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Sample records for aerospace medicine drug

  1. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  2. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  3. Training of aerospace medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1985-03-01

    In the U. S. there are 23 recognized medical specialty boards. One of these is preventive medicine. Within preventive medicine there are three areas: Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Medicine, and Public Health/General Preventive Medicine. The preventive medicine specialties have a common core of required training including biostatistics, epidemiology, health services administration and environmental health. These, plus associated topics are covered during year one of training. Year two of training involves clinical rotations specifically tailored to the eye, ear, heart, lungs and brain, plus flight training to the private pilot level, and a Masters Degree research project for the required thesis. During year three the physicians in aerospace medicine practice full-time aerospace medicine in a NASA or other government laboratory or a private facility. To date, more than 40 physicians have received aerospace medicine training through the Wright State University School of Medicine program. Among these are physicians from Japan, Australia, Taiwan, Canada and Mexico. In addition to the civilian program at Wright State University, there are programs conducted by the U. S. Air Force and Navy. The Wright State program has been privileged to have officers from the U. S. Army, Navy and Air Force. A substantial supporter of the Wright State program is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and a strong space component is contained in the program.

  4. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    PubMed

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.

  5. Aerospace Medicine Talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation is next Sunday, May 10th. It will be to the Civil Aviation Medical Association, for 2 hours at Disney World in Orlando. It is a high level talk on space medicine, including history, the role of my office, human health risks of space flight, general aspects of space medicine practice, human health risk management (including integrated activities of medical operations and the Human Research Program, and thoughts concerning health risks for long duration exploration class space missions. No proprietary data or material will be used, all is readily available in the public sector. There is also a short (30 min) talk on Monday at the CAMA lunch. There we will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, with possible etiologies and plans for research (already selected studies). Again, nothing proprietary will be discussed.

  6. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: Cumulative index, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 190 through 201 of 'Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography.' It includes three indexes-subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  7. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 242 through 253 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes six indexes--subject, personal author, corporate source, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  8. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of a NASA-sponsored medical program under which work is done by multidiscipline teams to provide an interface between aerospace and medicine. A prosthetic urethral valve, an ear oximeter for measurement of oxygen content in the blood, a radiation dosimeter and an electromyographic muscle trainer are noted as the products of this program.

  9. Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    International Publications in Aerospace Medicine Edmonds C, McKenzie B. Diving Medicine for Scuba Divers. Carnegie, Victoria, Australia: J. L...to Coping with Injury and Illness. San Pedro, CA, USA: Best Publishing Co., 1985. Nessirio BA. Rozhdenie Metoda “Nasyshchennykh Pogruzhenii... Metoda Dlitel’nogo Prebyvaniia Cheloveka pod Povyshennym Davleniem. Sankt-Peterburg, Russia: Kosta, 2004. Parker J. The Sports Diving Medical: A Guide to

  10. Psychiatric considerations in military aerospace medicine.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Marsh, R W

    2001-02-01

    Military aerospace medicine requires a psychiatric selection and certification process that determines not only the absence of significant mental disorders, but also the presence of positive qualities in the realms of motivation, ability and stability: not all normal people are fit to fly. Other issues of aerospace psychiatry involve maintenance of mental resilience and hardiness during a flying career, aeromedical decisions about when to remove from flight duties and when to return, criteria for waivers for psychiatric conditions, use of medications for treatment of psychiatric symptoms, questions of substance abuse, and research in such areas as genetics. This report reviews the basis for military aerospace psychiatry, primarily as practiced in the United States Air Force (USAF), and presents some of its underlying principles as they apply to clinical situations.

  11. [Application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in aerospace medicine].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Xie, Bao-sheng; Huang, Wei-fen

    2002-06-01

    Effects of LBNP is similar to that produced by gravitational force, especially as a stress factor on the cardiovascular system as has been concerned in the area of aerospace medicine. This paper described experimental equipment, methods and physiological effects of LBNP, especially its application in the area of aerospace medicine. Several aspects for future research were put forward.

  12. Heart-Lung Interactions in Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, Gordon Kim

    1991-01-01

    Few of the heart-lung interactions that are discussed have been studied in any detail in the aerospace environment, but is seems that many such interactions must occur in the setting of altered accelerative loadings and pressure breathing. That few investigations are in progress suggests that clinical and academic laboratory investigators and aerospace organizations are further apart than during the pioneering work on pressure breathing and acceleration tolerance in the 1940s. The purpose is to reintroduce some of the perennial problems of aviation physiology as well as some newer aerospace concerns that may be of interest. Many possible heart-lung interactions are pondered, by necessity often drawing on data from within the aviation field, collected before the modern understanding of these interactions developed, or on recent laboratory data that may not be strictly applicable. In the field of zero-gravity effects, speculation inevitably outruns the sparse available data.

  13. Training of aerospace medicine physicians in the Soviet Union and the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Tokarev, V F; Razsolov, N A; Mohler, S R; Nicogossian, A E

    1986-04-01

    The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America operate major aerospace medicine programs; each country has taken specific measures to assure the development of an adequate number of trained aerospace medicine physicians. This jointly prepared paper emphasizes the training of aerospace medicine physicians related to civil aerospace activities. Those working in the field of aerospace medicine will find of interest the aerospace medical approaches taken by the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. in achieving their respective aerospace objectives.

  14. Aerospace medicine and biology. A continuing bibliography with indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    This bibliography lists 244 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in February 1981. Aerospace medicine and aerobiology topics are included. Listings for physiological factors, astronaut performance, control theory, artificial intelligence, and cybernetics are included.

  15. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 474

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This bibliography lists reports, articles and other documents recently introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information database. Subject coverage includes: Aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life and flightcrew behavior and performance.

  16. Aerospace Medicine and Biology. A continuing bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography lists 244 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in February 1981. Aerospace medicine and aerobiology topics are included. Listings for physiological factors, astronaut performance, control theory, artificial intelligence, and cybernetics are included.

  17. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    A program designed to find ways of transferring space technology to non-space medicine is discussed. The methodology used to attack the problem and several illustrative examples of the results are given.

  18. Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    C, Lowry C, Pennefather J. Diving and Subaquatic Medicine. California, USA: Best Publishing Co., 1981. Edmonds C, McKenzie B. Diving Medicine for...Practical Guide to Coping with Injury and Illness. San Pedro, CA, USA: Best Publishing Co., 1985. Nessirio BA. Rozhdenie Metoda “Nasyshchennykh...Pogruzhenii” – Metoda Dlitel’nogo Prebyvaniia Cheloveka pod Povyshennym Davleniem. Sankt-Peterburg, Russia: Kosta, 2004. Parker J. The Sports Diving

  19. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes NASA SP-7O11 lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  20. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 475

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  1. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 476

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1998-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  2. Aerospace medicine at Brooks AFB, TX: hail and farewell.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, Sarah A; Webb, James T

    2011-05-01

    With the impending termination of USAF operations at Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in San Antonio, TX, it is time to consider its historic role in Aerospace Medicine. The base was established in 1917 as a flight training center for the U.S. Army Air Service and in 1926 became home to its School of Aviation Medicine. The school moved to San Antonio's Randolph Field in 1931, but in 1959 it returned to Brooks where it occupied new facilities to support its role as a national center for U.S. Air Force aerospace medicine, including teaching, clinical medicine, and research. The mission was then expanded to encompass support of U.S. military and civilian space programs. With the abrupt termination of the military space program in 1969, research at Brooks focused on clinical aviation medicine and support of advanced military aircraft while continuing close cooperation with NASA in support of orbital spaceflight and the journey to the Moon. Reorganization in the 1990s assigned all research functions at Brooks to the Human Systems Division and its successors, leaving to USAFSAM the missions related to clinical work and teaching. In 2002 the USAF and the city of San Antonio implemented shared operation of Brooks as a "City-Base" in the hope of deflecting threatened closure. Nevertheless, under continuing pressure to consolidate military facilities in the United States, the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission ordered Brooks closed by 2011, with its aerospace medicine functions relocated to new facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH.

  3. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    NASA has taken the lead in implementing the concept of technology utilization, and the Technology Utilization Program is the first vital step in the goal of a technological society to insure maximum benefit from the costs of technology. Experience has shown that the active approach to technology transfer is unique and is well received in the medical profession when appropriate problems are tackled. The problem solving approach is a useful one at the precise time when medicine is recognizing the need for new technology.

  4. An e-learning platform for aerospace medicine.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, P D; Konstantinidis, S; Papadelis, C L; Perantoni, E; Styliadis, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Pappas, C

    2008-08-01

    The appeal of online education and distance learning as an educational alternative is ever increasing. To support and accommodate the over-specialized knowledge available by different experts, information technology can be employed to develop virtual distributed pools of autonomous specialized educational modules and provide the mechanisms for retrieving and sharing them. New educational standards such as SCORM and Healthcare LOM enhance this process of sharing by offering qualities like interoperability, accessibility, and reusability, so that learning material remains credible, up-to-date and tracks changes and developments of medical techniques and standards through time. Given that only a few e-learning courses exist in aerospace medicine the material of which may be exchanged among teachers, the aim of this paper is to illustrate the procedure of creating a SCORM compliant course that incorporates notions of recent advances in social web technologies. The course is in accordance with main educational and technological details and is specific to pulmonary disorders in aerospace medicine. As new educational trends place much emphasis in continuing medical education, the expansion of a general practitioner's knowledge in topics such as aviation and aerospace pulmonary disorders for crew and passengers becomes a societal requirement.

  5. An e-learning platform for Aerospace Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bamidis, P D; Konstantinidis, S; Papadelis, C L; Perantoni, E; Styliadis, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Pappas, C

    2008-01-01

    The appeal of online education and distance learning as an educational alternative is ever increasing. To support and accommodate the over-specialized knowledge available by different experts, information technology can be employed to develop virtual distributed pools of autonomous specialized educational modules and provide the mechanisms for retrieving and sharing them. New educational standards such as SCORM and Healthcare LOM enhance this process of sharing by offering qualities like interoperability, accessibility, and reusability, so that learning material remains credible, up-to-date and tracks changes and developments of medical techniques and standards through time. Given that only a few e-learning courses exist in aerospace medicine the material of which may be exchanged among teachers, the aim of this paper is to illustrate the procedure of creating a SCORM compliant course that incorporates notions of recent advances in social web technologies. The course is in accordance with main educational and technological details and is specific to pulmonary disorders in aerospace medicine. As new educational trends place much emphasis in continuing medical education, the expansion of a general practitioner's knowledge in topics such as aviation and aerospace pulmonary disorders for crew and passengers becomes a societal requirement. PMID:19048088

  6. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 483

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  7. Aerospace medicine in Germany: from the very beginnings.

    PubMed

    Harsch, V

    2000-04-01

    The roots of German Aerospace Medicine are in Berlin. High altitude research was performed by physiologists like Nathan Zuntz and the very first Army flight surgeons, Koschel and Flemming. With the founding of the Scientific Society for Aeronautics in 1912, a medical committee was established to determine guidelines for the physical examination of flyers. In World War I aviation medicine became a military science, which came to an end with the Treaty of Versailles. In 1927, with the establishment of the first Aeromedical Institute in Hamburg, Ludolph Brauer restarted the civilian academic aeromedical research effort, which, thereafter, fell more and more under military influence. At the end of World War II, German scientists were invited to work at the USAAF Aero Medical Center (AMC) in Heidelberg (1945-47), to gather the results of German aeromedical research performed before and during the war. Some of this group of German scientists were invited to work in the USA. In Germany, on the other hand, the effect of this "brain drain" was a period of stagnation. In the 1950's, a new civilian institute of aviation medicine was established in Bonn. It grew to be the nucleus of the DLR Institute of Aviation Medicine in Cologne. The German Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine was founded in Fuerstenfeldruck in 1959, and in the GDR the Institute of Aviation Medicine was established in 1961: the first East German cosmonaut S. Jaehn 1978 (Soyuz-31), was succeeded by the first West German astronaut, U. Merbold in 1983 (Spacelab).

  8. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, H. C.; Beadles, R. L.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Courtney, M. W.; Rouse, D. J.; Scearce, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Medical products utilizing and incorporating aerospace technology were studied. A bipolar donor-recipient model for medical transfer is presented. The model is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and aerospace technology which constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by medical community of new medical products based on aerospace technology.

  9. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes, supplement 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography lists 265 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in June 1985. Topics in aerospace medicine and biology, metabolism, human behavior, man machine systems, and injuries are included.

  10. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes, supplement 220, June 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Approximately 137 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in May 1981 are recorded, covering a variety of topics in aerospace medicine and biology.

  11. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1980 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 203 through 214 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography is presented. It includes three indexes--subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  12. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 138 through 149 of AEROSPACE MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY: A CONTINUING BIBLIOGRAPHY. It includes three indexes -- subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  13. A cumulative index to the 1977 issues of a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 164 through 175 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes-- subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  14. A cumulative index to the 1976 issues of a continuing bibliography on Aerospace Medicine and Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 151 through 162 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography. It includes three indexes - subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  15. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 390)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 102 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System. Subject coverage includes: life sciences (general), aerospace medicine, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and space biology.

  16. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. SUPPL-507

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This report lists: reports, articles and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. Contents include the following: Life sciences (general), aerospace medicine, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and exobioligy.

  17. A cumulative index to the 1972 issues of a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 99 through 110 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes - subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  18. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes, supplement 217, March 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Approximately 130 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in February 1981 are included in this bibliography. Topics include aerospace medicine and biology.

  19. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 398)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 66 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Feb. 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine, life sciences, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and space biology.

  20. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1982 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 229 through 240 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  1. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 401)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 140 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during May 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and space biology.

  2. A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 177 through 188 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology is presented. The bibliography includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  3. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to the continuing bibliography of the 1973 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 112 through 123 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology A Continuing Bibliography is presented. It includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  4. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1974 issues of a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in supplements 125 through 136 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes--subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  5. 1998 Andre Allard Lecture. Aerospace medicine in the 21st century--reaching for the stars.

    PubMed

    Lim, M K

    1999-09-01

    The 21st century will be an era of unprecedented scientific achievements, one in which man will continue to overcome limits rather than be overcome by them. Aerospace medicine will continue to make significant contributions as aviation and space activities intensify, and as new technologies pose new aeromedical challenges. More than that, aerospace medicine's role will prove decisive in man's quest for his ultimate destiny in the universe.

  6. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, B.; Beall, H. C.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Eakes, R. E.; Kizakevich, P. N.; Mccartney, M.; Rouse, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Utilization of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) technology in medicine is discussed. The objective is best obtained by stimulation of the introduction of new or improved commercially available medical products incorporating aerospace technology. A bipolar donor/recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented to provide a basis for the team's methodology. That methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and NASA technology that, in combination, constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial transfers were completed: the Stowaway, a lightweight wheelchair that provides mobility for the disabled and elderly in the cabin of commercial aircraft, and Micromed, a portable medication infusion pump for the reliable, continuous infusion of medications such as heparin or insulin. The marketing and manufacturing factors critical to the commercialization of the lightweight walker incorporating composite materials were studied. Progress was made in the development and commercialization of each of the 18 currently active projects.

  7. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Utilization of NASA technology and its application to medicine is discussed. The introduction of new or improved commercially available medical products and incorporation of aerospace technology is outlined. A biopolar donor-recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented to provide a basis for the methodology. The methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and NASA technology that, in combination, constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial transfers were completed: the ocular screening device, a system for quick detection of vision problems in preschool children, and Porta-Fib III, a hospital monitoring unit. Two institutional transfers were completed: implant materials testing, the application of NASA fracture control technology to improve reliability of metallic prostheses, and incinerator monitoring, a quadrupole mass spectrometer to monitor combustion products of municipal incinerators. Mobility aids for the blind and ultrasound diagnosis of burn depth are also studied.

  8. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  9. An historical summary of advisory boards for aerospace medicine at NASA.

    PubMed

    Doarn, Charles R

    2013-03-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has interacted with numerous advisory committees. These committees include those established by NASA, the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, or through Congressional oversight. Such groups have had a relatively passive role while providing sage advice on a variety of important issues. While these groups cover a wide range of disciplines, the focus of this paper is on those that impacted aerospace medicine and human spaceflight from NASA's beginning to the present time. The intent is to provide an historical narrative of the committees, their purpose, their outcome, and how they influenced the development of aerospace medicine within NASA. Aerospace medicine and life sciences have been closely aligned and intertwined from NASA's beginning. While several committees overlap life sciences within NASA, life sciences will not be presented unless it is in direct reference to aerospace medicine. This paper provides an historical summary chronicling those individuals and the groups they led when aerospace medicine was emerging as a discipline for human spaceflight beginning in 1957.

  10. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes, supplement 143

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This supplement to Aerospace Medicine and Biology (NASA SP-7011) lists 251 reports, articles and other documents announced during June 1975 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) or in International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA). The first issue of the bibliography was published in July 1964; since that time, monthly supplements have been issued. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, and environmental effects to which man is subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects of biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. In general, emphasis is placed on applied research, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  11. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes, supplement 107, October 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This Supplement of Aerospace Medicine and Biology lists 353 reports, articles, and other documents announced during September 1972 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports or in International Aerospace Abstracts. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which man is subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects of biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. In general, emphasis is placed on applied research, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  12. A brief overview of the development of aerospace medicine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kirby, D J

    2001-10-01

    Aerospace medicine has evolved into a legitimate specialty through a long process of historical observation and technical achievement. However, most public literature on the topic has only covered information written through the late 1960s. This paper seeks to give a brief overview of the development of aerospace medicine and includes information about early advances in the field as well as more recent data. A MEDLINE search using "history," "aerospace medicine," and several other search terms as subject headings was the first step in gathering data. Also, personnel from the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine library at Brooks AFB, TX, were consulted for current literature on the subject. From the earliest descriptions of mountain sickness, to the first manned balloon flight, and on to the invention of the airplane with man's forays into space, aerospace medicine has had a rich history. A great part of this rich history was contributed by pioneers, both past and present, of the U.S. Air Force.

  13. Index to FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine Reports: 1961 Through 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace Medical Institute Federal Aviation Administration Oklahoma City, OK 73125 January 2013 Final Report DOT/FAA/AM-13/1 Office of Aerospace Medicine...Blvd. P.O. Box 25082 Norman, OK 73071 Oklahoma City, OK 73125 11. Contract or Grant No. 12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address 13. Type of... Oklahoma City, Oklahoma , was attended by (left-right) then-Acting Administrator Michael Huerta, Associate Administrator for Aviation Safety Peggy

  14. [Lifestyle drugs in medicine].

    PubMed

    Harth, Wolfgang; Seikowski, Kurt; Hermes, Barbara; Gieler, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Lifestyle drugs have become an important new group of medications, which are taken by healthy people to increase the individual well-being and quality of life. Nootropics, psychopharmaceuticals, hormones and "ecodrugs" are today the main groups. The wish for eternal youth, beauty and potency is central, and lifestyle medications are also requested to influence cosmetic findings, which are usually simply a result of the natural aging process. Lifestyle drugs seem to be harmless, but the physician must pay attention to possible abuse, side effects, risks and complications. Additionally, however, lifestyle drugs are also frequently used by patients suffering from emotional disorders such as somatoform disorders. Medicalization of physiological life is then expected to solve psychosocial problems, but without success. The use of lifestyle medications in somatoform disorders is contraindicated and psychotherapy or psychopharmacological treatment come first. With this overview article, we would like to make an update of new lifestyle drugs.

  15. Medicines and Drugs from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, William C.

    1997-07-01

    Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants or fungi. In many traditional cultures, sickness and death are attributed to maligned spirits so that medicine and religion become inseparable. Uses of cohohba, snakeplant, coca, and peyote are discussed. The process by which new pharmaceuticals are discovered from natural products is described. The implications of an agreement between a major pharmaceutical company and a country in the tropics are discussed.

  16. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes. Supplement 497

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP#2000-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention.

  17. Education programme on aerospace and environmental medicine for medical faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, A I; Buravkova, L B; Loginov, V A; Vinogradova, O L

    1997-01-01

    The problems and approaches to organisation of the education process in the field of aerospace and environmental medicine for medical students are discussed. Original education developed on the basis of Russian experience in space biology and physiology, environmental medicine, aerospace medicine and medical support during spaceflight. The main goals of these programs are to acquaint students with: interaction of living organisms with natural and artificial surroundings, including space flight conditions; the physiological reactions on extreme environmental factors; basic mechanisms of human adaptation to space flight and particularly to microgravity; the current research in space medicine and new telecommunication technologies. All programs are formed in accordance with contemporary progress in life sciences and revealed a result of the interdisciplinary approach to education process.

  18. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 359)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 164 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Jan. 1992. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  19. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: a Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (Supplement 328)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 104 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during September, 1989. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  20. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 369)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 209 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Nov. 1992. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  1. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 397)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 122 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Jan. 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  2. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 331)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 129 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during December, 1989. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  3. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 338)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 139 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during June 1990. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  4. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 327)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 127 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during August, 1989. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  5. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 363)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 164 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Jan. 1992. Subject coverage includes aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  6. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 353)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 238 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System in August 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, biotechnology, human factors engineering, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  7. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 337)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 400 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during May 1990. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  8. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 367)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 205 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Aug. 1992. Subject coverage includes the following: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  9. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 373)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 206 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Feb. 1993. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, environmental effect, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  10. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 400)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 397 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during April 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  11. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 336)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 111 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during April 1990. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  12. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 340)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 157 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during August 1990. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  13. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 320)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 125 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during January, 1989. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  14. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 356)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography lists 192 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during November 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  15. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 348)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography lists 154 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Mar. 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  16. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 347)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 166 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Feb. 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  17. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 352)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography lists 147 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during July 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  18. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 339)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 105 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during July 1990. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  19. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 351)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography lists 255 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Jun. 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  20. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 332)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 320 through 331 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Seven indexes are included -- subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number and accession number.

  1. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 360)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 217 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during February 1992. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  2. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 323)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 125 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during April, 1989. Subject coverage includes; aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  3. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 383)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 100 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Nov. 1992. Subject coverage includes the following topics: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  4. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 408)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 84 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Dec. 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  5. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 357)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 186 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Dec. 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  6. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 358)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 346 through 357 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes: subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number and accession number.

  7. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 326)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 108 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during July, 1989. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  8. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 355)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography lists 147 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during October, 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  9. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 392)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 81 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Sep. 1994. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  10. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 324)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 200 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during May, 1989. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  11. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 377)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 223 reports, articles, and other documents recently introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  12. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 346)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 134 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Jan. 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  13. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 386)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 117 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Mar. 1994. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  14. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 375)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 212 reports, articles, and other documents recently introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System database. Subject coverage includes the following: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  15. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 335)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 143 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during March, 1990. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  16. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 371)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 359 through 370 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes: subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  17. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 345)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 333 through 344 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Seven indexes are included -- subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  18. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 384)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 372 through 383 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes: subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  19. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 259)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A bibliography containing 476 documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in May 1984 is presented. The primary subject categories included are: life sciences, aerospace medicine, behavioral sciences, man/system technology, life support, and planetary biology. Topics extensively represented were space flight stress, man machine systems, weightlessness, human performance, mental performance, and spacecraft environments. Abstracts for each citation are given.

  20. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 387)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 60 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Apr. 1994. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  1. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 394)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 71 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Nov. 1994. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  2. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 385)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 536 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System Database. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  3. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 396)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 385 through 395 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes: subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  4. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 372)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 208 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Jan. 1993. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  5. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 376)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 265 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Jun. 1993. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  6. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 361)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 141 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Mar. 1992. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  7. Aerospace Medicine and Biology. Suppl-329; A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 184 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during October 1989. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  8. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 306)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 294 through 305 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes - subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  9. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes, supplement 267, January 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 255 through 266 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes--subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  10. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Cumulative Index to the 1985 Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 268 through 279 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes - subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  11. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 389)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 234 reports, articles, and other documents recently introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  12. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 382)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 119 reports, articles, and other documents recently introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System. Subject coverage includes the following: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  13. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 342)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 208 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during October 1990. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  14. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 407)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 289 reports, articles and other documents announced in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Nov. 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  15. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 333)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 122 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during January, 1990. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  16. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 260)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A bibliography containing 225 reports, articles, and other documents which were introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information system in June 1984 is presented. All articles are indexed and abstracted. General topics include: life sciences, aerospace medicine, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and planetary biology.

  17. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 402)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 244 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Nov. 1992. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  18. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 344)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography lists 125 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during January, 1989. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  19. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 365)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 211 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during July 1992. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  20. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 388)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 132 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  1. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 379)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 305 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Sep. 1993. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  2. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 378)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 185 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Aug. 1993. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  3. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 364)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 188 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during June 1992. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  4. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 381)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 89 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Nov. 1993. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  5. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 370)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 219 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Dec. 1992. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  6. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 325)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 192 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during June, 1989. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  7. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 349)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography lists 149 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during April, 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  8. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 341)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 133 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during September 1990. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  9. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 391)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 75 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Aug. 1994. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  10. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 374)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 227 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Apr. 1993. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  11. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 354)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography lists 225 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during September, 1991. Subject coverage includes aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  12. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 350)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography lists 152 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during May 1991. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  13. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 362)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 357 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during May 1992. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  14. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 380)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists 192 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Oct. 1993. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  15. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: a Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (supplement 330)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 156 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during November 1989. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support system and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  16. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 334)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 254 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during February, 1990. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  17. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 343)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 125 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during January, 1989. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  18. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 403)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 217 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during July 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  19. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 393)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 29 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Oct. 1994. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  20. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 406)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 346 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Oct. 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  1. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to the 1986 issues (supplement 293)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 281 through 292 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes seven indexes - subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  2. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 405)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 225 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Sep. 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine and physiology, life support systems and man/system technology, protective clothing, exobiology and extraterrestrial life, planetary biology, and flight crew behavior and performance.

  3. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography (supplement 319)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 307 through 318 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Seven indexes are included -- subject, personal author, corporate source, foreign technology, contract number, report number and accession number.

  4. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute are reported. A survey of more than 300 major medical device manufacturers has been initiated for the purpose of determining their interest and opinions in regard to participating in the NASA Technology Utilization Program. Design and construction has been commissioned of a permanent exhibit of NASA Biomedical Application Team accomplishments for the aerospace building of the North Carolina Museum of Life and Science at Durham, North Carolina. The team has also initiated an expansion of its activities into the Northeastern United States.

  5. The very large airplane: safety, health, and comfort considerations. Air Transport Medicine Committee, Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    In recent years, aircraft manufacturers have been considering a very large airplane with a capacity of 600-1000 passengers. The human factors aspects of such an unprecedented enterprise demand that the aerospace medicine community take an active role early on in the design phase. Consequently, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an international task force to prepare a paper containing pertinent human factors recommendations for the manufacturers. This paper, including the recommendations herein, has been forwarded to Boeing and Airbus as well as to 50 major airlines of the world.

  6. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 490

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1999-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. Two indexes-subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  7. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 504

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-2000-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. Two indexes- subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  8. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 498

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1999-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  9. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes. Supplement 502

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-2000-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. Two indexes-subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  10. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 482

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1999-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  11. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 477

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1998-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  12. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 487

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1999-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. Two indexes-subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  13. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 489

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1999-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  14. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 478

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1998-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  15. [Effect of aerospace weightlessness on cognitive functions and the relative dialectical analysis of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Liu, Xin-Min; Wu, Li-Sha; Yang, Si-Jin; Wang, Qiong

    2014-03-01

    Aerospace medicine has paid more and more attention to abnormal changes of physiological functions induced by weightlessness and studies on their prevention during space flight. In this paper, the effect of space weightlessness on cognitive functions was introduced. We tried to analyze the correlation between the cognitive function changes and relevant Chinese medical syndromes, thus providing a potential available way to prevent and treat weightlessness induced cognitive deficit during space flight.

  16. Publications and Presentations of the Ophthalmology Branch, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, 2001-2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    International Congress of Aviation and Space Medicine, Sydney, Australia, Sept 17, 2002. 23. CORNEAL TOPOGRAPHY CHANGES AFTER EXPOSURE TO HIGH +GZ Tutt R... CORNEAL TOPOGRAPHY & REFRACTIVE CHANGES AFTER EXPOSURE TO HIGH +GZ R. Tutt, and D. J. Ivan Presented at the Aerospace Medical Association 74h Annual...Scientific Meeting, San Antonio, TX 4-8 May 2003. 7. ANALYSIS OF CORNEAL TOPOGRAPHY PATTERNS IN USAF PILOT APPLICANTS M. Thornsberry, D. J. Ivan, J. M. Gooch

  17. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. N.

    1974-01-01

    The results of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute are presented. The RTI team, a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers, acted as an information and technology interface between NASA and individuals, institutions, and agencies involved in biomedical research and clinical medicine. The Team has identified 40 new problems for investigation, has accomplished 7 technology applications, 6 potential technology application, 4 impacts, has closed 54 old problems, and has a total of 47 problems under active investigation.

  18. Drug repurposing and the medicinal chemist.

    PubMed

    Aubé, Jeffrey

    2012-06-14

    Drug repurposing is an approach to finding new uses for older drugs and has been gaining popularity in recent years. The role of traditional medicinal chemistry in the context of these efforts is considered.

  19. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aerospace Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591... Inspector or register with the FAA, Office of Aerospace Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800... contractor who has your own drug testing program Register with the FAA, Office of Aerospace Medicine,...

  20. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, H. C.; Brown, J. N.; Rouse, D. J.; Ruddle, J. C.; Scearce, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A bipolar, donor-recipient model of medical technology transfer is introduced to provide a basis for the team's methodology. That methodology is designed (1) to identify medical problems and NASA technology that in combination constitute opportunities for successful medical products, (2) to obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer proces, and (3) to obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial technology transfers and five institutional technology transfers were completed in 1977. A new, commercially available teaching manikin system uses NASA-developed concepts and techniques for effective visual presentation of information and data. Drugs shipped by the National Cancer Institute to locations throughout the world are maintained at low temperatures in shipping containers that incorporate recommendations made by NASA.

  1. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 395)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 82 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Nov. 1992. Subject coverage includes: general life sciences; aerospace medicine (including physiological factors, biological effects of radiation, and effects of weightlessness on man and animals); behavioral sciences (including psychological factors, individual and group behavior, crew training and evaluation, and psychic research); man/system technology and life support (including human engineering, biotechnology, and space suits and protective clothing) and space biology (including exobiology, planetary biology, and extraterrestrial life).

  2. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes. Supplement 486

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  3. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 492

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report lists reports, articles and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  4. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are, after marijuana (and alcohol), the most commonly abused substances by ...

  5. Emergency medical kit for commercial airlines. Air Transport Medicine Committee, Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, C

    1998-11-01

    While it has been of general interest for a long time, the issue of a Medical Kit for Commercial Airlines is now close to the top of the priority list because of recent activities in Europe within the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) and in the United States at the Congressional Level. The Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) requested its Air Transport Medicine Committee to review the situation and make recommendations for a basic medical kit for international airlines. After reviewing the contents of existing kits, and the limited amount of available data, a proposal was submitted to and accepted by the AsMA Council. This is just a beginning. The Air Transport Medicine Committee will continue to follow the evolution and periodically adapt the kit accordingly.

  6. Physician training in aerospace medicine--an historical review in the United States.

    PubMed

    Doarn, Charles R; Mohler, Stanley R

    2013-02-01

    The training of U.S. physicians in aviation medicine closely followed the development of reliable airplanes. This training has matured as aviation and space travel have become more routine over the past several decades. In the U.S., this training began in support of military pilots who were flying increasingly complex aircraft in the early part of the 20th century. As individuals reached into the stratosphere, low Earth orbit, and eventually to the Moon, physicians were trained not only through military efforts but in academic settings as well. This paper provides an historical summary of how physician training in aerospace medicine developed in the U.S., citing both the development of the military activities and, more importantly, the perspectives of the academic programs. This history is important as we move forward in the development of commercial space travel and the needs that such a business model will be required to meet.

  7. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes. Supplement 499

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP#1999-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth#s atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. The NASA CASI price code table, addresses of organizations, and document availability information are included before the abstract section. Two indexes-subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  8. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes. Supplement 506

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP#2000-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. The NASA CASI price code table, addresses of organizations, and document availability information are included before the abstract section. Two indexes- subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  9. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 494

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. The NASA CASI price code table, addresses of organizations, and document availability information are included before the abstract section. Two indexes--subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  10. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 496

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP#2000-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth#s atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. The NASA CASI price code table, addresses of organizations, and document availability information are included before the abstract section. Two indexes#subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  11. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 485

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1999-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract. The NASA CASI price code table, addresses of organizations, and document availability information are included before the abstract section. Two indexes-subject and author are included after the abstract section.

  12. Drugs and Driving Research in Medicinal Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, J G

    2017-04-01

    Medicinal drugs that cause drowsiness and inattentiveness may impair driving. The FDA recently emphasized that standardized procedures for measuring drug effects on driving are needed as part of drug registration. Here, I provide an overview of a standardized on-the-road driving test that offers maximal drug sensitivity and uses a real-life outcome measure of driver impairment that is strongly associated with crash risk.

  13. Designer drugs: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Carroll, F Ivy; Lewin, Anita H; Mascarella, S Wayne; Seltzman, Herbert H; Reddy, P Anantha

    2012-02-01

    There are numerous medicinal chemistry reports in the literature describing the pharmacological properties of thousands of narcotics, stimulants, hallucinogens, sedative-hypnotic drugs, cannabinoids, and other psychoactive substances as well as synthetic methods for their preparations. This information, while essential for the advancement of science, has been used by clandestine chemists to manufacture and market an endless variety of analogs of so-called designer drugs. In this review, we describe how clandestine chemists used the principles of medicinal chemistry to design molecules, referred to as designer drugs, that elicit the effects of opioids, amphetamine and analogs, cannabinoids, and phencyclidine analogs while circumventing the law.

  14. Antiherpetic Drugs in Equine Medicine.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Lara K

    2017-04-01

    Since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. Drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. Oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for EHV-5 infection in the therapy of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis. Other antiherpetic drugs are promising but require further investigation. Several topical drugs are also empirically used in the therapy of equine viral keratitis.

  15. Breathable Medicine: Pulmonary Mode of Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Tay, Samuel Sam Wah; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh

    2015-04-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds require different modes of drug delivery systems to accomplish therapeutic activity without loss of its activity and lead to exhibit no adverse effects. Originating from ancient days, pulmonary mode of drug delivery is gaining much importance compared to other modes of drug delivery systems with respect to specific diseases. Pulmonary drug delivery is a non-invasive route for local and systemic therapies together with more patient convenience, compliance and is a needleless system. In this review, we addressed the vaccine delivery via non- or minimally invasive routes. Polymeric nanoparticles are preferred for use in the pulmonary delivery devices owing to a prolonged retention in lungs. Small site for absorption, mucociliary clearance, short residence time and low bioavailability are some of the limitations in pulmonary drug delivery have been resolved by generating micro- and nano-sized aerosol particles. We have classified the breathable medicine on the basis of available devices for inhalation and also prominent diseases treated through pulmonary mode of drug delivery. Owing to increasing toxicity of pharmacological drugs, the use of natural medicines has been rapidly gaining importance recently. The review article describes breathability of medicines or the pulmonary mode of drug delivery system and their drug release profile, absorption, distribution and efficacy to cure asthma and diabetes.

