoring water quality and controlling back contamination; and advanced water and waste processing equipment. System concepts are developed and compared on the basis of current and projected costs. Economic evaluations are based on community populations of from 2,000 to 250,000. The most promising system concept is defined in sufficient depth to initiate detailed design.

  18. Processes and Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Marshall

    The field of organic photovoltaics is driven by the desire for better and cheaper solar cells. While showing much promise, current generations of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices do not exhibit properties that are suited for wide scale commercialization. While much research has been dedicated towards this goal, more yet needs to be done before it can be clear whether this is an achievable goal. This thesis describes new materials investigations for higher efficiency better stability organic photovoltaics, as well as new processes that broaden the application and fabrication space for these devices. The application of electro-polymerization, a deposition process, towards organic thin-film fabrication is discussed. This novel process for OPVs is followed by an analysis of new and interesting materials for OPV devices, including a higher efficiency hole-transporting material, and two hole-transporting molecules that exhibit self-assembly during OPV fabrication. The results of these investigations indicate the possibility for increased fabrication freedom and control, molecular species design that could allow higher efficiency devices, as well as indications of the role that molecular interactions in OPV heterojunctions play. In addition, the possibilities of integrating graphene, the two-dimensional form of carbon, into OPV architectures is discussed. A new process for graphene transfer that allows the integration of graphene into chemically and physically more fragile systems including those composed of small molecule semiconductors is described and experimentally verified. Graphene is then integrated as a cathode in OPVs, and a modeling and experimental investigation is performed to evaluate the potential for integrating graphene as a recombination layer in tandem OPVs. Based on this investigation, the integration of graphene into tandem OPVs could enable higher efficiency devices and significantly broadened architectural freedom for tandem fabrication.

  19. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 19: Computer and information technology and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Bishop, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    To remain a world leader in aerospace, the US must improve and maintain the professional competency of its engineers and scientists, increase the research and development (R&D) knowledge base, improve productivity, and maximize the integration of recent technological developments into the R&D process. How well these objectives are met, and at what cost, depends on a variety of factors, but largely on the ability of US aerospace engineers and scientists to acquire and process the results of federally funded R&D. The Federal Government's commitment to high speed computing and networking systems presupposes that computer and information technology will play a major role in the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. However, we know little about information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The use of computer and information technology by US aerospace engineers and scientists in academia, government, and industry is reported.

  1. Short-pulse laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Myers, B.R.; Banks, P.S.; Honea, E.C.

    1997-06-18

    While there is much that we have learned about materials processing in the ultrashort-pulse regime, there is an enormous amount that we don`t know. How short does the pulse have to be to achieve a particular cut (depth, material, quality)? How deep can you cut? What is the surface roughness? These questions are clearly dependent upon the properties of the material of interest along with the short-pulse interaction physics. From a technology standpoint, we are asked: Can you build a 100 W average power system ? A 1000 W average power system? This proposal seeks to address these questions with a combined experimental and theoretical program of study. Specifically, To develop an empirical database for both metals and dielectrics which can be used to determine the pulse duration and wavelength necessary to achieve a specific machining requirement. To investigate Yb:YAG as a potential laser material for high average power short-pulse systems both directly and in combination with titanium doped sapphire. To develop a conceptual design for a lOOW and eventually 5OOW average power short-pulse system.

  2. Manned Spacecraft Requirements for Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    A major cause of project failure can be attributed to an emphasized focus on end products and inadequate attention to resolving development risks during the initial phases of a project. The initial phases of a project, which we will call the "study period", are critical to determining project scope and costs, and can make or break most projects. If the requirements are not defined adequately, how can the scope be adequately determined, also how can the costs of the entire project be effectively estimated, and how can the risk of project success be accurately assessed? Using the proper material specifications and standards and incorporating these specifications and standards in the design process should be considered inherently crucial to the technical success of a project as just as importantly, crucial to the cost and schedule success. This paper will intertwine several important aspects or considerations for project success: 1) Characteristics of a "Good Material Requirement"; 2) Linking material requirements to the implementation of "Design for Manufacturing"; techniques and 3) The importance of decomposing materials requirements during the study phase/development phase to mitigate project risk for the maturation of technologies before the building of hardware.

  3. Aerospace Bibliography, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This third edition bibliography lists books and teaching aids related to aeronautics and space. Aeronautics titles are limited to aerospace-related research subjects, and books on astronomy to those directly related to space exploration. Also listed are pertinent references like pamphlets, films, film strips, booklets, charts, pictures,…

  4. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The following areas of NASA's responsibilities are examined: (1) the Space Transportation System (STS) operations and evolving program elements; (2) establishment of the Space Station program organization and issuance of requests for proposals to the aerospace industry; and (3) NASA's aircraft operations, including research and development flight programs for two advanced X-type aircraft.

  5. Technology challenges for the National Aero-Space Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.

    1987-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane (NASP) will require an exceptionally high degree of integration between propulsion and aerodynamic configuration, in order to achieve the requisite specific impulse and low structural weight. This is to be achieved through the use of forebody shock compression and afterbody exhaust expansion. Attention is presently given to the materials and structural concepts required for the realization of these NASP airframe functions, in view of the exceptionally high aerothermodynamic loads that will be experienced at hypersonic speeds. Active cooling will have to be used in certain critical airframe and propulsion components. CFD characterizations of these processes must be carefully developed and fully validated.

  6. Cibachrome testing. [photographic processing and printing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The use of Cibachrome products as a solution to problems encountered when contact printing Kodak film type SO-397 onto Kodak Ektrachrome color reversal paper type 1993 is investigated. A roll of aerial imagery consisting of Kodak film types SO-397 and 2443 was contact printed onto Cibachrome and Kodak materials and compared in terms of color quality, resolution, cost, and compatibility with existing equipment and techniques. Objective measurements are given in terms of resolution and sensitometric response. Comparison prints and transparencies were viewed and ranked according to overall quality and aesthetic appeal. It is recommended that Cibachrome Print material be used in place of Kodak Ektachrome paper because it is more easily processed, the cost is equivalent, and it provides improved resolution, color quality, and image fade resistance.

  7. Skylab materials processing facility experiment developer's report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the Skylab M512 Materials Processing Facility is traced from the design of a portable, self-contained electron beam welding system for terrestrial applications to the highly complex experiment system ultimately developed for three Skylab missions. The M512 experiment facility was designed to support six in-space experiments intended to explore the advantages of manufacturing materials in the near-zero-gravity environment of Earth orbit. Detailed descriptions of the M512 facility and related experiment hardware are provided, with discussions of hardware verification and man-machine interfaces included. An analysis of the operation of the facility and experiments during the three Skylab missions is presented, including discussions of the hardware performance, anomalies, and data returned to earth.

  8. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  9. Microwave processing of materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Garard, R.S.

    1997-11-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Lambda Technologies, Inc. (Lambda) of Raleigh, N.C., was initiated in May 1995. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion data for the Agreement was December 31, 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF); and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The VFMF, whose initial conception and design was funded by the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  10. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  11. Chemistry and Processing of Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G A; Baumann, T F; Hope-Weeks, L J; Vance, A L

    2002-01-18

    Nanostructured materials can be formed through the sol-gel polymerization of inorganic or organic monomer systems. For example, a two step polymerization of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) was developed such that silica aerogels with densities as low as 3 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx} two times the density of air) could be achieved. Organic aerogels based upon resorcinol-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde can also be prepared using the sol-gel process. Materials of this type have received significant attention at LLNL due to their ultrafine cell sizes, continuous porosity, high surface area and low mass density. For both types of aerogels, sol-gel polymerization depends upon the transformation of these monomers into nanometer-sized clusters followed by cross-linking into a 3-dimensional gel network. While sol-gel chemistry provides the opportunity to synthesize new material compositions, it suffers from the inability to separate the process of cluster formation from gelation. This limitation results in structural deficiencies in the gel that impact the physical properties of the aerogel, xerogel or nanocomposite. In order to control the properties of the resultant gel, one should be able to regulate the formation of the clusters and their subsequent cross-linking. Towards this goal, we are utilizing dendrimer chemistry to separate the cluster formation from the gelation so that new nanostructured materials can be produced. Dendrimers are three-dimensional, highly branched macromolecules that are prepared in such a way that their size, shape and surface functionality are readily controlled. The dendrimers will be used as pre-formed clusters of known size that can be cross-linked to form an ordered gel network.

  12. Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerausch, M.

