Science.gov

Sample records for aerospace pneumatic control

  1. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  2. Pneumatic actuator with hydraulic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobart R., Jr.

    1992-11-01

    The present invention provides a pneumatically powered actuator having hydraulic control for both locking and controlling the velocity of an output rod without any sponginess. The invention includes a double-acting pneumatic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a control rod connected to the piston. The double-acting pneumatic actuator is mounted to a frame. A first double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a follower rod mounted to the piston is mounted to the frame such that the follower rod is fixedly connected to the control rod. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the first double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V1. The present invention also includes a second double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and an output rod mounted to the piston. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the second double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V2, where V2=V1. A pair of fluid ports in each of the first and second double-acting hydraulic cylinders are operably connected by fluid conduits, one of which includes a valve circuit which may be used to control the velocity of the output rod or to lock the output rod in a static position by regulating the flow of hydraulic fluid between the double-acting cylinders.

  3. Sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom

    2011-08-30

    A pneumatic device control apparatus and method comprising a ported valve slidably fitted over a feed tube of the pneumatic device, and using a compliant biasing device to constrain motion of the valve to provide asymmetric timing for extended pressurization of a power chamber and reduced pressurization of a return chamber of the pneumatic device. The pneumatic device can be a pneumatic hammer drill.

  4. Pneumatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    This unit on pneumatics, for use in postsecondary programs, is organized in eight sections. Each section consists of information sheets with line drawings and multiple-choice questions for each topic in the sections. Answers are provided at the back of the book. The following topics are covered: (1) introduction--pressure, principles of gases,…

  5. Transforming insect electromyograms into pneumatic muscle control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Brandon; Mu, Laiyong; Ritzmann, Roy; Quinn, Roger

    2006-05-01

    Robots can serve as hardware models for testing biological hypotheses. Both for this reason and to improve the state of the art of robotics, we strive to incorporate biological principles of insect locomotion into robotic designs. Previous research has resulted in a line of robots with leg designs based on walking and climbing movements of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis. The current version, Robot V, uses muscle-like Braided Pneumatic Actuators (BPAs). In this paper, we use recorded electromyograms (EMGs) to drive robot joint motion. A muscle activation model was developed that transforms EMGs recorded from behaving cockroaches into appropriate commands for the robot. The transform is implemented by multiplying the EMG by an input gain thus generating an input pressure signal, which is used to drive a one-way closed loop pressure controller. The actuator then can be modeled as a capacitance with input rectification. The actuator exhaust valve is given a leak rate, making the transform a leaky integrator for air pressure, which drives the output force of the actuator. We find parameters of this transform by minimizing the difference between the robot motion produced and that observed in the cockroach. Although we have not reproduced full-amplitude cockroach motion using this robot, results from evaluation on reduced-amplitude cockroach angle data strongly suggest that braided pneumatic actuators can be used as part of a physical model of a biological system.

  6. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-01

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  7. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-10

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  8. Continued Development and Application of Circulation Control Pneumatic Technology to Advanced Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Personnel of the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) Aerospace and Transportation Lab have completed a four-year grant program to develop and evaluate the pneumatic aerodynamic technology known as Circulation Control (CC) or Circulation Control Wing (CCW) for advanced transport aircraft. This pneumatic technology, which employs low-level blowing from tangential slots over round or near-round trailing edges of airfoils, greatly augments the circulation around a lifting or control surface and thus enhances the aerodynamic forces and moments generated by that surface. Two-dimensional force augmentations as high as 80 times the input blowing momentum coefficient have been recorded experimentally for these blown devices, thus providing returns of 8000% on the jet momentum expended. A further benefit is the absence of moving parts such as mechanical flaps, slats, spoilers, ailerons, elevators and rudders from these pneumatic surfaces, or the use of only very small, simple, blown aerodynamic surfaces on synergistic designs which integrate the lift, drag and control surfaces. The application of these devices to advanced aircraft can offer significant benefits in their performance, efficiency, simplicity, reliability, economic cost of operation, noise reduction, and safety of flight. To further develop and evaluate this potential, this research effort was conducted by GTRI under grant for the NASA Langley Research Center, Applied Aerodynamics Division, Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch, between June 14, 1993 and May 31, 1997.

