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Sample records for aerospace nickel-cadmium cells

  1. Aerospace Nickel-cadmium Cell Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Strawn, D. Michael; Hall, Stephen W.

    2001-01-01

    During the early years of satellites, NASA successfully flew "NASA-Standard" nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) cells manufactured by GE/Gates/SAFF on a variety of spacecraft. In 1992 a NASA Battery Review Board determined that the strategy of a NASA Standard Cell and Battery Specification and the accompanying NASA control of a standard manufacturing control document (MCD) for Ni-Cd cells and batteries was unwarranted. As a result of that determination, standards were abandoned and the use of cells other than the NASA Standard was required. In order to gain insight into the performance and characteristics of the various aerospace Ni-Cd products available, tasks were initiated within the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program that involved the procurement and testing of representative aerospace Ni-Cd cell designs. A standard set of test conditions was established in order to provide similar information about the products from various vendors. The objective of this testing was to provide independent verification of representative commercial flight cells available in the marketplace today. This paper will provide a summary of the verification tests run on cells from various manufacturers: Sanyo 35 Ampere-hour (Ali) standard and 35 Ali advanced Ni-Cd cells, SAFr 50 Ah Ni-Cd cells and Eagle-Picher 21 Ali Magnum and 21 Ali Super Ni-CdTM cells from Eagle-Picher were put through a full evaluation. A limited number of 18 and 55 Ali cells from Acme Electric were also tested to provide an initial evaluation of the Acme aerospace cell designs. Additionally, 35 Ali aerospace design Ni-MH cells from Sanyo were evaluated under the standard conditions established for this program. Ile test program is essentially complete. The cell design parameters, the verification test plan and the details of the test result will be discussed.

  2. Aerospace nickel-cadmium cell separator qualifications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, R. W.; Haag, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The present space qualified nylon separator, Pellon 2505 ML, is no longer available for aerospace nickel-cadmium (NiCd) cells. As a result of this anticipated unavailability, a joint Government program between the Air Force Space Division and the Naval Research Laboratory was established. Four cell types were procured with both the old qualified and the new unqualified separators. Acceptance, characterization, and life cycling tests are to be performed at the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, Ind. (NWSC/Crane). The scheduling and current status of this program are discussed and the progress of testing and available results are projected.

  3. Cadmium migration in aerospace nickel cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of temperature, the nature of separator material, charge and discharge, carbonate contamination, and the mode of storage are studied with respect to the migration of active material from the negative toward the positive plate. A theoretical model is proposed which takes into account the solubility of cadmium in various concentrations of hydroxide and carbonate at different temperatures, the generation of the cadmiate ion, Cd(OH)3(-), during discharge, the migration of the cadmiate ion and particulate Cd(OH)2 due to electrophoretic effects and the movement of electrolyte in and out of the negative plate and, finally, the recrystallization of cadmiate ion in the separator as Cd(OH)2. Application of the theoretical model to observations of cadmium migration in cycled cells is also discussed.

  4. Guidelines for the Procurement of Aerospace Nickel Cadmium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierfelder, Helmut

    1997-01-01

    NASA has been using a Modular Power System containing "standard" nickel cadmium (NiCd) batteries, composed of "standard" NiCd cells. For many years the only manufacturer of the NASA "standard" NiCd cells was General Electric Co. (subsequently Gates Aerospace and now SAFT). This standard cell was successfully used in numerous missions. However, uncontrolled technical changes, and changes in industrial restructuring require a new approach. General Electric (now SAFT Aerospace Batteries) had management changes, new manufacturers entered the market (Eagle-Picher Industries, ACME Electric Corporation, Aerospace Division, Sanyo Electric Co.) and battery technology advanced. New NASA procurements for aerospace NiCd cells will have specifications unique to the spacecraft and mission requirements. This document provides the user/customer guidelines for the new approach to procuring of and specifying performance requirements for highly reliable NiCd cells and batteries. It includes details of key parameters and their importance. The appendices contain a checklist, detailed calculations, and backup information.

  5. Review of electrochemical impregnation for nickel cadmium cells. [aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1977-01-01

    A method of loading active material within the electrodes of nickel cadmium cells is examined. The basic process of electrochemical impregnation of these electrodes is detailed, citing the principle that when current is applied reactions occur which remove hydrogen ions from solution, making the interior of the plaque less acidic. Electrodes result which are superior in energy density, stability, and life. The technology is reviewed and illustrated with typical performance data. Recommendations are made for additional research and development.

  6. NASA specification for manufacturing and performance requirements of NASA standard aerospace nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    On November 25, 1985, the NASA Chief Engineer established a NASA-wide policy to maintain and to require the use of the NASA standard for aerospace nickel-cadmium cells and batteries. The Associate Administrator for Safety, Reliability, Maintainability, and Quality Assurance stated on December 29, 1986, the intent to retain the NASA standard cell usage policy established by the Office of the Chief Engineer. The current NASA policy is also to incorporate technological advances as they are tested and proven for spaceflight applications. This policy will be implemented by modifying the existing standard cells or by developing new NASA standards and their specifications in accordance with the NASA's Aerospace Battery Systems Program Plan. This NASA Specification for Manufacturing and Performance Requirements of NASA Standard Aerospace Nickel-Cadmium Cells is prepared to provide requirements for the NASA standard nickel-cadmium cell. It is an interim specification pending resolution of the separator material availability. This specification has evolved from over 15 years of nickel-cadmium cell experience by NASA. Consequently, considerable experience has been collected and cell performance has been well characterized from many years of ground testing and from in-flight operations in both geosynchronous (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) applications. NASA has developed and successfully used two standard flight qualified cell designs.

  7. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for nickel-cadmium aerospace battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haak, R.; Tench, D.

    1982-01-01

    The ac impedance characteristics of Ni-Cd cells as an in-situ, nondestructive means of determining cell lifetime, particularly with respect to the probability of premature failure were evaluated. Emphasis was on evaluating Ni-Cd cell impedance over a wide frequency range (10,000 to 0.0004 Hz) as the cells were subjected to charge/discharge cycle testing. The results indicate that cell degradation is reflected in the low frequency (Warburg) impedance characteristics associated with diffusion processes. The Warburg slope (W) was found to steadily increase as a function of cell aging for completely discharged cells. In addition, based on data for two cells, a high or rapidly increasing value for W signals imminent cell failure by one mechanism. Degradation by another mechanism is apparently reflected in a fall-off (roll-over) of W at lower frequencies. As a secondary result, the frequency dependence of the absolute cell impedance at low frequencies (5 - 500 mHz) was found to be a good indication of the cell state-of-charge.

  8. Analysis of 12 AH aerospace nickel-cadmium cells from the design variable program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasanth, Kunigahalli L.; Morrow, George

    1987-01-01

    The Design Variable Program of NASA/GSFC provided a systematic approach to evaluate the performance of 12 Ampere-Hour Nickel-Cadmium cells of different designs. Design Variables tested in this program included teflonated negative plates, silver treated negative plates, lightly loaded negative plates, positive plates with no cadmium treatment, plate design of 1968 utilizing old and new processing techniques and electrochemically impregnated positive plates. These cells were life cycled in a Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) regime for 3 to 4 years. Representative cells taken from the Design Variable Program were examined via chemical, electrochemical and surface analyses. The results indicate the following: (1) positive swelling and carbonate content in the electrolyte increase as a function of number of cycles; (2) electrolyte distribution follows a general order NEG greater than POS greater than SEP; (3) control and No PQ groups outperformed the rest of the groups; and (4) the polyproylene group exhibited heavy cadmium migration and poor performance.

  9. Sealed-cell nickel-cadmium battery applications manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.; Rusta, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The design, procurement, testing, and application of aerospace quality, hermetically sealed nickel-cadmium cells and batteries are presented. Cell technology, cell and battery development, and spacecraft applications are emphasized. Long term performance is discussed in terms of the effect of initial design, process, and application variables. Design guidelines and practices are given.

  10. Sinter of uniform, predictable, blemish-free nickel plaque for large aerospace nickel cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiger, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    A series of nickel slurry compositions were tested. Important slurry parameters were found to be the nature of the binder, a pore former and the method of mixing. A slow roll mixing which is non-turbulent successfully eliminated entrapped air so that bubbles and pockets were avoided in the sinter. A slurry applicator was developed which enabled an equal quantity of slurry to be applied to both sides of the grid. Sintering in a furnace having a graded atmosphere characteristic, ranging from oxidizing to strongly reducing, improved adhesion of porous sinter to grid and resulted in a uniform welding of nickel particles to each other throughout the plaque. Sintering was carried out in a horizontal furnace having three heating zones and 16 heating control circuits. Tests used for plaque evaluation include (1) appearance, (2) grid location and adhesion, (3) mechanical strength, (4) thickness, (5) weight per unit area, (6) void volume per unit area, (7) surface area and (8) electrical resistance. Plaque material was impregnated using Heliotek proprietary processes and 100 AH cells were fabricated.

  11. Aerospace applications of nickel-cadmium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, S. )

    1993-05-01

    Some recent NASA applications of Ni-Cd batteries are Magellan, Topex/Poseidon, and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. Each of these automated spacecraft has a design lifetime of at least 3 years. Characteristics of the battery systems for each of these applications are given. Other topics discussed include the NASA standard Ni-Cd battery, the aerospace flight battery systems program, and the impact of the pending OHSA ruling.

  12. Procedure for analysis of nickel-cadmium cell materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Ogunyankin, O.; Jones, C.

    1973-01-01

    Quality control procedures include analyses on electrolyte, active materials, and separators for nickel cadmium cell materials. Tests range from the visual/mechanical inspection of cells to gas sampling, electrolyte extract, electrochemical tests, and physical measurements.

  13. Nickel-Cadmium Cell Design Variable Program Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A program was undertaken in conjunction with the General Electric Company to evaluate 9 of the more important nickel cadmium aerospace cell designs that are currently being used or that have been used in the past 15 years. Design variables tested in this program included teflonated negative plates, silver treated negative plates, light plate loading level, no positive plate cadmium treatment, plate design of 1968 utilizing both old and new processing techniques, and electrochemically impregnated positive plates. The data acquired from these test packs in a low Earth orbit cycling regime is presented and analyzed here. This data showed conclusively that the cells manufactured with no positive plate cadmium treatment outperformed all other cell designs in all aspects of the program and that the cells with teflonated negative electrodes performed very poorly.

  14. Analysis of aerospace nickel-cadmium battery cells. [cadmium migration as seen by scanning electron microscopy and metallographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Various steps followed in analyzing the electrolyte, separator, and electrodes are reviewed. Specific emphasis is given to scanning electron microscopic and metallographic analysis of the plates. Cadmium migration is defined, its effects and causes are examined, and methods for its reduction in cells are suggested.

  15. Evaluation of overcharge protection life in nickel cadmium cells with non-nylon separators

    SciTech Connect

    Scoles, D.L.; Johnson, Z.W.; Hayden, J.W.; Pickett, D.F. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    Hydrogen gassing and the potential for cell rupture in aerospace nickel cadmium cells is directly related to loss of overcharge protection built into the cell during manufacturing. It is well known that cells having nylon separators contribute to this loss via a hydrolysis reaction of the nylon in the potassium hydroxide electrolyte environment in the cell. The hydrolysis reaction produces lower chain organics which are oxidized by the positive electrode and oxygen. Oxidation of the organics diminishes the overcharge protection. With introduction of the Super NiCd and the Magnum nickel cadmium cells the nylon hydrolysis reaction is eliminated, but any reducing agent in the cell such as nickel or an organic additive can contribute to loss of overcharge protection. The present effort describes analyses made to evaluate the extent of overcharge protection loss in cells which do not have nylon hydrolysis and quantifies the diminished amount of overcharge protection loss as a result of eliminating nylon from aerospace cells.

  16. Second Plateau Voltage in Nickel-cadmium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasanth, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Sealed nickel cadmium cells having large number of cycles on them are discharged using Hg/HgO reference electrode. The negative electrode exhibits the second plateau. A SEM of negative plates of such cells show a number of large crystals of cadmium hydroxide. The large crystals on the negative plates disappear after continuous overcharging in flooded cells.

  17. Oxygen recombination in the sealed nickel-cadmium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Al H.; Barrera, Tom P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what parameters are most critical for controlling overcharge pressure in a sealed nickel cadmium cell. Topics covered in viewgraph format are: parameters examined; oxygen evolution and recombination; experimental test description; and effect of parameters on recombination rate.

  18. Study of process variables associated with manufacturing hermetically-sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L.; Doan, D. J.; Carr, E. S.

    1971-01-01

    A program to determine and study the critical process variables associated with the manufacture of aerospace, hermetically-sealed, nickel-cadmium cells is described. The determination and study of the process variables associated with the positive and negative plaque impregnation/polarization process are emphasized. The experimental data resulting from the implementation of fractional factorial design experiments are analyzed by means of a linear multiple regression analysis technique. This analysis permits the selection of preferred levels for certain process variables to achieve desirable impregnated plaque characteristics.

  19. Dynamics of cell degradation. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1978-01-01

    The use of chemical and physical data as a supplement to linear regression models in the prediction of cell failure is discussed. Principal factors to be considered are the positive thickness and weight, and the negative thickness. A model for cell degradation and failure in accelerated life test cells is presented and predictions based on a teardown analysis are included.

  20. A flooded-starved design for nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    A somewhat analogous situation among groupings of alkaline fuel cells is described where the stochastic aspects were much more accurately documented and then it was illustrated how this problem was eliminated using straight forward principles of pore size engineering. This is followed by a suggested method of adapting these same design principles to nickel-cadmium cells. It must be kept in mind that when cells are cycled to typically twenty percent depth of discharge that eighty percent of the weight of the cell is simply dead weight. Some of this dead weight might be put to better use by trading it for a scheme that would increase the time during which the cell would be working more closely to its optimum set of operating parameters.

  1. Nickel-cadmium Battery Cell Reversal from Resistive Network Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    During the individual cell short-down procedures often used for storing or reconditioning nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries, it is possible for significant reversal of the lowest capacity cells to occur. The reversal is caused by the finite resistance of the common current-carrying leads in the resistive network that is generally used during short-down. A model is developed to evaluate the extent of such a reversal in any specific battery, and the model is verified by means of data from the short-down of a f-cell, 3.5-Ah battery. Computer simulations of short-down on a variety of battery configurations indicate the desirability of controlling capacity imbalances arising from cell configuration and battery management, limiting variability in the short-down resistors, minimizing lead resistances, and optimizing lead configurations.

  2. A nickel-cadmium cell residual charge analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W. G.; Leek, R.; Hampson, N. A.; Lovelock, G. R.

    1984-09-01

    This paper describes a portable unit for measuring the charge remaining in nickel-cadmium secondary cells. Exhaustive frequency response tests have confirmed that cell impedance varies very little with charge state, with the possible exception of that at very low frequencies (less than 50 mHz). In the interim before further work in this area is carried out, a microprocessor-based test unit has been built which uses a current pulse discharge method to arrive at a residual charge reading. When the cell is discharged according to a particular regime, the unit produces results accurate to within 10-15 percent over the entire range of charge. Further development involving the inclusion of cell history parameters promises to make the unit useful for military and other applications.

  3. Non-gassing nickel-cadmium battery electrodes and cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.; Gordy, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of a negative limited nongassing nickel-cadmium battery was demonstrated by constructing and testing practical size experimental cells of approximately 25 Ah capacity. These batteries operated in a gas-free manner and had measured energy densities of 10-11 Wh/lb. Thirty cells were constructed for extensive testing. Some small cells were tested for over 200 cycles at 100% depth. For example, a small cell with an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a silver screen still had 55% of its theoretical capacity (initial efficiency was 85%). There was no evidence of deterioration of gassing properties with cycling of the nickel electrodes. The charge temperature was observed to be the most critical variable governing nickel electrode gassing. This variable was shown to be age dependent. Four types of cadmium electrodes were tested: an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a cadmium or silver substrate, a porous sintered silver substrate based electrode, and a Teflon bonded pressed cadmium electrode. The electrodeposited cadmium mass on a silver screen was found to be the best all-around electrode from a performance point of view and from the point of view of manufacturing them in a size required for a 25 Ah size battery.

  4. Fabrication and testing of negative limited sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordy, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A number of 20 Ah and 3 Ah negative limited nickel-cadmium cells were fabricated and assembled in hermetically sealed stainless steel containers. The cells exhibit a large voltage rise signal, in excess of 250 mA, at the end of each charge period. They also exhibit lower self discharge rates than conventional sealed nickel-cadmium cells and do not require overcharge. The cells are capable of operating at charge and discharge rates up to 5C and can deliver at least 1000 cycles on a 30 minute regime at 25% DOD. A small amount of gassing occurs, but is not deemed critical or detrimental in view of the facts that, (1) operating pressures are in the range of 7 to 20 psig and (2) the cells are operated in the flooded condition so therefore contain little internal void volume. The cells were found to exhibit somewhat higher capacity loss rates during cycling than conventional sealed nickel-cadmium batteries.

  5. Accelerated test program for sealed nickel-cadmium spacecraft batteries/cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility was examined of inducing an accelerated test on sealed Nickel-Cadmium batteries or cells as a tool for spacecraft projects and battery users to determine: (1) the prediction of life capability; (2) a method of evaluating the effect of design and component changes in cells; and (3) a means of reducing time and cost of cell testing.

  6. Electrochemical models for the discharge characteristics of the nickel cadmium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spritzer, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    The potential time characteristics of a preconditioned fully charged cell discharge at constant current was studied. Electrochemical principles applied to the sealed nickel cadmium cell and its behavior and to predict operating characteristics were described. A thermodynamic approach to arrive at several related but different equations and its discharge are reported.

  7. Results of continuous synchronous orbit testing of sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Test results from continuous synchronous orbit testing of sealed nickel cadmium cells are presented. The synchronous orbit regime simulates a space satellite maintaining a position over a fixed point on earth as the earth rotates on its axis and revolves about the sun. Characteristics of each lot of cells, test conditions, and charge control methods are described.

  8. Nickel cadmium cell designs negative to positive material ratio and precharge levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the factors affecting the choices of negative-to-positive materials ratio and negative precharge in nickel-cadmium cells. The effects of these variables on performance are given, and the different methods for setting precharge are evaluated. The effects of special operating requirements on the design are also discussed.

  9. Qualification Testing of General Electric 50 Ah Nickel-Cadmium Cells with New Separator and New Positive Plate Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two 50 Ah aerospace nickel-cadmium cells were delivered to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by General Electric (GE) in February, 1985, for the purpose of evaluating and qualifying a new nylon separator material Pellon 2536, and the new GE Positive Plate Nickel Attack Control Passivation process. Testing began in May, 1985, at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana with standard initial evaluation tests. Life cycling in both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) began in July, 1985, with approximately 1200 LEO cycles complete at this writting. Early test results show that cells with positive plate passivation exhibit higher than normal charge voltage characteristics. Other aspects of performance were nominal.

  10. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  11. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.

    1995-04-01

    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  12. Electrolyte Management Considerations in Modern Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium Cell and Battery Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. Sample calculations of the concentration or volume changes that can take place within operating cells are presented. With the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery, the impact of changes of potassium ion content within a potential cell design can be estimated. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the components used in the cell or battery design.

  13. Acceptance tests and manufacturer relationships for 20 amphere-hour sealed nickel-cadmium cells using discharge parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and forty-six 20 ampere-hour sealed nickel cadmium cells from five manufacturers were detected using preliminary tests which do not require life testing and do not reduce the expected life of the cells. Differences between individual cells were also detected, using these tests, allowing a comparison of variability of cell construction by and between manufacturers.

  14. Cycle life status of SAFT VOS nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goualard, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    The SAFT prismatic VOS Ni-Cd cells have been flown in geosynchronous orbit since 1977 and in low earth orbit since 1983. Parallel cycling tests are performed by several space agencies in order to determine the cycle life for a wide range of temperature and depth of discharge (DOD). In low Earth orbit (LEO), the ELAN program is conducted on 24 Ah cells by CNES and ESA at the European Battery Test Center at temperatures ranging from 0 to 27 C and DOD from 10 to 40 percent. Data are presented up to 37,000 cycles. One pack (X-80) has achieved 49,000 cycles at 10 C and 23 percent DOD. The geosynchronous orbit simulation of a high DOD test is conducted by ESA on 3 batteries at 10 C and 70, 90, and 100 percent DOD. Thirty-one eclipse seasons are completed, and no signs of degradation have been found. The Air Force test at CRANE on 24 Ah and 40 Ah cells at 20 C and 80 percent DOD has achieved 19 shadow periods. Life expectancy is discussed. The VOS cell technology could be used for the following: (1) in geosynchronous conditions--15 yrs at 10-15 C and 80 percent DOD; and (2) in low earth orbit--10 yrs at 5-15 C and 25-30 percent DOD.

  15. Analysis for nickel (3 and 4) in positive plates from nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Harlan L.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard procedure for destructive physical analysis (DPA) of nickel-cadmium cells contains a method for analysis of residual charged nickel as NiOOH in the positive plates at complete cell discharge, also known as nickel precharge. In the method, the Ni(III) is treated with an excess of an Fe(II) reducing agent and then back titrated with permanganate. The Ni(III) content is the difference between Fe(II) equivalents and permanganate equivalents. Problems have arisen in analysis at NAVSURFWARCENDIV, Crane because for many types of cells, particularly AA-size and some 'space-qualified' cells, zero or negative Ni(III) contents are recorded for which the manufacturer claims 3-5 percent precharge. Our approach to this problem was to reexamine the procedure for the source of error, and correct it or develop an alternative method.

  16. A study of short test and charge retention test methods for nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for testing nickel-cadmium cells for internal shorts and charge retention were studied. Included were (a) open circuit voltage decay after a brief charge, (b) open circuit voltage recovery after shorting, and (c) open circuit voltage decay and capacity loss after a full charge. The investigation included consideration of the effects of prior history, of conditioning cells prior to testing, and of various test method variables on the results of the tests. Sensitivity of the tests was calibrated in terms of equivalent external resistance. The results were correlated. It was shown that a large number of variables may affect the results of these tests. It is concluded that the voltage decay after a brief charge and the voltage recovery methods are more sensitive than the charged stand method, and can detect an internal short equivalent to a resistance of about (10,000/C)ohms where "C' is the numerical value of the capacity of the cell in ampere hours.

  17. Study of process variables associated with manufacturing hermetically-sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L.

    1974-01-01

    A two year study of the major process variables associated with the manufacturing process for sealed, nickel-cadmium, areospace cells is summarized. Effort was directed toward identifying the major process variables associated with a manufacturing process, experimentally assessing each variable's effect, and imposing the necessary changes (optimization) and controls for the critical process variables to improve results and uniformity. A critical process variable associated with the sintered nickel plaque manufacturing process was identified as the manual forming operation. Critical process variables identified with the positive electrode impregnation/polarization process were impregnation solution temperature, free acid content, vacuum impregnation, and sintered plaque strength. Positive and negative electrodes were identified as a major source of carbonate contamination in sealed cells.

  18. Voltage-temperature charge verification testing of 34 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, P. J.; Bondeson, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    This testing was designed to evaluate various voltage-temperature (V-T) charge curves for use in low-Earth-orbit (LEO) applications of nickel-cadmium battery cells. The trends established relating V-T level to utilizable capacity were unexpected. The trends toward lower capacity at higher V-T levels was predominant in this testing. This effect was a function of the V-T level, the temperature, and the cell history. This effect was attributed to changes occurring in the positive plate. The results imply that for some applications, the use of even lower V-T levels may be warranted. The need to limit overcharge, especially in the early phases of missions, is underlined by this test program.

  19. Evaluation Program for Secondary Spacecraft Cells: Synchronous Orbit Testing of Sealed Nickel Cadmium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Performance data concerning sealed nickel-cadmium cells operating under a synchronous orbit regime are presented. A space satellite maintaining a position over a fixed point on earth as the earth rotates on its axis and revolves about the sun was simulated. Results include: (1) exposure to synchronous orbit testing at a temperature of 40 C yields less than 6 years of life; (2) performance at -20 C presents a low capacity problem; (3) the capacity check, performed at the middle of each show period, provides a temporary red reconditioning effect on the cells in that the end-of-discharge voltages are higher, for approximately 7 to 10 days, following the capacity check than they were 7 to 10 days prior to the capacity check; (4) all the test packs at -20 C and 40 C have either failed or were discontinued because of low capacity; and (5) test packs at temperatures of 0 C and 10 C have delivered the best capacity during life and packs tested at 20 C showed better life capability than packs tested at -20 C and 40 C.

  20. Effect of Storage on Performance of Super Nickel-Cadmium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    1997-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the capacity maintenance features of SUPER nickel-cadmium cells when stored for extended periods to determine whether the features change when the same kinds of positive plates as that used in nickel-hydrogen cells are used, The cells maintained their capacity when stored at 0 C in the discharged state and at 0 C in the charged state by continuously trickle charging. There was a capacity loss when stored in the open-circuit condition at 28 C. A cycling test at 17% depth of discharge for 2400 cycles using cells stored at various conditions showed that cells maintained good end of discharge voltage regardless of their storage history. However, the EOD voltages of stored cells were lower by 10 mV compared to those of fresh cells. The capacity at the end of the cycling test decreased for the stored cells by 2-7 Ah. The storage related capacity loss is lower for SUPER Ni-Cd cells compared to that of Ni-H2 cells containing a hydrogen precharge. The results suggest the pivotal role of hydrogen pressure in the capacity loss phenomenon.