    2011-08-01

    Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

  13. Process for Coating Substrates with Catalytic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klelin, Ric J. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A process for forming catalysts by coating substrates with two or more catalytic components, which comprises the following sequence of steps. First, the substrate is infused with an adequate amount of solution having a starting material comprising a catalytic component precursor, wherein the thermal decomposition product of the catalytic component precursor is a catalytic component. Second, the excess of the solution is removed from the substrate. thereby leaving a coating of the catalytic component precursor on the surface of the substrate. Third, the coating of the catalytic component precursor is converted to the catalytic component by thermal decomposition. Finally, the coated substance is etched to increase the surface area. The list three steps are then repeated for at least a second catalytic component. This process is ideally suited for application in producing efficient low temperature oxidation catalysts.

  14. Solar Energy: Materials, Materials Handling, and Fabrication Processes: Student Material. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, William Everet; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "Materials, Materials Handling, and Fabrication Processes," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, exercises, worksheets, bibliographies, and illustrations for 13 course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course,…

  15. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  16. Processing and Material Characterization of Continuous Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Polymer Derived Ceramics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Sarah B.

    2014-01-01

    The need for high performance vehicles in the aerospace industry requires materials which can withstand high loads and high temperatures. New developments in launch pads and infrastructure must also be made to handle this intense environment with lightweight, reusable, structural materials. By using more functional materials, better performance can be seen in the launch environment, and launch vehicle designs which have not been previously used can be considered. The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer matrix composites can be used for temperatures up to 260C. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in the composites. In this study, continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. The oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing have been performed on test panels and the test results are presented.

  17. Psychiatric considerations in military aerospace medicine.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Marsh, R W

    2001-02-01

    Military aerospace medicine requires a psychiatric selection and certification process that determines not only the absence of significant mental disorders, but also the presence of positive qualities in the realms of motivation, ability and stability: not all normal people are fit to fly. Other issues of aerospace psychiatry involve maintenance of mental resilience and hardiness during a flying career, aeromedical decisions about when to remove from flight duties and when to return, criteria for waivers for psychiatric conditions, use of medications for treatment of psychiatric symptoms, questions of substance abuse, and research in such areas as genetics. This report reviews the basis for military aerospace psychiatry, primarily as practiced in the United States Air Force (USAF), and presents some of its underlying principles as they apply to clinical situations.

  18. Digital radiography in the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, R. A.; Bueno, C.; Barry, R. C.; Barker, M. D.

    An account is given of the bases of digital radiography (DR), with a view to the identification of NDE systems with the greatest usefulness to the aerospace industry and the nature of the advanced image processing and reconstruction techniques that have been devised thus far. The spatial resolution of any DR system is fundamentally limited by the number of pixels in the digital image and the system field-of-view. Attention is given to the problems of image geometric unsharpness and radiation quantum noise limits, as well as to the potential role of advanced DR in future NDT of aerospace components.

  19. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  20. Nondestructive damage evaluation in ceramic matrix composites for aerospace applications.

    PubMed

    Dassios, Konstantinos G; Kordatos, Evangelos Z; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Matikas, Theodore E

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately.

  1. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Kordatos, Evangelos Z.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. PMID:23935428

  2. High temperature arc-track resistant aerospace insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorogy, William

    1994-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: high temperature aerospace insulation; Foster-Miller approach to develop a 300 C rated, arc-track resistant aerospace insulation; advantages and disadvantages of key structural features; summary goals and achievements of the phase 1 program; performance goals for selected materials; materials under evaluation; molecular structures of candidate polymers; candidate polymer properties; film properties; and a detailed program plan.

  3. Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Vitko, J. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Workshop concentrated on reviewing and refining the science experiments planned for the UAV Demonstration Flights (UDF) scheduled at the Oklahoma Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in April 1994. These experiments were focused around the following sets of parameters: Clear sky, daylight; Clear-sky, night-to-day transition; Clear sky - improve/validate the accuracy of radiative fluxes derived from satellite-based measurements; Daylight, clouds of opportunity; and, Daylight, broken clouds.

  4. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Scully, John R.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.; Wert, John A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program was initiated in 1986, and continues a high level of activity, with projects being conducted by graduate students and faculty advisors in the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia. This work is funded by the NASA-Langley Research Center under Grant NAG-1-745. Here, we report on progress achieved between July 1 and December 31, 1993. The objective of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are presented for each research project. We generally aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement and modeling advances; and critically, a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies.

  5. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program: LA(2)ST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.; Wert, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA(2)ST) Program continues a high level of activity, with projects being conducted by graduate students and faculty advisors in the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia. This work is funded by the NASA-Langley Research Center under Grant NAG-1-745. We report on progress achieved between July 1 and December 31, 1992. The objective of the LA(2)ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are presented for each research project. We generally aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement advances; and critically, a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies.

  6. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) activities during 2002. The format of the report has been modified to capture a long-term perspective. Section II is new and highlights the Panel's view of NASA's safety progress during the year. Section III contains the pivotal safety issues facing NASA in the coming year. Section IV includes the program area findings and recommendations. The Panel has been asked by the Administrator to perform several special studies this year, and the resulting white papers appear in Appendix C. The year has been filled with significant achievements for NASA in both successful Space Shuttle operations and International Space Station (ISS) construction. Throughout the year, safety has been first and foremost in spite of many changes throughout the Agency. The relocation of the Orbiter Major Modifications (OMMs) from California to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) appears very successful. The transition of responsibilities for program management of the Space Shuttle and ISS programs from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to NASA Headquarters went smoothly. The decision to extend the life of the Space Shuttle as the primary NASA vehicle for access to space is viewed by the Panel as a prudent one. With the appropriate investments in safety improvements, in maintenance, in preserving appropriate inventories of spare parts, and in infrastructure, the Space Shuttle can provide safe and reliable support for the ISS for the foreseeable future. Indications of an aging Space Shuttle fleet occurred on more than one occasion this year. Several flaws went undetected in the early prelaunch tests and inspections. In all but one case, the problems were found prior to launch. These incidents were all handled properly and with safety as the guiding principle. Indeed, launches were postponed until the problems were fully understood and mitigating action could be taken. These incidents do, however, indicate the need to analyze the

  7. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  8. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  9. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-02-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  10. Technical communications in aerospace - An analysis of the practices reported by U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    The flow of scientific and technical information (STI) at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels is studied. The responses of U.S and European aerospace engineers and scientists to questionnaires concerning technical communications in aerospace are examined. Particular attention is given to the means used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Demographic data about the survey respondents are provided. The methods used to communicate technical data and the sources utilized to solve technical problems are described. The importance of technical writing skills and the use of computer technology in the aerospace field are discussed. The derived data are useful for R&D and information managers in order to improve access to and utilization of aerospace STI.

  11. Polymer-based composites for aerospace: An overview of IMAST results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milella, Eva; Cammarano, Aniello

    2016-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of technological results, achieved by IMAST, the Technological Cluster on Engineering of Polymeric Composite Materials and Structures, in the completed Research Projects in the aerospace field. In this sector, the Cluster developed different solutions: lightweight multifunctional fiber-reinforced polymer composites for aeronautic structures, advanced manufacturing processes (for the optimization of energy consumption and waste reduction) and multifunctional components (e.g., thermal, electrical, acoustic and fire resistance).

  12. Recent advances in aerospace composite NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgeson, Gary E.

    2002-06-01

    As the aerospace industry continues to advance the design and use of composite structure, the NDE community faces the difficulties of trying to keep up. The challenges lie in manufacturing evaluation of the newest aerospace structures and materials and the in-service inspection and monitoring of damaged or aging composites. This paper provides examples of several promising NDI applications in the world of aerospace composites. Airborne (or non-contact) Ultrasonic Testing (UT) has been available for decades, but recently has generated new interest due to significant improvements in transducer design and low noise electronics. Boeing is developing inspection techniques for composite joints and core blankets using this technology. In-service inspection techniques for thick, multi-layer structures are also being advanced. One effective technique integrates the S-9 Sondicator, a traditional bond testing device, with Boeing's Mobile Automated Scanner (MAUS) platform. Composite patches have seen limited use on-aircraft, due, in part, to the difficulty of determining the quality of a bonded joint. A unique approach using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is showing promise as a bonded patch-inspection method. Other NDI techniques currently being developed for aerospace application are also briefly discussed.

  13. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    SciTech Connect

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2015-11-24

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  14. Supercritical fluid processing: opportunities for new resist materials and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher-Wetmore, Paula M.; Ober, Christopher K.; Gabor, Allen H.; Allen, Robert D.

