Science.gov

Sample records for aerospace materials subjected

  1. Probabilistic material degradation model for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical and thermal fatigue, and creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, L.

    1992-01-01

    A probabilistic general material strength degradation model has been developed for structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to diverse random effects. The model has been implemented in two FORTRAN programs, PROMISS (Probabilistic Material Strength Simulator) and PROMISC (Probabilistic Material Strength Calibrator). PROMISS calculates the random lifetime strength of an aerospace propulsion component due to as many as eighteen diverse random effects. Results are presented in the form of probability density functions and cumulative distribution functions of lifetime strength. PROMISC calibrates the model by calculating the values of empirical material constants.

  2. Computational simulation of probabilistic lifetime strength for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.; Trimble, Greg A.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a fourth year effort of a research program conducted for NASA-LeRC by The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) are presented. The research included on-going development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects or primitive variables. These primitive variables may include high temperature, fatigue, or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation was randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above-described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with regression analysis of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constants for each effect or primitive variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from industry and the open literature for materials typically for applications in aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 was analyzed using the developed methodology.

  3. Computational simulation of probabilistic lifetime strength for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.; Trimble, Greg A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a fourth year effort of a research program, conducted for NASA-LeRC by the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The research included on-going development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subject to a number of effects or primitive variables. These primitive variables may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation has been randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above-described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with regression analysis of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constants for each effect or primitive variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from industry and the open literature for materials typically for applications in aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 has been analyzed using the developed methodology.

  4. NASA aerospace database subject scope: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Outlined here is the subject scope of the NASA Aerospace Database, a publicly available subset of the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) Database. Topics of interest to NASA are outlined and placed within the framework of the following broad aerospace subject categories: aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry and materials, engineering, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical and computer sciences, physics, social sciences, space sciences, and general. A brief discussion of the subject scope is given for each broad area, followed by a similar explanation of each of the narrower subject fields that follow. The subject category code is listed for each entry.

  5. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  6. Aerospace materials for nonaerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Dawn, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Many of the flame-resistant nonmetallic materials that were developed for the Apollo and Skylab programs are discussed for commercial and military applications. Interchanges of information are taking place with the government agencies, industries, and educational institutions, which are interested in applications of fire-safe nonmetallic materials. These materials are particularly applicable to the design of aircraft, mass transit interiors, residential and public building constructions, nursing homes and hospitals, and to other fields of fire safety applications. Figures 22, 23 and 24 show the potential nonaerospace applications of flame-resistant aerospace materials are shown.

  7. Aerospace Materials for Extreme Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-07

    AFOSR/RTD Air Force Research Laboratory AEROSPACE MATERIALS FOR EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS Date: 7 March 2013 Report Documentation Page Form...ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for...to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA

  8. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  9. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  10. Ceramic composites: Enabling aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have the potential for significant impact on the performance of aerospace propulsion and power systems. In this paper, the potential benefits are discussed in broad qualitative terms and are illustrated by some specific application case studies. The key issues in need of resolution for the potential of ceramics to be realized are discussed.

  11. Materials Control for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The distant future of mankind and the ultimate survivability of the human race, as it is known today, will depend on mans' ability to break earthly bonds and establish new territorial positions throughout the universe. Man must therefore be positioned to not only travel to, but also, to readily adapt to numerous and varying environments. For this mass migration across the galaxies nothing is as import to the human race as is NASA's future missions into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), to the moon, and/or Mars. These missions will form the building blocks to eternity for mankind. From these missions, NASA will develop the foundations for these building blocks based on sound engineering and scientific principles, both known and yet to be discovered. The integrity of the program will lead to development, tracking and control of the most basic elements of hardware production: That being development and control of applications of space flight materials. Choosing the right material for design purposes involves many considerations, such as governmental regulations associated with manufacturing operations, both safety of usage and of manufacturing, general material usage requirements, material longevity and performance requirements, material interfacing compatibility and material usage environments. Material performance is subject to environmental considerations in as much as a given material may perform exceptionally well at standard temperatures and pressures while performing poorly under non-standard conditions. These concerns may be found true for materials relative to the extreme temperatures and vacuum gradients of high altitude usage. The only way to assure that flight worthy materials are used in design is through testing. However, as with all testing, it requires both time on schedule and cost to the operation. One alternative to this high cost testing approach is to rely on a materials control system established by NASA. The NASA community relies on the MAPTIS materials

  12. Materials research. [research concerning materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported concerned with materials for aerospace applications. Areas reported include: electrical properties of glasses, oxides and metals; structural and high temperature properties of crystalline and amorphous materials; and physical properties, and microstructure of materials.

  13. Secondary aerospace batteries and battery materials: A bibliography, 1969 - 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P.; Halpert, G.; Ekpanyaskun, S.; Nche, P.

    1976-01-01

    This annotated bibliography on the subject of secondary aerospace battery materials and related physical and electrochemical processes was compiled from references to journal articles published between 1969 and 1974. A total of 332 citations are arranged in chronological order under journal titles. Indices by system and component, techniques and processes, and author are included.

  14. Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Research efforts to reduce the dependence of the aerospace industry on strategic metals, such as cobalt (Co), columbium (Cb), tantalum (Ta), and chromium (Cr), by providing the materials technology needed to minimize the strategic metal content of critical aerospace components for gas turbine engines are addressed. Thrusts in three technology areas are identified: near term activities in the area of strategic element substitution; intermediate-range activities in the area of materials processing; and long term, high risk activities in the area of 'new classes' of high temprature metallic materials. Specifically, the role of cobalt in nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys vital to the aerospace industry is examined along with the mechanical and physical properties of intermetallics that will contain a minimum of the stragetic metals.

  15. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  16. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  17. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  18. Dielectric barrier discharge processing of aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. J.; Figgures, C. C.; Dixon, D. G.

    2004-08-01

    We report the use of atmospheric pressure, air based, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) to treat materials commonly used in the aerospace industries. The material samples were processed using a test-bed of a conventional DBD configuration in which the sample formed one of the electrodes and was placed in close proximity to a ceramic electrode. The discharges generated a powerful, cold oxidizing environment which was able to remove organic contaminants, etch primer and paint layers, oxidize aluminium and roughen carbon fibre composites by the selective removal of resin.

  19. Probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Keating, Jerome P.; Lovelace, Thomas B.; Bast, Callie C.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a second year effort of a research program are presented. The research included development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic phenomenological constitutive relationship, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects of primitive variables. These primitive variables often originate in the environment and may include stress from loading, temperature, chemical, or radiation attack. This multifactor interaction constitutive equation is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with the multiple linear regression of that data.

  20. Engineering Data for New Aerospace Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Inconel 718 S160 140 __ _ i- 0 l- 10 20 40 60 80 10 𔄀: Ti-6~d-4V ncoe 7780109 4 0 C355 2’ 0 A35 A35n701 _____ 0 ) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Temperature, F...AD-A098 520 BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABS OH F/B 11/6 ENGINEERING DATA FOR NEW AEROSPACE MATERIALS.(U)JUL 80 0 DEEL F33615śB-C-504O UNCLASSIFIED AFWAL-TR...80-4103 NL IlEmlllllllllu EIIIIIEIIEIIEE IIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIu EEEEEIIIIIIIIE 11 . 0 2. IIiM W211 111. M~ 36 IIILJL .4 il6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION

  1. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  2. Advanced Hybrid Materials for Aerospace Propulsion Applications (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Viewgraph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) February 2013- April 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced hybrid materials for aerospace propulsion applications ...Many material improvements are needed for specific aerospace propulsion applications . Because the industrial community in extremely risk-averse, the...activities focused on inert materials for solid rocket propulsion applications , including the development of alternative high-temperature thermosetting

  3. Liquid Nitrogen Removal of Critical Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noah, Donald E.; Merrick, Jason; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of innovative solutions to unique materials problems is an every-day quest for members of the aerospace community. Finding a technique that will minimize costs, maximize throughput, and generate quality results is always the target. United Space Alliance Materials Engineers recently conducted such a search in their drive to return the Space Shuttle fleet to operational status. The removal of high performance thermal coatings from solid rocket motors represents a formidable task during post flight disassembly on reusable expended hardware. The removal of these coatings from unfired motors increases the complexity and safety requirements while reducing the available facilities and approved processes. A temporary solution to this problem was identified, tested and approved during the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) return to flight activities. Utilization of ultra high-pressure liquid nitrogen (LN2) to strip the protective coating from assembled space shuttle hardware marked the first such use of the technology in the aerospace industry. This process provides a configurable stream of liquid nitrogen (LN2) at pressures of up to 55,000 psig. The performance of a one-time certification for the removal of thermal ablatives from SRB hardware involved extensive testing to ensure adequate material removal without causing undesirable damage to the residual materials or aluminum substrates. Testing to establish appropriate process parameters such as flow, temperature and pressures of the liquid nitrogen stream provided an initial benchmark for process testing. Equipped with these initial parameters engineers were then able to establish more detailed test criteria that set the process limits. Quantifying the potential for aluminum hardware damage represented the greatest hurdle for satisfying engineers as to the safety of this process. Extensive testing for aluminum erosion, surface profiling, and substrate weight loss was performed. This successful project clearly

  4. Optimization of Aerospace Structure Subject to Damage Tolerance Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgun, Mehmet A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this cooperative agreement was to seek computationally efficient ways to optimize aerospace structures subject to damage tolerance criteria. Optimization was to involve sizing as well as topology optimization. The work was done in collaboration with Steve Scotti, Chauncey Wu and Joanne Walsh at the NASA Langley Research Center. Computation of constraint sensitivity is normally the most time-consuming step of an optimization procedure. The cooperative work first focused on this issue and implemented the adjoint method of sensitivity computation in an optimization code (runstream) written in Engineering Analysis Language (EAL). The method was implemented both for bar and plate elements including buckling sensitivity for the latter. Lumping of constraints was investigated as a means to reduce the computational cost. Adjoint sensitivity computation was developed and implemented for lumped stress and buckling constraints. Cost of the direct method and the adjoint method was compared for various structures with and without lumping. The results were reported in two papers. It is desirable to optimize topology of an aerospace structure subject to a large number of damage scenarios so that a damage tolerant structure is obtained. Including damage scenarios in the design procedure is critical in order to avoid large mass penalties at later stages. A common method for topology optimization is that of compliance minimization which has not been used for damage tolerant design. In the present work, topology optimization is treated as a conventional problem aiming to minimize the weight subject to stress constraints. Multiple damage configurations (scenarios) are considered. Each configuration has its own structural stiffness matrix and, normally, requires factoring of the matrix and solution of the system of equations. Damage that is expected to be tolerated is local and represents a small change in the stiffness matrix compared to the baseline (undamaged

  5. Computational simulation of coupled material degradation processes for probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.

    1992-01-01

    The research included ongoing development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects or primative variables. These primative variable may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation has been randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with linear regression of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constraints for each effect or primative variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from the open literature for materials typically of interest to those studying aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 was analyzed using the developed methodology.

  6. NASA's activities in the conservation of strategic aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary objective of the Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM) Program is to help reduce the dependence of the United States aerospace industry on strategic metals by providing the materials technology needed to minimize the strategic metal content of critical aerospace components with prime emphasis on components for gas turbine engines. Initial emphasis was placed in the area of strategic element substinction. Specifically, the role of cobalt in nickel base and cobalt base superalloys vital to the aerospace industry is being examined in great detail by means of cooperative university-industry-government research efforts. Investigations are underway in the area of "new classes" of alloys. Specifically, a study was undertaken to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of intermetallics that contain a minimum of the strategic metals. Current plans for the much larger COSAM Program are also presented.

  7. Optical Characterization of Window Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  8. Optical characterization of window materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M.

    2013-09-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  9. NASA's activities in the conservation of strategic aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The United States imports 50-100 percent of certain metals critical to the aerospace industry, namely, cobalt, columbium, chromium, and tantalum. In an effort to reduce this dependence on foreign sources, NASA is planning a program called Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM), which will provide technology minimizing strategic metal content in the components of aerospace structures such as aircraft engines. With a proposed starting date of October 1981, the program will consist of strategic element substitution, process technology development, and alternate materials research. NASA's two-fold pre-COSAM studies center on, first, substitution research involving nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys (Waspaloy, Udimet-700, MAE-M247, Rene 150, HA-188) used in turbine disks, low-pressure blades, turbine blades, and combustors; and, second, alternate materials research devoted initially to investigating possible structural applications of the intermetallic alloys nickel aluminide and iron aluminide.

  10. Advanced Materials and Multifunctional Structures for Aerospace Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    through covalent integration of functional nanotubes ”, Advanced Functional Materials, 14(7) (2004) 643-648. 185 R.Z. Ma, J. Wu, B.Q. Wei, J. Liang, and...on Advanced Materials for Multi Functional Structures in Aerospace Vehicles. The advanced synthesis, processing and the characterization techniques...when more than one primary function is performed either simultaneously or sequentially in time. These systems are based on metallic, ceramic and

  11. Pressure Flammability Thresholds of Selected Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Ruff, Gary A.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    A test program was performed to determine the highest pressure in oxygen where materials used in the planned NASA Constellation Program Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Crew Module (CM) would not propagate a flame if an ignition source was present. The test methodology used was similar to that previously used to determine the maximum oxygen concentration (MOC) at which self-extinguishment occurs under constant total pressure conditions. An upward limiting pressure index (ULPI) was determined, where approximately 50 percent of the materials self-extinguish in a given environment. Following this, the maximum total pressure (MTP) was identified; where all samples tested (at least five) self-extinguished following the NASA-STD-6001.A Test 1 burn length criteria. The results obtained on seven materials indicate that the non-metallic materials become flammable in oxygen between 0.4 and 0.9 psia.

  12. Life Prediction Methodologies for Aerospace Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    were measured by Thermophysical Properties Research Laboratory ( TPRL ) over the anticipated range of combustor operating temperatures, ≤ 1000°C. The...Extension (anticipated). These programs are directed towards conventional materials, such as aluminum alloys , Ni-base superalloys and titanium (Ti) alloys ... property information of two-phase gamma alloys are scarce. Also, colony-level properties are required for development of accurate models in these material

  13. Life Prediction Methodologies for Aerospace Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    load sequences has revealed some surprising results for fatigue crack growth and load interaction in two aluminum alloys . For the engine rotor...19 5.7 FRACTOGRAPHY ASSESSMENT OF CRACK GROWTH IN TWO ALUMINUM ALLOYS ...in the ability to accurately deduce the orthotropic properties for gamma titanium aluminide alloys and similar materials. Next, a crystal

  14. Development of a teaching tool to encourage high school students to study aerospace technical subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gale, Anita; Edwards, Dick

    1998-01-01

    This report details the efforts to develop a design competition aimed at high school students which will encourage them to study aerospace technical subjects. It has been shown that such competitions - based on an industry simulation game - are valuable ways to energize high school students to study in this area. Under the grant, a new competition scenario was developed, in keeping with NASA-Dryden's mission to develop aircraft and foster knowledge about aeronautics. Included are preliminary background materials and information which, if the grant is continued, would form the basis of a national competition for high school students, wherein they would design an Aerospaceport in a future year, taking into consideration the requirements of aircraft, spacecraft- ground transportation systems, passengers who use the facility, and employees who operate it. Many of the Competition methods were studied and tested during two existing local competitions in the disadvantaged communities of Lancaster and Victorville, California.

  15. Life Prediction Methodologies for Aerospace Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    beam (FIB) techniques from well within the confines of a single colony, were compression tested using nanoindentation equipment. Load-displacement...qualitative analysis of wear debris and identification of cracks as small as 20 μm, but provided no quantitative data on the level of fretting...leading to failure. 8.2 MICROSPECIMEN TESTING The use of microspecimens and nanoindentation test equipment to acquire material behavior information for

  16. Potential Applications of Biotechnology to Aerospace Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    from low - grade ores and industrial wastes. Other organisms that have demonstrated ability to solu- bilize metals include heterotrophic bacteria, molds...cadmium, scandium, erbium, yttrium, and titanium. The potential advantage of biomining is the ability to concentrate metals from low - grade materials...organisms and/ or biological molecules to produce or aid in production of a commercial product. This is a broad definition of a relatively young

  17. A Study of Aerospace Education Workshops Which Utilize NASA Materials and Resource Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, Robert Dale

    1974-01-01

    Reports findings from two questionnaires administered to participants of aerospace workshops which utilized the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) materials and resource personnel. The findings gave a broad picture of aerospace workshops across the United States. (BR)

  18. Aerospace Fuels from Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.; Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Jaworske, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer- Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA GRC is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term "green" relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Other issues of great concern include minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could de-grade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered thruster to

  19. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  20. Pressure Flammability Thresholds in Oxygen of Selected Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Harper, Susana; Beeson, Harold; Ruff, Gary; Pedley, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The experimental approach consisted of concentrating the testing in the flammability transition zone following the Bruceton Up-and-Down Method. For attribute data, the method has been shown to be very repeatable and most efficient. Other methods for characterization of critical levels (Karberand Probit) were also considered. The data yielded the upward limiting pressure index (ULPI), the pressure level where approx.50% of materials self-extinguish in a given environment.Parametric flammability thresholds other than oxygen concentration can be determined with the methodology proposed for evaluating the MOC when extinguishment occurs. In this case, a pressure threshold in 99.8% oxygen was determined with the methodology and found to be 0.4 to 0.9 psia for typical spacecraft materials. Correlation of flammability thresholds obtained with chemical, hot wire, and other ignition sources will be conducted to provide recommendations for using alternate ignition sources to evaluate flammability of aerospace materials.

  1. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  2. Laser Materials Processing for NASA's Aerospace Structural Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagarathnam, Karthik; Hunyady, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Lasers are useful for performing operations such as joining, machining, built-up freeform fabrication, and surface treatment. Due to the multifunctional nature of a single tool and the variety of materials that can be processed, these attributes are attractive in order to support long-term missions in space. However, current laser technology also has drawbacks for space-based applications. Specifically, size, power efficiency, lack of robustness, and problems processing highly reflective materials are all concerns. With the advent of recent breakthroughs in solidstate laser (e.g., diode-pumped lasers) and fiber optic technologies, the potential to perform multiple processing techniques in space has increased significantly. A review of the historical development of lasers from their infancy to the present will be used to show how these issues may be addressed. The review will also indicate where further development is necessary to realize a laser-based materials processing capability in space. The broad utility of laser beams in synthesizing various classes of engineering materials will be illustrated using state-of-the art processing maps for select lightweight alloys typically found on spacecraft. Both short- and long-term space missions will benefit from the development of a universal laser-based tool with low power consumption, improved process flexibility, compactness (e.g., miniaturization), robustness, and automation for maximum utility with a minimum of human interaction. The potential advantages of using lasers with suitable wavelength and beam properties for future space missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will be discussed. The laser processing experiments in the present report were performed using a diode pumped, pulsed/continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (50 W max average laser power), with a 1064 nm wavelength. The processed materials included Ti-6AI-4V, Al-2219 and Al-2090. For Phase I of this project, the laser process conditions were varied and optimized

  3. Finite element analysis of composites materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhaniza, M.; Ariffin, M. K. A.; Ali, Aidy; Mustapha, F.; Noraini, A. W.

    2010-05-01

    Composites materials are intended to be used more extensively as an alternative of aluminum structure in aircraft and aerospace applications. This is due to their attractive properties as high strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness-to-weight ratio. Besides that it clarifies the growing interest for composites materials due to advantages of lightweight, high strength, high stiffness, superior fatigue life, tremendous corrosion resistance and low cost manufacturing. In this study, a finite element analysis (FEA) of fiberglass unidirectional E-type was analyzed in the framework of ABAQUS finite element commercial software. The analysis was done to quantify the mechanical properties and response of unidirectional E-glass in term of tensile, compression and thermal responses. From the analysis, the maximum and minimum values of stress and strain for E-glass 21xK43 Gevetex and Silenka E-glass 1200tex were obtained and stress-strain curve is presented. The ultimate load of failure, elastic behavior, tensile strength and other properties for each laminated plates under tensile and thermal-stress are determined from stress-strain curves. The simulation will run twice for each material where the first simulation based on orientation angles of 45° for ply-1, -45° for ply-2 and 90° for ply-3 while the second simulation, the orientation angles is 0° for all plies. The simulation is successfully conducted and verified by experimental data.

  4. Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, D. E. (Editor); Stanley, D. C. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The next millennium challenges us to produce innovative materials, processes, manufacturing, and environmental technologies that meet low-cost aerospace transportation needs while maintaining US leadership. The pursuit of advanced aerospace materials, manufacturing processes, and environmental technologies supports the development of safer, operational, next-generation, reusable, and expendable aeronautical and space vehicle systems. The Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology Conference (AMPET) provided a forum for manufacturing, environmental, materials, and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess advances in these key technology areas.

  5. Strain characterization of embedded aerospace smart materials using shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Andrei G.; Müller, Bernhard; Sinke, Jos; Groves, Roger M.

    2015-04-01

    The development of smart materials for embedding in aerospace composites provides enhanced functionality for future aircraft structures. Critical flight conditions like icing of the leading edges can affect the aircraft functionality and controllability. Hence, anti-icing and de-icing capabilities are used. In case of leading edges made of fibre metal laminates heater elements can be embedded between composite layers. However this local heating causes strains and stresses in the structure due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the different laminated materials. In order to characterize the structural behaviour during thermal loading full-field strain and shape measurement can be used. In this research, a shearography instrument with three spatially-distributed shearing cameras is used to measure surface displacement gradients which give a quantitative estimation of the in- and out-of-plane surface strain components. For the experimental part, two GLARE (Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy) specimens with six different embedded copper heater elements were manufactured: two copper mesh shapes (straight and S-shape), three connection techniques (soldered, spot welded and overlapped) and one straight heater element with delaminations. The surface strain behaviour of the specimens due to thermal loading was measured and analysed. The comparison of the connection techniques of heater element parts showed that the overlapped connection has the smallest effect on the surface strain distribution. Furthermore, the possibility of defect detection and defect depth characterisation close to the heater elements was also investigated.

  6. Advanced aerospace composite material structural design using artificial intelligent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.H.; Chen, J.L.; Hwang, W.C.

    1993-12-31

    Due to the complexity in the prediction of property and behavior, composite material has not substituted for metal widely yet, though it has high specific-strength and high specific-modulus that are more important in the aerospace industry. In this paper two artificial intelligent techniques, the expert systems and neural network technology, were introduced to the structural design of composite material. Expert System which has good ability in symbolic processing can helps us to solve problem by saving experience and knowledge. It is, therefore, a reasonable way to combine expert system technology to tile composite structural design. The development of a prototype expert system to help designer during the process of composite structural design is presented. Neural network is a network similar to people`s brain that can simulate the thinking way of people and has the ability of learning from the training data by adapting the weights of network. Because of the bottleneck in knowledge acquisition processes, the application of neural network and its learning ability to strength design of composite structures are presented. Some examples are in this paper to demonstrate the idea.

  7. Characterization of Catalyst Materials for Production of Aerospace Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Lauren M.; De La Ree, Ana B.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    Due to environmental, economic, and security issues, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. Additionally, efforts are concentrated on reducing costs coupled with fuel production from non-conventional sources. One solution to this issue is Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid technology. Fischer-Tropsch processing of synthesis gas (CO/H2) produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fisher-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur or aromatic compounds. This process is most commonly catalyzed by heterogeneous (in this case, silver and platinum) catalysts composed of cobalt supported on alumina or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Physisorption, chemisorptions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are described to better understand the potential performance of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt on alumina catalysts promoted with silver and platinum. The overall goal is to preferentially produce C8 to C18 paraffin compounds for use as aerospace fuels. Progress towards this goal will eventually be updated and achieved by a more thorough understanding of the characterization of catalyst materials. This work was supported by NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing and In-situ Resource Utilization projects.

  8. Characterization of Catalyst Materials for Production of Aerospace Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaRee, Ana B.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2011-01-01

    Due to environmental, economic, and security issues, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. Additionally, efforts are concentrated on reducing costs coupled with fuel production from non-conventional sources. One solution to this issue is Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid technology. Fischer-Tropsch processing of synthesis gas (CO/H2) produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fisher-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur or aromatic compounds. This process is most commonly catalyzed by heterogeneous (in this case, silver and platinum) catalysts composed of cobalt supported on alumina or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Physisorption, chemisorptions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are described to better understand the potential performance of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt on alumina catalysts promoted with silver and platinum. The overall goal is to preferentially produce C8 to C18 paraffin compounds for use as aerospace fuels. Progress towards this goal will eventually be updated and achieved by a more thorough understanding of the characterization of catalyst materials. This work was supported by NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing and In-situ Resource Utilization projects.

  9. Current Trends on the Applicability of Ground Aerospace Materials Test Data to Space System Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the application of testing aerospace materials to the environment of space for flammability. Test environments include use of drop towers, and the parabolic flight to simulate the low gravity environment of space.

  10. Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates: A New Aerospace Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Cobb, Ted Q.; Lowther, Sharon; St.Clair, T. L.

    1998-01-01

    In the realm of aerospace design and performance, there are few boundaries in the never-ending drive for increased performance. This thirst for ever-increased performance of aerospace equipment has driven the aerospace and defense industries into developing exotic, extremely high-performance composites that are pushing the envelope in terms of strength-to-weight ratios, durability, and several other key measurements. To meet this challenge of ever-increasing improvement, engineers and scientists at NASA-Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC) have developed a high-temperature metal laminate based upon titanium, carbon fibers, and a thermoplastic resin. This composite, known as the Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminate, or HTCL, is the latest chapter in a significant, but relatively short, history of metal laminates.

  11. Environmental, Safety, and Health Considerations: Composite Materials in the Aerospace Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Huai-Pu (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Aerospace Industries Association, Suppliers of Advanced Composite Materials Association, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration co-sponsored a conference on 'Environmental, Safety, and Health Considerations--Composite Materials in the Aerospace Industry.' The conference was held in Mesa, Arizona, on October 20-21, 1994. Seventeen papers were presented in four sessions including general information, safety, waste, and emissions from composites. Topics range from product stewardship, best work practice, biotransformation of uncured composite materials, to hazardous waste determination and offgassing of composite materials.

  12. Spacecraft materials studies on the Aerospace Corporation tray on EOIM-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, Wayne K.; Hemminger, Carol S.; Steckel, Gary L.; Hills, Malina M.; Hilton, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    A passive tray was flown on the Effects of Oxygen Interaction with Materials experiment on STS-46 (EOIM-3) with 82 samples from The Aerospace Corporation. A variety of advanced materials related to potential uses on future spacecraft were included for evaluation representing optical coatings, lubricants, polymers, composites, carbon-carbon composite protective coatings, graphite protective coatings, thermal-control materials, and some samples of current materials. An overview of the available results from the investigations of these materials is presented.

  13. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Workshop: Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Robin C. (Editor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Fourth Annual Conference on Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications was to provide a forum for technical dialogue on numerous topics in the area of smart materials. The proceedings presented herein represent the technical contributions of the participants of the workshop. Topics addressed include shape memory alloys, ferroelectrics, fiber optics, finite element simulation, and active control.

  14. Aerospace Bibliography. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blashfield, Jean F., Comp.

    Provided for teachers and the general adult reader is an annotated and graded list of books and reference materials dealing with aerospace subjects. Only non-fiction books and pamphlets that need to be purchased from commercial or government sources are included. Free industrial materials and educational aids are not included because they tend to…

  15. Rapid adhesive bonding and field repair of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process are often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid Adhesive Bonding concepts are developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens can be cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press or autoclave bonding. The development of Rapid Adhesive Bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1002 and D3163), for aerospace panel or component bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric-matrix composite structures is reviewed. Equipment and procedures are described for bonding and repairing thin sheets, simple geometries, and honeycomb core panels.