  1. Comparison of rechargeable lithium and nickel/cadmium battery cells for implantable circulatory support devices.

    PubMed

    MacLean, G K; Aiken, P A; Adams, W A; Mussivand, T

    1994-04-01

    Size and weight constraints are critical areas in the design of implantable medical devices. For this reason, a study of different rechargeable lithium and nickel/cadmium (Ni/Cd) battery cell types was undertaken to determine which cell type, when assembled into a multicell battery pack, would provide the smallest and lightest power source for implantation. The discharge rate and cycle life characteristics of 2 different rectangular prismatic Ni/Cd cells and 5 different rechargeable lithium cells were determined at 37 degrees C by charge/discharge cycling, the cells using a constant discharge load of 0.87 A. Using the observed discharge rate and cycle life characteristics of the cells, along with the desired performance criteria of 30 min operating time at the end of a 1-year implant period, the projected weight and volume of the various 12-V battery packs were determined. These results showed that one of the rectangular prismatic Ni/Cd cells would yield the smallest (53 ml) and lightest (189 g) 12-V battery pack that met the performance criteria specified. The results also indicate that, for applications requiring long implant times, cycle life can be more important in the selection of cells for a small, lightweight battery pack than specific energy or energy density.

  2. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 26.5 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes for the TIROS-N and NOAA-A satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    This evaluation test program had the purpose to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open-circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. Test limits specify those values at which a cell is to be terminated from charge or discharge. Requirements are referenced to as normally expected values based on past performance of aerospace nickel-cadmium cells with demonstrated life characteristics. A requirement does not constitute a limit for discontinuance from test.

  3. Analysis of nickel-cadmium battery reliability data containing zero failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denson, William K.; Klein, Glenn C.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of reliability data on Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) batteries (for use in spacecraft) is presented. The data were collected by Gates Aerospace and represent a substantial reliability database. The data were taken from the performance of 183 satellites which were in operation from between .1 and 22 years, for a total of 278 million cell-hours of operation.

  4. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel/hydrogen and nickel/cadmium cell and battery designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    In the early 1980s, the battery group at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) reviewed the design issues associated with nickel/hydrogen cells for low-earth orbit applications. In 1984, these issues included gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. The design effort by that group followed principles set forth in an earlier LeRC paper that introduced the topic of pore size engineering. Also in 1984, the beneficial effect of lower electrolyte concentrations on cycle life was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a LeRC-funded study. Subsequent life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially have verified all of this earlier work. During the past decade, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research done at several laboratories. While attention has been paid to understanding and modeling abnormal nickel/hydrogen cell behaviors, not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently, in batteries. Examining the potassium ion content of different portions of the cell or battery is a convenient way of following the conductivity, mass transport properties, and electrolyte volume in each of the cell or battery portions under consideration. Several of the consequences of solvent and solute changes within fuel cells have been well known for some time. However, only recently have these consequences been applied to nickel/hydrogen and nickel/cadmium cell designs. As a result of these studies, several unusual cell performance signatures can now be satisfactorily explained in terms of movement of the solvent and solute components in the electrolyte. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel/hydrogen and nickel/cadmium cells. Sample calculations of the concentration or volume changes that can take

  5. Characterization of the 20-Ah nickel-cadmium cell used for energy storage on the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted on 20-Ah sealed nickel cadmium cells to evaluate initial and long-term performance at various charge rates, temperatures and voltage-control levels. An average ampere-hour recharge of 103 percent per orbit at 13 C was able to maintain cell capacity; required watt-hour recharge on an orbital basis was 8 to 10 percent greater than required ampere-hour recharge. Cells exhibited an early life burn-in characteristic. A discharge after periods of repetitive cycling yielded two voltage plateaus which were temporarily eliminated by the discharge.

  6. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight. [differential thermal and atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodes and electrolytes of nickel cadmium sealed batteries were analyzed. Different thermal analysis of negative and positive battery electrodes was conducted and the temperature ranges of occurrence of endotherms indicating decomposition of cadmium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide are identified. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for traces of nickel, cadmium, cobalt, and potassium. Calibration curves and data are given for each sample analyzed. Instrumentation and analytical procedures used for each method are described.

  7. The 100 kW space station. [regenerative fuel cells and nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium batteries for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckhann, G.

    1977-01-01

    Solar array power systems for the space construction base are discussed. Nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen batteries are equally attractive relative to regenerative fuel cell systems at 5 years life. Further evaluation of energy storage system life (low orbit conditions) is required. Shuttle and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology appears adequate; large units (approximately four times shuttle) are most appropriate and should be studied for a 100 KWe SCB system. A conservative NiH2 battery DOD (18.6%) was elected due to lack of test data and offers considerable improvement potential. Multiorbit load averaging and reserve capacity requirements limit nominal DOD to 30% to 50% maximum, independent of life considerations.

  8. Qualification testing of General Electric 50 Ah nickel-cadmium cells with Pellon 2536 separator and passivated positive plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, George W.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-two 50 Ah nickel-cadmium cells were delivered to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by General Electric (GE) in February, 1985 for the purpose of evaluating and qualifying a nonwoven nylon separator material, Pellon 2536, and the GE positive plate nickel attack control gas passivation process. Testing began May, 1985 at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana with GSFC standard initial evaluation tests. Life cycling in both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) began in July, 1985 with approximately 6500 LEO cycles and three GEO eclipse seasons completed. After early problems in maintaining test pack temperature control, all packs are performing well but are exhibiting higher than normal charge voltage characteristics.

  9. Study of thermal effects on nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, R. T.; Webster, W. H.

    1967-01-01

    Isothermal continuous flow calorimeter is designed to test a nickel-cadmium battery under numerous orbital conditions. This sensitive calorimeter collects cell data such as oxygen pressure and rate of heat generation, and calculates changes in enthalpy.

  10. Accelerated test plan for nickel cadmium spacecraft batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    An accelerated test matrix is outlined that includes acceptance, baseline and post-cycling tests, chemical and physical analyses, and the data analysis procedures to be used in determining the feasibility of an accelerated test for sealed, nickel cadmium cells.

  11. Non-gassing nickel-cadmium battery electrodes and cells: Testing of 25 Ah cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.; Gordy, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The testing of 30 practical size, experimental 25 ampere hour cells constructed as part of an earlier negative limited cell development program is discussed. The test results showed that the negative limited cell is a possible means of developing a long-lived secondary cell. The cells were tested for 500 cycles using an accelerated regime approximating a 90-minute orbit period. Three groups of ten cells were tested at 0,25, and 40 C. The cycle data showed that the negative limited cells had higher degradation rates at the higher operating temperatures. At the conclusion of 500 cycles, the three groups had average capacities of 16.83, 12.74, and 5.71 ampere hours for testing at 0, 25, 40 C, respectively. The conditioning capacities of these cells was in the 25 ampere hours range. The internal cell pressures of the three groups was also temperature dependent and was, in general, in the 2 psig range during the course of the test program. No periodic variation of the internal pressure with the state-of-charge was observed except with some cells tested at 40 C.

  12. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of Eagle-Picher Industries, Incorporated 6.0 ampere-hour, nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for separator material evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Several groups of nickel cadmium cells were tested for the durability of their separator materials. The cells were rated at 6.0 ampere-hours, and contained double ceramic seals. Two cells in each group were fitted with pressure gauge assemblies. Results are presented for various brands of separator materials.

  13. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 12.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the international ultraviolet explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation test program was conducted to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open-circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. The 20 cells were manufactured for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The cells are from a lot of 175 cells procured for the International Ultraviolet Explorer project. Due to a change in requirements, the project selected to use 6.0 ampere-hour cells. Therefore, the remaining cells of this lot have been placed in storage at GSFC for use on a future GSFC project. All the cells are rated at 12.0 ampere-hours and contain double ceramic seals. Test limits specify those values in which a cell is to be terminated from a particular charge or discharge. Requirements are referred to as normally expected values based on past performance of aerospace nickel cadmium cells with demonstrated life characteristics.

  14. Report of investigations into charge cadmium reactivity: Nickel-cadmium cell ESD 91-86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Harlan L.

    1992-01-01

    In Aug. 1990, a presentation was given at the 25th Ann. IECEC meeting on the results of Destructive Physical Analysis (DPA) on two successive sets of Ni-Cd cells. The cells were of two different separator types, Pellon 2505 and 2536. One cell of each separator type was analyzed on two occasions; the first pair were analyzed to establish baseline data on essentially new cells; the second pair were analyzed after the cells had been on charge-discharge cycling for a year in connection with a satellite simulation study. The gas composition found in the cells, the absence of charged cadmium in the analytical data, and the appearance of dried out portions on the Cd plates in the one year cell S/N 7 which used Pellon 2505 as its separator material, were questions which arose. These concerns are answered and the observational results are clarified.

  15. Development of long life lightweight nickel-cadmium cells and batteries. [used in space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritterman, P. F.; Bogner, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a high-specific energy Ni-Cd cell for a lightweight battery. After preliminary cycling tests on laboratory and commercial cells, a cell was produced that features electrochemically impregnated positive and negative electrodes, a single terminal, and increased amount of electrolyte. This cell weighed an average of 948 g and had a measured specific energy of over 50 Wh/kg at a C/2 discharge to 1.0 V. The epoxy graphite case capable of withstanding internal pressures in excess of 300 psig represents a 35% weight reduction from a lightweight 0.30 mm Ni-Cd case. A pack of these cells was cycled at 70% maximum depth of discharge beyond 10 simulated geosynchronous orbit-eclipse seasons, and high end-of-charge voltages were obtained. A prototype battery consisting of 14 such cells was fabricated and has a measured specific energy of 46 Wh/kg.

  16. A study of degradation of plates for nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells. [feasibility of coining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The relative merits of coining and not coining of sintered nickel-oxide and cadmium plates was investigated. A survey of the industry including cell manufactures and users was made and results summarized. Sample plate materials from most commercial cell suppliers were obtained and characterized for properties that may correlate with the tendency toward physical disintegration during handling and over long periods of time in the cell. Special test methods were developed to obtain comparative data in a short time. A wide range of physical properties and coining thicknesses was observed, resulting in a range of responses. The stronger, less brittle materials resisted loss of sinter better than weaker materials whether or not coined. Coining improved handling and resistance to electrochemical cycling in all materials tested. An apparent exception was found to be due to improper coining of a tapered edge.

  17. A study of degradation of plates for nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The relative merits of coining and not coining of sintered nickel oxide and cadmium plates was investigated. Sample plate materials from most commercial cell suppliers were obtained and characterized for properties that may correlate with the tendency toward physical disintegration during handling and over long periods of time in the cell. Special test methods were developed to obtain comparative data in a short time. A wide range of physical properties and coining thickness was observed, resulting in a range of responses. The stronger materials resisted loss of sinter better than weaker materials whether or not coined. Coining improved handling and resistance to electrochemical cycling of weaker materials. The mechanism of break-down of positive plate edges under cycling appears to be the same as that of thickening and blistering. Brittle, nonadherent sinter, resulting from certain impregnation processes, is the most vulnerable to degradation. It is concluded that the latter type of materials should be coined, but coining of strong materials is optional.

  18. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  19. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-11-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  20. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  1. Advanced nickel-cadmium batteries for geosynchronous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, David F.; Lim, Hong S.; Krause, Stanley J.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1987-01-01

    A nickel cadmium battery was developed that can be operated at 80 percent depth of discharge in excess of 10 years in a geosynchronous orbit application, and has about a 30 percent weight savings per spacecraft over present nickel cadmium batteries when used with a 1000 watts eclipse load. The approach used in the development was to replace nylon separators with inert polymer impregnated zirconia, use electrochemically deposited plates in place of conventional chemically precipitated ones, and use an additive to extend negative plate lifetime. The design has undergone extensive testing using both engineering and protoflight cell configurations.

  2. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  3. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  4. Requirements specification for nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The requirements for performance, design, test, and qualification of a computer program identified as NICBES, Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System, is established. The specific spacecraft power system configuration selected was the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Electrical Power System (EPS) Testbed. Power for the HST comes from a system of 13 Solar Panel Arrays (SPAs) linked to 6 Nickel Cadmium Batteries which are connected to 3 Busses. An expert system, NICBES, will be developed at Martin Marietta Aerospace to recognize a testbed anomaly, identify the malfunctioning component and recommend a course of action. Besides fault diagnosis, NICBES will be able to evaluate battery status, give advice on battery status and provide decision support for the operator. These requirements are detailed.

  5. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 40.0 ampere hour nickel cadmium spacecraft cells for the tracking data relay satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    Average end of charge voltages and pressures, and capacity output in ampere hours are presented. Test limits specify those values at which a cell is to be terminated from charge or discharge. Requirements are based on past cell performance data. The requirement does not constitute a limit for discontinuance from testing. The nickel cadmium batteries were screened for internal shorts, low capacity, electrolyte leakage, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test.

  6. The effect of cell design and test criteria on the series/parallel performance of nickel cadmium cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Webb, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Three batteries were operated in parallel from a common bus during charge and discharge. SMM utilized NASA Standard 20AH cells and batteries, and LANDSAT-D NASA 50AH cells and batteries of a similar design. Each battery consisted of 22 series connected cells providing the nominal 28V bus. The three batteries were charged in parallel using the voltage limit/current taper mode wherein the voltage limit was temperature compensated. Discharge occurred on the demand of the spacecraft instruments and electronics. Both flights were planned for three to five year missions. The series/parallel configuration of cells and batteries for the 3-5 yr mission required a well controlled product with built-in reliability and uniformity. Examples of how component, cell and battery selection methods affect the uniformity of the series/parallel operation of the batteries both in testing and in flight are given.

  7. A nickel-cadmium battery reconditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanier, R.

    1977-01-01

    The circuit presented is simple and small enough to be included in a typical battery charge/power control assembly, yet provides the advantage of a complete ground-type battery reconditioning discharge. Test results on the circuit when used to recondition two 24 cell, 20 A-h nickel-cadmium batteries are given. These results show that a battery reconditioned with this circuit returns to greater than 90 percent of its original capacity (greater than nameplate capacity) and follows a typical new battery degradation curve even after over 20,000 simulated orbital cycles for a 4 year period. Applications of the circuit are considered along with recommendations relative to its use. Its application in low voltage (22 to 36 Vdc) power systems and in high voltage (100 to 150 Vdc) power systems is discussed. The implications are that the high voltage systems have a greater need for battery reconditioning than their low voltage counterparts, and that using these circuit techniques, the expected life of a battery in low Earth orbit can be up to 5 years.

  8. Modelling a nickel-cadmium battery as a heterogeneous device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glueck, Peter R.; Timmerman, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    A common failure mode for nickel-cadmium batteries involves a nonuniform degradation of the performance of individual cells. This behavior is manifested as a divergence in voltage during cyclic operation. An empirically based performance model is presented which simulates a battery composed of heterogeneous cells. Battery performance is studied as a function of the distribution of cell performance characteristics. The technique has successfully predicted cell voltage divergence behavior observed during cycle life testing. It is noted that this work enhances understanding of life-test results and may improve life-test design and data analysis.

  9. NASA 50 amp hour nickel cadmium battery waste heat determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A process for determining the waste heat generated in a 50-ampere-hour, nickel cadmium battery as a function of the discharge rate is described and results are discussed. The technique involved is essentially calibration of the battery as a heat transfer rate calorimeter. The tests are run at three different levels of battery activity, one at 40-watts of waste heat generated, one at 60, and one at 100. Battery inefficiency ranges from 14 to 18 percent at discharge rates of 284 to 588 watts, respectively and top-of-cell temperatures of 20 C.

  10. Results of a technical analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Program Office requested the expertise of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Steering Committee (NAFBSSC) in the conduct of an independent assessment of the HST's battery system to assist in their decision of whether to fly nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen batteries on the telescope. In response, a subcommittee to the NAFBSSC was organized with membership comprised of experts with background in the nickel-cadmium/nickel-hydrogen secondary battery/power systems areas. The work and recommendations of that subcommittee are presented.

  11. Charge control of nickel-cadmium batteries by coulometer and third electrode method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F.; Paulkovitch, J.

    1968-01-01

    Combined coulometer/third electrode control circuit for a nickel-cadmium battery included at least one cell of the third electrode type is illustrated. The coulometer/third electrode sensing circuit controls the series regulator as necessary to maintain the sensing voltage at the preset sensing level.

  12. Hughes advanced nickel-cadmium batteries: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, R. Sam

    1991-05-01

    After delivering a significant data base on boilerplate and prototype advanced nickel cadmium (Ni/Cd) battery cells, Hughes decided to start using the Advanced Ni/Cd batteries on several of their flight programs. The advanced cell can been operated at 80 percent depth of discharge (DOD) for more than 10 years, and possibly 15 years, in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) applications. This cell offers an important weight saving over the standard Ni/Cd cell that is usually only operated at 50 to 60 percent DOD in GEO applications. The negative and positive electrodes are manufactured using electrochemical deposition methods which reduce the sinter corrosion problems encountered by the chemical deposition process used in the standard cells. The degradable nylon separators used in standard cells was replaced by polymer impregnated Zirconia separators.

  13. Hughes advanced nickel-cadmium batteries: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogner, R. Sam

    1991-01-01

    After delivering a significant data base on boilerplate and prototype advanced nickel cadmium (Ni/Cd) battery cells, Hughes decided to start using the Advanced Ni/Cd batteries on several of their flight programs. The advanced cell can been operated at 80 percent depth of discharge (DOD) for more than 10 years, and possibly 15 years, in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) applications. This cell offers an important weight saving over the standard Ni/Cd cell that is usually only operated at 50 to 60 percent DOD in GEO applications. The negative and positive electrodes are manufactured using electrochemical deposition methods which reduce the sinter corrosion problems encountered by the chemical deposition process used in the standard cells. The degradable nylon separators used in standard cells was replaced by polymer impregnated Zirconia separators.

  14. Super nickel-cadmium battery design and life test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, R. S.

    The super nickel-cadmium (S Ni/Cd) cell design utilizes polymer impregnated zirconia separators which are inert in place of degradable nylon separators. The positive and negative electrodes are manufactured by electrochemical impregnation methods which produce more stable electrodes than the chemically deposited electrodes used in the standard Ni/Cd cell. The quantity of electrolyte used in the S Ni/Cd cell was also increased in comparison to the standard Ni/Cd cell. Accelerated and real-time life tests are presented. Ten years of real-time geosynchronous orbit (GEO) life test have been obtained at 80 percent depth of discharge. Low earth orbit test data are presented along with charge potential data as a function of charge rate and temperature. Six different sizes of S Ni/Cd cells ranging in size from 5 to 50 Ah have been designed and built.

  15. Performance of Nickel-Cadmium Batteries on the GOES I-K Series of Weather Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Sat P.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Alsbach, Walter G.

    1997-01-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) spacecraft (among others) to support weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorological research by the National Weather Service (NWS). The latest in the GOES series consists of 5 spacecraft (originally named GOES I-M), three of which are in orbit and two more in development. Each of five spacecraft carry two Nickel-Cadmium batteries, with batteries designed and manufactured by Space Systems Loral (SS/L) and cells manufactured by Gates Aerospace Batteries (sold to SAFT in 1993). The battery, which consists of 28 cells with a 12 Ah capacity, provides the spacecraft power needs during the ascent phase and during the semi-annual eclipse seasons lasting for approximately 45 days each. The maximum duration eclipses are 72 minutes long which result in a 60 percent depth of discharge (DOD) of the batteries. This paper provides a description of the batteries, reconditioning setup, DOD profile during a typical eclipse season, and flight performance from the 3 launched spacecraft (now GOES 8, 9, and 10) in orbit.

  16. Performance of Nickel-Cadmium Batteries on the GOES 1-K Series of Weather Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Sat P.; Alsbach, Walter G.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    1998-01-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) spacecraft (among others) to support weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorological research by the National Weather Service (NWS). The latest in the GOES series consists of five spacecraft (originally named GOES 1-M), three of which are in orbit and and two more in development. Each of the five spacecraft carries two Nickel-Cadmium battery, with batteries designed by Space Systems Loral (SS/L) and cells manufactured by Gates Aerospace Batteries (sold to SAFT in 1993). The battery, which consists of 28 cells with a 12 Ah capacity, provides the spacecraft power needs during the ascent phase and during the semi-annual eclipse seasons lasting for approximately 45 days each. The maximum duration eclipses are 72 minutes long which result in a 60 percent depth of discharge (DOD) of the batteries. This paper provides a description of the batteries, reconditioning setup, DOD profile during a typical eclipse season, and flight performance from the three launched spacecraft (now GOES 8, 9, and 10) in orbit.

  17. NASA aerospace battery systems program update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Schulze, Norman R.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of a battery systems program designed to enhance the safety, reliability, and performance of NASA's aerospace primary and secondary batteries as well as battery power systems is presented. The status of research in all three areas is reviewed. The approach to achieving the program objectives involves increasing the fundamental understanding of primary and secondary cells; providing for improved nickel-cadmium manufacturing process control; providing for the establishment of a NASA standard nickel-hydrogen cell design; establishing specifications, design and operational guidelines for both primary and secondary cells and batteries; providing training relating to the above areas; and opening and maintaining communication lines within NASA and the aerospace battery community.

  18. A 50 AH nickel cadmium battery activation and charge retention parametric study for LANDSAT-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tasevoli, M.

    1982-01-01

    An alternate nickel-cadmium cell activation scheme was developed which significantly reduces battery dissipation while maintaining the cell active material in the proper electrochemical state. The new procedure of charging at C/20 for 8 hours, C/10 for 6 hours and followed by C/5 to a voltage limit of 1.430 volt/cell significantly reduces the heat dissipation and charge period when compared to the standard activation practice of charging at C/20 for 48 hours. In addition, subsequent discharge voltage profiles using the new scheme are higher when compared to the standard practice. The effects of extended open-circuit periods on nickel-cadmium cell results in a capacity loss of approximately 0.7 percent and 1.4 percent per day at 23 and 35 degrees Celsius, respectively.

  19. Design and test of a 100 ampere-hour nickel cadmium battery module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Burgess, F. S.; Lehrfeld, D.; Winegard, A.

    1973-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted on the design and construction of a flight-worthy replaceable battery module consisting of four 100 A.H. nickel-cadmium rechargeable cells for large manned space vehicles. The module is planned to weigh less than 43 pounds and be fully maintainable in a zero-g environment by one man without use of special tools. An active environmental control system was designed for the temperature control of the module.

  20. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Acceptance test of Eagle-Picher 100 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium cells with auxiliary electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a group of 29 cells for the purpose of removing from the life cycle program all cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability to recover open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts after the cell short test. The test findings include the following: (1) All the cells exceeded the rated capacity of 103.5 to 119.0 ampere-hours on all three capacity checks. (2) All cells recovered above the 1.150 volt requirement after the cell short test. (3) The cells cannot be overcharged at the c/10 rate without exceeding 1.500 volts after approximately 12 to 13 hours of charge. (4) The resistance value necessary to provide maximum signal power across the auxiliary electrode was found to be 10 ohms. (5) One cell revealed a definite leak at the negative terminal.

  1. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Acceptance tests of Eagle-Picher 20.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium cells with auxiliary electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    A group of 29 cells with capacities ranging from 21.7 to 28.8 ampere-hours were tested. A summary of the results indicates: (1) All cells exceeded the rated capacity on all three capacity checks. (2) Five cells failed to recover to 1.150 volts. (3) During the overcharge tests, 15 of the 29 cells had to be removed from charge before completion of the respective tests due to high pressure.

  2. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Acceptance tests of Eagle-Picher 12.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium cells with auxiliary electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    An acceptance test program was conducted on 24 cells to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program were of high quality by the removal of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts after the cell short test. The cells were rated at 12.0 ampere-hours and equipped with auxiliary electrodes. Test results were: (1) The capacity of the 24 cells ranged from 14.6 to 16.8 ah. All the cells exceeded the rated capacity on all three capacity checks. (2) One cell failed to recover to 1.150 volts after the cell short test. (3) During the overcharge tests, all cells but one failed the test at the c/10 rate after the first minute. (4) A special resistance test was conducted on the auxiliary electrodes of these cells to establish the resistance value necessary which would provide maximum signal power across the auxiliary electrode. The resistance value established was 10 ohms. (5) No electrolyte leakage was observed.

  3. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of Eagel-Picher Industries, Incorporated, 20.0 amphere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation test of the 20.0 ampere-hour cells was conducted to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality. This is accomplished by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. The results obtained in the test are given, as well as the recommendations based on these findings.

  4. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. Initial evaluation tests of Eagle-Picher Industries, Incorporated 3.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The capacity of the cells ranged from 3.58 to 3.97 amperehours during the three capacity tests. Three cells were removed from test, due to high pressure, during the C/10, 24-hour charge at room ambient temperature. The voltage requirement of 1.480 volts was exceeded by the cells during the C/10, 24-hour charge at 20 C, although the end-of-charge voltage was below this value (1.466-1.475 volts). Average capacity out during the 20 C charge efficiency test was 0.84 AH which represents 48% and is below the minimum requirement of 55%. The cells exhibited no pressure decay during the open-circuit stand portion of the pressure versus capacity test, as all cells reached their voltage limit (1.550 volts) before their pressure reached 20 psia with the highest pressure being 8 psia during charge.

  5. Nickel cadmium battery operations and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna; Prettyman-Lukoschek, Jill; Calvin, Richard; Berry, Thomas; Bote, Robert; Toft, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft are operated from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland. On-board power subsystems for each satellite employ NASA Standard 50 Ampere-hour (Ah) nickel-cadmium batteries in a parallel configuration. To date, these batteries have exhibited degradation over periods from several months (anomalous behavior, UARS and CGRO (MPS-1); to little if any, EUVE) to several years (old age, normal behavior, ERBS). Since the onset of degraded performance, each mission's Flight Operations Team (FOT), under the direction of their cognizant GSFC Project Personnel and Space Power Application Branch's Engineers has closely monitored the battery performance and implemented several charge control schemes in an effort to extend battery life. Various software and hardware solutions have been developed to minimize battery overcharge. Each of the four sections of this paper covers a brief overview of each mission's operational battery management and its associated spacecraft battery performance. Also included are new operational procedures developed on-orbit that may be of special interest to future mission definition and development.