    1996-05-01

    Over the past two decades supercritical fluids have been utilized as solvents for carrying out separations of materials as diverse as foods, polymers, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, natural products, and explosives. More recently they have been used for non-extractive applications such as recrystallization, deposition, impregnation, surface modification, and as a solvent alternative for precision parts cleaning. Today, supercritical fluid extraction is being practiced in the foods and beverage industries; there are commercial plants for decaffeinating coffee and tea, extracting beer flavoring agents from hops, and separating oils and oleoresins from spices. Interest in supercritical fluid processing of polymers has grown over the last ten years, and many new purification, fractionation, and even polymerization techniques have emerged. One of the most significant motivations for applying this technology to polymers has been increased performance demands. More recently, with increasing scrutiny of traditional solvents, supercritical fluids, and in particular carbon dioxide, are receiving widespread attention as 'environmentally conscious' solvents. This paper describes several examples of polymers applications, including a few involving photoresists, which demonstrate that as next- generation advanced polymer systems emerge, supercritical fluids are certain to offer advantages as cutting edge processing tools.

  15. Material Processing of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, Jay Ira

    1995-01-01

    The material and device characterization of furnace and rapid thermally annealed (RTA) GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) infrared (IR) photodetectors (QWIPs) epitaxially grown on GaAs and Si substrates is presented. The advances in epitaxial growth allow the precise control of the dimensions, doping, and matrix concentration of the MQW. Therefore, the design of a QWIP with particular electrical and optical characteristics may be undertaken. To utilize a post-growth anneal to improve the QWIP's performance, the trade-offs must be considered to determine its usefulness. Depending on the application, the anneal may be deemed unnecessary due to its detrimental effect on a particular aspect of the operation. The availability of high quality GaAs and Si substrates, complemented by the maturity of GaAs device processing techniques, makes the QWIP an ideal candidate for 8-14 μm long wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. An extensive exploration of the interdiffusion process leads to the development of a suitable technique for shifting the optical response without harming the electrical characteristics. This, however, is a difficult task in light of the out-diffusion of the dopant from the wells into the barriers, which results in a high dark current. Reading-out the QWIP focal plane array (FPA) (on GaAs substrate) is accomplished by indium bump-bonding the FPA to a Si multiplexer. Thermal cycling the hybrid, unfortunately, results in destroyed bonds due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of the two substrates. Growing the QWIP on a Si substrate better satisfies the packaging requirements; however, the dark current is higher. The technique of annealing for the purpose of defect annihilation results in improvements in the absolute response and a reduction in the dark current.

  16. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  17. Materials Processing with Intense Pulsed Ion Beams*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renk, T. J.; Johnson, D. J.; Friedmann, T. A.; Provencio, P. P.; Thompson, M. O.; Sanders, P. G.; Kasuya, K.; Kishimoto, N.

    1999-11-01

    Materials applications are being investigated on the 700 kV RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laboratories. Surface modification for property improvement is possible in the fluence range 1-5 J/cm^2, with ablation and thin-film synthesis at 5-20 J/cm^2 fluences. Differences from previous efforts include selectability of accelerating ions (H, He, C, N, Ne, Ar, and Xe), and repetitive pulsing of the MAP (Magnetically Confined Anode Plasma) gas-breakdown ion source. Surface modification using melt-resolidification cycles has led to improvement in hardness and corrosion resistance of various metals. Mixing of pre-applied thin-films into the bulk has led to even greater performance improvements. Characterization is ongoing to determine the microstructural basis for these improvements. We have characterized liquid-phase diffusion of implanted elements in Ti and Si during the power pulse. Experiments with Si device processing and polymer modification are also ongoing. Thin-films are being formed from graphite, YBCO, and ZnO targets for various applications, including hard-coatings and optical coatings. Surface topography, stoichiometry, and optical and infrared absorption measurements have been made. *Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Co., under US DOE Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  19. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  20. The space technology demand on materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauphin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Space technology requires a rational and accurate policy of materials and processes selection. This paper examines some areas of space technology where materials and process problems have occurred in the past and how they can be solved in the future.

  1. Materials Genome Initiative Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is committed to developing new materials and manufacturing methods that can enable new missions with ever increasing mission demands. Typically, the development and certification of new materials and manufacturing methods in the aerospace industry has required more than 20 years of development time with a costly testing and certification program. To reduce the cost and time to mature these emerging technologies, NASA is developing computational materials tools to improve understanding of the material and guide the certification process.

  2. 75 FR 19662 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Shuttle and International Space Station Updates; Commercial Space; Mishap Investigation Process and... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space..., Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announce a...

  3. Nejat Aerospace Magnoplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejat, Cyrus

    2012-01-01

    The Nejat Aerospace Magnoplane (NAM) is designed as a low speed (Mach < 1:00) aerial vehicle that it can be modified as a high speed aerial vehicle. This aerial vehicle is able to operate on highlands and hilly sites such as landing on and launching from the mentioned sites. The problem concerns with launching and landing of the vehicle on and from sites where there are highlands with bushes difficulties. Also, where there is short area for landing of regular airplane. This project is pursued for patent registration and highly modified version current airplanes.

  4. Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, S.D.

    1998-07-01

    The sequential manner in which materials and processes for a manufactured product are selected is inherently less than optimal. Designers` tendency to choose processes and materials with which they are familiar exacerbate this problem. A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach is presented.

  5. Study on application of aerospace technology to improve surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Youngblood, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The areas where aerospace technology could be used to improve the reliability and performance of metallic, orthopedic implants was assessed. Specifically, comparisons were made of material controls, design approaches, analytical methods and inspection approaches being used in the implant industry with hardware for the aerospace industries. Several areas for possible improvement were noted such as increased use of finite element stress analysis and fracture control programs on devices where the needs exist for maximum reliability and high structural performance.

  6. Advanced materials for geothermal energy processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    The primary goal of the geothermal materials program is to ensure that the private sector development of geothermal energy resources is not constrained by the availability of technologically and economically viable materials of construction. This requires the performance of long-term high risk GHTD-sponsored materials R and D. Ongoing programs described include high temperature elastomers for dynamic sealing applications, advanced materials for lost circulation control, waste utilization and disposal, corrosion resistant elastomeric liners for well casing, and non-metallic heat exchangers. 9 refs.

  7. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Thornton, Earl A.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.; Wert, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The report on progress achieved in accomplishing of the NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program is presented. The objective is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys and associated thermal gradient structures in close collaboration with researchers. The efforts will produce basic understanding of material behavior, new monolithic and composite alloys, processing methods, solid and fluid mechanics analyses, measurement advances, and a pool of educated graduate students. The presented accomplishments include: research on corrosion fatigue of Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090; research on the strengthening effect of small In additions to Al-Li-Cu alloys; research on localized corrosion of Al-Li alloys; research on stress corrosion cracking of Al-Li-Cu alloys; research on fiber-matrix reaction studies (Ti-1100 and Ti-15-3 matrices containing SCS-6, SCS-9, and SCS-10 fibers); and research on methods for quantifying non-random particle distribution in materials that has led to generation of a set of computer programs that can detect and characterize clusters in particles.

  8. Limitless Horizons. Careers in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A manual is presented for use by counselors in career guidance programs. Pertinent information is provided on choices open in aerospace sciences, engineering, and technology. Accredited institutions awarding degrees in pertinent areas are listed as well as additional sources of aerospace career information. NASA's role and fields of interest are emphasized.

  9. Aerospace Activities and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Piper, Martha

    1975-01-01

    Describes how science activities can be used to stimulate language development in the elementary grades. Two aerospace activities are described involving liquid nitrogen and the launching of a weather balloon which integrate aerospace interests into the development of language skills. (BR)

  10. Study of materials for space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Materials were selected for device applications and their commercial use. Experimental arrangements were also made for electrical characterization of single crystals using electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements. The experimental set-up was tested with some standard samples.

  11. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 11: The Voice of the User: How US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists View DoD Technical Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The project examines how the results of NASA/DOD research diffuse into the aerospace R&D process, and empirically analyzes the implications of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Specific issues considered are the roles played by government technical reports, the recognition of the value of scientific and technical information (STI), and the optimization of the STI aerospace transfer system. Information-seeking habits are assessed for the U.S. aerospace community, the general community, the academic sector, and the international community. U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists use 65 percent of working time to communicate STI, and prefer 'internal' STI over 'external' STI. The isolation from 'external' information is found to be detrimental to U.S. aerospace R&D in general.

  13. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.

    2009-03-10

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  14. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center. Report for FY 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The work described, while involving research in the broad field of materials processing, has two common features: the problems are closed related to space precessing of materials and have both practical and fundamental significance. An interesting and important feature of many of the projects is that the interdisciplinary nature of the problem mandates complementary analytical modeling/experimental approaches. An other important aspect of many of the projects is the increasing use of mathematical modeling techniques as one of the research tools. The predictive capability of these models, when tested against measurements, plays a very important role in both the planning of experimental programs and in the rational interpretation of the results. Many of the projects described have a space experiment as their ultimate objective. Mathematical models are proving to be extremely valuable in projecting the findings of ground - based experiments to microgravity conditions.