  16. Hierarchically-Driven Approach for Quantifying Fatigue Crack Initiation and Short Crack Growth Behavior in Aerospace Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0308 Hierarchically-Driven Approach for Quantifying Fatigue Crack Initiation and Short Crack Growth Behavior inAerospace...Quantifying Fatigue Crack Initiation and Short Crack Growth Behavior inAerospace Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0144 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Approach for Quantifying Fatigue Crack Initiation and Short Crack Growth Behavior inAerospace Materials Principal Investigator K.N. Solanki

  17. Performance and Reliability Optimization for Aerospace Systems subject to Uncertainty and Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Uebelhart, Scott A.; Blaurock, Carl

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by the Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) for NASA Langley Research Center in the field of performance optimization for systems subject to uncertainty. The objective of the research is to develop design methods and tools to the aerospace vehicle design process which take into account lifecycle uncertainties. It recognizes that uncertainty between the predictions of integrated models and data collected from the system in its operational environment is unavoidable. Given the presence of uncertainty, the goal of this work is to develop means of identifying critical sources of uncertainty, and to combine these with the analytical tools used with integrated modeling. In this manner, system uncertainty analysis becomes part of the design process, and can motivate redesign. The specific program objectives were: 1. To incorporate uncertainty modeling, propagation and analysis into the integrated (controls, structures, payloads, disturbances, etc.) design process to derive the error bars associated with performance predictions. 2. To apply modern optimization tools to guide in the expenditure of funds in a way that most cost-effectively improves the lifecycle productivity of the system by enhancing the subsystem reliability and redundancy. The results from the second program objective are described. This report describes the work and results for the first objective: uncertainty modeling, propagation, and synthesis with integrated modeling.

  18. Subcritical crack growth of selected aerospace pressure vessel materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. R.; Bixler, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    This experimental program was undertaken to determine the effects of combined cyclic/sustained loads, stress level, and crack shape on the fatigue crack growth rate behavior of cracks subjected to plane strain conditions. Material/environment combinations tested included: 2219-T87 aluminum plate in gaseous helium, room air, and 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen; 5Al-2.5 Sn (ELI) titanium plate in liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen and 6AL-4V (ELI) STA titanium plate in gaseous helium and methanol at room temperature. Most testing was accomplished using surface flawed specimens instrumented with a clip gage to continuously monitor crack opening displacements at the specimen surface. Tapered double cantilever beam specimens were also tested. Static fracture and ten hour sustained load tests were conducted to determine fracture toughness and apparent threshold stress intensity values. Cyclic tests were performed using sinusoidal loading profiles at 333 MHz (20 cpm) and trapezoidal loading profiles at both 8.3 MHz (0.5 cpm) and 3.3 MHz (0.2 cpm). Data were evaluated using modified linear elastic fracture mechanics parameters.

  19. Evaluation of the Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Program for the Aerospace Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; March, J. F.

    The Aerospace Materials Information Center (AMIC) Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) program was evaluated by an interview technique after one year of operation. The data base for the SDI consists of the periodic document index records input to the AMIC system. The users are 63 engineers, scientists, and technical administrators at the…

  20. Aerospace applications of sodium batteries using novel cathode materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary fundamental investigations aimed at evaluating sodium metal chloride systems for future aerospace applications are described. Since the sodium metal chloride systems are relatively new, the approach has been to characterize their fundamental properties in order to understand their limitations. To this end, a series of fundamental electrochemical investigations have been carried out, the results of which are reported here. The metal chloride cathodes show high exchange current densities which corroborate their good reversibility in a battery application. The reduction mechanisms appear to be complex and involve multielectron transfer steps and intermediates. Such intermediates in the reaction mechanism have already been identified in the case of FeCl2. Similar mechanisms may be operative in the case of NiCl2. CuCl2, however, exhibits a second relaxation loop in the impedance plot at low frequencies and also a sloping discharge curve, unlike FeCl2 and NiCl2, which may indicate the existence of monovalent copper in the reduction mechanism.

  1. Fiber glass reinforced structural materials for aerospace application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. H.

    1968-01-01

    Evaluation of fiber glass reinforced plastic materials concludes that fiber glass construction is lighter than aluminum alloy construction. Low thermal conductivity and strength makes the fiber glass material useful in cryogenic tank supports.

  2. Military handbook: Metallic materials and elements for aerospace vehicle structures, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-11-01

    Since many aerospace companies manufacture both commercial and military products, the standardization of metallic materials design data, which are acceptable to government procuring or certification agencies, is very beneficial to those manufacturers as well as governmental agencies. Although the design requirements for military and commercial products may differ greatly, the required design values for the strength of materials and elements and other needed material characteristics are often identical. Therefore this publication is to provide standardized design values and related design information for metallic materials and structural elements used in aerospace structures. The data contained herein or from approved items in the minutes of MIL-RDBK-5 coordination meetings are acceptable to the Air Force, the Navy, the Army, and the Federal Aviation Administration. Approval by the procuring or certificating agency must be obtained for the use of design values for products not contained herein.

  3. Materials for defense/aerospace applications (NON-SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, A. R.

    2012-03-01

    Through this effort, Sandia and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM Aero) sought to assess the feasibility of (1) applying special materials to a defense application; (2) developing a piezoelectric-based micro thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell; and (3) building and delivering a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. This project supported the Stockpile Research & Development Program by contributing to the development of radio frequency (RF) MEMS- and optical MEMS-based components - such as switches, phase shifters, oscillators, and filters - with improved performance and reduced weight and size. Investigation of failure mechanisms and solutions helped to ensure that MEMS-based technology will meet performance requirements and long term reliability goals in the specified environments dictated by Lockheed Martin's commercial and defense applications. The objectives of this project were to (1) fabricate and test materials for military applications; (2) perform a feasibility study of a piezoelectric-based micro TPV cell; and (3) build and deliver a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. Sandia fabricated and tested properties of materials, studied options for manufacturing scale-up, and delivered a prototype IR Emissometer. LM Aero provided material requirements and designs. Both participated in the investigation of attachment methods and environmental effects on material performance, a feasibility study of piezoelectric TPV cells, an investigation and development of new approaches to implement the required material functionality, and analysis and validation of material performance physics, numerical models, and experimental metrology.

  4. Measurements of aerospace materials and their interpretation for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Neil A.; Mason, Ian; Price, Sean; Beale, John

    2009-09-01

    Millimetre and terahertz radiation penetration into materials enables non-destructive testing capabilities for the aerospace industry, either remotely using imaging technology or locally using microscope type diagnostics. This paper presents measurements made on Norcoat and Prosial, used in the aerospace industry for thermal insulation and on carbon fibre, used for its high strength weight ratio. Michelson interferometer measurements over the band 100 GHz to 1 THz, with a 30 GHz spectral resolution, are presented, together with images of a range of samples taken using a 35 GHz real-time imaging system. The measured optical properties of these materials are examined and used in modelling to predict signatures of failure modes in these materials when they are attached to cryogenic fuel tanks.

  5. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  6. Materials Opportunity for Spacecraft and Aerospace Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Roland J.; Kistner, Mark; Druma, Andriana M.; Alam, Khurial

    2005-02-01

    Carbon-carbon and polymer matrix composite materials for thermal panels are used in spacecrafts and planned for thermal management in high volume, aircraft electronics and power systems. The requirements are lightweight, highly performance conductive materials that can withstand the stresses in the specific applications. This evaluation investigates a number of emerging carbon-carbon composites and baseline polymer matrix composite panels to evaluate their potential for thermal transfer applications. Properties were measured from -250 °F to +250 °F for generic space orbital applications.

  7. Mechanically Strong Lightweight Materials for Aerospace Applications (x-aerogels)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The X-Aerogel is a new NASA-developed strong lightweight material made by reacting the mesoporous surfaces of 3-D networks of inorganic nanoparticles with polymeric crosslinkers. Since the relative amount of the crosslinker and the backbone are comparable, X-Aerogels can be viewed either as aerogels modified by templated accumulation of polymer on the skeletal nanoparticles, or as nanoporous polymers made by templated casting of polymeric precursors on a nanostructured framework. The most striking feature of X-Aerogels is that for a nominal 3-fold increase in density (still a ultralightweight material), the mechanical strength can be up to 300 times higher than the strength of the underlying native aerogel. Thus, X-Aerogels combine a multiple of the specific compressive strength of steel, with the thermal conductivity of styrofoam. XAerogels have been demonstrated with several polymers such as polyurethanes/polyureas, epoxies and polyolefins, while crosslinking of approximately 35 different oxide aerogels yields a wide variety of dimensionally stable, porous lightweight materials with interesting structural, magnetic and optical properties. X-Aerogels are evaluated for cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks and for Advanced EVA suits, where they will play the dual role of the thermal insulator/structural material. Along the same lines, major impact is also expected by the use of X-Aerogels in structural components/thermal protection for small satellites, spacecrafts, planetary vehicles and habitats.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Spaceframes for Low-Density Aerospace Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-26

    Functionalization Methods Chemically sculpting carbon nanotubes into nano-objects of the type needed for synthesizing CNT spaceframe materials require two...distinct functionalization chemistries that produce distinct functional structures at the ends of the nanotubes and on the sidewalls of the nanotubes ...which are applied to the nanotubes . In this project, oxidative etching techniques were explored for end selective functionalization . Selective

  9. Qualifying of metallic materials and structures for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.; Polakovics, Donald; Koegel, Wayne

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Navy’s certification and qualification process for materials and structures is undertaken to ensure the flight safety and full mission capability of naval aviation weapon systems. A building-block process is practiced in which validated engineering data and concepts provide the foundation for continued technological development and innovation. For example, prior to developing material-property standards, the manufacturing process is frozen and fully characterized. The customer’s cost, schedule, and performance requirements must be carefully considered. Technologies are selected for immediate use or further R&D based upon a risk assessment that takes into account many factors, including technological maturity, lessons learned, the sponsor budget and schedule constraints, affordability, return on investment, and life-cycle cost impact. This paper explores the process that the navy uses to qualify its airframe alloys and structures.

  10. Cyber Technology for Materials and Structures in Aeronautics and Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipes, R. Byron

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes efforts undertaken during the 1998-99 program year and includes a survey of the field of computational mechanics, a discussion of biomimetics and intelligent simulation, a survey of the field of biomimetics, an illustration of biomimetics and computational mechanics through the example of the high performance composite tensile structure. In addition, the preliminary results of a state-of-the art survey of composite materials technology is presented.

  11. Cyber Technology for Materials and Structures in Aeronautics and Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipes, R. Byron

    2002-01-01

    The evolution of composites applications in aeronautics from 1970 to the present is discussed. The barriers and challenges to economic application and to certification are presented and recommendations for accelerated development are outlined. The potential benefits of emerging technologies to aeronautics and their foundation in composite materials are described and the resulting benefits in vehicle take off gross weight are quantified. Finally, a 21st century vision for aeronautics in which human mobility is increased by an order of magnitude is articulated.

  12. Micro-Tailoring Multi-Functional Materials for Aerospace Objectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    on mechanical contact (addressed below), (2) energy harvesting using piezoelectric materials and novel electro-active composites (not addressed in this...such sensors dissipate little or no energy - a significant advantage in energy -limited applications. Such sensors are easier to manufacture and...NASA p. 62-71. 10. Hyer, M.W. and R.F. Charette, Inovative design of composite structures: use of curvilinearfiberformat to improve structural

  13. Polymeric Materials for Advanced Aircraft and Aerospace Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    polymeric material (films and fibers ) and the molecular composites (cast and precipitated films) are presented. 19. Key Words (Cont.) cross linked...PBT 46 Fiber 77 34 SAXS Photograph of PBT 46 Fiber Using the 29 cm Setting in a Statton Camera 77 35 Schematic Showing the Geometrical Polefigure...Specimen 82 37 A Measured Polefigure of a PBO Heat-Treated Fiber (Celanese 26085-25-1) 84 38 Photograph of the Dynamic Imaging of X-ray Diffraction

  14. Life Prediction Methodologies for Aerospace Materials Annual Report, 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    nickel and aluminum alloys used in fabricating engine components have been examined to assess their behavior under laboratory conditions designed to...INVESTIGATIONS Titanium, nickel and aluminum alloys used in fabricating engine components are being re-examined in an ongoing effort to assess...superalloys, titanium (Ti) alloys (near α and α+β), and aluminum alloys . To apply the advanced materials effectively or to consider further applications of

  15. Enabling materials and processes for large aerospace mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Lawrence E.; Chen, Ming Y.

    2008-07-01

    The use of monolithic glass to produce large, rigid segmented members for lightweight space-based mirror systems appears to have reached its limits due to the long production lead times, high processing costs, and launch load/weight requirements. New material solutions and processes are required to meet the US Air Force's optical needs for directed energy, reconnaissance/surveillance, and communications. Mirror structural substrates made out of advanced materials (metal, ceramic, and polymer), composites, foams, and microsphere arrays should allow for CTE and modulus tailorability, low-density, and high values in strength, stiffness, thermal conductivity and toughness. Conventional mechanical polishing to visual specifications for figure and surface finish roughness requirements will be difficult, due to the multi-phase complexities of these new systems. Advances in surface removal technologies as well as replication processes will be required to produce the required optical finishes with reduced schedule and cost. In this paper selected material and process solutions being considered will be discussed.

  16. New materials in the aerospace industries. [emphasizing heat resistant and light alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangler, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Trends in the development of new aerospace metals and alloys are reviewed, and applications of these advanced materials in nonaerospace fields are indicated. Emphasis is placed on the light metals and the high-temperature alloys. Attention is given to the properties and uses of the high-strength aluminum alloy 7050, alpha and beta titanium alloys, dispersion strengthened superalloys, metal-metal composites, eutectic superalloys, and coated columbium alloys.

  17. Advancement and Implementation of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    companies within the aerospace industry have internal materials models, often proprietary, based on phenomenological, statistical, and neural network...distributions) it also applies to some mechanical properties (e.g., measurement of elevated temperature dwell fatigue under certain environmental conditions...many, if not all, near-term integrated ICME applications can be integrated the old-fashion-way by piping information between software programs

  18. Study of Aerospace Materials, Coatings, Adhesions and Processes. Aircraft Icing Processes. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-14

    AP A160 413 STUDY OF AEROSPACE MATERIALS CATIS AD|SIOS A - PROCESSES AIRCRAFT IC.. (UI INSTITUbO NACIONAL DE TECNICA AEROESPACIAL MORID ISPAIN) E I...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Prepared for INSTITTTTO NACIONAL DE TECNICA AEROESPACIAL "Esteban Terradas". Torrejdn de Ardoz...ADDRESS il0. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASKC Thstituto Naciorial Tecnica Aeroespacial Dto. Aerodindmica y Navegabilidad 2301 / D1 Torrejcn de Ardoz

  19. Thermophysical Properties of Selected Aerospace Materials. Part 2. Thermophysical Properties of Seven Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED MATERIALS 10 3.1. Aluminum Alloy 2024. . 10 a. Thermal Conductivity 11 b. Specific...figure are tabulated. 10 ■ I 3. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED MATERIALS 3.1. Aluminum Alloy 2024 Aluminum Alloy 2024, formerly known... alloy does not have as good corrosion resistance properties as most other aluminum alloys and under certain conditions may be subjected to

  20. Polymeric Materials for Aerospace Power and Propulsion-NASA Glenn Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Use of lightweight materials in aerospace power and propulsion components can lead to significant reductions in vehicle weight and improvements in performance and efficiency. Polymeric materials are well suited for many of these applications, but improvements in processability, durability and performance are required for their successful use in these components. Polymers Research at NASA Glenn is focused on utilizing a combination of traditional polymer science and engineering approaches and nanotechnology to develop new materials with enhanced processability, performance and durability. An overview of these efforts will be presented.

  1. The JPL Cryogenic Dilatometer: Measuring the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halverson, Peter G.; Dudick, Matthew J.; Karlmann, Paul; Klein, Kerry J.; Levine, Marie; Marcin, Martin; Parker, Tyler J.; Peters, Robert D.; Shaklan, Stuart; VanBuren, David

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation details the cryogenic dilatometer, which is used by JPL to measure the thermal expansion coefficient of materials used in Aerospace. Included is a system diagram, a picture of the dilatometer chamber and the laser source, a description of the laser source, pictures of the interferometer, block diagrams of the electronics and software and a picture of the electronics, and software. Also there is a brief review of the accurace.error budget. The materials tested are also described, and the results are shown in strain curves, JPL measured strain fits are described, and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is also shown for the materials tested.

  2. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Aerospace Structures and Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Allison, Sidney G.

    2009-01-01

    A new technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in materials and structures by performing temperature measurements with fiber Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of structures with subsurface defects or thickness variations. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. The data obtained from grating sensors were further analyzed with thermal modeling to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. These results were found to be consistent with those from conventional thermography techniques. Limitations of the technique were investigated using both experimental and numerical simulation techniques. Methods for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  3. Aerospace Materials and Process Technology Reinvestment Workshop Held in Dayton, Ohio on 18-19 May 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-19

    Support Division Overview "* Key Personnel for Technology Transfer "* Topics for Technoilogy Transfer Aerospace Materials and Processes Mobile ...Automated] Technology Reinvestment Workshop I Scanner Large Area Composite Inspection - Mobile Automated Scanner "• Recdy for Transition Advanced Development

  4. Advanced bearing materials for cryogenic aerospace engine turbopump requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, G.; Bhat, B. N.

    1986-01-01

    The properties of eleven alloys were investigated to select an improved bearing material for the High Pressure Oxygen Turbo Pump which delivers liquid oxygen to the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The alloys, selected through detailed literature analysis, X 405, MRC-2001, T440V, 14-4/6V, D-5, V-M Pyromet 350, Stellite 3, FerroTic CS-40, Tribaloy 800, WD-65, and CBS-600. The alloys were tested in hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness tests, and their performance was compared with the baseline 440C test alloy. As a result, five alloys were eliminated, leaving the remaining six (X 405, MRC-2001, T440V, 14-4/6V, D-5, and WD-65 to be evaluated in the next phase of NASA tests which will include fracture toughness, rolling contact fatigue, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. From these, three alloys will be selected, which will be made into ninety bearings for subsequent testing.

  5. Proficiency Testing for Evaluating Aerospace Materials Test Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, D.; Motto, S.; Peyton, S.; Beeson, H.

    2006-01-01

    ASTM G 86 and ASTM G 74 are commonly used to evaluate materials susceptibility to ignition in liquid and gaseous oxygen systems. However, the methods have been known for their lack of repeatability. The inherent problems identified with the test logic would either not allow precise identification or the magnitude of problems related to running the tests, such as lack of consistency of systems performance, lack of adherence to procedures, etc. Excessive variability leads to increasing instances of accepting the null hypothesis erroneously, and so to the false logical deduction that problems are nonexistent when they really do exist. This paper attempts to develop and recommend an approach that could lead to increased accuracy in problem diagnostics by using the 50% reactivity point, which has been shown to be more repeatable. The initial tests conducted indicate that PTFE and Viton A (for pneumatic impact) and Buna S (for mechanical impact) would be good choices for additional testing and consideration for inter-laboratory evaluations. The approach presented could also be used to evaluate variable effects with increased confidence and tolerance optimization.

  6. Optical fiber sensors for damage analysis in aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, Paul; May, Russell; Claus, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Under this grant, fiber optic sensors were investigated for use in the nondestructive evaluation of aging aircraft. Specifically, optical fiber sensors for detection and location of impacts on a surface, and for detection of corrosion in metals were developed. The use of neural networks was investigated for determining impact location by processing the output of a network of fiberoptic strain sensors distributed on a surface. This approach employs triangulation to determine location by comparing the arrival times at several sensors, of the acoustic signal generated by the impact. For this study, a neural network simulator running on a personal computer was used to train a network using a back-propagation algorithm. Fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) strain sensors are attached to or embedded in the surface, so that stress waves emanating from an impact can be detected. The ability of the network to determine impact location by time-or-arrival of acoustic signals was assessed by comparing network outputs with actual experimental results using impacts on a panel instrumented with optical fiber sensors. Using the neural network to process the sensor outputs, the impact location can be inferred to centimeter range accuracy directly from the arrival time data. In addition, the network can be trained to determine impact location, regardless of material anisotropy. Results demonstrate that a back-propagation network identifies impact location for an anisotropic graphite/bismaleimide plate with the same accuracy as that for an isotropic aluminum plate. Two different approaches were investigated for the development of fiber optic sensors for corrosion detection in metals, both utilizing optical fiber sensors with metal coatings. In the first approach, an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber optic strain sensor was placed under tensile stress, and while in the resulting strained position, a thick coating of metal was applied. Due to an increase in

  7. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  8. Collection, processing, and reporting of damage tolerant design data for non-aerospace structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, P. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the organization, format and content of the NASA Johnson damage tolerant database which was created to store damage tolerant property data for non aerospace structural materials. The database is designed to store fracture toughness data (K(sub IC), K(sub c), J(sub IC) and CTOD(sub IC)), resistance curve data (K(sub R) VS. delta a (sub eff) and JR VS. delta a (sub eff)), as well as subcritical crack growth data (a vs. N and da/dN vs. delta K). The database contains complementary material property data for both stainless and alloy steels, as well as for aluminum, nickel, and titanium alloys which were not incorporated into the Damage Tolerant Design Handbook database.

  9. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-29

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  10. Compilation and development of K-6 aerospace materials for implementation in NASA spacelink electronic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Jean A.

    1987-01-01

    Spacelink is an electronic information service to be operated by the Marshall Space Flight Center. It will provide NASA news and educational resources including software programs that can be accessed by anyone with a computer and modem. Spacelink is currently being installed and will soon begin service. It will provide daily updates of NASA programs, information about NASA educational services, manned space flight, unmanned space flight, aeronautics, NASA itself, lesson plans and activities, and space program spinoffs. Lesson plans and activities were extracted from existing NASA publications on aerospace activities for the elementary school. These materials were arranged into 206 documents which have been entered into the Spacelink program for use in grades K-6.

  11. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Psarras, P. C.; Ball, D. W.; Timko, M. T.; Wong, H.-W.; Peck, J.; Chianelli, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these non-traditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and hydrogen) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activity are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  12. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  13. Prediction of Thermophysical and Thermomechanical Characteristics of Porous Carbon-Ceramic Composite Materials of the Heat Shield of Aerospace Craft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, S. V.; Prosuntsov, P. V.; Mikhailovskii, K. V.

    2015-05-01

    A procedure for predicting thermophysical and thermomechanical characteristics of porous carbon-ceramic composite materials of the heat shield of aerospace craft as functions of the type of reinforcement, porosity of the structure, and the characteristics of the material's components has been developed. Results of mathematical modeling of the temperature and stressed-strained states of representative volume elements for determining the characteristics of a carbon-ceramic composite material with account taken of its anisotropy have been given.

  14. A Solution to the Small Enrollment Problem in Aerospace Engineering--Self-Paced Materials Used in an Independent Studies Mode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Wallace T.; Watkins, R. D.

    With the decline in enrollment in the early 1970's, many aerospace engineering departments had too few students to offer some required courses. At the University of Texas at Austin, a set of personalized system of instruction (PSI) materials for the aircraft performance, stability, and control course was developed. The paper includes a description…

  15. Real-Time Radiographic In-Situ Characterization Of Ply Lift In Composite Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, Ronald D.; Doering, Edward R.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of ply lifting in composite materials is a significant issue for various aerospace and military applications. A fundamental element in the prevention or mitigation of ply lift is determination of the timing of the ply lifting event during exposure of the composite material to flight conditions. The Marshall Space Flight Center s Nondestructive Evaluation Team developed a real-time radiographic technique for the detection of ply lift in carbon phenolic ablative materials in situ during live firings of subscale test motors in support of NASA s Reusable Solid Rocket Motor program, using amorphous silicon detector panels. The radiographic method has successfully detected ply lifting in seven consecutive carbon phenolic converging cones attached to solid fuel torches, providing the time of ply lift initiation in each test. Post-processing of the radiographic images improved the accuracy of timing measurements and allowed measurement of the ply lifting height as a function of time. Radiographic data correlated well with independent pressure and temperature measurements that indicate the onset of ply lift in the nozzle material.

  16. A Survey of Emerging Materials for Revolutionary Aerospace Vehicle Structures and Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Shuart, Mark J.; Gray, Hugh R.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan identifies the long-term goal of providing safe and affordable space access, orbital transfer, and interplanetary transportation capabilities to enable scientific research, human, and robotic exploration, and the commercial development of space. Numerous scientific and engineering breakthroughs will be required to develop the technology required to achieve this goal. Critical technologies include advanced vehicle primary and secondary structure, radiation protection, propulsion and power systems, fuel storage, electronics and devices, sensors and science instruments, and medical diagnostics and treatment. Advanced materials with revolutionary new capabilities are an essential element of each of these technologies. A survey of emerging materials with applications to aerospace vehicle structures and propulsion systems was conducted to assist in long-term Agency mission planning. The comprehensive survey identified materials already under development that could be available in 5 to 10 years and those that are still in the early research phase and may not be available for another 20 to 30 years. The survey includes typical properties, a description of the material and processing methods, the current development status, and the critical issues that must be overcome to achieve commercial viability.

  17. Tethers as Debris: Hydrocode Simulation of Impacts of Tether Fragments on Planar Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Steven W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Tethers promise to find use in a variety of space applications. Despite being narrow objects, their great lengths result in them having large total areas, and so tethers are quite susceptible to being severed by orbital debris. Extensive work has been done designing tethers that resist severs by small debris objects, and hence have longer working lives. It is from this perspective that most recent work has considered the tether - debris question. The potential of intact tethers, or severed tether fragments, as debris to pose a significant collision risk to other spacecraft has been less well studied. Understanding the consequences of such encounters is important in assessing the risks to other spacecraft posed by tethers. In this paper I discuss the damage that two types of tethers may produce on planar aerospace materials, as revealed by hyper- velocity impact simulations using the SPHC hydrodynamic code. Tether types considered include a single nylon line and a complex design including metal wires. Target materials considered include the aluminum plates typically used in debris shielding, and solar panels.

  18. Characterization of physiochemical properties of polymeric and electrochemical materials for aerospace flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.; Kunigahalli, V.; Khan, S.; Mcnair, A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries are a vital and reliable energy storage source for aerospace applications. As the demand for longer life and more reliable space batteries increases, the understanding and solving of cell aging factors and mechanisms become essential. Over the years, many cell designs and manufacturing process changes have been developed and implemented. Cells fabricated with various design features were life cycled in a simulated low-Earth orbit regime. Following the test program, a comprehensive electrochemical analysis of cell components was undertaken to study cell degradation mechanisms. Discharge voltage degradation or voltage plateau has been observed during orbit cycling, but, its cause and explanation have been the subject of much discussion. A Hg/HgO reference electrode was used to monitor the reference versus each electrode potential during the discharge of a cycled cell. The results indicate that the negative electrode was responsible for the voltage plateau. Cell analysis revealed large crystals of cadmium hydroxide on the surface of the negative electrode and throughout the separator.

  19. Hierarchically-driven Approach for Quantifying Materials Uncertainty in Creep Deformation and Failure of Aerospace Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    presentations describe this in more detail. Furthermore, to transfer this technology, a GUI based computational too has been developed to facilitate the... describe this in more detail. Furthermore, to transfer this technology, a GUI based computational too has been developed to facilitate the use of these...and deployment of advanced materials systems has been described as crucial to achieving global competitiveness in the 21st century in a “Materials

  20. Improvement of Strength Characteristics of Aerospace Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Graft Polymerization Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, Tatsuji; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Tahara, Mitsuru; Okubo, Masaaki

    The atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasma-graft polymerization treatment is applied for the surface modification of the organic fibers in order to enhance the strength of the aerospace structural composite material consisting of the laminated textiles. The influence of the treatment on the composite materials' strength properties is examined. As a result, the plasma-graft polymerization surface treatment is effective for the compression and bend of the composite materials. Because the interfacial bonding between each fiber and matrix resin is strengthened by the treatment, the strengths of the composite materials are increased.

  1. Advanced materials for aerospace and biomedical applications: New glasses for hermetic titanium seals

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Tallant, D.R.; Crowder, S.V.

    1996-11-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys have an outstanding strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance and so are materials of choice for a variety of aerospace and biomedical applications. Such applications are limited by the lack of a viable hermetic glass sealing technology. Conventional silicate sealing glasses are readily reduced by titanium to form interfacial silicides that are incompatible with a robust glass/metal seal. Borate-based glasses undergo a similar thermochemistry and are reduced to a titanium boride. The kinetics of this reactions, however, are apparently slower and so a deleterious interface does not form. Chemically durable lanthanoborate glasses were examined as candidate sealing compositions. The compositions, properties, and structures of several alkaline earth, alumina, and titania lanthanoborate glass forming systems were evaluated and this information was used as the basis for a designed experiment to optimize compositions for Ti-sealing. A number of viable compositions were identified and sealing procedures established. Finally, glass formation, properties, and structure of biocompatible Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and TiO{sub 2}-doped calcium phosphate systems were also evaluated.