  16. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 488

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report lists reports, articles and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  17. [Decompression sickness-one of the vital problems of aerospace medicine].

    PubMed

    Katuntsev, V P

    1998-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on decompression sickness (DCS) constituting one of the major problems of aerospace medicine. He speculates on the terms describing this health condition and offers the retrospective of hypothesised causes for DCS development. The paper outlines main DCS symptoms and reports statistics on the DCS incidence rate in flying personnel when piloting aircraft and training in altitude chambers, and in volunteered test-subjects during physiological experiments with simulated ascents in order to mimic the extravehicular activities of cosmonauts and to test the altitude gear. Underlined is the value of publications by many Russian and foreign investigators who contributed significantly to development of the scientific and applied aspects of this problem. The currently available and theoretically possible countermeasures against DCS in cosmonauts during EVA are considered.

  18. [AVIATION MEDICINE: THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND FOCAL FUNDAMENTAL AND PRACTICAL ISSUES (for the 80th anniversary of the Research Test Center of Aerospace Medicine and Military Ergonomics)].

    PubMed

    Zhdanko, I M; Pisarev, A A; Vorona, A A; Lapa, V V; Khomenko, M N

    2015-01-01

    The article discloses postulates of theoretical concepts that make the methodological basis for addressing the real-world aviation medicine challenges of humanizing aviator's environment, labor content and means, and health and performance maintenance. Under consideration are focal fundamental and practical issues arising with the technological progress in aviation and dealt with at the AF CRI Research Test Center of Aerospace Medicine and Military Ergonomics.

  19. Point-of-care ultrasound in aerospace medicine: known and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael S; Garcia, Kathleen; Martin, David S

    2014-07-01

    Since its initial introduction into the bedside assessment of the trauma patient via the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) exam, the use of point-of-care ultrasound has expanded rapidly. A growing body of literature demonstrates ultrasound can be used by nonradiologists as an extension of the physical exam to accurately diagnose or exclude a variety of conditions. These conditions include, but are not limited to, hemoperitoneum, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, long-bone fracture, deep vein thrombosis, and elevated intracranial pressure. As ultrasound machines have become more compact and portable, their use has extended outside of hospitals to places where the physical exam and diagnostic capabilities may be limited, including the aviation environment. A number of studies using focused sonography have been performed to meet the diagnostic challenges of space medicine. The following article reviews the available literature on portable ultrasound use in aerospace medicine and highlights both known and potential applications of point-of-care ultrasound for the aeromedical clinician.

  20. Personalized Medicine: Pharmacogenomics and Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Mirsadeghi, Somayeh; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-03-01

    Personalized medicine aims is to supply the proper drug to the proper patient within the right dose. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is to recognize genetic variants that may influence drug efficacy and toxicity. All things considered, the fields cover a wide area, including basic drug discovery researches, the genetic origin of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, novel drug improvement, patient genetic assessment and clinical patient administration. At last, the objective of Pharmacogenomics is to anticipate a patient's genetic response to a particular drug as a way of presenting the best possible medical treatment. By predicting the drug response of an individual, it will be possible to increase the success of therapies and decrease the incidence of adverse side effect.

  1. Defining drug response for stratified medicine.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, Mike; Senn, Stephen J; McNamee, Christine; Daly, Ann K; Sutton, Robert; Hattersley, Andrew; Pearson, Ewan; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2017-01-01

    The premise for stratified medicine is that drug efficacy, drug safety, or both, vary between groups of patients, and biomarkers can be used to facilitate more targeted prescribing, with the aim of improving the benefit:risk ratio of treatment. However, many factors can contribute to the variability in response to drug treatment. Inadequate characterisation of the nature and degree of variability can lead to the identification of biomarkers that have limited utility in clinical settings. Here, we discuss the complexities associated with the investigation of variability in drug efficacy and drug safety, and how consideration of these issues a priori, together with standardisation of phenotypes, can increase both the efficiency of stratification procedures and identification of biomarkers with the potential for clinical impact.

  2. Anticoagulant Medicine: Potential for Drug-Food Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medications Anticoagulants and Drug-Food Interactions Anticoagulants and Drug-Food Interactions Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... care provider before making the change. Anticoagulants and Medicine There are many medicines that can interact with ...

  3. 46 CFR 147.105 - Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines. 147.105 Section 147.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES HAZARDOUS..., drugs, and medicines. Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines must be stowed and dispensed in accordance...

  4. 46 CFR 147.105 - Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines. 147.105 Section 147.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES HAZARDOUS..., drugs, and medicines. Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines must be stowed and dispensed in accordance...

  5. 46 CFR 147.105 - Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines. 147.105 Section 147.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES HAZARDOUS..., drugs, and medicines. Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines must be stowed and dispensed in accordance...

  6. 46 CFR 147.105 - Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines. 147.105 Section 147.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES HAZARDOUS..., drugs, and medicines. Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines must be stowed and dispensed in accordance...

  7. 46 CFR 147.105 - Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines. 147.105 Section 147.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES HAZARDOUS..., drugs, and medicines. Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines must be stowed and dispensed in accordance...

  8. Ground-facilities at the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine for preparation of flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmersbach, Ruth; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Hauslage, Jens; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Baerwalde, Sven; Schuber, Marianne

    In order to investigate the influence of altered gravity on biological systems and to identify gravisensitive processes, various experimental platforms have been developed, which are useful to simulate weightlessness or are able to produce hypergravity. At the Institute of Aerospace Medicine, DLR Cologne, a broad spectrum of applications is offered to scientists: clinostats with one rotation axis and variable rotation speeds for cultivation of small objects (including aquatic organisms) in simulated weightlessness conditions, for online microscopic observations and for online kinetic measurements. Own research concentrates on comparative studies with other kinds of methods to simulate weightlessness, also available at the institute: Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) for aquatic studies, Random Positioning Machine (RPM; manufactured by Dutch Space, Leiden, The Netherlands). Correspondingly, various centrifuge devices are available to study different test objects under hypergravity conditions -such as NIZEMI, a slow rotating centrifuge microscope, and MUSIC, a multi-sample centrifuge. Mainly for experiments with human test subjects (artificial gravity), but also for biological systems or for testing various kinds of (flight-) hardware, the SAHC, a short arm human centrifuge -loaned by ESA -was installed in Cologne and completes our experimental scenario. Furthermore, due to our specific tasks such as providing laboratories during the German Parabolic Flight Experiments starting from Cologne and being the Facility Responsible Center for BIOLAB, a science rack in the Columbus module aboard the ISS, scientists have the possibility for an optimal preparation of their flight experiments.

  9. Drug metabolism for the perplexed medicinal chemist.

    PubMed

    Testa, Bernard

    2009-11-01

    Two related and significant issues may elicit perplexity in medicinal chemists and are discussed here. First, a broad presentation of the pharmacological and toxicological consequences of drug metabolism should justify the significance of drug metabolism and serve as an incentive to further study. When comparing the pharmacological activities of a drug and its metabolite(s), a continuum is found which ranges from soft drugs (no active metabolites) to prodrugs (inactive per se, as illustrated here with clopidogrel and prasugrel). Innumerable intermediate cases document drugs whose activity is shared by one or more metabolites, as exemplified with tamoxifen. The toxicological consequences of metabolism at the molecular, macromolecular, and macroscopic levels are manyfold. A brief overview is offered together with a summary of the reactions of toxification and detoxification of the antiepileptic valproic acid. The second issue discussed in the review is a comparison of the relative significance of cytochromes P450 and other oxidoreductases (EC 1), hydrolases (EC 3), and transferases (EC 2) in drug metabolism, based on a 'guesstimate' of the number of drug metabolites that are known to be produced by them. The conclusion is that oxidoreductases are the main enzymes responsible for the formation of toxic or active metabolites, whereas transferases play the major role in producing inactive and nontoxic metabolites.

  10. [Interactions between herbal medicines and drugs].

    PubMed

    Tůmová, L

    2000-07-01

    At present the use of medicaments of plant origin is on the increase. It is therefore necessary to take into consideration that there exist known as well as potential interactions between the medicament of the medicinal plant. The problematic plants include Echinacea, Allium cepa, Gingko biloba, Panax ginseng, as well as Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, or Glycyrrhiza glabra. Its use should be limited, or completely excluded in the cases of simultaneous therapy with, e.g., warfarin, hepatotoxically acting medicaments, MAOI inhibitors, phenelzin sulphate, or phenytoin, as they may decrease of completely eliminate the therapeutic effect of the administered drugs, or they may cause a toxic damage to the organism.

  11. NASA biomedical applications team. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, D. J.; Beadles, R.; Beall, H. C.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Courtney, M. W.; Mccartney, M.; Scearce, R. W.; Wilson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a bipolar donor-recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented. That methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and aerospace technology that in combination constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on aerospace technology. Problem descriptions and activity reports and the results of a market study on the tissue freezing device are presented.

  12. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs.

    PubMed

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Pelligand, Ludovic; Lees, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given that: (1) the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2) the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of animal origin; (3) alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed "green antibiotics," having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes. We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a "turnstile" exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s). For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem.

  13. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A.; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Pelligand, Ludovic; Lees, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given that: (1) the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2) the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of animal origin; (3) alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed “green antibiotics,” having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes. We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a “turnstile” exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s). For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem. PMID:27536285

  14. Antimicrobial drug use in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Morley, Paul S; Apley, Michael D; Besser, Thomas E; Burney, Derek P; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Papich, Mark G; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Weese, J Scott

    2005-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of antimicrobial resistance and the need for veterinarians to aid in efforts for maintaining the usefulness of antimicrobial drugs in animals and humans, the Board of Regents of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine charged a special committee with responsibility for drafting this position statement regarding antimicrobial drug use in veterinary medicine. The Committee believes that veterinarians are obligated to balance the well-being of animals under their care with the protection of other animals and public health. Therefore, if an animal's medical condition can be reasonably expected to improve as a result of treatment with antimicrobial drugs, and the animal is under a veterinarian's care with an appropriate veterinarian-client-patient relationship, veterinarians have an obligation to offer antimicrobial treatment as a therapeutic option. Veterinarians also have an obligation to actively promote disease prevention efforts, to treat as conservatively as possible, and to explain the potential consequences associated with antimicrobial treatment to animal owners and managers, including the possibility of promoting selection of resistant bacteria. However, the consequences of losing usefulness of an antimicrobial drug that is used as a last resort in humans or animals with resistant bacterial infections might be unacceptable from a public or population health perspective. Veterinarians could therefore face the difficult choice of treating animals with a drug that is less likely to be successful, possibly resulting in prolonged or exacerbated morbidity, to protect the good of society. The Committee recommends that voluntary actions be taken by the veterinary profession to promote conservative use of antimicrobial drugs to minimize the potential adverse effects on animal or human health. The veterinary profession must work to educate all veterinarians about issues related to conservative antimicrobial drug use and

  15. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  16. Risk of coronary heart disease--risk analysis in the clinical practice of aerospace medicine using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Everett, W D

    1981-09-01

    A simple program for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C calculator is presented which allows the practicing flight surgeon to screen asymptomatic aviators for risk of aeromedically significant coronary artery disease. The risk equation used in the program is under ongoing investigation at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine and will be refined. The program allows the flight surgeon to use risk analysis to select candidates for exercise stress testing and educate aviators on possible benefits to be derived from changes in lifestyle.

  17. Taking Medicines Safely After Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the-counter Products Procedures & Devices Prescription Medicines Health Tools Dictionary Symptom Checker BMI Calculator myhealthfinder ...

  18. Medicinal chemistry of drugs with active metabolites following conjugation.

    PubMed

    Kalász, Huba; Petroianu, Georg; Hosztafi, Sándor; Darvas, Ferenc; Csermely, Tamás; Adeghate, Ernest; Siddiq, Afshan; Tekes, Kornélia

    2013-10-01

    Authorities of Drug Administration in the United States of America approved about 5000 drugs for use in the therapy or management of several diseases. About two hundred of these drugs have active metabolites and the knowledge of their medicinal chemistry is important both in medical practice and pharmaceutical research. This review gives a detailed description of the medicinal chemistry of drugs with active metabolites generated after conjugation. This review focused on glucuronide-, acetyl-, sulphate- and phosphate-conjugation of drugs, converting the drug into an active metabolite. This conversion essentially changed the lipophilicity of the drug.

  19. Publications and Presentations of the Opthalmology Branch, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine 1981-1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    IN USAF AVIATORS Green RP Jr and DW Carlson Aerospace Medical Association Meeting, New Orleans LA, May 1988 KERATOCONUS IN USAF AVIATORS Carlson DW and...CAREER IMPACT OF KERATOCONUS IN USAF AVIATORS, Carlson DW and Green RP Jr RETINAL DETACHMENTS IN USAF AVIATORS, Chou T and Green RP Jr ORBITAL BLOWOUT

  20. Common uses of nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Ponto, J.A.; Hladik, W.B.

    1984-06-01

    A variety of nonradioactive pharmaceuticals commonly used in patients who receive nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are described. Nonradioactive drugs used in thyroid, brain, hepatobiliary, cardiac, renal, Meckel's diverticulum, gallium, adrenal, and hematological studies are described. Pharmaceutical necessities used as disinfectants, diluents, and anticoagulants are also described. Hospital pharmacists should be familiar with the uses of commonly prescribed nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine studies.

  1. Development of aerospace nursing.

    PubMed

    Barron, N J

    1975-04-01

    In the initial development, the primary purpose of the USAF aerospace nursing program was to prepare the nurse to function as an integral member of the aerospace medical team in support of bioastronautics, occupational health and aerospace medical research programs. The absence of an expanded manned space program has required the aerospace nurse to redirect her energies toward the immediate needs of the aerospace medicine program. Many of the aerospace nurse's more specific functions are dependent upon the mission objectives of the command and military base to which she is assigned. Aerospace nursing reflects a concern for the total health needs of the Air Force community and the application of a holistic approach. It includes all aspects of health and all environmental hazards which alter health. The development of aerospace nursing paves the way for this expanded view of nursing practice.

  2. Lower body negative pressure as a tool for research in aerospace physiology and military medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing highly reproducible hemodynamic responses during exposure to footward fluid shifts similar to those experienced under orthostatic challenge. By maintaining an orthostatic challenge in a supine posture, removal of leg support (muscle pump) and head motion (vestibular stimuli) during LBNP provides the capability to isolate cardiovascular mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. LBNP can be used for physiological measurements, clinical diagnoses and investigational research comparisons of subject populations and alterations in physiological status. The applications of LBNP to the study of blood pressure regulation in spaceflight, groundbased simulations of low gravity, and hemorrhage have provided unique insights and understanding for development of countermeasures based on physiological mechanisms underlying the operational problems.

  3. Lower body negative pressure as a tool for research in aerospace physiology and military medicine.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A

    2001-12-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been extensively used for decades in aerospace physiological research as a tool to investigate cardiovascular mechanisms that are associated with or underlie performance in aerospace and military environments. In comparison with clinical stand and tilt tests, LBNP represents a relatively safe methodology for inducing highly reproducible hemodynamic responses during exposure to footward fluid shifts similar to those experienced under orthostatic challenge. By maintaining an orthostatic challenge in a supine posture, removal of leg support (muscle pump) and head motion (vestibular stimuli) during LBNP provides the capability to isolate cardiovascular mechanisms that regulate blood pressure. LBNP can be used for physiological measurements, clinical diagnoses and investigational research comparisons of subject populations and alterations in physiological status. The applications of LBNP to the study of blood pressure regulation in spaceflight, groundbased simulations of low gravity, and hemorrhage have provided unique insights and understanding for development of countermeasures based on physiological mechanisms underlying the operational problems.

  4. Organic carbamates in drug design and medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Brindisi, Margherita

    2015-04-09

    The carbamate group is a key structural motif in many approved drugs and prodrugs. There is an increasing use of carbamates in medicinal chemistry and many derivatives are specifically designed to make drug-target interactions through their carbamate moiety. In this Perspective, we present properties and stabilities of carbamates, reagents and chemical methodologies for the synthesis of carbamates, and recent applications of carbamates in drug design and medicinal chemistry.

  5. Rare essentials: drugs for rare diseases as essential medicines.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Pieter; Willemen, Marjolein J C; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2006-09-01

    Since 1977, the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by WHO, has provided advice for Member States that struggle to decide which pharmaceutical technologies should be provided to patients within their public health systems. Originating from outside WHO, an incentive system has been put in place by various governments for the development of medicines for rare diseases ("orphan drugs"). With progress in pharmaceutical research (e.g. drugs targeted for narrower indications), these medicines will feature more often on future public health agendas. However, when current definitions for selecting essential medicines are applied strictly, orphan drugs cannot be part of the WHO Essential Medicines Programme, creating the risk that WHO may lose touch with this field. In our opinion WHO should explicitly include orphan drugs in its policy sphere by composing a complementary Orphan Medicines Model List as an addition to the EML. This complementary list of "rare essentials" could aid policy-makers and patients in, for example, emerging countries to improve access to these drugs and stimulate relevant policies. Furthermore, inconsistencies in the current EML with regard to medicines for rare diseases can be resolved. In this paper we propose selection criteria for an Orphan Medicines Model List that could form a departure point for future work towards an extensive WHO Orphan Medicines Programme.

  6. Organic Carbamates in Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The carbamate group is a key structural motif in many approved drugs and prodrugs. There is an increasing use of carbamates in medicinal chemistry and many derivatives are specifically designed to make drug–target interactions through their carbamate moiety. In this Perspective, we present properties and stabilities of carbamates, reagents and chemical methodologies for the synthesis of carbamates, and recent applications of carbamates in drug design and medicinal chemistry. PMID:25565044

  7. MPD3: a useful medicinal plants database for drug designing.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Ul Qamar, Muhammad Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Gulzar, Faisal; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Saari, Nazamid; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plants are the main natural pools for the discovery and development of new drugs. In the modern era of computer-aided drug designing (CADD), there is need of prompt efforts to design and construct useful database management system that allows proper data storage, retrieval and management with user-friendly interface. An inclusive database having information about classification, activity and ready-to-dock library of medicinal plant's phytochemicals is therefore required to assist the researchers in the field of CADD. The present work was designed to merge activities of phytochemicals from medicinal plants, their targets and literature references into a single comprehensive database named as Medicinal Plants Database for Drug Designing (MPD3). The newly designed online and downloadable MPD3 contains information about more than 5000 phytochemicals from around 1000 medicinal plants with 80 different activities, more than 900 literature references and 200 plus targets. The designed database is deemed to be very useful for the researchers who are engaged in medicinal plants research, CADD and drug discovery/development with ease of operation and increased efficiency. The designed MPD3 is a comprehensive database which provides most of the information related to the medicinal plants at a single platform. MPD3 is freely available at: http://bioinform.info .

  8. A Special Report: The United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    treatment increases the tissue oxygen perfusion levels and pro- motes wound healing. Hyperbaric medicine is used to treat problems like gas gangrene ...burns, crush injuries, diabetic wound healing, and other applications. We perform clinical trials to assess its efficacy in a more scientific way, in

  9. United States National Library of Medicine Drug Information Portal

    PubMed Central

    Hochstein, Colette; Goshorn, Jeanne; Chang, Florence

    2009-01-01

    The Drug Information Portal is a free Web resource from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) that provides a user-friendly gateway to current information for more than 15,000 drugs. The site guides users to related resources of NLM, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other government agencies. Current drug-related information regarding consumer health, clinical trials, AIDS, MeSH pharmacological actions, MEDLINE/PubMed biomedical literature, and physical properties and structure is easily retrieved by searching on a drug name. A varied selection of focused topics in medicine and drugs is also available from displayed subject headings. This column provides background information about the Drug Information Portal, as well as search basics. PMID:19384716

  10. Aerospace gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  11. [Studies on market of drug delivery system product and drug delivery system of compound Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Xu, De-Sheng; Hong, Yan-Long; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2006-10-01

    Based on the progress in the world market of drug delivery system (DDS) product and the research profile of DDS of compound Chinese Medicine, The article puts forward a new method of studies on DDS of compound Chinese Medicine. It is expected that the theory of compatibility of compound Chinese Medicine can be shown and its role can be exerted to the largest extent with the application of pharmaceutics technology to change the mode of drug delivery of activated components of compound Chinese Medicine.

  12. Drug discovery summit: 11(th) Swiss Course on Medicinal Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Frei, Priska; Navarra, Giulio; Sager, Christoph P; Silbermann, Marleen; Varga, Norbert; Wamhoff, Eike-Christian

    2015-03-01

    A summit amongst the summits: The 11(th) Swiss Course on Medicinal Chemistry was held in October 2014, again in the scenic setting of the Alps in Leysin, Switzerland. One hundred participants, mostly from industry, experienced a week of expert talks about numerous aspects of drug discovery and medicinal chemistry. In this conference report, we briefly summarize the essential topics of this event, while the most inspiring lectures are described in greater detail.

  13. Sports medicine: performance-enhancing drugs.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Andrew J M; Fitch, Robert W

    2007-08-01

    Performance-enhancing drugs, ergogenic aids, or sports supplements have been a part of sports since sporting competition began and likely always will be. Considered cheating by purists and necessary by some athletes, we must accept the fact that they are used, understand why they are used, and study how to prevent their use to institute change. This article summarizes current information regarding the use of performance-enhancing drugs in young athletes and provides proven prevention strategies for instituting a program in your local schools.

  14. Physics and Its Interfaces with Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ricardo N.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.

    2013-08-01

    Medicinal chemistry is a multidisciplinary subject that integrates knowledge from a variety of fields of science, including, but not limited to, chemistry, biology, and physics. The area of drug design involves the cooperative work of scientists with a diverse range of backgrounds and technical skills, trying to tackle complex problems using an integration of approaches and methods. One important contribution to this field comes from physics through studies that attempt to identify and quantify the molecular interactions between small molecules (drugs) and biological targets (receptors), such as the forces that govern the interactions, the thermodynamics of the drug-receptor interactions, and so on. In this context, the interfaces of physics, medicinal chemistry, and drug design are of vital importance for the development of drugs that not only have the right chemistry but also the right intermolecular properties to interact at the macromolecular level, providing useful information about the principles and molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of drugs. This article highlights some of the most important connections between physics and medicinal chemistry in the design of new drugs.

  15. [V. V. Strel'tsov: founder of the Institute and father of our country's aerospace medicine].

    PubMed

    Agadzhanian, N A

    1996-01-01

    The paper gives an account of the scientific-and-practical activity of the prominent Soviet physiologist V. V. Streltsov, Head of the Fourth Sector, Research Sanitary Institute, and the initiator of the Aviation Medicine Institute. He was a brilliant experimenter, innovator, organizer of unique researches who developed the physiological aspects of high altitude, speedy, night and instrumental blind flights, the problems of stratospheric aviation. He made the first experimental ascent in the altitude chamber. He was one of the first aviation physicians who made a parachute jump. He was the first inflight medical investigator who tested the on-board oxygen equipment in group cross-country flight on the closed route Moscow-Kharkov-Moscow.

  16. Drug Guru: a computer software program for drug design using medicinal chemistry rules.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kent D; Shiroda, Melisa; James, Craig A

    2006-10-15

    Drug Guru (drug generation using rules) is a new web-based computer software program for medicinal chemists that applies a set of transformations, that is, rules, to an input structure. The transformations correspond to medicinal chemistry design rules-of-thumb taken from the historical lore of drug discovery programs. The output of the program is a list of target analogs that can be evaluated for possible future synthesis. A discussion of the features of the program is followed by an example of the software applied to sildenafil (Viagra) in generating ideas for target analogs for phosphodiesterase inhibition. Comparison with other computer-assisted drug design software is given.

  17. Editorial: in silico drug design and medicinal chemistry).

    PubMed

    Singla, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry is not limited to molecules, their structures and design but also highly cohesive to pharmacological activities. The potency of a molecule varies by its structure. Hence structural activity relationship is the sub-branch which deals with the estimation of ability of a molecule in depicting any pharmacological activity. In silico drug design is a novel technique which is employed in designing a molecule by using computer aided software’s and bringing a superior and potent molecule. In recent years, in silico drug design has been merged with medicinal chemistry especially by the techniques like ligand based strategy to isolate the required structures. By such strategic techniques, there are high chances of delivering high throughput screening which involves of screening large number of molecules in a very less time. Involvement of such techniques would be a boon for development of new drug entity as it can aid in development of newer, safe, effective and potent drug molecules. Hence, the present issue is aimed to emphasize the cohesion between in silico drug design and it significance in medicinal chemistry. The articles which would be published will mainly focus on the role of in silico drug design techniques in the development of molecules to target various disease and disorders. Molecules can from natural/ synthetic/semi synthetic origin. Articles will be a treasure box consisting of employment of computational methods for unprecedented molecules. The issue will be sure an endorsement for international readership and researchers.

  18. Insights into drug discovery from natural medicines using reverse pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haiping; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Guangji

    2014-04-01

    Natural medicines (NMs) are indispensable sources for the development of modern drugs. However, the targets for most natural compounds are unknown and the current pharmacokinetic evaluation systems developed for target-defined drugs may not be directly applicable to NM-based drug discovery, which is a major hindrance in bringing natural compounds to the clinic. Here, we propose the concept of 'reverse pharmacokinetics' and discuss how a 'reverse pharmacokinetics' perspective could help clarify key questions in modern drug discovery from NMs with validated clinical benefits, thereby strengthening the translational potential. Reverse pharmacokinetics can provide physiologically relevant clues to the target identification and mechanistic study of NMs, which may also innovate drug discovery for complex diseases. We anticipate that an evolving deep understanding of the novel mode of action of natural compounds with a reverse pharmacokinetic insight may improve discovery of both single ingredient and multiple-component modern drugs from NMs.

  19. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  20. Generic medicines: solutions for a sustainable drug market?

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Godman, Brian; Simoens, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Generic medicines offer equally high-quality treatment as originator medicines do at much lower prices. As such, they represent a considerable opportunity for authorities to obtain substantial savings. At the moment, the pharmaceutical landscape is changing and many pharmaceutical companies have altered their development and commercial strategies, combining both originator and generic divisions. In spite of this, the generic medicines industry is currently facing a number of challenges: delayed market access; the limited price differential with originator medicines; the continuous downwards pressure on prices; and the negative perception regarding generic medicines held by some key stakeholder groups. This could jeopardize the long-term sustainability of the generic manufacturing industry. Therefore, governments must focus on demand-side policies, alongside policies to accelerate market access, as the generic medicines industry will only be able to deliver competitive and sustainable prices if they are ensured a high volume. In the future, the generic medicines industry will increasingly look to biosimilars and generic versions of orphan drugs to expand their business.

  1. [Bryophytes, a potent source of drugs for tomorrow's medicine?].

    PubMed

    Krzaczkowski, Lucie; Wright, Michel; Gairin, Jean Edouard

    2008-11-01

    Although secondary plant metabolites provided numerous leads for the development of a wide array of therapeutic drugs, the discovery of new drugs with novel structures has declined in the past few years. Indeed higher plants have a similar evolutionary history and so produce similar metabolites. Search for novel sources of new therapeutic compounds within unexplored parts of biodiversity is thus an attractive challenge. Bryophytes, a group of small terrestrial plants remain relatively untouched in the drug discovery process whereas some have been used as medicinal plants. Studies of their secondary metabolites are recent but reveal original compounds, some of which not synthesized by higher plants. However investigations often meet difficulties during harvest or isolation of active compounds. In consequence, small quantities of substances obtained may be the main reason for the lack of biological tests. Strategies to overcome those troubles may exist and then lead to innovative medicinal applications.

  2. Publications and Presentations of the Ophthalmology Branch, U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, 2006-2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Feb 2008 2. USAF COLOR VISION TESTING STRATOGRAM METHODOLOGY Ivan DJ, Gooch JM, and Tredici TJ Presentation: Aerospace Medical Association ( ASMA ...Association ( ASMA ) Annual Meeting at the Color Vision Testing Workshop. Boston, MA; 11 May 2008 4. USAF AVIATION SPECTACLE OF CHOICE: NEW...DEVELOPMENTS Tutt RC, Ivan DJ, Gooch JM, Tredici TJ Poster Presentation: Aerospace Medical Association ( ASMA ) Annual Scientific Meeting, Boston, MA; 12 May

  3. Regenerative medicine and stem cell based drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Kazuhiro; McDonald, Fiona M; Shimada, Fumiki

    2008-01-01

    As William Shakespeare beautifully described, increasing age often causes loss of tissue and organ function. The increase in average life expectancy in many countries is generating an aging society and an increase in age-related health problems. Regenerative medicine is expected to be a powerful actor in this drama, and stem cell technology may hold the key to the development of innovative treatments for acute and chronic degenerative conditions. This Review surveys the present situation and some future prospects for regenerative medicine and stem cell based drug discovery.

  4. Subtleties in GPCR drug discovery: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Masahiko; Omori, Naoki

    2012-10-01

    Therapeutic effects through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are promoted by a full agonist, partial agonist, neutral antagonist or inverse agonist. Dramatic change of function such as from a neutral antagonist to a full agonist with minimal variation of ligand structure is a phenomenon that medicinal chemists often encounter. This is also influenced by a change of assay format. The subtle nature of structure-function relationships is difficult to grasp unless carefully considered from both chemistry and assay perspectives. In this article we discuss the subtle aspects of GPCR drug discovery from the medicinal chemistry perspective.

  5. Aerospace Community. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, V. V.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, emphasizes the two sides of aerospace--military aerospace and civilian aerospace. Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion on the organization of Air Force bases and missile sites in relation to their missions. Chapter 2 examines the community services provided by Air Force bases. The topics…

  6. 38 CFR 51.42 - Drugs and medicines for certain veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drugs and medicines for... Drugs and medicines for certain veterans. (a) In addition to per diem payments under § 51.40 of this part, the Secretary shall furnish drugs and medicines to a facility recognized as a State home as...

  7. 38 CFR 51.42 - Drugs and medicines for certain veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drugs and medicines for... Drugs and medicines for certain veterans. (a) In addition to per diem payments under § 51.40 of this part, the Secretary shall furnish drugs and medicines to a facility recognized as a State home as...

  8. 38 CFR 51.42 - Drugs and medicines for certain veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drugs and medicines for... Drugs and medicines for certain veterans. (a) In addition to per diem payments under § 51.40 of this part, the Secretary shall furnish drugs and medicines to a facility recognized as a State home as...

  9. 38 CFR 51.42 - Drugs and medicines for certain veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drugs and medicines for... Drugs and medicines for certain veterans. (a) In addition to per diem payments under § 51.40 of this part, the Secretary shall furnish drugs and medicines to a facility recognized as a State home as...

  10. 38 CFR 51.42 - Drugs and medicines for certain veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drugs and medicines for... Drugs and medicines for certain veterans. (a) In addition to per diem payments under § 51.40 of this part, the Secretary shall furnish drugs and medicines to a facility recognized as a State home as...

  11. Precision medicine in oncology drug development: a pharma perspective.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Simon J

    2015-12-01

    A rapid expansion in precision medicine founded on the potential for durable clinical benefit through matching a drug to a predictive marker used to select patients has driven the development of targeted drugs with accompanied companion diagnostics for patient selection. Oncology has been at the forefront, with the improvements in patient survival notable. Increasing numbers of molecular subgroups require an equally increasing number (and new generation) of highly selective agents targeting inevitably lower incidence molecular segments, posing significant challenges for drug development. Innovative trial designs (umbrella or basket studies) are emerging as patient-centric approaches and public-private partnerships, cross-industry, government and non-profit sector collaborations are enabling implementation. Success will require continued innovation, new paradigms in oncology drug development and market approval and continued collaboration.

  12. Radiation sterilization of traditional medicine drugs in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, N. D.; Canh, T. T.; Thuy, T. T.

    1995-02-01

    With the application of Gamma Co-60 radiation sterilization in pharmaceutical industry, attention should be paid to the possibilities of sterilizing traditional medicine drugs produced in Vietnam. In this paper the opinion which traditional medicine drugs can be satisfactorily sterilized by irradiation is based on the changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and microbiological examinations. The sterilizing radiation dose were calculated and the results are the following (in Mrad) Rheumatine-2.2, Hasinh-3.3, snake extract-1.8, Samcotgiao-2.2. The changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and their toxicity after irradiation have been shown to be not over the levels of allowance.

  13. Antimalarial Drug Discovery: Approaches and Progress towards New Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Flannery, Erika L.; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria elimination has recently been reinstated as a global health priority but current therapies seem to be insufficient for the task. Elimination efforts require new drug classes that alleviate symptoms, prevent transmission and provide a radical cure. To develop these next generation medicines, public-private partnerships are funding innovative approaches to identify compounds that target multiple parasite species at multiple stages of the parasite lifecycle. Here, we review the cell-, chemistry- and target-based approaches used to discover new drug candidates that are currently in clinical trials or undergoing preclinical testing. PMID:24217412

  14. Towards personalized medicine: leveraging patient similarity and drug similarity analytics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance.

  15. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era.

  16. Fluorescence anisotropy (polarization): from drug screening to precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hairong; Wu, Qian; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) is one of the major established methods accepted by industry and regulatory agencies for understanding the mechanisms of drug action and selecting drug candidates utilizing a high-throughput format. Areas covered This review covers the basics of FA and complementary methods, such as fluorescence lifetime anisotropy and their roles in the drug discovery process. The authors highlight the factors affecting FA readouts, fluorophore selection, and instrumentation. Furthermore, the authors describe the recent development of a successful, commercially valuable FA assay for Long QT syndrome drug toxicity to illustrate the role that FA can play in the early stages of drug discovery. Expert opinion Despite the success in drug discovery, the FA-based technique experiences competitive pressure from other homogeneous assays. That being said, FA is an established yet rapidly developing technique, recognized by academic institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulatory agencies across the globe. The technical problems encountered in working with small molecules in homogeneous assays are largely solved, and new challenges come from more complex biological molecules and nanoparticles. With that, FA will remain one of the major work-horse techniques leading to precision (personalized) medicine. PMID:26289575

  17. [Guideline 'Medicinal care for drug addicts in penal institutions'].

    PubMed

    Westra, Michel; de Haan, Hein A; Arends, Marleen T; van Everdingen, Jannes J E; Klazinga, Niek S

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the policy on care for prisoners who are addicted to opiates is still heterogeneous. The recent guidelines entitled 'Medicinal care for drug addicts in penal institutions' should contribute towards unambiguous and more evidence-based treatment for this group. In addition, it should improve and bring the care pathways within judicial institutions and mainstream healthcare more into line with one another. Each rational course of medicinal treatment will initially be continued in the penal institution. In penal institutions the help on offer is mainly focused on abstinence from illegal drugs while at the same time limiting the damage caused to the health of the individual user. Methadone is regarded at the first choice for maintenance therapy. For patient safety, this is best given in liquid form in sealed cups of 5 mg/ml once daily in the morning. Recently a combination preparation containing buprenorphine and naloxone - a complete opiate antagonist - has become available. On discontinuation of opiate maintenance treatment intensive follow-up care is necessary. During this period there is considerable risk of a potentially lethal overdose. Detoxification should be coupled with psychosocial or medicinal intervention aimed at preventing relapse. Naltrexone is currently the only available opiate antagonist for preventing relapse. In those addicted to opiates, who also take benzodiazepines without any indication, it is strongly recommended that these be reduced and discontinued. This can be achieved by converting the regular dosage into the equivalent in diazepam and then reducing this dosage by a maximum of 25% a week.