  15. Pulse thermal processing of functional materials using directed plasma arc

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Ronald D.; Blue, Craig A.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Harper, David C.

    2007-05-22

    A method of thermally processing a material includes exposing the material to at least one pulse of infrared light emitted from a directed plasma arc to thermally process the material, the pulse having a duration of no more than 10 s.

  16. Aerospace in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    National research and technology trends are introduced in the environment of accelerating change. NASA and the federal budget are discussed. The U.S. energy dependence on foreign oil, the increasing oil costs, and the U.S. petroleum use by class are presented. The $10 billion aerospace industry positive contribution to the U.S. balance of trade of 1979 is given as an indicator of the positive contribution of NASA in research to industry. The research work of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, industry, universities, and business to maintain U.S. world leadership in advanced technology.

  17. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  18. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  19. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  20. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  1. Technical Note: Some Issues Related to the Selection of Polymers for Aerospace Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Beeson, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Materials intended for use in aerospace oxygen systems are commonly screened for oxygen compatibility following NASA STD 6001. This standard allows qualification of materials based on results provided by only one test method. Potential issues related to this practice are reviewed and recommendations are proposed that would lead to improved aerospace oxygen systems safety.

  2. Materials and Processes for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Paul W.; Richardson, Rod W.

    2004-01-01

    The single greatest threat to material availability over the last decade has been Compliance to New Environmental Regulations. Federal Regulations: a) Clean Air Acts Amendments - 1990 - Titles I, III and VI; b) NASA Interim Policy- 1995 end date; c) Montreal Protocol - 2000 and 2005 end dates; d) Industrial Toxics Project - HAP emissions by 1995; e) Florida DER - VOC limits by 1995 (CA); f) OSHA Health Related Regulations 1) Carcinogens 2) Mutagens 3). Material availability is complicated by local and state regulations and their own compliance schedules.

  3. Materials processing in space bibliography, 1983, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes, or ground based activities that provide supporting research are compiled. Six major categories: crystal growth; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, transports, and chemical processes; glasses and ceramics; ultrahigh vacuum and containerless processing technologies; and combustion are included. A list of patents and appendices providing a compilation of anonymously authored collections and reports and a cross reference index are included.

  4. Graphite Nanoreinforcements for Aerospace Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drzal, Lawrence T.

    2005-01-01

    New advances in the reinforcement of polymer matrix composite materials are critical for advancement of the aerospace industry. Reinforcements are required to have good mechanical and thermal properties, large aspect ratio, excellent adhesion to the matrix, and cost effectiveness. To fulfill the requirements, nanocomposites in which the matrix is filled with nanoscopic reinforcing phases having dimensions typically in the range of 1nm to 100 nm show considerably higher strength and modulus with far lower reinforcement content than their conventional counterparts. Graphite is a layered material whose layers have dimensions in the nanometer range and are held together by weak Van der Waals forces. Once these layers are exfoliated and dispersed in a polymer matrix as nano platelets, they have large aspect ratios. Graphite has an elastic modulus that is equal to the stiffest carbon fiber and 10-15 times that of other inorganic reinforcements, and it is also electrically and thermally conductive. If the appropriate surface treatment can be found for graphite, its exfoliation and dispersion in a polymer matrix will result in a composite with excellent mechanical properties, superior thermal stability, and very good electrical and thermal properties at very low reinforcement loadings.

  5. Human performance in aerospace environments: The search for psychological determinants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A program of research into the psychological determinants of individual and crew performance in aerospace environments is described. Constellations of personality factors influencing behavior in demanding environments are discussed. Relationships between attitudes and performance and attitudes and personality are also reported. The efficacy of training in interpersonal relations as a means of changing attitudes and behavior is explored along with the influence of personality on attitude change processes. Finally, approaches to measuring group behavior in aerospace settings are described.

  6. Electrochromic materials, devices and process of making

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2003-11-11

    Thin films of transition metal compositions formed with magnesium that are metals, alloys, hydrides or mixtures of alloys, metals and/or hydrides exhibit reversible color changes on application of electric current or hydrogen. Thin films of these materials are suitable for optical switching elements, thin film displays, sun roofs, rear-view mirrors and architectural glass.

  7. Enhancing aerospace systems autonomy through predictive monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.; Sellers, Suzanne M.; Atkinson, David J.

    1989-01-01

    The quick and reliable detection of anomalous behavior in aerospace systems is addressed. Ways to adjust nominal sensor value expectations dynamically, taking into account the changing operating context of the system, are considered. How to utilize sensors selectively, determining which subset of the available sensors to use at any given time to verify nominal operation efficiently without processing a prohibitive amount of data, is examined.

  8. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  9. Metal containing material processing on coater/developer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Shinichiro; Mizunoura, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Koichi; Hontake, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shimura, Satoru; Enomoto, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Challenges of processing metal containing materials need to be addressed in order apply this technology to Behavior of metal containing materials on coater/developer processing including coating process, developer process and tool metal contamination is studied using CLEAN TRACKTM LITHIUS ProTM Z (Tokyo Electron Limited). Through this work, coating uniformity and coating film defectivity were studied. Metal containing material performance was comparable to conventional materials. Especially, new dispense system (NDS) demonstrated up to 80% reduction in coating defect for metal containing materials. As for processed wafer metal contamination, coated wafer metal contamination achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 3 materials. After develop metal contamination also achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 2 materials. Furthermore, through the metal defect study, metal residues and metal contamination were reduced by developer rinse optimization.

  10. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 7:] The NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: The DOD perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    This project will provide descriptive and analytical data regarding the flow of STI at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. It will examine both the channels used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Results of the project should provide useful information to R and D managers, information managers, and others concerned with improving access to and use of STI. Objectives include: (1) understanding the aerospace knowledge diffusion process at the individual, organizational, and national levels, placing particular emphasis on the diffusion of Federally funded aerospace STI; (2) understanding the international aerospace knowledge diffusion process at the individual and organizational levels, placing particular emphasis on the systems used to diffuse the results of Federally funded aerospace STI; (3) understanding the roles NASA/DoD technical report and aerospace librarians play in the transfer and use of knowledge derived from Federally funded aerospace R and D; (4) achieving recognition and acceptance within NASA, DoD and throughout the aerospace community that STI is a valuable strategic resource for innovation, problem solving, and productivity; and (5) providing results that can be used to optimize the effectiveness and efficiency of the Federal STI aerospace transfer system and exchange mechanism.

  11. Process modeling for carbon-phenolic nozzle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letson, Mischell A.; Bunker, Robert C.; Remus, Walter M., III; Clinton, R. G.

    1989-01-01

    A thermochemical model based on the SINDA heat transfer program is developed for carbon-phenolic nozzle material processes. The model can be used to optimize cure cycles and to predict material properties based on the types of materials and the process by which these materials are used to make nozzle components. Chemical kinetic constants for Fiberite MX4926 were determined so that optimization of cure cycles for the current Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor nozzle rings can be determined.

  12. Innovative processing to produce advanced intermetallic materials. Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loutfy, R.O.

    1989-09-01

    The program demonstrates the technical feasibility of synthesizing submicron titanium aluminide in a thermal rf plasma. Micron and submicron spherical titanium aluminide particles are produced in argon, hydrogen, and argon/hydrogen plasmas from the reaction of TiCl4(g), and Al(g). The ratio of Ti and Al is varied to produce the compounds Ti3Al, TiAl, and TiAl3. Microalloying with boron and macroalloying with niobium is demonstrated. Ti3Al whiskers can be produced, as well as other intermetallics of niobium aluminide, nickel aluminide, and molybdenum disilicide in the plasma synthesis process. Since submicron particles are produced, they have a high surface area and are sensitive to oxidation if not treated with a fugitive protective coating or utilized in a nonoxidizing atmosphere. Ti3Al particles are consolidated and utilized as a matrix for TiC and AlN composites. The submicron AlTi3 has significantly higher strength at room temperature than reported for commercial Ti3Al-11Nb alloy and useable strength is maintained up to 1000 C. The elongation is about the same as for commercial material because of possible oxide contamination in powder handling. However, dimpling and nacking is evident in the fracture surface, which suggests true room temperature ductility. Titanium aluminides have the potential to replace superalloys and become the dominant material for aerospace engines, air frames and skins for hypersonic vehicles.