  6. Alternate charging profiles for the onboard nickel cadmium batteries of the Explorer Platform/Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Prettyman-Lukoschek, Jill S.

    1995-01-01

    The Explorer Platform/Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EP/EUVE) spacecraft power is provided by the Modular Power Subsystems (MPS) which contains three 50 ampere-hour Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries. The batteries were fabricated by McDonnell Douglas Electronics Systems Company, with the cells fabricated by Gates Aerospace Batteries (GAB), Gainesville, Florida. Shortly following launch, the battery performance characteristics showed similar signatures as the anomalous performance observed on both the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). This prompted the development and implementation of alternate charging profiles to optimize the spacecraft battery performance. The Flight Operations Team (FOT), under the direction of Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) EP/EUVE Project and Space Power Applications Branch have monitored and managed battery performance through control of the battery Charge to Discharge (C/D) ratio and implementation of a Solar Array (SA) offset. This paper provides a brief overview of the EP/EUVE mission, the MPS, the FOT's battery management for achieving the alternate charging profile, and the observed spacecraft battery performance.

  7. Nickel cadmium battery operations on-orbit: Trials, tribulations, and success on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Miller, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), designed, built, integrated, tested, and operated by NASA and Martin Marietta is a low-Earth orbiting, Earth-observing spacecraft which was launched via Space Shuttle Discovery on September 12, 1991 and deployed three days later. The Modular Power Subsystem (MPS) onboard the satellite is equipped with three NASA Standard 50 Ampere-hour (Ah) nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries. McDonnell Douglas Electronics Systems Company fabricated the MPS, and batteries from Gates Aerospace Batteries cells. Nominal battery performance was achieved for the first four months of spacecraft operation. First evidence of anomalous battery performance was observed in January 1992, after the first maximum beta angle (low Depth of Discharge) period. Since then, the Flight Operations Team (FOT), under the direction of Goddard Space Flight Center's UARS Project and Space Power Application Branch, has monitored and managed battery performance by adjusting solar array offset angle, conducting periodic deep discharge, and controlling battery recharge ratio. This paper covers a brief overview of the UARS, the FOT's operational battery management, and the observed spacecraft battery performance.

  8. The 100 ampere-hour nickel cadmium battery development program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.

    1974-01-01

    A program to develop a long-life, reliable and safe 100 ampere-hour sealed nickel-cadmium cell and battery module with ancillary charge control and automated test equipment to fulfill the requirements of a large Manned Orbital Space Station which uses Solar Arrays as its prime source for 25 kW of electrical power was conducted. A sealed 100 ampere-hour cell with long life potential and a replaceable, space maintainable battery module has been developed for Manned Space Station applications. The 100 ampere-hour cell has been characterized for initial (early life) anticipated conditions.

  9. Nickel cadmium batteries. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    The design, fabrication, components, testing, and assembly of nickel cadmium batteries are covered in the bibliography. The majority of these citations deal with the development of power supplies for aircraft and spacecraft. This updated bibliography contains 135 abstracts, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  10. Properties of nickel-cadmium separators. [ion exchange membrances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.

    1977-01-01

    The thickness, moisture content, exchange capacity, tensile strength, diffusion characteristics, stability, and electrical properties are discussed for the 2291 radiation-grafted separator used in military vented nickel cadmium aircraft batteries. A regression analysis of separator resistance as a function of temperature and KOH concentration is included.

  11. An evaluation of potentially useful separator materials for nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd] satellite batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, H. A.; Toner, S. D.; Cuthrell, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation intended to determine the potential suitability and probable efficacy of a group of separator materials for use in nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) satellite batteries was carried out. These results were obtained using test procedures established in an earlier evaluation of other separator materials, some of which were used in experimental battery cells subjected to simulated use conditions. The properties that appear to be most important are: high electrolyte absorptivity, good electrolyte retention, low specific resistivity, rapid wettability and low resistance to air permeation. Wicking characteristics and wet-out time seem to be more important with respect to the initial filling of the battery with the electrolyte.

  12. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; O'Donnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high-performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  13. NASA aerospace flight battery systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  14. Prediction Model for the Life of Nickel-cadmium Batteries in Geosynchronous Orbit Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engleman, J. H.; Zirkes-Falco, M. B.; Bogner, R. S.; Pickett, D. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model is described which predicts the service life of nickel-cadmium batteries designed for geosynchronous orbit satellites. Regression analysis technique is used to analyze orbital data on second generation trickle charged batteries. The model gives average cell voltage as a function of design parameters, operating parameters and time. The voltage model has the properties of providing a good fit to the data, good predictive capability, and agreement with known battery performance characteristics. Average cell voltage can be predicted to within 0.02 volts for up to 8 years. This modeling shows that these batteries will operate reliably for 10 years. Third-generation batteries are expected to operate even longer.

  15. Lightweight porous plastic plaque. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M.

    1978-01-01

    The porosity and platability of various materials were investigated to determine a suitable substrate for nickel-plated electrodes. Immersion, ultrasonics, and flow-through plating techniques were tried using nonproprietary formulations, and proprietary phosphide and boride baths. Modifications to the selected material include variations in formulation and treatment, carbon loading to increase conductivity, and the incorporation of a grid. Problems to be solved relate to determining conductivities and porosities as a function of amount of nickel plated on the plastics; loading; charge and discharge curves of electrodes at different current densities; cell performance; and long-term degradation of electrodes.

  16. The NASA Standard 20 Ampere Hour Nickel-Cadmium Battery Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA standard 20 ampere hour spacecraft nickel-cadmium battery in described. Mechanical electrical and thermal data are supplied. Both qualification and acceptance tests are described. Information on handling and storage is given.

  17. Rca's Planned Test Program to Compare the Performance and Life of Nicd Cells Containing Pellon 2536 in Contrast with Pellon 2505 Separator Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    RCA Astro-Electronics will be characterizing and life-testing two groups of hermetically-sealed aerospace nickel-cadmium cells to determine the effect, if any, of a separator change on cell performance. This test, designed to provide information for a specific low-Earth-orbit satellite application, will also add to the overall data-base for cells with the new separator.

  18. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance, and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program was initiated in 1985 to address battery problems experienced by NASA and other space battery users over the previous ten years. The original program plan was approved in May 1986 and modified in 1990 to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. The NASA Battery Workshop is supported by the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program. The main objective of the discussions is to aid in defining the direction which the agency should head with respect to aerospace battery issues. Presently, primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to issues revolving around the future availability of nickel-cadmium batteries as a result of the proposed OSHA standards with respect to allowable cadmium levels in the workplace. The decision of whether or not to pursue the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs hinges on the impact of the OSHA ruling. As part of a unified Battery Program, the evaluation of a nickel-hydrogen cell design options and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  19. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 4.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the AMPTE satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test are addressed. The Active Magnetic Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) cell design was characterized and the effects of specific mission parameters on cell life were demonstrated.

  20. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of Gulton Industries, Incorporated, 9.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes for the small astronomy Satellite (SAS-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation test program was conducted to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open-circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. Tests and results are described.

  1. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the Improved Tiros Operational Satellite (ITOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Quality control measures for Ni-Cd spacecraft cells were analyzed. Cells were examined for electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.50 volts during the internal short test. Test results are given in tabular form.

  2. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company standard and teflonated negative electrode 20.0 ampere-hour, nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The standard plate cells exhibited higher average end-of-charge (EOC) voltages than the cells with teflonated negative plates; they also delivered a higher capacity output in ampere hours following these charges. All the cells reached a pressure of 20 psia before reaching the voltage limit of 1.550 volts during the pressure versus capacity test. The average ampere hours in and voltages at this pressure were 33.6 and 1.505 volts respectively for the teflonated negative plate cells and 35.5 and 1.523 volts for the standard plate cells. All cells exhibited pressure decay in the range of 1 to 7 psia during the last 30 minutes of the 1-hour open circuit stand. Average capacity out for the teflonated and standard negative plate cells was 29.4 and 29.9 ampere hours respectively.

  3. NSWC Crane Aerospace Cell Test History Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harry; Moore, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    The Aerospace Cell Test History Database was developed to provide project engineers and scientists ready access to the data obtained from testing of aerospace cell designs at Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division. The database is intended for use by all aerospace engineers and scientists involved in the design of power systems for satellites. Specifically, the database will provide a tool for project engineers to review the progress of their test at Crane and to have ready access to data for evaluation. Additionally, the database will provide a history of test results that designers can draw upon to answer questions about cell performance under certain test conditions and aid in selection of a cell for a satellite battery. Viewgraphs are included.

  4. NICBES2 - NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERY EXPERT SYSTEM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Y. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2 (NICBES2) is a prototype diagnostic expert system for Nickel Cadmium Battery Health Management. NICBES2 is intended to support evaluation of the performance of Hubble Space Telescope spacecraft batteries, and to alert personnel to possible malfunctions. To achieve this, NICBES2 provides a reasoning system supported by appropriate battery domain knowledge. NICBES2 oversees the status of the batteries by evaluating data gathered in orbit packets, and when the status so merits, raises an alarm and provides fault diagnosis as well as advice on the actions to be taken to remedy the particular alarm. In addition to diagnosis and advice, it provides status history of the batteries' health, and a graphical display capability to help in assimilation of the information by the operator. NICBES2 is composed of three cooperating processes driven by a program written in SunOS C. A serial port process gathers incoming data from an RS-232 connection and places it into a raw data pipe. The data handler processes read this information from the raw data pipe and perform statistical data reduction to generate a set of reduced data files per orbit. The expert system process starts the Quintus Prolog interpreter and the expert system and then uses the reduced data files for the generation of status and advice information. The expert system presents the user with an interface window composed of six subwindows: Battery Status, Advice Selection, Support, Battery Selection, Graphics, and Actions. The Battery status subwindow can provide a display of the current status of a battery. Similarly, advice on battery reconditioning, charging, and workload can be obtained from the Advice Selection subwindow. A display of trends for the last orbit and over a sequence of the last twelve orbits is available in the Graph subwindow. A WHY button is available to give the user an explanation of the rules that the expert system used in determining the current

  5. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes for the atmospheric Explorer satellite C and D. [quality control testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The capacity of the cells ranged from 6.6 to 7.6 ampere hours during the three capacity tests. No voltage requirements or limits were exceeded during any portion of the test. All cells recovered to a voltage in excess of 1.193 volts during the 24-hour open-circuit portion of the internal short test. All the cells reached a pressure of 20 psia before reaching the voltage limit of 1.550 volts during the pressure versus capacity test. The average ampere/hours in and voltages at this pressure were 9.1 and 1.513, respectively. All cells exhibited pressure decay in the range of 1 to 5 psia during the last 30 minutes of the 1-hour open circuit stand. Average capacity out was 7.2 ampere/hours.

  6. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 40.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the tracking data relay satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Five cells provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center were evaluated at room temperature and pressure (25 C plus or minus 2 C) with discharges at the 2 hour rate. Measurements of the cell containers following test, indicated an average increase of .006 inches at the plate thickness. Average end of charge voltages and pressures, and capacity output in ampere hours were determined. Three cells exceeded the voltage requirements of 1.52 volts during both c/10 charges at 20 C. All cells exceeded the voltage requirement of 1.52 volts during the 0 C overcharge test, although their end charges were below 1.50 volts. The pressure requirement of 65 psia was exceeded by both pressure transducer cells during c/10 charges at 25 C and 20 C and also during the 0 C overcharge test. The cells with pressure transducers reached a pressure of 20 psia before reaching the voltage limit of 1.550 volts during the pressure versus capacity test, and exhibited a pressure decay of 2 psia during the last 30 minutes of the 1 hour open circuit stand. Average capacity was 51.3 ampere hours.

  7. The 2001 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeff C. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 34th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center, November 27-29, 2001. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the US Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies.

  8. The 1999 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, J. C. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 32nd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 16-18, 1999. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the US Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies.

  9. Initial evaluation tests of Eagle-Picher Industries 9.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the heat capacity mapping mission satellite and the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of tests to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality are reported. The tests consisted of the following: phenolptalein leak tests, internal short test, charge efficiency test, and overcharge tests. The results of tests for 10 cells are tabulated.

  10. Life cycle testing of a sealed 24-V, 42-Ah nickel-cadmium aircraft battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kulin, T.M.; Scoles, D.L.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive research has been conducted in the design and manufacture of very long life sealed maintenance free nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries. This study presents data on a 100% depth of discharge (DOD) life test performed on a nominal capacity 42-Ah battery. The purpose of this study is to validate design concepts, determine the life characteristics of the newly designed sealed nickel-cadmium batteries, and develop baseline information on failure rates and mechanisms. The data from this experiment can be used to compare depth of discharge versus battery life with similar tests such as the lower DOD experiments performed on spacecraft batteries. This information is important in the ongoing development of long life batteries and in developing failure models for life prediction.

  11. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B.V.; Distefano, S.

    1996-02-01

    The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.

  12. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Distefano, S.

    1996-01-01

    The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.

  13. The 1971 NASA/Goddard-Aerospace Industry Battery Workshop, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The proceedings are reported for the first two sessions of the conference on nickel-cadmium batteries. These two sessions were mainly devoted to discussions of: (1) separators and seals, and (2) cell performance and specification experience.

  14. Recycling of spent nickel-cadmium batteries based on bioleaching process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Nanwen; Zhang Lehua; Li Chunjie; Cai Chunguang

    2003-07-01

    Only 1-2 percent of discarded dry batteries are recovered in China. It is necessary to find an economic and environmentally friendly process to recycle dry batteries in this developing country. Bioleaching is one of the few techniques applicable for the recovery of the toxic metals from hazardous spent batteries. Its principle is the microbial production of sulphuric acid and simultaneous leaching of metals. In this study, a system consisting of a bioreactor, settling tank and leaching reactor was developed to leach metals from nickel-cadmium batteries. Indigenous thiobacilli, proliferated by using nutritive elements in sewage sludge and elemental sulphur as substrates, was employed in the bioreactor to produce sulphuric acid. The overflow from the bioreactor was conducted into the settling tank. The supernatant in the settling tank was conducted into the leaching reactor, which contained the anode and cathodic electrodes obtained from nickel-cadmium batteries. The results showed that this system was valid to leach metals from nickel-cadmium batteries, and that the sludge drained from the bottom of the settling tank could satisfy the requirements of environmental protection agencies regarding agricultural use.

  15. Recycling of spent nickel-cadmium batteries based on bioleaching process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nanwen; Zhang, Lehua; Li, Chunjie; Cai, Chunguang

    2003-01-01

    Only 1-2 percent of discarded dry batteries are recovered in China. It is necessary to find an economic and environmentally friendly process to recycle dry batteries in this developing country. Bioleaching is one of the few techniques applicable for the recovery of the toxic metals from hazardous spent batteries. Its principle is the microbial production of sulphuric acid and simultaneous leaching of metals. In this study, a system consisting of a bioreactor, settling tank and leaching reactor was developed to leach metals from nickel-cadmium batteries. Indigenous thiobacilli, proliferated by using nutritive elements in sewage sludge and elemental sulphur as substrates, was employed in the bioreactor to produce sulphuric acid. The overflow from the bioreactor was conducted into the settling tank. The supernatant in the settling tank was conducted into the leaching reactor, which contained the anode and cathodic electrodes obtained from nickel-cadmium batteries. The results showed that this system was valid to leach metals from nickel-cadmium batteries, and that the sludge drained from the bottom of the settling tank could satisfy the requirements of environmental protection agencies regarding agricultural use.

  16. The 1990 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Lewis M. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4-6, 1990. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers as well as participation in like kind from the European Space Agency member nations. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, lithium based chemistries, and advanced technologies as they relate to high reliability operations in aerospace applications.

  17. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.; Khan, S. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Factors contributing to the final failure of Ni-Cd batteries are listed. A differential thermal analyzer was used to study several positive and negative battery electrodes. The negative plates show a very large peak (endotherm) between 245 C and 250C. The second endotherm occurs at 300C indicating the decomposition of Cd(OH)2. In positive plates, a first weak endotherm occurs at 100C, which indicates loss of H2O from Ni(OH)2(H2O)n molecules. A second large endotherm occurs in the range of 290C to 300C, indicating the decomposition of Ni(OH2) to NiO and H2O. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine nickel, cobalt, cadmium, and potassium content in battery electrolytes and electrodes. Results are presented in tables.

  18. Accelerated cycle life performance for ovonic nickel-metal hydride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otzinger, Burton M.

    1991-01-01

    Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries have emerged as the leading candidate for commercial replacement of nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries. An important incentive is that the Ni-MH cell provides approximately twice the capacity of a Ni-Cd cell for a given size. A six-cell battery was committed to an accelerated cycle life test to determine the effect of separation type on performance. Results of the test may also show the Ni-MH battery to be a replacement candidate for the aerospace Ni-Cd battery.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope six-battery nickel-cadmium mission simulation test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Lorna G.; Bush, John R., Jr.; Lanier, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A simulation test of the six-battery nickel-cadmium mission to determine battery life and electrical power system (EPS) performance characteristics for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) program, is described. The basic HST power system requirements are to provide power generation, energy storage, and EPS control and distribution for 2.5 years with the nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries at an end of life solar array of 2 years. Mission simulation life testing begain in April of 1986, and the batteries have completed their 2.5 year mission requirement. Conditions as close as practical to the actual predicted mission profiles were used. These included solar array degradation, load variations, beta angle changes, temperature changes (with excursions to 10 C), battery reconditioning, safemode simulations, and off-normal roll activities. Discounting system cycling interruptions caused by hardware, software, human error, and periodic updates and revisions, the HST EPS breadboard hardware operated continuously for 30 months and demonstrated the power system's ability to meet the HST requirement.

  20. Development of first generation aerospace NiMH cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Lawrence; Dell, Dan; Wu, Tony; Rampel, Guy

    1993-01-01

    Gates Aerospace Batteries in conjunction with Gates Energy Products (GEP) has been developing NiMH technology for aerospace use since 1990. GEP undertook the development of NiMH technology for commercial cell applications in 1987. This program focused on wound cell technology for replacement of current NiCd technology. As an off shoot of this program small, wound cells were used to evaluate initial design options for aerospace prismatic cell designs. Early in 1991, the first aerospace prismatic cell designs were built in a 6 Ah cell configuration. These cells were used to initially characterize performance in prismatic configurations and begin early life cycle testing. Soon after the 6 Ah cells were on test, several 22 Ah cells were built to test other options. The results of testing of these cells were used to identify potential problem areas for long lived cells and develop solutions to those problems. Following these two cell builds, a set of 7 Ah cells was built to evaluate improvements to the technology. To date results from these tests are very promising. Cycle lives in excess of 2,200 LEO cycles at 50 percent DoD were achieved with cells continuing on test. Results from these cell tests are discussed and data presented to demonstrate feasibility of this technology for aerospace programs.

  1. In Flight Performance of a Six Ampere-hour Nickel-cadmium Battery in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Flight data for 17,000 orbital cycles are reviewed and summarized. The nickel cadmium battery system operated without failure or abnormality. Battery trend analysis used in determining the feasibility of extending mission life is discussed. The life test data for 20% depth of discharge indicates design life requirements would be reached even at a deeper depth of discharge.

  2. The 1992 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 23rd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 15-19, 1992. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including sodium-sulfur and various bipolar designs.

  3. The 1997 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 30th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 18-20, 1997. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, lithium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies, as well as various aspects of nickel electrode design.

  4. The 1993 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 26th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on 16-18 Nov. 1993. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including various bipolar designs.

  5. Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

  6. Characterization of physio-chemical properties of polymeric and electrochemical materials for aerospace flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.; Kunigahalli, V.; Khan, S.; Mcnair, A.

    1984-01-01

    Sealed nickel cadmium cells having undergone a large number of cycles were discharged using the Hg/HgO reference electrode. The negative electrode exhibited the second plateau. SEM of negative plates of such cells show clusters of large crystals of cadmium hydroxide. These large crystals on the negative plates disappear after continuous overcharging in flooded cells. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard wet chemical methods are being used to determine the cell materials viz: nickel, cadmium, cobalt, potassum and carbonate. The anodes and cathodes are analyzed after careful examination and the condition of the separator material is evaluated.

  7. High discharge rate characteristics of nickel-cadmium batteries for pulse load filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gearing, G. M.; Cimino, M. B.; Fritts, D. H.; Leonard, J. F.; Terzuoli, A. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Several tests of specially fabricated nickel-cadmium batteries having circular disk type electrodes were considered. These batteries were evaluated as filter elements between a constant current power supply and a five hertz pulsed load demanding approximately twice the power supply current during the load on portion of the cycle. Short tests lasting 10,000 cycles were conducted at up to a 21 C rate and an equivalent energy density of over 40 Joules per pound. In addition, two batteries were subjected to 10 to the 7 charge/discharge cycles, one at a 6.5 C rate and the other at a 13 C rate. Assuming an electrode to battery weight ratio of 0.5, these tests represent an energy density of about 7 and 14 Joules per pound respectively. Energy density, efficiency, capacitance, average voltage, and available capacity were tracked during these tests. After 10 to the 7 cycles, capacity degradation was negligible for one battery and about 20% for the other. Cadmium electrode failure may be the factor limiting lifetime at extremely low depth of discharge cycling. The output was examined and a simple equivalent circuit was proposed.

  8. Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shue, Jack; Ramirez, Julian B.; Sullivan, David; Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2006-01-01

    Surface Thermal Profiles of Eagle Picher rabbit-ear 50Ah NiH2 and of Saft 40 Ah Li-ion cylindrical cells have been studied using ThermCAM S60 FLIR Systems. Popping Phenomenon in NiH2 cell is demonstrated Temperature gradient in NiH2 is slightly higher than normally considered, for example. Middle of stack to top or bottom is about 12.9 C compared to <7 C (may be due to passive cooling). Less than 1 C thermal gradient on the Li-Ion cell vessel surface. Significantly lower heat generation in Li-Ion cell compared to NiH2 cell. -May be due to a favorable charge method used for Li-Ion cell.

  9. Nickel-cadmium batteries: effect of electrode phase composition on acid leaching process.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F

    2012-01-01

    At the end of their life, Ni-Cd batteries cause a number of environmental problems because of the heavy metals they contain. Because of this, recycling of Ni-Cd batteries has been carried out by dedicated companies using, normally, pyrometallurgical technologies. As an alternative, hydrometallurgical processes have been developed based on leaching operations using several types of leachants. The effect of factors like temperature, acid concentration, reaction time, stirring speed and grinding of material on the leaching yields of metals contained in anodic and cathodic materials (nickel, cadmium and cobalt) using sulphuric acid, is herein explained based on the structural composition of the electrode materials. The nickel, cobalt and cadmium hydroxide phases, even with a small reaction time (less than 15 minutes) and low temperature (50 degrees C) and acid concentration (1.1 M H2SO4), were efficiently leached. However, leaching of the nickel metallic phase was more difficult, requiring higher values of temperature, acid concentration and reaction time (e.g. 85 degrees C, 1.1 M H2SO4 and 5 h, respectively) in order to obtain a good leaching efficiency for anodic and cathodic materials (70% and 93% respectively). The stirring speed was not significant, whereas the grinding of electrode materials seems to promote the compaction of particles, which appears to be critical in the leaching of Ni degrees. These results allowed the identification and understanding of the relationship between the structural composition of electrode materials and the most important factors that affect the H2SO4 leaching of spent Ni-Cd battery electrodes, in order to obtain better metal-recovery efficiency.

  10. Sealed aerospace metal-hydride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine

    1992-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride and silver metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications. There is a growing market for smaller, lower cost satellites which require higher energy density power sources than aerospace nickel-cadmium at a lower cost than space nickel-hydrogen. These include small LEO satellites, tactical military satellites and satellite constellation programs such as Iridium and Brilliant Pebbles. Small satellites typically do not have the spacecraft volume or the budget required for nickel-hydrogen batteries. NiCd's do not have adequate energy density as well as other problems such as overcharge capability and memory effort. Metal hydride batteries provide the ideal solution for these applications. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems.

  11. Review of super Ni/Cd cell designs and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., in cooperation with Hughes Aircraft Company, began production of the Super Nickel-Cadmium cell in 1989. Since that time the Super Nickel-Cadmium cell has been deployed in a wide variety of satellites. This paper will review one of those programs and provide a performance update. We will discuss storage requirements and capacity histories for the various Super NiCad Cell designs.

  12. Characterization of physiochemical properties of polymeric and electrochemical materials for aerospace flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.; Kunigahalli, V.; Khan, S.; Mcnair, A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries are a vital and reliable energy storage source for aerospace applications. As the demand for longer life and more reliable space batteries increases, the understanding and solving of cell aging factors and mechanisms become essential. Over the years, many cell designs and manufacturing process changes have been developed and implemented. Cells fabricated with various design features were life cycled in a simulated low-Earth orbit regime. Following the test program, a comprehensive electrochemical analysis of cell components was undertaken to study cell degradation mechanisms. Discharge voltage degradation or voltage plateau has been observed during orbit cycling, but, its cause and explanation have been the subject of much discussion. A Hg/HgO reference electrode was used to monitor the reference versus each electrode potential during the discharge of a cycled cell. The results indicate that the negative electrode was responsible for the voltage plateau. Cell analysis revealed large crystals of cadmium hydroxide on the surface of the negative electrode and throughout the separator.