  18. Interactions between Transporters and Herbal Medicines/Drugs: A Focus on Hepatoprotective Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijie; Li, Quansheng; He, Xin; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines and drugs are available in the clinic as potent hepatoprotective agents for the treatment of commonly occurring liver diseases. Recently, herbal medicines such as silymarin and curcumin have gained more attention and popularity for the treatment of various liver diseases because of their safety and efficacy profiles. Some of them are related to transporters for drug disposition processes, therapeutic efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions. Currently, herbal medicines and diet supplements made from natural products are widely used in patients who are being treated with conventional prescription medicines, which are related to an increasing risk of herbal-drug interactions (HDIs) and/or drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The purpose of present review is to summarize the contemporary knowledge of transporter-mediated HDIs or DDIs for herbal medicines/drugs focusing on hepatoprotective compounds. Several herbal medicines/drugs are discussed in detail in this review.

  19. An overview on adverse drug reactions to traditional Chinese medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kelvin; Zhang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2015-01-01

    The safe use of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice conventionally relies on correct pharmacognostic identification, good agricultural and manufacturing practices based on pharmacopoeia standards and rational/correct CMM combinations with TCM-guided clinical prescribing. These experience-based principles may not absolutely ensure safety without careful toxicological investigations when compared with development of new pharmaceutical drugs. Clinically observed toxicity reports remain as guidance for gathering toxicological evidence, though essential as pharmacovigilance, but are considered as late events for ensuring safety. The overview focuses on the following factors: global development of TCM that has affected conventional healthcare; examples of key toxic substances in CMM; reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consequential to taking CMM and TCM products; and proposals on rational approaches to integrate the knowledge of biomedical science and the principles of TCM practice for detecting early ADRs if both TCM products and orthodox drugs are involved. It is envisaged that good control of the quality and standards of CMM and proprietary Chinese medicines can certainly reduce the incidence of ADRs in TCM practice when these medications are used. PMID:25619530

  20. [Blood components: Are they drugs or special medicines?].

    PubMed

    Garraud, O; Tissot, J-D

    2016-09-01

    Blood transfusion and plasma derived-drugs significantly differ from other medicines in that their availability strictly depends on blood and plasma collected from healthy donors. Blood collection must comply with a double objective: to maintain donor heath safety, and to avoid any transmitted infections in recipients. This raises several ethical concerns that appear to be different from usual ethical and deontological issues linked to other pharmaceutical and industrial processes. The main concern is the non-commercialization of the human body. Words and concept are of major importance in this context. This short review aims at presenting the main issues relevant to those questions with respect to the various stakeholders.

  1. Personalized Cancer Medicine: Molecular Diagnostics, Predictive biomarkers, and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez de Castro, D; Clarke, P A; Al-Lazikani, B; Workman, P

    2013-01-01

    The progressive elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of cancer has fueled the rational development of targeted drugs for patient populations stratified by genetic characteristics. Here we discuss general challenges relating to molecular diagnostics and describe predictive biomarkers for personalized cancer medicine. We also highlight resistance mechanisms for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors in lung cancer. We envisage a future requiring the use of longitudinal genome sequencing and other omics technologies alongside combinatorial treatment to overcome cellular and molecular heterogeneity and prevent resistance caused by clonal evolution. PMID:23361103

  2. Prediction of Cancer Drug Resistance and Implications for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Volm, Manfred; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance still impedes successful cancer chemotherapy. A major goal of early concepts in individualized therapy was to develop in vitro tests to predict tumors’ drug responsiveness. We have developed an in vitro short-term test based on nucleic acid precursor incorporation to determine clinical drug resistance. This test detects inherent and acquired resistance in vitro and transplantable syngeneic and xenografted tumors in vivo. In several clinical trials, clinical resistance was predictable with more than 90% accuracy, while drug sensitivity was detected with less accuracy (~60%). Remarkably, clinical cross-resistance to numerous drugs (multidrug resistance, broad spectrum resistance) was detectable by a single compound, doxorubicin, due to its multifactorial modes of action. The results of this predictive test were in good agreement with predictive assays of other authors. As no predictive test has been established as yet for clinical diagnostics, the identification of sensitive drugs may not reach sufficiently high reliability for clinical routine. A meta-analysis of the literature published during the past four decades considering test results of more than 15,000 tumor patients unambiguously demonstrated that, in the majority of studies, resistance was correctly predicted with an accuracy between 80 and 100%, while drug sensitivity could only be predicted with an accuracy of 50–80%. This synopsis of the published literature impressively illustrates that prediction of drug resistance could be validated. The determination of drug resistance was reliable independent of tumor type, test assay, and drug used in these in vitro tests. By contrast, chemosensitivity could not be predicted with high reliability. Therefore, we propose a rethinking of the “chemosensitivity” concept. Instead, predictive in vitro tests may reliably identify drug-resistant tumors. The clinical consequence imply to subject resistant tumors not to chemotherapy, but to other new

  3. Pharmacology and Clinical Drug Candidates in Redox Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Ana I.; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Seredenina, Tamara; Kaludercic, Nina; Robledinos-Anton, Natalia; Di Lisa, Fabio; Stocker, Roland; Ghezzi, Pietro; Jaquet, Vincent; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is suggested to be a disease mechanism common to a wide range of disorders affecting human health. However, so far, the pharmacotherapeutic exploitation of this, for example, based on chemical scavenging of pro-oxidant molecules, has been unsuccessful. Recent Advances: An alternative emerging approach is to target the enzymatic sources of disease-relevant oxidative stress. Several such enzymes and isoforms have been identified and linked to different pathologies. For some targets, the respective pharmacology is quite advanced, that is, up to late-stage clinical development or even on the market; for others, drugs are already in clinical use, although not for indications based on oxidative stress, and repurposing seems to be a viable option. Critical Issues: For all other targets, reliable preclinical validation and drug ability are key factors for any translation into the clinic. In this study, specific pharmacological agents with optimal pharmacokinetic profiles are still lacking. Moreover, these enzymes also serve largely unknown physiological functions and their inhibition may lead to unwanted side effects. Future Directions: The current promising data based on new targets, drugs, and drug repurposing are mainly a result of academic efforts. With the availability of optimized compounds and coordinated efforts from academia and industry scientists, unambiguous validation and translation into proof-of-principle studies seem achievable in the very near future, possibly leading towards a new era of redox medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1113–1129. PMID:26415051

  4. A research facility for habitation questions to be built at the German Aerospace Center in Cologne: future challenges of Space medicine

    PubMed Central

    Koch, B; Gerzer, R

    2008-01-01

    For long term habitation in space and for living on Moon and Mars, many questions still need to be resolved. Such habitation questions include prevention of and rehabilitation from negative effects of weightlessness that are, in many instances, comparable to problems of aging people on Earth as well as of patients during and recovery from long term stays in bed. Therefore the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine has designed a concept for a research facility that will make it possible to join space research directly with terrestrial applications. From a strategic point of view, one major emphasis of :envihab is to form a closely interrelated network of scientists and the industry and the public. The project has been in the planning phase for several years. After an international architectural contest, the winning concept was selected in 2007 by a Jury with ESA participation. PMID:19048099

  5. A research facility for habitation questions to be built at the German Aerospace Center in Cologne: future challenges of Space medicine.

    PubMed

    Koch, B; Gerzer, R

    2008-08-01

    For long term habitation in space and for living on Moon and Mars, many questions still need to be resolved. Such habitation questions include prevention of and rehabilitation from negative effects of weightlessness that are, in many instances, comparable to problems of aging people on Earth as well as of patients during and recovery from long term stays in bed. Therefore the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine has designed a concept for a research facility that will make it possible to join space research directly with terrestrial applications. From a strategic point of view, one major emphasis of :envihab is to form a closely interrelated network of scientists and the industry and the public. The project has been in the planning phase for several years. After an international architectural contest, the winning concept was selected in 2007 by a Jury with ESA participation.

  6. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ma, Dik-Lung; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is "experience driven," the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like "looking for a needle in a haystack," is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development.

  7. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development. PMID:23634172

  8. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  9. Drug related hospital admissions in subspecialities of internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Hallas, J

    1996-04-01

    It is well established in the literature that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug non-compliance contribute substantially to the admissions at medical wards. Some important questions, however, remain unanswered. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise the drug-related hospital admissions (DRH) and to assess the magnitude of the problem seen in relation to the demographic parameters and drug use of the background population. In addition, an attempt was made to reduce the DRH incidence by an intervention program. The scope of the study program was adverse drug reactions, intended self-poisoning, non-compliance, underdosing and interactions. The material included 1999 admissions to six departments of internal medicine at Odense University Hospital. The patients were reviewed prospectively, while they were still in the wards, but use of standardised criteria fOR assessment of drug-ADR causality. With inclusion of a definite, probable and possible causal relationship, ADRs and toxic reactions were found as an important factor in 8.4% of all admissions. The incidense of ADR related admissions was 400 per 100,000 per year for the background population as a whole, but showing a strong increase with age. The drug-specific ADR incidences were generally small compared to the drug sales figures. Non-compliance contributed to 2.0% of admissions with diuretics and anti-asthmatics as the drugs most frequently involved. Two departments were re-investigated after an intervention program, primarily targetting general practitioners. The over-all incidence of DRHs was unaffected by the intervention, but the subset classified as avoidable DRHs showed a significant decline. The case material was subject to a blinded evaluation by an external peer group using the same criteria as the investigators. There was no indication that the observed decline in avoidable DRHs should be explained by a shift in the investigators' assessment of cases. It was concluded that the intervention

  10. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  11. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  12. Conformational Analysis of Drug Molecules: A Practical Exercise in the Medicinal Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuriev, Elizabeth; Chalmers, David; Capuano, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry is a specialized, scientific discipline. Computational chemistry and structure-based drug design constitute important themes in the education of medicinal chemists. This problem-based task is associated with structure-based drug design lectures. It requires students to use computational techniques to investigate conformational…

  13. 38 CFR 51.43 - Per diem and drugs and medicines-principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... medicines-principles. 51.43 Section 51.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Per diem and drugs and medicines—principles. (a) As a condition for receiving payment of per diem... drugs and medicines under this part, the State must submit to the VA medical center of jurisdiction...

  14. 38 CFR 51.43 - Per diem and drugs and medicines-principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... medicines-principles. 51.43 Section 51.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Per diem and drugs and medicines—principles. (a) As a condition for receiving payment of per diem... Governments.” (f) As a condition for receiving drugs and medicines under this part, the State must submit...

  15. 38 CFR 51.43 - Per diem and drugs and medicines-principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... medicines-principles. 51.43 Section 51.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Per diem and drugs and medicines—principles. (a) As a condition for receiving payment of per diem... Governments.” (f) As a condition for receiving drugs and medicines under this part, the State must submit...

  16. 38 CFR 51.43 - Per diem and drugs and medicines-principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... medicines-principles. 51.43 Section 51.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Per diem and drugs and medicines—principles. (a) As a condition for receiving payment of per diem... Governments.” (f) As a condition for receiving drugs and medicines under this part, the State must submit...

  17. Aerospace Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Jean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Sauk Rapids (Minnesota) High School aviation and aerospace curriculum that was developed by Curtis Olson and the space program developed by Gerald Mayall at Philadelphia's Northeast High School. Both were developed in conjunction with NASA. (JOW)

  18. Molecular Networking As a Drug Discovery, Drug Metabolism, and Precision Medicine Strategy.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert A; Nothias, Louis-Felix; Vining, Oliver; Meehan, Michael; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2017-02-01

    Molecular networking is a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data organizational approach that has been recently introduced in the drug discovery, metabolomics, and medical fields. The chemistry of molecules dictates how they will be fragmented by MS/MS in the gas phase and, therefore, two related molecules are likely to display similar fragment ion spectra. Molecular networking organizes the MS/MS data as a relational spectral network thereby mapping the chemistry that was detected in an MS/MS-based metabolomics experiment. Although the wider utility of molecular networking is just beginning to be recognized, in this review we highlight the principles behind molecular networking and its use for the discovery of therapeutic leads, monitoring drug metabolism, clinical diagnostics, and emerging applications in precision medicine.

  19. The changing landscape of cancer drug discovery: a challenge to the medicinal chemist of tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Pors, Klaus; Goldberg, Frederick W; Leamon, Christopher P; Rigby, Alan C; Snyder, Scott A; Falconer, Robert A

    2009-11-01

    Since the development of the first cytotoxic agents, synthetic organic chemistry has advanced enormously. The synthetic and medicinal chemists of today are at the centre of drug development and are involved in most, if not all, processes of drug discovery. Recent decreases in government funding and reformed educational policies could, however, seriously impact on drug discovery initiatives worldwide. Not only could these changes result in fewer scientific breakthroughs, but they could also negatively affect the training of our next generation of medicinal chemists.

  20. Decompression Sickness in Aerospace Medicine: The Development of an Onboard Treatment Facility for the Shuttle-Orbiter Spacecraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Center/NASA, Houston, Texas. April 12, 1979. 7. Davis, Jefferson C. et al . "Altitude Decompression Sickness: Hyperbaric Therapy REsults In 145 Cases...34 Aviation, Space, And Environmental Medicine, 48 (8): 722-730, 1977. 8. Davis, Jefferson C. et al . "Neurological Decompression Sickness: Report of 2...Edel, Peter 0. et al . "Interval at Sea Level Pressure Required to Prevent Decompression Sickness in Humans who Fly in Commerical Air- craft After

  1. Merging traditional Chinese medicine with modern drug discovery technologies to find novel drugs and functional foods.

    PubMed

    Graziose, Rocky; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2010-03-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) are rapidly gaining attention in the West as sources of new drugs, dietary supplements and functional foods. However, lack of consistent manufacturing practices and quality standards, fear of adulteration, and perceived deficiencies in scientific validation of efficacy and safety impede worldwide acceptance of TCM. In addition, Western pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies are partial toward single ingredient drugs based on synthetic molecules, and skeptical of natural product mixtures. This review concentrates on three examples of TCM-derived pharmaceuticals and functional foods that have, despite these usual obstacles, risen to wide acceptance in the West based on their remarkable performance in recent scientific investigations. They are: Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), the source of artemisinin, which is the currently preferred single compound anti-malarial drug widely used in combination therapies and recently approved by US FDA; Thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii) which is being developed as a botanical drug for rheumatoid arthritis; and green tea (Camellia sinensis) which is used as a functional beverage and a component of dietary supplements.

  2. Merging Traditional Chinese Medicine with Modern Drug Discovery Technologies to Find Novel Drugs and Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Graziose, Rocky; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) are rapidly gaining attention in the West as sources of new drugs, dietary supplements and functional foods. However, lack of consistent manufacturing practices and quality standards, fear of adulteration, and perceived deficiencies in scientific validation of efficacy and safety impede worldwide acceptance of TCM. In addition, Western pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies are partial toward single ingredient drugs based on synthetic molecules, and skeptical of natural product mixtures. This review concentrates on three examples of TCM-derived pharmaceuticals and functional foods that have, despite these usual obstacles, risen to wide acceptance in the West based on their remarkable performance in recent scientific investigations. They are: Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), the source of artemisinin, which is the currently preferred single compound anti-malarial drug widely used in combination therapies and recently approved by US FDA; Thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii) which is being developed as a botanical drug for rheumatoid arthritis; and green tea (Camellia sinensis) which is used as a functional beverage and a component of dietary supplements. PMID:20156139

  3. A new strategy in drug design of Chinese medicine: theory, method and techniques.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Jun; Shen, Dan; Xu, Hai-Yu; Lu, Peng

    2012-11-01

    The research and development (R&D) process of Chinese medicine, with one notable feature, clinical application based, is significantly different from which of chemical and biological medicine, from laboratory research to clinics. Besides, compound prescription is another character. Therefore, according to different R&D theories between Chinese and Western medicine, we put forward a new strategy in drug design of Chinese medicine, which focuses on "combination-activity relationship (CAR)", taking prescription discovery, component identification and formula optimization as three key points to identify the drugs of high efficacy and low toxicity. The method of drug design of Chinese medicine includes: new prescription discovery based on clinical data and literature information, component identification based on computing and experimental research, as well as formula optimization based on system modeling. This paper puts forward the concept, research framework and techniques of drug design of Chinese medicine, which embodies the R&D model of Chinese medicine, hoping to support the drug design of Chinese medicine theoretically and technologically.

  4. Alpine drug discovery summit: 10th Swiss Course on Medicinal Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Müller, Gerhard; Ernst, Beat

    2012-12-01

    Alpine fresh! Aimed at instructing young scientists at the beginning of their careers in industry, this medicinal chemistry course provides an overview of the state of the art techniques and current approaches to drug discovery and development.

  5. [Chemical analysis of wastewater as a new way of monitoring drugs and medicines consumption at workplace].

    PubMed

    Wiergowski, Marek; Sołtyszewski, Ireneusz; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The available information on the quality and frequency of illegal psychoactive substances used or medicines misused by workers, are often out of date at the time of its publication. This is due to the dynamic introduction of new synthetic drugs on the black market, changes in trends in the recreational use of medicines and the lack of readily available and reliable tests for fast identification. Strategy for detection of narcotic and non-medical psychoactive drugs use at workplace should embrace all possible sources of information. Classical sources of information on the use of psychoactive substances at the workplace include: statistical data (general information on trends and magnitude of drug and medicine addiction collected by the Polish National Police, the National Bureau for Drug Prevention and emergency medical services), surveys, psychomotor tests and qualitative and quantitative analyses of biological material. Of the new and promising methods, used throughout the world in recent years, chemical-toxicological analysis of surface water and wastewater deserve special mention. An increasing interest in the study of urban waste water can significantly complement the source of knowledge about drug and medicine addiction using obtainable conventional methods. In recent years, a municipal wastewater analysis has become a new and very promising way of collecting updated information on the use of psychoactive substances and medicines. It seems that this kind of study may play an important role in the ongoing monitoring of drug and/or medicines use by selected groups of population (e.g., students, military, firemen, policemen, etc.).

  6. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Doris J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Transfer Team is to assist NASA in achieving widespread utilization of aerospace technology in terrestrial applications. Widespread utilization implies that the application of NASA technology is to benefit a significant sector of the economy and population of the Nation. This objective is best attained by stimulating the introduction of new or improved commercially available devices incorporating aerospace technology. A methodology is presented for the team's activities as an active transfer agent linking NASA Field Centers, industry associations, user groups, and the medical community. This methodology is designed to: (1) identify priority technology requirements in industry and medicine, (2) identify applicable NASA technology that represents an opportunity for a successful solution and commercial product, (3) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process, and (4) successfully develop a new product based on NASA technology.

  7. Natural Compounds from Mexican Medicinal Plants as Potential Drug Leads for Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cansino, Rocio; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Silvia Laura; Campos-Lara, María Guadalupe; Espitia-Pinzón, Clara Ines; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2017-02-09

    In Mexican Traditional Medicine 187 plant species are used in the treatment of respiratory conditions that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this contribution, we review the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of 63 species whose extracts have been assayed for antimycobacterial activity in vitro. Among these, the most potent is Aristolochia brevipes (MIC= 12.5 µg/mL), followed by Aristolochia taliscana, Citrus sinensis, Chrysactinia mexicana, Persea americana, and Olea europaea (MIC<64 µg/mL). Other potent extracts (inhibition > 95%, 50 µg/mL) include: Amphipterygium adstringens, Larrea divaricata, and Phoradendron robinsoni. Several active compounds have been identified, the most potent are: Licarin A (isolated from A. taliscana), and 9-amino-9-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[h]-chromen-2-one (transformation product of 9-methoxytariacuripyrone isolated from Aristolochia brevipes), both with MIC= 3.125 µg/mL, that is 8-fold less potent than the reference drug Rifampicin (MIC= 0.5 µg/mL). Any of the compounds or extracts here reviewed has been studied in clinical trials or with animal models; however, these should be accomplished since several are active against strains resistant to common drugs.

  8. [Research on our hospital inventory management status quo of traditional Chinese medicine drugs and treatment method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Xu, Wen

    2014-03-01

    Under the background of the new medical reform, a large variety of traditional Chinese medicine from complicated sources, Chinese traditional medicine of actor of true and false of the quality directly affect the drug safety and clinical efficacy, but also relate to the social and economic benefits of hospital. Along with the development of the modern management of medical institutions and drug circulation circulation system reform in our country, the hospital drug inventory, supply and management work is an important topic for the pharmaceutical trading. However, there is always contradiction, dispensary need to supple pharmacy, in order to satisfy the demands of hospital patients with normal diagnosis and treatment work. However, if the drug inventory is too much, not only increases the drug monitoring problem, at the same time, but also causes storage costs rise. Therefore, completing scientific and reasonable storage and management becomes urgent problems at present. Wherefore, our country administration of traditional Chinese medicine in 2007 promulgated the "Chinese traditional medicine yinpian management norms in hospital", aims to standardize management of Chinese traditional medicine quality and improve the safety of drugs. The author through looking up information and visiting survey, to understand the currently existing problems, and summarizes the literature inland and abroad in recent years Chinese medicine drug inventory management work experience, in view of status quo of Chinese medicine inventory management in China, put forward the solution. To guarantee TCM pharmacy management more standardized, more standard, to adapt to the new reform of Chinese traditional medicine industry, improve the management level of hospital, defend the hospital's reputation and the patient's interests.

  9. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Mazzari, Andre L D A; Prieto, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance.

  10. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Prieto, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance. PMID:25071580

  11. Personalized Cardiovascular Medicine Today: A Food and Drug Administration/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Perspective.

    PubMed

    Blaus, Alison; Madabushi, Rajanikanth; Pacanowski, Michael; Rose, Martin; Schuck, Robert N; Stockbridge, Norman; Temple, Robert; Unger, Ellis F

    2015-10-13

    Over the past decade, personalized medicine has received considerable attention from researchers, drug developers, and regulatory agencies. Personalized medicine includes identifying patients most likely to benefit and those most likely to experience adverse reactions in response to a drug, and tailoring therapy based on pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamic response, as well. Perhaps most exciting is finding ways to identify likely responders through genetic, proteomic, or other tests, so that only likely responders will be treated. However, less precise methods such as identifying historical, demographic, or other indicators of increased or reduced responsiveness are also important aspects of personalized medicine. The cardiovascular field has not used many genetic or proteomic markers, but has regularly used prognostic variables to identify likely responders. The development of biomarker-based approaches to personalized medicine in cardiovascular disease has been challenging, in part, because most cardiovascular therapies treat acquired syndromes, such as acute coronary syndrome and heart failure, which develop over many decades and represent the end result of several pathophysiological mechanisms. More precise disease classification and greater understanding of individual variations in disease pathology could drive the development of targeted therapeutics. Success in designing clinical trials for personalized medicine will require the selection of patient populations with attributes that can be targeted or that predict outcome, and the use of appropriate enrichment strategies once such attributes are identified. Here, we describe examples of personalized medicine in cardiovascular disease, discuss its impact on clinical trial design, and provide insight into the future of personalized cardiovascular medicine from a regulatory perspective.

  12. 38 CFR 51.43 - Per diem and drugs and medicines-principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... medicines-principles. 51.43 Section 51.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Per diem and drugs and medicines—principles. (a) As a condition for receiving payment of per diem... for State, Local, and Indian Tribal Governments.” (f) As a condition for receiving drugs and...

  13. Aerospace Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry.

  14. Aerospace Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry. PMID:28216729

  15. Chinese proprietary medicine in Singapore: regulatory control of toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs.

    PubMed

    Koh, H L; Woo, S O

    2000-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is gaining popularity as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. Reports of efficacy of TCM are increasing in numbers. TCM includes both crude Chinese medicinal materials (plants, animal parts and minerals) and Chinese proprietary medicine (CPM) [final dosage forms]. Despite the belief that CPM and herbal remedies are of natural origin, unlike Western medicine, and are hence safe and without many adverse effects, there have been numerous reports of adverse effects associated with herbal remedies. Factors affecting the safety of herbal medicines include intrinsic toxicity, adulteration, substitution, contamination, misidentification, lack of standardisation, incorrect preparation and/or dosage and inappropriate labelling and/or advertising. Hence, new regulations on the control of CPM were enforced in Singapore with effect from 1 September 1999. These include licensing and labelling requirements, as well as control of microbial contamination. This article also reviews reports of excessive toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in CPM in Singapore between 1990 and 1997. The names, uses, toxic heavy metal or drug detected and the year of detection are tabulated. Information on the brand or manufacturer's name are provided whenever available. The public and healthcare professionals should be better informed of the basic concept of TCM and its usefulness, as well as the potential adverse effects associated with its use. Greater control over the safety and quality of CPM could be achieved through good manufacturing practice, regulatory control, research, education, reporting usage of Chinese medicine (as in drug history) as well as reporting of adverse events.

  16. Complementary and alternative drug therapy versus science-oriented medicine

    PubMed Central

    Anlauf, Manfred; Hein, Lutz; Hense, Hans-Werner; Köbberling, Johannes; Lasek, Rainer; Leidl, Reiner; Schöne-Seifert, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This opinion deals critically with the so-called complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapy on the basis of current data. From the authors’ perspective, CAM prescriptions and most notably the extensive current endeavours to the “integration” of CAM into conventional patient care is problematic in several respects. Thus, several CAM measures are used, although no specific effects of medicines can be proved in clinical studies. It is extensively explained that the methods used in this regard are those of evidence-based medicine, which is one of the indispensable pillars of science-oriented medicine. This standard of proof of efficacy is fundamentally independent of the requirement of being able to explain efficacy of a therapy in a manner compatible with the insights of the natural sciences, which is also essential for medical progress. Numerous CAM treatments can however never conceivably satisfy this requirement; rather they are justified with pre-scientific or unscientific paradigms. The high attractiveness of CAM measures evidenced in patients and many doctors is based on a combination of positive expectations and experiences, among other things, which are at times unjustified, at times thoroughly justified, from a science-oriented view, but which are non-specific (context effects). With a view to the latter phenomenon, the authors consider the conscious use of CAM as unrevealed therapeutic placebos to be problematic. In addition, they advocate that academic medicine should again systematically endeavour to pay more attention to medical empathy and use context effects in the service of patients to the utmost. The subsequent opinion discusses the following after an introduction to medical history: the definition of CAM; the efficacy of most common CAM procedures; CAM utilisation and costs in Germany; characteristics of science-oriented medicine; awareness of placebo research; pro and contra arguments about the use of CAM, not least of all in terms

  17. Complementary and alternative drug therapy versus science-oriented medicine.

    PubMed

    Anlauf, Manfred; Hein, Lutz; Hense, Hans-Werner; Köbberling, Johannes; Lasek, Rainer; Leidl, Reiner; Schöne-Seifert, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This opinion deals critically with the so-called complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapy on the basis of current data. From the authors' perspective, CAM prescriptions and most notably the extensive current endeavours to the "integration" of CAM into conventional patient care is problematic in several respects. Thus, several CAM measures are used, although no specific effects of medicines can be proved in clinical studies. It is extensively explained that the methods used in this regard are those of evidence-based medicine, which is one of the indispensable pillars of science-oriented medicine. This standard of proof of efficacy is fundamentally independent of the requirement of being able to explain efficacy of a therapy in a manner compatible with the insights of the natural sciences, which is also essential for medical progress. Numerous CAM treatments can however never conceivably satisfy this requirement; rather they are justified with pre-scientific or unscientific paradigms. The high attractiveness of CAM measures evidenced in patients and many doctors is based on a combination of positive expectations and experiences, among other things, which are at times unjustified, at times thoroughly justified, from a science-oriented view, but which are non-specific (context effects). With a view to the latter phenomenon, the authors consider the conscious use of CAM as unrevealed therapeutic placebos to be problematic. In addition, they advocate that academic medicine should again systematically endeavour to pay more attention to medical empathy and use context effects in the service of patients to the utmost. The subsequent opinion discusses the following after an introduction to medical history: the definition of CAM; the efficacy of most common CAM procedures; CAM utilisation and costs in Germany; characteristics of science-oriented medicine; awareness of placebo research; pro and contra arguments about the use of CAM, not least of all in terms of

  18. Systems pharmacology in drug discovery and therapeutic insight for herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emerging field that integrates systems biology and pharmacology to advance the process of drug discovery, development and the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms. The aim of the present work is to highlight the role that the systems pharmacology plays across the traditional herbal medicines discipline, which is exemplified by a case study of botanical drugs applied in the treatment of depression. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and clinical knowledge, we propose a large-scale statistical analysis to evaluate the efficiency of herbs used in traditional medicines. Second, we focus on the exploration of the active ingredients and targets by carrying out complex structure-, omics- and network-based systematic investigations. Third, specific informatics methods are developed to infer drug-disease connections, with purpose to understand how drugs work on the specific targets and pathways. Finally, we propose a new systems pharmacology method, which is further applied to an integrated platform (Herbal medicine Systems Pharmacology) of blended herbal medicine and omics data sets, allowing for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of herbal medicines and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for complex human diseases.

  19. [Evaluation of the efficacy of a medicine bag printed with a photograph of the medicine for the prevention of drug-dispensing errors].

    PubMed

    Kutsuma, Nobuaki; Yamaura, Katsunori; Hosaka, Shigeru; Kasuga, Kazuo; Koresawa, Taketoshi; Nagamura, Miho; Takayanagi, Masayuki; Nemoto, Eiichi; Ohshima, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Saito, Yukiya

    2007-09-01

    In this study, a survey was conducted to determine the rate of drug-dispensing errors with the use of medicine bags printed with photographs of prescribed medicines (hereafter "medicine bag") for a 6-week period from June 20 to July 31, 2005. During this period, 393928 prescriptions were filled in 127 medical facilities that use the medicine bag. The efficacy of the medicine bag in the prevention of drug-dispensing errors was investigated. A total of 6550 (1.66%) drug-dispensing errors were identified: 70.6% were identified at the inspecting stage; 27.4% at the providing medicine and information stage; and 2% after the medication was dispensed. The drug-dispensing errors identified in the inspecting and providing stages included a) using the wrong contents, b) dispensing the wrong drugs, c) missing drugs, d) calculation errors, e) weighing/measuring errors, and f) others. No significant difference was observed in the error rates; thus it was assumed that the type of error was not dependent on the stage at which dispensing errors was discovered. However, it was found that approximately 25% of errors at the providing stage were discovered as a result of the medicine bag. Errors of types a), b), and c) were often discovered because the photograph was printed on the medicine bag. Therefore it was assumed that the photographs contributed to the discovery of drug-dispensing errors.

  20. Functionalized Benzimidazole Scaffolds: Privileged Heterocycle for Drug Design in Therapeutic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Olayinka O; Aderohunmu, Damilola V; Ikpo, Chinwe O; Adedapo, Adebusayo E; Olanrewaju, Ifedolapo O

    2016-07-01

    Benzimidazole derivatives are crucial structural scaffolds found in diverse libraries of biologically active compounds which are therapeutically useful agents in drug discovery and medicinal research. They are structural isosteres of naturally occurring nucleotides, which allows them to interact with the biopolymers of living systems. Hence, there is a need to couple the latest information with the earlier documentations to understand the current status of the benzimidazole nucleus in medicinal chemistry research. This present work unveils the benzimidazole core as a multifunctional nucleus that serves as a resourceful tool of information for synthetic modifications of old existing candidates in order to tackle drug resistance bottlenecks in therapeutic medicine. This manuscript deals with the recent advances in the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives, the widespread biological activities as well as pharmacokinetic reports. These present them as a toolbox for fighting infectious diseases and also make them excellent candidates for future drug design.

  1. Aerospace Education - An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the surge of interest throughout the country in aerospace education and discusses what aerospace education is, the implications in career education and the relevance of aerospace education in the curriculum. (BR)

  2. Basic Aerospace Education Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Lists the most significant resource items on aerospace education which are presently available. Includes source books, bibliographies, directories, encyclopedias, dictionaries, audiovisuals, curriculum/planning guides, aerospace statistics, aerospace education statistics and newsletters. (BR)

  3. Nanodiamonds: The intersection of nanotechnology, drug development, and personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Dean; Wang, Chung-Huei Katherine; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of nanomedicine in cellular, preclinical, and clinical studies has led to exciting advances ranging from fundamental to translational, particularly in the field of cancer. Many of the current barriers in cancer treatment are being successfully addressed using nanotechnology-modified compounds. These barriers include drug resistance leading to suboptimal intratumoral retention, poor circulation times resulting in decreased efficacy, and off-target toxicity, among others. The first clinical nanomedicine advances to overcome these issues were based on monotherapy, where small-molecule and nucleic acid delivery demonstrated substantial improvements over unmodified drug administration. Recent preclinical studies have shown that combination nanotherapies, composed of either multiple classes of nanomaterials or a single nanoplatform functionalized with several therapeutic agents, can image and treat tumors with improved efficacy over single-compound delivery. Among the many promising nanomaterials that are being developed, nanodiamonds have received increasing attention because of the unique chemical-mechanical properties on their faceted surfaces. More recently, nanodiamond-based drug delivery has been included in the rational and systematic design of optimal therapeutic combinations using an implicitly de-risked drug development platform technology, termed Phenotypic Personalized Medicine–Drug Development (PPM-DD). The application of PPM-DD to rapidly identify globally optimized drug combinations successfully addressed a pervasive challenge confronting all aspects of drug development, both nano and non-nano. This review will examine various nanomaterials and the use of PPM-DD to optimize the efficacy and safety of current and future cancer treatment. How this platform can accelerate combinatorial nanomedicine and the broader pharmaceutical industry toward unprecedented clinical impact will also be discussed. PMID:26601235

  4. Application of NMR spectroscopy in medicinal chemistry and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Ross, Brian; Tran, Thao; Bhattacharya, Pratip; Watterson, D Martin; Sailasuta, Napapon

    2011-01-01

    We describe the details of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemical shift imaging techniques for the human brain which have been developed over the last two decades. With these non-invasive tools, it is now readily possible to repeatedly assay up to 20 common brain metabolites. From the perspective of drug discovery, each of these metabolites could fulfill a number of useful functions: disease biomarker, surrogate marker of drug delivery, surrogate marker of drug efficacy and so on. To facilitate the possible utility of clinical magnetic resonance spectroscopy in future drug discovery, the major portion of the review is devoted to a detailed description of the well-validated neurochemical profiles of many common human brain disorders, for which MRS data now exists. Beyond proton, MRS, the commonest tool provided by the manufacturers of clinical MRI equipment, lays the world of heteronuclear NMR more familiar to chemists. Here too, with relatively little effort it has been possible to define neurochemical profiles of human brain disorders using (13)C MRS in particular. The future for drug discovery scientists is discussed. Finally, recognizing that a known feature of MR is the lack of sensitivity, we describe new efforts to harness hyperpolarization, with its 50,000 signal amplification, to conventional MRS.