  13. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Li, K. Y.; Hopper, J. R.; Fang, C. S.; Hansen, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    Results for process system properties, chemical engineering and economic analyses of the new technologies and processes being developed for the production of lower cost silicon for solar cells are presented. Analyses of process system properties are important for chemical materials involved in the several processes under consideration for semiconductor and solar cell grade silicon production. Major physical, thermodynamic and transport property data are reported for silicon source and processing chemical materials.

  14. Organic materials for ceramic molding processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, K.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramic molding processes are examined. Binders, wetting agents, lubricants, plasticizers, surface active agents, dispersants, etc., for pressing, rubber pressing, sip casting, injection casting, taping, extrusion, etc., are described, together with forming machines.

  15. Multiphysical Simulation of Laser Material Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Andreas; Koch, Holger; Vazquez, Rodrigo Gomez

    Within this paper a multiphysical simulation model is presented that is capable for simulating a wide range of laser processes like e.g. laser beam welding, brazing, cutting, drilling or ablation. Some important aspects of the model are explained more in detail and results from test cases are compared with analytical solutions revealing the high accuracy of the model. Finally exemplary results from process simulations on laser beam remote cutting of steel and laser beam scribing of silicon wafers are given.

  16. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  19. Process for Self-Repair of Insulation Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured reactants witlun the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  20. Process for self-repair of insulation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured reactants within the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  1. Laser processing for manufacturing nanocarbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van, Hai Hoang

    CNTs have been considered as the excellent candidate to revolutionize a broad range of applications. There have been many method developed to manipulate the chemistry and the structure of CNTs. Laser with non-contact treatment capability exhibits many processing advantages, including solid-state treatment, extremely fast processing rate, and high processing resolution. In addition, the outstanding monochromatic, coherent, and directional beam generates the powerful energy absorption and the resultant extreme processing conditions. In my research, a unique laser scanning method was developed to process CNTs, controlling the oxidation and the graphitization. The achieved controllability of this method was applied to address the important issues of the current CNT processing methods for three applications. The controllable oxidation of CNTs by laser scanning method was applied to cut CNT films to produce high-performance cathodes for FE devices. The production method includes two important self-developed techniques to produce the cold cathodes: the production of highly oriented and uniformly distributed CNT sheets and the precise laser trimming process. Laser cutting is the unique method to produce the cathodes with remarkable features, including ultrathin freestanding structure (~200 nm), greatly high aspect ratio, hybrid CNT-GNR emitter arrays, even emitter separation, and directional emitter alignment. This unique cathode structure was unachievable by other methods. The developed FE devices successfully solved the screening effect issue encounter by current FE devices. The laser-control oxidation method was further developed to sequentially remove graphitic walls of CNTs. The laser oxidation process was directed to occur along the CNT axes by the laser scanning direction. Additionally, the oxidation was further assisted by the curvature stress and the thermal expansion of the graphitic nanotubes, ultimately opening (namely unzipping) the tubular structure to

  2. Molten salt applications in materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L.

    2005-02-01

    The science of molten salt electrochemistry for electrowinning of reactive metals, such as calcium, and its in situ application in pyro-reduction has been described. Calcium electrowinning has been performed in a 5 10 wt% calcium oxide calcium chloride molten salt by the electrolytic dissociation of calcium oxide. This electrolysis requires the use of a porous ceramic sheath around the anode to keep the cathodically deposited calcium and the anodic gases separate. Stainless steel cathode and graphite anode have been used in the temperature range of 850 950 °C. This salt mixture is produced as a result of the direct oxide reduction (DOR) of reactive metal oxides by calcium in a calcium chloride bath. The primary purpose of this process is to recover the expensive calcium reductant and to recycle calcium chloride. Experimental data have been included to justify the suitability as well as limitations of the electrowinning process. Transport of oxygen ions through the sheath is found to be the rate controlling step. Under the constraints of the reactor design, a calcium recovery rate of approx. 150 g/h was achieved. Feasibility of a process to produce metals by pyrometallurgical reduction, using the calcium reductant produced electrolytically within the same reactor, has been shown in a hybrid process. Several processes are currently under investigation to use this electrowon calcium for in situ reduction of metal oxides.

  3. The electronic transfer of information and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing reliance on and investment in information technology and electronic networking systems presupposes that computing and information technology will play a motor role in the diffusion of aerospace knowledge. Little is known, however, about actual information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The authors state that the potential contributions of information technology to increased productivity and competitiveness will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge regarding the information-seeking behavior of the members of the social system - those who are producing, transferring, and using scientific and technical information - is incorporated into a new technology policy framework. Research into the use of information technology and electronic networks by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists, collected as part of a research project designed to study aerospace knowledge diffusion, is presented in support of this assertion.

  4. Dielectric particle injector for material processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Philip L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A device for use as an electrostatic particle or droplet injector is disclosed which is capable of injecting dielectric particles or droplets. The device operates by first charging the dielectric particles or droplets using ultraviolet light induced photoelectrons from a low work function material plate supporting the dielectric particles or droplets, and then ejecting the charged particles or droplets from the plate by utilizing an electrostatic force. The ejected particles or droplets are mostly negatively charged in the preferred embodiment; however, in an alternate embodiment, an ion source is used instead of ultraviolet light to eject positively charged dielectric particles or droplets.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 8: The role of the information intermediary in the diffusion of aerospace knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1990-01-01

    The United States aerospace industry is experiencing profound changes created by a combination of domestic actions and circumstances such as airline deregulation. Other changes result from external trends such as emerging foreign competition. These circumstances intensify the need to understand the production, transfer, and utilization of knowledge as a precursor to the rapid diffusion of technology. Presented here is a conceptual framework for understanding the diffusion of technology. A conceptual framework is given for understanding the diffusion of aerospace knowledge. The framework focuses on the information channels and members of the social system associated with the aerospace knowledge diffusion process, placing particular emphasis on aerospace librarians as information intermediaries.

  6. Processing of monolayer materials via interfacial reactions

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner; Sutter, Eli Anguelova

    2014-05-20

    A method of forming and processing of graphene is disclosed based on exposure and selective intercalation of the partially graphene-covered metal substrate with atomic or molecular intercalation species such as oxygen (O.sub.2) and nitrogen oxide (NO.sub.2). The process of intercalation lifts the strong metal-carbon coupling and restores the characteristic Dirac behavior of isolated monolayer graphene. The interface of graphene with metals or metal-decorated substrates also provides for controlled chemical reactions based on novel functionality of the confined space between a metal surface and a graphene sheet.

  7. Process Research ON Semix Silicon Materials (PROSSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Warfield, D. B.

    1982-02-01

    A cost effective process sequence was identified, equipment was designed to implement a 6.6 MW per year automated production line, and a cost analysis projected a $0.56 per watt cell add-on cost for this line. Four process steps were developed for this program: glass beads back clean-up, hot spray antireflective coating, wave soldering of fronts, and ion milling for edging. While spray dopants were advertised as an off the shelf developed product, they were unreliable with shorter than advertised shelf life.

  8. IT Data Mining Tool Uses in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Gilena A.; Freeman, Kenneth; Jones, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Data mining has a broad spectrum of uses throughout the realms of aerospace and information technology. Each of these areas has useful methods for processing, distributing, and storing its corresponding data. This paper focuses on ways to leverage the data mining tools and resources used in NASA's information technology area to meet the similar data mining needs of aviation and aerospace domains. This paper details the searching, alerting, reporting, and application functionalities of the Splunk system, used by NASA's Security Operations Center (SOC), and their potential shared solutions to address aircraft and spacecraft flight and ground systems data mining requirements. This paper also touches on capacity and security requirements when addressing sizeable amounts of data across a large data infrastructure.

  9. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXVI - The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the U.S. and Japanese aerospace industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Lahr, Tom; Hoetker, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry, which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  10. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  11. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  12. The FASST Aerospace Student Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Leonard

    1976-01-01

    Describes a three-day Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), at which students from 20 colleges and universities and six Soviet students discussed the application of aerospace technology to the problems of society. (MLH)

  13. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  14. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  15. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  16. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  17. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  18. Modern processes of copper concentration from mineral raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekushin, V. S.; Oleinikova, N. V.; Shubakova, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The modern technologies of processing of sulfide copper raw materials using high-output autogenous and semiautogenous processes are analyzed and compared with the "dead" roasting-reduction smelting technology.

  19. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  20. National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Artists concept of the X-30 aerospace plane flying through Earth's atmosphere on its way to low-Earth orbit. the experimental concept is part of the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The X-30 is planned to demonstrate the technology for airbreathing space launch and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 117), by James Schultz.