  2. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  3. Sol-gel processes and materials. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design and development of sol-gel processes and sol-gel derived materials. Sol-gel derived materials include protective and transparent films, ceramic coatings, nanocomposites and microcomposites, porous and dense composites, fiber reinforced composites, oxides, and ductile ceramics. Topics include preparation of high temperature superconducting oxides and films, glass-ceramic composites and ceramic matrix composites for high temperature applications, sol-gel processes for advanced ceramics, coatings on semiconductors, infrared optical coatings, and coatings on carbon/carbon composites. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Aerospace Community. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, V. V.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, emphasizes the two sides of aerospace--military aerospace and civilian aerospace. Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion on the organization of Air Force bases and missile sites in relation to their missions. Chapter 2 examines the community services provided by Air Force bases. The topics…

  5. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  6. An Approach to Evaluate Precision and Inter-Laboratory Variability of Flammability Test Methods for Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Beeson, Harold D.

    2005-01-01

    Materials selection for spacecraft is based on conventional flammability or ignition sensitivity acceptance tests. Current procedures for determining the inter-laboratory repeatability and reproducibility of aerospace materials flammability tests are not considering the dependence of data variability on test conditions and consequently attempts to characterize the precision of these methods were not successful. The inter-laboratory data variability is determined with tests conducted under arbitrary conditions, which consequently may not provide sufficient information to enable adequate determination of a method's precision. For evaluating the precision of NASA's flammability test methods, the protocol recommended includes selecting critical parameters and determining the 50% failure point by considering the specific failure criteria of each method using the critical parameter as a variable. Upon performing inter-laboratory round robin testing using this approach, the laboratories' performance could be evaluated by comparing the repeatability of the 50% failure point and/or the repeatability of critical conditions where the probabilities of passing and failing are unity, i.e., the transition zone repeatability. When a sufficient amount of data has been acquired with this method, an adequate estimation of precision of aerospace materials flammability test methods will be possible.

  7. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  8. 37 CFR 202.1 - Material not subject to copyright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Material not subject to copyright. 202.1 Section 202.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT § 202.1 Material...

  9. 37 CFR 202.1 - Material not subject to copyright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Material not subject to copyright. 202.1 Section 202.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT § 202.1 Material...

  10. 37 CFR 202.1 - Material not subject to copyright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Material not subject to copyright. 202.1 Section 202.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT § 202.1 Material...

  11. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  12. The new low nitrogen steel LNS -- A material for advanced aircraft engine and aerospace bearing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Berns, H.; Ebert, F.J.

    1998-12-31

    Development tendencies for future aircraft jet engines require new design concepts for rolling element bearings because of an overall increase of loads, temperatures, rotational speeds and the use of new high temperature lubricants. This paper reviews some of the key parameters which in the past led to the development and application of the known aircraft bearing steels such as M50, M50 NiL and recently Cronidur 30{reg_sign} (AMS 5898). The performance limits of the currently used aerospace bearing steels and the increasing demands on bearing performance for future aerospace applications gave the impact to the design of a new corrosion resistant steel grade of the nitrogen alloyed type, which is suitable for case hardening by nitrogen--the so called Low nitrogen steel (LNS). The development of the alloy (US pat. 5,503,797), the attainable properties and the corresponding heat treatment process are presented. Achievable hardness, case depth, residual stress pattern and corrosion resistance prove the new LNS to be a promising candidate for the next generation of aircraft engine bearings and for advanced, integrated bearing-gear-shaft design concepts.

  13. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from July 1, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) Ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) Powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) Rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  14. 37 CFR 202.1 - Material not subject to copyright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Material not subject to copyright. 202.1 Section 202.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT §...

  15. Directory of aerospace safety specialized information sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, E. A.; Rubens, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    A directory is presented to make available to the aerospace safety community a handbook of organizations and experts in specific, well-defined areas of safety technology. It is designed for the safety specialist as an aid for locating both information sources and individual points of contact (experts) in engineering related fields. The file covers sources of data in aerospace design, tests, as well as information in hazard and failure cause identification, accident analysis, materials characteristics, and other related subject areas. These 171 organizations and their staff members, hopefully, should provide technical information in the form of documentation, data and consulting expertise. These will be sources that have assembled and collated their information, so that it will be useful in the solution of engineering problems. One of the goals of the project in the United States that have and are willing to share data of value to the aerospace safety community.

  16. Experimental characterization of materials subjected to combined loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrusca, L.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Savin, A.

    2016-08-01

    In real life experience, machine and structure elements are subjected to complex loading history. Combined loading testes facilitate the understanding of materials behavior subjected to multiaxial stress state. In this paper are presented experimental investigations used to evaluate the influence of an initial type of loading on material properties which will be subsequently tested through another load type. Initial tests are tension tests, by different elongations, and subsequent tests are torsion tests, until break. Circular cross section specimens will be used in these tests. Tension tests have been performed on a universal testing machine. Subsequently torsion tests have been conducted through an attachable device. It was found that the energy associated with plastic deformation obtained by subsequent torsional tests has the dominant influence on the material total plastic energy, although initial test was tension.

  17. Excimer-laser-induced surface treatments on metal and ceramic materials: applications to automotive, aerospace, and microelectronic industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autric, Michel L.

    1999-09-01

    Surface treatments by laser irradiation can improve materials properties in terms of mechanical and physico- chemical behaviors, these improvements being related to the topography, the hardness, the microstructure, the chemical composition. Up to now, the use of excimer lasers for industrial applications remained marginal in spite of the interest related to the short wavelength (high photon energy and better energetic coupling with materials and reduced thermal effects in the bulk material). Up to now, the main limitations concerned the beam quality, the beam delivery, the gas handling and the relatively high investment cost. At this time, the cost of laser devices is going down and the ultraviolet radiation can be conducted through optical fibers. These two elements give new interest in using excimer laser for industrial applications. The main objective of this research program which we are involved in, is to underline some materials processing applications for automotive, aerospace or microelectronic industries for which it could be more interesting to use excimer lasers (minimized thermal effects). This paper concerns the modifications of the roughness, porosity, hardness, structure, phase, residual stresses, chemical composition of the surface of materials such as metallic alloys (aluminum, steel, cast iron, titanium, and ceramics (oxide, nitride, carbide,...) irradiated by KrF and XeCl excimer lasers.

  18. Technical features and criteria in designing fiber-reinforced composite materials: from the aerospace and aeronautical field to biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Gloria, Antonio; Ronca, Dante; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Chierchia, Marianna; De Santis, Roberto; Nicolais, Luigi; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Polymer-based composite materials are ideal for applications where high stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios are required. From aerospace and aeronautical field to biomedical applications, fiber-reinforced polymers have replaced metals, thus emerging as an interesting alternative. As widely reported, the mechanical behavior of the composite materials involves investigation on micro- and macro-scale, taking into consideration micromechanics, macromechanics and lamination theory. Clinical situations often require repairing connective tissues and the use of composite materials may be suitable for these applications because of the possibility to design tissue substitutes or implants with the required mechanical properties. Accordingly, this review aims at stressing the importance of fiber-reinforced composite materials to make advanced and biomimetic prostheses with tailored mechanical properties, starting from the basic principle design, technologies, and a brief overview of composites applications in several fields. Fiber-reinforced composite materials for artificial tendons, ligaments, and intervertebral discs, as well as for hip stems and mandible models will be reviewed, highlighting the possibility to mimic the mechanical properties of the soft and hard tissues that they replace.

  19. Magnetic Processing – A Pervasive Energy Efficient Technology for Next Generation Materials for Aerospace and Specialty Steel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Ludtka, G.M.; Ray, P.; Magee, J.

    2010-09-10

    Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing is an exceptionally fertile, pervasive and cross-cutting technology that is just now being recognized by several major industry leaders for its significant potential to increase energy efficiency and materials performance for a myriad of energy intensive industries in a variety of areas and applications. ORNL has pioneered the use and development of large magnetic fields in thermomagnetically processing (T-MP) materials for altering materials phase equilibria and transformation kinetics. ORNL has discovered that using magnetic fields, we can produce unique materials responses. T-MP can produce unique phase stabilities & microstructures with improved materials performance for structural and functional applications not achieved with traditional processing techniques. These results suggest that there are unprecedented opportunities to produce significantly enhanced materials properties via atomistic level (nano-) microstructural control and manipulation. ORNL (in addition to others) have shown that grain boundary chemistry and precipitation kinetics are also affected by large magnetic fields. This CRADA has taken advantage of ORNL’s unique, custom-designed thermo-magnetic, 9 Tesla superconducting magnet facility that enables rapid heating and cooling of metallic components within the magnet bore; as well as ORNL’s expertise in high magnetic field (HMF) research. Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is a a US-based industrial company, that provides enhanced performance alloys for the Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. In this CRADA, Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is focusing on applying ORNL’s Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing (TMP) technology to improve their current and future proprietary materials’ product performance and open up new markets for their Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. Unprecedented mechanical property performance improvements have been demonstrated for a high strength bainitic alloy industrial

  20. Determination of the Consistency of Relevance Judgments and the Reliability of Search Strategies Among Information Specialists for the Aerospace Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; March, J. F.

    The ability of various Aerospace Materials Information Center (AMIC) information specialists to prepare search strategies for document retrieval was studied by providing ten typical search request statements to seven information specialists. Each specialist prepared search strategies independently. Significant variations occurred among the…

  1. Aerospace Payloads Leak Test Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovsky, Oleg; Grayson, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized and sealed aerospace payloads can leak on orbit. When dealing with toxic or hazardous materials, requirements for fluid and gas leakage rates have to be properly established, and most importantly, reliably verified using the best Nondestructive Test (NDT) method available. Such verification can be implemented through application of various leak test methods that will be the subject of this paper, with a purpose to show what approach to payload leakage rate requirement verification is taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scope of this paper will be mostly a detailed description of 14 leak test methods recommended.

  2. Glass-ionomer cement restorative materials: a sticky subject?

    PubMed

    Sidhu, S K

    2011-06-01

    Glass-ionomer cement (GIC) materials have been in clinical use since their inception 40 years ago. They have undergone several permutations to yield different categories of these materials. Although all GICs share the same generic properties, subtle differences between commercial products may occur. They have a wide range of uses such as lining, bonding, sealing, luting or restoring a tooth. In general, GICs are useful for reasons of adhesion to tooth structure, fluoride release and being tooth-coloured although their sensitivity to moisture, inherent opacity, long-term wear and strength are not as adequate as desired. They are useful in situations where they are not disadvantaged by their comparatively lower physical properties, such as where there is adequate remaining tooth structure to support the material and where they are not subject to heavy occlusal loading. The last decade has seen the use of these materials being extended. However, they are likely to retain their specific niches of clinical application.

  3. Aerospace Structures Technology Damping Design Guide. Volume 3. Damping Material Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    1.1 DAMPING MATERIAL PROPERTIES 1 3 1.2 THE STANDARIZED MATERIAL DATA I 1.2.1 Nomogram Cover Sheet 3 ’ 1.2.2 The Reduced Nomogram 4 1.2.3 Reading...MATERIALS 6 2 DAMPING MATERIAL PROPERTY DATA 14 3 STRUCTURAL EPOXIES AND OTHER MATERIALS 469 3.1 STRUCTURAL EPOXIES 469 3.2 STRUCTURAL PLASTICS 477 3.3...Data Listing II 6 Temperature Shift Function and Its Properties 12 7 Typical TCA Plot 13 8 Quick Reference Chart for Damping Materials 15 9 Damping vs

  4. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Kelly, Robert G.; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1986, the NASA-Langley Research Center has sponsored the NASA-UVa Light Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program at the University of Virginia (UVa). The fundamental objective of the LA2ST program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures. The LA2ST program has aimed to product relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The scope of the LA2ST Program is broad. Research areas include: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals and Composites, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, (3) Mechanics of materials for Aerospace Structures, and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures. A substantial series of semi-annual progress reports issued since 1987 documents the technical objectives, experimental or analytical procedures, and detailed results of graduate student research in these topical areas.

  5. Literature Review: Materials with Negative Poisson’s Ratios and Potential Applications to Aerospace and Defence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Air Vehicles Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-GD-0472 ABSTRACT An auxetic material exhibits exceptional...features, which are different from a conventional material. That is, the auxetic material gets fatter when it is stretched, or becomes smaller when it is...compressed, because it has a negative Poisson’s ratio. This report briefly reviews the latest advances in research work in auxetic materials

  6. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297.

  7. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  8. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  9. ASTM E 1559 method for measuring material outgassing/deposition kinetics has applications to aerospace, electronics, and semiconductor industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, J. W.; Glassford, A. P. M.; Steakley, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials has published a new standard test method for characterizing time and temperature-dependence of material outgassing kinetics and the deposition kinetics of outgassed species on surfaces at various temperatures. This new ASTM standard, E 1559(1), uses the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) collection measurement approach. The test method was originally developed under a program sponsored by the United States Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) to create a standard test method for obtaining outgassing and deposition kinetics data for spacecraft materials. Standardization by ASTM recognizes that the method has applications beyond aerospace. In particular, the method will provide data of use to the electronics, semiconductor, and high vacuum industries. In ASTM E 1559 the material sample is held in vacuum in a temperature-controlled effusion cell, while its outgassing flux impinges on several QCM's which view the orifice of the effusion cell. Sample isothermal total mass loss (TML) is measured as a function of time from the mass collected on one of the QCM's which is cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the view factor from this QCM to the cell. The amount of outgassed volatile condensable material (VCM) on surfaces at higher temperatures is measured as a function of time during the isothermal outgassing test by controlling the temperatures of the remaining QCM's to selected values. The VCM on surfaces at temperatures in between those of the collector QCM's is determined at the end of the isothermal test by heating the QCM's at a controlled rate and measuring the mass loss from the end of the QCM's as a function of time and temperature. This reevaporation of the deposit collected on the QCM's is referred to as QCM thermogravimetric analysis. Isothermal outgassing and deposition rates can be determined by differentiating the isothermal TML and VCM data, respectively, while the evaporation rates of the species can be obtained as a

  10. Material and Geometric Analysis of Structures Subjected to Large Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferranto, Justin

    The two major focuses of this dissertation are: (1) Studying the structural behaviors of hyper-elastic membranes subjected to extremely large deformation. These membranes are used in a reconfigurable tooling system (RTS) which was under development during the course of this study. (2) Establishing a continuum constitutive model for fabric materials under in-plane large deformation through theoretical and numerical analyses. This model may also be applied to study a class of materials which involve significant internal structure reconfiguration during deformation. The RTS allows quick onsite fabrication of high temperature composite parts. RTS applications include rapid onsite repair of aircraft components. The RTS uses a hyperelastic membrane as an interface between the state-change material and model. This membrane may be subjected to 800% engineering strain during operation. In this part of the study, material properties of the membranes have been characterized through three tests: simple tension, equal biaxial tension and planar tension. Nine-term Money-Rivlin constants are obtained through data regression. Finite element simulations have been conducted to simulate the deformed shapes of a membrane around several representative geometries under various vacuum pressure and constraint conditions. Experimental results have been compared with predictions from finite element simulations. This study contributes to understanding the behavior of membrane structures under large deformations in general; the results are used to generate design guidelines for RTS applicability. Fabric materials are widely used in industry for numerous applications. They exhibit a meso-scale complexity and involve significant internal structure reconfiguration during large deformation, which prohibits the direct application of the theory of continuum mechanics when studying these materials. In the second part of this work, a unique meso-scale FEA model, utilizing new modeling techniques and

  11. Research on lock-in thermography for aerospace materials of nondestructive test based on image sequence processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junyan; Dai, Jingmin; Wang, Yang

    2008-11-01

    IR Lock in thermography is an active thermography technology based on thermal wave signal processing, especially, it has many advantages for nondestructive test of composite materials and compound structure application and has been applied on aerospace, automotive, mechanics and electric fields. In lock in thermography, given sufficient time for periodic heating, the surface temperature will evolve periodically in a sinusoidal pattern form the transient state to the steady state. In this paper, the principle of lock in thermography is introduced and the heat transferring process is analyzed by the sinusoidal variation heating flow transferred in materials by means of FEM method. In experiment, the modulating optical stimulation is applied to sample, and image sequences are collected by Jade MWIR 550 FPA IR camera. The digital filter algorithm which is Savitzky-Golay digital smoothness filters is used to remove the effects of high frequency noise. A phase image at the frequency of periodic heating can be calculated using a Fourier transform of the periodic heating frequency in transient state for defect detection. The IR lock in thermography processing software is developed by using of visual C++ programmed based image sequence collected. The experimental results show that the developed system reached up to high level of conventional steady state Lock in method.

  12. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from January 1, 1992 to June 30, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  13. A status review of NASA's COSAM (Conservation Of Strategic Aerospace Materials) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The use and supply of strategic elements in nickel base superalloys for gas turbine engines are reviewed. Substitution of strategic elements, advanced processing concepts, and the identification of alternate materials are considered. Cobalt, tantalum, columbium, and chromium, the supplies of which are 91-100% imported, are the materials of major concern.

  14. Oxygen Concentration Flammability Thresholds of Selected Aerospace Materials Considered for the Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Williams, James H.; Harper, Susan A.; Beeson, Harold; Pedley, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Materials selection for spacecraft is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest expected oxygen concentration environment. The test conditions and its pass/fail test logic do not provide sufficient quantitative materials flammability information for an advanced space exploration program. A modified approach has been suggested determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. The flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk from oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats. This paper provides data on oxygen concentration self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions for selected materials considered for the Constellation Program.

  15. Polymeric Materials for Aerospace Power and Propulsion: Overview of Polymer Research at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Weight, durability and performance are all major concerns for any NASA mission. Use of lightweight materials, such as fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites can lead to significant reductions in vehicle weight and improvements in vehicle performance. Research in the Polymeric Materials Branch at NASA Glenn is focused on improving the durability, properties, processability and performance of polymeric materials by utilizing both conventional polymer science and engineering as well as nanotechnology and bioinspired approaches. This presentation will provide an overview of these efforts and highlight recent progress.

  16. Aerospace Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Jean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Sauk Rapids (Minnesota) High School aviation and aerospace curriculum that was developed by Curtis Olson and the space program developed by Gerald Mayall at Philadelphia's Northeast High School. Both were developed in conjunction with NASA. (JOW)

  17. Aerospace Bibliography, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This third edition bibliography lists books and teaching aids related to aeronautics and space. Aeronautics titles are limited to aerospace-related research subjects, and books on astronomy to those directly related to space exploration. Also listed are pertinent references like pamphlets, films, film strips, booklets, charts, pictures,…

  18. Applicability of Aerospace Materials Ground Flammability Test Data to Spacecraft Environments Theory and Applied Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ground test data in reference to flammability to spacecraft environments. It reviews the current approach to spacecraft fire safety, the challenges to fire safety that the Constellation program poses, the current trends in the evaluation of the Constellation materials flammability, and the correlation of test data from ground flammability tests with the spacecraft environment. Included is a proposal for testing and the design of experiments to test the flammability of materials under similar spacecraft conditions.

  19. Synthesis of Hafnium-Based Ceramic Materials for Ultra-High Temperature Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Feldman, Jay

    2004-01-01

    This project involved the synthesis of hafnium (Hf)-based ceramic powders and Hf-based precursor solutions that were suitable for preparation of Hf-based ceramics. The Hf-based ceramic materials of interest in this project were hafnium carbide (with nominal composition HE) and hafnium dioxide (HfO2). The materials were prepared at Georgia Institute of Technology and then supplied to research collaborators Dr. Sylvia Johnson and Dr. Jay Feldman) at NASA Ames Research Center.

  20. Aerospace Composite Materials Delivery Order 0003: Nanocomposite Polymeric Resin Enhancements for Improved Composite Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    nations. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. :~~~~~OLLE. Chief Structural Materials Branch Nonmetallic Materials...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send

  1. New Effective Material Couple--Oxide Ceramic and Carbon Nanotube-- Developed for Aerospace Microsystem and Micromachine Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; VanderWal, Randall L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.

    2004-01-01

    The prime driving force for using microsystem and micromachine technologies in transport vehicles, such as spacecraft, aircraft, and automobiles, is to reduce the weight, power consumption, and volume of components and systems to lower costs and increase affordability and reliability. However, a number of specific issues need to be addressed with respect to using microsystems and micromachines in aerospace applications--such as the lack of understanding of material characteristics; methods for producing and testing the materials in small batches; the limited proven durability and lifetime of current microcomponents, packaging, and interconnections; a cultural change with respect to system designs; and the use of embedded software, which will require new product assurance guidelines. In regards to material characteristics, there are significant adhesion, friction, and wear issues in using microdevices. Because these issues are directly related to surface phenomena, they cannot be scaled down linearly and they become increasingly important as the devices become smaller. When microsystems have contacting surfaces in relative motion, the adhesion and friction affect performance, energy consumption, wear damage, maintenance, lifetime and catastrophic failure, and reliability. Ceramics, for the most part, do not have inherently good friction and wear properties. For example, coefficients of friction in excess of 0.7 have been reported for ceramics and ceramic composite materials. Under Alternate Fuels Foundation Technologies funding, two-phase oxide ceramics developed for superior high-temperature wear resistance in NASA's High Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) project and new two-layered carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings (CNT topcoat/iron bondcoat/quartz substrate) developed in NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) project have been chosen as a materials couple for aerospace applications, including micromachines, in the nanotechnology

  2. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  3. Laboratory test methods for evaluating the fire response of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The test methods which were developed or evaluated were intended to serve as means of comparing materials on the basis of specific responses under specific sets of test conditions, using apparatus, facilities, and personnel that would be within the capabilities of perhaps the majority of laboratories. Priority was given to test methods which showed promise of addressing the pre-ignition state of a potential fire. These test methods were intended to indicate which materials may present more hazard than others under specific test conditions. These test methods are discussed and arranged according to the stage of a fire to which they are most relevant. Some observations of material performance which resulted from this work are also discussed.

  4. Characterization of physio-chemical properties of polymeric and electrochemical materials for aerospace flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.; Kunigahalli, V.; Khan, S.; Mcnair, A.

    1984-01-01

    Sealed nickel cadmium cells having undergone a large number of cycles were discharged using the Hg/HgO reference electrode. The negative electrode exhibited the second plateau. SEM of negative plates of such cells show clusters of large crystals of cadmium hydroxide. These large crystals on the negative plates disappear after continuous overcharging in flooded cells. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard wet chemical methods are being used to determine the cell materials viz: nickel, cadmium, cobalt, potassum and carbonate. The anodes and cathodes are analyzed after careful examination and the condition of the separator material is evaluated.

  5. Depression and panic attacks related to phenol-formaldehyde composite material exposure in an aerospace manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Sparks, P J; Ayars, G H; Simon, G E; Katon, W J; Altman, L C; Johnson, R L

    1991-01-01

    In a case series study we evaluated 53 composite-materials workers in an aerospace plant who filed workers' compensation claims for illness allegedly related to phenol-formaldehyde resin exposure. Symptoms ranged from mucosal and skin irritation to depression and cognitive impairment. Certain health practitioners implying they had immunologic dysfunction and organic brain injury, led workers to believe they were chemically poisoned. Industrial hygiene evaluation failed to show levels of chemicals above permissible levels. Thorough evaluation by our multidisciplinary panel failed to find significant objective abnormalities by physical exam and laboratory testing. Thirty-nine percent of the workers had sensory irritation and/or skin complaints that generally resolved rapidly with removal from exposure. Psychiatric diagnoses (including major depression and/or panic attacks) were made in 74% of the workers, but only 26% of these had antecedent disease. Fourteen (26%) had multiple somatic complaints that generally persisted despite removal from exposure, but they also had long histories of significant pre-existing psychological illness. Detailed neuropsychologic testing failed to show any definite evidence or organic brain dysfunction in any of the workers tested. We speculate that sensory irritation from low-level volatile organic compounds with autonomic arousal, reinforced by the belief they were "chemically poisoned," led to psychogenic illness.

  6. Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

  7. Laser supported detonation wave source of atomic oxygen for aerospace material testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krech, Robert H.; Caledonia, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A pulsed high-flux source of nearly monoenergetic atomic oxygen was developed to perform accelerated erosion testing of spacecraft materials in a simulated low-earth orbit (LEO) environment. Molecular oxygen is introduced into an evacuated conical expansion nozzle at several atmospheres pressure through a pulsed molecular beam valve. A laser-induced breakdown is generated in the nozzle throat by a pulsed CO2 TEA laser. The resulting plasma is heated by the ensuing laser-supported detonation wave, and then it rapidly expands and cools. An atomic oxygen beam is generated with fluxes above 10 to the 18th atoms per pulse at 8 + or - 1.6 km/s with an ion content below 1 percent for LEO testing. Materials testing yielded the same surface oxygen enrichment in polyethylene samples as observed on the STS mission, and scanning electron micrographs of the irradiated polymer surfaces showed an erosion morphology similar to that obtained on low earth orbit.

  8. A study of the applicability of gallium arsenide and silicon carbide as aerospace sensor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, John S.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the piezoresistive sensors, to date, are made of silicon and germanium. Unfortunately, such materials are severly restricted in high temperature environments. By comparing the effects of temperature on the impurity concentrations and piezoresistive coefficients of silicon, gallium arsenide, and silicon carbide, it is being determined if gallium arsenide and silicon carbide are better suited materials for piezoresistive sensors in high temperature environments. The results show that the melting point for gallium arsenide prevents it from solely being used in high temperature situations, however, when used in the alloy Al(x)Ga(1-x)As, not only the advantage of the wider energy band gas is obtained, but also the higher desire melting temperature. Silicon carbide, with its wide energy band gap and higher melting temperature suggests promise as a high temperature piezoresistive sensor.

  9. Study of low-cost fabrication methods for aerospace composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    Flat and hat section specimens of graphite/epoxy composite materials have been fabricated by the resin bath or wet pultrusion process. This demonstrated the feasibility of incorporating crossplied graphite fiber reinforcements in conjunction with epoxy resin systems in the wet pultrusion process. However, the thickness constraints of the pultrusion process, the lack of dimensional stability of the crossply materials and equipment limitations affect the quality of the hat section pultrusions. The wet pultrusion process shows promise of being a low cost method for producing composite parts with constant cross section along the length. A cost analysis showed at least 80 percent cost reduction for the hat section and 40 percent for flat panel by pultrusion over the conventional manual and automated lay-up.

  10. Study of the Influence of Metallurgical Factors on Fatigue and Fracture of Aerospace Structural Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    model to consider the crack-tip slip behavior that led to cracking along crystallographic planes. UNCLASSIFIED * .. .SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...are attractive materials for turbine engine applications because of improved creep resistance, good thermal fatigue behavior , and high incipient melting...Evaluate the crack growth model by using it to predict crack advance parameters in alloys of varying microstruc - ture and chemical makeup. B. Summary

  11. Pulsed Nd: YAG laser drilling of aerospace materials (Ti-6Al-4V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, N. D.; Marimuthu, S.; Yahya, W. J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the influence of Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) laser process parameters on laser drilled hole quality. Ti-6Al-4V of 1 mm and 3 mm thickness were used as the workpiece substrate. The principal findings are mainly based on minimising the taper angle in laser drilled holes, reducing the heat affected zone and reducing the production of spatter. Identification of key process variables associated with laser drilling process is accomplished by trial experimentation. Using the identified key process variables, further experiments were then performed with the assistance of statistical design of experiment (DOE) to find the interaction and individual effects of various laser process parameters on laser drilled hole quality. The lowest taper angle of 1.8 degrees was achieved with use of nitrogen as the assist gas. Furthermore, from the laser process observations, it was found that laser power significantly affects the quality of the laser drilled hole. Increase in laser power would increase the hole size and result in more spatter on the entry hole surfaces. The nozzle focus position substantially influenced the laser drilled hole size. The amount of spatter deposits increased with decrease in the nozzle offset. Increase in laser frequency significantly increased the exit diameter, which resulted in smaller taper angle. Number of pulse required to drill through a workpiece depends on the material properties and physical properties of the material. For 1mm Ti-6Al-4V, a minimum of two pulses was required to successfully removed the material during drilling and a minimum of 4 pulses was required to drill through the same material with 3mm thickness.