  5. Meconium drug testing reveals maternal misuse of medicinal opioids among addicted mothers.

    PubMed

    Launiainen, Terhi; Nupponen, Irmeli; Halmesmäki, Erja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-07-01

    Meconium drug testing is a non-invasive method to detect prenatal drug exposure, which can cause severe problems for the infant, indicating the need for follow-up measures to ensure the welfare of the child. Meconium samples for drug testing were collected from 143 infants as part of routine clinical work among addicted mothers. The drug testing findings were combined with medical records including clinical background and follow-up data. The substances screened for included medicinal opioids, 6-monoacetylmorphine (a metabolite of heroin), amphetamines and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. At least one of the 13 target drugs was detected in 57 (40%) meconium samples. In 21 cases, the findings were unexpected on the basis of clinical data or denied by the mother. Medicinal opioids, especially the opioid substitution treatment drugs buprenorphine and methadone, comprised the majority of the findings of both admitted and unexpected drug misuse. Meconium drug testing methods should target not just traditional illicit drugs but also prescription drugs with misuse potential.

  6. [Drug-food interactions in internal medicine: What physicians should know?].

    PubMed

    Mouly, S; Morgand, M; Lopes, A; Lloret-Linares, C; Bergmann, J-F

    2015-08-01

    Orally administered medications may interact with various fruits, vegetables, herbal medicines, functional foods or dietary supplements. Drug-food interactions, which are mostly unknown from prescribers, including internists, may be responsible for changes in drug plasma concentrations, which may decrease efficacy or led to sometimes life-threatening toxicity. Aging, concomitant medications, transplant recipients, patients with cancer, malnutrition, HIV infection and those receiving enteral or parenteral feeding are at increased risk of drug-food interactions. This review focused on the most clinically relevant drug-food interactions, including those with grapefruit juice, Saint-John's Wort, enteral or parenteral nutrition, their respective consequences in the clinical setting in order to provide thoughtful information for internists in their routine clinical practice. Specific clinical settings are also detailed, such as the Ramadan or multiple medications especially in elderly patients. Drug-food interactions are also presented with respect to the main therapeutic families, including the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, cardiovascular medications, warfarin as well as new oral anticoagulants, anticancer drugs and immunosuppressant medications. Considerable effort has been achieved to a better understanding of food-drug interactions and increase clinicians' ability to anticipate their occurrence and consequences in clinical practice. Describing the frequency of relevant food-drug interactions in internal medicine is paramount in order to optimize patient care and drug dosing on an individual basis as well as to increase patients and doctors information.

  7. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Complementary and Alternative Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Koji; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Kumagai, Junichiro; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Nakamura, Masato; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old man was admitted due to acute hepatitis with unknown etiology. After his condition and laboratory data gradually improved with conservative therapy, he was discharged 1 month later. Two months after his discharge, however, liver dysfunction reappeared. After his mother accidentally revealed that he took complementary and alternative medicine, discontinuation of the therapy caused his condition to improve. Finally, he was diagnosed with a recurrent drug-induced liver injury associated with Japanese complementary and alternative medicine. It is important to take the medical history in detail and consider complementary and alternative medicine as a cause of liver disease. PMID:28100990

  8. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Complementary and Alternative Medicines.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koji; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Kumagai, Junichiro; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Nakamura, Masato; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old man was admitted due to acute hepatitis with unknown etiology. After his condition and laboratory data gradually improved with conservative therapy, he was discharged 1 month later. Two months after his discharge, however, liver dysfunction reappeared. After his mother accidentally revealed that he took complementary and alternative medicine, discontinuation of the therapy caused his condition to improve. Finally, he was diagnosed with a recurrent drug-induced liver injury associated with Japanese complementary and alternative medicine. It is important to take the medical history in detail and consider complementary and alternative medicine as a cause of liver disease.

  9. [PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY AND PERSONALIZED MEDICINE: A PARADIGM SHIFT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRUGS].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2015-01-01

    The cost of pharmacotherapy is increasing in the health care budget. The pharmaceutical industry is facing the exhaustion of medications that are largely prescribed and have a high profitability (blockbusters). Because of patient heterogeneity, there is a great interindividual variability of the responses to drug therapy. Thus, it is essential to better detect potential to avoid waste of resources resulting from the prescription of expensive drugs to poor responders. The development of personalized medicine, or precision medicine, certainly offers opportunities to the pharmaceutical industry, but also exposes it to new big challenges.

  10. On cannabis, chloral hydrate, and career cycles of psychotropic drugs in medicine.

    PubMed

    Snelders, Stephen; Kaplan, Charles; Pieters, Toine

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the careers of two psychotropic drugs in Western psychiatry, with a focus on the nineteenth century: Cannabis indica and chloral hydrate. They were used by doctors for similar indications, such as mania, delirium tremens, and what we would now call drug dependence. The two show similar career paths consisting of three phases: initial enthusiasm and therapeutic optimism; subsequent negative appraisal; and finally, limited use. These cycles, which we term "Seige cycles," are generally typical of the careers of psychotropic drugs in modern medicine. However, differences in the careers of both drugs are also established. The phases of chloral show relatively higher peaks and lower valleys than those of cannabis. Chloral is the first typically "modern" psychotropic drug; a synthetic, it was introduced in 1869 at a time of growing asylum populations, pharmaceutical interests, and high cultural expectations of scientific medicine. Cannabis indica, introduced in the 1840s, is typically a "premodern" drug steeped in the climate of cultural Romanticism. We conclude that the analytical concept of the Seige cycle is a useful tool for future research into drug careers in medicine.

  11. Perceptions of Genetic Testing and Genomic Medicine among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, David C.; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Friedman, Samuel R.; Jordan, Ashly E.; Hagan, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic testing will soon enter care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and for addiction. There is a paucity of data on how to disseminate genetic testing into healthcare for marginalized populations. We explored drug users’ perceptions of genetic testing. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with 34 drug users recruited from syringe exchange programs and an HIV clinic between May and June 2012. Individual interviews were conducted with participants reporting previous genetic testing. Results All participants expressed acceptance of genetic testing to improve care, but most had concerns regarding confidentiality and implications for law enforcement. Most expressed more comfort with genetic testing based on individual considerations rather than testing based on race/ethnicity. Participants expressed comfort with genetic testing in medical care rather than drug treatment settings and when specifically asked permission, with peer support, and given a clear rationale. Conclusions Although participants understood the potential value of genetic testing, concerns regarding breaches in confidentiality and discrimination may reduce testing willingness. Safeguards against these risks, peer support, and testing in medical settings based on individual factors and with clear rationales provided may be critical in efforts to promote acceptance of genetic testing among drug users. PMID:25037119

  12. 14 CFR 120.117 - Implementing a drug testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementing a drug testing program. 120.117 Section 120.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Abatement Division at FAA, Office of Aerospace Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800...

  13. Prescription drug samples--does this marketing strategy counteract policies for quality use of medicines?

    PubMed

    Groves, K E M; Sketris, I; Tett, S E

    2003-08-01

    Prescription drug samples, as used by the pharmaceutical industry to market their products, are of current interest because of their influence on prescribing, and their potential impact on consumer safety. Very little research has been conducted into the use and misuse of prescription drug samples, and the influence of samples on health policies designed to improve the rational use of medicines. This is a topical issue in the prescription drug debate, with increasing costs and increasing concerns about optimizing use of medicines. This manuscript critically evaluates the research that has been conducted to date about prescription drug samples, discusses the issues raised in the context of traditional marketing theory, and suggests possible alternatives for the future.

  14. The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery.

    PubMed Central

    Fabricant, D S; Farnsworth, N R

    2001-01-01

    In this review we describe and discuss several approaches to selecting higher plants as candidates for drug development with the greatest possibility of success. We emphasize the role of information derived from various systems of traditional medicine (ethnomedicine) and its utility for drug discovery purposes. We have identified 122 compounds of defined structure, obtained from only 94 species of plants, that are used globally as drugs and demonstrate that 80% of these have had an ethnomedical use identical or related to the current use of the active elements of the plant. We identify and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using plants as starting points for drug development, specifically those used in traditional medicine. PMID:11250806

  15. The Aerospace Age. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is written for use only in the Air Force ROTC program and cannot be purchased on the open market. The book describes the historical development of aerospace industry. The first chapter contains a brief review of the aerospace environment and the nature of technological changes brought by the aerospace revolution. The following chapter…

  16. Bulgarian contributions to the development of space biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafimov, K.

    1980-01-01

    Several aspects of aerospace medicine are discussed. Particular attention is given to the following: the effects of anoxia; the effects of positive radial acceleration; and the effects of various degrees of athletic conditioning and drugs on the tolerance of space flight factors.

  17. [Evaluation point of rational drug use of traditional Chinese medicine in market].

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui; Sun, Mingyue; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    Minimizing the underlying risk and maximizing the benefits of drag users, by using drags under a safe, efficient and economical principle, is both the requirement and purpose of clinical rational drug use. This paper evaluates the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the market based on its characteristics, considering if the drugs are safely applied, if the medicine has an anticipated effect, and if the medicine is properly priced. This paper also brings the idea of establishing an evaluation system integrated with the characteristics of TCM to monitor the clinical application of TCM after going into the market and thus further optimizes the clinical instructions of applying TCM and helps to guide the appropriate usage of TCM.

  18. Pressure Waves in Medicine: From Tissue Injury to Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doukas, Apostolos G.

    2004-07-01

    Pressure waves have the potential to cause injury to cells and tissue or enable novel therapeutic modalities, such as fragmentation of kidney stones and drug delivery. Research on the biological effects of pressure waves have shown that the biological response on depends the pressure-wave characteristics. One of the most prominent effects induced by pressure waves is the permeabilization of a number of barrier structures (cell plasma membrane, skin and microbial biofilms) and facilitate the delivery of macromolecules. The permeabilization of the barrier structure is transient and the barrier function recovers. Thus, pressure waves can induce delivery of molecular species that would not normally cross the barrier structure.

  19. 77 FR 52744 - Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. The Food and Drug Administration's...

  20. Regenerative Medicine: Transforming the Drug Discovery and Development Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Karathanasis, Sotirios K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the explosion of knowledge in basic biological processes controlling tissue regeneration and the growing interest in repairing/replacing diseased tissues and organs through various approaches (e.g., small and large molecule therapeutics, stem cell injection, tissue engineering), the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) has been reluctant to fully adopt these technologies into the traditional drug discovery and research and development (R&D) process. In this article, I discuss knowledge-base gaps and other possible factors that may delay full incorporation of these innovations in pharma R&D. I hope that this discussion will illuminate key issues that currently limit synergistic relationships between pharma and academic institutions and may even stimulate initiation of such collaborative research. PMID:25085955

  1. Nano Sponges for Drug Delivery and Medicinal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M.; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Kosynkin, Dimitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine; Hudson, Jared L.; Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Milas, Zvonimir L.; Milas, Luka; Mason, Kathy A.

    2012-01-01

    This invention is a means of delivering a drug, or payload, to cells using non-covalent associations of the payload with nano-engineered scaffolds; specifically, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their derivatives where the payload is effectively sequestered by the nanotube's addends and then delivered to the site (often interior of a cell) of interest. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and other water-soluble organic molecules have been shown to greatly enhance the solubility of SWNTs in water. PEG groups and other water-solubilizing addends can act to sequester (sponge) molecules and deliver them into cells. Using PEG that, when attached to the SWNTs, the SWNT/PEG matrix will enter cells has been demonstrated. This was visualized by the addition of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to the SWNT/PEG matrix. Control studies showed that both FITC alone and FITC/PEG did not enter the cells. These observations suggest that the FITC is highly associated with the SWNT/PEG matrix that brings the FITC into the cells, allowing visualization of SWNTs in cells. The FITC is not covalently attached, because extended dialysis in hot DMF will remove all fluorescence quickly (one week). However, prolonged dialysis in water (1-2 months) will only slowly diminish the fluorescence. This demonstrates that the SWNT/PEG matrix solubilizes the FITC by sequestering it from the surrounding water and into the more solubilizing organic environment of the SWNT/PEG matrix of this type. This can be extended for the sequestering of other molecules such as drugs with PEG and other surfactants.

  2. 3D Printing of Medicines: Engineering Novel Oral Devices with Unique Design and Drug Release Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Wang, Jie; Buanz, Asma; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón; Telford, Richard; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-11-02

    Three dimensional printing (3D printing) was used to fabricate novel oral drug delivery devices with specialized design configurations. Each device was loaded with multiple actives, with the intent of applying this process to the production of personalized medicines tailored at the point of dispensing or use. A filament extruder was used to obtain drug-loaded--paracetamol (acetaminophen) or caffeine--filaments of poly(vinyl alcohol) with characteristics suitable for use in fused-deposition modeling 3D printing. A multinozzle 3D printer enabled fabrication of capsule-shaped solid devices containing the drug with different internal structures. The design configurations included a multilayer device, with each layer containing drug, whose identity was different to the drug in the adjacent layers, and a two-compartment device comprising a caplet embedded within a larger caplet (DuoCaplet), with each compartment containing a different drug. Raman spectroscopy was used to collect 2-dimensional hyper spectral arrays across the entire surface of the devices. Processing of the arrays using direct classical least-squares component matching to produce false color representations of distribution of the drugs was used. This clearly showed a definitive separation between the drug layers of paracetamol and caffeine. Drug release tests in biorelevant bicarbonate media showed unique drug release profiles dependent on the macrostructure of the devices. In the case of the multilayer devices, release of both paracetamol and caffeine was simultaneous and independent of drug solubility. With the DuoCaplet design, it was possible to engineer either rapid drug release or delayed release by selecting the site of incorporation of the drug in the device; the lag-time for release from the internal compartment was dependent on the characteristics of the external layer. The study confirms the potential of 3D printing to fabricate multiple-drug containing devices with specialized design

  3. An Australian nationwide survey on medicinal cannabis use for epilepsy: History of antiepileptic drug treatment predicts medicinal cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Suraev, Anastasia S; Todd, Lisa; Bowen, Michael T; Allsop, David J; McGregor, Iain S; Ireland, Carol; Lintzeris, Nicholas

    2017-02-24

    Epilepsy Action Australia conducted an Australian nationwide online survey seeking opinions on and experiences with the use of cannabis-based products for the treatment of epilepsy. The survey was promoted via the Epilepsy Action Australia's main website, on their Facebook page, and by word of mouth. The survey consisted of 39 questions assessing demographics, clinical factors, including diagnosis and seizure types, and experiences with and opinions towards cannabis use in epilepsy. A total of 976 responses met the inclusion criteria. Results show that 15% of adults with epilepsy and 13% of parents/guardians of children with epilepsy were currently using, or had previously used, cannabis products to treat epilepsy. Of those with a history of cannabis product use, 90% of adults and 71% of parents reported success in reducing seizure frequency after commencing cannabis products. The main reasons for medicinal cannabis use were to manage treatment-resistant epilepsy and to obtain a more favorable side-effect profile compared to standard antiepileptic drugs. The number of past antiepileptic drugs tried was a significant predictor of medicinal cannabis use in both adults and children with epilepsy. Fifty-six percent of adults with epilepsy and 62% of parents/guardians of children with epilepsy expressed willingness to participate in clinical trials of cannabinoids. This survey provides insight into the use of cannabis products for epilepsy, in particular some of the likely factors influencing use, as well as novel insights into the experiences of and attitudes towards medicinal cannabis in people with epilepsy in the Australian community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy".

  4. [Combination analysis of new drug discovery with "Xiaohe Silian" method and traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Xiang, Jia-Mei; Wang, Jing-Juan; Zhao, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Gang; Dong, Hong-Huan; Ouyang, Guo-Qing

    2014-07-01

    With the kernel of efficacy, "Xiaohe Silian" was a pattern and method for new drug discovery which was constituted with "metabolism-efficacy, toxicity-efficacy, quality-efficacy and structure-efficacy". Its connotation was in keeping with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical pharmacy. This paper systematically summarized the research method of new drug discovery practice process for TCM. To avoid western drug like in TCM new drug discovery, we carried out combination analysis with TCM clinical pharmacy. The correlation analysis between basic elements of "Xiaohe Silian(n) and TCM clinical pharmacy was studied to guarantee this method could integrate closely with TCM clinic from all angles. Hence, this method aimed to provide a new method for TCM new drug discovery on the basis of TCM clinical pharmacy with insisting on holistic view of multicomponent study, kinetic view of metabolic process when the curative effect occurred and molecular material view of quality control and structure-activity exposition.

  5. DMET™ (Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters): a pharmacogenomic platform for precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    Arbitrio, Mariamena; Martino, Maria Teresa Di; Scionti, Francesca; Agapito, Giuseppe; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Cannataro, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, high-throughput technologies have allowed the investigation of genetic variations underlying the inter-individual variability in drug pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. Several studies have recently moved from a candidate gene-based pharmacogenetic approach to genome-wide pharmacogenomic analyses to identify biomarkers for selection of patient-tailored therapies. In this aim, the identification of genetic variants affecting the individual drug metabolism is relevant for the definition of more active and less toxic treatments. This review focuses on the potentiality, reliability and limitations of the DMET™ (Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters) Plus as pharmacogenomic drug metabolism multi-gene panel platform for selecting biomarkers in the final aim to optimize drugs use and characterize the individual genetic background. PMID:27304055

  6. Engineering mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Sun; Suryaprakash, Smruthi; Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Leong, Kam W

    2015-08-01

    Researchers have applied mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to a variety of therapeutic scenarios by harnessing their multipotent, regenerative, and immunosuppressive properties with tropisms toward inflamed, hypoxic, and cancerous sites. Although MSC-based therapies have been shown to be safe and effective to a certain degree, the efficacy remains low in most cases when MSC are applied alone. To enhance their therapeutic efficacy, researchers have equipped MSC with targeted delivery functions using genetic engineering, therapeutic agent incorporation, and cell surface modification. MSC can be genetically modified virally or non-virally to overexpress therapeutic proteins that complement their innate properties. MSC can also be primed with non-peptidic drugs or magnetic nanoparticles for enhanced efficacy and externally regulated targeting, respectively. Furthermore, MSC can be functionalized with targeting moieties to augment their homing toward therapeutic sites using enzymatic modification, chemical conjugation, or non-covalent interactions. These engineering techniques are still works in progress, requiring optimization to improve the therapeutic efficacy and targeting effectiveness while minimizing any loss of MSC function. In this review, we will highlight the advanced techniques of engineering MSC, describe their promise and the challenges of translation into clinical settings, and suggest future perspectives on realizing their full potential for MSC-based therapy.

  7. Engineering Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Sun; Suryaprakash, Smruthi; Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have applied mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to a variety of therapeutic scenarios by harnessing their multipotent, regenerative, and immunosuppressive properties with tropisms toward inflamed, hypoxic, and cancerous sites. Although MSC-based therapies have been shown to be safe and effective to a certain degree, the efficacy remains low in most cases when MSC are applied alone. To enhance their therapeutic efficacy, researchers have equipped MSC with targeted delivery functions using genetic engineering, therapeutic agent incorporation, and cell surface modification. MSC can be genetically modified virally or non-virally to overexpress therapeutic proteins that complement their innate properties. MSC can also be primed with non-peptidic drugs or magnetic nanoparticles for enhanced efficacy and externally regulated targeting, respectively. Furthermore, MSC can be functionalized with targeting moieties to augment their homing toward therapeutic sites using enzymatic modification, chemical conjugation, or non-covalent interactions. These engineering techniques are still works in progress, requiring optimization to improve the therapeutic efficacy and targeting effectiveness while minimizing any loss of MSC function. In this review, we will highlight the advanced techniques of engineering MSC, describe their promise and the challenges of translation into clinical settings, and suggest future perspectives on realizing their full potential for MSC-based therapy. PMID:25770356

  8. [Strategy and collaboration between medicinal chemists and pharmaceutical scientists for drug delivery systems].

    PubMed

    Mano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully apply drug delivery systems (DDS) to new chemical entities (NCEs), collaboration between medicinal chemists and formulation scientists is critical for efficient drug discovery. Formulation scientists have to use 'language' that medicinal chemists understand to help promote mutual understanding, and medicinal chemists and formulation scientists have to set up strategies to use suitable DDS technologies at the discovery phase of the programmes to ensure successful transfer into the development phase. In this review, strategies of solubilisation formulation for oral delivery, inhalation delivery, nasal delivery and bioconjugation are all discussed. For example, for oral drug delivery, multiple initiatives can be proposed to improve the process to select an optimal delivery option for an NCE. From a technical perspective, formulation scientists have to explain the scope and limitations of formulations as some DDS technologies might be applicable only to limited chemical spaces. Other limitations could be the administered dose and, cost, time and resources for formulation development and manufacturing. Since DDS selection is best placed as part of lead-optimisation, formulation scientists need to be involved in discovery projects at lead selection and optimisation stages. The key to success in their collaboration is to facilitate communication between these two areas of expertise at both a strategic and scientific level. Also, it would be beneficial for medicinal chemists and formulation scientists to set common goals to improve the process of collaboration and build long term partnerships to improve DDS.

  9. A Drug-Target Network-Based Approach to Evaluate the Efficacy of Medicinal Plants for Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jiangyong; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2013-01-01

    The use of plants as natural medicines in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has long been of special interest. In this work, we developed a docking score-weighted prediction model based on drug-target network to evaluate the efficacy of medicinal plants for T2DM. High throughput virtual screening from chemical library of natural products was adopted to calculate the binding affinity between natural products contained in medicinal plants and 33 T2DM-related proteins. The drug-target network was constructed according to the strength of the binding affinity if the molecular docking score satisfied the threshold. By linking the medicinal plant with T2DM through drug-target network, the model can predict the efficacy of natural products and medicinal plant for T2DM. Eighteen thousand nine hundred ninety-nine natural products and 1669 medicinal plants were predicted to be potentially bioactive. PMID:24223610

  10. [Thinking about evaluation of proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs during switch process of non-prescription drugs].

    PubMed

    Xia, Dongsheng; Cheng, Gang; Li, Xinling; Zhou, Jieming; Xiao, Aili; Zhang, Chengxu; Du, Xiaoxi

    2010-12-01

    To enhance the scientific and fair evaluation about proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs during the switch process of non-prescription drugs, and to ensure those medicines to be used safely by the public in their self-medication. Combined with current research status of toxic herbs, the experience and knowledge accumulated in the practical work of selection and switch of OTC Chinese medicines for years, thinking about the feasible standards about evaluation and management of proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs at this stage. Initially established ideas and methods about evaluation of proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs during the switch process of non-prescription drugs. Basically solved the main problem currently faced by toxic herbs during the OTC switch process of proprietary Chinese medicines, effectively promoted the work on OTC switch, and had the important significance in making consumers use non-prescription drugs conveniently and safely.

  11. Transporter modulation by Chinese herbal medicines and its mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Ma, Jiang; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge

    2016-07-15

    The increasing use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) as complementary therapy and dietary supplement has been greatly raising the concerns about potential herb-drug interactions (HDIs). HDIs may cause the augmented or antagonized effects of prescription drugs, resulting in unexpected clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is of significance to identify or predict potential HDIs, and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. Drug transporters play key roles in transmembrane passage of a large number of drugs, affecting their absorption, distribution and elimination. Modulation of drug transporters has been recognized as one of the main causes of HDIs. In the last decade, a growing number of Chinese medicinal herbs and their derived phytochemicals have been identified to have modulatory effect toward transporter proteins, leading to pharmacokinetic HDIs when concomitantly used with conventional drugs. Some of these transporter-mediated interactions have already shown clinical significance. This review article focuses on two major transporter superfamilies, the solute carrier (SLC) and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, to provide the recent advanced knowledge on CHMs and their inherent phytochemicals that interact with these transporters, and their induced pharmacokinetic HDIs from both preclinical and clinical aspects. In addition, the challenges and strategy for studying HDIs are also discussed.

  12. [Documentation of good distribution practice of medicines and its implementation in Lithuanian drug distribution companies].

    PubMed

    Draksiene, Gailute; Petkevicius, Henrikas; Radziūnas, Raimondas

    2003-01-01

    Good Distribution Practice of medicinal products for human use is a quality warranty system, which includes requirements for purchase, receiving, storage and export of drugs, intended human consumption. A drug is a specific product and its mishandling is dangerous to human health and life. Therefore it is necessary to strictly control the movement of the drug from the producer to the consumer so that poor quality drugs do not have access to the market. Good Distribution Practice rules set the general requirements for good wholesale distribution practice of drugs, intended for human consumption. In order for company to meet the specified requirements, the drug distribution company must have all suitable and necessary premises, machinery, equipment, the required number of employees and specified documentation. The preparation of the Good Distribution Practice documentation is one of the most important and complex aspects when implementing the Good Distribution Practice in the companies. The article deals with the analysis of results obtained during the research of drug distribution companies in Lithuania. The research revealed that drug distribution companies put emphasis on the equipment of storage premises. Less attention is being paid to the preparation of the documents of Good Distribution Practice. The article thus presents the analysis of Good Distribution Practice documents prepared by the drug distribution companies.

  13. Epidemiology of drug exposure and adverse drug reactions in two Swiss departments of internal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fattinger, Karin; Roos, Malgorzata; Vergères, Patrice; Holenstein, Clemens; Kind, Brigitt; Masche, Urspeter; Stocker, David N; Braunschweig, Suzanne; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Galeazzi, Renato L; Follath, Ferenc; Gasser, Theo; Meier, Peter J

    2000-01-01

    Aims To explore drug exposure, frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), types of ADRs, predisposing risk factors and ADR-related excess hospital stay in medical inpatients. Methods Structured data regarding patient characteristics, ‘events’ (symptoms, laboratory results), diagnoses (ICD10) and drug therapy were collected using a computer-supported data entry system and an interface for data retrieval from electronic patient records. ADR data were collected by ‘event monitoring’ to minimize possible bias by the drug monitor. The causality of each event was assessed in relation to disease(s) and drug therapy. Results The analysis included 4331 (100%) hospitalizations. The median observation period was 8 days. The median number of different drugs administered per patient and day was 6 and varied between 4 (Q1) and 9 (Q3) different drugs in 50% of all hospital days. In 41% of all hospitalizations at least one disease-unrelated event could be possibly attributed to drug therapy. Clinically relevant ADRs occurred in 11% of all hospitalizations. In 3.3% of all hospitalizations ADRs were the cause of hospital admission. The incidence of possibly ADR-related deaths was 1.4. Factors predisposing for clinically relevant ADRs were female gender and polypharmacy. ADR-related excess hospital stay accounted for 8.6% of hospital days. Conclusions These data demonstrate the feasibility of the developed ‘event monitoring’ system for quantitative analysis of ADRs in medical inpatients. With increasing numbers of recorded patients the pharmacoepidemiological database provides a valuable tool to study specific questions regarding drug efficacy and safety in hospitalized patients. PMID:10671911

  14. Aromatic drugs in Unani medicine with special reference to Kitabul-Mia-Lil-Masihi.

    PubMed

    Azmi, K A; Ahmed, W; Siddiqui, M K

    1999-07-01

    This is an established fact since time immemorial that, the aroma plays a vital role in the human beings and even in animals. The aromatic plants and aromatic chemicals contained in them has also significance in our day to day living. Process of distillation as adopted and described by Unani physicians confirms the claim that, they were aware of the importance of aromatic drugs and perfumes. There is a vast literature scattered in existing Unani medical books, which shows their intelligential towards the knowledge of herbal drugs including aromatic plants. 'Kitabul-Mia-Lil-Masihi is a book on Unani medicine. Its 17th Chapter consists of aromatic drugs exclusively. The drugs have been classified and presented here under different headings.

  15. 78 FR 51732 - The Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and...

  16. The chemistry-biology-medicine continuum and the drug discovery and development process in academia.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C

    2014-09-18

    Admirable as it is, the drug discovery and development process is continuously undergoing changes and adjustments in search of further improvements in efficiency, productivity, and profitability. Recent trends in academic-industrial partnerships promise to provide new opportunities for advancements of this process through transdisciplinary collaborations along the entire spectrum of activities involved in this complex process. This perspective discusses ways to promote the emerging academic paradigm of the chemistry-biology-medicine continuum as a means to advance the drug discovery and development process.

  17. Virtualizing the p-ANAPL Library: A Step towards Drug Discovery from African Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fotso, Ghislain W.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Bezabih, Merhatibeb; Ndom, Jean Claude; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T.; Ogundaini, Abiodun O.; Abegaz, Berhanu M.; Meva’a, Luc Mbaze

    2014-01-01

    Background Natural products play a key role in drug discovery programs, both serving as drugs and as templates for the synthesis of drugs, even though the quantities and availabilities of samples for screening are often limitted. Experimental approach A current collection of physical samples of > 500 compound derived from African medicinal plants aimed at screening for drug discovery has been made by donations from several researchers from across the continent to be directly available for drug discovery programs. A virtual library of 3D structures of compounds has been generated and Lipinski’s “Rule of Five” has been used to evaluate likely oral availability of the samples. Results A majority of the compound samples are made of flavonoids and about two thirds (2/3) are compliant to the “Rule of Five”. The pharmacological profiles of thirty six (36) selected compounds in the collection have been discussed. Conclusions and implications The p-ANAPL library is the largest physical collection of natural products derived from African medicinal plants directly available for screening purposes. The virtual library is also available and could be employed in virtual screening campaigns. PMID:24599120

  18. Precision Medicine, Diabetes, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has long sought to achieve the broader use of personalized medicine, which is better targeting of FDA-approved therapies through incorporating precise knowledge of a patient's underlying condition to therapies optimally chosen to match those needs. While some strides have been made in precision medicine-particularly in oncology and rare genetic diseases-most of the standard general medicine indications have yet to realize the benefits of precision-guided therapies. This includes those for diabetes mellitus (DM), both type 1 and type 2. Although the scientific and regulatory considerations needed to move to a more "precise" future of DM prevention and treatment differ between the two disease subsets, scientific advances in both must occur before the FDA can incorporate precision medicine into its oversight of DM drug development and approval. This article provides an overview of the regulatory expectations and challenges in realizing a future where the therapeutics for DM are informed by precise knowledge of a patient's genetics and specific phenotype.

  19. Recent advances in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology--strategies for drug delivery to the brain.

    PubMed

    Denora, Nunzio; Trapani, Adriana; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopedota, Angela; Trapani, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of some recent approaches for the treatment of brain pathologies examining both medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology contributions. Medicinal chemistry-based strategies are essentially aimed at the chemical modification of low molecular weight drugs in order to increase their lipophilicity or the design of appropriate prodrugs, although this review will focus primarily on the use of prodrugs and not analog development. Recently, interest has been focused on the design and evaluation of prodrugs that are capable of exploiting one or more of the various endogenous transport systems at the level of the blood brain barrier (BBB). The technological strategies are essentially non-invasive methods of drug delivery to malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS) and are based on the use of nanosystems (colloidal carriers) such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric micelles and dendrimers. The biodistribution of these nanocarriers can be manipulated by modifying their surface physico-chemical properties or by coating them with surfactants and polyethylene-glycols (PEGs). Liposomes, surfactant coated polymeric nanoparticles, and solid lipid nanoparticles are promising systems for delivery of drugs to tumors of the CNS. This mini-review discusses issues concerning the scope and limitations of both the medicinal chemistry and technological approaches. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that crossing of the BBB and drug delivery to CNS is extremely complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach such as a close collaboration and common efforts among researchers of several scientific areas, particularly medicinal chemists, biologists and pharmaceutical technologists.

  20. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; da Silva, Patricia Bento; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Bauab, Taís Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used around the world since ancient times. The advancement of phytochemical and phytopharmacological sciences has enabled elucidation of the composition and biological activities of several medicinal plant products. The effectiveness of many species of medicinal plants depends on the supply of active compounds. Most of the biologically active constituents of extracts, such as flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, are highly soluble in water, but have low absorption, because they are unable to cross the lipid membranes of the cells, have excessively high molecular size, or are poorly absorbed, resulting in loss of bioavailability and efficacy. Some extracts are not used clinically because of these obstacles. It has been widely proposed to combine herbal medicine with nanotechnology, because nanostructured systems might be able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects, and improving activity. Nanosystems can deliver the active constituent at a sufficient concentration during the entire treatment period, directing it to the desired site of action. Conventional treatments do not meet these requirements. The purpose of this study is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines. PMID:24363556

  1. An Aerospace Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill

    1972-01-01

    Describes the 16-day, 10,000 mile national tour of the nation's major aerospace research and development centers by 65 students enrolled in Central Washington State College's Summer Aerospace Workshop. (Author/MB)

  2. Aerospace Industry and Research. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, T. E.

    This book, to be used in the Air Force ROTC program only, discusses various aspects of the aerospace industry and its importance to the society. Not only does a modern and strong aerospace technology help in national defense, but it is a major economic industry as well. The vast number of people employed could shake the roots of economic…

  3. Self-Reported Alcohol and Drug Problems Among Internal Medicine Outpatients: Relationships With Criminal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Charlene; Wiederman, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous research indicates relationships between alcohol/substance misuse and criminal behavior, but past studies have restricted investigations to atypical samples and/or utilized limited assessments of illegal behavior. In the present study, we explored relationships between alcohol/drug problems and charges for 27 criminal behaviors in a primary care sample. Method: Participants were a cross-sectional sample of 376 consecutive men and women, aged 18 years or older, being seen for nonemergent medical care at an outpatient internal medicine clinic staffed predominantly by residents and located in a midsized, midwestern city in October 2010. Using a self-report survey methodology, we examined relationships between alcohol and drug problems (“Have you ever had a problem with alcohol?” and “Have you ever had a problem with drugs?”) and 27 illegal behaviors as delineated by the categories used by the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. Results: Men with alcohol or drug problems statistically exhibited the greatest number of charges for different forms of illegal behavior (P < .001). These charges were directly related to alcohol/drug misuse (eg, driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs) and otherwise (eg, aggravated assault, simple assault, gambling, larceny-theft). Conclusions: In primary care settings, men with alcohol/drug problems may also have a history of illegal behaviors—a finding that is relevant in terms of social and legal implications. PMID:22454803

  4. Computational oncology--mathematical modelling of drug regimens for precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Barbolosi, Dominique; Ciccolini, Joseph; Lacarelle, Bruno; Barlési, Fabrice; André, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Computational oncology is a generic term that encompasses any form of computer-based modelling relating to tumour biology and cancer therapy. Mathematical modelling can be used to probe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics relationships of the available anticancer agents in order to improve treatment. As a result of the ever-growing numbers of druggable molecular targets and possible drug combinations, obtaining an optimal toxicity-efficacy balance is an increasingly complex task. Consequently, standard empirical approaches to optimizing drug dosing and scheduling in patients are now of limited utility; mathematical modelling can substantially advance this practice through improved rationalization of therapeutic strategies. The implementation of mathematical modelling tools is an emerging trend, but remains largely insufficient to meet clinical needs; at the bedside, anticancer drugs continue to be prescribed and administered according to standard schedules. To shift the therapeutic paradigm towards personalized care, precision medicine in oncology requires powerful new resources for both researchers and clinicians. Mathematical modelling is an attractive approach that could help to refine treatment modalities at all phases of research and development, and in routine patient care. Reviewing preclinical and clinical examples, we highlight the current achievements and limitations with regard to computational modelling of drug regimens, and discuss the potential future implementation of this strategy to achieve precision medicine in oncology.