  1. Processing of superconductive materials and high frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    We do not know yet if superconductivity will become useful without refrigeration. Now, the superconductors are so different from copper that it is difficult to imagine replacing copper with such a brittle material. Superconductors conduct dc with no loss, ac with small losses, and microwaves in co-axial lines with almost no loss and with no dispersion from dc to the highest frequencies. They will probably allow us to close the gap between radio frequency and infrared optical transmission. Clearly your industry should know some things about where superconductivity may lead us and must consider whether the greater risk is to develop them or to let others try it. There are no easy answers yet.

  2. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 30: The electronic transfer of information and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing reliance on and investment in information technology and electronic networking systems presupposes that computing and information technology will play a major role in the diffusion of aerospace knowledge. Little is known, however, about actual information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The authors state that the potential contributions of information technology to increased productivity and competitiveness will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge regarding the information-seeking behavior of the members of the social system - those who are producing, transferring, and using scientific and technical information - is incorporated into a new technology policy framework. Research into the use of information technology and electronic networks by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists, collected as part of a research project designed to study aerospace knowledge diffusion, is presented in support of this assertion.

  3. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  4. FLUORINE PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Brown, H.S.

    1958-05-01

    A process is described for separating plutoniunn from neutron-irradiated uranium, which consists of reacting the irradiated uranium mass with HF to form the tetrafluorides of U, Pu, and Np, and then reacting this mixture of tetrafluorides with fiuorine at temperature between 140 and 315 d C. This causes volatile hexafluorides of U and Np to form while at the temperature employed the Pu tetrafluoride is unaffected and remains as a residue.

  5. Microgravity Effects on Materials Processing: A Review. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.

    2003-01-01

    Materials processing in space has been studied both theoretically and experimentally for over 1/4 of a century. In the beginning, we naively spoke of zero gravity, elimination of convection, growth of perfect crystals, and eventual manufacturing in space. All of these appear to have fallen by the wayside. On the other hand, we have learned an unprecedented amount about the influences of gravity on materials processing. We have had many surprises, and not all experimental results have yet been satisfactorily explained. Gravity was found to influence processes that were thought to be gravity-independent. One consequence is that materials processing on earth has often been improved. And it is difficult to imagine how the materials-processing industries could have flourished without the engineers and scientists who received their training by working on microgravity materials processing.

  6. Novel Materials, Processing, and Device Technologies for Space Exploration with Potential Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Bailey, S. G.; McNatt, J. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Harris, J. D.; Rusch, A. W.; Nogales, K. A.; Goettsche, K. V.; Hanson, W.; Amos, D.; Vendra, V. K.; Woodbury, C.; Hari, P.; Roberts, K. P.; Jones, A. D., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    We highlight results of a broad spectrum of efforts on lower-temperature processing of nanomaterials, novel approaches to energy conversion, and environmentally rugged devices. Solution-processed quantum dots of copper indium chalcogenide semiconductors and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from lower-temperature spray pyrolysis are enabled by novel (precursor) chemistry. Metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured components of photovoltaic cells have been grown in solution at low temperature on a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Arrays of ZnO nanorods can be templated and decorated with various semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles. Utilizing ZnO in a more broadly defined energy conversion sense as photocatalysts, unwanted organic waste materials can potentially be re-purposed. Current efforts on charge carrier dynamics in nanoscale electrode architectures used in photoelectrochemical cells for generating solar electricity and fuels are described. The objective is to develop oxide nanowire-based electrode architectures that exhibit improved charge separation, charge collection and allow for efficient light absorption. Investigation of the charge carrier transport and recombination properties of the electrodes will aid in the understanding of how nanowire architectures improve performance of electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials can be incorporated in a number of advanced higher-performance (i.e. mass specific power) photovoltaic arrays. Advanced technologies for the deposition of 4H-silicon carbide are described. The use of novel precursors, advanced processing, and process studies, including modeling are discussed from the perspective of enhancing the performance of this promising material for enabling technologies such as solar electric propulsion. Potential impact(s) of these technologies for a variety of aerospace applications are highlighted throughout. Finally, examples are given of technologies with potential spin-offs for dual

  7. Novel Materials, Processing and Device Technologies for Space Exploration with Potential Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Bailey, S. G.; McNatt, J. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Harris, J. D.; Rusch, A. W.; Nogales, K. A.; Goettsche, K.V.; Hanson, W.; Amos, D.; Vendra, M. K.; Woodbury, C.; Hari, P.; Roberts, K. P.; Jones, A. D., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    We highlight results of a broad spectrum of efforts on lower-temperature processing of nanomaterials, novel approaches to energy conversion, and environmentally rugged devices. Solution-processed quantum dots of copper indium chalcogenide semiconductors and multiwalled carbon nanotubes from lower-temperature spray pyrolysis are enabled by novel (precursor) chemistry. Metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured components of photovoltaic cells have been grown in solution at low temperature on a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Arrays of ZnO nanorods can be templated and decorated with various semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles. Utilizing ZnO in a more broadly defined energy conversion sense as photocatalysts, unwanted organic waste materials can potentially be repurposed. Current efforts on charge carrier dynamics in nanoscale electrode architectures used in photoelectrochemical cells for generating solar electricity and fuels are described. The objective is to develop oxide nanowire-based electrode architectures that exhibit improved charge separation, charge collection and allow for efficient light absorption. Investigation of the charge carrier transport and recombination properties of the electrodes will aid in the understanding of how nanowire architectures improve performance of electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials can be incorporated in a number of advanced higher-performance (i.e. mass specific power) photovoltaic arrays. Advanced technologies for the deposition of 4H-silicon carbide are described. The use of novel precursors, advanced processing, and process studies, including modeling are discussed from the perspective of enhancing the performance of this promising material for enabling technologies such as solar electric propulsion. Potential impact(s) of these technologies for a variety of aerospace applications are highlighted throughout. Finally, examples are given of technologies with potential spin-offs for dual-use or

  8. Material Control and Accountability Measurements for FB-Line Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V.R.

    2002-12-03

    This report provides an overview of FB-Line processes and nuclear material accountability measurements. Flow diagrams for the product, waste, and packaging and stabilization processes are given along with the accountability measurements done before and after each of these processes. Brief descriptions of these measurements are provided. This information provides a better understanding of the general FB-Line processes and how MC and A measurements are used to keep track of the accountable material inventory.

  9. The effect of process variables on microstructure in laser-deposited materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontha, Srikanth

    Laser deposition of titanium alloys is under consideration for aerospace applications, which require the consistent control of microstructure and resulting mechanical properties. To date, only limited experimental data exists to link deposition process variables (e.g., laser power and velocity) to resulting microstructure (e.g., grain size and morphology) in laser-deposited materials, and suitable microstructures have typically been obtained only by trial and error. In addition, it is unclear whether knowledge based on small-scale laser deposition processes (e.g., LENS(TM)) can be applied to large-scale (higher power) processes currently under development for commercial applications. Therefore, simulation-based methods are needed to predict the effects of process variables and size-scale on microstructure in laser-deposited titanium and other aerospace materials. The ability to predict and control microstructure in laser deposition processes requires an understanding of the thermal conditions at the onset of solidification. The focus of this work is the development of thermal process maps relating solidification cooling rate and thermal gradient (the key parameters controlling microstructure) to laser deposition process variables (laser power and velocity). The approach employs the well-known Rosenthal solution for a moving point heat source traversing an infinite substrate. Cooling rates and thermal gradients at the onset of solidification are numerically extracted from the Rosenthal solution throughout the depth of the melt pool, and dimensionless process maps are presented for both 2-D thin-wall and bulky 3-D geometries. Results for both small-scale (LENS(TM)) and large-scale (higher power) processes are plotted on solidification maps for predicting trends in grain morphology in laser-deposited Ti-6Al-4V. Although the Rosenthal predictions neglect the nonlinear effects of temperature-dependent properties and latent heat of transformation, a comparison with 2-D

  10. Process Feasibility Study in Support of Silicon Material, Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Hansen, K. C.; Yaws, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    During this reporting period, major activies were devoted to process system properties, chemical engineering and economic analyses. Analyses of process system properties was continued for materials involved in the alternate processes under consideration for solar cell grade silicon. The following property data are reported for silicon tetrafluoride: critical constants, vapor pressure, heat of varporization, heat capacity, density, surface tension, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat of formation and Gibb's free energy of formation. Chemical engineering analysis of the BCL process was continued with primary efforts being devoted to the preliminary process design. Status and progress are reported for base case conditions; process flow diagram; reaction chemistry; material and energy balances; and major process equipment design.