  9. 60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at left, power distribution box at right, all at right of entrance to lcc. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  10. Adaptive backstepping slide mode control of pneumatic position servo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haipeng; Fan, Juntao

    2016-06-01

    With the price decreasing of the pneumatic proportional valve and the high performance micro controller, the simple structure and high tracking performance pneumatic servo system demonstrates more application potential in many fields. However, most existing control methods with high tracking performance need to know the model information and to use pressure sensor. This limits the application of the pneumatic servo system. An adaptive backstepping slide mode control method is proposed for pneumatic position servo system. The proposed method designs adaptive slide mode controller using backstepping design technique. The controller parameter adaptive law is derived from Lyapunov analysis to guarantee the stability of the system. A theorem is testified to show that the state of closed-loop system is uniformly bounded, and the closed-loop system is stable. The advantages of the proposed method include that system dynamic model parameters are not required for the controller design, uncertain parameters bounds are not need, and the bulk and expensive pressure sensor is not needed as well. Experimental results show that the designed controller can achieve better tracking performance, as compared with some existing methods.

  11. Note: Pneumatically modulated liquid delivery with feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, C. R.; Terray, A. V.; Lubrano, A. L.; Rogers, D. A.; Hart, S. J.; Rose-Pehrsson, S. L.

    2012-07-01

    We present the design and characterization of a pneumatically driven liquid delivery system using an embedded microcontroller with feedback control capable of maintaining a stable, constant flow rate over several hours of operation. Flow rates with relative standard deviations less than 1% were achieved and compared to a typical laboratory syringe pump.

  12. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  13. Design and Control of a Pneumatically Actuated Transtibial Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hao; Shen, Xiangrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and control of a pneumatically actuated transtibial prosthesis, which utilizes a pneumatic cylinder-type actuator to power the prosthetic ankle joint to support the user's locomotion. The pneumatic actuator has multiple advantages over the traditional electric motor, such as light weight, low cost, and high power-to-weight ratio. The objective of this work is to develop a compact and lightweight transtibial prosthesis, leveraging the multiple advantages provided by this highly competitive actuator. In this paper, the design details of the prosthesis are described, including the determination of performance specifications, the layout of the actuation mechanism, and the calculation of the torque capacity. Through the authors’ design calculation, the prosthesis is able to provide sufficient range of motion and torque capacity to support the locomotion of a 75 kg individual. The controller design is also described, including the underlying biomechanical analysis and the formulation of the finite-state impedance controller. Finally, the human subject testing results are presented, with the data indicating that the prosthesis is able to generate a natural walking gait and sufficient power output for its amputee user. PMID:26146497

  14. Control of an Aerospace Launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbiri, N.; Manseur, Z.

    2009-03-01

    This research is within the framework of the PERSEUS project proposed by the CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales). Its aim is to develop new concepts for the attitude control of space modules. This article presents a first study as well as the results of a robust LQG control system that allows stable and satisfactory performance for the attitude of a rigid launcher.

  15. Model free control for differential pneumatic pistons: experimental comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weist, Jens; Arteaga, Marco A.; de la Cruz, Leonardo R.; Hebisch, Holger

    2011-01-01

    PID controllers are widely used in industry. While this may be appropriate for many systems, eventually a more complex or reliable algorithm has to be designed to improve performance. Common praxis is to take advantage either of physical properties (e.g. passivity) or of a mathematical model. For this last case it may prove to be hard to get an accurate description of the system dynamics. In this article we experimentally analyse the behaviour of pneumatic actuators by employing control algorithms available in the literature with little or no model information at all, including an adaptation of a robot control law which is shown to work very well for the test bed.