  13. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is an agency-wide effort aimed at ensuring the quality, safety, reliability and performance of flight battery systems for NASA applications. The program provides for the validation of primary and secondary cell and battery level technology advances to ensure their availability and readiness for use in NASA missions. It serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization and incorporation of these advances into mission applications. The program is led by the Glenn Research Center and involves funded task activities at each of the NASA mission centers and JPL. The overall products are safe, reliable, high quality batteries for mission applications. The products are defined along three product lines: 1. Battery Systems Technology - Elements of this task area cover the systems aspects of battery operation and generally apply across chemistries. This includes the development of guidelines documents, the establishment and maintenance of a central battery database that serves a central repository for battery characterization and verification test data from tests performed under the support of this program, the NASA Battery Workshop, and general test facility support. 2. Secondary Battery Technology - l h s task area focuses on the validation of battery technology for nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion secondary battery systems. Standardized test regimes are used to validate the quality of a cell lot or cell design for flight applications. In this area, efforts are now concentrated on the validation and verification of lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. 3. Primary Battery Technology - The safety and reliability aspects for primary lithium battery systems that are used in manned operations on the Shuttle and International Space Station are addressed in the primary battery technology task area. An overview of the task areas

  14. Mortality study of nickel-cadmium battery workers by the method of regression models in life tables.

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, T; Waterhouse, J A

    1983-01-01

    The mortality experienced by a cohort of 3025 nickel-cadmium battery workers during the period 1946-81 has been investigated. Occupational histories were described in terms of some 75 jobs: eight with "high", 14 with "moderate" or slight, and 53 with minimal exposure to cadmium oxide (hydroxide). The method of regression models in life tables (RMLT) was used to compare the estimated cadmium exposures (durations of exposed employment) of those dying from causes of interest with those of matching survivors in the same year of follow up, while controlling for sex, for year and age of starting employment, and for duration of employment. No new evidence of any association between occupational exposure to cadmium oxide (hydroxide) and cancer of the prostate was found. PMID:6871118

  15. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkind, A. J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W. A.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve type silver zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO2 and several nickel electrodes for nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities. After the first discharge AgNiO2 can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)2 largely eliminate this.

  16. Evaluation of Li/CF(x)Cells For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Panasonic commercialized LiICF(x) cell technology in the 1970's. This technology was a promising primary battery for Aerospace applications such as: Exploration missions, Launch vehicles, Tools and more. This technology offers Wide operation temperature range, Low self-discharge and High specific energy CF(x) cathode material has a theoretical specific energy of 2260 Wh/Kg. Specific energy however achieved as of now is only 10% of theoretical value unless used at a very low rate of C/1000. Research both at Government Labs and Industries is currently in progress to improve the performance. This viewgraph presentation describes the cells, and reviews the results of some of the research using tables and charts.

  17. Potential non-corrodable terminal seals for nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, D.

    1986-06-01

    Corrosion resistant brazes to seal electrodes into casings of batteries required for satellites were identified. Fabrication of alumina-Dilver Pl seals by noncorrodable brazes may be achieved by activating the ceramic with TiH2 and using gold or nickel alloy brazes, or by using such alloys modified by reactive metal additions without the need for activation. Alternatively, the seals might be made by using reactive metal inserts that form eutectic reactive brazes by alloying with Dilver Pl, or by diffusion bonding. It is recommended that the proposal to replace Dilver Pl components with stainless steel should not be executed. Based on brazing trials, gold 17% nickel alloy with TiH2 activated alumina and the use of titanium foil are recommended for more detailed optimization. Diffusion bonding using corrosion resistant interlayers should also be considered as an alternative fabrication route.

  18. Cycle life test of secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the life cycling program on rechargeable calls are reported. Information on required data, the use of which the data will be put, application details, including orbital description, charge control methods, load rquirements, etc., are given. Cycle tests were performed on 660 sealed, nickel cadmium cells. The cells consisted of seven sample classifications ranging form 3.0 to 20 amp. hours. Nickel cadmium, silver cadmium, and silver zinc sealed cells, excluding synchronous orbit and accelerated test packs were added. The capacities of the nickel cadmium cells, the silver cadmium and the silver zinc cells differed in range of amp hrs. The cells were cylced under different load, charge control, and temperature conditions. All cell packs are recharged by use of a pack voltage limit. All charging is constant current until the voltage limit is reached.

  19. Performance of a 100Ah common vessel monoblock nickel-cadmium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Anderman, M.; Tsenter, B.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the electrical test results of the Common Vessel Monoblock (CVM) 12V 100Ah Ni-Cd battery. The operation logic, temperature characteristics, gas and heat exchange between cells and regulator are discussed.

  20. Deep Discharge Reconditioning and Shorted Storage of Batteries. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritterman, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    The identification and measurement of hydrogen recombination in sealed nickel-cadium cells makes deep reconditioning on a battery basis safe and feasible. Deep reconditioning improves performance and increases life of nickel-cadium batteries in geosynchronous orbit applications. The hydrogen mechanism and supporting data are presented. Parameter cell design experiments are described which led to the definition of nickel-cadium cells capable of high rate overdischarge without detriment to specific energy. Nickel-cadium calls of identical optimum design were successfully cycled for 7 seasons in simulation of geosynchronous orbit at 75 percent depth-of-discharge with extensive midseason and end-of-season overdischarge at rates varying from C/20 to C/4. Destructive physical analysis and cyclin data indicated no deterioration or the development of dangerous pressures as a result of the cycling with overdischarge.

  1. Handbook for handling and storage of nickel-cadmium batteries: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Floyd E.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Yi, Thomas Y.

    1994-01-01

    The handbook provides guidelines for the handling and storage of conventional NiCd flight batteries. The guidelines are based on many years of experience with ground and in-flight handling of batteries. The overall goal is to minimize the deterioration and irreversible effects of improper handling of NiCd flight batteries on flight performance. A secondary goal is to provide the reader with an understanding, in nonanalytical terms, of the degradation mechanisms of NiCd cells and how these mechanisms are affected by improper ground handling of flight hardware. Section 2 provides the reader with a brief introduction to NiCd cells. The effects of the environment on NiCd batteries are discussed in Section 3, and Section 4 contains 12 guidelines for battery handling and storage with supporting rationale for each guideline. The appendix provides a synopsis of NiCd cell design and evolution over 30 years of space flight on Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) satellites, along with a chronological review of key events that influenced the design of NiCd cells being flown today.

  2. Experimental investigation and model development of the Skylab ATM secondary nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, W. W.

    1974-01-01

    The performance of a Ni-Cd battery was evaluated and the cyclic battery controls to be used on the ATM batteries were determined. Cell and battery performance models were developed which to predict the performance of the secondary Ni-Cd batteries on the ATM. Capacity degradation and charge acceptance characteristics were considered. Mathematical models for each of these operating areas were developed based on data from two separate test programs. The capacity degradation model describes the expected usable battery capacity as a function of time, temperature, and depth-of-discharge. The charge acceptance model describes the cell charge acceptance as a function of charge rate, temperature, and state of charge. The models were designed for computer use and to facilitate possible battery modification. They can be used to predict expected performance or to compare real time performance during flight.

  3. Nickel cadmium battery performance simulation - A means toward optimum design in satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, K.; Halpert, G.; Timmerman, P.

    1988-01-01

    It is noted that electrochemically based cell models can advance state-of-the-art battery prediction by allowing variations in the parameters that constitute wear-out and predict end-of-life performance. This modeling method is used as the foundation for the simulation of Ni-Cd battery performance. This simulation tool consists of a comprehensive computer model to be developed which would predict the voltage behavior of a battery under mission conditions.

  4. Investigation of Pseudo Bi-Polar Nickel Cadmium Batteries as Filter Elements for Pulsed Power Loads.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    connected by a 1.125 inch diameter, 9.210 inch thick nickel slug mounted in the plexi - glass wall. The large cross section and relatively short intercell...to minimize the electrolyte leakage through the nickel- plexi - glas joint in the intercell separator. Next, to insure uniformity between cells and...inch thick plexi - glas sheet to the various diameters specified in Figure A-3. The ridge in the center hole locates the proper position of 58 the

  5. Development of a 70 Ah Li-Ion Cell for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGruson, Jim

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the development of Li-ion cells at the Li-Ion Technology Center in Missouri. The Li-ion test area is described, as well as the aerospace design and cell construction equipment. Test results are shown for typical charge and discharge, pulse test, and calculated impedance at various temperatures. Near future activities are discussed, including the incorporation of an alternate electrolyte and the optimization of the anode and cathode.

  6. Aerospace energy systems laboratory: Requirements and design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, operates a mixed fleet of research aircraft employing nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries in a variety of flight-critical applications. Dryden's Battery Systems Laboratory (BSL), a computerized facility for battery maintenance servicing, has developed over two decades into one of the most advanced facilities of its kind in the world. Recently a major BSL upgrade was initiated with the goal of modernization to provide flexibility in meeting the needs of future advanced projects. The new facility will be called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL) and will employ distributed processing linked to a centralized data base. AESL will be both a multistation servicing facility and a research laboratory for the advancement of energy storage system maintenance techniques. This paper describes the baseline requirements for the AESL and the design approach being taken for its mechanization.

  7. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of life cycle tests of secondary spacecraft cells are summarized. Cells consisted of seven sample classifications ranging from 3.0 to 20 ampere-hours, 1326 nlc nickel cadmium, 183 silver cadmium, and 125 silver zinc sealed cells. Variables examined include load, charge control, and temperature conditions.

  8. Construction of temperature compensated constant voltage (VT) curves for super Ni-Cd (tm) cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, David A.; Pickett, David F.; Pearce, James M.; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    1994-01-01

    Tests to establish current-voltage characteristics at selected temperatures for 9 a-h Super Nickel-Cadmium cells were conducted at Hughes Industrial Electronics Company's Electron Dynamics Division (HIEC/EDD) under sponsorship of NASA/GSFC through their prime spacecraft contractors Fairchild Space (SMEX/SAMPEX) and TRW (TOMSEP). Curves were constructed using techniques established by Webster, Ford, et al, at NASA/GSFC in the late 1960's - early 1970's time period for conventional nickel cadmium cells used on OAO and OSO aircraft. The NASA/GSFC techniques were slightly modified by HIEC/EDD to fit the Super Ni-Cd situation.

  9. Development of a high capacity toroidal Ni/Cd cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.; Foos, J. S.; Avery, J. W.; Feiman, V.

    1981-01-01

    A nickel cadmium battery design which can offer better thermal management, higher energy density and much lower cost than the state-of-the-art is emphasized. A toroidal Ni/Cd cell concept is described. It was critically reviewed and used to develop two cell designs for practical implementation. One is a double swaged and the other a swaged welded configuration.

  10. Development of a high capacity toroidal Ni/Cd cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleck, G. L.; Foos, J. S.; Avery, J. W.; Feiman, V.

    1981-07-01

    A nickel cadmium battery design which can offer better thermal management, higher energy density and much lower cost than the state-of-the-art is emphasized. A toroidal Ni/Cd cell concept is described. It was critically reviewed and used to develop two cell designs for practical implementation. One is a double swaged and the other a swaged welded configuration.

  11. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere hour nickle cadmium spacecraft cells for the dynamic explorer satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation tests of 10 nickel cadmium cells are described. Although pressures were greater than what normally was exhibited by General Electric cells in the past, it is recommended that these cells be placed on life test simulating the predicted Dynamic Explorer flight profiles.

  12. Aerospace Community. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, V. V.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, emphasizes the two sides of aerospace--military aerospace and civilian aerospace. Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion on the organization of Air Force bases and missile sites in relation to their missions. Chapter 2 examines the community services provided by Air Force bases. The topics…

  13. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 12.0 ampere hour nickel cadmium spacecraft cells with design variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    All evaluation tests were performed at room ambient pressure and temperature, with discharges at a 2 hour rate. Tests consisted of phenolphthalein leak tests, three capacity tests, an auxiliary electrode test, a charge retention test, an internal short test, a charge efficiency test, overcharge tests, and a pressure versus capacity test. Results of the tests and recommendations for improvements in manufacturing are presented.

  14. The 1991 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings from the workshop are presented. The subjects covered include nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including nickel-metal hydride and sodium-sulfur.

  15. The Advantages of Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell Power Systems for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark; Burke, Kenneth; Jakupca, Ian

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been developing proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems for the past decade, as an upgraded technology to the alkaline fuel cells which presently provide power for the Shuttle Orbiter. All fuel cell power systems consist of one or more fuel cell stacks in combination with appropriate balance-of-plant hardware. Traditional PEM fuel cells are characterized as flow-through, in which recirculating reactant streams remove product water from the fuel cell stack. NASA recently embarked on the development of non-flow-through fuel cell systems, in which reactants are dead-ended into the fuel cell stack and product water is removed by internal wicks. This simplifies the fuel cell power system by eliminating the need for pumps to provide reactant circulation, and mechanical water separators to remove the product water from the recirculating reactant streams. By eliminating these mechanical components, the resulting fuel cell power system has lower mass, volume, and parasitic power requirements, along with higher reliability and longer life. These improved non-flow-through fuel cell power systems therefore offer significant advantages for many aerospace applications.

  16. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Cycle life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The service life and storage stability for several storage batteries were determined. The batteries included silver-zinc batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and silver-cadmium batteries. The cell performance characteristics and limitations are to be used by spacecraft power systems planners and designers. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is presented.

  17. SMS/GOES cell and battery data analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armantrout, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The nickel-cadmium battery design developed for the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) provided background and guidelines for future development, manufacture, and application of spacecraft batteries. SMS/GOES battery design, development, qualification testing, acceptance testing, and life testing/mission performance characteristics were evaluated for correlation with battery cell manufacturing process variables.

  18. Development of a high capacity toroidal Ni/Cd cell. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holleck, G.L.; Foos, J.S.; Avery, J.W.; Feiman, V.

    1981-07-01

    A nickel cadmium battery design which can offer better thermal management, higher energy density and much lower cost than the state-of-the-art is emphasized. A toroidal Ni/Cd cell concept is described. It was critically reviewed and used to develop two cell designs for practical implementation. One is a double swaged and the other a swaged welded configuration.

  19. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  20. Progress of Ongoing NASA Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Testing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKissock, Barbara I.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2008-01-01

    A Lithium-ion Verification and Validation Program with the purpose to assess the capabilities of current aerospace lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cells to perform in a low-earth-orbit (LEO) regime was initiated in 2002. This program involves extensive characterization and LEO life testing at ten different combinations of depth-of-discharge, temperature, and end-of-charge voltage. The test conditions selected for the life tests are defined as part of a statistically designed test matrix developed to determine the effects of operating conditions on performance and life of Li-ion cells. Results will be used to model and predict cell performance and degradation as a function of test operating conditions. Testing is being performed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Crane Division in Crane, Indiana. Testing was initiated in September 2004 with 40 Ah cells from Saft and 30 Ah cells from Lithion. The test program has been expanded with the addition of modules composed of 18650 cells from ABSL Power Solutions in April 2006 and the addition of 50 Ah cells from Mine Safety Appliances Co. (MSA) in June 2006. Preliminary results showing the average voltage and average available discharge capacity for the Saft and Lithion packs at the test conditions versus cycles are presented.

  1. Preliminary results: Root cause investigation of orbital anomalies and failures in NASA standard 50 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toft, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Two lots of NASA standard 50 A.H. Ni-Cd battery cells, manufactured by Gates Aerospace Batteries and built into batteries by McDonnell Douglas, have experienced significant performance problems. The two lots were used on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Both of these satellites are Low Earth Orbital (LEO) satellites containing batteries on a parallel bus charged to NASA standard V/T curves using a NASA standard power regulator. The following preliminary conclusions were reached: (1) several plate and cell parameters have migrated within their spec limits over the years (in some cases, from one extreme to the other); (2) several parametric relationships, not generally monitored and therefore not under specification control, have also migrated over the years; (3) many of these changes appear to have taken place as a natural consequence of changes in GE/GAB materials and processes; (4) several of these factors may be 'conspiring' to aggravate known cell failure mechanisms (factors such as heavier plate, less teflon and/or less-uniform teflon, and less electrolyte) but all are still in spec (where specs exist); (5) the weight of the evidence collected to characterize the anomalies and to characterize the negative electrode itself, strongly suggests that alterations to the structure, composition, uniformity, and efficiency of the negative electrode are at the heart of the battery performance problems currently being experienced; and (6) further investigation at all levels (plate, cell, battery, and system) continues to be warranted.

  2. Development of a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid System Model for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeh, Joshua E.; Pratt, Joseph W.; Brouwer, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Recent interest in fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid applications for the aerospace industry has led to the need for accurate computer simulation models to aid in system design and performance evaluation. To meet this requirement, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and fuel processor models have been developed and incorporated into the Numerical Propulsion Systems Simulation (NPSS) software package. The SOFC and reformer models solve systems of equations governing steady-state performance using common theoretical and semi-empirical terms. An example hybrid configuration is presented that demonstrates the new capability as well as the interaction with pre-existing gas turbine and heat exchanger models. Finally, a comparison of calculated SOFC performance with experimental data is presented to demonstrate model validity. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Reformer, System Model, Aerospace, Hybrid System, NPSS

  3. The In-Orbit Performance of Batteries on the Skynet 4 Spacecraft Fleet: A NIckel-Cadmium Success Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. J.; Miles, P. E.

    1997-01-01

    The SKYNET 4 constellation consists of three spacecraft which were launched between December 1988 and August 1990. The spacecraft are three-axis stabilized geostationary earth-orbiting military communications satellites with a design life of seven years on station. With the mission objective achieved all the batteries continue to give excellent performance. This paper presents a review of the history of the six batteries from cell procurement to the end of their design life and beyond. Differences in operational strategies are discussed and the lifetime trends in performance are analyzed. The combination of procurement acceptance criteria and the on-station battery management strategy utilized are presented as the prime factors in achieving completely successful battery performance throughout the mission.

  4. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  5. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  6. Aerospace Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Jean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Sauk Rapids (Minnesota) High School aviation and aerospace curriculum that was developed by Curtis Olson and the space program developed by Gerald Mayall at Philadelphia's Northeast High School. Both were developed in conjunction with NASA. (JOW)

  7. The 1971 NASA/Goddard-Aerospace Industry Battery Workshop, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The proceedings of the final two sessions the conference on nickel-cadmium batteries are reported. The major subject areas covered in these two sessions include: (1) materials and pre-charge, and (2) thermal problems experienced with nickel-cadmium batteries.

  8. Fuel Cell Support Testing. Delivery Order 0029: Fuel Cells for Aerospace Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    conductivity of a stabilized zirconium oxide depends upon the concentration and mobility of oxygen vacancies, which in turn are closely linked to the...conductivity. The objective of the present study was to further elucidate the composite effect in heterogeneously doped 6 mol% scandium doped zirconium oxide ...was the basic advancement of high temperature solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte technology. 15. SUBJECT TERMS fuel cell, solid oxide , electrolyte

  9. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, D. E.; Harkness, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A life cycle test of secondary electric batteries for spacecraft applications was conducted. A sample number of nickel cadmium batteries were subjected to general performance tests to determine the limit of their actual capabilities. Weaknesses discovered in cell design are reported and aid in research and development efforts toward improving the reliability of spacecraft batteries. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is provided.

  10. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  11. Lithium-Ion Polymer Rechargeable Battery Developed for Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, orman H.

    1999-01-01

    A recently completed 3 -year project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Technology Reinvestment Program has resulted in the development and scaleup of new lithium-ion polymer battery technology for military and aerospace applications. The contractors for this cost-shared project were Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space and Ultralife Batteries, Inc. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided contract management and technical oversight. The final products of the project were a portable 15-volt (V), 10-ampere-hour (A-hr) military radio battery and a 30-V, 50-A-hr marine/aerospace battery. Lewis will test the 50-A-hr battery. The new lithium-ion polymer battery technology offers a threefold or fourfold reduction in mass and volume, relative to today s commonly used nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This is of special importance for orbiting satellites. It has been determined for a particular commercial communications satellite that the replacement of 1 kg of battery mass with 1 kg of transponder mass could increase the annual revenue flow by $100 000! Since this lithium-ion polymer technology offers battery mass reductions on the order of hundreds of kilograms for some satellites, the potential revenue increases are impressive.

  12. Aerospace Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry.

  13. Aerospace Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry. PMID:28216729

  14. LEO test data for 81 Ah FNC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Anderman, M.; Cohen, F.

    1997-12-01

    LEO test data for 81 Ah Fiber Nickel-Cadmium (FNC) battery packs are presented. Trends in pressure, charge acceptance, discharge voltage, capacity, and impedance during 7,800, 60% DOD cycles will be discussed. It will be shown that the FNC is capable of high rate discharge and fast charge to high DOD with stable performance. The relationship between cell design and battery pack performance will also be discussed.

  15. Aerospace Education - An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the surge of interest throughout the country in aerospace education and discusses what aerospace education is, the implications in career education and the relevance of aerospace education in the curriculum. (BR)

  16. Basic Aerospace Education Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Lists the most significant resource items on aerospace education which are presently available. Includes source books, bibliographies, directories, encyclopedias, dictionaries, audiovisuals, curriculum/planning guides, aerospace statistics, aerospace education statistics and newsletters. (BR)

  17. Aerospace gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  18. The Aerospace Age. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is written for use only in the Air Force ROTC program and cannot be purchased on the open market. The book describes the historical development of aerospace industry. The first chapter contains a brief review of the aerospace environment and the nature of technological changes brought by the aerospace revolution. The following chapter…

  19. Special tests and destructive physical analyses as used by the Aerospace Corporation with nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, A. H.; Quinzio, M. V.; Thaller, L. H.

    1992-01-01

    The destructive physical analysis (DPA) of electrochemical devices is an important part of the overall test. Specific tests were developed to investigate the degradation mode or the failure mechanism that surfaces during the course of a cell being assembled, acceptance tested, and life-cycle tested. The tests that have been developed are peculiar to the cell chemistry under investigation. Tests are often developed by an individual or group of researchers as a result of their particular interest in an unresolved failure mechanism or degradation mode. A series of production, operational, and storage issues that were addressed by the Electrochemistry Group at The Aerospace Corporation are addressed. As a result of these investigations, as well as associated research studies carried out to develop a clearer understanding of the nickel oxyhydroxide electrode, a series of unique and useful specialized tests were developed. Some of these special tests were assembled to describe the methods that were found to be particularly useful in resolving a wide spectrum of manufacturing, operational, and storage issues related to nickel-hydrogen cells. The general methodology of these tests is given here with references listed to provide the reader with a more detailed understanding of the tests. The tests are classified according to the sequencing, starting with the impregnation of the nickel plaque material and culminating with the storage of completed cells. The details of the wet chemical procedures that were found to be useful because of their accuracy and reproducibility are given. The equations used to make the appropriate calculations are listed.

  20. The 1982 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Various topics concerned with advanced battery technology are addressed including lithium cell and battery safety developments, mathematical modelling, charge control of aerospace power systems, and the application of nickel hydrogen cells/batteries vis-a-vis nickel cadmium cells/batteries.

  1. Gallium compounds in solar cells. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of gallium compounds in solar cells to increase solar cell efficiency. Computer models, theories, and performance tests are included. Gallium compounds used in thin film cells, cascade solar cells, large area solar cells, cells designed for industrial and space applications, and as antireflection coatings are discussed. Resistance to radiation damage, cooling to improve efficiency, grain boundary behavior, and economic considerations are also covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Fabrication and Investigation of Nickel-Alkaline Cells. Part 1. Fabrication of Nickel-Hydroxide Electrodes Using Electrochemical Impregnation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    electrodes show capacities as high as 9.5 ampere-hours per cubic inch after these cycles. The alcohol process has been scaled to pilot production, FORM 1473...expel residual nitrogen as ammonia. This procedure must be repeated several * Presently only nickel-cadmium cells are used in Air Force missions; Nickel...hydrates of nickel and cadmium nitrates followed by a heat treatment to decompose the imbibed nitrates to hydroxides(2,3). The final process in all Ni-Cd

  3. Gallium compounds in solar cells. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of gallium compounds in solar cells to increase solar cell efficiency. Computer models, theories, and performance tests are included. Gallium compounds used in thin film cells, cascade solar cells, large area solar cells, cells designed for industrial and space applications, and as antireflection coatings are discussed. Resistance to radiation damage, cooling to improve efficiency, grain boundary behavior, and economic considerations are also covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Amorphous solar cells: Characteristics and efficiency. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning development, efficiency, and design of amorphous solar cells. Film properties, deterioration, hydrogenation, cell stability, and performance characteristics are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. NASA Non-Flow-Through PEM Fuel Cell System for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araghi, Koorosh R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is researching passive NFT Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technologies for primary fuel cell power plants in air-independent applications. NFT fuel cell power systems have a higher power density than flow through systems due to both reduced parasitic loads and lower system mass and volume. Reactant storage still dominates system mass/volume considerations. NFT fuel cell stack testing has demonstrated equivalent short term performance to flow through stacks. More testing is required to evaluate long-term performance.

  6. Copper containing solar cells: Production and efficiency. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning solar cells that contain copper and copper alloys. Production techniques used to improve solar cell efficiency are described. The citations also review thin film solar cells and examine the causes and rates of degradation in copper containing solar cells. Theoretical and experimental studies are included. (Contains a minimum of 232 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. The 1996 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The 1996 Workshop was held on three consecutive days and was divided into five sessions. The first day consisted of a General Primary Battery Session and a Nickel-Hydrogen Battery On-Orbit Reconditioning Experience Focused Session. The second day consisted of a Nickel-Hydrogen Session and a Nickel-Cadmium Session. The third and final day was devoted to an Other Secondary Technologies Session which covered sodium-sulfur, nickel-zinc, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium ion technologies.

  8. The cadmium electrode: Review of the status of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.; Glockling, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations characterizing the negative cadmium electrode used in a nickel cadmium battery cell are summarized with citations to references where more detailed information is available. Emphasis is placed on data pertinent to aerospace applications. An evaluation of some of the published results of cadmium electrode research is included.