  11. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  12. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  13. Processing Parameters Optimization for Material Deposition Efficiency in Laser Metal Deposited Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamood, Rasheedat M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2016-03-01

    Ti6Al4V is an important Titanium alloy that is mostly used in many applications such as: aerospace, petrochemical and medicine. The excellent corrosion resistance property, the high strength to weight ratio and the retention of properties at high temperature makes them to be favoured in most applications. The high cost of Titanium and its alloys makes their use to be prohibitive in some applications. Ti6Al4V can be cladded on a less expensive material such as steel, thereby reducing cost and providing excellent properties. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process, an additive manufacturing process is capable of producing complex part directly from the 3-D CAD model of the part and it also has the capability of handling multiple materials. Processing parameters play an important role in LMD process and in order to achieve desired results at a minimum cost, then the processing parameters need to be properly controlled. This paper investigates the role of processing parameters: laser power, scanning speed, powder flow rate and gas flow rate, on the material utilization efficiency in laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V. A two-level full factorial design of experiment was used in this investigation, to be able to understand the processing parameters that are most significant as well as the interactions among these processing parameters. Four process parameters were used, each with upper and lower settings which results in a combination of sixteen experiments. The laser power settings used was 1.8 and 3 kW, the scanning speed was 0.05 and 0.1 m/s, the powder flow rate was 2 and 4 g/min and the gas flow rate was 2 and 4 l/min. The experiments were designed and analyzed using Design Expert 8 software. The software was used to generate the optimized process parameters which were found to be laser power of 3.2 kW, scanning speed of 0.06 m/s, powder flow rate of 2 g/min and gas flow rate of 3 l/min.

  14. Process Research On Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Performance limiting mechanisms in polycrystalline silicon are investigated by fabricating a matrix of solar cells of various thicknesses from polycrystalline silicon wafers of several bulk resistivities. The analysis of the results for the entire matrix indicates that bulk recombination is the dominant factor limiting the short circuit current in large grain (greater than 1 to 2 mm diameter) polycrystalline silicon, the same mechanism that limits the short circuit current in single crystal silicon. An experiment to investigate the limiting mechanisms of open circuit voltage and fill factor for large grain polycrystalline silicon is designed. Two process sequences to fabricate small cells are investigated.

  15. Materials processing with superposed Bessel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoming; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos A.; Lei, Shuting

    2016-01-01

    We report experimental results of femtosecond laser processing on the surface of glass and metal thin film using superposed Bessel beams. These beams are generated by a combination of a spatial light modulator (SLM) and an axicon with >50% efficiency, and they possess the long depth-of-focus (propagation-invariant) property as found in ordinary Bessel beams. Through micromachining experiments using femtosecond laser pulses, we show that multiple craters can be fabricated on glass with single-shot exposure, and the 1+(-1) superposed beam can reduce collateral damage caused by the rings in zero-order Bessel beams in the scribing of metal thin film.

  16. Aerothermodynamic Flight Simulation Capabilities for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles G.

    1998-01-01

    Aerothermodynamics, encompassing aerodynamics, aeroheating, and fluid dynamics and physical processes, is the genesis for the design and development of advanced space transportation vehicles and provides crucial information to other disciplines such as structures, materials, propulsion, avionics, and guidance, navigation and control. Sources of aerothermodynamic information are ground-based facilities, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and engineering computer codes, and flight experiments. Utilization of this aerothermodynamic triad provides the optimum aerothermodynamic design to safely satisfy mission requirements while reducing design conservatism, risk and cost. The iterative aerothermodynamic process for initial screening/assessment of aerospace vehicle concepts, optimization of aerolines to achieve/exceed mission requirements, and benchmark studies for final design and establishment of the flight data book are reviewed. Aerothermodynamic methodology centered on synergism between ground-based testing and CFD predictions is discussed for various flow regimes encountered by a vehicle entering the Earth s atmosphere from low Earth orbit. An overview of the resources/infrastructure required to provide accurate/creditable aerothermodynamic information in a timely manner is presented. Impacts on Langley s aerothermodynamic capabilities due to recent programmatic changes such as Center reorganization, downsizing, outsourcing, industry (as opposed to NASA) led programs, and so forth are discussed. Sample applications of these capabilities to high Agency priority, fast-paced programs such as Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)/X-33 Phases I and 11, X-34, Hyper-X and X-38 are presented and lessons learned discussed. Lastly, enhancements in ground-based testing/CFD capabilities necessary to partially/fully satisfy future requirements are addressed.

  17. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  18. Neutral beam processing of semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Hoffbauer, M.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The most important challenge facing the US and global microelectronics industry is to identify and develop the next generation of processing technology to produce device structures with dimensions substantially less than 0.25 microns. This project sought to develop controlled, contamination-free etching techniques that are more selective and less damaging than current methods, which are based on inducing surface chemical reactions by rather crude ion-damage mechanisms. The use of non-charged particle etching and cleaning processes in the production of memory and microprocessor chips has been identified by The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors as a new manufacturing technique that may aid in the quest for feature sizes of 0.1 micron and lower. The Hyperthermal Neutral Beam Facility at Los Alamos has demonstrated significant improvement over ion-assisted etching in experiments using energetic oxygen and chlorine atoms.

  19. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. F.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide pertinent and readily usable information on the extraterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of components and elements of these planned large space systems from preprocessed lunar materials which are made available at a processing and manufacturing site in space. Required facilities, equipment, machinery, energy and manpower are defined.

  20. Fire test methodology for aerospace materials. 1: Thermal and smoke toxicological assessments of graphite/bismaleimide and graphite/epoxy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanakia, M. D.; Switzer, W. G.; Hartzell, G. E.; Kaplan, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    Both materials possess a high degree of thermal stability, with total heat release values being essentially identical under piloted ignition conditions over a range of 5 to 10 W/sq cm incident heat flux. The graphite/epoxy material had a tendency to auto-ignite at a lower heat flux (about 7 W/sq cm) and produced about 23 percent higher peak heat release rates, approximately 42 percent more carbon monoxide and considerably more smoke than the graphite/bismaleimide under conditions of piloted ignition. Toxicological potencies of smoke produced from the two composites were equivalent for 30 minute exposures. Potencies were also comparable to many common materials, such as wood. There was no evidence for the formation of an "unusual toxicant" nor for any short term post-exposure toxicological effects.

  1. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Scully, John R.; Shiflet, Gary J.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program was initiated in 1986 and continues with a high level of activity. Projects are being conducted by graduate students and faculty advisors in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, as well as in the Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, at the University of Virginia. Here, we report on progress achieved between July 1 and December 31, 1994. The objective of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are presented for each research project. We generally aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies.

  2. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program was initiated in 1986 and continues with a high level of activity. Projects are being conducted by graduate students and faculty advisors in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, as well as in the Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, at the University of Virginia. This work is funded by the NASA-Langley Research Center under Grant NAG-1-745. Here, we report on progress achieved between January 1 and June 30, 1994. These results were presented at the Fifth Annual NASA LA2ST Grant Review Meeting held at the Langley Research Center in July of 1994. The objective of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, lightweight aerospace alloys, composites, and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are presented for each research project. We generally aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies.

  3. Computer-Aided Process Model For Carbon/Phenolic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letson, Mischell A.; Bunker, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Computer program implements thermochemical model of processing of carbon-fiber/phenolic-matrix composite materials into molded parts of various sizes and shapes. Directed toward improving fabrication of rocket-engine-nozzle parts, also used to optimize fabrication of other structural components, and material-property parameters changed to apply to other materials. Reduces costs by reducing amount of laboratory trial and error needed to optimize curing processes and to predict properties of cured parts.

  4. Portable nuclear material detector and process

    DOEpatents

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J; Fulghum, Charles K; Harpring, Lawrence J; Huffman, Russell K; Varble, Donald L

    2008-04-01

    A portable, hand held, multi-sensor radiation detector is disclosed. The detection apparatus has a plurality of spaced sensor locations which are contained within a flexible housing. The detection apparatus, when suspended from an elevation, will readily assume a substantially straight, vertical orientation and may be used to monitor radiation levels from shipping containers. The flexible detection array can also assume a variety of other orientations to facilitate any unique container shapes or to conform to various physical requirements with respect to deployment of the detection array. The output of each sensor within the array is processed by at least one CPU which provides information in a usable form to a user interface. The user interface is used to provide the power requirements and operating instructions to the operational components within the detection array.