  12. Thermophysical Properties of Selected Aerospace Materials. Part 1. Thermal Radiative Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    aluminum alloys —stainless steels—titanium alloys — manganese steel— aluminum oxide—boron nitride—calcium aluminum ...Johnson ( Aluminum Alloy 2024), Dr. P. D. Desai ( Aluminum Alloy 7075 and Titanium Alloy Ti-6A1-4V), Mr. T. Y. R. Lee (AISI 304 Stainless Steel), Dr. R...RECOMMENDED VALUES . 24 4. THERMAL RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF SELECTEP MATERIALS ... 26 4.1. Aluminum Alloy 2024 27 M. W. Johnson 4.2. Aluminum

  13. Pressure Effects on Oxygen Concentration Flammability Thresholds of Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft materials selection is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest-expected oxygen-concentration environment. However, NASA s advanced space exploration program is anticipating using various habitable environments. Because limited data is available to support current program requirements, a different test logic is suggested to address these expanded atmospheric environments through the determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. This paper provides additional pressure effects data on oxygen concentration and partial pressure self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions. For the range of total pressures tested, the oxygen concentration and oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds show a near linear function of total pressure. The oxygen concentration/oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds depend on the total pressure and appear to increase with increasing oxygen concentration (and oxygen partial pressure). For the Constellation Program, the flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk because of oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats.

  14. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called digital materials. We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  15. Progress in High Power Density SOFC Material Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, Thomas L.; Sofie, Stephen W.; Setlock, John A.; Misra, Ajay K.

    2004-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems for aircraft applications require order of magnitude increase in specific power density and long life under aircraft operating conditions. Advanced SOFC materials and fabrication processes are being developed at NASA GRC to increase specific power density and durability of SOFC cell and stack. Initial research efforts for increasing specific power density are directed toward increasing the operating temperature for the SOFC system and reducing the weight of the stack. While significant research is underway to develop anode supported SOFC system operating at temperatures in the range of 650 - 850 C for ground power generation applications, such temperatures may not yield the power densities required for aircraft applications. For electrode-supported cells, SOFC stacks with power densities greater than 1.0 W/sq cm are favorable at temperatures in excess of 900 C. The performance of various commercial and developmental anode supported cells is currently being evaluated in the temperature range of 900 to 1000 C to assess the performance gains and materials reliability. The results from these studies will be presented. Since metal interconnects developed for lower temperature operation are not practical at these high temperatures, advanced perovskite based ceramic interconnects with high electronic conductivity and lower sintering temperatures are being developed. Another option for increasing specific power density of SOFC stacks is to decrease the stack weight. Since the interconnect contributes to a significant portion of the stack weight, considerable weight benefits can be derived by decreasing its thickness. Eliminating the gas channels in the interconnect by engineering the pore structure in both anode and cathode can offer significant reduction in thickness of the ceramic interconnect material. New solid oxide fuel cells are being developed with porous engineered electrode supported structures with a 10 - 20 micron thin

  16. The Development of Materials for Structures and Radiation Shielding in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Polymeric materials on space vehicles and high-altitude aircraft win be exposed to highly penetrating radiations. These radiations come from solar flares and galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Radiation from solar flares consists primarily of protons with energies less than 1 GeV. On the other hand, GCR consist of nuclei with energies as high as 10(exp 10) GeV. Over 90% of the nuclei in GCR are protons and alpha particles, however there is a small but significant component of particles with atomic numbers greater than ten. Particles with high atomic number (Z) and high energy interact with very high specific ionization and thus represent a serious hazard for humans and electronic equipment on a spacecraft or on high-altitude commercial aircraft (most importantly for crew members who would have long exposures). Neutrons generated by reactions with the high energy particles also represent a hazard both for humans and electronic equipment.

  17. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.

    1978-01-01

    Materials intended for use in spacecraft are routinely tested at low pressures, and outgassed substances are condensed on cold surfaces at liquid nitrogen temperature, -196 C. These condensates are then analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromotography-mass spectroscopy. The polymers were tested and allowed to outgas isothermally at 125 C and 0.000001 torr or less. Valuable information was obtained by extending the temperature range below and above 125 C. The performance of substances of interest to NASA were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) from room temperature to 450 C or until the substance decomposed. Thermogravimetric analysis of a substance is a useful technique for studying its thermal nature in both static and dynamic thermal environments. It gives considerable insight into the stability and characterization of substances and the changes they undergo in varying thermal environments. The system is able to get pressures down to 1 micron or 0.001 torr.

  18. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  19. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bast, Callie Corinne Scheidt

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents the on-going development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation model. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes four effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Statistical analysis was conducted on experimental Inconel 718 data obtained from the open literature. This analysis provided regression parameters for use as the model's empirical material constants, thus calibrating the model specifically for Inconel 718. Model calibration was carried out for four variables, namely, high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Methodology to estimate standard deviations of these material constants for input into the probabilistic material strength model was developed. Using the current version of PROMISS, entitled PROMISS93, a sensitivity study for the combined effects of mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue was performed. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing a combination of mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects by model to the combination by experiment were conducted. Thus, for Inconel 718, the basic model assumption of independence between effects was evaluated. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported this assumption.

  2. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Epoxy Matrix Thermal Interface Materials for Thermal Management in Load Bearing Aerospace Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-12

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...TIMs). When two nominally flat surfaces come together at at a typical material interface, the solid-solid contact area is limited to 1-2% of the...interfaces using diffraction limited infrared microscopy. They reported a thermal interface resistance of the CNT-based interface structure to be much

  3. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  4. Aerospace Materials Process Modelling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    des phdnombnes physico - chimiques , slors sal connus, notamment des rdactions do phase as produisant dana l intorvalle do solidification, par des...connaissance do donndos theraiques, sinai qua du comportement e~canique, physico - chimique at mdtaliurgique des pibees & order maim aussi des moules. des...W.T.Sbs 16 A NUMERICAL MODEL OF DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION OF CAST TURBINE BLADES by G,.Lammndu and L -Veruiot des Roches 17 Paper IS withdrawn Pape 19

  5. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  6. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume I: Sections 1--Acquisition and Sources; 2--Descriptive Cataloguing; 3--Abstracting and Subject Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, S. C., Ed.

    The first volume in a series of publications describing the basic documentation practices involved in the initial setting up and subsequent operation of an information-library organization to provide defense-aerospace scientific and technical information services, this manual consists of three sections. "Acquisition and Sources," by…

  7. Aerospace Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry.

  8. Aerospace Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry. PMID:28216729

  9. 37 CFR 202.1 - Material not subject to copyright.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to copyright. The following are examples of works not subject to copyright and applications for registration of such works cannot be entertained: (a) Words and short phrases such as names, titles, and...; mere listing of ingredients or contents; (b) Ideas, plans, methods, systems, or devices,...

  10. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  11. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  12. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  13. Aerospace Education - An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the surge of interest throughout the country in aerospace education and discusses what aerospace education is, the implications in career education and the relevance of aerospace education in the curriculum. (BR)

  14. Basic Aerospace Education Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Lists the most significant resource items on aerospace education which are presently available. Includes source books, bibliographies, directories, encyclopedias, dictionaries, audiovisuals, curriculum/planning guides, aerospace statistics, aerospace education statistics and newsletters. (BR)

  15. Aerospace gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  16. Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, High-Cycle and Low-Cycle Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bast, Callie C.; Boyce, Lola

    1995-01-01

    The development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation is described. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes five effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, high-cycle mechanical fatigue, low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing predictions of high-cycle mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects with experiments are presented. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported that material degradation can be represented by randomized multifactor interaction models.

  17. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications, Report on NASA-Kamatics SAA3-1288

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Under NASA Space Act Agreement (SAA3-1288), NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54 kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  18. The Aerospace Age. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is written for use only in the Air Force ROTC program and cannot be purchased on the open market. The book describes the historical development of aerospace industry. The first chapter contains a brief review of the aerospace environment and the nature of technological changes brought by the aerospace revolution. The following chapter…

  19. Accounting for Material Reality in the Analytic Subject

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Robin McCoy

    2013-01-01

    Scientific advances made in the 21st century contend that the forces of nature and nurture work together through an ongoing series of complex correspondences between brain and mental activity in our daily activities with others. Jung’s cosmological model of the psyche minimizes the fundamental corporeal condition of human nature and as such is critiqued and amended, influenced by the transcendental materialist theories of subjectivity inspired by Žižek, Johnston and Laplanche. PMID:25379260

  20. Accounting for material reality in the analytic subject.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Robin McCoy

    2013-12-01

    Scientific advances made in the 21st century contend that the forces of nature and nurture work together through an ongoing series of complex correspondences between brain and mental activity in our daily activities with others. Jung's cosmological model of the psyche minimizes the fundamental corporeal condition of human nature and as such is critiqued and amended, influenced by the transcendental materialist theories of subjectivity inspired by Žižek, Johnston and Laplanche.

  1. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC'S, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application, verification, compliant coatings including corrosion protection system and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  2. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Clark-Ingram, M.; Hessler, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  3. Reach and its Impact: NASA and US Aerospace Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    REACH is a European law that threatens to impact materials used within the US aerospace communities, including NASA. The presentation briefly covers REACH and generally, its perceived impacts to NASA and the aerospace community within the US.

  4. Testing device subjects elastic materials to biaxial deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. W.

    1965-01-01

    Testing device stretches elastic materials biaxially over large deformation ranges and varies strain ratios in two perpendicular directions. The device is used in conjunction with a tensile testing machine, which holds the specimen and permits control over the direction and magnitude of the stresses applied.

  5. Prepsolv (TM): The optimum alternative to 1,1,1-trichloroethane and methyl ethyl ketone for hand-wipe cleaning of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. Scott; Purvis, John A.; Moran, Wade W.

    1995-01-01

    Engineers at Hercules Aerospace, a rocket motor manufacturer in Utah, have worked closely with chemists at Glidco Organics to study the feasibility of using terpenes for zero-residue wipe cleaning. The result of this work is a technological breakthrough, in which the barrier to ultra-low non-volatile residue formation has been broken. After 2 years of development and testing, SCM Glidco Organics has announced the availability of Glidsafe(registered trademark) Prepsolv(TM): a state-of-the-art ultra-low residue terpene wipe cleaning agent that does not require rinsing. Prepsolv(TM) can successfully be used in simple hand-wipe cleaning processes without fear of leaving surface residues. Industry testing has confirmed that Prepsolv(TM) is not only highly effective, but can even be less expensive to use than traditional cleaning solvents like methyl chloroform. This paper addresses the features and benefits of Prepsolv(TM), and presents performance and material compatibility data that characterizes this unique cleaning agent. Since its commercialization, Hercules Aerospace has chosen Prepsolv(TM) as the optimum cleaning agent to replace ozone-depleting solvents in their weapons factory in Magna, UT. Likewise, Boeing has approved Prepsolv(TM) for cleaning components in the manufacture of commercial aircraft at their facilities in Seattle, WA and Wichita, KS. Additional approvals are forthcoming for this uniquely safe and effective solvent.

  6. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The general objective of the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program was to conduct research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and associated thermal gradient structures. The following research areas were actively investigated: (1) mechanical and environmental degradation mechanisms in advanced light metals and composites; (2) aerospace materials science; (3) mechanics of materials and composites for aerospace structures; and (4) thermal gradient structures.

  7. Unification - An international aerospace information issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific and Technical Information (STI) represents the results of large investments in research and development (R&D) and the expertise of a nation and is a valuable resource. For more than four decades, NASA and its predecessor organizations have developed and managed the preeminent aerospace information system. NASA obtains foreign materials through its international exchange relationships, continually increasing the comprehensiveness of the NASA Aerospace Database (NAD). The NAD is de facto the international aerospace database. This paper reviews current NASA goals and activities with a view toward maintaining compatibility among international aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  8. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  9. Aerospace Resources for Science and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald, Ed.; Smith, Kenneth L., Ed.

    This publication on Aerospace Programs is a special edition of "Technology Education" featuring descriptions of 15 select aerospace education programs from diverse localities spanning the full range of instructional levels. Following introductory material, the monograph contains the following largely unedited program descriptions: (1)…

  10. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: Cumulative index, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 190 through 201 of 'Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography.' It includes three indexes-subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  11. Teachers, Aerospace, Involvement: The Ingredients for Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Rex; Bell, Michael L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a two week workshop which concentrated on involving teachers in action oriented aerospace activities and sharing ideas and materials for the application of aerospace concepts in the classroom. Research was also done to see if participants' attitudes toward aerospace education could be positively influenced to enhance personal teaching…

  12. Aerospace Education: A Pilot Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlovich, Jack; Fagle, David

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of K-12 aerospace education materials. The ninth-grade component, adopted as a pilot program, consists of four parts: history, applications (principles of flight, weather, navigation), spin-offs of research, and careers/organizations. Program evaluation results are reported. (JN)

  13. NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report is concerned with 'Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft' which was initiated to identify the technology needs associated with advanced, low-cost aluminum base materials for use as primary structural materials. Using a reference baseline aircraft, these materials concept will be further developed and evaluated both technically and economically to determine the most attractive combinations of designs, materials, and manufacturing techniques for major structural sections of an HSCT. Once this has been accomplished, the baseline aircraft will be resized, if applicable, and performance objectives and economic evaluations made to determine aircraft operating costs. The two primary objectives of this study are: (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials, and (2) to assess these materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT.

  14. Development of aerospace nursing.

    PubMed

    Barron, N J

    1975-04-01

    In the initial development, the primary purpose of the USAF aerospace nursing program was to prepare the nurse to function as an integral member of the aerospace medical team in support of bioastronautics, occupational health and aerospace medical research programs. The absence of an expanded manned space program has required the aerospace nurse to redirect her energies toward the immediate needs of the aerospace medicine program. Many of the aerospace nurse's more specific functions are dependent upon the mission objectives of the command and military base to which she is assigned. Aerospace nursing reflects a concern for the total health needs of the Air Force community and the application of a holistic approach. It includes all aspects of health and all environmental hazards which alter health. The development of aerospace nursing paves the way for this expanded view of nursing practice.

  15. An Aerospace Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill

    1972-01-01

    Describes the 16-day, 10,000 mile national tour of the nation's major aerospace research and development centers by 65 students enrolled in Central Washington State College's Summer Aerospace Workshop. (Author/MB)

  16. Aerospace Industry and Research. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, T. E.

    This book, to be used in the Air Force ROTC program only, discusses various aspects of the aerospace industry and its importance to the society. Not only does a modern and strong aerospace technology help in national defense, but it is a major economic industry as well. The vast number of people employed could shake the roots of economic…

  17. Access to Nonbook Materials: The Limits of Subject Indexing for Visual and Aural Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svenonius, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Examines some nonbook materials with respect to an aboutness model of indexing, showing that there are instances that defy subject indexing. These occur not so much because of the nature of the medium but because it is being used for nondocumentary purposes or because the subject referenced is nonlexical. (Contains 20 references.) (KRN)

  18. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  19. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  20. Aerospace applications of advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.; Langenbeck, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced metallic materials within the Al-base family are being developed for applications on current and future aerospace vehicles. These advanced materials offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved vehicle performance. Aerospace applications of advanced metallic materials include space structures, fighters, military and commercial transport aircraft, and missiles. Structural design requirements, including not only static and durability/damage tolerance criteria but also environmental considerations, drive material selections. Often trade-offs must be made regarding strength, fracture resistance, cost, reliability, and maintainability in order to select the optimum material for a specific application. These trade studies not only include various metallic materials but also many times include advanced composite materials. Details of material comparisons, aerospace applications, and material trades will be presented.

  1. The 1990 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Lewis M. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4-6, 1990. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers as well as participation in like kind from the European Space Agency member nations. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, lithium based chemistries, and advanced technologies as they relate to high reliability operations in aerospace applications.

  2. The 2001 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeff C. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 34th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center, November 27-29, 2001. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the US Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies.

  3. The 2000 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, J. C. (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 33nd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 14-16, 2000. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, lithium-ion, lithium-sulfur, and silver-zinc technologies.

  4. The 1999 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, J. C. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 32nd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 16-18, 1999. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the US Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies.

  5. Probability and Statistics in Aerospace Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.; Howell, L. W.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph was prepared to give the practicing engineer a clear understanding of probability and statistics with special consideration to problems frequently encountered in aerospace engineering. It is conceived to be both a desktop reference and a refresher for aerospace engineers in government and industry. It could also be used as a supplement to standard texts for in-house training courses on the subject.

  6. Third Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Cross, D. R. (Editor); Caruso, S. V. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, other ozone depleting chemicals, and specific hazardous materials is well underway. The phaseout of these chemicals has mandated changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. We are beyond discovery and initiation of these new developments and are now in the implementation phase. This conference provided a forum for materials and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess the evolving replacement and clean propulsion technologies from the standpoint of their significance, application, impact on aerospace systems, and utilization by the research and development community. The use of these new technologies, their selection and qualification, their implementation, and the needs and plans for further developments are presented.

  7. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of the study "Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft" which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX without Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys, and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  8. Sol-gel hybrid materials for aerospace applications: Chemical characterization and comparative investigation of the magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catauro, Michelina; Mozzati, Maria Cristina; Bollino, Flavia

    2015-12-01

    In the material science field, weightless conditions can be successfully used to understand the relationship between manufacturing process, structure and properties of the obtained materials. Aerogels with controlled microstructure could be obtained by sol-gel methods in microgravity environment, simulated using magnetic levitation if they are diamagnetic. In the present work, a sol-gel route was used to synthesize class I, organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials. Two different formulations were prepared: the former consisted in a SiO2 matrix in which different percentages of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were incorporated, the latter was a ZrO2 matrix entrapping different amounts of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) detected that the organic and the inorganic components in both the formulation interact by means of hydrogen bonds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis highlighted the amorphous nature of the synthesized materials and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed that they have homogeneous morphology and are nanocomposites. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry confirmed the expected diamagnetic character of those hybrid systems. The obtained results were compared to those achieved in previous studies regarding the influence of the polymer amount on the magnetic properties of SiO2/PCL and ZiO2/PEG hybrids, in order to understand how the diamagnetic susceptibility is influenced by variation of both the inorganic matrix and organic component.

  9. Optimal Composite Material for Low Cost Fabrication of Large Composite Aerospace Structures using NASA Resins or POSS Nanoparticle Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamontia, Mark A.; Gruber, Mark B.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    Thermoplastic laminates in situ consolidated via tape or tow placement require full mechanical properties. Realizing full properties requires resin crystallinity to be controlled - partial crystallinity leads to unacceptably low laminate compression properties. There are two approaches: utilize an amorphous matrix resin; or place material made from a semi-crystalline resin featuring kinetics faster than the process. In this paper, a matrix resin evaluation and trade study was completed with commercial and NASA amorphous polyimides on the one hand, and with PEKK mixed with POSS nanoparticles for accelerated crystallinity growth on the other. A new thermoplastic impregnated material, 6 mm wide (0.25-in) AS-4 carbon/LaRC(TradeMark)8515 dry polyimide tow, was fabricated. Since LaRC(TradeMark)8515 is fully amorphous, it attains full properties following in situ consolidation, with no post processing required to build crystallinity. The tow in situ processing was demonstrated via in situ thermoplastic filament winding it into rings.

  10. Development of a 30 kW Inductively Coupled Plasma Torch Facility for Advanced Aerospace Material Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-21

    passive oxidation of zirconium diboride forms zirconia and boron oxide, and the passive oxidation of silicon carbide forms silica and carbon monoxide: ZrB2... silicon carbide composites in the ICP wind tunnels. However, this concept has never been explored as an in situ diagnostic for UHTC materials systems...Process- ing, properties, and arc jet oxidation of hafnium diboride/ silicon carbide ultra high temperature ceramics. J Mater Sci 2004;39:5925–37. 12

  11. Conference on Aerospace Transparent Materials and Enclosures Held in Monterey, California on 16-20 January 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    environment in Queensland , Australia. Various properties were measured at laboratories in Australia, Canada, UK, and USA. The coating provides...Innisfail, Queensland , Australia, in the hot/wet cleared site. The sheets were supported at 450 facing north, coated side uppermost. Innisfail has a hot...of various acrylic materials at a tropical site in Queensland , Australia has shown that the laboratory results on craze resistance are realistic

  12. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  13. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  14. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  15. Supercomputing in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Yee, Helen

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: numerical aerodynamic simulation; computational mechanics; supercomputers; aerospace propulsion systems; computational modeling in ballistics; turbulence modeling; computational chemistry; computational fluid dynamics; and computational astrophysics.

  16. High-precision Non-Contact Measurement of Creep of Ultra-High Temperature Materials for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan R.; Hyers, Robert

    2008-01-01

    For high-temperature applications (greater than 2,000 C) such as solid rocket motors, hypersonic aircraft, nuclear electric/thermal propulsion for spacecraft, and more efficient jet engines, creep becomes one of the most important design factors to be considered. Conventional creep-testing methods, where the specimen and test apparatus are in contact with each other, are limited to temperatures approximately 1,700 C. Development of alloys for higher-temperature applications is limited by the availability of testing methods at temperatures above 2000 C. Development of alloys for applications requiring a long service life at temperatures as low as 1500 C, such as the next generation of jet turbine superalloys, is limited by the difficulty of accelerated testing at temperatures above 1700 C. For these reasons, a new, non-contact creep-measurement technique is needed for higher temperature applications. A new non-contact method for creep measurements of ultra-high-temperature metals and ceramics has been developed and validated. Using the electrostatic levitation (ESL) facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, a spherical sample is rotated quickly enough to cause creep deformation due to centrifugal acceleration. Very accurate measurement of the deformed shape through digital image analysis allows the stress exponent n to be determined very precisely from a single test, rather than from numerous conventional tests. Validation tests on single-crystal niobium spheres showed excellent agreement with conventional tests at 1985 C; however the non-contact method provides much greater precision while using only about 40 milligrams of material. This method is being applied to materials including metals and ceramics for non-eroding throats in solid rockets and next-generation superalloys for turbine engines. Recent advances in the method and the current state of these new measurements will be presented.

  17. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 2, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This report contains the Appendices to the findings from the first year of the program's operations.

  18. Index of aerospace mechanisms symposia proceedings 1-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinaldo, A.; Wilson, J.

    1986-01-01

    This index, organized in five sections (by symposium, by title, by author, by subject, and by project), brings together information on the first 19 Aerospace Mechanisms symposia. Key words are included, cross-referencing all the symposia, and the eighteenth and nineteenth symposia are cross-indexed by project. The Aerospace Mechanisms symposia are devoted to discussions of design, fabrication, test, and operational use of aerospace mechanisms; this is the first index that compiles information on symposia held from 1966 through 1985.

  19. Improved Verification for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace systems are subject to many stringent performance requirements to be verified with low risk. This report investigates verification planning using conditional approaches vice the standard classical statistical methods, and usage of historical surrogate data for requirement validation and in verification planning. The example used in this report to illustrate the results of these investigations is a proposed mission assurance requirement with the concomitant maximum acceptable verification risk for the NASA Constellation Program Orion Launch Abort System (LAS). This report demonstrates the following improvements: 1) verification planning using conditional approaches vice classical statistical methods results in plans that are more achievable and feasible; 2) historical surrogate data can be used to bound validation of performance requirements; and, 3) incorporation of historical surrogate data in verification planning using conditional approaches produces even less costly and more reasonable verification plans. The procedures presented in this report may produce similar improvements and cost savings in verification for any stringent performance requirement for an aerospace system.

  20. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  1. Lattice Structures For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Olmo, E.; Grande, E.; Samartin, C. R.; Bezdenejnykh, M.; Torres, J.; Blanco, N.; Frovel, M.; Canas, J.

    2012-07-01

    The way of mass reduction improving performances in the aerospace structures is a constant and relevant challenge in the space business. The designs, materials and manufacturing processes are permanently in evolution to explore and get mass optimization solutions at low cost. In the framework of ICARO project, EADS CASA ESPACIO (ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator which shows that lattice type of grid structures is a promising weight saving solution for replacing some traditional metallic and composite structures for space applications. A virtual testing methodology was used in order to support the design of a high modulus CFRP cylindrical lattice technology demonstrator. The manufacturing process, based on composite Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) technology developed by ECE, allows obtaining high quality low weight lattice structures potentially applicable to a wide range of aerospace structures. Launcher payload adaptors, satellite platforms, antenna towers or instrument supports are some promising candidates.

  2. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference: Exectutive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The papers from this conference are being published in a separate volume as NASA CP-3298.

  3. Second Conference on NDE for Aerospace Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodis, Kenneth W. (Compiler); Bryson, Craig C. (Compiler); Workman, Gary L. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation and inspection procedures must constantly improve rapidly in order to keep pace with corresponding advances being made in aerospace material and systems. In response to this need, the 1989 Conference was organized to provide a forum for discussion between the materials scientists, systems designers, and NDE engineers who produce current and future aerospace systems. It is anticipated that problems in current systems can be resolved more quickly and that new materials and structures can be designed and manufactured in such a way as to be more easily inspected and to perform reliably over the life cycle of the system.

  4. A RESOURCE BOOK OF AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Public Schools, NE.

    THIS RESOURCE BOOK OF ACTIVITIES WAS WRITTEN FOR TEACHERS OF GRADES K-6, TO HELP THEM INTEGRATE AEROSPACE SCIENCE WITH THE REGULAR LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF THE CLASSROOM. SUGGESTIONS ARE MADE FOR INTRODUCING AEROSPACE CONCEPTS INTO THE VARIOUS SUBJECT FIELDS SUCH AS LANGUAGE ARTS, MATHEMATICS, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, SOCIAL STUDIES, AND OTHERS. SUBJECT…

  5. Aerospace Bibliography. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aerospace Education Council, Washington, DC.

    This sixth edition of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) bibliography presents an updated list of books, references, periodicals, and other educational materials related to space flight and space science. To find materials on a particular subject and for a specific reading level, users are advised to refer first to Part…

  6. Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

  7. Aerospace, Chemical and Material Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-05

    over the vehicle’s upper surface to reduce friction and heat •Engineered maneuverable micro flight vehicles may incorporate of flexible wing...this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters...Membrane Flexibility:  Reduces the extent of leading edge separation  Enhances lift at the cost of increased L/D  Reduces nose down

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 10: The NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge DIffusion Research Project in helping to maintain U.S. competitiveness is addressed. The phases of the project are examined in terms of the focus, emphasis, subjects, methods, and desired outcomes. The importance of the project to aerospace R&D is emphasized.

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 39: The role of computer networks in aerospace engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Ann P.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from an empirical investigation into the use of computer networks in aerospace engineering. Such networks allow aerospace engineers to communicate with people and access remote resources through electronic mail, file transfer, and remote log-in. The study drew its subjects from private sector, government and academic organizations in the U.S. aerospace industry. Data presented here were gathered in a mail survey, conducted in Spring 1993, that was distributed to aerospace engineers performing a wide variety of jobs. Results from the mail survey provide a snapshot of the current use of computer networks in the aerospace industry, suggest factors associated with the use of networks, and identify perceived impacts of networks on aerospace engineering work and communication.

  10. Quick Reaction Evaluations of Materials and Processes. Delivery Order 0005: Effects of Several Paint Removal Technologies on the Static and Fatigue Properties of Thin Aerospace Structural Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    7075-T6 YS and UTS, respectively. Also presented in each plot is a line representing the appropriate MMPDS Handbook [12] value in terms of “A...clad 2024 CO2 group and the MMPDS “A allowables” for 2024 clad show that the average strength properties following CO2 stripping to be well in excess...sample groups far exceeded the MMPDS “A-allowable” values listed for similar sheet material. 8 Table 1. Average Tensile Properties for

  11. Finite element thermo-viscoplastic analysis of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Ajay K.; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Thornton, Earl A.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent thermo-viscoplastic response of aerospace structures subjected to intense aerothermal loads is predicted using the finite-element method. The finite-element analysis uses the Bodner-Partom unified viscoplastic constitutive relations to determine rate-dependent nonlinear material behavior. The methodology is verified by comparison with experimental data and other numerical results for a uniaxially-loaded bar. The method is then used (1) to predict the structural response of a rectangular plate subjected to line heating along a centerline, and (2) to predict the thermal-structural response of a convectively-cooled engine cowl leading edge subjected to aerodynamic shock-shock interference heating. Compared to linear elastic analysis, the viscoplastic analysis results in lower peak stresses and regions of plastic deformations.