  16. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  17. Materials Control for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The distant future of mankind and the ultimate survivability of the human race, as it is known today, will depend on mans' ability to break earthly bonds and establish new territorial positions throughout the universe. Man must therefore be positioned to not only travel to, but also, to readily adapt to numerous and varying environments. For this mass migration across the galaxies nothing is as import to the human race as is NASA's future missions into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), to the moon, and/or Mars. These missions will form the building blocks to eternity for mankind. From these missions, NASA will develop the foundations for these building blocks based on sound engineering and scientific principles, both known and yet to be discovered. The integrity of the program will lead to development, tracking and control of the most basic elements of hardware production: That being development and control of applications of space flight materials. Choosing the right material for design purposes involves many considerations, such as governmental regulations associated with manufacturing operations, both safety of usage and of manufacturing, general material usage requirements, material longevity and performance requirements, material interfacing compatibility and material usage environments. Material performance is subject to environmental considerations in as much as a given material may perform exceptionally well at standard temperatures and pressures while performing poorly under non-standard conditions. These concerns may be found true for materials relative to the extreme temperatures and vacuum gradients of high altitude usage. The only way to assure that flight worthy materials are used in design is through testing. However, as with all testing, it requires both time on schedule and cost to the operation. One alternative to this high cost testing approach is to rely on a materials control system established by NASA. The NASA community relies on the MAPTIS materials

  18. Pneumatic system structure for circulation control aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, Timothy A. (Inventor); Roman, Stephan (Inventor); Beurer, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A plenum for a circulation control rotor aircraft which surrounds the rotor drive shaft (18) and is so constructed that the top (32), outer (38) and bottom (36) walls through compressed air is admitted are fixed to aircraft structure and the inner wall (34) through which air passes to rotor blades (14) rotates with the drive shaft and rotor blades.

  19. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to determine the feasibility of utilizing controllable mechanical seals for aerospace applications. A potential application was selected as a demonstration case: the buffer gas seal in a LOX (liquid oxygen) turbopump. Currently, floating ring seals are used in this application. Their replacement with controllable mechanical seals would result in substantially reduced leakage rates. This would reduce the required amount of stored buffer gas, and therefore increase the vehicle payload. For such an application, a suitable controllable mechanical seal was designed and analyzed.

  20. Vibration and recoil control of pneumatic hammers. [by air flow pressure regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, I. N.; Darabont, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Vibration sources are described for pneumatic hammers used in the mining industry (pick hammers), in boiler shops (riveting hammers), etc., bringing to light the fact that the principal vibration source is the variation in air pressure inside the cylinder. The present state of the art of vibration control of pneumatic hammers as it is practiced abroad, and the solutions adopted for this purpose, are discussed. A new type of pneumatic hammer with a low noise and vibration level is presented.

  1. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E

    2013-11-01

    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices. PMID:24145429

  2. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Philip N.; Nguyen, Transon V.; Hui, Elliot E.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices. PMID:24145429

  3. Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Shen, Ji Yao

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish a distributed parameter modeling technique for structural analysis, parameter estimation, vibration suppression and control synthesis of large flexible aerospace structures. This report concentrates on the research outputs produced in the last two years of the project. The main accomplishments can be summarized as follows. A new version of the PDEMOD Code had been completed. A theoretical investigation of the NASA MSFC two-dimensional ground-based manipulator facility by using distributed parameter modelling technique has been conducted. A new mathematical treatment for dynamic analysis and control of large flexible manipulator systems has been conceived, which may provide a embryonic form of a more sophisticated mathematical model for future modified versions of the PDEMOD Codes.

  4. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials...

  5. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials...

  6. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials...

  7. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials...

  8. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100 C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changed suddenly.