  9. Off-Design Performance Analysis of a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeh, Joshua E.; Steffen, J., Jr.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A solid-oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system for auxiliary aerospace power is analyzed using 0-D and 1-D system-level models. The system is designed to produce 440 kW of net electrical power, sized for a typical long-range 300-passenger civil airplane, at both sea level and cruise flight level (12,500 m). In addition, a part power level of 250 kW is analyzed at the cruise condition, a requirement of the operating power profile. The challenge of creating a balanced system for the three distinct conditions is presented, along with the compromises necessary for each case. A parametric analysis is described for the cruise part power operating point, in which the system efficiency is maximized by varying the air flow rate. The system is compared to an earlier version that was designed solely for cruise operation. The results show that it is necessary to size the turbomachinery, fuel cell, and heat exchangers at sea level full power rather than cruise full power. The resulting estimated mass of the system is 1912 kg, which is significantly higher than the original cruise design point mass, 1396 kg. The net thermal efficiencies with respect to the fuel LHV are calculated to be 42.4 percent at sea level full power, 72.6 percent at cruise full power, and 72.8 percent at cruise part power. The cruise conditions take advantage of pre-compressed air from the on-board Environmental Control System, which accounts for a portion of the unusually high thermal efficiency at those conditions. These results show that it is necessary to include several operating points in the overall assessment of an aircraft power system due to the variations throughout the operating profile.

  10. The 1987 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, George (Editor); Yi, Thomas Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 20th annual Battery Workshop held at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland on November 4-5, 1987. The workshop attendees included manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest developments in battery technology as they relate to high reliability operations and aerospace use. The subjects covered included lithium cell technology and safety improvements, nickel-cadmium electrode technology along with associated modifications, flight experience and life testing of nickel-cadmium cells, and nickel-hydrogen applications and technology.

  11. Development of aerospace nursing.

    PubMed

    Barron, N J

    1975-04-01

    In the initial development, the primary purpose of the USAF aerospace nursing program was to prepare the nurse to function as an integral member of the aerospace medical team in support of bioastronautics, occupational health and aerospace medical research programs. The absence of an expanded manned space program has required the aerospace nurse to redirect her energies toward the immediate needs of the aerospace medicine program. Many of the aerospace nurse's more specific functions are dependent upon the mission objectives of the command and military base to which she is assigned. Aerospace nursing reflects a concern for the total health needs of the Air Force community and the application of a holistic approach. It includes all aspects of health and all environmental hazards which alter health. The development of aerospace nursing paves the way for this expanded view of nursing practice.

  12. An Aerospace Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill

    1972-01-01

    Describes the 16-day, 10,000 mile national tour of the nation's major aerospace research and development centers by 65 students enrolled in Central Washington State College's Summer Aerospace Workshop. (Author/MB)

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle Technology for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A notional 440 kW auxiliary power unit has been developed for 300 passenger commercial transport aircraft in 2015AD. A hybrid engine using solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and a gas turbine bottoming cycle has been considered. Steady-state performance analysis during cruise operation has been presented. Trades between performance efficiency and system mass were conducted with system specific energy as the discriminator. Fuel cell performance was examined with an area specific resistance. The ratio of fuel cell versus turbine power was explored through variable fuel utilization. Area specific resistance, fuel utilization, and mission length had interacting effects upon system specific energy. During cruise operation, the simple cycle fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid was not able to outperform current turbine-driven generators for system specific energy, despite a significant improvement in system efficiency. This was due in part to the increased mass of the hybrid engine, and the increased water flow required for on-board fuel reformation. Two planar, anode-supported cell design concepts were considered. Designs that seek to minimize the metallic interconnect layer mass were seen to have a large effect upon the system mass estimates.

  14. Aerospace Industry and Research. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, T. E.

    This book, to be used in the Air Force ROTC program only, discusses various aspects of the aerospace industry and its importance to the society. Not only does a modern and strong aerospace technology help in national defense, but it is a major economic industry as well. The vast number of people employed could shake the roots of economic…

  15. Computers and the aerospace engineer

    SciTech Connect

    Trego, L.E.

    1990-03-01

    The use of computers in aerospace for design and analysis is described, and examples of project enhancements are presented. NASA is working toward the design of a numerical test cell that will allow integrated, multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization of propulsion systems. It is noted that with continuing advances in computer technology, including areas such as three-dimensional computer-aided design, finite element analysis, supercomputers, and artificial intelligence, the possibilities seem limitless for the aerospace engineer. Research projects are currently underway for design and/or reconfiguration of the V-22, B-767, SCRAMJET engines, F-16, and X29A using these techniques.

  16. Exposure to Nickel, Chromium, or Cadmium Causes Distinct Changes in the Gene Expression Patterns of a Rat Liver Derived Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Permenter, Matthew G.; Lewis, John A.; Jackson, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Many heavy metals, including nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) are toxic industrial chemicals with an exposure risk in both occupational and environmental settings that may cause harmful outcomes. While these substances are known to produce adverse health effects leading to disease or health problems, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate the processes involved in the toxicity of nickel, cadmium, and chromium at the molecular level and to perform a comparative analysis, H4-II-E-C3 rat liver-derived cell lines were treated with soluble salts of each metal using concentrations derived from viability assays, and gene expression patterns were determined with DNA microarrays. We identified both common and unique biological responses to exposure to the three metals. Nickel, cadmium, chromium all induced oxidative stress with both similar and unique genes and pathways responding to this stress. Although all three metals are known to be genotoxic, evidence for DNA damage in our study only exists in response to chromium. Nickel induced a hypoxic response as well as inducing genes involved in chromatin structure, perhaps by replacing iron in key proteins. Cadmium distinctly perturbed genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and invoked the unfolded protein response leading to apoptosis. With these studies, we have completed the first gene expression comparative analysis of nickel, cadmium, and chromium in H4-II-E-C3 cells. PMID:22110744

  17. Fault tree analysis: NiH2 aerospace cells for LEO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Glenn C.; Rash, Donald E., Jr.

    1992-02-01

    The Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is one of several reliability analyses or assessments applied to battery cells to be utilized in typical Electric Power Subsystems for spacecraft in low Earth orbit missions. FTA is generally the process of reviewing and analytically examining a system or equipment in such a way as to emphasize the lower level fault occurrences which directly or indirectly contribute to the major fault or top level event. This qualitative FTA addresses the potential of occurrence for five specific top level events: hydrogen leakage through either discrete leakage paths or through pressure vessel rupture; and four distinct modes of performance degradation - high charge voltage, suppressed discharge voltage, loss of capacity, and high pressure.

  18. Fault tree analysis: NiH2 aerospace cells for LEO mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Glenn C.; Rash, Donald E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is one of several reliability analyses or assessments applied to battery cells to be utilized in typical Electric Power Subsystems for spacecraft in low Earth orbit missions. FTA is generally the process of reviewing and analytically examining a system or equipment in such a way as to emphasize the lower level fault occurrences which directly or indirectly contribute to the major fault or top level event. This qualitative FTA addresses the potential of occurrence for five specific top level events: hydrogen leakage through either discrete leakage paths or through pressure vessel rupture; and four distinct modes of performance degradation - high charge voltage, suppressed discharge voltage, loss of capacity, and high pressure.

  19. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  20. Supercomputing in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Yee, Helen

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: numerical aerodynamic simulation; computational mechanics; supercomputers; aerospace propulsion systems; computational modeling in ballistics; turbulence modeling; computational chemistry; computational fluid dynamics; and computational astrophysics.

  1. Mortality among rubber workers: VII. Aerospace workers.

    PubMed

    Delzell, E; Monson, R R

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated cause-specific mortality among 3,161 men who were employed in the aerospace division of a rubber manufacturing company. Compared to other production workers at the plant, aerospace workers in deicer and fuel cell manufacturing jobs experienced a 60% excess of deaths from lung cancer. Deicer and fuel cell workers who were under 65 years of age had lung cancer rates that were approximately twice those of other rubber workers of comparable age. Aerospace division employees also had elevated rates of bladder cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. However, detailed analyses suggested that, with the exception of lung cancer, these cancer excesses were not likely to be attributable to employment in the aerospace division.

  2. Positive electrodes of nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, D. W.; Kandler, L.; Krienke, W.

    1985-01-01

    Ni hydroxide sintered electrodes which are filled electrochemically are superior to chemically treated electrodes. In the electrochemical process, the hydroxide grows on the Ni grains and possesses a well-defined porous structure. Diffusion and conducting mechanisms are therefore facilitated.

  3. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  4. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Seventeenth annual report of cycle life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Acceptance tests were conducted on nickel cadmium, silver cadmium, and silver zinc cells to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program meet the specifications outlined in the respective purchase contracts. Statistical information is presented on cell performance characteristics and limitations. Weaknesses discovered in cell design are reported and aid in research and development efforts toward improving the reliability of space batteries. Battery weaknesses encountered in satellite programs such as IMP, NIMBUS, OGO, OAO, SAS, and TETR were studied and remedied through special tests.

  5. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  6. Aerospace bibliography, seventh edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blashfield, J. F. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Space travel, planetary probes, applications satellites, manned spaceflight, the impacts of space exploration, future space activities, astronomy, exobiology, aeronautics, energy, space and the humanities, and aerospace education are covered.

  7. Nickel metal hydride LEO cycle testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, Eric

    1995-01-01

    The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is working to characterize aerospace AB5 Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) cells. The cells are being evaluated in terms of storage, low earth orbit (LEO) cycling, and response to parametric testing (high rate charge and discharge, charge retention, pulse current ability, etc.). Cells manufactured by Eagle Picher are the subjects of the evaluation. There is speculation that NiMH cells may become direct replacements for current Nickel Cadmium cells in the near future.

  8. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  9. Aerospace engineering educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, William; Klett, David; Lai, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The principle goal of the educational component of NASA CORE is the creation of aerospace engineering options in the mechanical engineering program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To accomplish this goal, a concerted effort during the past year has resulted in detailed plans for the initiation of aerospace options in both the BSME and MSME programs in the fall of 1993. All proposed new courses and the BSME aerospace option curriculum must undergo a lengthy approval process involving two cirriculum oversight committees (School of Engineering and University level) and three levels of general faculty approval. Assuming approval is obtained from all levels, the options will officially take effect in Fall '93. In anticipation of this, certain courses in the proposed curriculum are being offered during the current academic year under special topics headings so that current junior level students may graduate in May '94 under the BSME aerospace option. The proposed undergraduate aerospace option curriculum (along with the regular mechanical engineering curriculum for reference) is attached at the end of this report, and course outlines for the new courses are included in the appendix.

  10. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  11. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297.

  12. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  13. The 1998 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 31st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on October 27-29, 1998. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, silver-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-based technologies, as well as results from destructive physical analyses on various cell chemistries.

  14. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  15. Batteries and fuel cells: Design, employment, chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euler, K.-J.

    The history of electrochemical current sources is considered along with primary cells, standard cells, high-energy primary cells, high-energy storage batteries, and fuel cells. Aspects of battery research and development are also discussed, taking into account general considerations related to technological development projects, the introduction of mathematical methods into battery research, resistance measurements, autoradiography and other radiochemical methods, color photography as an aid in research, electron microscopy, X-ray and electron diffraction, spin resonance methods, and electrical measurements involving powders. Attention is given to zinc/manganese dioxide cells, zinc/mercury cells, zinc/silver oxide primary cells, cells utilizing atmospheric oxygen, lead-acid batteries, nickel-iron and nickel-cadmium storage batteries, zinc/silver storage batteries, dry cells with organic depolarizers, dry cells with solid electrolyte, and storage batteries utilizing hydrogen.

  16. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  17. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The following areas of NASA's responsibilities are examined: (1) the Space Transportation System (STS) operations and evolving program elements; (2) establishment of the Space Station program organization and issuance of requests for proposals to the aerospace industry; and (3) NASA's aircraft operations, including research and development flight programs for two advanced X-type aircraft.

  18. Aerospace at Saint Francis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Discusses an aviation/aerospace program as a science elective for 11th and 12th year students. This program is multi-faceted and addresses the needs of a wide variety of students. Its main objective is to present aviation and space sciences which will provide a good base for higher education in these areas. (SK)

  19. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  20. Aerospace Bibliography, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This third edition bibliography lists books and teaching aids related to aeronautics and space. Aeronautics titles are limited to aerospace-related research subjects, and books on astronomy to those directly related to space exploration. Also listed are pertinent references like pamphlets, films, film strips, booklets, charts, pictures,…

  1. Aerospace technology comes home.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C

    1997-07-01

    Science is expanding the options for homebound patients. Many of the new technologies coming into the home care industry are the result of aerospace innovations. What are these new technologies, and what can the home care industry expect to see in the future.

  2. Aerospace Bibliography. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blashfield, Jean F., Comp.

    Provided for teachers and the general adult reader is an annotated and graded list of books and reference materials dealing with aerospace subjects. Only non-fiction books and pamphlets that need to be purchased from commercial or government sources are included. Free industrial materials and educational aids are not included because they tend to…

  3. Small capacity, low cost (Ni-H2) design concept for commercial, military, and higher-volume aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.; Cook, William D.; Smith, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen (Ni/H2) batteries have become the technology of choice for both commercial and defense related satellites in geosynchronous orbits. Their use for low earth orbit (LEO) applications is not as advanced, but seems just as inevitable because of their inherent advantages over nickel cadmium batteries. These include superior energy density, longer cycle life, and better tolerance to over-charge and reversal. Ni/H2 cells have the added advantage in both construction and operation of not presenting the environmental possibility of cadmium pollution. Unfortunately, but necessarily, the design of these cells has been driven to high cost by the sophistication of the satellites and their uses. Now, using most of the same concepts but less costly materials and techniques, a low cost, small cell design was developed. Combined with the concept of the common pressure vessel, this new design promises to be ideal for the small-sat and commercial markets which, increasingly, are calling for large numbers of less expensive satellites.

  4. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  5. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  6. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Doris J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Transfer Team is to assist NASA in achieving widespread utilization of aerospace technology in terrestrial applications. Widespread utilization implies that the application of NASA technology is to benefit a significant sector of the economy and population of the Nation. This objective is best attained by stimulating the introduction of new or improved commercially available devices incorporating aerospace technology. A methodology is presented for the team's activities as an active transfer agent linking NASA Field Centers, industry associations, user groups, and the medical community. This methodology is designed to: (1) identify priority technology requirements in industry and medicine, (2) identify applicable NASA technology that represents an opportunity for a successful solution and commercial product, (3) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process, and (4) successfully develop a new product based on NASA technology.

  7. An Aerospace Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-25

    aircraft order share of Boeing or Air - bus in recent years.24 America’s leadership in the high-technology sector is also faltering and, if not corrected...Executive Order 9781, establishing the Air Coordinating Commit- tee, with the mission to “examine aviation problems and development affecting more...robotics, drones, information technologies, energy research, and aerospace design. Establish a New Air and Space Structure Like its predecessor

  8. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  9. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  10. AI aerospace components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Murphy, Terri B.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.; Montgomery, Ronnie E.; Pohle, George E.; Heard, Astrid E.; Atkinson, David J.; Wedlake, William E.; Anderson, John M.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.

  11. Aerospace Engineering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. Activities such as the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) project at NASA Ames Research Center study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities will be reported.

  12. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System Design for High Altitude Long Endurance Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himansu, Ananda; Freeh, Joshua E.; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Wang, Xiao-Yen J.

    2006-01-01

    A system level analysis, inclusive of mass, is carried out for a cryogenic hydrogen fueled hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and bottoming gas turbine (SOFC/GT) power system. The system is designed to provide primary or secondary electrical power for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over a high altitude, long endurance mission. The net power level and altitude are parametrically varied to examine their effect on total system mass. Some of the more important technology parameters, including turbomachinery efficiencies and the SOFC area specific resistance, are also studied for their effect on total system mass. Finally, two different solid oxide cell designs are compared to show the importance of the individual solid oxide cell design on the overall system. We show that for long mission durations of 10 days or more, the fuel mass savings resulting from the high efficiency of a SOFC/GT system more than offset the larger powerplant mass resulting from the low specific power of the SOFC/GT system. These missions therefore favor high efficiency, low power density systems, characteristics typical of fuel cell systems in general.

  13. Limitless Horizons. Careers in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A manual is presented for use by counselors in career guidance programs. Pertinent information is provided on choices open in aerospace sciences, engineering, and technology. Accredited institutions awarding degrees in pertinent areas are listed as well as additional sources of aerospace career information. NASA's role and fields of interest are emphasized.

  14. Aerospace Activities and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Piper, Martha

    1975-01-01

    Describes how science activities can be used to stimulate language development in the elementary grades. Two aerospace activities are described involving liquid nitrogen and the launching of a weather balloon which integrate aerospace interests into the development of language skills. (BR)

  15. Limitless Horizons: Careers in Aerospace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary H.

    This is a manual for acquainting students with pertinent information relating to career choices in aerospace science, engineering, and technology. The first chapter presents information about the aerospace industry by describing disciplines typical of this industry. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) classification system…

  16. Design and fabrication of silver-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    The design and fabrication of silver-hydrogen secondary cells capable of delivering higher energy densities than comparable nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells and relatively high cycle life is presented. An experimental task utilizing single electrode pairs for the optimization of the individual electrode components, the preparation of a design for lightweight 20Ahr cells, and the fabrication of four 20Ahr cells in heavy wall test housing containing electrode stacks of the lightweight design are described. The design approach is based on the use of a single cylindrical self-contained cell with a stacked disc sequence of electrodes. The electrode stack design is based on the use of NASA- Astropower Separator Material, PPF fuel cell anodes, an intercell electrolyte reservoir concept and sintered silver electrodes. Results of performance tests are given.

  17. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  18. Aerospace in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    National research and technology trends are introduced in the environment of accelerating change. NASA and the federal budget are discussed. The U.S. energy dependence on foreign oil, the increasing oil costs, and the U.S. petroleum use by class are presented. The $10 billion aerospace industry positive contribution to the U.S. balance of trade of 1979 is given as an indicator of the positive contribution of NASA in research to industry. The research work of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, industry, universities, and business to maintain U.S. world leadership in advanced technology.

  19. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  20. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  1. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  2. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  3. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a 5-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASAs safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are "one deep." The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting "brain drain" could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning.

  4. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  5. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  6. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  9. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  10. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  11. National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Artists concept of the X-30 aerospace plane flying through Earth's atmosphere on its way to low-Earth orbit. the experimental concept is part of the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The X-30 is planned to demonstrate the technology for airbreathing space launch and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 117), by James Schultz.

  12. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  13. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  14. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  15. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  16. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  17. Summary of NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; Odonnell, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    A summary of NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Activities is presented. The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program represents a unified NASA wide effort with the overall objective of providing NASA with the policy and posture which will increase the safety, performance, and reliability of space power systems. The specific objectives of the program are to: enhance cell/battery safety and reliability; maintain current battery technology; increase fundamental understanding of primary and secondary cells; provide a means to bring forth advanced technology for flight use; assist flight programs in minimizing battery technology related flight risks; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  18. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  19. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report is based on the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in calendar year 2000. During this year, the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) moved into high gear. The launch of the Russian Service Module was followed by three Space Shuttle construction and logistics flights and the deployment of the Expedition One crew. Continuous habitation of the ISS has begun. To date, both the ISS and Space Shuttle programs have met or exceeded most of their flight objectives. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, it is clear that safety was always placed ahead of cost and schedule. This safety consciousness permitted the Panel to devote more of its efforts to examining the long-term picture. With ISS construction accelerating, demands on the Space Shuttle will increase. While Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft will make some flights, the Space Shuttle remains the primary vehicle to sustain the ISS and all other U.S. activities that require humans in space. Development of a next generation, human-rated vehicle has slowed due to a variety of technological problems and the absence of an approach that can accomplish the task significantly better than the Space Shuttle. Moreover, even if a viable design were currently available, the realities of funding and development cycles suggest that it would take many years to bring it to fruition. Thus, it is inescapable that for the foreseeable future the Space Shuttle will be the only human-rated vehicle available to the U.S. space program for support of the ISS and other missions requiring humans. Use of the Space Shuttle will extend well beyond current planning, and is likely to continue for the life of the ISS.

  20. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  1. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  2. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  3. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) activities during 2002. The format of the report has been modified to capture a long-term perspective. Section II is new and highlights the Panel's view of NASA's safety progress during the year. Section III contains the pivotal safety issues facing NASA in the coming year. Section IV includes the program area findings and recommendations. The Panel has been asked by the Administrator to perform several special studies this year, and the resulting white papers appear in Appendix C. The year has been filled with significant achievements for NASA in both successful Space Shuttle operations and International Space Station (ISS) construction. Throughout the year, safety has been first and foremost in spite of many changes throughout the Agency. The relocation of the Orbiter Major Modifications (OMMs) from California to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) appears very successful. The transition of responsibilities for program management of the Space Shuttle and ISS programs from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to NASA Headquarters went smoothly. The decision to extend the life of the Space Shuttle as the primary NASA vehicle for access to space is viewed by the Panel as a prudent one. With the appropriate investments in safety improvements, in maintenance, in preserving appropriate inventories of spare parts, and in infrastructure, the Space Shuttle can provide safe and reliable support for the ISS for the foreseeable future. Indications of an aging Space Shuttle fleet occurred on more than one occasion this year. Several flaws went undetected in the early prelaunch tests and inspections. In all but one case, the problems were found prior to launch. These incidents were all handled properly and with safety as the guiding principle. Indeed, launches were postponed until the problems were fully understood and mitigating action could be taken. These incidents do, however, indicate the need to analyze the

  4. Civil Air Patrol and Aerospace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, John V.

    1972-01-01

    Aerospace education is a branch of general education concerned with communicating knowledge, imparting skills, and developing attitudes necessary to interpret aerospace activities and the total impact of air and space vehicles upon society. (Author)

  5. Aerospace Education and the Elementary Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This articles attempts to stimulate otherwise reluctant school teachers to involve aerospace education in their content repertoire. Suggestions are made to aid the teacher in getting started with aerospace education. (MDR)

  6. Accommodation of Nontraditional Aerospace Degree Aspirants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukert, Michael A.

    1977-01-01

    Presents results of a national survey of institutions offering college level aerospace studies. Primary survey concern is the availability of nontraditional aerospace education programs; however, information pertaining to institution characteristics, program characteristics, and staffing are also included. (SL)

  7. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Current research in optical processing is reviewed. Its role in future aerospace systems is determined. The development of optical devices and components demonstrates that system concepts can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  8. Aerospace Education for the Melting Pot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joels, Kerry M.

    1979-01-01

    Aerospace education is eminently suited to provide a framework for multicultural education. Effective programs accommodating minorities' frames of reference to the rapidly developing disciplines of aerospace studies have been developed. (RE)

  9. Aerospace Education: Is the Sky the Limit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little Soldier, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Provides suggestions on ways to include aerospace education in an integrated elementary school curriculum that focuses on content from the social and physical sciences and emphasizes process skills. Activities that build understanding of aerospace concepts are described. (BB)

  10. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC'S, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application, verification, compliant coatings including corrosion protection system and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  11. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    PubMed

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.

  12. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Clark-Ingram, M.; Hessler, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  13. Long life and low weight Ni/Cd cells for spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H.S.; Knechtli, R.C.; Margerum, J.D.; Pickett, D.F.; Rogers, M.M.; Verzwyvelt, S.A.

    1984-08-01

    Nickel-cadmium cells of various designs, containing polymer reinforced inorganic separators and either chemically deposited or electrochemically deposited nickel and cadmium electrodes, have been studied for their cycle life performance. The performance goal of these Ni/Cd cells is more than 10 years of cycle life at 80% depth of discharge operation in a geosynchronous orbit. Three alternate cycle regimes, including one with a high rate (0.4C) charging (HGEO regime), were used to test the cells. In all cycle regimes, the performance goal appears to be feasible with selected cell designs. The cycle life, in general, was longer in the HGEO cycling regime. However, in practice this HGEO cycling requires a sequential charging system which results in a tradeoff to a standard low rate charge for GEO cycling because of the extra charge control equipment needed for an HGEO regime.

  14. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  15. Training of aerospace medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1985-03-01

    In the U. S. there are 23 recognized medical specialty boards. One of these is preventive medicine. Within preventive medicine there are three areas: Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Medicine, and Public Health/General Preventive Medicine. The preventive medicine specialties have a common core of required training including biostatistics, epidemiology, health services administration and environmental health. These, plus associated topics are covered during year one of training. Year two of training involves clinical rotations specifically tailored to the eye, ear, heart, lungs and brain, plus flight training to the private pilot level, and a Masters Degree research project for the required thesis. During year three the physicians in aerospace medicine practice full-time aerospace medicine in a NASA or other government laboratory or a private facility. To date, more than 40 physicians have received aerospace medicine training through the Wright State University School of Medicine program. Among these are physicians from Japan, Australia, Taiwan, Canada and Mexico. In addition to the civilian program at Wright State University, there are programs conducted by the U. S. Air Force and Navy. The Wright State program has been privileged to have officers from the U. S. Army, Navy and Air Force. A substantial supporter of the Wright State program is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and a strong space component is contained in the program.

  16. Aerospace Education: A Pilot Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlovich, Jack; Fagle, David

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of K-12 aerospace education materials. The ninth-grade component, adopted as a pilot program, consists of four parts: history, applications (principles of flight, weather, navigation), spin-offs of research, and careers/organizations. Program evaluation results are reported. (JN)

  17. 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Litty, Edward C. (Compiler); Sevilla, Donald R. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held at the Pasadena Conference and Exhibition Center, Pasadena, California, on May 19-21, 1999. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  18. Technology utilization. [aerospace technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    NASA developed technologies were used to tackle problems associated with safety, transportation, industry, manufacturing, construction and state and local governments. Aerospace programs were responsible for more innovations for the benefit of mankind than those brought about by either major wars, or peacetime programs. Briefly outlined are some innovations for manned space flight, satellite surveillance applications, and pollution monitoring techniques.