  5. Application of 3D biomimetic models in drug delivery and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yufan; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine holds much promise in assisting patients to recover from injured or lost tissues and organs through organism reconstruction. Three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic models via various approaches can be used by pharmaceutical industry for controlled drug delivery. With proper biomaterials and engineering technologies, drugs can be released in a rate-manipulated manner towards targeted regions with spatial and temporal effects. Much of the success is a result of a combination of growth factors, stem cells, biomaterials, nanotechnologies, electrospinning and 3D printing techniques mimicking in vivo angiogenesis, histogenesis and tumorigenesis processes. This interdisciplinary field on biomimetic drug delivery and regenerative medicine has already opened up a new avenue for medical progress and reformation. This article presents a comprehensive review of the 3D biomimetic models in the pertinent fields of tissue and organ manufacturing, cell-material mutual interactions, bioactive agent carrier systems and anti-cancer drug delivery methods. Particularly, the potential trends and challenges of tissue and organ manufacturing are discussed from different perspectives.

  6. Medicinal Chemistry Projects Requiring Imaginative Structure-Based Drug Design Methods.

    PubMed

    Moitessier, Nicolas; Pottel, Joshua; Therrien, Eric; Englebienne, Pablo; Liu, Zhaomin; Tomberg, Anna; Corbeil, Christopher R

    2016-09-20

    Computational methods for docking small molecules to proteins are prominent in drug discovery. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of documented examples-and several pertinent cases within our research program. Fifteen years ago, our first docking-guided drug design project yielded nanomolar metalloproteinase inhibitors and illustrated the potential of structure-based drug design. Subsequent applications of docking programs to the design of integrin antagonists, BACE-1 inhibitors, and aminoglycosides binding to bacterial RNA demonstrated that available docking programs needed significant improvement. At that time, docking programs primarily considered flexible ligands and rigid proteins. We demonstrated that accounting for protein flexibility, employing displaceable water molecules, and using ligand-based pharmacophores improved the docking accuracy of existing methods-enabling the design of bioactive molecules. The success prompted the development of our own program, Fitted, implementing all of these aspects. The primary motivation has always been to respond to the needs of drug design studies; the majority of the concepts behind the evolution of Fitted are rooted in medicinal chemistry projects and collaborations. Several examples follow: (1) Searching for HDAC inhibitors led us to develop methods considering drug-zinc coordination and its effect on the pKa of surrounding residues. (2) Targeting covalent prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) inhibitors prompted an update to Fitted to identify reactive groups and form bonds with a given residue (e.g., a catalytic residue) when the geometry allows it. Fitted-the first fully automated covalent docking program-was successfully applied to the discovery of four new classes of covalent POP inhibitors. As a result, efficient stereoselective syntheses of a few screening hits were prioritized rather than synthesizing large chemical libraries-yielding nanomolar inhibitors. (3) In order to study the metabolism of POP inhibitors by

  7. Estimated effects of adding universal public coverage of an essential medicines list to existing public drug plans in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G.; Li, Winny; Yau, Brandon; Persaud, Nav

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canada’s universal health care system does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. We sought to estimate the effects of adding universal public coverage of an essential medicines list to existing public drug plans in Canada. METHODS: We used administrative and market research data to estimate the 2015 shares of the volume and cost of prescriptions filled in the community setting that were for 117 drugs on a model list of essential medicines for Canada. We compared prices of these essential medicines in Canada with prices in the United States, Sweden and New Zealand. We estimated the cost of adding universal public drug coverage of these essential medicines based on anticipated effects on medication use and pricing. RESULTS: The 117 essential medicines on the model list accounted for 44% of all prescriptions and 30% of total prescription drug expenditures in 2015. Average prices of generic essential medicines were 47% lower in the US, 60% lower in Sweden and 84% lower in New Zealand; brand-name drugs were priced 43% lower in the US. Estimated savings from universal public coverage of these essential medicines was $4.27 billion per year (range $2.72 billion to $5.83 billion; 28% reduction) for patients and private drug plan sponsors, at an incremental government cost of $1.23 billion per year (range $373 million to $1.98 billion; 11% reduction). INTERPRETATION: Our analysis showed that adding universal public coverage of essential medicines to the existing public drug plans in Canada could address most of Canadians’ pharmaceutical needs and save billions of dollars annually. Doing so may be a pragmatic step forward while more comprehensive pharmacare reforms are planned. PMID:28246223

  8. Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Systems in Cancer Medicine: Emphasis on RNAi-Containing Nanoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Rivera Díaz, Mónica; Vivas-Mejia, Pablo E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanomedicine is a growing research field dealing with the creation and manipulation of materials at a nanometer scale for the better treatment, diagnosis and imaging of diseases. In cancer medicine, the use of nanoparticles as drug delivery systems has advanced the bioavailability, in vivo stability, intestinal absorption, solubility, sustained and targeted delivery, and therapeutic effectiveness of several anticancer agents. The expansion of novel nanoparticles for drug delivery is an exciting and challenging research filed, in particular for the delivery of emerging cancer therapies, including small interference RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNAs)-based molecules. In this review, we focus on the currently available drug delivery systems for anticancer agents. In addition, we will discuss the promising use of nanoparticles for novel cancer treatment strategies. PMID:24287462

  9. Neuroscience of drug craving for addiction medicine: From circuits to therapies.

    PubMed

    Ekhtiari, Hamed; Nasseri, Padideh; Yavari, Fatemeh; Mokri, Azarkhsh; Monterosso, John

    2016-01-01

    Drug craving is a dynamic neurocognitive emotional-motivational response to a wide range of cues, from internal to external environments and from drug-related to stressful or affective events. The subjective feeling of craving, as an appetitive or compulsive state, could be considered a part of this multidimensional process, with modules in different levels of consciousness and embodiment. The neural correspondence of this dynamic and complex phenomenon may be productively investigated in relation to regional, small-scale networks, large-scale networks, and brain states. Within cognitive neuroscience, this approach has provided a long list of neural and cognitive targets for craving modulations with different cognitive, electrical, or pharmacological interventions. There are new opportunities to integrate different approaches for carving management from environmental, behavioral, psychosocial, cognitive, and neural perspectives. By using cognitive neuroscience models that treat drug craving as a dynamic and multidimensional process, these approaches may yield more effective interventions for addiction medicine.

  10. Mass spectrometry-driven drug discovery for development of herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2016-12-23

    Herbal medicine (HM) has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with regard to identifying products compounds. Currently, more attention has been focused on drug discovery from natural compounds of HM. Despite the rapid advancement of modern analytical techniques, drug discovery is still a difficult and lengthy process. Fortunately, mass spectrometry (MS) can provide us with useful structural information for drug discovery, has been recognized as a sensitive, rapid, and high-throughput technology for advancing drug discovery from HM in the post-genomic era. It is essential to develop an efficient, high-quality, high-throughput screening method integrated with an MS platform for early screening of candidate drug molecules from natural products. We have developed a new chinmedomics strategy reliant on MS that is capable of capturing the candidate molecules, facilitating their identification of novel chemical structures in the early phase; chinmedomics-guided natural product discovery based on MS may provide an effective tool that addresses challenges in early screening of effective constituents of herbs against disease. This critical review covers the use of MS with related techniques and methodologies for natural product discovery, biomarker identification, and determination of mechanisms of action. It also highlights high-throughput chinmedomics screening methods suitable for lead compound discovery illustrated by recent successes.

  11. Experimental medicine in drug addiction: towards behavioral, cognitive and neurobiological biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Duka, Theodora; Crombag, Hans S; Stephens, David N

    2011-09-01

    Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to understand putative processes and mechanisms involved in addiction. Whilst these 'theories of addiction' disagree about importance and/or nature of a number of key psychological processes (e.g. the necessity of craving and/or the involvement of drug-value representations), a number of commonalities exist. For instance, it is widely accepted that Pavlovian associations between cues and environmental contexts and the drug effects acquired over the course of addiction play a critical role, especially in relapse vulnerability in detoxified addicts. Additionally, all theories of addiction (explicitly or implicitly) propose that chronic drug exposure produces persistent neuroplastic changes in neurobiological circuitries underlying critical emotional, cognitive and motivational processes, although disagreement exists as to the precise nature of these neurobiological changes and/or their psychological consequences. The present review, rather than limiting itself to any particular theoretical stance, considers various candidate psychological, neurobiological and/or behavioral processes in addiction and outlines conceptual and procedural approaches for the experimental medicine laboratory. The review discusses (1) extinction, renewal and (re)consolidation of learned associations between cues and drugs, (2) the drug reward value, (3) motivational states contributing to drug seeking and (4) reflective (top-down) and sensory (bottom-up) driven decision-making. In evaluating these psychological and/or behavioral processes and their relationship to addiction we make reference to putative underlying brain structures identified by basic animal studies and/or imaging studies with humans.

  12. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human.

  13. African medicinal plants in the search for new drugs based on ethnobotanical leads.

    PubMed

    Iwu, M M

    1994-01-01

    In the African world view the natural environment is a living entity whose components are intrinsically bound to mankind. Dietary plants, spices and common herbs dominate the materia medica, in contrast with modern orthodox medicine which uses many regulated poisons. Drug development based on ethnobotanical leads has followed two paths: the classical approach of identification of single plant species with biologically active compounds and the characterization and standardization of traditional recipes for reformulation as medicines. The first approach has led to the recognition of many African plants as medicines and the isolation of several biologically active molecules; examples range from the well physostigmine (from Physostigma venonosum) used for the treatment of glaucoma to the recently identified antiviral agents from Ancistrocladus abbreviatus. The second approach which aims at optimization of mixed remedies as formulated dosage forms is perhaps more relevant to the needs of the poor rural populations but has remained largely ignored. Drug development programmes based on ethnobotanical leads must provide for just and fair compensation for individual informants and local communities.

  14. Synthesis of medicinally relevant terpenes: reducing the cost and time of drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Daniel J; Shenvi, Ryan A

    2014-06-01

    Terpenoids constitute a significant fraction of molecules produced by living organisms that have found use in medicine and other industries. Problems associated with their procurement and adaptation for human use can be solved using chemical synthesis, which is an increasingly economical option in the modern era of chemistry. This article documents, by way of individual case studies, strategies for reducing the time and cost of terpene synthesis for drug discovery. A major trend evident in recent syntheses is that complex terpenes are increasingly realistic starting points for both medicinal chemistry campaigns and large-scale syntheses, at least in the context of the academic laboratory, and this trend will likely penetrate the commercial sector in the near future.

  15. Synthesis of medicinally relevant terpenes: reducing the cost and time of drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Daniel J; Shenvi, Ryan A

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoids constitute a significant fraction of molecules produced by living organisms that have found use in medicine and other industries. Problems associated with their procurement and adaptation for human use can be solved using chemical synthesis, which is an increasingly economical option in the modern era of chemistry. This article documents, by way of individual case studies, strategies for reducing the time and cost of terpene synthesis for drug discovery. A major trend evident in recent syntheses is that complex terpenes are increasingly realistic starting points for both medicinal chemistry campaigns and large-scale syntheses, at least in the context of the academic laboratory, and this trend will likely penetrate the commercial sector in the near future. PMID:25078134

  16. Culture and Drug Profiling of Patient Derived Malignant Pleural Effusions for Personalized Cancer Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pietilae, Elina; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Baschiera, Betty; Arabi, Leila; Lorber, Thomas; Oeggerli, Martin; Savic, Spasenija; Obermann, Ellen; Singer, Thomas; Rothschild, Sacha I.; Zippelius, Alfred; Roth, Adrian B.; Bubendorf, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of patients’ own cancer cells for in vitro selection of the most promising treatment is an attractive concept in personalized medicine. Human carcinoma cells from malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are suited for this purpose since they have already adapted to the liquid environment in the patient and do not depend on a stromal cell compartment. Aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach for the in-vitro culture of MPEs to analyze the effect of chemotherapeutic as well as targeted drugs. Methods MPEs from patients with solid tumors were selected for this study. After morphological and molecular characterization, they were cultured in medium supplemented with patient-derived sterile-filtered effusion supernatant. Growth characteristics were monitored in real-time using the xCELLigence system. MPEs were treated with a targeted therapeutic (erlotinib) according to the mutational status or chemotherapeutics based on the recommendation of the oncologists. Results We have established a robust system for the ex-vivo culture of MPEs and the application of drug tests in-vitro. The use of an antibody based magnetic cell separation system for epithelial cells before culture allowed treatment of effusions with only moderate tumor cell proportion. Experiments using drugs and drug-combinations revealed dose-dependent and specific growth inhibitory effects of targeted drugs. Conclusions We developed a new approach for the ex-vivo culture of MPEs and the application of drug tests in-vitro using real-time measuring of cell growth, which precisely reproduced the effect of clinically established treatments by standard chemotherapy and targeted drugs. This sets the stage for future studies testing agents against specific targets from genomic profiling of metastatic tumor cells and multiple drug-combinations in a personalized manner. PMID:27548442

  17. Strategies for the discovery and development of anti-diabetic drugs from the natural products of traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stanley M H; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses issues largely from the biological point of view about the targeted approaches for the use of natural products for the discovery of anti-diabetic drugs in collaboration with medicinal chemists and computer-aided drug design. A major thrust of this review reflects the collaborative research of four institutions: RMIT University (Australia), Garvan Institute of Medical Research (Australia), Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Science (China) and Sun-Yat Sen University (China) in the past eight years. By joining forces of biomedical research in diabetes and medicinal chemistry with a focus on traditional medicine, they are trying to bridge the West (the latest research discoveries in biomedical research) with the East (traditional medicine) to step forward in drug discovery from natural products.

  18. Understanding interactions between Chinese medicines and pharmaceutical drugs in integrative healthcare.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kelvin

    2015-02-01

    In the 21st century, the public are more informed, mainly via the Internet, about health and medical products and have become more knowledgeable about matters relating to their health conditions and well-being in curing and preventing illnesses. They often self-medicate themselves with various health products and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines apart from prescribed pharmaceutical drugs (PD). Some of those non-prescribed products may have doubtful quality control and contain harmful additives or unchecked ingredients; thus their usefulness is in doubt. The increasing popularity world-wide of using Chinese medicines (CM) and related OTC functional products has raised concerns over their concomitant use with PD and the consequential adverse effects. In most cases the alleged causes of adverse effects are linked with herbal sources, although the authorised information on the interactions between CM-PD is not plentiful in the literature. There is an urgent need for such a data base. The future professionals in health and medical care should be knowledgeable or aware of what their patients have been taking or given. In actual practice the patients may receive both treatments intentionally or unintentionally, with or without the awareness of the practitioner. In these situations a reliable database for interactions between CM-PD will be extremely useful for consultation when treatment problems appear or during emergency situations. Their combining of medications may be involved with possible outcomes of adverse reactions or beneficial effects. Such a database will be welcomed by both practitioners of herbal medicines and orthodox medicine practitioners in the emerging trend of integrative medicine. The author has been involved in various research projects of basic and clinical aspects in mainly CM among other herbal and PD. Examples will be given largely on those related to these disciplines as illustrations in this overview.

  19. Capillary electrophoresis of phytochemical substances in herbal drugs and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Gotti, Roberto

    2011-06-25

    This paper reviews the applications of electromigration methods in analysis of phytochemical substances in herbal drugs and medicinal plants. A short description of the basic principles of capillary electrophoretic techniques is firstly given, then the overview deals with the applications of selected methods published in the period 2005-2010. The phytochemical substances have been classified according to their chemical nature (e.g. alkaloids, polyphenols, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes) and the applied CE approaches, namely CZE, NACE, MEKC, MEEKC and CEC, together with the different detection methods, are critically discussed for each of the considered classes of natural compounds.

  20. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  1. Case from the aerospace medicine residents' teaching file. Case #35. Renal cell carcinoma in an aviator with a long history of renal lithiasis.

    PubMed

    Drehner, D M

    1990-02-01

    This case study discusses the presentation, evaluation, and aeromedical disposition of an aviator with renal cell carcinoma, a disease seldom seen in the military flying population. It emphasizes the necessity of flight surgeon awareness of preventive medicine aspects of waivered medical disorders.

  2. Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents. PMID:20653978

  3. [Association between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties of traditional Chinese medicines by data mining method].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-guo; Chen, Jun; Liu, Pei; Jiang, Qiu-dong; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Cheng; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-12-01

    To study the association between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties of traditional Chinese medicines. Through literature research, 34 kinds of essential oils with the penetration enhancement effect were collected. The methods of frequency analysis and variable crosstab were used for intuitive analysis and association analysis. The association between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties (four natures, five flavors, channel tropism) were analyzed by a general linear model. According to the findings, the essential oils with penetration enhancement effect were all sourced from acrid traditional Chinese medicines, because their positive drug nature contributed to the enhancement of the penetration effect of essential oil; five flavors had little effect on penetration enhancement (P = 0.6982), but four natures and channel tropism showed significant effects (P = 0.011, 0.077). In conclusion, there were obvious association and regularity between penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and drug properties of traditional Chinese medicine.

  4. A short review of drug-food interactions of medicines treating overactive bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Paśko, Paweł; Rodacki, Tomasz; Domagała-Rodacka, Renata; Owczarek, Danuta

    2016-12-01

    Background Overactive bladder syndrome is a condition where one or more of the symptoms such as pollakiuria, urgent need to urinate, nocturia and urinary incontinence is observed. Its prevalence ranges between 7 and 27 % in men and 9-43 % in women. The role of a pharmacist is to educate the patient on medications administration scheme, and drug interactions with particular food or food components. Aim of the review To assess a potential impact of food and fruit juice on the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic effects of medications used in treating overactive bladder syndrome. This information will enhance pharmaceutical care and is vital and helpful for pharmacists counseling their patients. Method In order to gather information on interactions of medications employed in bladder dysfunctions, the English language reports published in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and CINAHL database over the years 1996-2015 were studied. Additionally, other resources, namely drugs.com, Medscape, UpToDate, Micromedex, Medical Letter, as well as Stockley Drugs Interaction electronic publication were included in the study. The analysis also covered product data sheets for particular medicinal products. Results Meals and the consumption of grapefruit juice were found to exert a diversified effect on the pharmacokinetics of drugs employed in overactive bladder syndrome therapy. Neither tolterodine, nor mirabegron interact with food and citrus fruit juice, whereas darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin and solifenacin do interact with grapefruit and others citrus fruit juice. The effects of such interactions may potentially be negative to patients. Trospium absorption is significantly decreased by food. Conclusion For selected medicines used in treating bladder dysfunctions food and grapefruit juice consumption may significantly affect efficacy and safety of the therapy. All information on the topic is likely to enhance the quality of pharmaceutical care.

  5. Emerging Glycolysis Targeting and Drug Discovery from Chinese Medicine in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Neng; Chen, Jianping; Shen, Jiangang

    2012-01-01

    Molecular-targeted therapy has been developed for cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Cancer cells have different metabolic properties from normal cells. Normal cells mostly rely upon the process of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to produce energy whereas cancer cells have developed an altered metabolism that allows them to sustain higher proliferation rates. Cancer cells could predominantly produce energy by glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen. This alternative metabolic characteristic is known as the “Warburg Effect.” Although the exact mechanisms underlying the Warburg effect are unclear, recent progress indicates that glycolytic pathway of cancer cells could be a critical target for drug discovery. With a long history in cancer treatment, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is recognized as a valuable source for seeking bioactive anticancer compounds. A great progress has been made to identify active compounds from herbal medicine targeting on glycolysis for cancer treatment. Herein, we provide an overall picture of the current understanding of the molecular targets in the cancer glycolytic pathway and reviewed active compounds from Chinese herbal medicine with the potentials to inhibit the metabolic targets for cancer treatment. Combination of TCM with conventional therapies will provide an attractive strategy for improving clinical outcome in cancer treatment. PMID:22844340

  6. Adverse Drug Reactions in a Complementary Medicine Hospital: A Prospective, Intensified Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Süsskind, M.; Thürmann, P. A.; Lüke, C.; Jeschke, E.; Tabali, M.; Matthes, H.; Ostermann, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anthroposophic medicine is one of the widely used approaches of complementary and alternative medicine. However, few prospective studies have generated safety data on its use. Objectives. We aimed to assess adverse drug reactions (ADRs) caused by anthroposophical medicines (AMEDs) in the anthroposophical Community Hospital Havelhoehe, GERMANY. Study Design and Methods. Between May and November 2007, patients of six medical wards were prospectively assessed for ADRs. Suspected ADRs occurring during hospitalization were documented and classified in terms of organ manifestation (WHO SOC-code), causality (according to the Uppsala Monitoring Centre WHO criteria), and severity. Only those ADRs with a severity of grade 2 and higher according to the CTCAE classification system are described here. Results. Of the 3,813 patients hospitalized, 174 patients (4.6%) experienced 211 ADRs (CTCAE grade 2/3 n = 191, 90.5%, CTCAE grade 4/5 n = 20, 9.5%) of which 57 ADRs (27.0%) were serious. The median age of patients with ADRs (62.1% females) was 72.0 (IQR: 61.0; 80.0). Six patients (0.2%) experienced six ADRs (2.8% of ADRs) caused by eight suspected AMEDs, all of which were mild reactions (grade 2). Conclusion. Our data show that ADRs caused by AMEDs occur rarely and are limited to mild symptoms. PMID:22315630

  7. The Quality of Selected Essential Medicines Sold in Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets and Pharmacies in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Manyanga, Vicky; Chambuso, Mhina; Liana, Jafary; Rutta, Edmund; Embrey, Martha; Layloff, Thomas; Johnson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of a select group of medicines sold in accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs) and pharmacies in different regions of Tanzania as part of an in-depth cross-sectional assessment of community access to medicines and community use of medicines. Methods We collected 242 samples of amoxicillin trihydrate, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu), co-trimoxazole, ergometrine maleate, paracetamol, and quinine from selected ADDOs and pharmacies in Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, and Tanga regions. The analysis included physical examination and testing with validated analytical techniques. Assays for eight of nine products were conducted using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). For ALu tablets, we used a two-tiered approach, where tier 1 was a semi-quantitative Global Pharma Health Fund-Minilab® method and tier 2 was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as described in The International Pharmacopoeia’s monograph for artemether-lumefantrine. Results and Discussion The physical examination of samples revealed no defects in the solid and oral liquid dosage forms, but unusual discoloration in an injectable solution, ergometrine maleate. For ALu, the results showed that of 38 samples, 31 (81.6%) passed tier 1 testing and 7 (18.4%) gave inconclusive drug content results. The inconclusive ALu samples were submitted for tier 2 testing and all met the quality standards. The pass rate using the HPTLC and TLC/HPLC assays was 93.8%; the failures were the ergometrine maleate samples purchased from both ADDOs and pharmacies. The disintegration testing of the solid dosage forms was conducted in accordance with US Pharmacopeia monographs. Only two samples of paracetamol, 1.2% of the solid dosage forms, failed to comply to standards. The study revealed a high overall rate of 92.6% of samples that met the quality standards. Although the overall failure rate was 7.4%, it is important to note that this was

  8. 2013 Philip S. Portoghese Medicinal Chemistry Lectureship: Drug Discovery Targeting Allosteric Sites†

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The identification of sites on receptors topographically distinct from the orthosteric sites, so-called allosteric sites, has heralded novel approaches and modes of pharmacology for target modulation. Over the past 20 years, our understanding of allosteric modulation has grown significantly, and numerous advantages, as well as caveats (e.g., flat structure–activity relationships, species differences, “molecular switches”), have been identified. For multiple receptors and proteins, numerous examples have been described where unprecedented levels of selectivity are achieved along with improved physiochemical properties. While not a panacea, these novel approaches represent exciting opportunities for tool compound development to probe the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of discrete molecular targets, as well as new medicines. In this Perspective, in commemoration of the 2013 Philip S. Portoghese Medicinal Chemistry Lectureship (LindsleyC. W.Adventures in allosteric drug discovery. Presented at the 246th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Indianapolis, IN, September 10, 2013; The 2013 Portoghese Lectureship), several vignettes of drug discovery campaigns targeting novel allosteric mechanisms will be recounted, along with lessons learned and guidelines that have emerged for successful lead optimization. PMID:25180768

  9. 2013 Philip S. Portoghese Medicinal Chemistry Lectureship: drug discovery targeting allosteric sites.

    PubMed

    Lindsley, Craig W

    2014-09-25

    The identification of sites on receptors topographically distinct from the orthosteric sites, so-called allosteric sites, has heralded novel approaches and modes of pharmacology for target modulation. Over the past 20 years, our understanding of allosteric modulation has grown significantly, and numerous advantages, as well as caveats (e.g., flat structure-activity relationships, species differences, "molecular switches"), have been identified. For multiple receptors and proteins, numerous examples have been described where unprecedented levels of selectivity are achieved along with improved physiochemical properties. While not a panacea, these novel approaches represent exciting opportunities for tool compound development to probe the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of discrete molecular targets, as well as new medicines. In this Perspective, in commemoration of the 2013 Philip S. Portoghese Medicinal Chemistry Lectureship ( Lindsley , C. W. Adventures in allosteric drug discovery . Presented at the 246th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Indianapolis, IN, September 10, 2013 ; The 2013 Portoghese Lectureship ), several vignettes of drug discovery campaigns targeting novel allosteric mechanisms will be recounted, along with lessons learned and guidelines that have emerged for successful lead optimization.

  10. TCM Database@Taiwan: The World's Largest Traditional Chinese Medicine Database for Drug Screening In Silico

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advancing computational technologies have greatly speeded up the development of computer-aided drug design (CADD). Recently, pharmaceutical companies have increasingly shifted their attentions toward traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for novel lead compounds. Despite the growing number of studies on TCM, there is no free 3D small molecular structure database of TCM available for virtual screening or molecular simulation. To address this shortcoming, we have constructed TCM Database@Taiwan (http://tcm.cmu.edu.tw/) based on information collected from Chinese medical texts and scientific publications. TCM Database@Taiwan is currently the world's largest non-commercial TCM database. This web-based database contains more than 20,000 pure compounds isolated from 453 TCM ingredients. Both cdx (2D) and Tripos mol2 (3D) formats of each pure compound in the database are available for download and virtual screening. The TCM database includes both simple and advanced web-based query options that can specify search clauses, such as molecular properties, substructures, TCM ingredients, and TCM classification, based on intended drug actions. The TCM database can be easily accessed by all researchers conducting CADD. Over the last eight years, numerous volunteers have devoted their time to analyze TCM ingredients from Chinese medical texts as well as to construct structure files for each isolated compound. We believe that TCM Database@Taiwan will be a milestone on the path towards modernizing traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:21253603

  11. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  12. Supercomputing in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Yee, Helen

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: numerical aerodynamic simulation; computational mechanics; supercomputers; aerospace propulsion systems; computational modeling in ballistics; turbulence modeling; computational chemistry; computational fluid dynamics; and computational astrophysics.

  13. Concise Review: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Richard D.; Simek, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine (RM) is a popular term for a field of scientific and medical research. There is not one universally accepted definition of RM, but it is generally taken to mean the translation of multidisciplinary biology and engineering science into therapeutic approaches to regenerate, replace, or repair tissues and organs. RM products have the potential to provide treatments for a number of unmet needs but have substantial scientific and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed for this potential to be fully realized. FDA has established formal regulatory definitions for biologics, medical devices, and combination products, as well as human cells and tissues. Regenerative medicine products regulated by FDA are classified on the basis of these definitions, and the classification forms the basis for determining the regulatory requirements to each specific product. FDA regulations are generally written to allow the agency flexibility to accommodate new scientific questions raised by novel and evolving technologies. FDA efforts to facilitate product development in this novel and promising area include working with individual sponsors, interacting with the scientific and industry communities, participating in standards development, and developing policy and guidance. Significance Regenerative medicine is generally taken to mean the translation of multidisciplinary biology and engineering science into therapeutic approaches to regenerate, replace, or repair tissues and organs. This article provides an overview of the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to facilitate product development in the field commonly known was regenerative medicine. It provides an introduction to the processes by which FDA works with individual sponsors, interacts with the scientific and industry communities, participates in standards development, and develops formal FDA policy and guidance. PMID:26494784

  14. [Recent progress of international harmonization of crude drugs and medicinal plants--activity of FHH (The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines)].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Nobuo

    2011-03-01

    The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH) was established in 2002. The general proposed objective of the FHH is to promote public health by recognizing and developing standards and technical guidelines that aim to improve the quality, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. At a sub-committee meeting of FHH nomenclature and standardization held in Tokyo, all the participants recognized the importance of comparing the descriptions of herbal medicines contained in member countries' pharmacopoeias or monograph standards as the first step in the harmonization of nomenclature and standardization. It was agreed to set up five expert working groups (EWG) to carry out the following specific tasks: 1) Nomenclature, 2) Testing Methods in Monographs, 3) List of Chemical Reference Standards (CRS) and Reference of Medicinal Plant Materials (RMPM), 4) List of Analytically Validated Methods, and 5) Information on General Tests. In this review, we report four topics of FHH activities from 2002-2009 as follows: 1) Comparative study on testing methods and specification values for crude drugs used in monographs among four Western Pacific regional countries (Japan, China, Korea and Vietnam), 2) Comparative study on TLC conditions for identification, chemical assay conditions for component quantification used in monographs among the four countries, 3) Comparative study on general testing methods for crude drugs among the four countries, 4) Comparative study on TLC identification for crude drugs used in monographs among the four countries considering harmonization and clean analysis.

  15. Reliable low-cost capillary electrophoresis device for drug quality control and counterfeit medicines.

    PubMed

    Marini, R D; Rozet, E; Montes, M L A; Rohrbasser, C; Roht, S; Rhème, D; Bonnabry, P; Schappler, J; Veuthey, J-L; Hubert, Ph; Rudaz, S

    2010-12-15

    The proportion of counterfeit medicines is dramatically increasing these last few years. According to numerous official sources, in some pharmaceutical wholesalers in African countries, the proportion has reached 80%. Unfortunately, this situation is far to be improved due to lack of suitable analytical equipment allowing rapid actions of the Regulatory Agencies based on scientific consideration, at affordable cost and all over the drug supply chain. For that purpose, a network group considered that mater by building a low-cost original capillary electrophoresis (CE) equipment equipped with a new deep UV detector based on LED technology. The generic conditions for analysis were investigated: capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) performed at acidic pH for basic drug molecules (i.e., quinine, highly used as the last antimalarial rampart), basic pH for compounds such as furosemide (a common diuretic drug) and at neutral pH for a well known antibiotic combination, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol. To evaluate the ability of the CE equipment for quantification, a full validation and a method comparison study were carried out for the CZE method dedicated to quinine determination. The validation involved the use of accuracy profile and total error concept to monitor the adequacy of the results obtained by the new prototype. The method comparison was based on the Bland and Altman approach by comparing results obtained by the low-cost CE and a conventional set-up. Subsequent validation studies were realized with neutral and acidic drug molecules, each focusing on a single concentration level calibration curve in order to maintain as low as possible the expenses due to reagents and thus the cost of analysis, as important advantages of CE for drug quality control.

  16. Off-label and unlicensed medicine use and adverse drug reactions in children: a narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mason, Jennifer; Pirmohamed, Munir; Nunn, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The use of unlicensed and off-label medicines in children is common because trials in children have not usually been performed during the drug development process. Consequently, the information available to paediatricians may not always be as detailed or as robust as that available when prescribing a medicine that is licensed for an approved indication. This has led to concerns that children may be receiving drugs at dosages that either lack efficacy or present safety problems. The latter in particular has received a great deal of attention. In this narrative review, we have evaluated the use of off-label and unlicensed medicines in children and whether and how frequently this predisposes to adverse drug reactions.

  17. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  18. Novel gastroretentive controlled-release drug delivery system for amoxicillin therapy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, E; Kagan, L; Chamisha, Y; Gati, I; Hoffman, A; Friedman, M; Lavy, E

    2011-10-01

    Beta-lactam antimicrobials, commonly used in both veterinary and human medicine, generally present short biologic half-lives, whereas their activity is enhanced as pathogen exposure is prolonged. These properties necessitate multiple-dose regimens of standard dosage forms, thereby hampering pet owner adherence, frequently resulting in therapeutic failure. This study presents a novel controlled-release gastroretentive oral drug delivery system for beta-lactams with which single-dose administration provides an effective antimicrobial course, optimizing pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles, minimizing adverse effects and emergence of antimicrobial resistance and facilitating adherence. Our prototype sustained-delivery swelling-tablet (SDST), based on a degradable hydrophilic polymeric matrix, was designed to enable continuous input of these drugs to their absorption sites over several days. Several SDST formulations of the beta-lactam amoxicillin were evaluated in in vitro dissolution studies. Two formulations were selected for further in vivo canine studies, for determination of gastric retention and PK-PD profiling. Prolonged gastric retention times maintaining allowed for maintained effective drug concentrations against many clinically relevant pathogens for more than 48 h for one formulation and more than 5 days for the other. Both SDST formulations offer significant advantages over standard immediate-release therapy in achieving PK-PD goals and enhancing adherence. The prototypical formulations represent a novel platform which may be modified to meet various clinical requirements.

  19. Types of Nasal Delivery Drugs and Medications in Iranian Traditional Medicine to Treatment of Headache

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Minaei, Bagher; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Zayeri, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Headache is a common symptom throughout the world. The main purpose of patient-centered approaches is the utilization of useful and simple treatment. Nowadays, there is a rising propensity toward herbal remedies. Nasal route is one of the ancient and topical prescriptions used in headache. In Iranian traditional medicine, physicians such as Avicenna were prescribing herbal drugs through the nose to treat a variety of central nervous system diseases like headache. In this review paper, authors have attempted to introduce different types of nasal administrations which were used in Iranian traditional medicine for the treatment of headaches. Evidence Acquisition: Initially, we studied two different types of Canon and separated all herbs used in the treatment of headache. Next, all plants were classified according to the method of prescription. Then, we pick out all the plants which were nasally utilized in the treatment of headache and divided them based on the method of administration. In order to find scientific names of herbs, we used two different botany references. Moreover, we conducted various researches in scientific databases with the aim of finding results concerning the analgesic and antinociceptive effects of herbs. Throughout the research, key terms were “analgesic” and “antinociceptive “with the scientific names of all herbs separately. The databases searched included PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library and SID. Results: 35 plants were prescribed for the treatment of headaches, which were all nasally used. These plants took either the form of powder, liquid or gas (steam). They were divided in to six categories according to the method of prescription. The Percentage of usage for each method was as follows: 62% Saoot (nasal drop), 25% Shamoom (smell), 17% Inkabab (vapor), 11% Nafookh (snuff), 11% Nashooq (inhaling) and 2% Bokhoor (smoke). Conclusions: Medications that are used via nasal delivery have greater effect than oral medications

  20. [Guidance of FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy and enlightenment to drug risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) aims to drugs or biological products known or potential serious risk management. Analysis with the example of the content of the Onsolis REMS named FOCOS. Our country can be reference for the analysis of relevant experience and establish a scientific evaluation mechanism, strengthen the drug risk consciousness, promote the rational drug use, organic combined with the before-marketing and post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine, and promote the evaluation of risk management of the drug development and improvement.

  1. Medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting antineoplastic drugs and invention of boron tracedrugs as innovative future-architectural drugs.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hitoshi; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nakata, Eiji

    2010-09-01

    We describe herein for the first time our medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting antineoplastic drugs and boron tracedrugs as newly emerging drug classes. A new area of antineoplastic drugs and treatments has recently focused on neoplastic cells of the tumor environment/microenvironment involving accessory cells. This tumor hypoxic environment is now considered as a major factor that influences not only the response to antineoplastic therapies but also the potential for malignant progression and metastasis. We review our medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting drugs, antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, sugar-hybrid hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, and hypoxia-targeting 10B delivery agents, in which we design drug candidates based on their electronic structures obtained by molecular orbital calculations, not based solely on pharmacophore development. These drugs include an antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizer TX-2036, a sugar-hybrid hypoxic cell radiosensitizer TX-2244, new hypoxia-targeting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors, and a hypoxia-targeting BNCT agent, BSH (sodium borocaptate-10B)-hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine (TPZ) hybrid drug TX-2100. We then discuss the concept of boron tracedrugs as a new drug class having broad potential in many areas.