  12. Achilles tendon stress is more sensitive to subject-specific geometry than subject-specific material properties: A finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Wencke; Shim, Vickie B; Obst, Steven; Lloyd, David G; Newsham-West, Richard; Barrett, Rod S

    2017-03-04

    This study used subject-specific measures of three-dimensional (3D) free Achilles tendon geometry in conjunction with a finite element method to investigate the effect of variation in subject-specific geometry and subject-specific material properties on tendon stress during submaximal isometric loading. Achilles tendons of eight participants (Aged 25-35years) were scanned with freehand 3D ultrasound at rest and during a 70% maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Ultrasound images were segmented, volume rendered and transformed into subject-specific 3D finite element meshes. The mean (±SD) lengths, volumes and cross-sectional areas of the tendons at rest were 62±13mm, 3617±984mm(3) and 58±11mm(2) respectively. The measured tendon strain at 70% MVIC was 5.9±1.3%. Subject-specific material properties were obtained using an optimisation approach that minimised the difference between measured and modelled longitudinal free tendon strain. Generic geometry was represented by the average mesh and generic material properties were taken from the literature. Local stresses were subsequently computed for combinations of subject-specific and generic geometry and material properties. For a given geometry, changing from generic to subject-specific material properties had little effect on the stress distribution in the tendon. In contrast, changing from generic to subject-specific geometry had a 26-fold greater effect on tendon stress distribution. Overall, these findings indicate that the stress distribution experienced by the living free Achilles tendon of a young and healthy population during voluntary loading are more sensitive to variation in tendon geometry than variation in tendon material properties.

  13. Cytogenetic genotoxic investigation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of subjects with dental composite restorative filling materials.

    PubMed

    Pettini, F; Savino, M; Corsalini, M; Cantore, S; Ballini, A

    2015-01-01

    Dental composite resins are biomaterials commonly used to aesthetically restore the structure and function of teeth impaired by caries, erosion, or fracture. Residual monomers released from resin restorations as a result of incomplete polymerization processes interact with living oral tissues. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of a common dental composite material (Enamel Plus-HFO), in subjects with average 13 filled teeth with the same material, compared to a control group (subjects having neither amalgam nor composite resin fillings). Genotoxicity assessment of composite materials was carried out in vitro in human peripheral blood leukocytes using sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) cytogenetic tests. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses confirmed the absence of a relationship between SCE/cell, high frequency of SCE(HFC) or CA frequencies and exposure to dental composite materials. These results indicate that composite resins used for dental restorations differ extensively in vivo in their cytotoxic and genotoxic potential and in their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair.

  14. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  15. Aerospace bibliography, seventh edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blashfield, J. F. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Space travel, planetary probes, applications satellites, manned spaceflight, the impacts of space exploration, future space activities, astronomy, exobiology, aeronautics, energy, space and the humanities, and aerospace education are covered.

  16. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  17. Structures Technology for Future Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Venneri, Samuel L.; Paul, Donald B.; Hopkins, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of structures technology for future aerospace systems is given. Discussion focuses on developments in component technologies that will improve the vehicle performance, advance the technology exploitation process, and reduce system life-cycle costs. The component technologies described are smart materials and structures, multifunctional materials and structures, affordable composite structures, extreme environment structures, flexible load bearing structures, and computational methods and simulation-based design. The trends in each of the component technologies are discussed and the applicability of these technologies to future aerospace vehicles is described.

  18. The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

  19. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 242 through 253 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes six indexes--subject, personal author, corporate source, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  20. The 1992 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 23rd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 15-19, 1992. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including sodium-sulfur and various bipolar designs.

  1. The 1998 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 31st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on October 27-29, 1998. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, silver-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-based technologies, as well as results from destructive physical analyses on various cell chemistries.

  2. The 1997 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 30th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 18-20, 1997. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, lithium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies, as well as various aspects of nickel electrode design.

  3. The 1993 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 26th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on 16-18 Nov. 1993. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including various bipolar designs.

  4. Novel Nanolaminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Martin; Mazuruk, consty

    2006-01-01

    Nanolaminate manufacturing (NLM) is a new way of developing materials whose properties can far exceed those of homogeneous materials. Traditional alloys, composites and bulk laminates tend to average the properties of the materials from which they were made. With nanostructured materials, the high density of interfaces between dissimilar materials results in novel material properties. For example, materials made -from alternating nanoscale layers of metals and oxides have exhibited thermal conductivities far below those of the oxides themselves. Also, metallic nanolaminates can have peak strengths 100 times lager than the bulk constituent metals. Recent work at MSFC has focused on the development of nickel/aluminum oxide (Ni/Al2O3)) nanolaminates. Ni/Al2O3 nanolaminates are expected to have better strength, creep and fatigue resistance, oxygen compatibility, and corrosion resistance than the traditional metal-matrix composites of this material, which has been used in a variety of aerospace applications. A chemical vapor deposition (CW) system has been developed and optimized for the deposition of nanolaminates. Nanolaminates with layer thicknesses between 10 and 300 nm have been successfully grown and characterization has included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) Nanolaminates have a large variety of potential applications. They can be tailored to have both very small and anisotropic thermal conductivities and are promising as thermal coatings for both rock$ engine components and aerobraking structures. They also have the potential to be used in aerospace applications where strength at high temperatures, corrosion resistance or resistance to hydrogen embrittlement is important. Both CVD and magnetron sputtering facilities are available for the deposition of nanolayered materials. Characterization equipment includes SEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and mechanical tensile pull

  5. Characterizing and Modeling Brittle Bi-material Interfaces Subjected to Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos N.; Berggreen, Christian

    2014-12-01

    This work is based on the investigation, both experimentally and numerically, of the Mode II fracture process and bond strength of bondlines formed in co-cured composite/metal joints. To this end, GFRP-to-steel double strap joints were tested in tension, so that the bi-material interface was subjected to shear with debonding occurring under Mode II conditions. The study of the debonding process and thus failure of the joints was based both on stress and energy considerations. Analytical formulas were utilized for the derivation of the respective shear strength and fracture toughness measures which characterize the bi-material interface, by considering the joint's failure load, geometry and involved materials. The derived stress and toughness magnitudes were further utilized as the parameters of an extrinsic cohesive law, applied in connection with the modeling the bi-material interface in a finite element simulation environment. It was concluded that interfacial fracture in the considered joints was driven by the fracture toughness and not by strength considerations, and that LEFM is well suited to analyze the failure of the joint. Additionally, the double strap joint geometry was identified and utilized as a characterization test for measuring the Mode II fracture toughness of brittle bi-material interfaces.

  6. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  7. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. [Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  8. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This report documents the outcome of the assessment.

  9. Aerospace Bibliography, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aerospace Education Council, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography, intended for elementary and secondary school teachers, their pupils, and general adult readers contains grade level coded lists of books, reference works, periodicals, and teaching aids dealing with astronomy and space flight subjects. The reading material is listed alphabetically by author. The teaching aids in Part…

  10. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  11. Predicting the Reliability of Brittle Material Structures Subjected to Transient Proof Test and Service Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Palfi, Tamas; Baker, Eric H.

    Brittle materials today are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts, thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing brittle material components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The NASA CARES/Life 1 (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structure/Life) code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. This capability includes predicting the time-dependent failure probability of ceramic components against catastrophic rupture when subjected to transient thermomechanical loads (including cyclic loads). The developed methodology allows for changes in material response that can occur with temperature or time (i.e. changing fatigue and Weibull parameters with temperature or time). For this article an overview of the transient reliability methodology and how this methodology is extended to account for proof testing is described. The CARES/Life code has been modified to have the ability to interface with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) codes executed for transient load histories. Examples are provided to demonstrate the features of the methodology as implemented in the CARES/Life program.

  12. Aerospace engineering educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, William; Klett, David; Lai, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The principle goal of the educational component of NASA CORE is the creation of aerospace engineering options in the mechanical engineering program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To accomplish this goal, a concerted effort during the past year has resulted in detailed plans for the initiation of aerospace options in both the BSME and MSME programs in the fall of 1993. All proposed new courses and the BSME aerospace option curriculum must undergo a lengthy approval process involving two cirriculum oversight committees (School of Engineering and University level) and three levels of general faculty approval. Assuming approval is obtained from all levels, the options will officially take effect in Fall '93. In anticipation of this, certain courses in the proposed curriculum are being offered during the current academic year under special topics headings so that current junior level students may graduate in May '94 under the BSME aerospace option. The proposed undergraduate aerospace option curriculum (along with the regular mechanical engineering curriculum for reference) is attached at the end of this report, and course outlines for the new courses are included in the appendix.

  13. Large stable aluminum optics for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Schaefer, John P.

    2011-09-01

    Aluminum mirrors offer the advantages of lower cost, shorter fabrication time, more rugged mounting, and same material athermalization when compared to classical glass mirrors. In the past these advantages were offset by controversial dimensional stability and high surface scatter, limiting applications to IR systems. Raytheon developed processes to improve long term stability, and reduce surface scatter. Six 380 mm aperture aluminum mirrors made using these processes showed excellent stability, with figure changes of less than 0.01 wave RMS(1 wave = 633 nm) when cycled 10 times between -51 and +71 deg. C. The VQ process developed at ELCAN reduces surface scatter in bare aluminum mirrors to below 20 angstroms RMS, and has been used in thousands of production mirrors up to 300 mm aperture. These processes were employed in the fabrication of two lightweight single arch 600 mm aluminum mirrors. The two mirrors were produced in four months, with a mounted surface figure of 0.22 waves RMS and surface roughness of 20 angstroms. Mounted fundamental frequency was 218 Hz, and no figure distortion was observed at preload levels four times higher than design. Subsequently the mirrors performed well when subjected to severe environmental loadings in a Raytheon test system. This technology is being extended to ultra-lightweight sandwich mirrors, which are competitive with other material technologies used in advanced aerospace applications such as high-altitude UAV surveillance systems and satellite optics.

  14. Aerospace Concepts at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents materials compiled to assist the elementary teacher in preparing teaching units in aerospace education. Suggests specific and general objectives and lists important concepts and questions pertaining to areas such as: history of flight, weather and flying, airplanes, jets, rockets, space travel, and the solar system. (MLH)

  15. Using Aerospace Technology To Design Orthopedic Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    Technology originally developed to optimize designs of composite-material aerospace structural components used to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants. Development effort focused on designing knee implants, long-term goal to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants in general.

  16. Use of simulated experiments for material characterization of brittle materials subjected to high strain rate dynamic tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukić, Bratislav; Saletti, Dominique; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Rapid progress in ultra-high-speed imaging has allowed material properties to be studied at high strain rates by applying full-field measurements and inverse identification methods. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of these techniques still requires a better understanding, since various extrinsic factors present during an actual experiment make it difficult to separate different sources of errors that can significantly affect the quality of the identified results. This study presents a methodology using simulated experiments to investigate the accuracy of the so-called spalling technique (used to study tensile properties of concrete subjected to high strain rates) by numerically simulating the entire identification process. The experimental technique uses the virtual fields method and the grid method. The methodology consists of reproducing the recording process of an ultra-high-speed camera by generating sequences of synthetically deformed images of a sample surface, which are then analysed using the standard tools. The investigation of the uncertainty of the identified parameters, such as Young's modulus along with the stress-strain constitutive response, is addressed by introducing the most significant user-dependent parameters (i.e. acquisition speed, camera dynamic range, grid sampling, blurring), proving that the used technique can be an effective tool for error investigation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  17. Fabric Evolution in Granular Materials Subject to Drained, Strain Controlled Cyclic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, C.; Cui, L.

    2009-06-01

    While there have been many discrete element method (DEM) publications considering the micromechanics of granular materials subject to monotonic loading, studies of the particle-scale material response to cyclic or repeated loading have been comparatively rare. From a geotechnical perspective soil is subjected to repeated loading in a variety of situations. Examples include foundations to railways and roads, foundations to wind turbines, soil adjacent to integral bridges, etc. The work described in this paper extends an earlier study by O'Sullivan et al.. [1]. In this earlier study, DEM simulations of strain controlled cyclic triaxial tests were coupled with laboratory experiments to validate a DEM model. The simulations were performed using the axi-symmetric DEM formulation proposed by [2] and a stress controlled membrane algorithm was used to apply forces to balls along the outer vertical boundaries to model the latex membrane used in the laboratory tests. Specimens of uniform spheres and mixtures of sphere sizes were considered in the validation stage of this research. The earlier study considered strain amplitudes of 1%, 0.5% and 0.1%. In the current study the response is extended to consider the smaller strain amplitude of 0.01%. All of the simulations were carried out in a quasi-static mode and in all cases the maximum stress level mobilized was significantly lower than the peak stress measured in equivalent monotonic physical tests and DEM simulations [2]. In examining the response of the material to the smaller strain amplitude, the macro scale analyses considered the stress strain response and specimen stiffness. At the particle scale, the variation in coordination number and deviator fabric are considered as well as the distribution of the contact forces orientations. The findings may provide insight to the development of continuum constitutive models for cyclic soil response that include fabric parameters [3].

  18. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  19. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  20. Investigation of Deuterium Loaded Materials Subject to X-Ray Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benyo, Theresa L.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Martin, Richard E.; Forsley, Lawrence P.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Chait, Arnon; Pines, Vladimir; Pines, Marianna; Penney, Nicholas; Kamm, Tracy R.; Becks, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Results are presented from an exploratory study involving x-ray irradiation of select deuterated materials. Titanium deuteride plus deuterated polyethylene, deuterated polyethylene alone, and for control, hydrogen-based polyethylene samples and nondeuterated titanium samples were exposed to x-ray irradiation. These samples were exposed to various energy levels from 65 to 280 kV with prescribed electron flux from 500 to 9000 µA impinging on a tungsten braking target, with total exposure times ranging from 55 to 280 min. Gamma activity was measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and for all samples no gamma activity above background was detected. Alpha and beta activities were measured using a gas proportional counter, and for select samples beta activity was measured with a liquid scintillator spectrometer. The majority of the deuterated materials subjected to the microfocus x-ray irradiation exhibited postexposure beta activity above background and several showed short-lived alpha activity. The HPE and nondeuterated titanium control samples exposed to the x-ray irradiation showed no postexposure alpha or beta activities above background. Several of the samples (SL10A, SL16, SL17A) showed beta activity above background with a greater than 4s confidence level, months after exposure. Portions of SL10A, SL16, and SL17A samples were also scanned using a beta scintillator and found to have beta activity in the tritium energy band, continuing without noticeable decay for over 12 months. Beta scintillation investigation of as-received materials (before x-ray exposure) showed no beta activity in the tritium energy band, indicating the beta emitters were not in the starting materials.

  1. Research of the optical properties of solar-reflective materials subjected to accelerated and nonaccelerated exposure tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rausch, R A

    1980-10-01

    Research on candidate reflective materials for use in solar thermal power applications is reported. The candidate materials have been subjected to exposure tests conducted previously at the Phoenix, Arizona test site. The samples have been exposed to each of three test conditions - one non-accelerated and two different accelerated tests (nominally 8 suns). Post-exposure optical measurements of spectral reflectance were then conducted for the exposure test samples. Reflectance specularity data for the subject materials are obtained from optical measurements performed by Battelle-PNL. Summarized is an investigation of the accumulated reflectance data for correlations using three of the various materials included in the exposure test sample set. (LEW)

  2. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The following areas of NASA's responsibilities are examined: (1) the Space Transportation System (STS) operations and evolving program elements; (2) establishment of the Space Station program organization and issuance of requests for proposals to the aerospace industry; and (3) NASA's aircraft operations, including research and development flight programs for two advanced X-type aircraft.

  3. Aerospace at Saint Francis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Discusses an aviation/aerospace program as a science elective for 11th and 12th year students. This program is multi-faceted and addresses the needs of a wide variety of students. Its main objective is to present aviation and space sciences which will provide a good base for higher education in these areas. (SK)

  4. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  5. Aerospace technology comes home.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C

    1997-07-01

    Science is expanding the options for homebound patients. Many of the new technologies coming into the home care industry are the result of aerospace innovations. What are these new technologies, and what can the home care industry expect to see in the future.

  6. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  8. High temperature arc-track resistant aerospace insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorogy, William

    1994-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: high temperature aerospace insulation; Foster-Miller approach to develop a 300 C rated, arc-track resistant aerospace insulation; advantages and disadvantages of key structural features; summary goals and achievements of the phase 1 program; performance goals for selected materials; materials under evaluation; molecular structures of candidate polymers; candidate polymer properties; film properties; and a detailed program plan.

  9. Application of thermal spray coatings to aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, H.L.

    1994-12-31

    Reusable launch vehicles located by the ocean are subject to harsh seacoast environments before launch and immersion after splashdown at sea and tow back to the refurbishment facility. The use of various thermal spray processes for depositing corrosion and erosion protective materials to the alloy substrates has potential for enhancing the corrosion/erosion resistance and useful life of those expensive large reusable aerospace structures. Thermal spray processes such as high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF), plasma, arc spray and conventional oxygen fuel spray and the IVD process (pure aluminum only) have been used to coat test panels and scrap flight hardware with various applied materials. Pure aluminum, aluminum/aluminum oxide matrix (DURALCAN), and pure zinc have been applied over 2219-T87 aluminum alloy, 4340 steel alloy substrates. Salt spray testing has been conducted in accordance with ASTM B-117 as well as beach exposure tests at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Adhesion tests have been performed for all materials applied to the various substrates as well as monitoring of substrate temperatures during the spray process. The pure aluminum, zinc, and aluminum/aluminum oxide matrix material afforded excellent corrosion protection in both beach exposure and salt spray environments. in conclusion, tests and actual applications have shown that the various thermal spray processes and coating materials have significant potential for enhancing corrosion/erosion resistance and extending the useful service life of expensive aerospace structures exposed to marine environments. The ability to effectively repair damaged IVD aluminum coated substrates using arc sprayed material adds flexibility to the maintenance process. Due to the excellent adhesion and corrosion protection of the substrate, tests are underway to determine if chromate conversion coating can be eliminated prior to primer/topcoat application.

  10. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Aerospace Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Master of Science in Materials Science Jeremy D. Johnson, BS Captain, USAF March 2009 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...non-destructive material evaluation (NDE) were used to inspect various forms of damage commonly found in aerospace fiberglass composites: voids...ultrasound, and flash IR thermography were analyzed for the detection of defects. Test results and analysis of each NDE method’s capabilities

  11. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  12. Probabilistic material strength degradation model for Inconel 718 components subjected to high temperature, high-cycle and low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bast, Callie C.; Boyce, Lola

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of both the fifth and sixth year effort of a research program conducted for NASA-LeRC by The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The research included on-going development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation model. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes five effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, high-cycle mechanical fatigue, low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue. Statistical analysis was conducted on experimental Inconel 718 data obtained from the open literature. This analysis provided regression parameters for use as the model's empirical material constants, thus calibrating the model specifically for Inconel 718. Model calibration was carried out for five variables, namely, high temperature, high-cycle and low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue. Methodology to estimate standard deviations of these material constants for input into the probabilistic material strength model was developed. Using an updated version of PROMISS, entitled PROMISS93, a sensitivity study for the combined effects of high-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue was performed. Then using the current version of PROMISS, entitled PROMISS94, a second sensitivity study including the effect of low-cycle mechanical fatigue, as well as, the three previous effects was performed. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing a combination of high-cycle mechanical

  13. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  14. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  15. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Doris J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Transfer Team is to assist NASA in achieving widespread utilization of aerospace technology in terrestrial applications. Widespread utilization implies that the application of NASA technology is to benefit a significant sector of the economy and population of the Nation. This objective is best attained by stimulating the introduction of new or improved commercially available devices incorporating aerospace technology. A methodology is presented for the team's activities as an active transfer agent linking NASA Field Centers, industry associations, user groups, and the medical community. This methodology is designed to: (1) identify priority technology requirements in industry and medicine, (2) identify applicable NASA technology that represents an opportunity for a successful solution and commercial product, (3) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process, and (4) successfully develop a new product based on NASA technology.

  16. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  17. Monitoring the cementitious materials subjected to sulfate attack with optical fiber excitation Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yanfei; Bai, Yun; Muhammed Basheer, P. A.; Boland, John J.; Wang, Jing Jing

    2013-10-01

    Formation of ettringite and gypsum from sulfate attack together with carbonation and chloride ingress have been considered as the most serious deterioration mechanisms of concrete structures. Although electrical resistance sensors and fiber optic chemical sensors could be used to monitor the latter two mechanisms on site, currently there is no system for monitoring the deterioration mechanisms of sulfate attack. In this paper, a preliminary study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of monitoring sulfate attack with optical fiber excitation Raman spectroscopy through characterizing the ettringite and gypsum formed in deteriorated cementitious materials under an optical fiber excitation + objective collection configuration. Bench-mounted Raman spectroscopy analysis was also conducted to validate the spectrum obtained from the fiber-objective configuration. The results showed that the expected Raman bands of ettringite and gypsum in the sulfate-attacked cement paste can be clearly identified by the optical fiber excitation Raman spectrometer and are in good agreement with those identified from bench-mounted Raman spectrometer. Therefore, based on these preliminary results, it is considered that there is a good potential for developing an optical fiber-based Raman system to monitor the deterioration mechanisms of concrete subjected to sulfate attack in the future.

  18. An Aerospace Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-25

    aircraft order share of Boeing or Air - bus in recent years.24 America’s leadership in the high-technology sector is also faltering and, if not corrected...Executive Order 9781, establishing the Air Coordinating Commit- tee, with the mission to “examine aviation problems and development affecting more...robotics, drones, information technologies, energy research, and aerospace design. Establish a New Air and Space Structure Like its predecessor

  19. AI aerospace components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Murphy, Terri B.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.; Montgomery, Ronnie E.; Pohle, George E.; Heard, Astrid E.; Atkinson, David J.; Wedlake, William E.; Anderson, John M.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.

  20. Aerospace Engineering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. Activities such as the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) project at NASA Ames Research Center study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities will be reported.

  1. Probabilistic evaluation of the material properties of the in vivo subject-specific articular surface using a computational model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Son, Juhyun; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Shinil; Chun, Heoung-Jae

    2016-04-15

    This article used probabilistic analysis to evaluate material properties of the in vivo subject-specific tibiofemoral (TF) joint model. Sensitivity analysis, based on a Monte Carlo (MC) method, was performed using a subject-specific finite element (FE) model generated from in vivo computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, subjected to two different loading conditions. Specifically, the effects of inherent uncertainty in ligament stiffness, horn attachment stiffness, and articular surface material properties were assessed using multifactorial global sensitivity analysis. The MRI images were taken before and after axial compression, and when the flexion condition had been maintained at up to 90 degree flexion in the subject-specific knee joint. The loading conditions of the probabilistic subject-specific FE model (axial compression and 90 degree flexion) were similar to the MRI acquisition setup. We were able to detect the influence of material parameters while maintaining the potential effect of parametric interactions. Throughout the in silico property optimization, a subject-specific FE model was used and less sensitive parameters were eliminated in the global sensitivity method. Soft tissue material properties were estimated using an optimization procedure that involved the minimization of the differences between the kinematics predicted by the subject-specific model and those obtained through in vivo subject-specific data. The results of this approach suggest that the articular surface mechanical properties could be found by using in vivo measurements, which clarifies the valuable tool for future subject-specific studies related to TF joint scaffolds, allografts and biologics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  2. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  3. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  4. Subject-specific finite element analysis to characterize the influence of geometry and material properties in Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Shim, Vickie B; Fernandez, Justin W; Gamage, Prasad B; Regnery, Camille; Smith, David W; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F

    2014-11-28

    Achilles tendon injuries including rupture are one of the most frequent musculoskeletal injuries, but the mechanisms for these injuries are still not fully understood. Previous in vivo and experimental studies suggest that tendon rupture mainly occurs in the tendon mid-section and predominantly more in men than women due to reasons yet to be identified. Therefore we aimed to investigate possible mechanisms for tendon rupture using finite element (FE) analysis. Specifically, we have developed a framework for generating subject-specific FE models of human Achilles tendon. A total of ten 3D FE models of human Achilles tendon were generated. Subject-specific geometries were obtained using ultrasound images and a mesh morphing technique called Free Form Deformation. Tendon material properties were obtained by performing material optimization that compared and minimized difference in uniaxial tension experimental results with model predictions. Our results showed that both tendon geometry and material properties are highly subject-specific. This subject-specificity was also evident in our rupture predictions as the locations and loads of tendon ruptures were different in all specimens tested. A parametric study was performed to characterize the influence of geometries and material properties on tendon rupture. Our results showed that tendon rupture locations were dependent largely on geometry while rupture loads were more influenced by tendon material properties. Future work will investigate the role of microstructural properties of the tissue on tendon rupture and degeneration by using advanced material descriptions.

  5. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.; Wert, John A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and associated thermal gradient structures. Individual technical objectives are established for each project. Efforts aim to produce basic understanding of material behavior, monolithic and composite alloys, processing methods, solid and mechanics analyses, measurement advances, and a pool of educated graduate students. Progress is reported for 11 areas of study.

  6. Study on application of aerospace technology to improve surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Youngblood, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The areas where aerospace technology could be used to improve the reliability and performance of metallic, orthopedic implants was assessed. Specifically, comparisons were made of material controls, design approaches, analytical methods and inspection approaches being used in the implant industry with hardware for the aerospace industries. Several areas for possible improvement were noted such as increased use of finite element stress analysis and fracture control programs on devices where the needs exist for maximum reliability and high structural performance.

  7. Development of Multimedia Teaching Materials for a Common Service Subject in Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Willie

    Due to the implementation of a credit-based system in the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, it is anticipated that a large number of students will be taking some popular common service computing subjects. These subject modules may be taught by different teachers; thus there is a need to ensure that students are taught uniformly with the same…

  8. Evaluation of a Web Based Mathematics Teaching Material on the Subject of Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baki, A.; Guveli, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a web-based mathematics teaching (WBMT) material and to evaluate the effectiveness of the WBMT material for 9th grade students learning the concept of mathematical function. Firstly, a WBMT material was designed and piloted. As a result of this pilot study the site was revised as a final form. The study was…

  9. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Supplement: Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the progress achieved over the past 6 to 12 months on four graduate student projects conducted within the NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program. These studies were aimed specifically at light metallic alloy issues relevant to the High Speed Civil Transport. Research on Hydrogen-Enhanced Fracture of High-Strength Titanium Alloy Sheet refined successfully the high resolution R-curve method necessary to characterize initiation and growth fracture toughnesses. For solution treated and aged Low Cost Beta without hydrogen precharging, fracture is by ductile transgranular processes at 25 C, but standardized initiation toughnesses are somewhat low and crack extension is resolved at still lower K-levels. This fracture resistance is degraded substantially, by between 700 and 1000 wppm of dissolved hydrogen, and a fracture mode change is affected. The surface oxide on P-titanium alloys hinders hydrogen uptake and complicates the electrochemical introduction of low hydrogen concentrations that are critical to applications of these alloys. Ti-15-3 sheet was obtained for study during the next reporting period. Research on Mechanisms of deformation and Fracture in High-Strength Titanium Alloys is examining the microstructure and fatigue resistance of very thin sheet. Aging experiments on 0. 14 mm thick (0.0055 inch) foil show microstructural agility that may be used to enhance fatigue performance. Fatigue testing of Ti-15-3 sheet has begun. The effects of various thermo-mechanical processing regimens on mechanical properties will be examined and deformation modes identified. Research on the Effect of Texture and Precipitates on Mechanical Property Anisotropy of Al-Cu-Mg-X and Al-Cu alloys demonstrated that models predict a minor influence of stress-induced alignment of Phi, caused by the application of a tensile stress during aging, on the yield stress anisotropy of both modified AA2519 and a model Al-Cu binary alloy. This project

  10. Research Project "Subject Developing Environment of Preschool Education" for Russian Preschool Bilinguals (By the Example of Textile Educational Materials)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latipova, Liliya A.; Krapotkina, Irene E.; Koudrjavtseva, Ekaterina L.

    2016-01-01

    The problem's relevance stated in the article is determined by the following: forming preschool bilinguals' subject developing environment is connected with their active education and development, as well as with flexible preparation for studying at school. The purpose of this article is to develop methodology of textile developing materials' use…

  11. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  12. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  13. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  14. 9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

  15. Limitless Horizons. Careers in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A manual is presented for use by counselors in career guidance programs. Pertinent information is provided on choices open in aerospace sciences, engineering, and technology. Accredited institutions awarding degrees in pertinent areas are listed as well as additional sources of aerospace career information. NASA's role and fields of interest are emphasized.