  19. Aerospace for the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This packet includes games and activities concerning aerospace education for the very young. It is designed to develop and strengthen basic concepts and skills in a non-threatening atmosphere of fun. Activities include: (1) "The Sun, Our Nearest Star"; (2) "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, How I Wonder Where You Are"; (3) "Shadows"; (4) "The Earth…

  20. Careers in the Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.

    The document briefly presents career information in the field of aerospace industry. Employment exists in three areas: (1) professional and technical occupations in research and development (engineers, scientists, and technicians); (2) administrative, clerical, and related occupations (engineers, scientists, technicians, clerks, secretaries,…

  1. Job Prospects for Aerospace Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the recent trends in job opportunities for aerospace engineers. Mentions some of the political, technological, and economic factors affecting the overall employment picture. Includes a description of the job prospects created by the general upswing of the large commercial aircraft market. (TW)

  2. Ceramic composites: Enabling aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have the potential for significant impact on the performance of aerospace propulsion and power systems. In this paper, the potential benefits are discussed in broad qualitative terms and are illustrated by some specific application case studies. The key issues in need of resolution for the potential of ceramics to be realized are discussed.

  3. 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of the 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Ames Research Center hosted the conference, which was held at the Four Points Sheraton, Sunnyvale, California, on May 9-11, 2001. The symposium was sponsored by the Mechanisms Education Association. Technology areas covered included bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; and other mechanisms for spacecraft and large space structures.

  4. Aerospace Education: How Children Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Glenda F.

    Ways children learn are described and related to aerospace education. Discussion focuses on (1) providing activities on the child's level of understanding; (2) considering the whole child; (3) stimulating curiosity; (4) encouraging thinking; (5) presenting varied experiences; and (6) integrating curriculum areas in each learning activity. Ideas…

  5. Graphical simulation for aerospace manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Bien, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Simulation software has become a key technological enabler for integrating flexible manufacturing systems and streamlining the overall aerospace manufacturing process. In particular, robot simulation and offline programming software is being credited for reducing down time and labor cost, while boosting quality and significantly increasing productivity.

  6. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  7. Aerospace/Aviation Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.

    The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study aviation and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of aviation science and occupational…

  8. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  9. 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    The proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held in Pasadena Hilton, Pasadena, California on May 16-18, 2012. Lockheed Martin Space Systems cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include gimbals and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and Mars Science Laboratory mechanisms.

  10. Automatix Incorporated in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, C.

    1983-03-01

    Robotic assembly and artificial vision applications are currently employed or have potential in aerospace manufacturing. Automatix vision guided robotics have been used for electronic component assembly, welding of aluminum alloys with both gas metal arc welding (MIG). Other applications include gas tungsten arc welding (TIG), and visual gauging. The unique control concept has provided a single robotic controller with virtual robotic arm interchangeability.

  11. Nanotechnology in Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    UV laser, field emission device, chemical sensorZinc Oxide Transparent conductive film in display electrodes, solar cells , organic light emitting...physical, chemical, bio…) • Nanoelectromechanical systems • Batteries, fuel cells , power systems • Thermal barrier and wear-resistant coatings • Avionics...SWCNT dispersions--Nice dispersion of CNT in DMF 2. Device fabrication--(see the interdigitated electrodes below) 3. SWCNT deposition—Casting, or in

  12. Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides lightning protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of lightning. Generic descriptions of the lightning environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for lightning protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.

  13. Nickel-Cadmium Battery Operation Management Optimization Using Robust Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosiu, Julian O.; Deligiannis, Frank; DiStefano, Salvador

    1996-01-01

    In recent years following several spacecraft battery anomalies, it was determined that managing the operational factors of NASA flight NiCd rechargeable battery was very important in order to maintain space flight battery nominal performance. The optimization of existing flight battery operational performance was viewed as something new for a Taguchi Methods application.

  14. Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

  15. Lattice Structures For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Olmo, E.; Grande, E.; Samartin, C. R.; Bezdenejnykh, M.; Torres, J.; Blanco, N.; Frovel, M.; Canas, J.

    2012-07-01

    The way of mass reduction improving performances in the aerospace structures is a constant and relevant challenge in the space business. The designs, materials and manufacturing processes are permanently in evolution to explore and get mass optimization solutions at low cost. In the framework of ICARO project, EADS CASA ESPACIO (ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator which shows that lattice type of grid structures is a promising weight saving solution for replacing some traditional metallic and composite structures for space applications. A virtual testing methodology was used in order to support the design of a high modulus CFRP cylindrical lattice technology demonstrator. The manufacturing process, based on composite Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) technology developed by ECE, allows obtaining high quality low weight lattice structures potentially applicable to a wide range of aerospace structures. Launcher payload adaptors, satellite platforms, antenna towers or instrument supports are some promising candidates.

  16. Improved Verification for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace systems are subject to many stringent performance requirements to be verified with low risk. This report investigates verification planning using conditional approaches vice the standard classical statistical methods, and usage of historical surrogate data for requirement validation and in verification planning. The example used in this report to illustrate the results of these investigations is a proposed mission assurance requirement with the concomitant maximum acceptable verification risk for the NASA Constellation Program Orion Launch Abort System (LAS). This report demonstrates the following improvements: 1) verification planning using conditional approaches vice classical statistical methods results in plans that are more achievable and feasible; 2) historical surrogate data can be used to bound validation of performance requirements; and, 3) incorporation of historical surrogate data in verification planning using conditional approaches produces even less costly and more reasonable verification plans. The procedures presented in this report may produce similar improvements and cost savings in verification for any stringent performance requirement for an aerospace system.

  17. Third Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Cross, D. R. (Editor); Caruso, S. V. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, other ozone depleting chemicals, and specific hazardous materials is well underway. The phaseout of these chemicals has mandated changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. We are beyond discovery and initiation of these new developments and are now in the implementation phase. This conference provided a forum for materials and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess the evolving replacement and clean propulsion technologies from the standpoint of their significance, application, impact on aerospace systems, and utilization by the research and development community. The use of these new technologies, their selection and qualification, their implementation, and the needs and plans for further developments are presented.

  18. 34th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for organizing the AMS. Now in its 34th year, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 34th AMS, hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, was held May 10, 11 and 12, 2000. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the vendor fair gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  19. 38th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 38th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 38th AMs, hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center in Williamsburg, Virginia, was held May 17-19, 2006. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals, tribology, actuators, aircraft mechanisms, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  20. 39th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 39th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the United States and abroad. The 39th AMS was held in Huntsville, Alabama, May 7-9, 2008. During these 3 days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals and positioning mechanisms, tribology, actuators, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and sensors. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  1. 37th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is reporting problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 37th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 37th AMS, hosted by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Galveston, Texas, was held May 19, 20 and 21, 2004. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, tribology, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station and Mars Rover mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  2. Experimental evaluation of battery cells for space-based radar application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskell, Craig A.; Metcalfe, John R.

    1994-01-01

    A test program was conducted to characterize five space-quality nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery cells. A subset of those tests was also done on five commercial nickel-cadmium (NiCd) cells, for correlation to the characteristics of an Energy Storage Unit Simulator. The test program implemented the recommendations of a 1991 study, as reported to IECEC-92. The findings of the tests are summarized, and expected impacts on the performance of the electrical power system (EPS) of a large space-based radar (SBR) surveillance satellite are derived. The main characteristics examined and compared were terminal voltage (average and transient) and capacity through discharge, equivalent series resistance, derived inductance and capacitance, charge return efficiency, and inter-pulse charge effectiveness.

  3. Magnetic Gearboxes for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A.; Sanchez-Garcia-Casarrubios, Juan; Cristache, Christian; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic gearboxes are contactless mechanisms for torque-speed conversion. They present no wear, no friction and no fatigue. They need no lubricant and can be customized for other mechanical properties as stiffness or damping. Additionally, they can protect structures and mechanisms against overloads, limitting the transmitted torque. In this work, spur, planetary and "magdrive" or "harmonic drive" configurations are compared considering their use in aerospace applications. The most recent test data are summarized to provide some useful help for the design engineer.

  4. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, O.H. Jr.; Rogers, J.F.

    1996-05-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for some articles from this proceedings.

  5. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Obie H., Jr. (Compiler); Rogers, John F. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  6. Aerospace Materials for Extreme Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-07

    AFOSR/RTD Air Force Research Laboratory AEROSPACE MATERIALS FOR EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS Date: 7 March 2013 Report Documentation Page Form...ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for...to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA

  7. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on this postulate KIBO in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo industry is the first entomocole production company creat in Europe to human food; it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and various universities in France.

  8. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on industry KIBO is postulated in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo entomocole industry is the first production company in Europe to human food, it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and in the universities of Angers, Nantes, Lille.

  9. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  10. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  11. The psychiatrist's role in aerospace operations.

    PubMed

    Sledge, W H; Boydstun, J A

    1980-08-01

    This paper presents two unique aspects of aerospace psychiatry: the influence of the specialized stressors and occupational requirements of an aviation career and the ambiguous role of the aerospace psychiatrist. Aerospace psychiatrists have multiple, sometimes conflicting, responsibilities to the organization and society (the social control task) and to the individual aviator (the humanistic and medical tasks). In the two case reports below the authors describe airmen who had vasovagal syncope and how the psychiatrist intervened and resolved these conflicting tasks.

  12. Aerospace Activities in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Wiggins, Kenneth E.

    1974-01-01

    Describes 17 activities which are aerospace oriented and yet provide an interdisciplinary approach to learning. Some of the activities described involve paper airplanes, parachutes, model rockets, etc. (BR)

  13. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  14. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  15. Unification - An international aerospace information issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific and Technical Information (STI) represents the results of large investments in research and development (R&D) and the expertise of a nation and is a valuable resource. For more than four decades, NASA and its predecessor organizations have developed and managed the preeminent aerospace information system. NASA obtains foreign materials through its international exchange relationships, continually increasing the comprehensiveness of the NASA Aerospace Database (NAD). The NAD is de facto the international aerospace database. This paper reviews current NASA goals and activities with a view toward maintaining compatibility among international aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  16. Effect of LEO cycling at shallow depths of discharge on MANTECH IPV nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.

    1988-01-01

    An individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery is being considered as an alternate for a nickel-cadmium battery on the Hubble Space Telescope. The space telescope battery will primarily be operating at a shallow depth of discharge (10 percent DOD) with an occasional 40 percent DOD. This shallow DOD raises several issues: (1) What is the cycle life. It is projected to be acceptable; however, there is no reported real time data base for validation. (2) The state of charge of the nickel electrode at the beginning of charge is 90 percent. Will this cause an acceleration of divergence in the battery individual cell voltages. (3) After prolonged cycling at 10 percent DOD, will there be enough capacity remaining to support the 40 percent DOD. (4) Is the state of charge really 90 percent during cycling. There is no reported real time data base at shallow depths of discharge. A data base to address the above issues was initiated.

  17. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  18. Adaptive control with aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadient, Ross

    Robust and adaptive control techniques have a rich history of theoretical development with successful application. Despite the accomplishments made, attempts to combine the best elements of each approach into robust adaptive systems has proven challenging, particularly in the area of application to real world aerospace systems. In this research, we investigate design methods for general classes of systems that may be applied to representative aerospace dynamics. By combining robust baseline control design with augmentation designs, our work aims to leverage the advantages of each approach. This research contributes the development of robust model-based control design for two classes of dynamics: 2nd order cascaded systems, and a more general MIMO framework. We present a theoretically justified method for state limiting via augmentation of a robust baseline control design. Through the development of adaptive augmentation designs, we are able to retain system performance in the presence of uncertainties. We include an extension that combines robust baseline design with both state limiting and adaptive augmentations. In addition we develop an adaptive augmentation design approach for a class of dynamic input uncertainties. We present formal stability proofs and analyses for all proposed designs in the research. Throughout the work, we present real world aerospace applications using relevant flight dynamics and flight test results. We derive robust baseline control designs with application to both piloted and unpiloted aerospace system. Using our developed methods, we add a flight envelope protecting state limiting augmentation for piloted aircraft applications and demonstrate the efficacy of our approach via both simulation and flight test. We illustrate our adaptive augmentation designs via application to relevant fixed-wing aircraft dynamics. Both a piloted example combining the state limiting and adaptive augmentation approaches, and an unpiloted example with

  19. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  20. Aerospace Payloads Leak Test Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovsky, Oleg; Grayson, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized and sealed aerospace payloads can leak on orbit. When dealing with toxic or hazardous materials, requirements for fluid and gas leakage rates have to be properly established, and most importantly, reliably verified using the best Nondestructive Test (NDT) method available. Such verification can be implemented through application of various leak test methods that will be the subject of this paper, with a purpose to show what approach to payload leakage rate requirement verification is taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scope of this paper will be mostly a detailed description of 14 leak test methods recommended.

  1. Aerospace materials for nonaerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Dawn, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Many of the flame-resistant nonmetallic materials that were developed for the Apollo and Skylab programs are discussed for commercial and military applications. Interchanges of information are taking place with the government agencies, industries, and educational institutions, which are interested in applications of fire-safe nonmetallic materials. These materials are particularly applicable to the design of aircraft, mass transit interiors, residential and public building constructions, nursing homes and hospitals, and to other fields of fire safety applications. Figures 22, 23 and 24 show the potential nonaerospace applications of flame-resistant aerospace materials are shown.

  2. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  3. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  4. Cognitive engineering in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress that was made with respect to the objectives and goals of the research that is being carried out in the Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory (CSEL) under a Cooperative Agreement with NASA Ames Research Center is described. The major objective of this project is to expand the research base in Cognitive Engineering to be able to support the development and human-centered design of automated systems for aerospace applications. This research project is in support of the Aviation Safety/Automation Research plan and related NASA research goals in space applications.

  5. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  6. Aerospace Power Technology for Potential Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace technology that is being developed for space and aeronautical applications has great potential for providing technical advances for terrestrial power systems. Some recent accomplishments arising from activities being pursued at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centers is described in this paper. Possible terrestrial applications of the new aerospace technology are also discussed.

  7. The 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings of the 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held at the Cleveland Marriott Society Center on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  8. iSTEM: The Aerospace Engineering Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed The Paper Plane Challenge as one of a three-part response to The Aerospace Engineering Challenge. The Aerospace Engineering Challenge was the second of three multi-part activities that they had developed with the teachers during the year. Their aim was to introduce students to the exciting world of engineering, where they…

  9. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stermer, R. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Current research in optical processing, and determination of its role in future aerospace systems was reviewed. It is shown that optical processing offers significant potential for aircraft and spacecraft control, pattern recognition, and robotics. It is demonstrated that the development of optical devices and components can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  10. The 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, Ron (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at ARC, Moffett Field, California, on 12-14 May 1993, are reported. Technological areas covered include the following: actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  11. Aerospace Resources for Science and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald, Ed.; Smith, Kenneth L., Ed.

    This publication on Aerospace Programs is a special edition of "Technology Education" featuring descriptions of 15 select aerospace education programs from diverse localities spanning the full range of instructional levels. Following introductory material, the monograph contains the following largely unedited program descriptions: (1)…

  12. The 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by NASA Johnson Space Center and held at the South Shore Harbour Conference Facility on May 17-19, 1995, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  13. NASA Elementary Aerospace Activities Free to Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes the contents of Elementary School Aerospace Activities: A Resource for Teachers. Activities examine a variety of topics in aerospace education and are intended to be used with children ages 5-11. The book is available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) for $3.00. (CP)

  14. The 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center on May 13, 14, and 15, 1992 are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  15. Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10521 TITLE: Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous ...Optimisation of Flight Vehicles in a Concurrent Multi-Disciplinary Environment [la Conception et l’optimisation aerodynamiques des vehicules eriens dans un...ADP010499 thru AI W3SSIFIED 25-1 Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents Abhijit Deshmukh, Timothy Middelkoop University of

  16. The 42nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor); Hakun, Claef (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development, and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  17. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  18. Case from the aerospace medicine residents' teaching file. Case #35. Renal cell carcinoma in an aviator with a long history of renal lithiasis.

    PubMed

    Drehner, D M

    1990-02-01

    This case study discusses the presentation, evaluation, and aeromedical disposition of an aviator with renal cell carcinoma, a disease seldom seen in the military flying population. It emphasizes the necessity of flight surgeon awareness of preventive medicine aspects of waivered medical disorders.

  19. The 1988 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Thomas Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual Battery Workshop held at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland on November 1-3, 1988. The Workshop attendees included manufacturers, users, and government representatives interested in the latest developments in battery technology as they relate to high reliability operations and aerospace use. The subjects covered included battery testing methodologies and criteria, life testing of nickel-cadmium cells, testing and operation of nickel-hydrogen batteries in low earth orbit, and nickel-hydrogen technology issues and concerns.

  20. Recent GRC Aerospace Technologies Applicable to Terrestrial Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, David; Lyons, Valerie J.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Tacina, Robert R.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an overview of a wide range of recent aerospace technologies under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. The focused areas are space solar power, advanced power management and distribution systems, Stirling cycle conversion systems, fuel cells, advanced thin film photovoltaics and batteries, and combustion technologies. The aerospace-related objectives of the technologies are generation of space power, development of cost-effective and reliable, high performance power systems, cryogenic applications, energy storage, and reduction in gas-turbine emissions, with attendant clean jet engines. The terrestrial energy applications of the technologies include augmentation of bulk power in ground power distribution systems, and generation of residential, commercial and remote power, as well as promotion of pollution-free environment via reduction in combustion emissions.

  1. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  2. Automated design of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Mccomb, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in structural analysis of aerospace vehicles is characterized, automated design technology is discussed, and an indication is given of the future direction of research in analysis and automated design. Representative computer programs for analysis typical of those in routine use in vehicle design activities are described, and results are shown for some selected analysis problems. Recent and planned advances in analysis capability are indicated. Techniques used to automate the more routine aspects of structural design are discussed, and some recently developed automated design computer programs are described. Finally, discussion is presented of early accomplishments in interdisciplinary automated design systems, and some indication of the future thrust of research in this field is given.

  3. ASAP Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the First Quarterly Report for the newly reconstituted Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP). The NASA Administrator rechartered the Panel on November 18,2003, to provide an independent, vigilant, and long-term oversight of NASA's safety policies and programs well beyond Return to Flight of the Space Shuttle. The charter was revised to be consistent with the original intent of Congress in enacting the statute establishing ASAP in 1967 to focus on NASA's safety and quality systems, including industrial and systems safety, risk-management and trend analysis, and the management of these activities.The charter also was revised to provide more timely feedback to NASA by requiring quarterly rather than annual reports, and by requiring ASAP to perform special assessments with immediate feedback to NASA. ASAP was positioned to help institutionalize the safety culture of NASA in the post- Stafford-Covey Return to Flight environment.

  4. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  5. Novel Nanolaminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Martin; Mazuruk, consty

    2006-01-01

    Nanolaminate manufacturing (NLM) is a new way of developing materials whose properties can far exceed those of homogeneous materials. Traditional alloys, composites and bulk laminates tend to average the properties of the materials from which they were made. With nanostructured materials, the high density of interfaces between dissimilar materials results in novel material properties. For example, materials made -from alternating nanoscale layers of metals and oxides have exhibited thermal conductivities far below those of the oxides themselves. Also, metallic nanolaminates can have peak strengths 100 times lager than the bulk constituent metals. Recent work at MSFC has focused on the development of nickel/aluminum oxide (Ni/Al2O3)) nanolaminates. Ni/Al2O3 nanolaminates are expected to have better strength, creep and fatigue resistance, oxygen compatibility, and corrosion resistance than the traditional metal-matrix composites of this material, which has been used in a variety of aerospace applications. A chemical vapor deposition (CW) system has been developed and optimized for the deposition of nanolaminates. Nanolaminates with layer thicknesses between 10 and 300 nm have been successfully grown and characterization has included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) Nanolaminates have a large variety of potential applications. They can be tailored to have both very small and anisotropic thermal conductivities and are promising as thermal coatings for both rock$ engine components and aerobraking structures. They also have the potential to be used in aerospace applications where strength at high temperatures, corrosion resistance or resistance to hydrogen embrittlement is important. Both CVD and magnetron sputtering facilities are available for the deposition of nanolayered materials. Characterization equipment includes SEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and mechanical tensile pull

  6. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. The 1973 GSFC battery workshop, second day. [technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Technological progress in the development, testing, and manufacturing of nickel-cadmium battery cells as well as hydrogen cells is presented. The following major topics were discussed: (1) carbonate analysis; (2) nickel-cadmium memory effect; (3) use of batteries in an automatic acquisition and control system; (4) accelerated testing; (5) formulation of a mathematical odel for a nickel-cadmium cell; (6) development of a light weight nickel-cadmium battery capable of delivering 20 watt hours per pound; (7) magnetic testing of nickel-cadmium cells; (8) design and performance characteristics of nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen cells; and (9) development of a semiprismatic cell design. For Vol. 1, see N75-15152.

  8. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  9. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  10. Studies on hydride-forming alloys as the active material of a metal hydride electrode for a nickel metal hydride cell

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H.S.; Zelter, G.R.; Allison, D.U.; Reilly, J.J.; Srinivasan, S.; Stockel, J.F.

    1997-12-01

    Multi-component AB{sub 5} hydrides are attractive replacements for the cadmium electrode in nickel-cadmium batteries. The archetype compound of the AB{sub 5} alloy class is LaNi{sub 5}, but in a typical battery electrode mischmetal is substituted for La and Ni is substituted in part by variety of metals. This paper deals with the effect on cycle life upon the partial substitution of various lanthanides for La and Sn, In, Al, Co, and Mn for Ni. The presence of Ce was shown to enhance cycle life as did Sn in some cases. An electrode of La{sub 0.67}Ce{sub 0.33}B{sub 5} alloy gave over 3,500 cycles (to specific capacity of 200 mAh/g), indicating that it is a very attractive alloy for a practical Ni/MH{sub x} cell.

  11. Scoping Aerospace: Tracking Federal Procurement and R&D Spending in the Aerospace Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    study). 2 Stanley I. Weiss and Amir R. Amir, “Aerospace Industry,” available at Encyclopedia Britannica Online , accessed 19 July 2004. 3 This general...at Encyclopedia Britannica Online , accessed 19 July 2004. 5 CHAPTER TWO State of the Aerospace Sector from 1993 to 2003 In the two years since RAND...Quadrennial Defense Review Report. Washington, D.C: 30 September 2001. Weiss, Stanley I., and Amir R. Amir. “Aerospace Industry,” Encyclopedia Britannica Online . Available

  12. The context. [technological spinoffs from aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The relationships among science, technology, and applications are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on public support of space exploration and aerospace sciences in general. Examples of technological spinoffs are presented.

  13. The 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Numerous topics related to aerospace mechanisms were discussed. Deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, hydraulic actuators, positioning mechanisms, electric motors, communication satellite instruments, redundancy, lubricants, bearings, space stations, rotating joints, and teleoperators are among the topics covered.

  14. Unification: An international aerospace information opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.; Carroll, Bonnie C.

    1992-01-01

    Science and technology projects are becoming more and more international and interdisciplinary. Other parts of the world, notably Europe, are increasingly powerful players in the aerospace industry. This change has led to the development of various aerospace information initiatives in other countries. With scarce resources in all areas of government and industry, the NASA STI Program is reviewing its current acquisition and exchange practices and policies to factor in the changing requirements and new opportunities within the international community. Current NASA goals and activities are reviewed with a new view toward developing a scenario for establishing an international aerospace database, maintaining compatibility among national aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  15. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: Cumulative index, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 190 through 201 of 'Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography.' It includes three indexes-subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  16. The 11th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Various mechanisms in aerospace engineering were presented at this conference. Specifications, design, and use of spacecraft and missile components are discussed, such as tail assemblies, radiometers, magnetormeters, pins, reaction wheels, ball bearings, actuators, mirrors, nutation dampers, airfoils, solar arrays, etc.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  18. The 25th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two papers are documented regarding aeronautical and spacecraft hardware. Technological areas include actuators, latches, cryogenic mechanisms, vacuum tribology, bearings, robotics, ground support equipment for aerospace applications, and other mechanisms.

  19. The 11th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical devices and drives developed for aerospace applications are described. Satellite flywheels, magnetic bearings, a missile umbilical system, a cartridge firing device, and an oiler for satellite bearing lubrication are among the topics discussed.

  20. The 24th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings of the symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  1. Unification - An international aerospace information opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Science and technology projects are becoming more and more international and interdisciplinary. Other parts of the world, notably Europe, are increasingly powerful players in the aerospace industry. This change has led to the development of various aerospace information initiatives in other countries. With scarce resources in all areas of government and industry, the NASA STI Program is reviewing its current acquisition and exchange practices and policies to factor in the changing requirements and new opportunities within the international community. Current NASA goals and activities are reviewed with a new view toward developing a scenario for establishing an international aerospace database, maintaining compatibility among national aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  2. Fred Haise Honored at Aerospace Appreciation Night

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired NASA astronaut and test pilot Fred Haise was honored recently by the Lancaster, Calif., Jethawks baseball team at its Aerospace Appreciation Night. Best known as one of the Apollo 13 crew, ...

  3. The 12th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mechanisms developed for various aerospace applications are discussed. Specific topics covered include: boom release mechanisms, separation on space shuttle orbiter/Boeing 747 aircraft, payload handling, spaceborne platform support, and deployment of spaceborne antennas and telescopes.