  2. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in internal medicine wards: old and new drugs.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Giusti, Massimo; Mazzone, Antonino; Santini, Claudio; Stefani, Stefania; Violi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common cause of hospital admission among elderly patients, and traditionally have been divided into complicated and uncomplicated SSTIs. In 2010, the FDA provided a new classification of these infections, and a new category of disease, named acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), has been proposed as an independent clinical entity. ABSSSIs include three entities: cellulitis and erysipelas, wound infections, and major cutaneous abscesses This paper revises the epidemiology of SSTIs and ABSSSIs with regard to etiologies, diagnostic techniques, and clinical presentation in the hospital settings. Particular attention is owed to frail patients with multiple comorbidities and underlying significant disease states, hospitalized on internal medicine wards or residing in nursing homes, who appear to be at increased risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and treatment failures. Management of ABSSSIs and SSTIs, including evaluation of the hemodynamic state, surgical intervention and treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy are extensively discussed.

  3. The US Food and Drug Administration and the Future of Cardiovascular Medicine.

    PubMed

    Fiuzat, Mona; Califf, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular medicine has led the drive for creativity and innovation with a culture that has been at the forefront of evidence generation. However, we are functioning at only a fraction of our evidence generation capacity. Despite the leadership of cardiovascular medicine, very few guideline recommendations are supported by high levels of evidence, and the proportion of recommendations for which there is no conclusive evidence is substantial. Clinical research has proven to be too slow, unreliable, and expensive as conducted in the past. In the current era, a new model of unlimited information, better access to care, and better payer coverage has the potential to change our evidence base to support clinical guidelines. We now have the opportunity to use volumes of data to support US Food and Drug Administration labeling and practice guidelines. The electronic health record can be used to feed decisions and provide an information feedback loop. In addition, learning health systems can contribute to providing networks and registries for information sharing. In this Special Communication, we summarize opportunities of the cardiovascular community to build on its pioneering leadership in evidence-based medicine through major initiatives now under way. By joining in broad efforts to create an efficient national evidence generation system, larger proportions of clinical practice can be guided by high-quality evidence; clinicians and their practice organizations will be increasingly able to focus on interpreting, applying, and communicating research findings to improve outcomes; and patients and consumers will be increasingly informed and empowered to play active roles in managing their own health and health care.

  4. The Use of Stilbene Scaffold in Medicinal Chemistry and Multi- Target Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Elisa; Rupiani, Sebastiano; Guidotti, Laura; Recanatini, Maurizio; Roberti, Marinella

    2016-01-01

    The stilbene scaffold is a basic element for a number of biologically active natural and synthetic compounds, and it is considered as a privileged structure. Stilbenes exemplified by resveratrol, combretastatin A-4 and pterostilbene are of significant interest for drug research and development because of their potential in therapeutic and preventive application. Resveratrol, present in grapes and other food products, plays a role in the prevention of several human pathological processes and has been suggested as an anticancer agent. Moreover, recent evidence has revealed its potential effect on the aging process, diabetes and neurological dysfunction. Combretastatin A-4, from the bark of South African bush willow Combretum caffrum, also shows significant antitumor activity. Pterostilbene is closely related to resveratrol, sharing the same unique therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and antioxidant agent. Therefore, research and development of stilbene-based medicinal chemistry have become rapidly evolving and increasingly active topics covering almost the whole range of therapeutic fields. In the present review, we provide an overview of the role of stilbenes in medicinal chemistry. In this context, we highlight the chemical methodologies adopted for the synthesis of stilbene derivatives, and outline the successful design of novel stilbene based hybrids in the field of cancer, Alzheimer's and other relevant diseases. This information may be useful in further design of stilbene-based molecules as new leads for the development of novel agents with clinical potential or as effective chemical probes to dissect biological processes.

  5. Adverse Drug Reactions in a Tertiary Care Emergency Medicine Ward - Prevalence, Preventability and Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Rydberg, Diana M.; Holm, Lennart; Engqvist, Ida; Fryckstedt, Jessica; Lindh, Jonatan D.; Stiller, Carl-Olav; Asker-Hagelberg, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the prevalence and preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in an emergency ward setting in a tertiary hospital in Sweden and to what extent the detected ADRs were reported to the Medical Product Agency (MPA). Methods In this prospective cross sectional observational study, 706 patients admitted to one of the Emergency Wards, at the Karolinska University Hospital in Solna, Stockholm during September 2008 –September 2009, were included. The electronic patient records were reviewed for patients’ demographic parameters, prevalence of possible ADRs and assessment of their preventability. In addition, the extent of formal and required ADR reporting to national registers was studied. Results Approximately 40 percent of the patient population had at least one possible ADR (n = 284). In the multivariable regression model, age and number of drugs were significantly associated with risk of presenting with an ADR (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Sex was not identified as a significant predictor of ADRs (p = 0.27). The most common ADRs were cardiovascular, followed by electrolyte disturbances, and hemorrhage. In 18 percent of the patient population ADRs were the reason for admission or had contributed to admission and 24% of these ADRs were assessed as preventable. The under-reporting of ADRs to the MPA was 99%. Conclusions ADRs are common in Emergency Medicine in tertiary care in Sweden, but under-reporting of ADRs is substantial. The most frequent ADRs are caused by cardiovascular drugs, and significantly associated with age and number of drugs. However, only a minority of the detected serious ADRs contributing to admission could have been avoided by increased risk awareness. PMID:27622270

  6. Drugs use pattern for uncomplicated malaria in medicine retail outlets in Enugu urban, southeast Nigeria: implications for malaria treatment policy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria treatment policy recommends regular monitoring of drug utilization to generate information for ensuring effective use of anti-malarial drugs in Nigeria. This information is currently limited in the retail sector which constitutes a major source of malaria treatment in Nigeria, but are characterized by significant inappropriate use of drugs. This study analyzed the use pattern of anti-malarial drugs in medicine outlets to assess the current state of compliance to policy on the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Methods A prospective cross-sectional survey of randomly selected medicine outlets in Enugu urban, southeast Nigeria, was conducted between May and August 2013, to determine the types, range, prices, and use pattern of anti-malarial drugs dispensed from pharmacies and patent medicine vendors (PMVs). Data were collected and analyzed for anti-malarial drugs dispensed for self-medication to patients, treatment by retail outlets and prescription from hospitals. Results A total of 1,321 anti-malarial drugs prescriptions were analyzed. ACT accounted for 72.7%, while monotherapy was 27.3%. Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) drugs contributed 33.9% (326/961) of ACT. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 668 (50.6%) was the most used anti-malarial drug, followed by monotherapy sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), 248 (18.8%). Median cost of ACT at $2.91 ($0.65-7.42) per dose, is about three times the median cost of monotherapy, $0.97 ($0.19-13.55). Total cost of medication (including co-medications) with ACT averaged $3.64 (95% CI; $3.53-3.75) per prescription, about twice the mean cost of treatment with monotherapy, $1.83 (95% CI; $1.57-2.1). Highest proportion 46.5% (614), of the anti-malarial drugs was dispensed to patients for self-treatment. Treatment by retail outlets accounted for 35.8% while 17.7% of the drugs were dispensed from hospital prescriptions. Self-medication, 82%, accounted for the highest source of monotherapy and

  7. Prioritization of anticancer drugs against a cancer using genomic features of cancer cells: A step towards personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sudheer; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Rahul; Gautam, Ankur; Nanda, Jagpreet Singh; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Brahmachari, Samir Kumar; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated drug profile of 24 anticancer drugs tested against a large number of cell lines in order to understand the relation between drug resistance and altered genomic features of a cancer cell line. We detected frequent mutations, high expression and high copy number variations of certain genes in both drug resistant cell lines and sensitive cell lines. It was observed that a few drugs, like Panobinostat, are effective against almost all types of cell lines, whereas certain drugs are effective against only a limited type of cell lines. Tissue-specific preference of drugs was also seen where a drug is more effective against cell lines belonging to a specific tissue. Genomic features based models have been developed for each anticancer drug and achieved average correlation between predicted and actual growth inhibition of cell lines in the range of 0.43 to 0.78. We hope, our study will throw light in the field of personalized medicine, particularly in designing patient-specific anticancer drugs. In order to serve the scientific community, a webserver, CancerDP, has been developed for predicting priority/potency of an anticancer drug against a cancer cell line using its genomic features (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/cancerdp/). PMID:27030518

  8. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  9. Aerospace bibliography, seventh edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blashfield, J. F. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Space travel, planetary probes, applications satellites, manned spaceflight, the impacts of space exploration, future space activities, astronomy, exobiology, aeronautics, energy, space and the humanities, and aerospace education are covered.

  10. A Perspective on Implementing a Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Platform for Drug Discovery and the Advancement of Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Andrew M.; Schurdak, Mark E.; Bahar, Ivet; Berg, Jeremy M.; Taylor, D. Lansing

    2016-01-01

    Drug candidates exhibiting well-defined pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles that are otherwise safe often fail to demonstrate proof-of-concept in phase II and III trials. Innovation in drug discovery and development has been identified as a critical need for improving the efficiency of drug discovery, especially through collaborations between academia, government agencies, and industry. To address the innovation challenge, we describe a comprehensive, unbiased, integrated, and iterative quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP)–driven drug discovery and development strategy and platform that we have implemented at the University of Pittsburgh Drug Discovery Institute. Intrinsic to QSP is its integrated use of multiscale experimental and computational methods to identify mechanisms of disease progression and to test predicted therapeutic strategies likely to achieve clinical validation for appropriate subpopulations of patients. The QSP platform can address biological heterogeneity and anticipate the evolution of resistance mechanisms, which are major challenges for drug development. The implementation of this platform is dedicated to gaining an understanding of mechanism(s) of disease progression to enable the identification of novel therapeutic strategies as well as repurposing drugs. The QSP platform will help promote the paradigm shift from reactive population-based medicine to proactive personalized medicine by focusing on the patient as the starting and the end point. PMID:26962875

  11. Echinacea metabolism and drug interactions: the case for standardization of a complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Francesca; Matthias, Anita; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2009-07-17

    The herbal medicine, Echinacea, is used for treatment and prevention of upper respiratory tract infections. Among the phytochemicals found in Echinacea, the bioavailable alkylamides are thought to be the compounds responsible for its effects on the human immune system. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) appear to be the principal system responsible for the metabolism of Echinacea components and most of the main hepatic and some extrahepatic isoforms appear to be involved. Epoxide formation, N-dealkylation and hydroxylation are the main metabolic pathways mediated by P450s. Interactions with P450s determine the circulating concentrations and duration of action of these phytochemicals as well as any potential interactions with other chemicals. Most research to date has focused on the potential of Echinacea to interact with other drugs. Literature reports are equivocal and comparisons between studies are difficult as the phytochemical composition of the preparations examined is rarely assessed. Certain alkylamides containing a terminal acetylene appear to exert a time- and NADPH-dependent inhibition on the metabolism of other compounds. However as there are no industry standardization requirements, differences in the relative concentrations of individual alkylamides between preparations could alter the potential for interactions. A thorough phytochemical analysis of samples investigated is necessary in further studies so that sound conclusions can be drawn regarding the potential for inter-individual variation in pharmacokinetics and therapeutic effects and interactions with other chemicals. Moreover standardization of alkylamide content may allow the exploitation of beneficial interactions between alkylamide components to enhance the therapeutic effect of this widely used complementary medicine.

  12. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  13. [Definition of priority medicines for monitoring laboratory quality in Brazil: the interface between health surveillance and the National Drug Policy].

    PubMed

    Pontes Junior, Durval Martins; Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Massena, Elisa Prestes; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Miranda, Maria do Carmo; Silva, Raulino Sabino da

    2008-09-01

    A key objective of the Brazilian National Drug Policy is the quality of medicines supplied to the population. This study aimed to set priorities for the analysis of the National Program for Quality Control of Medicines. The main criterion was the drug's presence in at least three Pharmaceutical Care Programs under the Ministry of Health. Additional criteria were presence on the National List of Essential Drugs (RENAME) in 2002 and its indication for the 20 main causes of disability-adjusted life years (DALY). The sources were data from the Ministry of Health and related legislation. The drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC) of the WHO. The 13 pharmaceutical care programs included 893 products classified in 449 different ATC codes. Twenty-eight drugs were considered priorities, 26 of which were listed on the RENAME and 12 indicated as causes of DALY. It is recommended that the National Health Surveillance Agency and Secretariat of Science, Technology, and Strategic Inputs establish an integrated strategy to guarantee comprehensive quality of these drugs, including laboratory quality, registration, good manufacturing practices, and information for health professionals and the general population.

  14. Synergistic Interplay of Medicinal Chemistry and Formulation Strategies in Nanotechnology - From Drug Discovery to Nanocarrier Design and Development.

    PubMed

    Sunoqrot, Suhair; Hamed, Rania; Abdel-Halim, Heba; Tarawneh, Ola

    2016-12-22

    Over the last few decades, nanotechnology has given rise to promising new therapies and diagnostic tools for a wide range of diseases, especially cancer. The unique properties of nanocarriers such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, and bioconjugates have mainly been exploited to enhance drug solubility, dissolution, and bioavailability. The most important advantage offered by nanotechnology is the ability to specifically target organs, tissues, and individual cells, which ultimately reduces the systemic side effects and improves the therapeutic index of drug molecules. The contribution of medicinal chemistry to nanotechnology is evident in the abundance of new active molecules that are being discovered but are faced with tremendous delivery challenges by conventional formulation strategies. Additionally, medicinal chemistry plays a crucial role in all the steps involved in the preparation of nanocarriers, where structure-activity relationships of the drug molecule as well as the nanocarrier are harnessed to enhance the design, efficacy, and safety of nanoformulations. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the contributions of medicinal chemistry to nanotechnology, from supplying drug candidates and inspiring high-throughput nanocarrier design strategies, to structure-activity relationship elucidation and construction of computational models for better understanding of nanocarrier physicochemical properties and biological behavior. These two fields are undoubtedly interconnected and we will continue to see the fruits of that communion for years to come.

  15. Towards Polypharmacokinetics: Pharmacokinetics of Multicomponent Drugs and Herbal Medicines Using a Metabolomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ke; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Determination of pharmacokinetics (PKs) of multicomponent pharmaceuticals and/or nutraceuticals (polypharmacokinetics, poly-PKs) is difficult due to the vast number of compounds present in natural products, their various concentrations across a wide range, complexity of their interactions, as well as their complex degradation dynamics in vivo. Metabolomics coupled with multivariate statistical tools that focus on the comprehensive analysis of small molecules in biofluids is a viable approach to address the challenges of poly-PK. This paper discusses recent advances in the characterization of poly-PK and the metabolism of multicomponent xenobiotic agents, such as compound drugs, dietary supplements, and herbal medicines, using metabolomics strategy. We propose a research framework that integrates the dynamic concentration profile of bioavailable xenobiotic molecules that result from in vivo absorption and hepatic and gut bacterial metabolism, as well as the human metabolic response profile. This framework will address the bottleneck problem in the pharmacological evaluation of multicomponent pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, leading to the direct elucidation of the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms of these compounds. PMID:23573155

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cells: applications in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vimal K.; Kalsan, Manisha; Kumar, Neeraj; Saini, Abhishek; Chandra, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    such as animal models. Many toxic compounds (different chemical compounds, pharmaceutical drugs, other hazardous chemicals, or environmental conditions) which are encountered by humans and newly designed drugs may be evaluated for toxicity and effects by using iPSCs. Thus, the applications of iPSCs in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug discovery are enormous and should be explored in a more comprehensive manner. PMID:25699255

  17. Aerospace engineering educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, William; Klett, David; Lai, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The principle goal of the educational component of NASA CORE is the creation of aerospace engineering options in the mechanical engineering program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To accomplish this goal, a concerted effort during the past year has resulted in detailed plans for the initiation of aerospace options in both the BSME and MSME programs in the fall of 1993. All proposed new courses and the BSME aerospace option curriculum must undergo a lengthy approval process involving two cirriculum oversight committees (School of Engineering and University level) and three levels of general faculty approval. Assuming approval is obtained from all levels, the options will officially take effect in Fall '93. In anticipation of this, certain courses in the proposed curriculum are being offered during the current academic year under special topics headings so that current junior level students may graduate in May '94 under the BSME aerospace option. The proposed undergraduate aerospace option curriculum (along with the regular mechanical engineering curriculum for reference) is attached at the end of this report, and course outlines for the new courses are included in the appendix.

  18. Drug allergies

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  19. Self-medication with drugs and complementary and alternative medicines in Alexandria, Egypt: prevalence, patterns and determinants.

    PubMed

    El-Nimr, N A; Wahdan, I M H; Wahdan, A M H; Kotb, R E

    2015-06-09

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence, pattern and reasons for self-medication among adults in Alexandria, Egypt. In a community-based survey during 2012, a representative sample of 1100 adults completed a predesigned interview questionnaire on self-medication practices by drugs and complementary or alternative medicines (CAM). A majority of them practised self-medication (86.4%), mostly using both drugs and CAM (77.5%). The most commonly used drugs were analgesics (96.7%), and cough and cold preparations (81.9%), but 53.9% of respondents reported self-medication with antibiotics. The most frequently used CAM were herbs (91.6%), followed by spiritual healing (9.4%) and cupping and acupuncture (6.4%). CAM improved the condition according to 95.2% of users. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, occupation and the presence of chronic conditions were the independent factors significantly affecting the practice of self-medication with drugs.

  20. [Key technologies elements of clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Chun; Hu, Si-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    We assessed and graded the evidence of relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials, combined with our clinical study practice to identify eleven key elements as a focus for the clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema: the primary purpose and design of the study, the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, the treatment, the trail procedure,the effectiveness and safety evaluation, and quality control, etc, as well. In addition, seven recommendations for the design of clinical study of TCM new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema were provided.

  1. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297.

  2. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  3. Recent NASA aerospace medicine technology developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Areas of life science are being studied to obtain baseline data, strategies, and technology to permit life research in the space environment. The reactions of the cardiovascular system to prolonged weightlessness are also being investigated. Particle deposition in the human lung, independent respiratory support system, food technology, and remotely controlled manipulators are mentioned briefly.

  4. Compendium of Aerospace Medicine. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    belts , above 600 miles over the magnetic equator, recently discovered by James Van Allen by means of the Explorer Satellites, are manifesta- tions of...terrestrial space, or nearby space, we might assume an extension up to 5 Earth radii, depending on the outer boundary of the great radia- tion belt . Beyond...operations. Several years from now we will have suffi- cient knowledge about the topographical intensity distribution of J. Van Allen’s great radiation belt

  5. Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Handbook. New York, NY, USA: Mc-Graw-Hill Book Co., 1976. Hashimoto K, Kogi K. Methodology in Human Fatigue Assessment. London, England: Taylor & Francis ...EW, Morrison JB. Environmental Ergonomics: Sustaining Human Performance in Harsh Environments. Philadelphia - New York - London: Taylor & Francis ...Environments: The Effects of Hot, Moderate, and Cold Environments on Human Health, Comfort, and Performance. England—USA: Taylor & Francis , 2003. Peers

  6. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    A program designed to find second applications for space technology in the medical field is described. Illustrative examples and clinical test results are included for prosthetic urethral devices, ear oximeter for monitoring leukemia patients, devices for measuring low level CO effects on automobile drivers, radiation dosimeter probe for detecting radiation levels in cancerous areas, and electromyographic muscle trainer.

  7. Fundamentals of Aerospace Medicine: Cosmic Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagshaw, Michael; Cucionotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic rays were discovered in 1911 by the Austrian physicist, Victor Hess. The planet earth is continuously bathed in high-energy galactic cosmic ionizing radiation (GCR), emanating from outside the solar system, and sporadically exposed to bursts of energetic particles from the sun referred to as solar particle events (SPEs). The main source of GCR is believed to be supernovae (exploding stars), while occasionally a disturbance in the sun's atmosphere (solar flare or coronal mass ejection) leads to a surge of radiation particles with sufficient energy to penetrate the earth's magnetic field and enter the atmosphere. The inhabitants of planet earth gain protection from the effects of cosmic radiation from the earth s magnetic field and the atmosphere, as well as from the sun's magnetic field and solar wind. These protective effects extend to the occupants of aircraft flying within the earth s atmosphere, although the effects can be complex for aircraft flying at high altitudes and high latitudes. Travellers in space do not have the benefit of this protection and are exposed to an ionizing radiation field very different in magnitude and quality from the exposure of individuals flying in commercial airliners. The higher amounts and distinct types of radiation qualities in space lead to a large need for understanding the biological effects of space radiation. It is recognized that although there are many overlaps between the aviation and the space environments, there are large differences in radiation dosimetry, risks and protection for airline crew members, passengers and astronauts. These differences impact the application of radiation protection principles of risk justification, limitation, and the principle of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This chapter accordingly is divided into three major sections, the first dealing with the basic physics and health risks, the second with the commercial airline experience, and the third with the aspects of cosmic radiation appertaining to space travel including future considerations.

  8. Network target for screening synergistic drug combinations with application to traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multicomponent therapeutics offer bright prospects for the control of complex diseases in a synergistic manner. However, finding ways to screen the synergistic combinations from numerous pharmacological agents is still an ongoing challenge. Results In this work, we proposed for the first time a “network target”-based paradigm instead of the traditional "single target"-based paradigm for virtual screening and established an algorithm termed NIMS (Network target-based Identification of Multicomponent Synergy) to prioritize synergistic agent combinations in a high throughput way. NIMS treats a disease-specific biological network as a therapeutic target and assumes that the relationship among agents can be transferred to network interactions among the molecular level entities (targets or responsive gene products) of agents. Then, two parameters in NIMS, Topology Score and Agent Score, are created to evaluate the synergistic relationship between each given agent combinations. Taking the empirical multicomponent system traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an illustrative case, we applied NIMS to prioritize synergistic agent pairs from 63 agents on a pathological process instanced by angiogenesis. The NIMS outputs can not only recover five known synergistic agent pairs, but also obtain experimental verification for synergistic candidates combined with, for example, a herbal ingredient Sinomenine, which outperforms the meet/min method. The robustness of NIMS was also showed regarding the background networks, agent genes and topological parameters, respectively. Finally, we characterized the potential mechanisms of multicomponent synergy from a network target perspective. Conclusions NIMS is a first-step computational approach towards identification of synergistic drug combinations at the molecular level. The network target-based approaches may adjust current virtual screen mode and provide a systematic paradigm for facilitating the development of

  9. The Institute of Medicine, the Food and Drug Administration, and the calcium conundrum.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Shristi; Knohl, Stephen J

    2014-08-01

    In the present article we aim to bring forward the apparent disconnect between two US government-sponsored entities - the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - regarding the safe upper limit of Ca intake. In light of the 2011 US Congress-appointed IOM report indicating an upper limit of elemental Ca intake of 2000-2500 mg/d in adults (based on age group), it is perplexing that the FDA has not yet required a change on the labelling of over-the-counter Ca-containing antacids, some of which indicate an upper limit of elemental Ca intake of 2800-3000 mg/d. Even more concerning is that Ca intake is rarely from supplementation in isolation. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2003-2006 indicate that mean dietary Ca intakes for males ranged from 871 to 1266 mg/d and for females from 748 to 968 mg/d depending on the age group. The estimated total Ca (diet + supplements) intake exceeded the upper limit in 5 % of the population older than 50 years. Furthermore, NHANES data from 1999-2000 indicate that when Ca is taken as part of an antacid preparation, patients often fail to report this as Ca intake. Thus, individuals taking the maximum allowable dose of supplemental Ca as antacids are at high risk for complications associated with excess Ca intake. Our hope is that by describing Ca homeostasis and highlighting the risks and dangers of Ca overload, the FDA will align its recommendation with the IOM and solve the current Ca conundrum in the USA for the sake of patient safety.

  10. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  11. The effects of catastrophic drug plan deductibles on older women's use of cardiovascular medicines: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Steven G.; Gladstone, Emilie J.; Weymann, Deirdre; Khan, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Background: In recent years, some provinces have implemented income-based catastrophic drug coverage in an effort to provide universal drug coverage while limiting government liability for the escalating costs of medicines needed for an aging population. We sought to examine the effects of income-based deductibles under British Columbia's Fair PharmaCare system on older patients' use of cardiovascular medicines in 2013, 10 years after the province's policy change. Methods: Using linked administrative databases, we studied rates of hypertension and cholesterol medication used by 2 cohorts of older, married women who had different levels of public drug subsidy based solely on their spouses' ages. We compare measures of 2013 medication use by study cohorts using statistical models that controlled for age, general health status, indicators of need for specific drug classes, ethnicity, rural residence and household income. Results: Among members of our study cohorts, the odds of filling cardiovascular prescriptions in 2013 were influenced by patient age, general health status, drug-specific diagnoses, ethnicity, place of residence and household income. For women with household incomes less than $50 000 (42% of our study population), having preferential public drug coverage by way of spousal age was associated with a 15% increase in the adjusted odds of filling 1 or more prescription for hypertension treatment (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.24) and a 13% increase in the adjusted odds of filling 1 or more prescription for cholesterol treatments (adjusted OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.21). There were no statistically significant effects on the number of days of therapy purchased per user of these cardiovascular medicines. Interpretation: We have found that the level of income-based deductibles under catastrophic drug benefi t plans can affect the use of cardiovascular drug treatments, even long after deductibles are put in place. These

  12. Drug Testing Incoming Residents and Medical Students in Family Medicine Training: A Survey of Program Policies and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Paul F.; Semelka, Michael W.; Bigdeli, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite well-established negative consequences, high rates of substance use and related disorders continue to be reported. Physicians in training are not immune from this, or the associated risks to their health and careers, while impaired physicians are a threat to patient safety. Objective We surveyed family medicine residency programs' practices relating to drug testing of medical students and incoming residents. The survey asked about the extent to which residency programs are confronted with trainees testing positive for prohibited substances, and how they respond. Methods The survey was sent to the directors of family medicine residency programs. A total of 205 directors (47.2%) completed the survey. Results A majority of the responding programs required drug testing for incoming residents (143, 68.9%). Most programs did not require testing of medical students (161, 81.7%). Few programs reported positive drug tests among incoming residents (9, 6.5%), and there was only 1 reported instance of a positive result among medical students (1, 3.3%). Respondents reported a range of responses to positive results, with few reporting that they would keep open training spots or offer supportive services for a medical student who tested positive. Conclusions Changing laws legalizing certain drugs may require corresponding changes in the focus on drug testing and associated issues in medical training; however, many residency program directors were not aware of their institution's current policies. Programs will need to reexamine drug testing policies as new generations of physicians, growing up under altered legal circumstances concerning drug use, progress to clinical training. PMID:26217424

  13. Measuring Adverse Drug Events on Hospital Medicine Units with the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Trigger Tool: A Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Iris; Kirkwood, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background: An adverse drug event (ADE) is a noxious, unintended response to a drug, occurring at doses used in humans for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or treatment of disease or for modification of physiological function. ADEs account for about one-quarter of all adverse events in Canadian hospitals. Canadian data on specific types of ADEs and commonly implicated drugs are lacking. In particular, there is a paucity of data on ADEs that occur during hospital admissions. Objectives: The primary objective was to identify the incidence of ADEs in a sample of adult general medicine inpatients over a 1-year period. The secondary objective was to identify the 5 drugs most frequently responsible for ADEs in this setting. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted for general medicine patients discharged from St Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, from January to December 2011. ADEs were identified using the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Trigger Tool for Measuring Adverse Drug Events. The Naranjo criteria were applied to assess causality, and a physician independently authenticated the ADEs for preventability and harm using the categories of harm set out by the US National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. Results: Of the 204 patient encounters reviewed, 15 involved ADEs, which represented an incidence of 7% over the 1-year study period. The 5 drugs most frequently implicated in ADEs were vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, piperacillin–tazobactam, and moxifloxacin. Conclusions: The rate of ADEs during hospital admissions was substantial. These events may necessitate additional investigations and interventions and may prolong the hospital stay. The authors do not recommend the IHI Trigger Tool for Measuring Adverse Drug Events for efficient prospective detection of ADEs in manual chart reviews. Possible modifications to improve the utility of this tool might include incorporating it into a compatible

  14. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The following areas of NASA's responsibilities are examined: (1) the Space Transportation System (STS) operations and evolving program elements; (2) establishment of the Space Station program organization and issuance of requests for proposals to the aerospace industry; and (3) NASA's aircraft operations, including research and development flight programs for two advanced X-type aircraft.

  15. Aerospace at Saint Francis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Discusses an aviation/aerospace program as a science elective for 11th and 12th year students. This program is multi-faceted and addresses the needs of a wide variety of students. Its main objective is to present aviation and space sciences which will provide a good base for higher education in these areas. (SK)

  16. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  17. Aerospace Bibliography, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This third edition bibliography lists books and teaching aids related to aeronautics and space. Aeronautics titles are limited to aerospace-related research subjects, and books on astronomy to those directly related to space exploration. Also listed are pertinent references like pamphlets, films, film strips, booklets, charts, pictures,…

  18. Aerospace technology comes home.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C

    1997-07-01

    Science is expanding the options for homebound patients. Many of the new technologies coming into the home care industry are the result of aerospace innovations. What are these new technologies, and what can the home care industry expect to see in the future.

  19. Aerospace Bibliography. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blashfield, Jean F., Comp.

    Provided for teachers and the general adult reader is an annotated and graded list of books and reference materials dealing with aerospace subjects. Only non-fiction books and pamphlets that need to be purchased from commercial or government sources are included. Free industrial materials and educational aids are not included because they tend to…

  20. Prescription sleep medicine for aircrew.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Anthony N

    2011-05-01

    It is suggested that the Aerospace Medical Association convene an international expert body to determine the relevance of the pharmacological profiles of hypnotics to the practice of aviation medicine.

  1. Advances in material design for regenerative medicine, drug delivery and targeting/imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the major breakthroughs and paradigm shifts in medicine to date have occurred due to innovations and materials and/or application/implementation of materials in clinical medicine. Artificial heart valves, implantable cardiac devices, limb prosthesis, cardiovascular stents, orthopedic implan...

  2. [Current movements of four serious adverse events induced by medicinal drugs based on spontaneous reports in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sudo, Chie; Azuma, Yu-ichiro; Maekawa, Keiko; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sai, Kimie; Saito, Yoshiro

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous reports on suspected serious adverse events caused by medicines from manufacturing/distributing pharmaceutical companies or medical institutions/pharmacies are regulated by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law of Japan, and this system is important for post-marketing safety features. Although causal relationship between the medicine and the adverse event is not evaluated, and one incidence may be redundantly reported, this information would be useful to roughly grasp the current movements of drug-related serious adverse events, We searched open-source data of the spontaneous reports publicized by Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency for 4 serious adverse events (interstitial lung disease, rhabdomyolysis, anaphylaxis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis) from 2004 to 2010 fiscal year (for 2010, from April 1 st to January 31th). Major drug-classes suspected to the adverse events were antineoplastics for interstitial lung disease, hyperlipidemia agents and psychotropics for rhabdomyolysis, antibiotics/chemotherapeutics, antineoplastics and intracorporeal diagnostic agents for anaphylaxis (anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reactions, anaphylactoid shock and anaphylactoid reactions), and antibiotics/chemotherapeutics, antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents/common cold drugs, and antiepileptics for Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. These results would help understanding of current situations of the 4 drug-related serious adverse events in Japan.

  3. North Carolina’s Operation Medicine Drop: Results From One of the Nation’s Largest Drug Disposal Programs

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Eleanor; Proescholdbell, Scott; Sachdeva, Nidhi; Alexandridis, Apostolos A.; Margolis, Lewis; Ransdell, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 2013, a total of 1,085 North Carolina residents died due to unintentional poisoning; 91% of these deaths were attributed to medications or drugs (over-the-counter, prescription, or illicit). Proper disposal of unused, unneeded, and/or expired medications is an essential part of preventing these unintentional deaths, as well as averting the other adverse consequences of these drugs on the environment and population health. METHODS Operation Medicine Drop is a medication take-back program coordinated by Safe Kids North Carolina, a county-level, coalition-based injury prevention organization. The Operation Medicine Drop program and event registration system were used to review and validate the number of events, the counties where the events were held, and the number of unit doses (pills) collected from March 2010 to June 2014. SAS version 9.4 was used to generate basic counts and frequencies of events and doses, and ArcGIS version 10.0 was used to create the map. RESULTS From March 2010 to June 2014, Operation Medicine Drop held 1,395 events with 245 different participating law enforcement agencies in 91 counties in North Carolina, and it collected 69.6 million unit doses of medication. More than 60 local Safe Kids North Carolina community coalitions had participated as of June 2014. Every year, Operation Medicine Drop has witnessed increases in events, participating agencies, participating counties, and the number of doses collected. CONCLUSION Operation Medicine Drop is an excellent example of a successful and ongoing collaboration to improve public health. Medication take-back programs may play an important role in preventing future overdose deaths in North Carolina. PMID:26763245

  4. Hubertus Strughold: the "Father of Space Medicine".

    PubMed

    Campbell, Mark R; Mohler, Stanley R; Harsch, Viktor A; Baisden, Denise

    2007-07-01

    Dr. Hubertus Strughold (1898-1986) is known as the "Father of Space Medicine". He first coined the term "space medicine" in 1948 and was the first and only Professor of Space Medicine at the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine. He was a co-founder of the Space Medicine Branch of the Aerospace Medical Association in 1950. In 1963, the Space Medicine Branch initiated the "Hubertus Strughold Award", which is given each year for the greatest achievement in space medicine.

  5. In vitro drug release and percutaneous behavior of poloxamer-based hydrogel formulation containing traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Hui, Patrick C L; Wat, Elaine; Ng, Frency S F; Kan, Chi-Wai; Wang, Xiaowen; Wong, Eric C W; Hu, Huawen; Chan, Ben; Lau, Clara B S; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2016-12-01

    For the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), we have developed a transdermal functionalized textile therapy based on thermosensitive poloxamer 407 (P407) hydrogel containing a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study aims to investigate the effects of various formulation variables of P407/carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (P407/CMCs) composite hydrogel on the release of Cortex Moutan (CM) extract. Concentrations of P407 and CMCs showed significant influence on the release due to alteration of bulk viscosity of the system. An increase in pH values of release medium was found to appreciably impede the release of polar drug (CM) due to ionization. Elevated temperatures were also shown to facilitate the drug release. Moreover, the diffusional release behavior of CM from P407/CMCs composite hydrogel was found to follow the first-order kinetic model. Additionally, transdermal studies showed that permeability of the drug through the skin can be enhanced with addition of CMCs in the hydrogel formulation.