  9. Computational control of flexible aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Shen, Ji Yao

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish a distributed parameter modeling technique for structural analysis, parameter estimation, vibration suppression and control synthesis of large flexible aerospace structures. This report concentrates on the research outputs produced in the last two years. The main accomplishments can be summarized as follows. A new version of the PDEMOD Code had been completed based on several incomplete versions. The verification of the code had been conducted by comparing the results with those examples for which the exact theoretical solutions can be obtained. The theoretical background of the package and the verification examples has been reported in a technical paper submitted to the Joint Applied Mechanics & Material Conference, ASME. A brief USER'S MANUAL had been compiled, which includes three parts: (1) Input data preparation; (2) Explanation of the Subroutines; and (3) Specification of control variables. Meanwhile, a theoretical investigation of the NASA MSFC two-dimensional ground-based manipulator facility by using distributed parameter modeling technique has been conducted. A new mathematical treatment for dynamic analysis and control of large flexible manipulator systems has been conceived, which may provide an embryonic form of a more sophisticated mathematical model for future modified versions of the PDEMOD Codes.

  10. Controllable surface haptics via particle jamming and pneumatics.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Andrew A; Okamura, Allison M

    2015-01-01

    The combination of particle jamming and pneumatics allows the simultaneous control of shape and mechanical properties in a tactile display. A hollow silicone membrane is molded into an array of thin cells, each filled with coffee grounds such that adjusting the vacuum level in any individual cell rapidly switches it between flexible and rigid states. The array clamps over a pressure-regulated air chamber with internal mechanisms designed to pin the nodes between cells at any given height. Various sequences of cell vacuuming, node pinning, and chamber pressurization allow the surface to balloon into a variety of shapes. Experiments were performed to expand existing physical models of jamming at the inter-particle level to define the rheological characteristics of jammed systems from a macroscopic perspective, relevant to force-displacement interactions that would be experienced by human users. Force-displacement data show that a jammed cell in compression fits a Maxwell model and a cell deflected in the center while supported only at the edges fits a Zener model, each with stiffness and damping parameters that increase at higher levels of applied vacuum. This provides framework to tune and control the mechanical properties of a jamming haptic interface. PMID:25594980

  11. An electromagnetic microvalve for pneumatic control of microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuling; Li, Songjing

    2014-10-01

    An electromagnetic microvalve for pneumatic control of microfluidic devices has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The microvalve is composed of two parts: a miniature electromagnetic actuator and a valve body. The electromagnetic actuator consists mainly of a thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based elastomer, which acts as the valve diaphragm. The diaphragm, used as a solid hydraulic medium, converts the large contact area of a valve core into a small contact area of valve head while maintaining a large stroking force. This microvalve remains closed because of a compressed mechanical spring force generated by the actuator. On the other hand, when a voltage is applied, the valve core moves up, relaxing the thin PDMS membrane, opening the microvalve. The fast open response (~17 ms) of the valve was achieved with a leak rate as low as 0.026 sccm at 200 KPa (N2) pressure. We tested the pertinent dynamic parameters such as flow rate in on/off mode, flow rate of duty cycles, and actuated frequencies in pulse width modulation (PWM) mode. Our method provides a simple, cheap, and small microvalve that avoids the bulky and expensive external pressure control solenoid manifold. This allows it to be easily integrated into portable and disposable devices. PMID:24742860

  12. Actively Controlled Shaft Seals for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.; Wolff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with a piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changes suddenly. the experimental results were compared to the predictions from the mathematical model. The model was successful in predicting the trends in leakage rate that occurred as the balance ratio and sealed pressure changed

  13. Pneumatic motor powered Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for liquid propelled launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Mark C.; Evans, P. S.

    1992-02-01

    Recent studies performed for the Titan 4 launch vehicle indicate significant potential advantages in replacing the current stage 1 and 2 recirculating hydraulic TVC (thrust vector control) system with a PMA (pneumatic mechanical actuation) system. Some of the advantages of a PMA system over the recirculating hydraulic system include reduced part count and weight, reduced maintenance and life-cycle cost, and improved mission reliability. PMA technology, used in aircraft applications since the 1960s, is well suited in launch vehicle TVC applications where an existing pneumatic pressure source is available. A typical pneumatic motor TVC consists of a pneumatic power source, a dual rotor pneumatic motor, a gear box, a ball screw actuator, and the associated closed-loop servo-control elements. One key issue with implementing this mechanical approach is designing a TVC system to withstand large load transient disturbances during liquid engine starting. Hydraulic actuator transient loads have exceeded 60,000 lb(sub f) for a 30,000 lb(sub f) stall design actuator during ground starts of the Titan 3B, Stage 1 engine. A PMA TVC system must also withstand these start transients without imparting excessive reaction loads to the engine nozzle and thrust structure. Work completed to date with Martin Marietta to examine pneumatic motor powered TVC options and technology benefits is presented. The load transient issue is discussed along with potential solutions and the associated trades. General background on PMA technology and experience base is also presented.