  4. Unification: An international aerospace information issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1991-01-01

    Science and technology projects are becoming more and more international and interdisciplinary. Other parts of the world, notably Europe, are increasingly powerful players in the aerospace business. This change has led to the development of various aerospace information initiatives in other countries. With scarce resources in all areas of government and industry, the NASA STI Program is reviewing its current acquisition and exchange practices and policies to factor in the changing requirements and new opportunities within the international community. Current NASA goals and activities are reviewed with a view toward developing a scenario for establishing an international aerospace data base, maintaining compatibility among national aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  5. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  6. Silicon Carbide Technologies for Lightweighted Aerospace Mirrors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Silicon Carbide Technologies for Lightweighted Aerospace Mirrors Lawrence E. Matson (1) Ming Y. Chen (1) Brett deBlonk (2) Iwona A...glass and beryllium to produce lightweighted aerospace mirror systems has reached its limits due to the long lead times, high processing costs...for making mirror structural substrates, figuring and finishing technologies being investigated to reduce cost time and cost, and non-destructive

  7. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  8. The 2000 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, J. C. (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 33nd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 14-16, 2000. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, lithium-ion, lithium-sulfur, and silver-zinc technologies.

  9. Crew factors in the aerospace workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of technological change in the aerospace workplace on pilot performance are discussed. Attention is given to individual and physiological problems, crew and interpersonal problems, environmental and task problems, organization and management problems, training and intervention problems. A philosophy and conceptual framework for conducting research on these problems are presented and two aerospace studies are examined which investigated: (1) the effect of leader personality on crew effectiveness and (2) the working undersea habitat known as Aquarius.

  10. NASA Ames aerospace systems directorate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The Aerospace Systems Directorate is one of four research directorates at the NASA Ames Research Center. The Directorate conducts research and technology development for advanced aircraft and aircraft systems in intelligent computational systems and human-machine systems for aeronautics and space. The Directorate manages research and aircraft technology development projects, and operates and maintains major wind tunnels and flight simulation facilities. The Aerospace Systems Directorate's research and technology as it relates to NASA agency goals and specific strategic thrusts are discussed.

  11. Probability and Statistics in Aerospace Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.; Howell, L. W.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph was prepared to give the practicing engineer a clear understanding of probability and statistics with special consideration to problems frequently encountered in aerospace engineering. It is conceived to be both a desktop reference and a refresher for aerospace engineers in government and industry. It could also be used as a supplement to standard texts for in-house training courses on the subject.

  12. Graphite Nanoreinforcements for Aerospace Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drzal, Lawrence T.

    2005-01-01

    New advances in the reinforcement of polymer matrix composite materials are critical for advancement of the aerospace industry. Reinforcements are required to have good mechanical and thermal properties, large aspect ratio, excellent adhesion to the matrix, and cost effectiveness. To fulfill the requirements, nanocomposites in which the matrix is filled with nanoscopic reinforcing phases having dimensions typically in the range of 1nm to 100 nm show considerably higher strength and modulus with far lower reinforcement content than their conventional counterparts. Graphite is a layered material whose layers have dimensions in the nanometer range and are held together by weak Van der Waals forces. Once these layers are exfoliated and dispersed in a polymer matrix as nano platelets, they have large aspect ratios. Graphite has an elastic modulus that is equal to the stiffest carbon fiber and 10-15 times that of other inorganic reinforcements, and it is also electrically and thermally conductive. If the appropriate surface treatment can be found for graphite, its exfoliation and dispersion in a polymer matrix will result in a composite with excellent mechanical properties, superior thermal stability, and very good electrical and thermal properties at very low reinforcement loadings.

  13. Aerospace Technology Innovation. Volume 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Janelle (Editor); Cousins, Liz (Editor); Bennett, Evonne (Editor); Vendette, Joel (Editor); West, Kenyon (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Whether finding new applications for existing NASA technologies or developing unique marketing strategies to demonstrate them, NASA's offices are committed to identifying unique partnering opportunities. Through their efforts NASA leverages resources through joint research and development, and gains new insight into the core areas relevant to all NASA field centers. One of the most satisfying aspects of my job comes when I learn of a mission-driven technology that can be spun-off to touch the lives of everyday people. NASA's New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging is one such initiative. Not only does it promise to provide greater dividends for the country's investment in aerospace research, but also to enhance the American quality of life. This issue of Innovation highlights the new NASA-sponsored initiative in medical imaging. Early in 2001, NASA announced the launch of the New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging initiative to promote the partnership and commercialization of NASA technologies in the medical imaging industry. NASA and the medical imaging industry share a number of crosscutting technologies in areas such as high-performance detectors and image-processing tools. Many of the opportunities for joint development and technology transfer to the medical imaging market also hold the promise for future spin back to NASA.

  14. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  15. Aerospace Sector. Basic Skills Needs Assessment. Bristol Aerospace Limited & Canadian Auto Workers, Local 3005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Lee Thomas

    A project examined the skill gaps within the aerospace industry, identified and prioritized the skills common to all jobs and work areas within the industry, and provided insight into the skills that workers need to upgrade and develop. The research was conducted June-August 1994 at Bristol Aerospace's Winnipeg, Manitoba, operations. The basic…

  16. Mobile Computing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Swietek, Gregory E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The use of commercial computer technology in specific aerospace mission applications can reduce the cost and project cycle time required for the development of special-purpose computer systems. Additionally, the pace of technological innovation in the commercial market has made new computer capabilities available for demonstrations and flight tests. Three areas of research and development being explored by the Portable Computer Technology Project at NASA Ames Research Center are the application of commercial client/server network computing solutions to crew support and payload operations, the analysis of requirements for portable computing devices, and testing of wireless data communication links as extensions to the wired network. This paper will present computer architectural solutions to portable workstation design including the use of standard interfaces, advanced flat-panel displays and network configurations incorporating both wired and wireless transmission media. It will describe the design tradeoffs used in selecting high-performance processors and memories, interfaces for communication and peripheral control, and high resolution displays. The packaging issues for safe and reliable operation aboard spacecraft and aircraft are presented. The current status of wireless data links for portable computers is discussed from a system design perspective. An end-to-end data flow model for payload science operations from the experiment flight rack to the principal investigator is analyzed using capabilities provided by the new generation of computer products. A future flight experiment on-board the Russian MIR space station will be described in detail including system configuration and function, the characteristics of the spacecraft operating environment, the flight qualification measures needed for safety review, and the specifications of the computing devices to be used in the experiment. The software architecture chosen shall be presented. An analysis of the

  17. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  18. Aerospace manpower transfer to small business enterprises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a program to effect transfer of aerospace professional people from the ranks of the unemployed into gainful employment in the small business community was investigated. The effectiveness of accomplishing transfer of technology from the aerospace effort into the private sector through migration of people rather than products or hardware alone was also studied. Two basic methodologies were developed. One involves the matching of ex-aerospace professionals and small companies according to their mutual needs. A training and indoctrination program is aimed at familiarizing the professional with the small company environment, and a program of follow-up counseling is defined. The second methodology incorporates efforts to inform and arouse interest among the nonaerospace business community toward affirmative action programs that will serve mutual self-interests of the individuals, companies, and communities involved.

  19. Knowledge-based diagnosis for aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The need for automated diagnosis in aerospace systems and the approach of using knowledge-based systems are examined. Research issues in knowledge-based diagnosis which are important for aerospace applications are treated along with a review of recent relevant research developments in Artificial Intelligence. The design and operation of some existing knowledge-based diagnosis systems are described. The systems described and compared include the LES expert system for liquid oxygen loading at NASA Kennedy Space Center, the FAITH diagnosis system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the PES procedural expert system developed at SRI International, the CSRL approach developed at Ohio State University, the StarPlan system developed by Ford Aerospace, the IDM integrated diagnostic model, and the DRAPhys diagnostic system developed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  20. Directory of aerospace safety specialized information sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, E. A.; Rubens, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    A directory is presented to make available to the aerospace safety community a handbook of organizations and experts in specific, well-defined areas of safety technology. It is designed for the safety specialist as an aid for locating both information sources and individual points of contact (experts) in engineering related fields. The file covers sources of data in aerospace design, tests, as well as information in hazard and failure cause identification, accident analysis, materials characteristics, and other related subject areas. These 171 organizations and their staff members, hopefully, should provide technical information in the form of documentation, data and consulting expertise. These will be sources that have assembled and collated their information, so that it will be useful in the solution of engineering problems. One of the goals of the project in the United States that have and are willing to share data of value to the aerospace safety community.

  1. Aerospace concurrent engineering: a modern global approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbert, Mariano; Li, Xiaoxing

    2009-12-01

    System engineering aspects, like concurrent engineering (CE) in the aerospace sector, has been studied by many authors. The change and evolution in this regard is continually influenced by the information technology advances. But global cooperation is only discussed by developed countries and high technology corporations. A review of CE and its ramifications in the aerospace industry is presented. Based on the current literature, the general lifecycle of a spacecraft and its phases are explained as well as the tools that are implemented in today's industry. In this paper we propose a new approach for the product development process in the spacecraft production industry the Aerospace Concurrent Engineering (ACE), which is mainly focused in the technology itself, its optimal design and environment impact rather than costs and marketing impact. And the potential of globally oriented research and implementation of space programs is discussed for its consideration.

  2. Aerospace applications of advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.; Langenbeck, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced metallic materials within the Al-base family are being developed for applications on current and future aerospace vehicles. These advanced materials offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved vehicle performance. Aerospace applications of advanced metallic materials include space structures, fighters, military and commercial transport aircraft, and missiles. Structural design requirements, including not only static and durability/damage tolerance criteria but also environmental considerations, drive material selections. Often trade-offs must be made regarding strength, fracture resistance, cost, reliability, and maintainability in order to select the optimum material for a specific application. These trade studies not only include various metallic materials but also many times include advanced composite materials. Details of material comparisons, aerospace applications, and material trades will be presented.

  3. Psychiatric considerations in military aerospace medicine.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Marsh, R W

    2001-02-01

    Military aerospace medicine requires a psychiatric selection and certification process that determines not only the absence of significant mental disorders, but also the presence of positive qualities in the realms of motivation, ability and stability: not all normal people are fit to fly. Other issues of aerospace psychiatry involve maintenance of mental resilience and hardiness during a flying career, aeromedical decisions about when to remove from flight duties and when to return, criteria for waivers for psychiatric conditions, use of medications for treatment of psychiatric symptoms, questions of substance abuse, and research in such areas as genetics. This report reviews the basis for military aerospace psychiatry, primarily as practiced in the United States Air Force (USAF), and presents some of its underlying principles as they apply to clinical situations.

  4. Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Research efforts to reduce the dependence of the aerospace industry on strategic metals, such as cobalt (Co), columbium (Cb), tantalum (Ta), and chromium (Cr), by providing the materials technology needed to minimize the strategic metal content of critical aerospace components for gas turbine engines are addressed. Thrusts in three technology areas are identified: near term activities in the area of strategic element substitution; intermediate-range activities in the area of materials processing; and long term, high risk activities in the area of 'new classes' of high temprature metallic materials. Specifically, the role of cobalt in nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys vital to the aerospace industry is examined along with the mechanical and physical properties of intermetallics that will contain a minimum of the stragetic metals.

  5. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  6. Combustion Processes in the Aerospace Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggett, Clayton

    1969-01-01

    The aerospace environment introduces new and enhanced fire hazards because the special atmosphere employed may increase the frequency and intensity of fires, because the confinement associated with aerospace systems adversely affects the dynamics of fire development and control, and because the hostile external environments limit fire control and rescue operations. Oxygen enriched atmospheres contribute to the fire hazard in aerospace systems by extending the list of combustible fuels, increasing the probability of ignition, and increasing the rates of fire spread and energy release. A system for classifying atmospheres according to the degree of fire hazard, based on the heat capacity of the atmosphere per mole of oxygen, is suggested. A brief exploration of the dynamics of chamber fires shows that such fires will exhibit an exponential growth rate and may grow to dangerous size in a very short time. Relatively small quantities of fuel and oxygen can produce a catastrophic fire in a closed chamber.

  7. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  8. Heart-Lung Interactions in Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, Gordon Kim

    1991-01-01

    Few of the heart-lung interactions that are discussed have been studied in any detail in the aerospace environment, but is seems that many such interactions must occur in the setting of altered accelerative loadings and pressure breathing. That few investigations are in progress suggests that clinical and academic laboratory investigators and aerospace organizations are further apart than during the pioneering work on pressure breathing and acceleration tolerance in the 1940s. The purpose is to reintroduce some of the perennial problems of aviation physiology as well as some newer aerospace concerns that may be of interest. Many possible heart-lung interactions are pondered, by necessity often drawing on data from within the aviation field, collected before the modern understanding of these interactions developed, or on recent laboratory data that may not be strictly applicable. In the field of zero-gravity effects, speculation inevitably outruns the sparse available data.

  9. The comprehensive aerospace index (CASI): Tracking the economic performance of the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattedi, Adriana Prest; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Ramos, Fernando Manuel; Rosa, Reinaldo Roberto

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we described the Comprehensive AeroSpace Index (CASI), a financial index aimed at representing the economic performance of the aerospace industry. CASI is build upon a data set of approximately 20 years of daily close prices set, from January 1987 to June 2007, from a comprehensive sample of leading aerospace-related companies with stocks negotiated on the New York Exchange (NYSE) and on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. We also introduced the sub-indices CASI-AERO, for aeronautical segment, and CASI-SAT, for satellite segment, and considered the relation between them. These three indices are compared to others aerospace indices and to more traditional general financial indices like DJIA, S&P500 and Nasdaq. Our results have shown that the CASI is an index that describes very well the aerospace sector behavior, since it is able to reflect the aeronautical segment comportment as well as the satellite one. Therefore, in this sense, it can be considered as a representative index of the aerospace sector. Moreover, the creation of two sub-indices, the CASI-AERO and the CASI-SAT, allows to elucidate capital movements within the aerospace sector, particularly those of speculative nature, like the dot.com bubble and crash of 1998-2001.

  10. Aerospace engineers: We're tomorrow-minded people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Brief job-related autobiographical sketches of engineers working on NASA aerospace projects are presented. Career and educational guidance is offered to students thinking about entering the aerospace field.

  11. 76 FR 58776 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Canadian aerospace supply chain contacts, engage in networking activities and visit key Canadian aerospace... opportunity to meet senior representatives and learn about planned projects and expected procurement needs... political organizations and any documents containing references to partisan political activities...

  12. Reach and its Impact: NASA and US Aerospace Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    REACH is a European law that threatens to impact materials used within the US aerospace communities, including NASA. The presentation briefly covers REACH and generally, its perceived impacts to NASA and the aerospace community within the US.

  13. Aerospace Technicians: We're Tomorrow-Minded People

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Brief job-related autobiographical sketches of technicians working on NASA aerospace projects are presented. Career and educational guidance is offered to students thinking about entering the field of aerospace technology.

  14. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference: Exectutive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The papers from this conference are being published in a separate volume as NASA CP-3298.

  15. NASA aerospace database subject scope: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Outlined here is the subject scope of the NASA Aerospace Database, a publicly available subset of the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) Database. Topics of interest to NASA are outlined and placed within the framework of the following broad aerospace subject categories: aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry and materials, engineering, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical and computer sciences, physics, social sciences, space sciences, and general. A brief discussion of the subject scope is given for each broad area, followed by a similar explanation of each of the narrower subject fields that follow. The subject category code is listed for each entry.

  16. Structures Technology for Future Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Venneri, Samuel L.; Paul, Donald B.; Hopkins, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of structures technology for future aerospace systems is given. Discussion focuses on developments in component technologies that will improve the vehicle performance, advance the technology exploitation process, and reduce system life-cycle costs. The component technologies described are smart materials and structures, multifunctional materials and structures, affordable composite structures, extreme environment structures, flexible load bearing structures, and computational methods and simulation-based design. The trends in each of the component technologies are discussed and the applicability of these technologies to future aerospace vehicles is described.

  17. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  18. Second Conference on NDE for Aerospace Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodis, Kenneth W. (Compiler); Bryson, Craig C. (Compiler); Workman, Gary L. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation and inspection procedures must constantly improve rapidly in order to keep pace with corresponding advances being made in aerospace material and systems. In response to this need, the 1989 Conference was organized to provide a forum for discussion between the materials scientists, systems designers, and NDE engineers who produce current and future aerospace systems. It is anticipated that problems in current systems can be resolved more quickly and that new materials and structures can be designed and manufactured in such a way as to be more easily inspected and to perform reliably over the life cycle of the system.

  19. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The general objective of the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program was to conduct research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and associated thermal gradient structures. The following research areas were actively investigated: (1) mechanical and environmental degradation mechanisms in advanced light metals and composites; (2) aerospace materials science; (3) mechanics of materials and composites for aerospace structures; and (4) thermal gradient structures.

  20. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  1. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, H. C.; Beadles, R. L.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Courtney, M. W.; Rouse, D. J.; Scearce, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Medical products utilizing and incorporating aerospace technology were studied. A bipolar donor-recipient model for medical transfer is presented. The model is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and aerospace technology which constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by medical community of new medical products based on aerospace technology.

  2. 32 CFR 705.30 - Aerospace Education Workshop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerospace Education Workshop. 705.30 Section 705... REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.30 Aerospace Education Workshop. (a) This... of Naval Operations has cognizance of all assistance provided by the Navy to all Aerospace...

  3. 76 FR 65750 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and... Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. SUMMARY: Pursuant to sections 14(b)(1) and 9(c) of the Federal Advisory... of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel is in the public interest in connection with...

  4. 75 FR 28547 - Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia AGENCY: International Trade..., International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service, is organizing an Aerospace Supplier... departure to the United States). This aerospace mission, to be led by a senior U.S. Department of...

  5. 77 FR 38090 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, July 20, 2012, 11:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. EDT... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive...

  6. 76 FR 26316 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... Federal Register of April 26, 2011, announcing a meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) to... Administration, Washington, DC 20546, (202) 358-0732. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Aerospace Safety...

  7. 76 FR 62455 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, October 21, 2011, 12:30 to 2 p.m. Central.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Susan Burch, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel...

  8. 77 FR 1955 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, January 27, 2012, Time 11 a.m.-12:30 p.m... CONTACT: Ms. Susan Burch, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Administrative Officer, National Aeronautics...

  9. 75 FR 36697 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, July 16, 2010, 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. ADDRESSES... CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics...

  10. 76 FR 19147 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, April 29, 2011, from 11 p.m. to 1 p.m..., FL 32899. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel...

  11. 76 FR 2923 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, February 4, 2011, 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m... CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics...

  12. 76 FR 50881 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LP Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...-025-AD; Amendment 39-16771; AD 2011-17-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LP.... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain M7 Aerospace LP Models SA226-T... AD, contact M7 Aerospace, LC, 10823 NE. Entrance Road, San Antonio, Texas 78216; telephone (210)...

  13. 78 FR 72598 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace... directive (AD) for British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201... after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Taylor Martin, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small...

  14. 78 FR 77618 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all M7 Aerospace LLC Models SA226-AT... bulkhead. This proposed AD also requires reporting certain inspection results to M7 Aerospace LLC. We...

  15. 78 FR 57903 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal and amendment of the charter of the Aerospace... the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel is in the public interest in connection with the performance...

  16. Aerospace Technology Careers: The Opportunity To Soar. Information Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This document provides guidelines for the preparation of careers in aerospace, whether with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) or private industry. The document discusses the following topics: (1) Preparing for an Aerospace Career; (2) Careers in Aerospace; (3) Employment Requirements; and (4) How To Apply. (ZWH)

  17. Teachers, Aerospace, Involvement: The Ingredients for Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Rex; Bell, Michael L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a two week workshop which concentrated on involving teachers in action oriented aerospace activities and sharing ideas and materials for the application of aerospace concepts in the classroom. Research was also done to see if participants' attitudes toward aerospace education could be positively influenced to enhance personal teaching…

  18. A Model Aerospace Curriculum: August Martin High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This document presents an operational model of a thematic aerospace education school--the August Martin High School (New York). Part 1 briefly describes the nature of aviation/aerospace education and the background of the school. This background information includes how the school was formed, rationale for an aerospace thematic school, research…

  19. 77 FR 31483 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ...-17069; AD 2012-11-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Airplanes... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Model G-1159... information identified in this AD, contact Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Technical Publications Dept.,...

  20. An overview of Ball Aerospace cryogen storage and delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, J.; Keller, J.; Mills, G.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Starting on the Gemini program in the 1960s, Beech Aircraft (now Ball Aerospace) has been designing and manufacturing dewars for a variety of cryogens including liquid hydrogen and oxygen. These dewars flew on the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle spacecraft providing fuel cell reactants resulting in over 150 manned spaceflights. Since Space Shuttle, Ball has also built the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for the Boeing Phantom Eye unmanned aerial vehicle. Returning back to its fuel cell days, Ball has designed, built and tested a volume-constrained liquid hydrogen and oxygen tank system for reactant delivery to fuel cells on unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). Herein past history of Ball technology is described. Testing has been completed on the UUV specific design, which will be described.

  1. The 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. L. (Compiler); Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings of the 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Topics covered include: robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  2. Guide to Canadian Aerospace-Related Industries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    sensing devices, ground power units, motor Winnipeg-based maioutacturer and supplier of portable heaters and generators, test stands, search lights...division also manu- using an electric motor power package. factures a wide selection of tachometer generators and valves. The company also manutactures its...and fabrication capabilities, and automated numerically controlled process * Bristol Aerospace Ltd - rocket motor case development. and inspection

  3. The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

  4. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This revised textbook, one in the Aerospace Education II series, provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of…

  5. Aircraft of Today. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.

    This textbook gives a brief idea about the modern aircraft used in defense and for commercial purposes. Aerospace technology in its present form has developed along certain basic principles of aerodynamic forces. Different parts in an airplane have different functions to balance the aircraft in air, provide a thrust, and control the general…

  6. Aerospace Concepts at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents materials compiled to assist the elementary teacher in preparing teaching units in aerospace education. Suggests specific and general objectives and lists important concepts and questions pertaining to areas such as: history of flight, weather and flying, airplanes, jets, rockets, space travel, and the solar system. (MLH)

  7. The 17th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings of the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft tether, magnetic bearing suspension, explosive welding, and a deployable/retractable mast are also described.

  8. NASA's Software Bank (Heath Tecna Aerospace)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Heath Tecna Aerospace used a COSMIC program, "Analysis of Filament Reinforced Metal Shell Pressure Vessels," to predict stresses in motorcase walls in a composite hybrid rocket and calculate the ideal geometry for the domes at either end of the filament-wound pressure vessel. The COSMIC program predictions were confirmed in testing.

  9. Spacecraft and their Boosters. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, provides a description of some of the discoveries that spacecraft have made possible and of the experience that American astronauts have had in piloting spacecraft. The basic principles behind the operation of spacecraft and their boosters are explained. Descriptions are also included on…

  10. The 21st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    During the symposium technical topics addressed included deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, actuators, latching devices, positioning mechanisms, robotic manipulators, and automated mechanisms synthesis. A summary of the 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium panel discussions is included as an appendix. However, panel discussions on robotics for space and large space structures which were held are not presented herein.

  11. Advanced Engineering Environments: Implications for Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D.

    2001-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's aerospace industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker all face the developer of aerospace systems. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments (AEEs) to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. These advances will enable modeling and simulation of manufacturing methods, which will in turn allow manufacturing considerations to be included much earlier in the system development cycle. Significant cost savings, increased quality, and decreased manufacturing cycle time are expected to result. This paper will give an overview of the NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment, the agency initiative to develop an AEE, with a focus on the anticipated benefits in aerospace manufacturing.

  12. International Space Programs. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "International Space Programs." The guide is organized according to specific chapters in the textbook. It provides guidelines for teachers in terms of objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outlines, orientation, suggested key points,…

  13. Using Aerospace Technology To Design Orthopedic Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    Technology originally developed to optimize designs of composite-material aerospace structural components used to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants. Development effort focused on designing knee implants, long-term goal to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants in general.

  14. International Space Programs. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmer, S. B.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, is a collection of the diverse information available regarding the international space programs. The five goals listed for the book are: to examine the Soviet space program, to understand the future of Soviet space activity, to examine other national and international space programs, to…

  15. Atmospheric statistics for aerospace vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical analysis of atmospheric variables was performed for the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) design trade studies and the establishment of launch commit criteria. Atmospheric constraint statistics have been developed for the NASP test flight, the Advanced Launch System, and the National Launch System. The concepts and analysis techniques discussed in the paper are applicable to the design and operations of any future aerospace vehicle.

  16. AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    of the AGARD publications printing and distribution programme, as well as for press and public relations and similar activities. The total staff...authority to approve up to two topics from the Military Committee Memorandum as Aerospace Applications Studies each year. The selected topics are anounced

  17. The 15th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technological areas covered include: aerospace propulsion; aerodynamic devices; crew safety; space vehicle control; spacecraft deployment, positioning, and pointing; deployable antennas/reflectors; and large space structures. Devices for payload deployment, payload retention, and crew extravehicular activities on the space shuttle orbiter are also described.

  18. Aerospace Management, Volume 5 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaprielyan, S. Peter

    Presented are articles and reports dealing with aspects of the aerospace programs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Of major concern are the technological and managerial challenges within the space station and space shuttle programs. Other reports are given on: (1) medical experiments, (2) satellites, (3) international…

  19. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-28

    Cloud Seeding. Cloud Physics; Weather Average Work Force: 25 - Total Modification; Convective Storms; Hydrometeorology; Precipita- tion Measurement...8217.v.r.. .,~r’:: Experience: Cametoid has more than 25 years of active sub- Canada Ltd, Bata Engineering; Bell Northern Research, Canada contract...the US Coast Guard over the past 25 years. meeting international aerospace and defense companies all military specifications satisfactorily The

  20. Kenston Aerospace: Title III ESEA Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenston Local School District, Chagrin Falls, OH.