  16. Aerospace Activities and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Piper, Martha

    1975-01-01

    Describes how science activities can be used to stimulate language development in the elementary grades. Two aerospace activities are described involving liquid nitrogen and the launching of a weather balloon which integrate aerospace interests into the development of language skills. (BR)

  17. Limitless Horizons: Careers in Aerospace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary H.

    This is a manual for acquainting students with pertinent information relating to career choices in aerospace science, engineering, and technology. The first chapter presents information about the aerospace industry by describing disciplines typical of this industry. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) classification system…

  18. Research on materials for advanced electronic and aerospace application. [including optical and magnetic data processing, stress corrosion and H2 interaction, and polymeric systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Development and understanding of materials most suitable for use in compact magnetic and optical memory systems are discussed. Suppression of metal deterioration by hydrogen is studied. Improvement of mechanical properties of polymers is considered, emphasizing low temperature ductility and compatibility with high modulus fiber materials.

  19. Closed form solutions of constrained trajectories - Application in optimal ascent of aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping; Samsundar, John

    1992-01-01

    The present consideration of the flight trajectory of hypersonic aerospace vehicles subject to a class of path constraints notes the constrained dynamics to constitute a natural two-timescale system, so that problems of trajectory optimization and guidance can be dramatically simplified by means of the asymptotic analytical solutions thus obtained. An illustrative application in ascent trajectory optimization for an aerospace vehicle is presented.

  20. Mechanical properties of aircraft materials subjected to long periods of service usage

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuring, J.N.; Grandt, A.F. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    This paper evaluates changes in the behavior of aircraft materials which result from aging and/or corrosion that occurs during long periods of service usage. The primary objective was to determine whether damage tolerant analyses for older aircraft should employ updated properties that more accurately represent the current state of the material, or if the virgin material properties continue to properly characterize the aged/corroded alloy. Specifically, tensile stress-strain curves, cyclic stress life (SN) tests, and fatigue crack growth tests were used to characterize the aged aircraft materials. These properties were compared with handbook properties for virgin material of the same pedigree. The aluminum alloys tested were obtained from fuselage and wing panels of retired KC-135 aircraft. Computer controlled tests were conducted using specimens machined from the retired aircraft components. Different configurations were used to observe the effects of aging and/or corrosion on material behavior. In the crack growth specimens, various levels of corrosion were observed, thus the crack growth rates could be categorized as a function of the level of corrosion present. The SN and da/dN-{Delta}K curves for the aged only materials were compared with the fatigue properties of virgin material of the same alloy. Similar comparisons were performed for the tensile stress-strain properties.

  1. Teaching Materials for German. Textbook Courses; Textbooks and Readers for Specialists in Other Subjects; Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).

    These three lists are part of a series which will form a bibliography of teaching materials for German. Entries are classified according to the age and level of instruction for which they were intended. Each list treats a separate category of materials. There is a title index, as well as an index to authors, editors, compilers and adaptors, with…

  2. A Novel Probabilistic Multi-Scale Modeling and Sensing Framework for Fatigue Life Prediction of Aerospace Structures and Materials: DCT Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-25

    energy based crack model has been developed in terms stress fields and dislocation pile-up in crystal plasticity simulations. The second module has...local stresses is found to cause early crack nucleation under dwell fatigue loading in [8]. Fatigue failure in metallic materials due to cyclic loading...growth due to cyclic stresses , and finally coalescence of cracks to cause fast crack propagation. Depending on the material in question, and other

  3. Graphite Nanoreinforcements for Aerospace Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drzal, Lawrence T.

    2005-01-01

    New advances in the reinforcement of polymer matrix composite materials are critical for advancement of the aerospace industry. Reinforcements are required to have good mechanical and thermal properties, large aspect ratio, excellent adhesion to the matrix, and cost effectiveness. To fulfill the requirements, nanocomposites in which the matrix is filled with nanoscopic reinforcing phases having dimensions typically in the range of 1nm to 100 nm show considerably higher strength and modulus with far lower reinforcement content than their conventional counterparts. Graphite is a layered material whose layers have dimensions in the nanometer range and are held together by weak Van der Waals forces. Once these layers are exfoliated and dispersed in a polymer matrix as nano platelets, they have large aspect ratios. Graphite has an elastic modulus that is equal to the stiffest carbon fiber and 10-15 times that of other inorganic reinforcements, and it is also electrically and thermally conductive. If the appropriate surface treatment can be found for graphite, its exfoliation and dispersion in a polymer matrix will result in a composite with excellent mechanical properties, superior thermal stability, and very good electrical and thermal properties at very low reinforcement loadings.

  4. An International Teacher Training Project: Integrating Subject Content, Communicative and Digital Competences in Didactic Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Lina; Martin, Piedad

    2012-01-01

    The European intTT project "An Integral Teacher Training for Developing Digital and Communicative Competences and Subject Content Learning at Schools" deals with initial teacher training in primary and secondary School. The general objective of the project is to train future school teachers in order to improve the development of…

  5. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  6. Aerospace in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    National research and technology trends are introduced in the environment of accelerating change. NASA and the federal budget are discussed. The U.S. energy dependence on foreign oil, the increasing oil costs, and the U.S. petroleum use by class are presented. The $10 billion aerospace industry positive contribution to the U.S. balance of trade of 1979 is given as an indicator of the positive contribution of NASA in research to industry. The research work of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, industry, universities, and business to maintain U.S. world leadership in advanced technology.

  7. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  8. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  9. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  10. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  11. An investigation of the self-heating phenomenon in viscoelastic materials subjected to cyclic loadings accounting for prestress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, A. M. G.; Rade, D. A.; Lacerda, H. B.; Araújo, C. A.

    2015-06-01

    It has been demonstrated by many authors that the internal damping mechanism of the viscoelastic materials offers many possibilities for practical engineering applications. However, in traditional procedures of analysis and design of viscoelastic dampers subjected to cyclic loadings, uniform, constant temperature is generally assumed and do not take into account the self-heating phenomenon. Moreover, for viscoelastic materials subjected to dynamic loadings superimposed on static preloads, such as engine mounts, these procedures can lead to poor designs or even severe failures since the energy dissipated within the volume of the material leads to temperature rises. In this paper, a hybrid numerical-experimental investigation of effects of the static preloads on the self-heating phenomenon in viscoelastic dampers subjected to harmonic loadings is reported. After presenting the theoretical foundations, the numerical and experimental results obtained in terms of the temperature evolutions at different points within the volume of the viscoelastic material for various static preloads are compared, and the main features of the methodology are discussed.

  12. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a 5-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASAs safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are "one deep." The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting "brain drain" could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning.

  13. Preliminary Material Properties Handbook. Volume 1: English Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    good polishing characteristics. It is more isotropic than other grades of beryllium with 45,000 psi typical yield strength and 4,000 psi typical micro...Materials program provides the aerospace industry with typical properties of emerging materials and other materials of interest that have not met all the...described by industry, government, or company specifications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS emerging materials; typical properties; international metals 16

  14. Fire test methodology for aerospace materials. 1: Thermal and smoke toxicological assessments of graphite/bismaleimide and graphite/epoxy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanakia, M. D.; Switzer, W. G.; Hartzell, G. E.; Kaplan, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    Both materials possess a high degree of thermal stability, with total heat release values being essentially identical under piloted ignition conditions over a range of 5 to 10 W/sq cm incident heat flux. The graphite/epoxy material had a tendency to auto-ignite at a lower heat flux (about 7 W/sq cm) and produced about 23 percent higher peak heat release rates, approximately 42 percent more carbon monoxide and considerably more smoke than the graphite/bismaleimide under conditions of piloted ignition. Toxicological potencies of smoke produced from the two composites were equivalent for 30 minute exposures. Potencies were also comparable to many common materials, such as wood. There was no evidence for the formation of an "unusual toxicant" nor for any short term post-exposure toxicological effects.

  15. Compliance with the Aerospace MACT Standard at Lockheed Martin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurucz, K.L.; Vicars, S.; Fetter, S.; Mueller, T.

    1997-12-31

    Actions taken and planned at four Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) facilities to comply with the Aerospace MACT Standard are reviewed. Many LMC sites have taken proactive steps to reduce emissions and implement low VOC coating technology. Significant administrative, facility, and material challenges remain to achieve compliance with the upcoming NESHAP and Control Technology Guideline (CTG) standards. The facilities discussed herein set up programs to develop and implement compliance strategies. These facilities manufacture military aircraft, missiles, satellites, rockets, and electronic guidance and communications systems. Some of the facilities are gearing up for new production lines subject to new source MACT standards. At this time the facilities are reviewing compliance status of all primers, topcoats, maskants and solvents subject to the standard. Facility personnel are searching for the most efficient methods of satisfying the recordkeeping, reporting and monitoring, sections of the standards while simultaneously preparing or reviewing their Title V permit applications. Facility decisions on paint booths are the next highest priority. Existing dry filter paint booths will be subject to the filtration standard for existing paint booths which requires the use of two-stage filters. Planned paint booths for the F-22 program, and other new booths must comply with the standard for new and rebuilt booths which requires three stage or HEPA filters. Facilities looking to replace existing water wash paint booths, and those required to retrofit the air handling equipment to accommodate the two-stage filters, are reviewing issues surrounding the rebuilt source definition.

  16. Bibliography of the space processing program. Volume 1: A compilation through June 1974, Parts 1 and 2. [space manufacturing/spacecraft construction materials - aerospace environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoultz, M. B.; Mcclurken, E. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of NASA research efforts in the area of space environmental effects on materials and processes is presented. Topics considered are: (1) fluid mechanics and heat transfer; (2) crystal growth and containerless melts; (3) acoustics; (4) glass and ceramics; (5) electrophoresis; (6) welding; and (7) exobiology.

  17. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  18. Experimental Observations of Nuclear Activity in Deuterated Materials Subjected to a Low-Energy Photon Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Benyo, Theresa L.; Pines, Vladimir; Pines, Marianna; Forsley, Lawrence P.; Westmeyer, Paul A.; Chait, Arnon; Becks, Michael D.; Martin, Richard E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Penney, Nicholas; Marsolais, Annette M.; Kamm, Tracy R.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of highly deuterated materials to a low-energy (nom. 2 MeV) photon beam resulted in nuclear activity of both the parent metals of hafnium and erbium and a witness material (molybdenum) mixed with the reactants. Gamma spectral analysis of all deuterated materials, ErD2.8+C36D74+Mo and HfD2+C36D74+Mo, showed that nuclear processes had occurred as shown by unique gamma signatures. For the deuterated erbium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of erbium ((163)Er and (171)Er) and of molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo) and by beta decay, technetium (99mTc and 101Tc). For the deuterated hafnium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of hafnium (180mHf and 181Hf) and molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo), and by beta decay, technetium ((99m)Tc and (101)Tc). In contrast, when either the hydrogenated or non-gas-loaded erbium or hafnium materials were exposed to the gamma flux, the gamma spectra revealed no new isotopes. Neutron activation materials showed evidence of thermal and epithermal neutrons. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors showed evidence of fast neutrons with energies between 1.4 and 2.5 MeV and several instances of triple tracks, indicating (is) greater than 10 MeV neutrons. Further study is required to determine the mechanism causing the nuclear activity.

  19. Fundamentals of Aeronautical and Aerospace Medical Science,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-17

    184) -I & A0A1 8 F ORE IGN TIC.iOLOY DIV UUIAN?-PAT?1m5 APA ON i tFUND~AMENTALS OF AERONAUTICAL AND AEROSPACE MEDICAL SCtEC.j (UlIJUL lI MC 01*0. A...xysel, con- rSin.- more than 1/5 of the air, is essential for human metabolism. Since human beings have lived constantly under norma " air pressure...Temperature under different air flow rate, research subjects wearing norma ; indoor clothing: 1) dry bulb temperature, C; 9) air flow, m/sec; 3) wet

  20. Refining, revising, augmenting, compiling and developing computer assisted instruction K-12 aerospace materials for implementation in NASA spacelink electronic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Jean A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Spacelink is an electronic information service operated by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The Spacelink contains extensive NASA news and educational resources that can be accessed by a computer and modem. Updates and information are provided on: current NASA news; aeronautics; space exploration: before the Shuttle; space exploration: the Shuttle and beyond; NASA installations; NASA educational services; materials for classroom use; and space program spinoffs.

  1. The (Im)Materiality of Literacy: The Significance of Subjectivity to New Literacies Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Cathy; Merchant, Guy; Pahl, Kate; Rowsell, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article deconstructs the online and offline experience to show its complexities and idiosyncratic nature. It proposes a theoretical framework designed to conceptualise aspects of meaning-making across on- and offline contexts. In arguing for the "(im)materiality" of literacy, it makes four propositions which highlight the complex…

  2. A Multi-Experimental Study on the Use of Multimedia Instructional Materials to Teach Technical Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbarika, Victor; Bagarukayo, Emily; Hingorani, Vineeta; Stokes, Sandra; Kourouma, Mathieu; Sankar, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A review of "social experiments" with adoption of multimedia-based technologies in Europe has been reported. But, there has been limited discussion on the value of multimedia instructional materials in technical disciplines. This study combines results from experiments carried out over a period of three years with multiple audiences--IT…

  3. Subject Bibliography of Supplementary Adult Literacy Materials Purchased through LSCA Title VI Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Library Commission, Jackson.

    This annotated bibliography of supplementary materials for adult literacy students in Mississippi arranges the annotations in the following categories: automobiles; biography; communication skills; consumer information; coping skills; English as a second language; fiction; health, nutrition, and safety; history and government; insurance; job…

  4. Educators Guide to Free Science Materials. Thirteenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saterstrom, Mary H., Comp.

    The thirteenth edition of the guide lists a total of 1,729 selected free materials related to science instruction. Entries are listed under the subject categories of aerospace education, biology, chemistry, environmental education, general science, and physics. These categories are each listed under the different types of media indexed in the…

  5. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  6. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation Tests Performed on Space Shuttle Leading- Edge Materials Subjected to Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Martin, Richard E.; Bodis, James R.

    2005-01-01

    In support of the space shuttle Return To Flight efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center, a series of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tests were performed on reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) composite panels subjected to ballistic foam impact. The impact tests were conducted to refine and verify analytical models of an external tank foam strike on the space shuttle leading edge. The NDE tests were conducted to quantify the size and location of the resulting damage zone as well as to identify hidden damage.

  8. Computer Architecture. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development in the field of computer architecture. Design of computer systems, microcomputer components, and digital networks are among the topics discussed. Multimicroprocessor system performance, software development, and aerospace avionics applications are also included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Fun in Flight: Exploring Careers in the Aerospace World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This packet is designed to help kindergarten and elementary students become aware of their own interests, attitudes, and abilities by introducing them to various aerospace careers. The activities can serve as a positive motivator in influencing students to learn their regular school subjects, acquire good work habits, and develop positive…

  10. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

  11. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 474

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This bibliography lists reports, articles and other documents recently introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information database. Subject coverage includes: Aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life and flightcrew behavior and performance.

  12. National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Artists concept of the X-30 aerospace plane flying through Earth's atmosphere on its way to low-Earth orbit. the experimental concept is part of the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The X-30 is planned to demonstrate the technology for airbreathing space launch and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 117), by James Schultz.

  13. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 6: Aerospace knowledge diffusion in the academic community: A report of phase 3 activities of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical data regarding the flow of aerospace-based scientific and technical information (STI) in the academic community are presented. An overview is provided of the Federal Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, illustrating a five-year program on aerospace knowledge diffusion. Preliminary results are presented of the project's research concerning the information-seeking habits, practices, and attitudes of U.S. aerospace engineering and science students and faculty. The type and amount of education and training in the use of information sources are examined. The use and importance ascribed to various information products by U.S. aerospace faculty and students including computer and other information technology is assessed. An evaluation of NASA technical reports is presented and it is concluded that NASA technical reports are rated high in terms of quality and comprehensiveness, citing Engineering Index and IAA as the most frequently used materials by faculty and students.

  15. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program (LA(sup 2)ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The general objective of the Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA(sup 2)ST) Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are established for each research project. We aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material behavior and microstructure, new monolithic and composite alloys, advanced processing methods, new solid and fluid mechanics analyses, measurement advances, and critically, a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. Four research areas are being actively investigated, including: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals and Composites; (2) Aerospace Materials Science; (3) Mechanics of Materials and Composites for Aerospace Structures; and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures.

  16. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, John R.; Shiflet, Gary J.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program was initiated in 1986 and continues with a high level of activity. The objective of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are presented for each research project. We generally aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. Three research areas are being actively investigated, including: (1) Mechanical and environmental degradation mechanisms in advanced light metals, (2) Aerospace materials science, and (3) Mechanics of materials for light aerospace structures.

  17. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  18. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  19. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  20. National Aerospace Professional Societies and Associations and Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Arthur J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This session will highlight several highly recognized National Technical and Professional Aerospace Societies, Associations and Organizations that are dedicated to the advancement of the theories, practices and unique applications of Science, Engineering and related Aerospace Activities ongoing in the United States. The emphasis will be on at least three (3) Aerospace Organizations, while reference many others. This paper will provide a wealth of educational references, information, opportunities and services available through many of the National and Local Chapter Affiliates, associated with the respective associations. Again, all experience and knowledge levels (K-12) will benefit from this information and reference material. Reference materials and other points of contact will be made available to all attendees.

  1. Software for aerospace education: A bibliography, 2nd edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Roth, Susan Kies; Phelps, Malcom V.

    1990-01-01

    This is the second aerospace education software bibliography to be published by the NASA Educational Technology Branch in Washington, DC. Unlike many software bibliographies, this bibliography does not evaluate and grade software according to its quality and value to the classroom, nor does it make any endorsements or warrant scientific accuracy. Rather, it describes software, its subject, approach, and technical details. This bibliography is intended as a convenience to educators. The specific software included represents replies to more than 300 queries to software producers for aerospace education programs.

  2. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1980 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 203 through 214 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography is presented. It includes three indexes--subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  3. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 138 through 149 of AEROSPACE MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY: A CONTINUING BIBLIOGRAPHY. It includes three indexes -- subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  4. A cumulative index to the 1977 issues of a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 164 through 175 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes-- subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  5. A cumulative index to the 1976 issues of a continuing bibliography on Aerospace Medicine and Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 151 through 162 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography. It includes three indexes - subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  6. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 390)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 102 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System. Subject coverage includes: life sciences (general), aerospace medicine, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and space biology.

  7. A cumulative index to the 1972 issues of a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 99 through 110 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes - subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  8. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 398)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 66 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Feb. 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine, life sciences, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and space biology.

  9. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1982 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 229 through 240 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  10. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 401)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 140 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during May 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and space biology.

  11. A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 177 through 188 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology is presented. The bibliography includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  12. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to the continuing bibliography of the 1973 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 112 through 123 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology A Continuing Bibliography is presented. It includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  13. SEPEC conference proceedings: Hypermedia and Information Reconstruction. Aerospace applications and research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on hypermedia and information reconstruction are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: real-world hypermedia projects, aerospace applications, and future directions in hypermedia research and development.

  14. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1974 issues of a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in supplements 125 through 136 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes--subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  15. Interdisciplinary optimum design. [of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1986-01-01

    Problems related to interdisciplinary interactions in the design of a complex engineering systems are examined with reference to aerospace applications. The interdisciplinary optimization problems examined include those dealing with controls and structures, materials and structures, control and stability, structure and aerodynamics, and structure and thermodynamics. The discussion is illustrated by the following specific applications: integrated aerodynamic/structural optimization of glider wing; optimization of an antenna parabolic dish structure for minimum weight and prescribed emitted signal gain; and a multilevel optimization study of a transport aircraft.

  16. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  17. Analysis of different materials subjected to open-air explosions in search of explosive traces by Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2017-03-16

    Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control. In this work, a wide variety of materials such as glass, steel, plywood, plastic bag, brick, cardboard or cotton subjected to open-air explosions were examined using confocal Raman microscopy, aiming to detect the inorganic oxidizing salts contained in explosives as black powder, chloratite, dynamite, ammonium nitrate fuel oil and ammonal. Post-blast residues were detected through microscopic examination of materials surfaces. In general, the more homogeneous and smoother the surface was, the less difficulties and better results in terms of identification were obtained. However, those highly irregular surfaces were the most unsuitable collectors for the posterior identification of explosive traces by Raman microscopy. The findings, difficulties and some recommendations related to the identification of post-blast particles in the different materials studied are thoroughly discussed.

  18. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  19. Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

  20. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report is based on the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in calendar year 2000. During this year, the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) moved into high gear. The launch of the Russian Service Module was followed by three Space Shuttle construction and logistics flights and the deployment of the Expedition One crew. Continuous habitation of the ISS has begun. To date, both the ISS and Space Shuttle programs have met or exceeded most of their flight objectives. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, it is clear that safety was always placed ahead of cost and schedule. This safety consciousness permitted the Panel to devote more of its efforts to examining the long-term picture. With ISS construction accelerating, demands on the Space Shuttle will increase. While Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft will make some flights, the Space Shuttle remains the primary vehicle to sustain the ISS and all other U.S. activities that require humans in space. Development of a next generation, human-rated vehicle has slowed due to a variety of technological problems and the absence of an approach that can accomplish the task significantly better than the Space Shuttle. Moreover, even if a viable design were currently available, the realities of funding and development cycles suggest that it would take many years to bring it to fruition. Thus, it is inescapable that for the foreseeable future the Space Shuttle will be the only human-rated vehicle available to the U.S. space program for support of the ISS and other missions requiring humans. Use of the Space Shuttle will extend well beyond current planning, and is likely to continue for the life of the ISS.

  1. Analysis of the temperature and stress distributions in ceramic window materials subjected to microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.K.; Kimrey, H.D.; Becher, P.F.

    1983-07-01

    The temperature and stress and distributions generated in ceramic materials currently employed in microwave gyrotron tube windows were determined for a variety of operating conditions. Both edge- and face-cooled windows of either polycrystalline BeO or polycrystalline Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were considered. The actual analysis involved three steps. First, a computer program was used to determine the electric field distribution within the window at a given power level and frequency (TE/sub 02/ wave propagation assumed). This program was capable of describing both the radial and axial dependence of the electric field. The effects of multiple internal reflections at the various dielectric interfaces were also accounted for. Secondly, the field distribution was used to derive an expression for the heat generated per unit volume per unit time within the window due to dieletric losses. A generalized heat conduction computer code was then used to compute the temperature distribution based on the heat generation function. Third, the stresses were determined from the temperature profiles using analytical expression or a finite-element computer program. Steady-state temperature and stress profiles were computed for the face-cooled and edge-cooled windows.

  2. Materials Lifecycle and Environmental Consideration at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace community faces tremendous challenges with continued availability of existing material supply chains during the lifecycle of a program. Many obsolescence drivers affect the availability of materials: environmental safety ahd health regulations, vendor and supply economics, market sector demands,and natural disasters. Materials selection has become increasingly more critical when designing aerospace hardware. NASA and DoD conducted a workshop with subject matter experts to discuss issues and define solutions for materials selections during the lifecycle phases of a product/system/component. The three primary lifecycle phases were: Conceptualization/Design, Production & Sustainment, and End of life / Reclamation. Materials obsolescence and pollution prevention considerations were explored for the aforementioned lifecycle phases. The recommended solutions from the workshop are being presented.

  3. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. Volume 2, Part 1; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approximately 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  4. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Brittle Materials with Finite Thickness Subjected to Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chio, S. R.; Gyekenyesi, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional, numerical analysis of slow crack growth (SCG) was performed for brittle materials with finite thickness subjected to constant stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") loading in flexure. The numerical solution showed that the conventional, simple, one-dimensional analytical solution can be used with a maximum error of about 5% in determining the SCG parameters of a brittle material with the conditions of a normalized thickness (a ratio of specimen thickness to initial crack size) T > 3.3 and of a SCG parameter n > 10. The change in crack shape from semicircular to elliptical configurations was significant particularly at both low stress rate and low T, attributed to predominant difference in stress intensity factor along the crack front. The numerical solution of SCG parameters was supported within the experimental range by the data obtained from constant stress-rate flexural testing for soda-lime glass microslides at ambient temperature.

  5. An exact solution for the history-dependent material and delamination behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Todd O

    2009-01-01

    The exact solution for the history-dependent behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending is presented. The solution represents the extension of Pagano's solution to consider arbitrary types of constitutive behaviors for the individual lamina as well as arbitrary types of cohesive zones models for delamination behavior. Examples of the possible types of material behavior are plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and damaging. Examples of possible CZMs that can be considered are linear, nonlinear hardening, as well as nonlinear with softening. The resulting solution is intended as a benchmark solution for considering the predictive capabilities of different plate theories. Initial results are presented for several types of history-dependent material behaviors. It is shown that the plate response in the presence of history-dependent behaviors can differ dramatically from the elastic response. These results have strong implications for what constitutes an appropriate plate theory for modeling such behaviors.

  6. Advanced Materials Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Composites, polymer science, metallic materials (aluminum, titanium, and superalloys), materials processing technology, materials durability in the aerospace environment, ceramics, fatigue and fracture mechanics, tribology, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are discussed. Research and development activities are introduced to the nonaerospace industry. In order to provide a convenient means to help transfer aerospace technology to the commercial mainstream in a systematic manner.

  7. Metal clad aramid fibers for aerospace wire and cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokarsky, Edward W.; Dunham, Michael G.; Hunt, James E.; Santoleri, E. David; Allen, David B.

    1995-01-01

    High strength light weight metal clad aramid fibers can provide significant weight savings when used to replace conventional metal wire in aerospace cable. An overview of metal clad aramid fiber materials and information on performance and use in braided electrical shielding and signal conductors is provided.

  8. Elementary School Aerospace Activities: A Resource for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, O. W.; And Others

    This publication is designed for use by elementary school teachers when introducing aerospace developments into classroom programs. Its materials, prepared at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, are grouped into ten sections: (1) earth characteristics that affect flight; (2) flight in the atmosphere; (3) rockets; (4) technological advances; (5)…

  9. Ceramic Integration Technologies for Energy and Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Asthana, Ralph N.

    2007-01-01

    Robust and affordable integration technologies for advanced ceramics are required to improve the performance, reliability, efficiency, and durability of components, devices, and systems based on them in a wide variety of energy, aerospace, and environmental applications. Many thermochemical and thermomechanical factors including joint design, analysis, and optimization must be considered in integration of similar and dissimilar material systems.

  10. Space Station Freedom - A resource for aerospace education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the International Space Station in future U.S. aerospace education efforts is discussed from a NASA perspective. The overall design concept and scientific and technological goals of the Space Station are reviewed, and particular attention is given to education projects such as the Davis Planetarium Student Space Station, the Starship McCullough, the Space Habitat, the working Space Station model in Austin, TX, the Challenger Center for Space Life Education, Space M+A+X, and the Space Science Student Involvement Program. Also examined are learning-theory aspects of aerospace education: child vs adult learners, educational objectives, teaching methods, and instructional materials.

  11. Chromatography - mass spectrometry in aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buryak, A. K.; Serdyuk, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    The applications of chromatography - mass spectrometry in aerospace industry are considered. The primary attention is devoted to the development of physicochemical grounds of the use of various chromatography - mass spectrometry procedures to solve topical problems of this industry. Various methods for investigation of the composition of rocket fuels, surfaces of structural materials and environmental media affected by aerospace activities are compared. The application of chromatography - mass spectrometry for the development and evaluation of processes for decontaminations of equipment, industrial wastes and soils from rocket fuel components is substantiated. The bibliography includes 135 references.

  12. The role of light microscopy in aerospace analytical laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Light microscopy has greatly reduced analytical flow time and added new dimensions to laboratory capability. Aerospace analytical laboratories are often confronted with problems involving contamination, wear, or material inhomogeneity. The detection of potential problems and the solution of those that develop necessitate the most sensitive and selective applications of sophisticated analytical techniques and instrumentation. This inevitably involves light microscopy. The microscope can characterize and often identify the cause of a problem in 5-15 minutes with confirmatory tests generally less than one hour. Light microscopy has and will make a very significant contribution to the analytical capabilities of aerospace laboratories.