  14. Position control of an electro-pneumatic system based on PWM technique and FLC.

    PubMed

    Najjari, Behrouz; Barakati, S Masoud; Mohammadi, Ali; Futohi, Muhammad J; Bostanian, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, modeling and PWM based control of an electro-pneumatic system, including the four 2-2 valves and a double acting cylinder are studied. Dynamic nonlinear behavior of the system, containing fast switching solenoid valves and a pneumatic cylinder, as well as electrical, magnetic, mechanical, and fluid subsystems are modeled. A DC-DC power converter is employed to improve solenoid valve performance and suppress system delay. Among different position control methods, a proportional integrator derivative (PID) controller and fuzzy logic controller (FLC) are evaluated. An experimental setup, using an AVR microcontroller is implemented. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies. PMID:24485509

  15. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo Kim, Soohyun

    2014-07-15

    This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass.

  16. Design and Control of a 1-DOF MRI Compatible Pneumatically Actuated Robot with Long Transmission Lines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Tan, U-Xuan; McMillan, Alan; Gullapalli, Rao; Desai, Jaydev P

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the design and control of an MRI-compatible 1-DOF needle driver robot and its precise position control using pneumatic actuation with long transmission lines. MRI provides superior image quality compared to other imaging modalities such as CT or ultrasound, but imposes severe limitations on the material and actuator choice (to prevent image distortion) due to its strong magnetic field. We are primarily interested in developing a pneumatically actuated breast biopsy robot with a large force bandwidth and precise targeting capability during radio-frequency ablation (RFA) of breast tumor, and exploring the possibility of using long pneumatic transmission lines from outside the MRI room to the device in the magnet to prevent any image distortion whatsoever. This paper presents a model of the entire pneumatic system. The pneumatic lines are approximated by a first order system with time delay, because its dynamics are governed by the telegraph equation with varying coefficients and boundary conditions, which cannot be solved precisely. The slow response of long pneumatic lines and valve subsystems make position control challenging. This is further compounded by the presence of non-uniform friction in the device. Sliding mode control (SMC) was adopted, where friction was treated as an uncertainty term to drive the system onto the sliding surface. Three different controllers were designed, developed, and evaluated to achieve precise position control of the RFA probe. Experimental results revealed that all SMCs gave satisfactory performance with long transmission lines. We also performed several experiments with a 3-DOF fiber-optic force sensor attached to the needle driver to evaluate the performance of the device in the MRI under continuous imaging. PMID:22058649

  17. Design and Control of a 1-DOF MRI Compatible Pneumatically Actuated Robot with Long Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Tan, U-Xuan; McMillan, Alan; Gullapalli, Rao; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and control of an MRI-compatible 1-DOF needle driver robot and its precise position control using pneumatic actuation with long transmission lines. MRI provides superior image quality compared to other imaging modalities such as CT or ultrasound, but imposes severe limitations on the material and actuator choice (to prevent image distortion) due to its strong magnetic field. We are primarily interested in developing a pneumatically actuated breast biopsy robot with a large force bandwidth and precise targeting capability during radio-frequency ablation (RFA) of breast tumor, and exploring the possibility of using long pneumatic transmission lines from outside the MRI room to the device in the magnet to prevent any image distortion whatsoever. This paper presents a model of the entire pneumatic system. The pneumatic lines are approximated by a first order system with time delay, because its dynamics are governed by the telegraph equation with varying coefficients and boundary conditions, which cannot be solved precisely. The slow response of long pneumatic lines and valve subsystems make position control challenging. This is further compounded by the presence of non-uniform friction in the device. Sliding mode control (SMC) was adopted, where friction was treated as an uncertainty term to drive the system onto the sliding surface. Three different controllers were designed, developed, and evaluated to achieve precise position control of the RFA probe. Experimental results revealed that all SMCs gave satisfactory performance with long transmission lines. We also performed several experiments with a 3-DOF fiber-optic force sensor attached to the needle driver to evaluate the performance of the device in the MRI under continuous imaging. PMID:22058649