  6. Cystic Fibrosis Treatment: A Paradigm for New Pediatric Medicines, Globalization of Drug Development and the Role of the European Medicines Agency

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Klaus; Spigarelli, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    The European Pediatric Pharmaceutical Legislation wants children to benefit more from pharmaceutical progress. In rare diseases, concerns have been raised that this legislation might damage research and stymie drug development. We discuss the role of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and its Pediatric Committee (PDCO) in the development of ivacaftor, first-in-class for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with the G551D mutation (and eight other mutations later) and of lumacaftor and ataluren, two more potential break-through CF medications. Ivacaftor was USA-approved early 2012 and six months later in the EU. Registration was based on the same data. We analyzed these drugs’ EU pediatric investigation plans (PIPs) and compared the PIP-studies with the pediatric CF studies listed in www.clinicaltrials.gov. The ivacaftor PIP studies appear to reflect what the developer planned anyway, apart from a study in 1–23-month-olds, which has not yet started. The total negotiation time for the current PIP version was approximately 5.5 years. For companies that develop drugs in pediatric diseases, e.g., CF, PIPs represent considerable additional procedural workload with minimal or no additional benefit for the patients. New drugs for pediatric diseases should not be hampered by additional, unnecessary and costly bureaucracy, but be registered as rapidly as possible without compromising safety. PMID:27417354

  7. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  8. Precision Medicine Approach to Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Advances in Targeted Drug Therapy Based on Specific Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Hilda; Fallah, Parviz; Naderi Sohi, Alireza; Tavakoli, Rezvan; Naderi, Mahmood; Soleimani, Masoud; Larijani, Bagher; Haghpanah, Vahid

    2017-03-01

    Personalized medicine is a set of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches in which medical interventions are carried out based on individual patient characteristics. As life expectancy increases in developed and developing countries, the incidence of diseases such as cancer goes up among people in the community. Cancer is a disease that the response to treatment varies from one person to another and also it is costly for individuals, families, and society. Among thyroid cancers, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive, lethal and unresponsive form of the disease. Unfortunately, current drugs are not targetable, and therefore they have restricted role in ATC treatment. Consequently, mortality of this cancer, despite advances in the field of diagnosis and treatment, is one of the most important challenges in medicine. Cellular, molecular and genetic evidences play an important role in finding more effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Review of these evidences confirms the application of personalized medicine in cancer treatment including ATC. A growing body of evidence has elucidated that cellular and molecular mechanisms of cancer would pave the way for defining new biomarkers for targeted therapy, taking into account individual differences. It should be noted that this approach requires further progress in the fields of basic sciences, pharmacogenetics and drug design. An overview of the most important aspects in individualized anaplastic thyroid cancer treatment will be discussed in this review.

  9. [Discovery, research and development for innovative drug of traditional Chinese medicine under new situations].

    PubMed

    Tu, Peng-fei; Jiang, Yong; Guo, Xiao-yu

    2015-09-01

    Referring to the rapid developed life science and the higher requirements for the approval of innovative Chinese drugs in recent years, this paper described systematically the discovery, research and development (R&D) approaches for the innovative Chinese drugs under the new situation from the following five aspects, i. e., active components discovered from TCMs, the discovery of effective fractions of TCMs and their formulae, the R&D of TCM innovative drugs based on famous classic prescriptions and famous Chinese patent drugs, and the transformation of clinical effective prescriptions, on the basis of analysing the advantages of innovative drugs derived from natural products based on TCM theories and the problems existed in current R&D of new TCM drugs. Moreover, five suggestions are also given for the rapid development of TCM innovative drugs in China. All these will provide reference for the R&D of TCM innovative drugs.

  10. Concurrent use of veterinary drugs and herbal medicines in racing Standardbreds

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Standardbred trainers from 1 racetrack and 7 off-track training facilities were surveyed to determine the most common drugs, and prevalence of concurrent herb administration. Furosemide (on-track) and anti-inflammatory drugs (off-track) were the most common drugs administered. Among horses on-track, 9.8% received herbs compared with 13.8% off-track horses; 67% and 58% of these horses, respectively, received concurrent drugs. PMID:20190979

  11. Concurrent use of veterinary drugs and herbal medicines in racing standardbreds.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Wendy

    2009-12-01

    Standardbred trainers from 1 racetrack and 7 off-track training facilities were surveyed to determine the most common drugs, and prevalence of concurrent herb administration. Furosemide (on-track) and anti-inflammatory drugs (off-track) were the most common drugs administered. Among horses on-track, 9.8% received herbs compared with 13.8% off-track horses; 67% and 58% of these horses, respectively, received concurrent drugs.

  12. The principle of safety evaluation in medicinal drug - how can toxicology contribute to drug discovery and development as a multidisciplinary science?

    PubMed

    Horii, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical (drug) safety assessment covers a diverse science-field in the drug discovery and development including the post-approval and post-marketing phases in order to evaluate safety and risk management. The principle in toxicological science is to be placed on both of pure and applied sciences that are derived from past/present scientific knowledge and coming new science and technology. In general, adverse drug reactions are presented as "biological responses to foreign substances." This is the basic concept of thinking about the manifestation of adverse drug reactions. Whether or not toxic expressions are extensions of the pharmacological effect, adverse drug reactions as seen from molecular targets are captured in the category of "on-target" or "off-target", and are normally expressed as a biological defense reaction. Accordingly, reactions induced by pharmaceuticals can be broadly said to be defensive reactions. Recent molecular biological conception is in line with the new, remarkable scientific and technological developments in the medical and pharmaceutical areas, and the viewpoints in the field of toxicology have shown that they are approaching toward the same direction as well. This paper refers to the basic concept of pharmaceutical toxicology, the differences for safety assessment in each stage of drug discovery and development, regulatory submission, and the concept of scientific considerations for risk assessment and management from the viewpoint of "how can multidisciplinary toxicology contribute to innovative drug discovery and development?" And also realistic translational research from preclinical to clinical application is required to have a significant risk management in post market by utilizing whole scientific data derived from basic and applied scientific research works. In addition, the significance for employing the systems toxicology based on AOP (Adverse Outcome Pathway) analysis is introduced, and coming challenges on precision

  13. Using Free Computational Resources to Illustrate the Drug Design Process in an Undergraduate Medicinal Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Ricardo P.; Andrade, Saulo F.; Mantoani, Susimaire P.; Eifler-Lima, Vera L.; Silva, Vinicius B.; Kawano, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in, and dissemination of, computer technologies in the field of drug research now enable the use of molecular modeling tools to teach important concepts of drug design to chemistry and pharmacy students. A series of computer laboratories is described to introduce undergraduate students to commonly adopted "in silico" drug design…

  14. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  15. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  16. An Aerospace Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-25

    aircraft order share of Boeing or Air - bus in recent years.24 America’s leadership in the high-technology sector is also faltering and, if not corrected...Executive Order 9781, establishing the Air Coordinating Commit- tee, with the mission to “examine aviation problems and development affecting more...robotics, drones, information technologies, energy research, and aerospace design. Establish a New Air and Space Structure Like its predecessor

  17. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  18. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  19. AI aerospace components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Murphy, Terri B.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.; Montgomery, Ronnie E.; Pohle, George E.; Heard, Astrid E.; Atkinson, David J.; Wedlake, William E.; Anderson, John M.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.

  20. DNA Adducts from Anticancer Drugs as Candidate Predictive Markers for Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biomarker-driven drug selection plays a central role in cancer drug discovery and development, and in diagnostic strategies to improve the use of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs. DNA-modifying anticancer drugs are still used as first line medication, but drawbacks such as resistance and side effects remain an issue. Monitoring the formation and level of DNA modifications induced by anticancer drugs is a potential strategy for stratifying patients and predicting drug efficacy. In this perspective, preclinical and clinical data concerning the relationship between drug-induced DNA adducts and biological response for platinum drugs and combination therapies, nitrogen mustards and half-mustards, hypoxia-activated drugs, reductase-activated drugs, and minor groove binding agents are presented and discussed. Aspects including measurement strategies, identification of adducts, and biological factors that influence the predictive relationship between DNA modification and biological response are addressed. A positive correlation between DNA adduct levels and response was observed for the majority of the studies, demonstrating the high potential of using DNA adducts from anticancer drugs as mechanism-based biomarkers of susceptibility, especially as bioanalysis approaches with higher sensitivity and throughput emerge. PMID:27936622

  1. Aerospace Engineering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. Activities such as the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) project at NASA Ames Research Center study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities will be reported.

  2. Reshaping the carcinogenic risk assessment of medicines: international harmonisation for drug safety, industry/regulator efficiency or both?

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Reed, Tim

    2003-07-01

    The most significant institutional entity involved in the harmonisation of drug testing standards worldwide is the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), which comprises the three pharmaceutical industry associations and regulatory agencies of the EU, US and Japan. It is often claimed that such harmonisation will both accelerate the development and approval of new drugs and preserve safety standards, if not strengthen safety regimes. Drawing on extensive documentary research and interviews, this paper systematically examines whether the efforts by the ICH to improve industrial and regulatory efficiency by harmonising drug testing requirements is likely to raise, maintain or compromise safety standards in carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. The evidence suggests that, in the field of carcinogenicity testing, the ICH management of international harmonisation of medicines regulation is not achieving simultaneous improvements in safety standards and acceleration of drug development. Rather, the latter is being achieved at the expense of the former. Indeed, the ICH may be converting permissive regulatory practices of the past into new scientific standards for the future. These findings are significant as many expert scientific advisers to drug regulatory agencies seem to have accepted uncritically the conclusions reached by the ICH, which may affect a potential patient population of half a billion and tens of thousands of clinical trials.

  3. [Advances in the use of instrumental measurement of colour in the development, production and quality control of drugs, medicinal preparations and pharmaceutical auxiliary substances I ].

    PubMed

    Subert, Jan; Cižmárik, Jozef

    2013-04-01

    Colour is one of the important indices of the quality of drugs, medicinal preparations and pharmaceutical auxiliary substances. The paper summarizes the development and use of instrumental measurement of colour in pharmacy in recent ten years focusing on the drugs of synthetic origin and pharmaceutical auxiliary substances including their control.

  4. Testing Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy in a Zebrafish High-Throughput Translational Medicine Screen

    PubMed Central

    Ordas, Anita; Raterink, Robert-Jan; Cunningham, Fraser; Jansen, Hans J.; Wiweger, Malgorzata I.; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bos, Sabine; Bates, Robert H.; Barros, David; Meijer, Annemarie H.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Ballell-Pages, Lluís; Dirks, Ron P.

    2014-01-01

    The translational value of zebrafish high-throughput screens can be improved when more knowledge is available on uptake characteristics of potential drugs. We investigated reference antibiotics and 15 preclinical compounds in a translational zebrafish-rodent screening system for tuberculosis. As a major advance, we have developed a new tool for testing drug uptake in the zebrafish model. This is important, because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larval surface. Our approach combines nanoliter sampling from the yolk using a microneedle, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. To date, no single physicochemical property has been identified to accurately predict compound uptake; our method offers a great possibility to monitor how any novel compound behaves within the system. We have correlated the uptake data with high-throughput drug-screening data from Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae. As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. We demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug-screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected rodent assays. The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans. PMID:25385118

  5. 21st Century Natural Product Research and Drug Development and Traditional Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Linh T.; Okogun, Joseph I.; Folk, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products and related structures are essential sources of new pharmaceuticals, because of the immense variety of functionally relevant secondary metabolites of microbial and plant species. Furthermore, the development of powerful analytical tools based upon genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, bioinformatics and other 21st century technologies are greatly expediting identification and characterization of these natural products. Here we discuss the synergistic and reciprocal benefits of linking these ‘omics technologies with robust ethnobotanical and ethnomedical studies of traditional medicines, to provide critically needed improved medicines and treatments that are inexpensive, accessible, safe and reliable. However, careless application of modern technologies can challenge traditional knowledge and biodiversity that are the foundation of traditional medicines. To address such challenges while fulfilling the need for improved (and new) medicines - we encourage development of Regional Centres of ‘omics Technologies functionally linked with Regional Centres of Genetic Resources, especially in regions of the world where use of traditional medicines is prevalent and essential for health. PMID:23450245

  6. The major impacts of James Black's drug discoveries on medicine and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael J A

    2011-04-01

    James Black has many claims to pharmacological fame as the creator of two new classes of drugs (beta-blockers and H2 antihistamines) and as a tireless innovator in drug discovery strategies and analytical procedures. The latter attributes in particular assisted Black in the invention of the prototypes for the two major classes of drugs for which he is best known, propranolol and cimetidine. The clinical impact of these drugs on both morbidity and mortality has been profound. In addition, the application of his analytical approach to drug discovery and pharmacology led others in the field to create many other new classes of drugs. Shortly before he died in 2010, Black wrote a retrospective review of his research career that provides insight into his innovative thinking and career success. This overview affords readers a very personal picture of the man, his ideas and his contributions.

  7. Discovery of a low order drug-cell response surface for applications in personalized medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xianting; Liu, Wenjia; Weiss, Andrea; Li, Yiyang; Wong, Ieong; Griffioen, Arjan W.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Xu, Hongquan; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2014-12-01

    The cell is a complex system involving numerous components, which may often interact in a non-linear dynamic manner. Diseases at the cellular level are thus likely to involve multiple cellular constituents and pathways. As some drugs, or drug combinations, may act synergistically on these multiple pathways, they might be more effective than the respective single target agents. Optimizing a drug mixture for a given disease in a particular patient is particularly challenging due to both the difficulty in the selection of the drug mixture components to start out with, and the all-important doses of these drugs to be applied. For n concentrations of m drugs, in principle, nm combinations will have to be tested. As this may lead to a costly and time-consuming investigation for each individual patient, we have developed a Feedback System Control (FSC) technique which can rapidly select the optimal drug-dose combination from the often millions of possible combinations. By testing this FSC technique in a number of experimental systems representing different disease states, we found that the response of cells to multiple drugs is well described by a low order, rather smooth, drug-mixture-input/drug-effect-output multidimensional surface. The main consequences of this are that optimal drug combinations can be found in a surprisingly small number of tests, and that translation from in vitro to in vivo is simplified. This points to the possibility of personalized optimal drug mixtures in the near future. This unexpectedly simple input-output relationship may also lead to a simple solution for handling the issue of human diversity in cancer therapeutics.

  8. Recent insights on the medicinal chemistry of metal-based compounds: hints for the successful drug design.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, M Z; de S Pontes, F J; Coelho, L C D; Moreira, D R M; Pereira, V R A; Leite, A C L

    2010-01-01

    Although more complex than usually described, the anticancer action mechanism of cisplatin is based on binding to DNA. Following this line of reasoning, most the metal-based compounds discovered soon after cisplatin were designed to acting as DNA-binding agents and their pharmacological properties were thought to be correlated with this mechanism. Apart from the DNA structure, a significant number of proteins and biochemical pathways have been described as drug targets for metal-based compounds. This paper is therefore aimed at discussing the most recent findings on the medicinal chemistry of metal-based drugs. It starts illustrating the design concept behind the bioinorganic chemistry of anticancer complexes. Anticancer metallic compounds that inhibit the protein kinases are concisely discussed as a case study. The accuracy and limitations of molecular docking programs currently available to predict the binding mode of metallic complexes in molecular targets are further discussed. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of different in vitro screenings are briefly commented.

  9. Gap Analysis for Chinese Drug Control Institutes to Achieve the Standards of World Health Organization Medicine Prequalification.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xin; Yang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    The study aims to explore the challenges and the gaps faced by Chinese Drug Control Institutes in achieving the standards of World Health Organization (WHO) Medicine Prequalification. The study was undertaken with 6 Provincial Drug Control Institutes in China from November 2012 to November 2013. The study assessed key elements required to comply with WHO Good Practices for Pharmaceutical Quality Control Laboratories (GPPQCL). For GPPQCL, the study found gaps in quality management system, control of documentation, data-processing equipment, premises and equipment, contracts, reagents (water), reference substances and reference materials, calibration, verification of performance and qualification of equipment, instruments and other devices, analytical worksheet, evaluation of test results, personnel, and validation of analytical procedures. The study indicates that gaps are attributed to differences between the standards of Chinese Accreditation Standards and WHO-GPPQCL.

  10. The role of modern biology and medicine in drug development in academia and industry.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles A; Barker, Kenneth L; Sobel, Burton E

    2006-12-01

    This symposium addresses careers in drug development in industry; the performance of translational research by academia, industry, and both; and numerous factors pertinent to alliances essential to drug discovery and development. Drug development is a complex process that regularly involves effective collaborations between academic and physician scientists and industry. There are specific occupational factors affecting recruitment of scientists and physicians in drug development programs in industry; ideal backgrounds for successful applicants for positions in industry in drug development; ethical and regulatory considerations particularly germane to the performance of scientists and physicians in drug development programs in industry and at universities; and particular gratifications available to scientists in industry working on drug development. Both similarities and differences characterize the performance of translational research in industry compared with academia. In industry, logistic, operational, and scientific oversight is complex, especially because it often involves relationships with clinical enterprises outside of the corporation. The process is long and arduous from formulation of a good idea in discovery to acceptance of a novel drug in the marketplace. Collaborations and partnerships by industry often involving academia and confrontation of multiple issues are pivotal.

  11. [Preselection procedure for medical devices suppliers at the essential medicines and generic drugs purchasing central in Togo (CAMEG-Togo)].

    PubMed

    Babaley, M

    2006-12-01

    One of the main objectives of pharmaceutical policies in developing countries is to ensure accessibility and affordability of good quality medicines for the population. The Essential Medicines and Generic Drugs Purchasing Central (French acronym, CAMEG-Togo) is a not-for-profit association established in 1998 to ensure procurement for public and not-for-profit private public health facilities within the framework of recovery of costs. Although attention has been focused mainly on medicines, medical devices account for a growing part of the pharmaceutical products purchased by central stores, hospitals and health programs. Recognizing this need in 2002, CAMEG-Togo in collaboration with the French cooperation agency decided to upgrade its competency in evaluating the quality of medical devices. For that purpose the information sheet used to preselect suppliers for international tenders and the technical specifications sheet for medical devices was revised and pharmacists responsible for processing these files were given specific training. European directive N 93/42/CEE of 14 June 1993 is currently used by CAMEG-Togo as the regulatory basis for preselection of medical device suppliers. Referencing based on American regulatory requirements is now under way to widen the scope of suppliers eligible for preselection. The purpose of this article is first to describe the main guidelines of the European directive used by medical device manufacturers to obtain EC certification and second to present the procedures used by the CAMEG-Togo to preselect medical device suppliers, with special focus on the technical specifications sheet.

  12. [Legal debate about the definition of medical device and of medicinal drug for human use].

    PubMed

    Ferge, Zsigmond

    2014-03-16

    On 3 October 2013 the European Court of Justice made a decision regarding the interpretation of definitions of medical devices (Directive 93/42/EC) and medicinal product for human use (Directive 2001/83/EC), based on the Article 267 TFEU preliminary ruling. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(11), 429-433.

  13. [A Case of Lead Poisoning with Drug-induced Liver Injury after Ingestion of Herbal Medicine].

    PubMed

    Jeon, Gi Jung; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Min Sung; Yu, Jong Won; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Min Sik

    2015-06-01

    A 61-year-old male patient was admitted because of unexplained abdominal pain and anemia. His past medical history was unremarkable except for having taken herbal medicine to treat facial palsy two months ago. The result of health examination performed about a month ago showed increased serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase level, and he was diagnosed with toxic hepatitis by herbal medicine. When the patient presented to the outpatient department three weeks ago, follow-up liver function test results showed improvement but he complained of abdominal pain. Despite extensive blood chemistry tests and computed tomography, the cause of pain could not be found. After much deliberation, serum lead level and herbal medicines analysis was performed based on the fact that he took herbal medicine two months ago, and he could finally be diagnosed with lead poisoning. Since the serum lead level was high enough to be indicated for lead chelating therapy, conservative management was given. When a patient with toxic hepatitis due to herbal medication presents with abdominal pain, the possibility of lead poisoning should always be taken into consideration.

  14. Drugs, Devices, and Desires: A Problem-Based Learning Course in the History of Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Sarah; McKeage, Anne; Rangachari, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is well suited for courses in the history of medicine, where multiple perspectives exist and information has to be gleaned from different sources. A student, an archivist, and a teacher offer three perspectives about a senior level course where students explored the antecedents and consequences of medical technology.…

  15. Drug-resistant microorganisms with a higher fitness--can medicines boost pathogens?

    PubMed

    Vanaerschot, Manu; Decuypere, Saskia; Berg, Maya; Roy, Syamal; Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2013-11-01

    Drug-resistant microorganisms (DRMs) are generally thought to suffer from a fitness cost associated with their drug-resistant trait, inflicting them a disadvantage when the drug pressure reduces. However, Leishmania resistant to pentavalent antimonies shows traits of a higher fitness compared to its sensitive counterparts. This is likely due the combination of an intracellular pathogen and a drug that targets the parasite's general defense mechanisms while at the same time stimulating the host's immune system, resulting in a DRM that is better adapted to withstand the host's immune response. This review aims to highlight how this fitter DRM has emerged and how it might affect the control of leishmaniasis. However, this unprecedented example of fitter antimony-resistant Leishmania donovani is also of significance for the control of other microorganisms, warranting more caution when applying or designing drugs that attack their general defense mechanisms or interact with the host's immune system.

  16. Medicinal plants in Brazil: Pharmacological studies, drug discovery, challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Rafael C; Campos, Maria M; Santos, Adair R S; Calixto, João B

    2016-10-01

    This review article focuses on pre-clinical and clinical studies with some selected Brazilian medicinal plants in different areas of interest, conducted by research groups in Brazil and abroad. It also highlights the Brazilian market of herbal products and the efforts of Brazilian scientists to develop new phytomedicines. This review is divided into three sections. The section I describes the Brazilian large biodiversity and some attempts of Brazilian scientists to assess the pharmacological profile of most plant extracts or isolated active principles. Of note, Brazilian scientists have made a great effort to study the Brazilian biodiversity, especially among the higher plants. In fact, more than 10,000 papers were published on plants in international scientific journals between 2011 and 2013. This first part also discussed the main efforts to develop new medicines from plants, highlighting the Brazilian phytomedicines market. Despite the large Brazilian biodiversity, notably with the higher plants, which comprise over 45,000 species (20-22% of the total worldwide), and the substantial number of scientific publications on medicinal plants, only one phytomedicine is found in the top 20 market products. Indeed, this market is still only worth about 261 million American dollars. This represents less than 5% of the global Brazilian medicine market. The section II of this review focus on the use of Brazilian plant extract and/or active principles for some selected diseases, namely: central nervous systems disorders, pain, immune response and inflammation, respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal tract and metabolic diseases. Finally, section III discusses in more details some selected Brazilian medicinal plants including: Cordia verbenacea, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mandevilla velutina, Phyllanthus spp., Euterpe oleracea, Vitis labrusca, Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum polyanthemum, Maytenus ilicifolia, Protium kleinii and Protium heptaphylium and Trichilia catigua. Most

  17. SwissADME: a free web tool to evaluate pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness and medicinal chemistry friendliness of small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Daina, Antoine; Michielin, Olivier; Zoete, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    To be effective as a drug, a potent molecule must reach its target in the body in sufficient concentration, and stay there in a bioactive form long enough for the expected biologic events to occur. Drug development involves assessment of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) increasingly earlier in the discovery process, at a stage when considered compounds are numerous but access to the physical samples is limited. In that context, computer models constitute valid alternatives to experiments. Here, we present the new SwissADME web tool that gives free access to a pool of fast yet robust predictive models for physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness and medicinal chemistry friendliness, among which in-house proficient methods such as the BOILED-Egg, iLOGP and Bioavailability Radar. Easy efficient input and interpretation are ensured thanks to a user-friendly interface through the login-free website http://www.swissadme.ch. Specialists, but also nonexpert in cheminformatics or computational chemistry can predict rapidly key parameters for a collection of molecules to support their drug discovery endeavours. PMID:28256516

  18. SNP, ARMS and SSH authentication of medicinal Dendrobium officinale KIMURA et MIGO and application for identification of Fengdou drugs.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ge; Zhang, Daizhen; Feng, Zhenyu; Fan, Wenjing; Ding, Xiaoyu; Li, Xuexia

    2008-04-01

    Dried stems of Dendrobium officinale have been used as crude drugs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with good tonic efficacy. Sequences of chloroplast, nuclear and mitochondria genes and the method of genomic DNA (gDNA) suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) were used to authenticate different populations during the process of good agriculture practice (GAP) and crude drug quality control. Six populations could be authenticated successfully by nine single sucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites and six pairs of diagnostic primers for amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) were also designed to identify six populations on the basis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). The remainder two populations (JSR, GGL) with the same sequences could be authenticated by SSH. One population-specific fragment was obtained by SSH and a pair of specific primers (SSH-JB01, SSH-JB02) on the specific sequence was designed to authenticate GGL population from the other populations tested. As the resultants were population-specific, the botanic origins of fifty "Fengdou" drug samples from markets could be classified. It is evident that the combined methods provide a high throughput and reliable approach for identification of D. officinale plants and "Fengdou" drugs.

  19. SwissADME: a free web tool to evaluate pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness and medicinal chemistry friendliness of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Daina, Antoine; Michielin, Olivier; Zoete, Vincent

    2017-03-03

    To be effective as a drug, a potent molecule must reach its target in the body in sufficient concentration, and stay there in a bioactive form long enough for the expected biologic events to occur. Drug development involves assessment of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) increasingly earlier in the discovery process, at a stage when considered compounds are numerous but access to the physical samples is limited. In that context, computer models constitute valid alternatives to experiments. Here, we present the new SwissADME web tool that gives free access to a pool of fast yet robust predictive models for physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness and medicinal chemistry friendliness, among which in-house proficient methods such as the BOILED-Egg, iLOGP and Bioavailability Radar. Easy efficient input and interpretation are ensured thanks to a user-friendly interface through the login-free website http://www.swissadme.ch. Specialists, but also nonexpert in cheminformatics or computational chemistry can predict rapidly key parameters for a collection of molecules to support their drug discovery endeavours.

  20. Drug discovery and beyond: the role of public-private partnerships in improving access to new malaria medicines.

    PubMed

    Nwaka, Solomon

    2005-10-01

    Traditional pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) strategy has failed to address the desperate need for new antimalarial drugs. The populations affected are too poor to attract commercially-driven R&D. Over the last few years, a new model, the public-private partnership for product development, has radically changed the antimalarial R&D landscape. The partnerships bring together academic and industry expertise with funding from governmental, philanthropic and charitable sources. The Medicines for Malaria Venture, a not-for-profit foundation based in Geneva, aims to develop new antimalarials for developing countries through public-private partnership. It is currently managing a portfolio of around 20 projects at various stages of development. However, as in all drug R&D, some of these projects will fail. The portfolio approach helps to maximize the chances of success, but there are obvious challenges, including financial and managerial ones. Proactive management of the two vital interfaces in the drug supply chain is important for success. Upstream, basic research must be aligned with translational research in order to ensure a continuous supply of leads into the development pipeline. Meanwhile, downstream, drug discovery and development must be aligned with access to ensure optimal health impact. All stages require partnership, sustainable financing and the engagement of disease-endemic countries. The recent G8 report on Africa has lent support to mechanisms aimed at improving health and achieving the Millenium Development Goals.

  1. Experimental Adjustment on Drug Interactions through Intestinal CYP3A Activity in Rat: Impacts of Kampo Medicines Repeat Administered.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Yuriko; Hou, Xiao-Long; Takahashi, Kyoko; Takahashi, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    TO PROVIDE THE INFORMATION THAT IS NECESSARY FOR MAKING THE PROPER USE OF KAMPO MEDICINES, WE HAVE PROPOSED THE ADEQUATE METHODOLOGY FOCUSED ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: (i) kampo medicines emphasize the effects produced by the combination of herbal drugs rather than the individual effect of any single herb and (ii) Intestinal CYP3A has become a key factor for the bioavailability of orally administrated drugs. In the present study, we investigated both the in vivo and in vitro effects of Saireito and Hochuekkito (kampo formulas) on CYP3A activities. From our study, oral pre-treatment with Saireito or Hochuekkito did not affect the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine after intravenous administration to rats. When nifedipine was administered to rat intrajejunum, a significant decrease of AUC was showed by pre-treatment with both kampo formulas. Saireito pre-treatment led to 80% decrease in C(max) of nifedipine. Saireito caused significant increases in both protein expression and metabolic activity of CYP3A in intestinal microsome, whereas it had no effect on CYP3A in hepatic microsome. Our result also showed that this affect of Saireito can be gone by wash-out with 1 week. These findings demonstrated that Saireito may induce CYP3A activity of intestine but not of liver in rats. When resources for research are limited, well-designed scientific studies except clinical trials also have many advantages.

  2. Experimental Adjustment on Drug Interactions through Intestinal CYP3A Activity in Rat: Impacts of Kampo Medicines Repeat Administered

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Yuriko; Hou, Xiao-Long; Takahashi, Kyoko; Takahashi, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    To provide the information that is necessary for making the proper use of kampo medicines, we have proposed the adequate methodology focused on the following issues: (i) kampo medicines emphasize the effects produced by the combination of herbal drugs rather than the individual effect of any single herb and (ii) Intestinal CYP3A has become a key factor for the bioavailability of orally administrated drugs. In the present study, we investigated both the in vivo and in vitro effects of Saireito and Hochuekkito (kampo formulas) on CYP3A activities. From our study, oral pre-treatment with Saireito or Hochuekkito did not affect the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine after intravenous administration to rats. When nifedipine was administered to rat intrajejunum, a significant decrease of AUC was showed by pre-treatment with both kampo formulas. Saireito pre-treatment led to 80% decrease in Cmax of nifedipine. Saireito caused significant increases in both protein expression and metabolic activity of CYP3A in intestinal microsome, whereas it had no effect on CYP3A in hepatic microsome. Our result also showed that this affect of Saireito can be gone by wash-out with 1 week. These findings demonstrated that Saireito may induce CYP3A activity of intestine but not of liver in rats. When resources for research are limited, well-designed scientific studies except clinical trials also have many advantages. PMID:19884115

  3. Rational quality assessment procedure for less-investigated herbal medicines: Case of a Congolese antimalarial drug with an analytical report.

    PubMed

    Tshitenge, Dieudonné Tshitenge; Ioset, Karine Ndjoko; Lami, José Nzunzu; Ndelo-di-Phanzu, Josaphat; Mufusama, Jean-Pierre Koy Sita; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Herbal medicines are the most globally used type of medical drugs. Their high cultural acceptability is due to the experienced safety and efficiency over centuries of use. Many of them are still phytochemically less-investigated, and are used without standardization or quality control. Choosing SIROP KILMA, an authorized Congolese antimalarial phytomedicine, as a model case, our study describes an interdisciplinary approach for a rational quality assessment of herbal drugs in general. It combines an authentication step of the herbal remedy prior to any fingerprinting, the isolation of the major constituents, the development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analytical method with internal markers, and the application of the method to several batches of the herbal medicine (here KILMA) thus permitting the establishment of a quantitative fingerprint. From the constitutive plants of KILMA, acteoside, isoacteoside, stachannin A, and pectolinarigenin-7-O-glucoside were isolated, and acteoside was used as the prime marker for the validation of an analytical method. This study contributes to the efforts of the WHO for the establishment of standards enabling the analytical evaluation of herbal materials. Moreover, the paper describes the first phytochemical and analytical report on a marketed Congolese phytomedicine.

  4. Joint medicine-information and pharmacovigilance services could improve detection and communication about drug-safety problems

    PubMed Central

    Schjøtt, Jan; Bergman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Background RELIS is a Norwegian network of four regional medicine-information and pharmacovigilance centers where pharmacists and clinical pharmacologists provide feedback to health care professionals in spontaneous drug-related questions and adverse drug-reaction (ADR) reports published in a question–answer pair (QAP) database (the RELIS database) and the Norwegian ADR database, respectively. Objective To describe the potential of RELIS’s dual service to improve detection and communication of drug-safety problems. Materials and methods We searched the RELIS database for QAPs about ADRs with use of the Norwegian ADR database as a reference. We also searched the Norwegian ADR database for reports that used the RELIS database as a reference. Both searches were limited to the years 2003–2012. We then selected the example of pregabalin and drug abuse after the marketing of Lyrica in Norway in September 2004 to illustrate RELIS’s potential to detect new drug-safety information through a limited number of QAPs and ADR reports. Results A total of 5,427 (26%) of 21,071 QAPs in the RELIS database concerned ADRs. QAPs from this database were used as references in 791 (4%) of a total of 22,090 reports in the Norwegian ADR database. The Norwegian ADR database was used as a reference in 363 (7%) of 5,427 QAPs that concerned ADRs. Between September 2004 and September 2008, RELIS received eleven questions and 13 ADR reports about suspicion of Lyrica (pregabalin) and different aspects of abuse. Conclusion RELIS processes data through two databases that facilitate communication about ADRs. Our service also has the potential to detect new drug-safety problems with a limited number of questions and ADR reports. PMID:25061339

  5. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  6. 20 CFR 10.809 - How are payments for medicinal drugs determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Information for Medical Providers Medical Fee Schedule § 10.809 How are payments... amount provided, plus a dispensing fee. (a) All prescription medications identified by National Drug...

  7. 20 CFR 10.809 - How are payments for medicinal drugs determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Information for Medical Providers Medical Fee Schedule § 10.809 How are payments... medications identified by National Drug Code (NDC) will be assigned an average wholesale price...

  8. 20 CFR 10.809 - How are payments for medicinal drugs determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Information for Medical Providers Medical Fee Schedule § 10.809 How are payments... medications identified by National Drug Code (NDC) will be assigned an average wholesale price...

  9. 20 CFR 10.809 - How are payments for medicinal drugs determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the amount derived by multiplying the average wholesale price of the medication by the quantity or amount provided, plus a dispensing fee. (a) All prescription medications identified by National Drug...

  10. Reinforcement principles for addiction medicine; from recreational drug use to psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The transition from recreational drug use to addiction can be conceptualized as a pathological timeline whereby the psychological mechanisms responsible for disordered drug use evolve from positive reinforcement to favor elements of negative reinforcement. Abused substances (ranging from alcohol to psychostimulants) are initially ingested at regular occasions according to their positive reinforcing properties. Importantly, repeated exposure to rewarding substances sets off a chain of secondary reinforcing events, whereby cues and contexts associated with drug use may themselves become reinforcing and thereby contribute to the continued use and possible abuse of the substance(s) of choice. Indeed, the powerful reinforcing efficacy of certain drugs may eclipse that of competing social rewards (such as career and family) and lead to an aberrant narrowing of behavioral repertoire. In certain vulnerable individuals, escalation of drug use over time is thought to drive specific molecular neuroadaptations that foster the development of addiction. Research has identified neurobiological elements of altered reinforcement following excessive drug use that comprise within-circuit and between-circuit neuroadaptations, both of which contribute to addiction. Central to this process is the eventual potentiation of negative reinforcement mechanisms that may represent the final definitive criterion locking vulnerable individuals into a persistent state of addiction. Targeting the neural substrates of reinforcement likely represents our best chances for therapeutic intervention for this devastating disease.

  11. Limitless Horizons. Careers in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A manual is presented for use by counselors in career guidance programs. Pertinent information is provided on choices open in aerospace sciences, engineering, and technology. Accredited institutions awarding degrees in pertinent areas are listed as well as additional sources of aerospace career information. NASA's role and fields of interest are emphasized.