  13. Within subject heterogeneity in tissue-level post-yield mechanical and material properties in human trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Carretta, Roberto; Stüssi, Edgar; Müller, Ralph; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2013-08-01

    The ability to determine patient-specific mechanical properties of trabecular bone is needed for a reliable estimation of fracture risks. Tissue mechanics and material composition are important factors that contribute to trabecular bone performance, but only a few studies have investigated the post-yield behaviour of human trabecular bone, and limited knowledge for modelling is available about ultimate properties needed. Aim of this paper was to investigate absolute values and deviation of mechanical and material properties of human trabecular bone at the tissue level, in a healthy and osteoporotic donor. A combination of tensile and bending tests of single trabeculae up to failure, μCT measurement of sample geometry and finite element analysis were incorporated to determine mechanical properties. The samples were analysed with Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the material composition. High within-subject variability was found, for both the healthy and osteoporotic donor. Nevertheless, the two donors could be separated by analysing the ultimate strain and post-yield work, as well as two of the material parameters (B-type carbonate substitution ratio and collagen cross-link ratio). It indicates that tissue level properties seem to be relevant also for macroscopic mechanical behaviour. These findings also suggest that the mechanical variability for the inelastic region at the tissue level may be associated with varying material properties, while until yielding occurs our data does not suggest any connection between the mechanical and the investigated material. Finally, a set of mechanical properties of human bone have been reported that are a relevant reference for computational studies and FE analysis.

  14. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  15. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) activities during 2002. The format of the report has been modified to capture a long-term perspective. Section II is new and highlights the Panel's view of NASA's safety progress during the year. Section III contains the pivotal safety issues facing NASA in the coming year. Section IV includes the program area findings and recommendations. The Panel has been asked by the Administrator to perform several special studies this year, and the resulting white papers appear in Appendix C. The year has been filled with significant achievements for NASA in both successful Space Shuttle operations and International Space Station (ISS) construction. Throughout the year, safety has been first and foremost in spite of many changes throughout the Agency. The relocation of the Orbiter Major Modifications (OMMs) from California to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) appears very successful. The transition of responsibilities for program management of the Space Shuttle and ISS programs from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to NASA Headquarters went smoothly. The decision to extend the life of the Space Shuttle as the primary NASA vehicle for access to space is viewed by the Panel as a prudent one. With the appropriate investments in safety improvements, in maintenance, in preserving appropriate inventories of spare parts, and in infrastructure, the Space Shuttle can provide safe and reliable support for the ISS for the foreseeable future. Indications of an aging Space Shuttle fleet occurred on more than one occasion this year. Several flaws went undetected in the early prelaunch tests and inspections. In all but one case, the problems were found prior to launch. These incidents were all handled properly and with safety as the guiding principle. Indeed, launches were postponed until the problems were fully understood and mitigating action could be taken. These incidents do, however, indicate the need to analyze the

  16. Civil Air Patrol and Aerospace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, John V.

    1972-01-01

    Aerospace education is a branch of general education concerned with communicating knowledge, imparting skills, and developing attitudes necessary to interpret aerospace activities and the total impact of air and space vehicles upon society. (Author)

  17. Aerospace Education and the Elementary Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This articles attempts to stimulate otherwise reluctant school teachers to involve aerospace education in their content repertoire. Suggestions are made to aid the teacher in getting started with aerospace education. (MDR)

  18. Accommodation of Nontraditional Aerospace Degree Aspirants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukert, Michael A.

    1977-01-01

    Presents results of a national survey of institutions offering college level aerospace studies. Primary survey concern is the availability of nontraditional aerospace education programs; however, information pertaining to institution characteristics, program characteristics, and staffing are also included. (SL)

  19. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Current research in optical processing is reviewed. Its role in future aerospace systems is determined. The development of optical devices and components demonstrates that system concepts can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  20. Aerospace Education for the Melting Pot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joels, Kerry M.

    1979-01-01

    Aerospace education is eminently suited to provide a framework for multicultural education. Effective programs accommodating minorities' frames of reference to the rapidly developing disciplines of aerospace studies have been developed. (RE)

  1. Aerospace Education: Is the Sky the Limit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little Soldier, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Provides suggestions on ways to include aerospace education in an integrated elementary school curriculum that focuses on content from the social and physical sciences and emphasizes process skills. Activities that build understanding of aerospace concepts are described. (BB)

  2. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    PubMed

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.

  3. Computers and the aerospace engineer

    SciTech Connect

    Trego, L.E.

    1990-03-01

    The use of computers in aerospace for design and analysis is described, and examples of project enhancements are presented. NASA is working toward the design of a numerical test cell that will allow integrated, multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization of propulsion systems. It is noted that with continuing advances in computer technology, including areas such as three-dimensional computer-aided design, finite element analysis, supercomputers, and artificial intelligence, the possibilities seem limitless for the aerospace engineer. Research projects are currently underway for design and/or reconfiguration of the V-22, B-767, SCRAMJET engines, F-16, and X29A using these techniques.

  4. Engineering Data on New Aerospace Structural Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    cycles FIGURE 73. AXIAL LOAD FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF UNNOTCHED SUPERPLASTICALLY FORMED Ti-A-4 ALLOY so- Ti-WA- 4V To - - Notched Kt 3.0...nufb.) Mechanical Propertias Aluminum Alloys / Ti-6AI-4U Fatigue Properties Titanim Alloys Ti-10V-2Fe-3A1 Creep Properties High Strength Steel Alloys Ti... Properties of’Ti- 6Al - 2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Alloy Castings ....... .................. ... 29 14 Effect of Temperature on

  5. Life Prediction Methodologies for Aerospace Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    are made of Rene ’ 41 (a nickel-base superalloy). During various stages of engine operation, the effective diameter of the nozzle can be expanded or...17 6.2.1 The Effect of LCF Cracks and Loading History on HCF Threshold ..............17...17 6.2.3 Micro FOD (Foreign Object Damage) Effects on the HCF Life of Ti-6Al-4V

  6. Shot-Peening Sensitivity of Aerospace Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    19. The beta-STOA titanium , Kt = 1 cyclic fatigue data. 41 Beta-STOA Ti- 6 - 4 Kt = 1.75 - Stress versus Cycles to Failure 80 85 90 95 100 105...The beta-STOA titanium , Kt = 1.75 cyclic fatigue data. Beta-STOA Ti- 6 - 4 Kt = 2.5 - Stress versus Cycles to Failure 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 1.E+03 1... 4 4.2 Phase 2. Fatigue/XRD-RSA/Surface Roughness Assessment ....................................... 6 4.2.1 Fatigue

  7. Remarks on Flammability Testing of Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.; Beeson, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    Agenda for the presentation: (1) Brief background of ISO 16697 (a) Reasons for the approach (b) Stated intent for this International Technical Specification (2) Evolution of initial considerations for the ISO approach (3) Discussion and recommendation

  8. Advanced Joining of Aerospace Metallic Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    properties : temperature sensitive thermal conductivity and heat capacity taken from the data of Touloukian 36 . eminisivity - 0.2 󈨛 , and convection...conductivity in 2024 T351 is a function of the volume of precipitates. In aluminum 2024 alloys , the thermal conductivity is lowest when the copper is...appropriate models and their accuracy for welds in aluminum alloys where precipitation effects are significant. For example, it is not clear whether

  9. Workshop on Aerospace Materials for Extreme Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    the topic of "ultra-high temperature ceramics" increased from ~5 in 2000 to 74 in 2008 while published papers on the compound zirconium diboride ...Corral E.L. Corral and L.S. Walker, "Inhibition of C-C Composites Using Zirconium Diboride and Boron Carbide" Matt Gasch M. Gasch and S. Johnson...During High Temperature Oxidation of Zirconium Diboride - Silicon Carbide Ultra High Temperature Ceramic Composites, Part 1: Liquid Flow and the

  10. Aerospace Structural Materials Handbook Supplement GRCop-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor); Nathel, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    GRCop-84 is a high strength-high conductivity copper-based alloy developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for combustion chamber liners of regeneratively cooled rocket engines. It also has promise for other high heat flux applications operating at temperatures up to 700 C (1292 F) and potentially higher. The alloy must be made by powder metallurgy techniques such as gas atomization. Slower cooling rates such as those experienced during casting do not develop a proper microstructure. Once made into powder, the alloy exhibits excellent processability using conventional consolidation and forming techniques, e.g., extrusion and rolling. GRCop-84 is strengthened by a combination of dispersion and precipitation strengthening by fine (50-500 nanometer (2-20 microinch)) Cr2Nb particles and Hall-Petch strengthening from a fine copper grain size. The presence of a high volume fraction of particles prevents grain boundary sliding at high temperatures and contributes to the alloy's overall good high temperature mechanical properties. Maximum thermal conductivity is obtained by using two alloying elements (Cr, Nb) with limited solubility in solid Cu that form a high temperature intermetallic compound with an even lower solid solubility. The resulting matrix of the alloy is nearly pure copper. The limited solubility also minimizes Cr2Nb particle coarsening at elevated temperatures and enhances microstructural and mechanical property stability. Further enhancement of the microstructural stability is obtained by using a high volume fraction (approx. 14 vol.%) of Cr2Nb particles that effectively pin grain growth.

  11. Engineering Data on New Aerospace Structural Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    SResults of Charpy V n4~ tdh teots at room temperature in both i the Iongiuia ln o~ rnvredrcin t iven to Table XXXIV. `W4161~i. P~lt-0f s 164 -bitrd type...checked,,periodically. In each "case, the dynamic load-control accuracy is bettet •han + 3 porcent of the test ,• load. "For elevated temperature

  12. A pulse-shaping technique to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials subjected to plate-impact tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the `wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, `wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  13. A pulse-shaping technique to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials subjected to plate-impact tests.

    PubMed

    Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-28

    Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the 'wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, 'wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  14. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  15. Key Issues for Aerospace Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Levine, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer significant advantages for future aerospace applications including turbine engine and liquid rocket engine components, thermal protection systems, and "hot structures". Key characteristics which establish ceramic matrix composites as attractive and often enabling choices are strength retention at high temperatures and reduced weight relative to currently used metallics. However, due to the immaturity of this class of materials which is further compounded by the lack of experience with CMC's in the aerospace industry, there are significant challenges involved in the development and implementation of ceramic matrix composites into aerospace systems. Some of the more critical challenges are attachment and load transfer methodologies; manufacturing techniques, particularly scale up to large and thick section components; operational environment resistance; damage tolerance; durability; repair techniques; reproducibility; database availability; and the lack of validated design and analysis tools. The presentation will examine the technical issues confronting the application of ceramic matrix composites to aerospace systems and identify the key material systems having potential for substantial payoff relative to the primary requirements of light weight and reduced cost for future systems. Current programs and future research opportunities will be described in the presentation which will focus on materials and processes issues.

  16. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  17. The international aerospace industry - New challenges and opportunities for translation suppliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, T.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the recent trend toward internationalization in the aerospace industry and its effects on commercial and governmental translation programs. The aerospace industry, once dominated by organizations from a small number of countries, is now widely international in scope. In effect, there has been in increase in the demand for translations from German, Japanese, Chinese, French and Spanish source material while that for translation from Russian source material has remained constant. The impact of the Challenger disaster on aerospace translation programs is discussed as well as the impact of international participation in Space Station research.

  18. Training of aerospace medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1985-03-01

    In the U. S. there are 23 recognized medical specialty boards. One of these is preventive medicine. Within preventive medicine there are three areas: Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Medicine, and Public Health/General Preventive Medicine. The preventive medicine specialties have a common core of required training including biostatistics, epidemiology, health services administration and environmental health. These, plus associated topics are covered during year one of training. Year two of training involves clinical rotations specifically tailored to the eye, ear, heart, lungs and brain, plus flight training to the private pilot level, and a Masters Degree research project for the required thesis. During year three the physicians in aerospace medicine practice full-time aerospace medicine in a NASA or other government laboratory or a private facility. To date, more than 40 physicians have received aerospace medicine training through the Wright State University School of Medicine program. Among these are physicians from Japan, Australia, Taiwan, Canada and Mexico. In addition to the civilian program at Wright State University, there are programs conducted by the U. S. Air Force and Navy. The Wright State program has been privileged to have officers from the U. S. Army, Navy and Air Force. A substantial supporter of the Wright State program is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and a strong space component is contained in the program.

  19. 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Litty, Edward C. (Compiler); Sevilla, Donald R. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held at the Pasadena Conference and Exhibition Center, Pasadena, California, on May 19-21, 1999. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  20. Technology utilization. [aerospace technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    NASA developed technologies were used to tackle problems associated with safety, transportation, industry, manufacturing, construction and state and local governments. Aerospace programs were responsible for more innovations for the benefit of mankind than those brought about by either major wars, or peacetime programs. Briefly outlined are some innovations for manned space flight, satellite surveillance applications, and pollution monitoring techniques.

  1. Aerospace for the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This packet includes games and activities concerning aerospace education for the very young. It is designed to develop and strengthen basic concepts and skills in a non-threatening atmosphere of fun. Activities include: (1) "The Sun, Our Nearest Star"; (2) "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, How I Wonder Where You Are"; (3) "Shadows"; (4) "The Earth…

  2. Careers in the Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.

    The document briefly presents career information in the field of aerospace industry. Employment exists in three areas: (1) professional and technical occupations in research and development (engineers, scientists, and technicians); (2) administrative, clerical, and related occupations (engineers, scientists, technicians, clerks, secretaries,…

  3. Job Prospects for Aerospace Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the recent trends in job opportunities for aerospace engineers. Mentions some of the political, technological, and economic factors affecting the overall employment picture. Includes a description of the job prospects created by the general upswing of the large commercial aircraft market. (TW)

  4. 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of the 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Ames Research Center hosted the conference, which was held at the Four Points Sheraton, Sunnyvale, California, on May 9-11, 2001. The symposium was sponsored by the Mechanisms Education Association. Technology areas covered included bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; and other mechanisms for spacecraft and large space structures.

  5. Aerospace Education: How Children Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Glenda F.

    Ways children learn are described and related to aerospace education. Discussion focuses on (1) providing activities on the child's level of understanding; (2) considering the whole child; (3) stimulating curiosity; (4) encouraging thinking; (5) presenting varied experiences; and (6) integrating curriculum areas in each learning activity. Ideas…

  6. Graphical simulation for aerospace manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Bien, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Simulation software has become a key technological enabler for integrating flexible manufacturing systems and streamlining the overall aerospace manufacturing process. In particular, robot simulation and offline programming software is being credited for reducing down time and labor cost, while boosting quality and significantly increasing productivity.

  7. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  8. Aerospace/Aviation Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.

    The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study aviation and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of aviation science and occupational…

  9. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  10. 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    The proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held in Pasadena Hilton, Pasadena, California on May 16-18, 2012. Lockheed Martin Space Systems cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include gimbals and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and Mars Science Laboratory mechanisms.

  11. Automatix Incorporated in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, C.

    1983-03-01

    Robotic assembly and artificial vision applications are currently employed or have potential in aerospace manufacturing. Automatix vision guided robotics have been used for electronic component assembly, welding of aluminum alloys with both gas metal arc welding (MIG). Other applications include gas tungsten arc welding (TIG), and visual gauging. The unique control concept has provided a single robotic controller with virtual robotic arm interchangeability.

  12. Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides lightning protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of lightning. Generic descriptions of the lightning environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for lightning protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.

  13. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  14. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes, supplement 143

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This supplement to Aerospace Medicine and Biology (NASA SP-7011) lists 251 reports, articles and other documents announced during June 1975 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) or in International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA). The first issue of the bibliography was published in July 1964; since that time, monthly supplements have been issued. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, and environmental effects to which man is subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects of biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. In general, emphasis is placed on applied research, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  15. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes, supplement 107, October 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This Supplement of Aerospace Medicine and Biology lists 353 reports, articles, and other documents announced during September 1972 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports or in International Aerospace Abstracts. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which man is subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects of biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. In general, emphasis is placed on applied research, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  16. Aerospace electrode line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.

    1980-04-01

    A facility which produces electrodes for spacecraft power supplies is described. The electrode assembly procedures are discussed. A number of design features in the production process are reported including a batch operation mode and an independent equipment module design approach for transfering the electrode materials from process tank to process tank.

  17. Experimental aspects and mechanical modeling paradigms for the prediction of degradation and failure in nanocomposite materials subjected to fatigue loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averett, Rodney D.

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the current research was to contribute to the area of mechanics of composite polymeric materials. This objective was reached by establishing a quantitative assessment of the fatigue strength and evolution of mechanical property changes during fatigue loading of nanocomposite fibers and films. Both experimental testing and mathematical modeling were used to gain a fundamental understanding of the fatigue behavior and material changes that occurred during fatigue loading. In addition, the objective of the study was to gain a qualitative and fundamental understanding of the failure mechanisms that occurred between the nanoagent and matrix in nanocomposite fibers. This objective was accomplished by examining scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractographs. The results of this research can be used to better understand the behavior of nanocomposite materials in applications where degradation due to fatigue and instability of the composite under loading conditions may be a concern. These applications are typically encountered in automotive, aerospace, and civil engineering applications where fatigue and/or fracture are primary factors that contribute to failure.

  18. Nanomaterials and future aerospace technologies: opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaia, Richard A.

    2012-06-01

    Two decades of extensive investment in nanomaterials, nanofabrication and nanometrology have provided the global engineering community a vast array of new technologies. These technologies not only promise radical change to traditional industries, such as transportation, information and aerospace, but may create whole new industries, such as personalized medicine and personalized energy harvesting and storage. The challenge today for the defense aerospace community is determining how to accelerate the conversion of these technical opportunities into concrete benefits with quantifiable impact, in conjunction with identifying the most important outstanding scientific questions that are limiting their utilization. For example, nanomaterial fabrication delivers substantial tailorablity beyond a traditional material data sheet. How can we integrate this tailorability into agile manufacturing and design methods to further optimize the performance, cost and durability of future resilient aerospace systems? The intersection of nano-based metamaterials and nanostructured devices with biotechnology epitomizes the technological promise of autonomous systems and enhanced human-machine interfaces. What then are the key materials and processes challenges that are inhibiting current lab-scale innovation from being integrated into functioning systems to increase effectiveness and productivity of our human resources? Where innovation is global, accelerating the use of breakthroughs, both for commercial and defense, is essential. Exploitation of these opportunities and finding solutions to the associated challenges for defense aerospace will rely on highly effective partnerships between commercial development, scientific innovation, systems engineering, design and manufacturing.

  19. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes NASA SP-7O11 lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  20. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 475

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  1. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 476

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1998-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  2. The 1994 27th Annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 15-17, 1994 are presented. The workshop was attended by representatives from various government agencies, as well as contractors and manufacturers, both U.S. and abroad. The subjects covered included: (1) nickel-cadium; (2) nickel-hydrogen, (3) nickel-metal hydride, and (4) lithium based technologies, as well as flight and ground test data.

  3. 34th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for organizing the AMS. Now in its 34th year, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 34th AMS, hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, was held May 10, 11 and 12, 2000. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the vendor fair gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  4. 38th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 38th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 38th AMs, hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center in Williamsburg, Virginia, was held May 17-19, 2006. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals, tribology, actuators, aircraft mechanisms, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  5. 39th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 39th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the United States and abroad. The 39th AMS was held in Huntsville, Alabama, May 7-9, 2008. During these 3 days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals and positioning mechanisms, tribology, actuators, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and sensors. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  6. 37th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is reporting problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 37th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 37th AMS, hosted by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Galveston, Texas, was held May 19, 20 and 21, 2004. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, tribology, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station and Mars Rover mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  7. Downstream Patterns of Bed-material Grain Size in a Large, Lowland Alluvial River Subject to low Sediment Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, M. B.

    2007-12-01

    Downstream patterns of bed-material grain size were investigated over ~380 km of the Sacramento River in northern California, USA. Representative subaqueous bed-material samples were collected from ~125 cross sections spaced ~2 km apart using the 8.2 liter Ponar dredge sampler (for fine beds) and the 23.2 liter Cooper Scooper drag bucket sampler (for mixed and coarse beds), both of which were deployed from a jet boat. Samples were extracted from crossing points in straight reaches that represent the integration of sediment transport through upstream bends. Single samples were collected at simple, narrow cross sections and up to three samples were collected at sections with variable cross-stream topography. Samples were aggregated for each cross section, dried, sieved through eleven phi-sized mesh sieves (0.063-128 mm), and weighed to compute grain size distributions. The largest grain in >95% of all aggregated samples made up <5% of the total sample dry weight, rendering them adequately representative. Sacramento River grain size data suggest departure from widely accepted notions of bed material sorting in rivers in three fundamental ways: 1) subaqueous grain size data differ systematically from nearby data collected from exposed bars; 2) the transition from gravel to sand is not abrupt, but instead extends for several hundred kilometers; and 3) tributaries tend to have a small impact on mainstem downstream grain size sorting. These findings either imply something unique about the Sacramento River dataset compared with prior published data or differences in data collection methods and both possibilities were investigated. The Sacramento River basin is subject to lower sediment supply compared with prior systematically surveyed basins. The impact of decreasing supply (associated with a declining glacial hangover and human impacts) is a decoupling between main channel sediment transport and bar deposition. Thus, in addition to the inherent processes of grain

  8. Magnetic Gearboxes for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A.; Sanchez-Garcia-Casarrubios, Juan; Cristache, Christian; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic gearboxes are contactless mechanisms for torque-speed conversion. They present no wear, no friction and no fatigue. They need no lubricant and can be customized for other mechanical properties as stiffness or damping. Additionally, they can protect structures and mechanisms against overloads, limitting the transmitted torque. In this work, spur, planetary and "magdrive" or "harmonic drive" configurations are compared considering their use in aerospace applications. The most recent test data are summarized to provide some useful help for the design engineer.

  9. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, O.H. Jr.; Rogers, J.F.

    1996-05-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for some articles from this proceedings.

  10. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Obie H., Jr. (Compiler); Rogers, John F. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  11. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on this postulate KIBO in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo industry is the first entomocole production company creat in Europe to human food; it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and various universities in France.

  12. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on industry KIBO is postulated in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo entomocole industry is the first production company in Europe to human food, it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and in the universities of Angers, Nantes, Lille.

  13. Aerospace Medicine Talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation is next Sunday, May 10th. It will be to the Civil Aviation Medical Association, for 2 hours at Disney World in Orlando. It is a high level talk on space medicine, including history, the role of my office, human health risks of space flight, general aspects of space medicine practice, human health risk management (including integrated activities of medical operations and the Human Research Program, and thoughts concerning health risks for long duration exploration class space missions. No proprietary data or material will be used, all is readily available in the public sector. There is also a short (30 min) talk on Monday at the CAMA lunch. There we will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, with possible etiologies and plans for research (already selected studies). Again, nothing proprietary will be discussed.

  14. Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwan, Rafaela (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program was established by Dr. Samuel E. Massenberg in 1986. The program has increased from 20 participants in 1986 to 114 participants in 1995. The program is LaRC-unique and is administered by Hampton University. The program was established for the benefit of undergraduate juniors and seniors and first-year graduate students who are pursuing degrees in aeronautical engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, material science, computer science, atmospheric science, astrophysics, physics, and chemistry. Two primary elements of the LARSS Program are: (1) a research project to be completed by each participant under the supervision of a researcher who will assume the role of a mentor for the summer, and (2) technical lectures by prominent engineers and scientists. Additional elements of this program include tours of LARC wind tunnels, computational facilities, and laboratories. Library and computer facilities will be available for use by the participants.

  15. Optical Measurements for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2003-01-01

    There is growing interest in applying intelligent technologies to aerospace propulsion systems to reap expected benefits in cost, performance, and environmental compliance. Cost benefits span the engine life cycle from development, operations, and maintenance. Performance gains are anticipated in reduced fuel consumption, increased thrust-toweight ratios, and operability. Environmental benefits include generating fewer pollutants and less noise. Critical enabling technologies to realize these potential benefits include sensors, actuators, logic, electronics, materials, and structures. For propulsion applications, the challenge is to increase the robustness of these technologies so that they can withstand harsh temperatures, vibrations, and grime while providing extremely reliable performance. This paper addresses the role that optical metrology is playing in providing solutions to these challenges. Optics for ground-based testing (development cycle), flight sensing (operations), and inspection (maintenance) are described. Opportunities for future work are presented.

  16. A standardized Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    2014-11-01

    The success of any aerospace mission depends upon the reliability of the discrete components comprising the instrument. To this end, many test standards have been developed to define test protocols and methods for the parts used in these missions. To date, no recognized MIL-type standard exists for cryogenic temperature sensors that are used from room temperature to 20 K or below. The aerospace applications utilizing these sensors require the procuring entity to develop a specification which the sensor manufacturer uses to screen and qualify a single build lot for flight use. The individual applications often require only a small number of sensors with the end result being a relatively high cost and long delivery time. Over the past two decades, Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. has worked with many aerospace companies to supply Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensors for numerous missions. The experience gained from this work has led to the development of a manufacturing and test protocol resulting in 'off-the-shelf' cryogenic temperature sensors that should meet the requirements for many aerospace applications. Sensors will be available at the base part level with the ability to configure the delivered part with regard to lead wire material, package adapter, lead wire extensions, and calibration as appropriate or necessary for the application. This work presents details of this manufacturing, inspection, and test protocol as well as performance characteristics of Cernox™ temperature sensors when inspected and tested to this protocol.

  17. Buckling of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Laminated Composite Materials Subjected to Axial Compression and Shear Loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddick, J. C.; Gates, T. S.; Frankland, S.-J. V.

    2005-01-01

    A multi-scale method to predict the stiffness and stability properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced laminates has been developed. This method is used in the prediction of the buckling behavior of laminated carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites formed by stacking layers of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer with the nanotube alignment axes of each layer oriented in different directions. Linking of intrinsic, nanoscale-material definitions to finite scale-structural properties is achieved via a hierarchical approach in which the elastic properties of the reinforced layers are predicted by an equivalent continuum modeling technique. Solutions for infinitely long symmetrically laminated nanotube-reinforced laminates with simply-supported or clamped edges subjected to axial compression and shear loadings are presented. The study focuses on the influence of nanotube volume fraction, length, orientation, and functionalization on finite-scale laminate response. Results indicate that for the selected laminate configurations considered in this study, angle-ply laminates composed of aligned, non-functionalized carbon nanotube-reinforced lamina exhibit the greatest buckling resistance with 1% nanotube volume fraction of 450 nm uniformly-distributed carbon nanotubes. In addition, hybrid laminates were considered by varying either the volume fraction or nanotube length through-the-thickness of a quasi-isotropic laminate. The ratio of buckling load-to-nanotube weight percent for the hybrid laminates considered indicate the potential for increasing the buckling efficiency of nanotube-reinforced laminates by optimizing nanotube size and proportion with respect to laminate configuration.

  18. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology (LAST) Program continues to maintain a high level of activity, with projects being conducted by graduate students and faculty advisors in the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia. This work is funded by the NASA-Langley Research Center under Grant NAG-1-745. Here, we report on progress achieved between January 1 and June 30, 1992. The objectives of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of the next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with Langley researchers. Technical objectives are established for each research project. We aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement advances; and critically, a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The accomplishments presented in this report cover topics including: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advance Light Metals and Composites; (2) Aerospace Materials Science; (3) Mechanics of Materials and Composites for Aerospace Structures; and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures.

  19. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  20. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edger A., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This progress report covers achievements made between January 1 and June 30, 1966 on the NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program. The objective of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are presented for each research project. . The accomplishments presented in this report are: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, and (3) Mechanics of Materials for Light Aerospace Structures. Collective accomplishments between January and June of 1996 include: 4 journal or proceedings publications, 1 NASA progress report, 4 presentations at national technical meetings, and 2 PhD dissertations published.