    The objectives of a three-year comprehensive aerospace education program at Kenston High School, Chagrin Falls, Ohio, funded under Title III ESEA, were to provide marketable skills for non-College-bound students as well as counseling for the student planning on college or technical school education in the aviation field. Students also were taught…

  1. Careers in Aerospace: A Broad Horizon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aerospace, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes career opportunities in the aerospace industry. The 1.2 million workers (including 20 percent in research and development) are employed in professional and technical positions, management/administrative occupations, and plants. General training and qualifications are given for each area. The outlook for future employment in these areas…

  2. Aerospace Education Workshop Techniques and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizzell, Helen J.

    1977-01-01

    Outlines procedures and lists hints for planning successful workshops in aerospace education; included are possible locations, resources, orientation activities, brochures, speakers, and follow-up activities for various combinations of participants (parents, elementary school and secondary school teachers, vocational-technical oriented students,…

  3. TEACHERS' GUIDES, AEROSPACE SCIENCE, GRADES K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TIMMONS, KAREN S.

    THIS IS A TEACHER GUIDE TO AEROSPACE SCIENCE TOPICS FOR USE IN GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX. UNITS OF STUDY ARE BASED ON MAN'S EFFORTS TO FLOAT, FLY, AND EXIST ABOVE THE EARTH'S SURFACE. FOR EACH TOPIC THERE ARE INCLUDED LISTS OF (1) CONCEPTS TO BE DEVELOPED, (2) SUGGESTED GROUP ACTIVITIES, (3) VOCABULARY, (4) TEACHER REFERENCE BOOKS, (5)…

  4. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 242 through 253 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes six indexes--subject, personal author, corporate source, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  5. High density interconnects for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menozzi, Gaetan

    1988-08-01

    The technologies of large scale interconnectors were evaluated for chip and wire or leadless ceramic chip carriers. The packaging and interconnecting structures are either ceramic multilayer with multilayer thick film and cofired multilayer ceramic. Test results are given, technology status and next generation interconnects are described, and aerospace applications are presented.

  6. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of a NASA-sponsored medical program under which work is done by multidiscipline teams to provide an interface between aerospace and medicine. A prosthetic urethral valve, an ear oximeter for measurement of oxygen content in the blood, a radiation dosimeter and an electromyographic muscle trainer are noted as the products of this program.

  7. Aerospace Science Education, A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilburn, Paul

    This curriculum guide was developed by the Alaska State Department of Education for the purpose of aiding elementary and secondary school teachers in incorporating elements of aerospace science in the classroom. The section of the guide designed for elementary school teachers includes chapters under the headings: Aircraft, Airports, Weather,…

  8. Aerospace Meteorology Lessons Learned Relative to Aerospace Vehicle Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Aerospace Meteorology came into being in the 1950s as the development of rockets for military and civilian usage grew in the United States. The term was coined to identify those involved in the development of natural environment models, design/operational requirements, and environment measurement systems to support the needs of aerospace vehicles, both launch vehicles and spacecraft. It encompassed the atmospheric environment of the Earth, including Earth orbit environments. Several groups within the United States were active in this area, including the Department of Defense, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and a few of the aerospace industry groups. Some aerospace meteorology efforts were similar to those being undertaken relative to aviation interests. As part of the aerospace meteorology activities a number of lessons learned resulted that produced follow on efforts which benefited from these experiences, thus leading to the rather efficient and technologically current descriptions of terrestrial environment design requirements, prelaunch monitoring systems, and forecast capabilities available to support the development and operations of aerospace vehicles.

  9. NASA Engineering Safety Center NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group 2007 Proactive Task Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) chartered the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to bring forth and address critical battery-related performance/manufacturing issues for NASA and the aerospace community. A suite of tasks identifying and addressing issues related to Ni-H2 and Li-ion battery chemistries was submitted and selected for implementation. The current NESC funded are: (1) Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries (2) Binding Procurement (3) NASA Lithium-Ion Battery Guidelines (3a) Li-Ion Performance Assessment (3b) Li-Ion Guidelines Document (3b-i) Assessment of Applicability of Pouch Cells for Aerospace Missions (3b-ii) High Voltage Risk Assessment (3b-iii) Safe Charge Rates for Li-Ion Cells (4) Availability of Source Material for Li-Ion Cells (5) NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop This presentation provides a brief overview of the tasks in the 2007 plan and serves as an introduction to more detailed discussions on each of the specific tasks.

  10. Application of Smart Solid State Sensor Technology in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Dungan, L.K.; Makel, D.; Ward, B.; Androjna, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace applications require a range of chemical sensing technologies to monitor conditions in both space vehicles and aircraft operations. One example is the monitoring of oxygen. For example, monitoring of ambient oxygen (O2) levels is critical to ensuring the health, safety, and performance of humans living and working in space. Oxygen sensors can also be incorporated in detection systems to determine if hazardous leaks are occurring in space propulsion systems and storage facilities. In aeronautic applications, O2 detection has been investigated for fuel tank monitoring. However, as noted elsewhere, O2 is not the only species of interest in aerospace applications with a wide range of species of interest being relevant to understand an environmental or vehicle condition. These include combustion products such as CO, HF, HCN, and HCl, which are related to both the presence of a fire and monitoring of post-fire clean-up operations. This paper discusses the development of an electrochemical cell platform based on a polymer electrolyte, NAFION, and a three-electrode configuration. The approach has been to mature this basic platform for a range of applications and to test this system, combined with "Lick and Stick" electronics, for its viability to monitor an environment related to astronaut crew health and safety applications with an understanding that a broad range of applications can be addressed with a core technology.

  11. Lightweight acoustic treatments for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naify, Christina Jeanne

    2011-12-01

    Increase in the use of composites for aerospace applications has the benefit of decreased structural weight, but at the cost of decreased acoustic performance. Stiff, lightweight structures (such as composites) are traditionally not ideal for acoustic insulation applications because of high transmission loss at low frequencies. A need has thus arisen for effective sound insulation materials for aerospace and automotive applications with low weight addition. Current approaches, such as the addition of mass law dominated materials (foams) also perform poorly when scaled to small thickness and low density. In this dissertation, methods which reduce sound transmission without adding significant weight are investigated. The methods presented are intended to be integrated into currently used lightweight structures such as honeycomb sandwich panels and to cover a wide range of frequencies. Layering gasses of differing acoustic impedances on a panel substantially reduced the amount of sound energy transmitted through the panel with respect to the panel alone or an equivalent-thickness single species gas layer. The additional transmission loss derives from successive impedance mismatches at the interfaces between gas layers and the resulting inefficient energy transfer. Attachment of additional gas layers increased the transmission loss (TL) by as much as 17 dB at high (>1 kHz) frequencies. The location and ordering of the gasses with respect to the panel were important factors in determining the magnitude of the total TL. Theoretical analysis using a transfer matrix method was used to calculate the frequency dependence of sound transmission for the different configurations tested. The method accurately predicted the relative increases in TL observed with the addition of different gas layer configurations. To address low-frequency sound insulation, membrane-type locally resonant acoustic materials (LRAM) were fabricated, characterized, and analyzed to understand their

  12. IT Data Mining Tool Uses in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Gilena A.; Freeman, Kenneth; Jones, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Data mining has a broad spectrum of uses throughout the realms of aerospace and information technology. Each of these areas has useful methods for processing, distributing, and storing its corresponding data. This paper focuses on ways to leverage the data mining tools and resources used in NASA's information technology area to meet the similar data mining needs of aviation and aerospace domains. This paper details the searching, alerting, reporting, and application functionalities of the Splunk system, used by NASA's Security Operations Center (SOC), and their potential shared solutions to address aircraft and spacecraft flight and ground systems data mining requirements. This paper also touches on capacity and security requirements when addressing sizeable amounts of data across a large data infrastructure.

  13. Automation technology for aerospace power management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The growing size and complexity of spacecraft power systems coupled with limited space/ground communications necessitate increasingly automated onboard control systems. Research in computer science, particularly artificial intelligence has developed methods and techniques for constructing man-machine systems with problem-solving expertise in limited domains which may contribute to the automation of power systems. Since these systems perform tasks which are typically performed by human experts they have become known as Expert Systems. A review of the current state of the art in expert systems technology is presented, and potential applications in power systems management are considered. It is concluded that expert systems appear to have significant potential for improving the productivity of operations personnel in aerospace applications, and in automating the control of many aerospace systems.

  14. Nonlinear modeling of an aerospace object dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, I. E.; Davydov, E. I.

    2017-01-01

    Here are presented the scientific results, obtained by motion modeling of complicated technical systems of aerospace equipment with consideration of nonlinearities. Computerized panel that allows to measure mutual influence of the system's motion and stabilization device with consideration of its real characteristics has been developed. Analysis of motion stability of a system in general has been carried out and time relationships of the system's motion taking in account nonlinearities are presented.

  15. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Aerospace Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Master of Science in Materials Science Jeremy D. Johnson, BS Captain, USAF March 2009 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...non-destructive material evaluation (NDE) were used to inspect various forms of damage commonly found in aerospace fiberglass composites: voids...ultrasound, and flash IR thermography were analyzed for the detection of defects. Test results and analysis of each NDE method’s capabilities

  16. National Aerospace Leadership Initiative - Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Volvo Aerospace The CCAT-NCAL team worked closely with Volvo Aero to understand their machine tools to be modeled: • Phoenix VTL mill /turn system ...emerging Air Force systems . • Continued development effort for a Web-Enabled framework for an Advanced Decision Support Tool . This tool will...analysis tracking system was co-located in the WNEC Virtual Reality laboratory with DELMIA HUMAN V5 Human Analysis software. These tools were used in the

  17. Integration of pyrotechnics into aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1993-01-01

    The application of pyrotechnics to aerospace systems has been resisted because normal engineering methods cannot be used in design and evaluation. Commonly used approaches for energy sources, such as electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic, do not apply to explosive and pyrotechnic devices. This paper introduces the unique characteristics of pyrotechnic devices, describes how functional evaluations can be conducted, and demonstrates an engineering approach for pyrotechnic integration. Logic is presented that allows evaluation of two basic types of pyrotechnic systems to demonstrate functional margin.

  18. American Aerospace Power: Reinvigorating Our Adventurous Spirit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-03

    a future that is both boundless and conquerable. We must remind the public of what we have accomplished, celebrate historic figures, and enlist...professional airmen ensures aerospace power will continue to provide a definitive advantage to the US for the foreseeable future . To keep this...in the future . Although a comprehensive advertising campaign certainly can reach a great number of people, the USAF must break free of its self

  19. Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    International Publications in Aerospace Medicine Edmonds C, McKenzie B. Diving Medicine for Scuba Divers. Carnegie, Victoria, Australia: J. L...to Coping with Injury and Illness. San Pedro, CA, USA: Best Publishing Co., 1985. Nessirio BA. Rozhdenie Metoda “Nasyshchennykh Pogruzhenii... Metoda Dlitel’nogo Prebyvaniia Cheloveka pod Povyshennym Davleniem. Sankt-Peterburg, Russia: Kosta, 2004. Parker J. The Sports Diving Medical: A Guide to

  20. UV-A Curable Aerospace Topcoats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    UV -A Curable Aerospace Topcoats Mike Dvorchak Chuck Gambino Coatings , Adhesives, and Specialties Todd Williams Mike Gallagher Alan Bushmire Katrina... curable stencil coating for aircraft (’07) Evaluated by CTIO – Reduce gloss – Increase flexibility – Match color (Deft) Weathering of UV -A...Stencil Coatings on C-130 ΔE reduction in UV coatings most likely due to self cleaning – reduced film thickness over time Fluorourethane

  1. Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajamani, Ravi; Saxena, Abhinav; Kramer, Frank; Augustin, Mike; Schroeder, John B.; Goebel, Kai; Shao, Ginger; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a "real-world" example related to designing a landing gear system. The team hopes that this paper and presentation will help start a dialog with the larger aerospace community and that the feedback can be used to improve the ARP and subsequently the practice of IVHM from a systems engineering point-of-view.

  2. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  3. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  4. Access to Japanese aerospace-related scientific and technical information: The NASA Aerospace Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoetker, Glenn P.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    With Japan's growing R&D strength in aerospace-related fields, it is increasingly important for U.S. researchers to be aware of Japanese advances. However, several factors make it difficult to do so. After reviewing the diffusion of aerospace STI in Japan, four factors which make it difficult for U.S. researchers to gather this information are discussed: language, the human network, information scatter, and document acquisition. NASA activities to alleviate these difficulties are described, beginning with a general overview of the NASA STI Program. The effects of the new National Level Agreement between NASA and NASDA are discussed.

  5. Index of aerospace mechanisms symposia proceedings 1-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinaldo, A.; Wilson, J.

    1986-01-01

    This index, organized in five sections (by symposium, by title, by author, by subject, and by project), brings together information on the first 19 Aerospace Mechanisms symposia. Key words are included, cross-referencing all the symposia, and the eighteenth and nineteenth symposia are cross-indexed by project. The Aerospace Mechanisms symposia are devoted to discussions of design, fabrication, test, and operational use of aerospace mechanisms; this is the first index that compiles information on symposia held from 1966 through 1985.

  6. Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

  7. U.S. Aerospace Manufacturing: Industry Overview and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-03

    recession has affected aerospace manufacturing, with both the defense and commercial sides of the industry facing difficult business conditions for the...manufacturing industries, the worldwide recession is weighing heavily on aerospace manufacturing. This is especially true for commercial aerospace...revenues of $60.9 billion and Airbus recorded revenues of $38.7 billion in 2008. Nonetheless, the recession is affecting both producers. In 2008, net

  8. High-Fidelity Simulation in Biomedical and Aerospace Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Introduction / Background. Modeling and Simulation Challenges in Aerospace Engineering. Modeling and Simulation Challenges in Biomedical Engineering. Digital Astronaut. Project Columbia. Summary and Discussion.

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 39: The role of computer networks in aerospace engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Ann P.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from an empirical investigation into the use of computer networks in aerospace engineering. Such networks allow aerospace engineers to communicate with people and access remote resources through electronic mail, file transfer, and remote log-in. The study drew its subjects from private sector, government and academic organizations in the U.S. aerospace industry. Data presented here were gathered in a mail survey, conducted in Spring 1993, that was distributed to aerospace engineers performing a wide variety of jobs. Results from the mail survey provide a snapshot of the current use of computer networks in the aerospace industry, suggest factors associated with the use of networks, and identify perceived impacts of networks on aerospace engineering work and communication.

  10. International Conference on Aerospace Trends...2001 - From Aeroplane to Aerospace Plane, Thiruvananthapuram, India, June 27, 28, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-08-01

    Consideration is given to operational characteristics of future launch vehicles, trends in propulsion technology, technology challenges in the development of cryogenic propulsion systems for future reusable space-launch vehicles, estimation of the overall drag coefficient of an aerospace plane, and self-reliance in aerospace structures. Attention is also given to basic design concepts for smart actuators for aerospace plane control, a software package for the preliminary design of a helicopter, and multiconstraint wing optimization.

  11. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Oklahoma Aerospace Intellectual Capital/Educational Recommendations: An Inquiry of Oklahoma Aerospace Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Erin M.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to conduct detailed personal interviews with aerospace industry executives/managers from both the private and military sectors from across Oklahoma to determine their perceptions of intellectual capital needs of the industry. Interviews with industry executives regarding…

  13. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter.

  14. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

  15. 78 FR 11567 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate..., Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue...

  16. 77 FR 44432 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate...., Washington, DC. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Groves, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch,...

  17. 75 FR 7405 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model Jetstream Series 3101 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201... available in the AD docket shortly after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Taylor Martin, Aerospace... AD docket. Relevant Service Information BAE Systems has issued British Aerospace Jetstream...

  18. 75 FR 20265 - Airworthiness Directives; Liberty Aerospace Incorporated Model XL-2 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Aerospace Incorporated Model XL-2 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Liberty Aerospace Incorporated Model XL-2 airplanes. AD 2009-08-05 currently requires repetitively... approved the incorporation by reference of Liberty Aerospace, Inc. Service Document Critical...

  19. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Selected Aerospace Education Workshops in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maupin, Pauline Hicks

    1976-01-01

    Data from questionnaires indicated that the Tennessee Aerospace Education Workshops were successful in reaching their stated goals, which included developing a greater awareness of aerospace education and helping teachers incorporate more aerospace education in classroom activities. (MLH)

  20. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sowle, D.

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  1. Computational composite mechanics for aerospace propulsion structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1987-01-01

    Specialty methods are presented for the computational simulation of specific composite behavior. These methods encompass all aspects of composite mechanics, impact, progressive fracture and component specific simulation. Some of these methods are structured to computationally simulate, in parallel, the composite behavior and history from the initial frabrication through several missions and even to fracture. Select methods and typical results obtained from such simulations are described in detail in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of computationally simulating: (1) complex composite structural behavior in general, and (2) specific aerospace propulsion structural components in particular.

  2. Interdisciplinary optimum design. [of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1986-01-01

    Problems related to interdisciplinary interactions in the design of a complex engineering systems are examined with reference to aerospace applications. The interdisciplinary optimization problems examined include those dealing with controls and structures, materials and structures, control and stability, structure and aerodynamics, and structure and thermodynamics. The discussion is illustrated by the following specific applications: integrated aerodynamic/structural optimization of glider wing; optimization of an antenna parabolic dish structure for minimum weight and prescribed emitted signal gain; and a multilevel optimization study of a transport aircraft.

  3. 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of the 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, on May 7-9, 1986, is documented herein. During the 3 days, 23 technical papers were presented by experts from the United States and Western Europe. A panel discussion by an International group of experts on future directions In mechanisms was also presented; this discussion, however, is not documented herein. The technical topics addressed included deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, thermal/mechanical/hydraulic actuators, latching devices, positioning mechanisms, robotic manipulators, and computerized mechanisms synthesis.

  4. Program For Simulating Dynamics Of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berning, M. J.; Sagis, K. D.

    1995-01-01

    SORT (Simulation and Optimization of Rocket Trajectories) is general-purpose three-degree-of-freedom with three axis static moment balance simulation of flight dynamics of arbitrary aerospace vehicle. Modular structure facilitates application to variety of trajectory-analysis problems. Contains math model of aerodynamics completely generalized. Computes both longitudinal and lateral forces and moments. In addition to fore-body coefficients, computes longitudinal base effect aerodynamic forces and moments. Simplified ballistic-coefficient model also available for analysis of ballistic entry. Written using ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  5. Fundamentals of Aeronautical and Aerospace Medical Science,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-17

    184) -I & A0A1 8 F ORE IGN TIC.iOLOY DIV UUIAN?-PAT?1m5 APA ON i tFUND~AMENTALS OF AERONAUTICAL AND AEROSPACE MEDICAL SCtEC.j (UlIJUL lI MC 01*0. A...xysel, con- rSin.- more than 1/5 of the air, is essential for human metabolism. Since human beings have lived constantly under norma " air pressure...Temperature under different air flow rate, research subjects wearing norma ; indoor clothing: 1) dry bulb temperature, C; 9) air flow, m/sec; 3) wet

  6. Dielectric barrier discharge processing of aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. J.; Figgures, C. C.; Dixon, D. G.

    2004-08-01

    We report the use of atmospheric pressure, air based, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) to treat materials commonly used in the aerospace industries. The material samples were processed using a test-bed of a conventional DBD configuration in which the sample formed one of the electrodes and was placed in close proximity to a ceramic electrode. The discharges generated a powerful, cold oxidizing environment which was able to remove organic contaminants, etch primer and paint layers, oxidize aluminium and roughen carbon fibre composites by the selective removal of resin.

  7. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to determine the feasibility of utilizing controllable mechanical seals for aerospace applications. A potential application was selected as a demonstration case: the buffer gas seal in a LOX (liquid oxygen) turbopump. Currently, floating ring seals are used in this application. Their replacement with controllable mechanical seals would result in substantially reduced leakage rates. This would reduce the required amount of stored buffer gas, and therefore increase the vehicle payload. For such an application, a suitable controllable mechanical seal was designed and analyzed.

  8. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  9. Capillary Pumped Loops for aerospace application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschlich, Joseph M.

    1989-09-01

    The Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) is a two-phase aerospace thermal transport system with many advantageous performance characteristics. While retaining the passive nature of the heat pipe, it has demonstrated an order of magnitude greater thermal transport capacity over high performance arterial heat pipes. In this survey paper, the CPL is described and its brief history discussed. A postulated analytical design model based on thermodynamic principles is presented. Both demonstrated and potential performance advantages are given. Finally, opportunities for future research are suggested.

  10. Engineering Data for New Aerospace Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Inconel 718 S160 140 __ _ i- 0 l- 10 20 40 60 80 10 𔄀: Ti-6~d-4V ncoe 7780109 4 0 C355 2’ 0 A35 A35n701 _____ 0 ) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Temperature, F...AD-A098 520 BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABS OH F/B 11/6 ENGINEERING DATA FOR NEW AEROSPACE MATERIALS.(U)JUL 80 0 DEEL F33615śB-C-504O UNCLASSIFIED AFWAL-TR...80-4103 NL IlEmlllllllllu EIIIIIEIIEIIEE IIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIu EEEEEIIIIIIIIE 11 . 0 2. IIiM W211 111. M~ 36 IIILJL .4 il6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION

  11. Computational composite mechanics for aerospace propulsion structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Specialty methods are presented for the computational simulation of specific composite behavior. These methods encompass all aspects of composite mechanics, impact, progressive fracture and component specific simulation. Some of these methods are structured to computationally simulate, in parallel, the composite behavior and history from the initial fabrication through several missions and even to fracture. Select methods and typical results obtained from such simulations are described in detail in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of computationally simulating (1) complex composite structural behavior in general and (2) specific aerospace propulsion structural components in particular.

  12. Research needs in aerospace structural dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, A. K.; Goetz, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    The perspective of a NASA Ad Hoc Study Committee on future research needs in structural dynamics within the aerospace industry is presented. It identifies the common aspects of the design process across the industry and establishes the role of structural dynamics in it through a discussion of various design considerations having their basis in structural dynamics. The specific structural dynamics issues involved in these considerations are identified and assessed as to their current technological status and trends. Projections of future requirements based on this assessment are made and areas of research to meet them are identified.

  13. Optical micromachined pressure sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelidis, Diogenes; Parsons, Philip

    1992-08-01

    An optical pressure sensor has been designed using silicon micromachining technology. A resonant silicon beam is mounted above a diaphragm and its resonant frequency changes with applied pressure. The sensor is temperature compensated by way of a second pressure-insensitive resonator. Both resonators are optically addressed via the same optical fiber. The sensor is designed to give an overall accuracy of 0.5 percent full-scale pressure, which is currently between 130 kPa or 3 MPa. Optical technology allows the optical pressure sensor to operate in a harsh aerospace environment where electronic pressure sensors cannot survive.

  14. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems cryocooler overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, J.; Tward, E.

    2010-09-01

    Mechanical long life cryocoolers are an enabling technology used to cool a wide variety of detectors in space applications. These coolers provide cooling over a range of temperatures from 2 K to 200 K, cooling powers from tens of mW to tens of watts. Typical applications are missile warning, Earth and climate sciences, astronomy and cryogenic propellant management. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) has delivered many of the US flight cooler systems and has 12 long life pulse tube and Stirling coolers on orbit with two having over 11 years of continuous operation. This paper will provide an overview of the NGAS cryocooler capabilities.

  15. Center of Excellence in Aerospace Automation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    TyPt ANOGOAIRS W.vumm I May 86 I Anc I Q - T ..𔃻o L =1T ANUjg ifl. =J Center of Excellence in Aerospace Automation. F49620.-82- 10...AQWhI1IU5S M0 sSUoftIIMORS" ~~ah~ ~ T IChunoaA&.Mr IAIA 11.geeato intelligentdot2 619 LPogubset oaen adeb TAIL aou versionet of ourS sond UNerations;nc...addition, small development of the AL programming sy stem contin ued . U .4_1 in Ni- t to :.= .u a, tC. Development of control systems for our two-link

  16. 77 FR 2437 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GVI Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GVI Airplane... conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) Model GVI airplane. This airplane...

  17. A RESOURCE BOOK OF AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Public Schools, NE.

    THIS RESOURCE BOOK OF ACTIVITIES WAS WRITTEN FOR TEACHERS OF GRADES K-6, TO HELP THEM INTEGRATE AEROSPACE SCIENCE WITH THE REGULAR LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF THE CLASSROOM. SUGGESTIONS ARE MADE FOR INTRODUCING AEROSPACE CONCEPTS INTO THE VARIOUS SUBJECT FIELDS SUCH AS LANGUAGE ARTS, MATHEMATICS, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, SOCIAL STUDIES, AND OTHERS. SUBJECT…

  18. State Aerospace Education Resource/Interest Survey Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukert, Michael A.

    1974-01-01

    Study consisted of a six-item questionnaire sent to 155 district school superintendents, to advise Montana's secondary program planners of the availability and nationwide popularity of high school aerospace education offerings and to solicit input concerning interest in on-site capability of supporting a one and two semester aerospace elective in…

  19. The Status and Needs for Aerospace Education in Indiana Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buethe, Chris; Bates, Ivan W.

    Current Indiana school superintendents and assistant superintendents were sent a quick response survey form to determine the status of aerospace education in the schools. Feedback from these people was compiled and the results analyzed. Indications were that, while aerospace education was being taught in Indiana, efforts were enthusiastic but…

  20. Aerospace Technology Curriculum Guide. Invest in Success. Vo. Ed. #260.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains standards for an articulated secondary and postsecondary curriculum in aerospace technology. The curriculum standards can be used to ensure that vocational programs meet the needs of local business and industry. The first part of the document contains a task list and student performance standards for the aerospace technology…