  5. Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajamani, Ravi; Saxena, Abhinav; Kramer, Frank; Augustin, Mike; Schroeder, John B.; Goebel, Kai; Shao, Ginger; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a "real-world" example related to designing a landing gear system. The team hopes that this paper and presentation will help start a dialog with the larger aerospace community and that the feedback can be used to improve the ARP and subsequently the practice of IVHM from a systems engineering point-of-view.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 6: Aerospace knowledge diffusion in the academic community: A report of phase 3 activities of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical data regarding the flow of aerospace-based scientific and technical information (STI) in the academic community are presented. An overview is provided of the Federal Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, illustrating a five-year program on aerospace knowledge diffusion. Preliminary results are presented of the project's research concerning the information-seeking habits, practices, and attitudes of U.S. aerospace engineering and science students and faculty. The type and amount of education and training in the use of information sources are examined. The use and importance ascribed to various information products by U.S. aerospace faculty and students including computer and other information technology is assessed. An evaluation of NASA technical reports is presented and it is concluded that NASA technical reports are rated high in terms of quality and comprehensiveness, citing Engineering Index and IAA as the most frequently used materials by faculty and students.

  7. Ground based research in microgravity materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1994-01-01

    The core activities performed during this time period have been concerned with tracking the TEMPEST experiments on the shuttle with drops of Zr, Ni, and Nb alloys. In particular a lot of Zr drops are being made to better define the recalescence characteristics of that system so that accurate comparisons of the drop tube results with Tempest can be made. A new liner, with minimal reflectivity characteristics, has been inserted into the drop tube in order to improve the recalescence measurements of the falling drops. The first installation to make the geometric measurements to ensure a proper fit has been made. The stovepipe sections are currently in the shop at MSFC being painted with low reflectivity black paint. Work has also continued on setting up the MEL apparatus obtained from Oak Ridge in the down stairs laboratory at the Drop Tube Facilities. Some ground-based experiments on the same metals as are being processed on TEMPEST are planned for the MEL. The flight schedules for the KC-135 experiments are still to be determined in the near future.

  8. A survey of the economics of materials processing in space. [accenting biomedical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. P.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the economics of space materials processing has been performed with the objectives of identifying those areas of space materials processing that give preliminary indication of significant economic potential, and to identify possible approaches to quantify the economic potential. It is concluded that limited economic studies have been performed to date, primarily in the area of the processing of inorganic materials, but that the economics of space processing of biological material has not received adequate attention. Specific studies are recommended to evaluate the economic impact of human lymphocyte subgroup separation on organ transplantation, and on the separation and concentration of urokinase producing cells.

  9. Aerospace Technology Innovation. Volume 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Janelle (Editor); Cousins, Liz (Editor); Bennett, Evonne (Editor); Vendette, Joel (Editor); West, Kenyon (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Whether finding new applications for existing NASA technologies or developing unique marketing strategies to demonstrate them, NASA's offices are committed to identifying unique partnering opportunities. Through their efforts NASA leverages resources through joint research and development, and gains new insight into the core areas relevant to all NASA field centers. One of the most satisfying aspects of my job comes when I learn of a mission-driven technology that can be spun-off to touch the lives of everyday people. NASA's New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging is one such initiative. Not only does it promise to provide greater dividends for the country's investment in aerospace research, but also to enhance the American quality of life. This issue of Innovation highlights the new NASA-sponsored initiative in medical imaging. Early in 2001, NASA announced the launch of the New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging initiative to promote the partnership and commercialization of NASA technologies in the medical imaging industry. NASA and the medical imaging industry share a number of crosscutting technologies in areas such as high-performance detectors and image-processing tools. Many of the opportunities for joint development and technology transfer to the medical imaging market also hold the promise for future spin back to NASA.

  10. Materials-based process tolerances for neutron generator encapsulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Ryan S.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Stavig, Mark Edwin

    2007-10-01

    Variations in the neutron generator encapsulation process can affect functionality. However, instead of following the historical path in which the effects of process variations are assessed directly through functional tests, this study examines how material properties key to generator functionality correlate with process variations. The results of this type of investigation will be applicable to all generators and can provide insight on the most profitable paths to process and material improvements. Surprisingly, the results at this point imply that the process is quite robust, and many of the current process tolerances are perhaps overly restrictive. The good news lies in the fact that our current process ensures reproducible material properties. The bad new lies in the fact that it would be difficult to solve functional problems by changes in the process.

  11. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report is based on the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in calendar year 2000. During this year, the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) moved into high gear. The launch of the Russian Service Module was followed by three Space Shuttle construction and logistics flights and the deployment of the Expedition One crew. Continuous habitation of the ISS has begun. To date, both the ISS and Space Shuttle programs have met or exceeded most of their flight objectives. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, it is clear that safety was always placed ahead of cost and schedule. This safety consciousness permitted the Panel to devote more of its efforts to examining the long-term picture. With ISS construction accelerating, demands on the Space Shuttle will increase. While Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft will make some flights, the Space Shuttle remains the primary vehicle to sustain the ISS and all other U.S. activities that require humans in space. Development of a next generation, human-rated vehicle has slowed due to a variety of technological problems and the absence of an approach that can accomplish the task significantly better than the Space Shuttle. Moreover, even if a viable design were currently available, the realities of funding and development cycles suggest that it would take many years to bring it to fruition. Thus, it is inescapable that for the foreseeable future the Space Shuttle will be the only human-rated vehicle available to the U.S. space program for support of the ISS and other missions requiring humans. Use of the Space Shuttle will extend well beyond current planning, and is likely to continue for the life of the ISS.

  12. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-04-10

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes.

  13. Refining, revising, augmenting, compiling and developing computer assisted instruction K-12 aerospace materials for implementation in NASA spacelink electronic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Jean A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Spacelink is an electronic information service operated by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The Spacelink contains extensive NASA news and educational resources that can be accessed by a computer and modem. Updates and information are provided on: current NASA news; aeronautics; space exploration: before the Shuttle; space exploration: the Shuttle and beyond; NASA installations; NASA educational services; materials for classroom use; and space program spinoffs.

  14. National Aerospace Professional Societies and Associations and Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Arthur J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This session will highlight several highly recognized National Technical and Professional Aerospace Societies, Associations and Organizations that are dedicated to the advancement of the theories, practices and unique applications of Science, Engineering and related Aerospace Activities ongoing in the United States. The emphasis will be on at least three (3) Aerospace Organizations, while reference many others. This paper will provide a wealth of educational references, information, opportunities and services available through many of the National and Local Chapter Affiliates, associated with the respective associations. Again, all experience and knowledge levels (K-12) will benefit from this information and reference material. Reference materials and other points of contact will be made available to all attendees.

  15. A comparison of the explosion hazards of hydrazine and methylhydrazine in aerospace environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, F. J.; Pedley, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the explosion hazards of hydrazine and methylhydrazine fuels in aerospace environments is presented. Hazards are divided into three broad areas: hazards resulting from incompatibility of the fuels with materials they might contact, hazards resulting from ignition of the fuels, and unusual hazards resulting from the wide range of pressures to which these fuels are exposed in aerospace applications.

  16. Structural Optimization of Conceptual Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace vehicle structures must be optimized for mass to maximize the mission payload. During the conceptual design phase, structures must be optimized to accurately predict the mass of the design. Analysis methods that are used in sizing members should allow for the selection of a variety of metallic and composite materials and user-defined geometry constraints. Rapid vehicle structural analysis is often necessary to improve the fidelity and the results that are obtained during the preliminary design. Recent experiences are highlighted that utilize the Collier Research Corporation's Hypersizer toolset to optimize structural concepts.

  17. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  18. Metal Injection Molding of Alloy 718 for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Eric A.; Peretti, Michael W.

    2012-02-01

    The metal injection molding process, used in the automotive, medical, and consumer markets for several decades, was investigated for application to superalloys for small, complex-shaped, aerospace components. With sufficient control on processing, inclusion risks, and chemistry, the process can successfully be applied to superalloy 718 components. Assessments included tensile and fatigue property evaluation, characterization of microstructure, and development of an AMS specification.

  19. Inline quality prognosis of material condition induced process variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzler, Felix A.; Wortberg, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The main variation in a good quality production are induced by material condition. Processing technical polymers like PA, ABS or PBT possible influences are residual moisture conditions of the material or minor variations of raw material charges. Small changes in the material properties are difficult to detect at first quality controls and can be within the property tolerances. But even these small differences cause defects. The effects range from viscosity variations to varied crystalline properties. The influence of material properties on the processing have to be detected inline and combined with material analysis to a quality prognosis. The equipped sensors at injection molding machines enable an adequate process performance. The recently available solutions for power consumption monitoring enhance the available process control opportunities. Because of the high process speed of injection molding machines, the required sampling rate has to be minimal 500 Hz. A setup of high bandwidth data processing linked to the machine control enables precise characterization of the production. Identified index numbers, energetic data and characteristic development of measured process figures enable a high resolution detection of material induced variations. This prognosis enables inline classification of the produced parts and a compensation by correlating quality requirements with adjusted filling and packing parameters.

  20. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.