  1. X-ray simulation for structural integrity for aerospace components - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surendra; Gray, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The use of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) has rapidly evolved from an emerging technology to the industry standards in Materials, Manufacturing, Chemical, Civil, and Aerospace engineering. Despite this the recognition of the ICME merits has been somewhat lacking within NDE community. This is due in part to the makeup of NDE practitioners. They are a very diverse but regimented group. More than 80% of NDE experts are trained and certified as NDT Level 3's and auditors in order to perform their daily inspection jobs. These jobs involve detection of attribute of interest, which may be a defect or condition or both, in a material. These jobs are performed in strict compliance with procedures that have been developed over many years by trial-and-error with minimal understanding of the underlying physics and interplay between the NDE methods setup parameters. It is not in the nature of these trained Level 3's experts to look for alternate or out-of-the box, solutions. Instead, they follow the procedures for compliance as required by regulatory agencies. This approach is time-consuming, subjective, and is treated as a bottleneck in today's manufacturing environments. As such, there is a need for new NDE tools that provide rapid, high quality solutions for studying structural and dimensional integrity in parts at a reduced cost. NDE simulations offer such options by a shortening NDE technique development-time, attaining a new level in the scientific understanding of physics of interactions between interrogating energy and materials, and reducing costs. In this paper, we apply NDE simulation (XRSIM as an example) for simulating X-Ray techniques for studying aerospace components. These results show that NDE simulations help: 1) significantly shorten NDE technique development-time, 2) assist in training NDE experts, by facilitating the understanding of the underlying physics, and 3) improve both capability and reliability of NDE methods in terms of

  2. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  3. The psychiatrist's role in aerospace operations.

    PubMed

    Sledge, W H; Boydstun, J A

    1980-08-01

    This paper presents two unique aspects of aerospace psychiatry: the influence of the specialized stressors and occupational requirements of an aviation career and the ambiguous role of the aerospace psychiatrist. Aerospace psychiatrists have multiple, sometimes conflicting, responsibilities to the organization and society (the social control task) and to the individual aviator (the humanistic and medical tasks). In the two case reports below the authors describe airmen who had vasovagal syncope and how the psychiatrist intervened and resolved these conflicting tasks.

  4. Aerospace Activities in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Wiggins, Kenneth E.

    1974-01-01

    Describes 17 activities which are aerospace oriented and yet provide an interdisciplinary approach to learning. Some of the activities described involve paper airplanes, parachutes, model rockets, etc. (BR)

  5. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  6. Atmospheric electricity criteria guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    Lightning has always been of concern for aerospace vehicle ground activities. The unexpected triggering of lightning discharges by the Apollo 12 space vehicle shortly after launch and the more recent repeated lightning strikes to the launch umbilical tower while the Apollo 15 space vehicle was being readied for launch have renewed interest in studies of atmospheric electricity as it relates to space vehicle missions. The material presented reflects some of the results of these studies with regard to updating the current criteria guidelines.

  7. Textile mechanical elements in aerospace vehicle parachute systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, M. J.; French, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, design considerations, and design details for textile mechanical elements used in aerospace vehicle parachute systems are briefly reviewed. Friction burns are noted as a major cause of parachute system failures. The friction burn hazard can be minimized by designing for predeployment and deployment sequence control with textile mechanical restraints. Two basic restraint designs (restraint loops and line ties) are discussed and various applications of the designs shown.

  8. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Pullout problem and fracture mechanism of quasi-brittle material reinforced with discontinous aligned fibers subjected to uniaxial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cheng-Jang

    The objective of this research is to characterize the postpeak pseudo strain-hardening behavior of the discontinuous aligned fiber composites subjected to uniaxial tension. In order to fully understand the fiber axial force-debonding relationship, fiber pullout problem was first investigated. Unlike most models this theory assumes a triangularly distributed interface shear stress. Besides, R-curve approach was adopted to evaluate the maximum pullout load. In quasi-brittle materials when the value of energy release rate G increases with the applied load, the value of crack resistance R also increases. As a result, the equality of G and R can only serve as the necessary condition for crack propagation. In order to further distinguish stable and unstable crack propagation, a second condition must be included. Namely, the first derivatives of G and R must also equal to each other for the onset of unstable crack propagation. The applied load corresponding to this status is assumed to be the maximum pullout load the fiber can sustain. The corresponding debond length is referred to critical debond length ldc. It was found that ldc increases with embedment length le. This model reproduced the experimental results pretty well. The same concept of R-curve was adopted to investigate the fracture mechanism of the uniaxial tension problem. While determining strain energy of the fiber reinforced composite, equivalent inclusion method and Mori-Tanaka theory was utilized. Again, whenever the above two conditions are satisfied simultaneously, unstable crack propagation initiates. However, are the fibers being pulled out or is there another unstable crack propagation? The comparison of the force sustained by all the fibers in the entire cross section with its allowable value sets the criterion. Besides, unlike most models, this model takes account of the impact of fiber distribution. Thus a model distinguishing single cracking from multiple cracking fracture mechanism has been

  10. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  11. PREFACE: Trends in Aerospace Manufacturing 2009 International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Keith; Gault, Rosemary; Allen, Adrian

    2011-12-01

    The aerospace industry is rapidly changing. New aircraft structures are being developed and aero-engines are becoming lighter and more environmentally friendly. In both areas, innovative materials and manufacturing methods are used in an attempt to get maximum performance for minimum cost. At the same time, the structure of the industry has changed and there has been a move from large companies designing, manufacturing components and assembling aircraft to one of large global supply chains headed by large system integrators. All these changes have forced engineers and managers to bring in innovations in design, materials, manufacturing technologies and supply chain management. In September 2009, the Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) at the University of Sheffield held the inaugural Trends in Aerospace Manufacturing conference (TRAM09). This brought together 28 speakers over two days, who presented in sessions on advanced manufacturing trends for the aerospace sector. Areas covered included new materials, including composites, advanced machining, state of the art additive manufacturing techniques, assembly and supply chain issues.

  12. Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

  13. Adaptive control with aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadient, Ross

    Robust and adaptive control techniques have a rich history of theoretical development with successful application. Despite the accomplishments made, attempts to combine the best elements of each approach into robust adaptive systems has proven challenging, particularly in the area of application to real world aerospace systems. In this research, we investigate design methods for general classes of systems that may be applied to representative aerospace dynamics. By combining robust baseline control design with augmentation designs, our work aims to leverage the advantages of each approach. This research contributes the development of robust model-based control design for two classes of dynamics: 2nd order cascaded systems, and a more general MIMO framework. We present a theoretically justified method for state limiting via augmentation of a robust baseline control design. Through the development of adaptive augmentation designs, we are able to retain system performance in the presence of uncertainties. We include an extension that combines robust baseline design with both state limiting and adaptive augmentations. In addition we develop an adaptive augmentation design approach for a class of dynamic input uncertainties. We present formal stability proofs and analyses for all proposed designs in the research. Throughout the work, we present real world aerospace applications using relevant flight dynamics and flight test results. We derive robust baseline control designs with application to both piloted and unpiloted aerospace system. Using our developed methods, we add a flight envelope protecting state limiting augmentation for piloted aircraft applications and demonstrate the efficacy of our approach via both simulation and flight test. We illustrate our adaptive augmentation designs via application to relevant fixed-wing aircraft dynamics. Both a piloted example combining the state limiting and adaptive augmentation approaches, and an unpiloted example with

  14. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  15. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  16. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  17. Cognitive engineering in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress that was made with respect to the objectives and goals of the research that is being carried out in the Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory (CSEL) under a Cooperative Agreement with NASA Ames Research Center is described. The major objective of this project is to expand the research base in Cognitive Engineering to be able to support the development and human-centered design of automated systems for aerospace applications. This research project is in support of the Aviation Safety/Automation Research plan and related NASA research goals in space applications.

  18. Formal Safety Certification of Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    In principle, formal methods offer many advantages for aerospace software development: they can help to achieve ultra-high reliability, and they can be used to provide evidence of the reliability claims which can then be subjected to external scrutiny. However, despite years of research and many advances in the underlying formalisms of specification, semantics, and logic, formal methods are not much used in practice. In our opinion this is related to three major shortcomings. First, the application of formal methods is still expensive because they are labor- and knowledge-intensive. Second, they are difficult to scale up to complex systems because they are based on deep mathematical insights about the behavior of the systems (t.e., they rely on the "heroic proof"). Third, the proofs can be difficult to interpret, and typically stand in isolation from the original code. In this paper, we describe a tool for formally demonstrating safety-relevant aspects of aerospace software, which largely circumvents these problems. We focus on safely properties because it has been observed that safety violations such as out-of-bounds memory accesses or use of uninitialized variables constitute the majority of the errors found in the aerospace domain. In our approach, safety means that the program will not violate a set of rules that can range for the simple memory access rules to high-level flight rules. These different safety properties are formalized as different safety policies in Hoare logic, which are then used by a verification condition generator along with the code and logical annotations in order to derive formal safety conditions; these are then proven using an automated theorem prover. Our certification system is currently integrated into a model-based code generation toolset that generates the annotations together with the code. However, this automated formal certification technology is not exclusively constrained to our code generator and could, in principle, also be

  19. An outbreak of illness among aerospace workers.

    PubMed

    Sparks, P J; Simon, G E; Katon, W J; Altman, L C; Ayars, G H; Johnson, R L

    1990-07-01

    A multispecialty panel of physicians evaluated a case series of 53 composite-materials workers in a large aircraft manufacturing facility who filed workers' compensation claims for illness labeled by the media as the "aerospace syndrome." Possible skin and respiratory tract exposures included formaldehyde, phenol, particulates, epoxy resins, and trace organic solvents, but measured concentrations were well below all regulatory and consensus standards. Most workers had histories of transient skin or respiratory tract irritation consistent with the known potential toxicity of these materials. None of the workers tested had immunoglobulin IgG or IgE antibodies to human serum albumin complexed with formaldehyde. A majority (74%) met DSM-III-R [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition, revised] criteria for major depression, panic disorder, or both. Most of these psychiatric disorders were of a recent onset, correlating in time with the use of phenol- and formaldehyde-impregnated composite material. Psychosocial factors were thought to have played a major role in the high prevalence of illness in this group and should be evaluated directly in well-controlled epidemiologic studies of similar crisis-building situations in the future.

  20. Silicon Carbide Technologies for Lightweighted Aerospace Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, L.; Chen, M.; Deblonk, B.; Palusinski, I.

    The use of monolithic glass and beryllium to produce lightweighted aerospace mirror systems has reached its limits due to the long lead times, high processing costs, environmental effects and launch load/weight requirements. New material solutions and manufacturing processes are required to meet DoD's directed energy weapons, reconnaissance/surveillance, and secured communications needs. Over the past several years the Air Force, MDA, and NASA has focused their efforts on the fabrication, lightweighting, and scale-up of numerous silicon carbide (SiC) based materials. It is anticipated that SiC can be utilized for most applications from cryogenic to high temperatures. This talk will focus on describing the SOA for these (near term) SiC technology solutions for making mirror structural substrates, figuring and finishing technologies being investigated to reduce cost time and cost, and non-destructive evaluation methods being investigated to help eliminate risk. Mirror structural substrates made out of advanced engineered materials (far term solutions) such as composites, foams, and microsphere arrays for ultra lightweighting will also be briefly discussed.

  1. An outbreak of illness among aerospace workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, P. J.; Simon, G. E.; Katon, W. J.; Altman, L. C.; Ayars, G. H.; Johnson, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    A multispecialty panel of physicians evaluated a case series of 53 composite-materials workers in a large aircraft manufacturing facility who filed workers' compensation claims for illness labeled by the media as the "aerospace syndrome." Possible skin and respiratory tract exposures included formaldehyde, phenol, particulates, epoxy resins, and trace organic solvents, but measured concentrations were well below all regulatory and consensus standards. Most workers had histories of transient skin or respiratory tract irritation consistent with the known potential toxicity of these materials. None of the workers tested had immunoglobulin IgG or IgE antibodies to human serum albumin complexed with formaldehyde. A majority (74%) met DSM-III-R [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition, revised] criteria for major depression, panic disorder, or both. Most of these psychiatric disorders were of a recent onset, correlating in time with the use of phenol- and formaldehyde-impregnated composite material. Psychosocial factors were thought to have played a major role in the high prevalence of illness in this group and should be evaluated directly in well-controlled epidemiologic studies of similar crisis-building situations in the future. PMID:2098006

  2. Thermal Performance of Composite Flexible Blanket Insulations for Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal performance of a Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation (C.F.B.I.) considered for potential use as a thermal protection system or thermal insulation for future hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aerospace Plane (N.A.S.P.). Thermophysical properties for these insulations were also measured including the thermal conductivity at various temperatures and pressures and the emissivity of the fabrics used in the flexible insulations. The thermal response of these materials subjected to aeroconvective heating from a plasma arc is also described. Materials tested included two surface variations of the insulations, and similar insulations coated with a Protective Ceramic Coating (P.C.C.). Surface and backface temperatures were measured in the flexible insulations and on Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (F.R.C.I.) used as a calibration model. The uncoated flexible insulations exhibited good thermal performance up to 35 W/sq cm. The use of a P.C.C. to protect these insulations at higher heating rates is described. The results from a computerized thermal analysis model describing thermal response of those materials subjected to the plasma arc conditions are included. Thermal and optical properties were determined including thermal conductivity for the rigid and flexible insulations and emissivity for the insulation fabrics. These properties were utilized to calculate the thermal performance of the rigid and flexible insulations at the maximum heating rate.

  3. Aerospace Power Technology for Potential Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace technology that is being developed for space and aeronautical applications has great potential for providing technical advances for terrestrial power systems. Some recent accomplishments arising from activities being pursued at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centers is described in this paper. Possible terrestrial applications of the new aerospace technology are also discussed.

  4. The 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings of the 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held at the Cleveland Marriott Society Center on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  5. iSTEM: The Aerospace Engineering Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed The Paper Plane Challenge as one of a three-part response to The Aerospace Engineering Challenge. The Aerospace Engineering Challenge was the second of three multi-part activities that they had developed with the teachers during the year. Their aim was to introduce students to the exciting world of engineering, where they…

  6. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stermer, R. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Current research in optical processing, and determination of its role in future aerospace systems was reviewed. It is shown that optical processing offers significant potential for aircraft and spacecraft control, pattern recognition, and robotics. It is demonstrated that the development of optical devices and components can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  7. The 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, Ron (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at ARC, Moffett Field, California, on 12-14 May 1993, are reported. Technological areas covered include the following: actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  8. The 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by NASA Johnson Space Center and held at the South Shore Harbour Conference Facility on May 17-19, 1995, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  9. NASA Elementary Aerospace Activities Free to Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes the contents of Elementary School Aerospace Activities: A Resource for Teachers. Activities examine a variety of topics in aerospace education and are intended to be used with children ages 5-11. The book is available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) for $3.00. (CP)

  10. The 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center on May 13, 14, and 15, 1992 are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  11. Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10521 TITLE: Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous ...Optimisation of Flight Vehicles in a Concurrent Multi-Disciplinary Environment [la Conception et l’optimisation aerodynamiques des vehicules eriens dans un...ADP010499 thru AI W3SSIFIED 25-1 Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents Abhijit Deshmukh, Timothy Middelkoop University of

  12. The 42nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor); Hakun, Claef (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development, and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  13. Nano Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Nano Materials Henne van Heeren enablingMNT Drakensteynlaan 34 3319 RG Dordrecht The Netherlands Henne@enablingMNT.com Introduction... micro sized particles. Nanotubes From a Mancef patent investigation it was learned that carbon nanotechnology (mainly nanotubes, but also...for high purity nanotubes. RTO-EN-AVT-129bis 3 - 1 van Heeren, H. (2007) Nano Materials. In Nanotechnology Aerospace Applications

  14. Can human mesenchymal stem cells survive on a NiTi implant material subjected to cyclic loading?

    PubMed

    Habijan, T; Glogowski, T; Kühn, S; Pohl, M; Wittsiepe, J; Greulich, C; Eggeler, G; Schildhauer, T A; Köller, M

    2011-06-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi-SMAs) exhibit mechanical and chemical properties which make them attractive candidate materials for various types of biomedical applications. However, the high nickel content of NiTi-SMAs may result in adverse tissue reactions, especially when they are considered for load-bearing implants. It is generally assumed that a protective titanium oxide layer separates the metallic alloy from its environment and that this explains the good biocompatibility of NiTi. Cyclic loading may result in failure of the protective oxide layer. The scientific objective of this work was to find out whether cyclic dynamic strain, in a range relevant for orthopedic implants, diminishes the biocompatibility of NiTi-SMAs. In order to analyze the biocompatibility of NiTi-SMA surfaces subjected to cyclic loading, NiTi-SMA tensile specimens were preloaded with mesenchymal stem cells, transferred to a sterile cell culture system and fixed to the pull rods of a tensile testing machine. Eighty-six thousand and four hundred strain cycles at 2% pseudoelastic strain were performed for a period of 24 h or 7 days. Cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF) and nickel ion release were determined within the cell culture medium. Adherent cells on the tensile specimens were stained with calcein-AM and propidium iodide to determine cell viability. Dynamic loading of the tensile specimens did not influence the viability of adherent human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) after 24 h or 7 days compared with the non-strained control. Dynamic cycles of loading and unloading did not affect nickel ion release from the tensile specimens. The release of IL-6 from hMSCs cultured under dynamic conditions was significantly higher after mechanical load (873 pg ml(-1)) compared with static conditions (323 pg ml(-1)). The present work demonstrates that a new type of mechanical in vitro cell culture experiment can provide information which previously could only be obtained in large animal

  15. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes. Supplement 497

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP#2000-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention.

  16. An e-learning platform for aerospace medicine.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, P D; Konstantinidis, S; Papadelis, C L; Perantoni, E; Styliadis, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Pappas, C

    2008-08-01

    The appeal of online education and distance learning as an educational alternative is ever increasing. To support and accommodate the over-specialized knowledge available by different experts, information technology can be employed to develop virtual distributed pools of autonomous specialized educational modules and provide the mechanisms for retrieving and sharing them. New educational standards such as SCORM and Healthcare LOM enhance this process of sharing by offering qualities like interoperability, accessibility, and reusability, so that learning material remains credible, up-to-date and tracks changes and developments of medical techniques and standards through time. Given that only a few e-learning courses exist in aerospace medicine the material of which may be exchanged among teachers, the aim of this paper is to illustrate the procedure of creating a SCORM compliant course that incorporates notions of recent advances in social web technologies. The course is in accordance with main educational and technological details and is specific to pulmonary disorders in aerospace medicine. As new educational trends place much emphasis in continuing medical education, the expansion of a general practitioner's knowledge in topics such as aviation and aerospace pulmonary disorders for crew and passengers becomes a societal requirement.

  17. An e-learning platform for Aerospace Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bamidis, P D; Konstantinidis, S; Papadelis, C L; Perantoni, E; Styliadis, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Pappas, C

    2008-01-01

    The appeal of online education and distance learning as an educational alternative is ever increasing. To support and accommodate the over-specialized knowledge available by different experts, information technology can be employed to develop virtual distributed pools of autonomous specialized educational modules and provide the mechanisms for retrieving and sharing them. New educational standards such as SCORM and Healthcare LOM enhance this process of sharing by offering qualities like interoperability, accessibility, and reusability, so that learning material remains credible, up-to-date and tracks changes and developments of medical techniques and standards through time. Given that only a few e-learning courses exist in aerospace medicine the material of which may be exchanged among teachers, the aim of this paper is to illustrate the procedure of creating a SCORM compliant course that incorporates notions of recent advances in social web technologies. The course is in accordance with main educational and technological details and is specific to pulmonary disorders in aerospace medicine. As new educational trends place much emphasis in continuing medical education, the expansion of a general practitioner's knowledge in topics such as aviation and aerospace pulmonary disorders for crew and passengers becomes a societal requirement. PMID:19048088

  18. Research Examination of the Options to Increase the Education Effectiveness in the Technical Subjects at the 7th Grade of Elementary School Using Hypertext Educational Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Žácok, L'ubomir

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of hypertext educational material is going to be solved in this paper as a source using which the effectiveness of education the technical subjects at the 7th grade of elementary school can be increased. As a comparison between reached results in the control and experimental groups of pupils we used final didactical examination,…

  19. Probabilistic constitutive relationships for cyclic material strength models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, L.; Chamis, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology is developed that provides a probabilistic treatment for the lifetime of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to fatigue. Material strength degradation models, based on primitive variables, include both a fatigue strength reduction model and a fatigue crack growth model. Probabilistic analysis is based on simulation, and both maximum entropy and maximum penalized likelihood methods are used for the generation of probability density functions. The resulting constitutive relationships are included in several computer programs.

  20. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  1. Automated design of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Mccomb, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in structural analysis of aerospace vehicles is characterized, automated design technology is discussed, and an indication is given of the future direction of research in analysis and automated design. Representative computer programs for analysis typical of those in routine use in vehicle design activities are described, and results are shown for some selected analysis problems. Recent and planned advances in analysis capability are indicated. Techniques used to automate the more routine aspects of structural design are discussed, and some recently developed automated design computer programs are described. Finally, discussion is presented of early accomplishments in interdisciplinary automated design systems, and some indication of the future thrust of research in this field is given.

  2. ASAP Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the First Quarterly Report for the newly reconstituted Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP). The NASA Administrator rechartered the Panel on November 18,2003, to provide an independent, vigilant, and long-term oversight of NASA's safety policies and programs well beyond Return to Flight of the Space Shuttle. The charter was revised to be consistent with the original intent of Congress in enacting the statute establishing ASAP in 1967 to focus on NASA's safety and quality systems, including industrial and systems safety, risk-management and trend analysis, and the management of these activities.The charter also was revised to provide more timely feedback to NASA by requiring quarterly rather than annual reports, and by requiring ASAP to perform special assessments with immediate feedback to NASA. ASAP was positioned to help institutionalize the safety culture of NASA in the post- Stafford-Covey Return to Flight environment.

  3. Compressive strength of delaminated aerospace composites.

    PubMed

    Butler, Richard; Rhead, Andrew T; Liu, Wenli; Kontis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-28

    An efficient analytical model is described which predicts the value of compressive strain below which buckle-driven propagation of delaminations in aerospace composites will not occur. An extension of this efficient strip model which accounts for propagation transverse to the direction of applied compression is derived. In order to provide validation for the strip model a number of laminates were artificially delaminated producing a range of thin anisotropic sub-laminates made up of 0°, ±45° and 90° plies that displayed varied buckling and delamination propagation phenomena. These laminates were subsequently subject to experimental compression testing and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) using cohesive elements. Comparison of strip model results with those from experiments indicates that the model can conservatively predict the strain at which propagation occurs to within 10 per cent of experimental values provided (i) the thin-film assumption made in the modelling methodology holds and (ii) full elastic coupling effects do not play a significant role in the post-buckling of the sub-laminate. With such provision, the model was more accurate and produced fewer non-conservative results than FEA. The accuracy and efficiency of the model make it well suited to application in optimum ply-stacking algorithms to maximize laminate strength.

  4. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  5. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. EFFECT OF IMPACT LIMITER MATERIAL DEGRATION ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF 9975 PACKAGE SUBJECTED TO TWO FORKLIFT TRUCK IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T

    2007-07-09

    This paper evaluates the effect of the impact limiter material degradation on the structural integrity of the 9975 package containment vessel during a postulated accident event of forklift truck collision. The analytical results show that the primary and secondary containment vessels remain structurally intact for Celotex material degraded to 20% of the baseline value.

  7. Aerospace and Flight. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This packet of technology learning activity (TLA) materials on aerospace and flight for students in grades 6-10 consists of a technology education overview, information on use, and instructor's and student's sections. The overview discusses the technology education program and materials. Components of the instructor's and student's sections are…

  8. A brief overview of the development of aerospace medicine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kirby, D J

    2001-10-01

    Aerospace medicine has evolved into a legitimate specialty through a long process of historical observation and technical achievement. However, most public literature on the topic has only covered information written through the late 1960s. This paper seeks to give a brief overview of the development of aerospace medicine and includes information about early advances in the field as well as more recent data. A MEDLINE search using "history," "aerospace medicine," and several other search terms as subject headings was the first step in gathering data. Also, personnel from the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine library at Brooks AFB, TX, were consulted for current literature on the subject. From the earliest descriptions of mountain sickness, to the first manned balloon flight, and on to the invention of the airplane with man's forays into space, aerospace medicine has had a rich history. A great part of this rich history was contributed by pioneers, both past and present, of the U.S. Air Force.

  9. Nonlinear analyses of composite aerospace structures in sonic fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the semiannual research progress, accomplishments, and future plans performed under the NASA Langley Research Center Grant No. NAG-1-1358. The primary research effort of this project is the development of analytical methods for the prediction of nonlinear random response of composite aerospace structures subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads. The progress, accomplishments, and future plates on four sonic fatigue research topics are described. The sonic fatigue design and passive control of random response of shape memory alloy hybrid composites presented in section 4, which is suited especially for HSCT, is a new initiative.

  10. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 483

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  11. Nonlinear analyses of composite aerospace structures in sonic fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh

    1992-01-01

    The primary research effort of this project is the development of analytical methods for the prediction of nonlinear random response of composite aerospace structures subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads. The progress, accomplishments, and future plans of three random response research topics are discussed, namely acoustics-structure interactions using boundary/finite element methods, nonlinear vibrations of beams and composite plates under harmonic and random excitations, and numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of composite plates under combined thermal and acoustic loading.

  12. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  13. Scoping Aerospace: Tracking Federal Procurement and R&D Spending in the Aerospace Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    study). 2 Stanley I. Weiss and Amir R. Amir, “Aerospace Industry,” available at Encyclopedia Britannica Online , accessed 19 July 2004. 3 This general...at Encyclopedia Britannica Online , accessed 19 July 2004. 5 CHAPTER TWO State of the Aerospace Sector from 1993 to 2003 In the two years since RAND...Quadrennial Defense Review Report. Washington, D.C: 30 September 2001. Weiss, Stanley I., and Amir R. Amir. “Aerospace Industry,” Encyclopedia Britannica Online . Available

  14. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Kelly, Robert G.; Scully, John R.; Shiflet, Gary J.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program was initiated in 1986 and continues with a high level of activity. Here, we report on progress achieved between July I and December 31, 1996. The objective of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are presented for each research project. We generally aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The accomplishments presented in this report are summarized as follows. Three research areas are being actively investigated, including: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, and (3) Mechanics of Materials for Light Aerospace Structures.

  15. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  16. Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).

  17. Computational control of flexible aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Shen, Ji Yao

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish a distributed parameter modeling technique for structural analysis, parameter estimation, vibration suppression and control synthesis of large flexible aerospace structures. This report concentrates on the research outputs produced in the last two years. The main accomplishments can be summarized as follows. A new version of the PDEMOD Code had been completed based on several incomplete versions. The verification of the code had been conducted by comparing the results with those examples for which the exact theoretical solutions can be obtained. The theoretical background of the package and the verification examples has been reported in a technical paper submitted to the Joint Applied Mechanics & Material Conference, ASME. A brief USER'S MANUAL had been compiled, which includes three parts: (1) Input data preparation; (2) Explanation of the Subroutines; and (3) Specification of control variables. Meanwhile, a theoretical investigation of the NASA MSFC two-dimensional ground-based manipulator facility by using distributed parameter modeling technique has been conducted. A new mathematical treatment for dynamic analysis and control of large flexible manipulator systems has been conceived, which may provide an embryonic form of a more sophisticated mathematical model for future modified versions of the PDEMOD Codes.

  18. Computational control of flexible aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Shen, Ji Yao

    1994-12-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish a distributed parameter modeling technique for structural analysis, parameter estimation, vibration suppression and control synthesis of large flexible aerospace structures. This report concentrates on the research outputs produced in the last two years. The main accomplishments can be summarized as follows. A new version of the PDEMOD Code had been completed based on several incomplete versions. The verification of the code had been conducted by comparing the results with those examples for which the exact theoretical solutions can be obtained. The theoretical background of the package and the verification examples has been reported in a technical paper submitted to the Joint Applied Mechanics & Material Conference, ASME. A brief USER'S MANUAL had been compiled, which includes three parts: (1) Input data preparation; (2) Explanation of the Subroutines; and (3) Specification of control variables. Meanwhile, a theoretical investigation of the NASA MSFC two-dimensional ground-based manipulator facility by using distributed parameter modeling technique has been conducted. A new mathematical treatment for dynamic analysis and control of large flexible manipulator systems has been conceived, which may provide an embryonic form of a more sophisticated mathematical model for future modified versions of the PDEMOD Codes.

  19. The context. [technological spinoffs from aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The relationships among science, technology, and applications are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on public support of space exploration and aerospace sciences in general. Examples of technological spinoffs are presented.

  20. The 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Numerous topics related to aerospace mechanisms were discussed. Deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, hydraulic actuators, positioning mechanisms, electric motors, communication satellite instruments, redundancy, lubricants, bearings, space stations, rotating joints, and teleoperators are among the topics covered.