  12. Aerospace Activities and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Piper, Martha

    1975-01-01

    Describes how science activities can be used to stimulate language development in the elementary grades. Two aerospace activities are described involving liquid nitrogen and the launching of a weather balloon which integrate aerospace interests into the development of language skills. (BR)

  13. Limitless Horizons: Careers in Aerospace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary H.

    This is a manual for acquainting students with pertinent information relating to career choices in aerospace science, engineering, and technology. The first chapter presents information about the aerospace industry by describing disciplines typical of this industry. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) classification system…

  14. Drug-induced blood consumption: the impact of adverse drug reactions on demand for blood components in German departments of internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Rottenkolber, Dominik; Schmiedl, Sven; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Thuermann, Petra A; Hasford, Joerg

    2012-10-01

    Therapy for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) often results in the application of blood components. This study aims to assess the demand for blood components and the resulting economic burden (hospital perspective) in German hospitals induced by ADRs leading to admissions to departments of internal medicine. In this prospective study, ADRs leading to hospitalization were surveyed in four regional pharmacovigilance centres in Germany during the years 2000-2007. ADRs assessed as 'possible', 'likely' or 'very likely' were included. Market prices for blood components and hospitalization data were determined by desktop research. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. A total of 6099 patients were admitted to internal medicine departments because of an outpatient ADR of whom 1165 patients (19.1%; mean age, 73.0 ± 13.0 years) required treatment with blood components owing to major bleeding events. Overall consumption was 4185 erythrocyte concentrates (EC), 426 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 48 thrombocyte (TC) units. On the basis of statistical hospital data, we estimated a nationwide demand of approximately 132,020 EC, 13,440 FFP and 1515 TC units, resulting in total costs of €12.66 million per year for all German hospitals. Some 19.2% of all ADR cases were assessed as preventable. Theoretically, a nationwide decreased demand for blood components and a savings potential of €2.43 million per year could be achieved by preventing ADRs in Germany. Blood components are used in one-fifth (mainly gastrointestinal bleeding) of all ADRs, leading to hospitalizations in internal medicine departments. Both blood demand and hospital procurement costs can be significantly lowered by preventing ADRs.

  15. Inhibition of Major Drug Metabolizing CYPs by Common Herbal Medicines used by HIV/AIDS Patients in Africa– Implications for Herb-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Bouic, Patrick J.; Masimirembwa, Collen M.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential risk of common herbal medicines used by HIV-infected patients in Africa for herb-drug interactions (HDI). High throughput screening assays consisting of recombinant Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and fluorescent probes, and parallel artificial membrane permeability assays (PAMPA) were used. The potential of herbal medicines to cause HDI was ranked according to FDA guidelines for reversible inhibition and categorization of time dependent inhibition was based on the normalized ratio. CYPs 1A2 and 3A4 were most inhibited by the herbal extracts. H. hemerocallidea (IC50 = 0.63 μg/mL and 58 μg/mL) and E. purpurea (IC50 = 20 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL) were the potent inhibitors of CYPs 1A2 and 3A4 respectively. L. frutescens and H. hemerocallidea showed clear time dependent inhibition on CYP3A4. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of both H. hemerocallidea and L. frutescens before and after PAMPA were identical. The results indicate potential HDI of H. hemerocallidea, L. frutescens and E. purpurea with substrates of the affected enzymes if maximum in vivo concentration is achieved. PMID:24475926

  16. Pharmacogenomics and Global Precision Medicine in the Context of Adverse Drug Reactions: Top 10 Opportunities and Challenges for the Next Decade

    PubMed Central

    Alessandrini, Marco; Chaudhry, Mamoonah; Dodgen, Tyren M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In a move indicative of the enthusiastic support of precision medicine, the U.S. President Barack Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in January 2015. The global precision medicine ecosystem is, thus, receiving generous support from the United States ($215 million), and numerous other governments have followed suit. In the context of precision medicine, drug treatment and prediction of its outcomes have been important for nearly six decades in the field of pharmacogenomics. The field offers an elegant solution for minimizing the effects and occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) plays an important role in this context, and it aims at specifically guiding the translation of clinically relevant and evidence-based pharmacogenomics research. In this forward-looking analysis, we make particular reference to several of the CPIC guidelines and their role in guiding the treatment of highly relevant diseases, namely cardiovascular disease, major depressive disorder, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus, with a view to predicting and managing ADRs. In addition, we provide a list of the top 10 crosscutting opportunities and challenges facing the fields of precision medicine and pharmacogenomics, which have broad applicability independent of the drug class involved. Many of these opportunities and challenges pertain to infrastructure, study design, policy, and science culture in the early 21st century. Ultimately, rational pharmacogenomics study design and the acquisition of comprehensive phenotypic data that proportionately match the genomics data should be an imperative as we move forward toward global precision medicine. PMID:27643672

  17. Pharmacogenomics and Global Precision Medicine in the Context of Adverse Drug Reactions: Top 10 Opportunities and Challenges for the Next Decade.

    PubMed

    Alessandrini, Marco; Chaudhry, Mamoonah; Dodgen, Tyren M; Pepper, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    In a move indicative of the enthusiastic support of precision medicine, the U.S. President Barack Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in January 2015. The global precision medicine ecosystem is, thus, receiving generous support from the United States ($215 million), and numerous other governments have followed suit. In the context of precision medicine, drug treatment and prediction of its outcomes have been important for nearly six decades in the field of pharmacogenomics. The field offers an elegant solution for minimizing the effects and occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) plays an important role in this context, and it aims at specifically guiding the translation of clinically relevant and evidence-based pharmacogenomics research. In this forward-looking analysis, we make particular reference to several of the CPIC guidelines and their role in guiding the treatment of highly relevant diseases, namely cardiovascular disease, major depressive disorder, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus, with a view to predicting and managing ADRs. In addition, we provide a list of the top 10 crosscutting opportunities and challenges facing the fields of precision medicine and pharmacogenomics, which have broad applicability independent of the drug class involved. Many of these opportunities and challenges pertain to infrastructure, study design, policy, and science culture in the early 21st century. Ultimately, rational pharmacogenomics study design and the acquisition of comprehensive phenotypic data that proportionately match the genomics data should be an imperative as we move forward toward global precision medicine.

  18. Siderophore-drug complexes: potential medicinal applications of the 'Trojan horse' strategy.

    PubMed

    Górska, Agnieszka; Sloderbach, Anna; Marszałł, Michał Piotr

    2014-09-01

    The ability of bacteria to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents poses problems in the treatment of numerous bacterial infections. One method to circumvent permeability-mediated drug resistance involves the employment of the 'Trojan horse' strategy. The Trojan horse concept involves the use of bacterial iron uptake systems to enter and kill bacteria. The siderophore-drug complex is recognized by specific siderophore receptors and is then actively transported across the outer membrane. The recently identified benefits of this strategy have led to the synthesis of a series of siderophore-based antibiotics. Several studies have shown that siderophore-drug conjugates make it possible to design antibiotics with improved cell transport and reduce the frequency of resistance mutants. Growing interest in siderophore-drug conjugates for the treatment of human diseases including iron overload, cancer, and malaria has driven the search for new siderophore-drug complexes. This strategy may have special importance for the development of iron oxide nanoparticle-based therapeutics.

  19. The supply chain of medicinal controlled substances: addressing the Achilles heel of drug diversion.

    PubMed

    Coleman, John J

    2012-09-01

    The escalation of prescription drug abuse in the U.S. has attracted the attention of public health and safety officials as well as others puzzled by how such a tightly regulated enterprise could so easily be breached by those seeking controlled substances for nonmedical use. Prescribers and patients who use, misuse, or, in some cases, redistribute or divert these drugs have figured prominently in government strategies aimed at addressing this issue. This review departs from this paradigm and focuses on wholesale drug distributors, a highly efficient and largely behinds-the-scene link in the supply chain of controlled substances. By law, distributors are required to identify and report to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) orders for controlled substances that are suspicious and may indicate drug diversion. Ten cases are examined in which distributors were each charged with failing to prevent the diversion of millions of doses of controlled substances. Special attention is given to a payment system employed by the industry that may encourage this unlawful commerce. Court records, agency and industry reports, and other published sources are used to document referenced cases and their disposition, and recommendations are offered for improving distributors' compliance with the law.

  20. IT Challenges for Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the various Information Technology challenges for aerospace medicine. The contents include: 1) Space Medicine Activities; 2) Private Medical Information; 3) Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health; 4) Mission Medical Support; 5) Data Repositories for Research; 6) Data Input and Output; 7) Finding Data/Information; 8) Summary of Challenges; and 9) Solutions and questions.

  1. Sulfur Containing Scaffolds in Drugs: Synthesis and Application in Medicinal Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Minghao; Tang, Bingqing; Liang, Steven H; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the development of sulfur therapeutics is instrumental to the evolution of the pharmaceutical industry. Sulfur-derived functional groups can be found in a broad range of pharmaceuticals and natural products. For centuries, sulfur continues to maintain its status as the dominating heteroatom integrated into a set of 362 sulfur-containing FDA approved drugs (besides oxygen or nitrogen) through the present. Sulfonamides, thioethers, sulfones and Penicillin are the most common scaffolds in sulfur containing drugs, which are well studied both on synthesis and application during the past decades. In this review, these four moieties in pharmaceuticals and recent advances in the synthesis of the corresponding core scaffolds are presented.

  2. Complementary medicinal chemistry-driven strategies toward new antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial lead drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Andrea; Lizzi, Federica; Bongarzone, Salvatore; Belluti, Federica; Piazzi, Lorna; Bolognesi, Maria Laura

    2010-02-01

    Trypanosomiases and Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases that affect the less developed countries. For this reason, they did not and still do not have high visibility in Western societies. The name neglected diseases also refers to the fact that they often received little interest at the level of public investment, research and development. The drug discovery scenario, however, is changing dramatically. After a period in which different socioeconomic factors have prevented massive research efforts in this field, such efforts have increased considerably in the very recent years, with significant scientific advancements. In this context, we have embarked on a new drug discovery project devoted to identification of new small molecules for the treatment of trypanosomal and leishmanial diseases. Two complementary approaches have been pursued and are reported here. The first deals with a structure-based drug design, and a privileged structure-guided synthesis of quinazoline compounds able to modulate trypanothione reductase activity was accomplished. In the second, a combinatorial library, built on a natural product-based strategy, was synthesized. Using whole parasite assays, different quinones have been identified as promising lead compounds. A combination of both approaches to hopefully overcome some of the challenges of anti-trypanosomatid drug discovery has eventually been proposed.

  3. Medicinal chemistry based approaches and nanotechnology-based systems to improve CNS drug targeting and delivery.

    PubMed

    Vlieghe, Patrick; Khrestchatisky, Michel

    2013-05-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is protected by various barriers, which regulate nervous tissue homeostasis and control the selective and specific uptake, efflux, and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous molecules. Among these barriers is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a physical and physiological barrier that filters very efficiently and selectively the entry of compounds from the blood to the brain and protects nervous tissue from harmful substances and infectious agents present in the bloodstream. The BBB also prevents the entry of potential drugs. As a result, various drug targeting and delivery strategies are currently being developed to enhance the transport of drugs from the blood to the brain. Following a general introduction, we briefly overview in this review article the fundamental physiological properties of the BBB. Then, we describe current strategies to bypass the BBB (i.e., invasive methods, alternative approaches, and temporary opening) and to cross it (i.e., noninvasive approaches). This section is followed by a chapter addressing the chemical and technological solutions developed to cross the BBB. A special emphasis is given to prodrug-targeting approaches and targeted nanotechnology-based systems, two promising strategies for BBB targeting and delivery of drugs to the brain.

  4. Counterfeit drug penetration into global legitimate medicine supply chains: a global assessment.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; York, Peter; Kubic, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Counterfeit medicines are a global public health risk. We assess counterfeit reports involving the legitimate supply chain using 2009-2011 data from the Pharmaceutical Security Institute Counterfeit Incident System (PSI CIS) database that uses both open and nonpublic data sources. Of the 1,510 identified CIS reports involving counterfeits, 27.6% reported China as the source country of the incident/detection. Further, 51.3% were reported as counterfeit but the specific counterfeit subcategory was not known or verifiable. The most prevalent therapeutic category was anti-infectives (21.1%) with most reports originating from health-related government agencies. Geographically, Asian and Latin American regions and, economically, middle-income markets were most represented. A total of 127 (64.8%) of a total of 196 countries had no legitimate supply chain CIS counterfeit reports. Improvements in surveillance, including detection of security breaches, data collection, analysis, and dissemination are urgently needed to address public health needs to combat the global counterfeit medicines trade.

  5. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  6. Aerospace in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    National research and technology trends are introduced in the environment of accelerating change. NASA and the federal budget are discussed. The U.S. energy dependence on foreign oil, the increasing oil costs, and the U.S. petroleum use by class are presented. The $10 billion aerospace industry positive contribution to the U.S. balance of trade of 1979 is given as an indicator of the positive contribution of NASA in research to industry. The research work of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, industry, universities, and business to maintain U.S. world leadership in advanced technology.

  7. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  8. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  9. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  10. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  11. Three dimensional de novo micro bone marrow and its versatile application in drug screening and regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guanqun; Liu, Xujun; Du, Qian; Gao, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The finding that bone marrow hosts several types of multipotent stem cell has prompted extensive research aimed at regenerating organs and building models to elucidate the mechanisms of diseases. Conventional research depends on the use of two-dimensional (2D) bone marrow systems, which imposes several obstacles. The development of 3D bone marrow systems with appropriate molecules and materials however, is now showing promising results. In this review, we discuss the advantages of 3D bone marrow systems over 2D systems and then point out various factors that can enhance the 3D systems. The intensive research on 3D bone marrow systems has revealed multiple important clinical applications including disease modeling, drug screening, regenerative medicine, etc. We also discuss some possible future directions in the 3D bone marrow research field. PMID:26283705

  12. Detection of adulteration of anti-hypertension dietary supplements and traditional Chinese medicines with synthetic drugs using LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y L; Zhou, N L; Liao, S Y; Su, N; He, D X; Tian, Q Q; Chen, B; Yao, S Z

    2010-07-01

    A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) method was developed for the analysis of 18 drugs used for the treatment of anti-hypertension, including diuretics, calcium antagonists, and angiogenesis-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) as adulterants in dietary supplements and traditional Chinese medicines. Separation was accomplished on a Xtimate C18 reversed-phase column using a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and 20 mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.2) as mobile phase. The method demonstrated linearity from 0.03 to 21.52 mg kg(-1). Limits of detection ranged from 6.5 to 86.0 microg kg(-1). The recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 71% to 109%. The procedure was successfully applied in routine inspection analysis.

  13. Workshop report: the 2012 antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine: exploring the consequences of antimicrobial drug use: a 3-D approach.

    PubMed

    Martinez, M; Blondeau, J; Cerniglia, C E; Fink-Gremmels, J; Guenther, S; Hunter, R P; Li, X-Z; Papich, M; Silley, P; Soback, S; Toutain, P-L; Zhang, Q

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global challenge that impacts both human and veterinary health care. The resilience of microbes is reflected in their ability to adapt and survive in spite of our best efforts to constrain their infectious capabilities. As science advances, many of the mechanisms for microbial survival and resistance element transfer have been identified. During the 2012 meeting of Antimicrobial Agents in Veterinary Medicine (AAVM), experts provided insights on such issues as use vs. resistance, the available tools for supporting appropriate drug use, the importance of meeting the therapeutic needs within the domestic animal health care, and the requirements associated with food safety and food security. This report aims to provide a summary of the presentations and discussions occurring during the 2012 AAVM with the goal of stimulating future discussions and enhancing the opportunity to establish creative and sustainable solutions that will guarantee the availability of an effective therapeutic arsenal for veterinary species.

  14. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a 5-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASAs safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are "one deep." The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting "brain drain" could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning.

  15. An effective solution to discover synergistic drugs for anti-cerebral ischemia from traditional Chinese medicinal formulae.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaojing; Wu, Chuanhong; Chen, Jianxin; Lu, Peng; Chen, Chang; Fu, Meihong; Fang, Jing; Gao, Jian; Zhu, Li; Liang, Rixin; Shen, Xin; Yang, Hongjun

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has shifted to pursuing combination therapies that comprise more than one active ingredient. Interestingly, combination therapies have been used for more than 2500 years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Understanding optimal proportions and synergistic mechanisms of multi-component drugs are critical for developing novel strategies to combat complex diseases. A new multi-objective optimization algorithm based on least angle regression-partial least squares was proposed to construct the predictive model to evaluate the synergistic effect of the three components of a novel combination drug Yi-qi-jie-du formula (YJ), which came from clinical TCM prescription for the treatment of encephalopathy. Optimal proportion of the three components, ginsenosides (G), berberine (B) and jasminoidin (J) was determined via particle swarm optimum. Furthermore, the combination mechanisms were interpreted using PLS VIP and principal components analysis. The results showed that YJ had optimal proportion 3(G): 2(B): 0.5(J), and it yielded synergy in the treatment of rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion induced focal cerebral ischemia. YJ with optimal proportion had good pharmacological effects on acute ischemic stroke. The mechanisms study demonstrated that the combination of G, B and J could exhibit the strongest synergistic effect. J might play an indispensable role in the formula, especially when combined with B for the acute stage of stroke. All these data in this study suggested that in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, besides restoring blood supply and protecting easily damaged cells in the area of the ischemic penumbra as early as possible, we should pay more attention to the removal of the toxic metabolites at the same time. Mathematical system modeling may be an essential tool for the analysis of the complex pharmacological effects of multi-component drug. The powerful mathematical analysis method could greatly

  16. N-nitrosation of medicinal drugs catalysed by bacteria from human saliva and gastro-intestinal tract, including Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, D; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    1997-02-01

    Micro-organisms commonly present in human saliva and three DSM strains (Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni and Neisseria cinerea), which can be isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract, were assayed in vitro for their capacity to catalyse N-nitrosation of a series of medicinal drugs and other compounds. Following incubation at pH 7.2 in the presence of nitrate (or nitrite) for up to 24 (48) h, the yield of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) was quantified by HPLC equipped with a post-column derivatization device, allowing the sensitive detection of acid-labile and acid-stable NOC. Eleven out of the 23 test compounds underwent bacteria-catalysed nitrosation by salivary bacteria, the yield of the respective nitrosation products varying 800-fold. 4-(Methylamino)antipyrine exhibited the highest rate of nitrosation, followed by dichlofenac > metamizole > piperazine > five other drugs, whilst L-proline and L-thioproline had the lowest nitrosation rate. Ten drugs including aminophenazone, cimetidine and nicotine, did not inhibit bacterial growth, allowing transitory nitrite to be formed, but no N-nitroso derivatives were detected. Three drugs inhibited the proliferation of bacteria and neither nitrite nor any NOC were formed. Using metamizole as an easily nitrosatable precursor, two strains, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori, were shown to catalyse nitrosation in the presence of nitrite at pH 7.2. As compared to Neisseria cinerea used as a nitrosation-proficient control strain, H. pylori was 30-100 times less effective, whilst C. jejuni had intermediary activity. The results of our sensitive nitrosation assay further confirm that bacteria isolated from human sources, possessing nitrate reductase and/or nitrosating enzymes such as cytochrome cd1-nitrite reductase (Calmels et al., Carcinogenesis, 17, 533-536, 1996), can contribute to intragastric nitrosamine formation in the anacidic stomach when nitrosatable precursors from exogenous and endogenous sources

  17. Inside the mind of a medicinal chemist: the role of human bias in compound prioritization during drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kutchukian, Peter S; Vasilyeva, Nadya Y; Xu, Jordan; Lindvall, Mika K; Dillon, Michael P; Glick, Meir; Coley, John D; Brooijmans, Natasja

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal chemists' "intuition" is critical for success in modern drug discovery. Early in the discovery process, chemists select a subset of compounds for further research, often from many viable candidates. These decisions determine the success of a discovery campaign, and ultimately what kind of drugs are developed and marketed to the public. Surprisingly little is known about the cognitive aspects of chemists' decision-making when they prioritize compounds. We investigate 1) how and to what extent chemists simplify the problem of identifying promising compounds, 2) whether chemists agree with each other about the criteria used for such decisions, and 3) how accurately chemists report the criteria they use for these decisions. Chemists were surveyed and asked to select chemical fragments that they would be willing to develop into a lead compound from a set of ~4,000 available fragments. Based on each chemist's selections, computational classifiers were built to model each chemist's selection strategy. Results suggest that chemists greatly simplified the problem, typically using only 1-2 of many possible parameters when making their selections. Although chemists tended to use the same parameters to select compounds, differing value preferences for these parameters led to an overall lack of consensus in compound selections. Moreover, what little agreement there was among the chemists was largely in what fragments were undesirable. Furthermore, chemists were often unaware of the parameters (such as compound size) which were statistically significant in their selections, and overestimated the number of parameters they employed. A critical evaluation of the problem space faced by medicinal chemists and cognitive models of categorization were especially useful in understanding the low consensus between chemists.

  18. Is chemical synthetic accessibility computationally predictable for drug and lead-like molecules? A comparative assessment between medicinal and computational chemists.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Pascal

    2012-08-01

    The design of lead and drug-like molecules with expected desired properties and feasible chemical synthesis is one of the main objectives of computational and medicinal chemists. Prediction of synthetic feasibility of de novo molecules is often achieved by the use of in-silico tools or by advices received from medicinal and to a lesser extent from computational chemists. However, the validation of predictive tools is often performed on selection of compounds from external databases. In this study, we compare the synthetic accessibility (SA) score predicted by SYLVIA and the score estimated by medicinal chemists who synthesized the molecules. Therefore, we solicited 11 bench-based medicinal and computational chemists to score 119 lead-like molecules synthesized by same medicinal chemists. Their scores were compared with score calculated from SYLVIA software. Irrespective of the starting material database, we obtained a good agreement between average of medicinal and computational chemist scores for the ensemble of compounds; as well as between all chemists and SYLVIA SA scores with a correlation of 0.7. Furthermore, analysis of the marketed drugs since 1970 shows some consistency in average SYLVIA SA scores. Compounds entered in different phases of clinical trials show some large variation in synthetic accessibility scores due to natural-derived molecular scaffolds. Here, we proposed that the selection of compounds based on synthetically accessibility should not be done solely by one individual chemist to avoid personal gut-feeling appreciation from its experience but by a group of medicinal and computational chemists. By assessing synthetic accessibility of hundreds of compounds synthesized by medicinal chemists, we show that SYLVIA can be used efficiently to rank and prioritize virtual compound libraries in drug discovery processes.

  19. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  20. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  1. Sulfur Containing Scaffolds in Drugs: Synthesis and Application in Medicinal Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Minghao; Tang, Bingqing; Liang, Steven H.; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the development of sulfur therapeutics is instrumental to the evolution of the pharmaceutical industry. Sulfur-derived functional groups can be found in a broad range of pharmaceuticals and natural products. For centuries, sulfur continues to maintain its status as the dominating heteroatom integrated into a set of 362 sulfur-containing FDA approved drugs (besides oxygen or nitrogen) through the present. Sulfonamides, thioethers, sulfones and Penicillin are the most common scaffolds in sulfur containing drugs, which are well studied both on synthesis and application during the past decades. In this review, these four moieties in pharmaceuticals and recent advances in the synthesis of the corresponding core scaffolds are presented. PMID:26369815

  2. Old and new oral anticoagulants: Food, herbal medicines and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Di Minno, Alessandro; Frigerio, Beatrice; Spadarella, Gaia; Ravani, Alessio; Sansaro, Daniela; Amato, Mauro; Kitzmiller, Joseph P; Pepi, Mauro; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano

    2017-02-05

    The most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulants worldwide are the vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) such as warfarin. Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of VKAs are important because deviations from their narrow therapeutic window can result in bleedings due to over-anticoagulation or thrombosis because of under-anticoagulation. In addition to pharmacodynamic interactions (e.g., augmented bleeding risk for concomitant use of NSAIDs), interactions with drugs, foods, herbs, and over-the-counter medications may affect the risk/benefit ratio of VKAs. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) including Factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) and thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran) are poised to replace warfarin. Phase-3 studies and real-world evaluations have established that the safety profile of DOACs is superior to those of VKAs. However, some pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions are expected. Herein we present a critical review of VKAs and DOACs with focus on their potential for interactions with drugs, foods, herbs and over-the-counter medications.

  3. Rasayana drugs from the Ayurvedic system of medicine as possible radioprotective agents in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Meera, Sharake; Vaishnav, Lalit Kumar; Rao, Suresh; Palatty, Princy Louis

    2013-11-01

    The use of ionizing radiation, which is the cornerstone of cancer treatment, is compromised by the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. A chemical that can give selective benefit to the normal cells against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation has been a long-sought goal. However, most of the compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, undesirable side effects, and high cost. Studies carried out in the past 2 decades have shown that some of the classical Indian Ayurvedic drugs (Amritaprasham, Ashwagandha Rasayana, Brahma Rasayana, Chyavanprasha, Narasimha Rasayana, and Triphala Churna) possess radioprotective effects. In the current review, an attempt is made to summarize the radioprotective observations of these Ayurvedic drugs and the mechanisms responsible for the radioprotective effects.

  4. Development of starch based mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems for application in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Gök, Mehmet Koray; Özgümüş, Saadet; Demir, Kamber; Cirit, Ümüt; Pabuccuoğlu, Serhat; Cevher, Erdal; Özsoy, Yıldız; Bacınoğlu, Süleyman

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the mucoadhesive, biocompatible and biodegradable progesterone containing vaginal tablets based on modified starch copolymers for the estrus synchronization of ewes. Starch-graft-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers (S-g-PAA) were synthesized and characterized. The vaginal tablets were fabricated with S-g-PAA and their equilibrium swelling degree (Qe) and matrix erosion (ME%) were determined in lactate buffer solution. In vitro, mucoadhesive properties of the tablets were investigated by using ewe vaginal mucosa and in vivo residence time were also investigated. In vitro and in vivo progesterone release profiles from the tablets were compared with two commercial products. Tablet formulation containing wheat starch based grafted copolymer (WS-g-PAA)gc indicated promising results and might be convenient as an alternative product to the commercial products in veterinary medicine.

  5. Trifluoromethyl ethers and -thioethers as tools for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Landelle, Gregory; Panossian, Armen; Leroux, Frederic R

    2014-01-01

    The ever-growing number of fluorinated compounds in medicinal and agrochemical applications has led to a remarkable positive emulation in research. The last few years have been the witness of several advances in the search of more effective and user-friendlier methods for the introduction of fluorine as substituent or of fluorinated groups on various structures. In particular, the synthesis of trifluoromethyl ethers and thioethers is receiving increasing attention due to the peculiar properties of the OCF3 and SCF3 groups. This review will cover the different methods for the preparation of trifluoromethyl ethers and thioethers, and will emphasize on the most recent developments, including the use of catalytic methods or of methodologies for trifluoromethylation or trifluoromethanesulfanylation.

  6. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  9. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  10. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  11. Computational repositioning of ethno medicine elucidated gB-gH-gL complex as novel anti herpes drug target

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    role in its binding activity with gB. Semi flexible docking analysis of the most promising in vitro, in vivo validated anti-herpes molecules targeting the above mentioned key residues of gH-gL complex showed that all the analyzed ethno medicinal compounds have successfully docked into the proposed binding site of gH-gL glycoprotein with binding energy range between -10.4 to -6.4 K.cal./mol. Conclusions Successful repositioning of the analyzed compounds onto the proposed binding site confirms the drug targetability of gH-gL complex. Based on the free binding energy and pharmacological properties, we propose (3-chloro phenyl) methyl-3,4,5 trihydroxybenzoate as worth a small ethno medicinal lead molecule for further development as potent anti-herpes drug candidate targeting gB-gH-gL complex formation interface. PMID:23587166

  12. National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Artists concept of the X-30 aerospace plane flying through Earth's atmosphere on its way to low-Earth orbit. the experimental concept is part of the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The X-30 is planned to demonstrate the technology for airbreathing space launch and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 117), by James Schultz.

  13. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  14. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  15. A cross-sectional analysis of traditional medicine use for malaria alongside free antimalarial drugs treatment amongst adults in high-risk malaria endemic provinces of Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Suswardany, Dwi Linna; Sibbritt, David W.; Supardi, Sudibyo; Pardosi, Jerico F.; Chang, Sungwon; Adams, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Background The level of traditional medicine use, particularly Jamu use, in Indonesia is substantial. Indonesians do not always seek timely treatment for malaria and may seek self-medication via traditional medicine. This paper reports findings from the first focused analyses of traditional medicine use for malaria in Indonesia and the first such analyses worldwide to draw upon a large sample of respondents across high-risk malaria endemic areas. Methods A sub-study of the Indonesia Basic Health Research/Riskesdas Study 2010 focused on 12,226 adults aged 15 years and above residing in high-risk malaria-endemic provinces. Logistic regression was undertaken to determine the significant associations for traditional medicine use for malaria symptoms. Findings Approximately one in five respondents use traditional medicine for malaria symptoms and the vast majority experiencing multiple episodes of malaria use traditional medicine alongside free antimalarial drug treatments. Respondents consuming traditional medicine for general health/common illness purposes every day (odds ratio: 3.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.93 4.79), those without a hospital in local vicinity (odds ratio: 1.31, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10 1.57), and those living in poorer quality housing, were more likely to use traditional medicine for malaria symptoms. Conclusion A substantial percentage of those with malaria symptoms utilize traditional medicine for treating their malaria symptoms. In order to promote safe and effective malaria treatment, all providing malaria care in Indonesia need to enquire with their patients about possible traditional medicine use. PMID:28329019

  16. Computational medicinal chemistry in fragment-based drug discovery: what, how and when.

    PubMed

    Rabal, Obdulia; Urbano-Cuadrado, Manuel; Oyarzabal, Julen

    2011-01-01

    The use of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has increased in the last decade due to the encouraging results obtained to date. In this scenario, computational approaches, together with experimental information, play an important role to guide and speed up the process. By default, FBDD is generally considered as a constructive approach. However, such additive behavior is not always present, therefore, simple fragment maturation will not always deliver the expected results. In this review, computational approaches utilized in FBDD are reported together with real case studies, where applicability domains are exemplified, in order to analyze them, and then, maximize their performance and reliability. Thus, a proper use of these computational tools can minimize misleading conclusions, keeping the credit on FBDD strategy, as well as achieve higher impact in the drug-discovery process. FBDD goes one step beyond a simple constructive approach. A broad set of computational tools: docking, R group quantitative structure-activity relationship, fragmentation tools, fragments management tools, patents analysis and fragment-hopping, for example, can be utilized in FBDD, providing a clear positive impact if they are utilized in the proper scenario - what, how and when. An initial assessment of additive/non-additive behavior is a critical point to define the most convenient approach for fragments elaboration.

  17. Nanoparticle analysis for various medicinal drugs and human body saliva at macromolecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthayakumar, G. S.; Senthilkumar; Inbasekaran, S.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Justin Packia Jacob, S.

    2014-08-01

    The spectral bio-diagnosis of normal human body saliva sample shows the following functional compounds and it is related to various proteins and enzymes. Because of the presence of water in the saliva sample, the hydroxyl group is observed in the form of O-H at 3,305 cm-1, because of the presence of lipids, the functional group C-H is obtained from 2,928 to 2,856 cm-1, due to the presence of amide-I in the form of C=N and C=C obtained at 1,658 cm-1, the proteins are exhibited. Due to the presence of aliphatic CH2, the Lipids, Adenine, Cytosine, Collagen are observed at 1,455 cm-1, because of the presence of Carbohydrates, Phospholipids, Nucleic acids, the functional groups C=O and P=O from 1,159 to 1,064 cm-1 are exhibited. Due to the presence of Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Cystine and Hydroxyapatite C-C twist, C-C stretch, C-S stretch and PO4 2- are observed at 748 and 483 cm-1. Silver nanoparticle has attracted considerable interest due to their extensive applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. To study the opto-electronics properties of the samples, it was mixed with silver nanoparticles and characterized.

  18. Nanoparticle analysis for various medicinal drugs and human body saliva at macromolecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthayakumar, G. S.; Senthilkumar; Inbasekaran, S.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Justin Packia Jacob, S.

    2015-06-01

    The spectral bio-diagnosis of normal human body saliva sample shows the following functional compounds and it is related to various proteins and enzymes. Because of the presence of water in the saliva sample, the hydroxyl group is observed in the form of O-H at 3,305 cm-1, because of the presence of lipids, the functional group C-H is obtained from 2,928 to 2,856 cm-1, due to the presence of amide-I in the form of C=N and C=C obtained at 1,658 cm-1, the proteins are exhibited. Due to the presence of aliphatic CH2, the Lipids, Adenine, Cytosine, Collagen are observed at 1,455 cm-1, because of the presence of Carbohydrates, Phospholipids, Nucleic acids, the functional groups C=O and P=O from 1,159 to 1,064 cm-1 are exhibited. Due to the presence of Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Cystine and Hydroxyapatite C-C twist, C-C stretch, C-S stretch and PO4 2- are observed at 748 and 483 cm-1. Silver nanoparticle has attracted considerable interest due to their extensive applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. To study the opto-electronics properties of the samples, it was mixed with silver nanoparticles and characterized.

  19. Identification of medicinal species and antifungal property of a Dong ethnic drug

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhirong; Du, Yuan; Cheng, Lili; Zhu, Nannan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the medicinal species in the Zi Hua Di Ding (ZHDD) prescription commonly used by the Dong ethnic people, and investigate the potential mechanism involved with the anti-fungal properties on Trichophyton rubrum. Methods: DNA barcode technique was used to identify the species in the ZHDD prescription. In vitro study was performed to investigate the antifungal properties of the identified Viola philippica on the T. rubrum. Microscopy was used to observe the growth of the T. rubrum. Results: The ZHDD prescription is a mixture of V. philippica and V. inconspicua, and its antifungal properties was superior to the single component. V. philippica could affect the surface and flexibility of hypha, and contribute to the generation of branches. In addition, it could damage the biofilm. Conclusions: Using the DNA barcode technique, we identify the ZHDD prescription is a mixture of V. philippica and V. inconspicua, and its antifungal properties was superior to the single component. V. philippica could affect the growth and biofilm formation of T. rubrum. PMID:25663999

  20. Impact of GPCRs in clinical medicine: genetic variants and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Paul A.; Tang, Chih-Min; Hahntow, Ines; Michel, Martin C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary By virtue of their large number, widespread distribution and important roles in cell physiology and biochemistry, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) play multiple important roles in clinical medicine. Here, we focus on 3 areas that subsume much of the recent work in this aspect of GPCR biology: 1) Monogenic diseases of GPCR; 2) Genetic variants of GPCR; and 3) Clinically useful pharmacological agonists and antagonists of GPCR. Diseases involving mutations of GPCR are rare, occurring in <1/1000 people, but disorders in which antibodies are directed against GPCR are more common. Genetic variants, especially single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), show substantial heterogeneity in frequency among different GPCRs but have not been evaluated for some GPCR. Many therapeutic agonists and antagonists target GPCR and show inter-subject variability in terms of efficacy and toxicity. For most of those agents, it remains an open question whether genetic variation in primary sequence of the GPCR is an important contributor to such inter-subject variability, although this is an active area of investigation. PMID:17081496