  18. Vibration control of a pneumatic driven piezoelectric flexible manipulator using self-organizing map based multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-li; Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Zhang, Xian-min; Han, Jian-da

    2016-03-01

    A kind of hybrid pneumatic-piezoelectric flexible manipulator system has been presented in the paper. A hybrid driving scheme is achieved by combining of a pneumatic proportional valve based pneumatic drive and a piezoelectric actuator bonded to the flexible beam. The system dynamics models are obtained based on system identification approaches, using the established experimental system. For system identification of the flexible piezoelectric manipulator subsystem, parametric estimation methods are utilized. For the pneumatic driven system, a single global linear model is not accurate enough to describe its dynamics, due to the high nonlinearity of the pneumatic driven system. Therefore, a self-organizing map (SOM) based multi-model system identification approach is used to get multiple local linear models. Then, a SOM based multi-model inverse controller and a variable damping pole-placement controller are applied to the pneumatic drive and piezoelectric actuator, respectively. Experiments on pneumatic driven vibration control, piezoelectric vibration control and hybrid vibration control are conducted, utilized proportional and derivative (PD) control, SOM based multi-model inverse controller, and the variable damping pole-placement controller. Experimental results demonstrate that the investigated control algorithms can improve the vibration control performance of the pneumatic driven flexible piezoelectric manipulator system.

  19. Precision Position Control of Pneumatic Servo Table Embedded with Aerostatic Bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung; Hsu, Tzu-Yung; Pai, Kei-Ren; Shih, Ming-Chang

    This paper treats the control of a pneumatic servo table combining the air cylinders and sliding guides embedded with aerostatic bearing. Since compressed air flows into the small gap between the bearing and the sliding guide, the cylinder floats around the air film and on the guide surface of the table. The friction forces of the pneumatic servo table are measured, and the relation of frictional force and speed is plotted. The hybrid self-tuning fuzzy controller with the velocity compensators and dead-zone are proposed in this paper. From the experimental results, in case of different position, the positioning accuracy can reach the 0.04μm.

  20. Troubleshooting of an Electromechanical System (Westinghouse PLC Controlling a Pneumatic Robot). High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, James D.

    This training module on the troubleshooting of an electromechanical system, The Westinghouse Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) controlling a pneumatic robot, is used for a troubleshooting unit in an electromechanical systems/robotics and automation systems course. In this unit, students locate and repair a defect in a PLC-operated machine. The…

  1. Pneumatic shutoff and time-delay valve operates at controlled rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, J. L.; Tomlinson, L. E.

    1966-01-01

    Shutoff and time delay valve, which incorporates a metering spool that moves at constant velocity under pneumatic pressure and spring compression, increases fluid-flow area at a uniform rate. Diaphragm areas, control cavity volume, and bleed-orifice size may be varied to give any desired combination of time delay and spool travel time.

  2. Direct adaptive fuzzy control of a translating piezoelectric flexible manipulator driven by a pneumatic rodless cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xian-min; Han, Jian-da

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a novel translating piezoelectric flexible manipulator driven by a rodless cylinder. Simultaneous positioning control and vibration suppression of the flexible manipulator is accomplished by using a hybrid driving scheme composed of the pneumatic cylinder and a piezoelectric actuator. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is utilized for the cylinder. First, the system dynamics model is derived, and its standard multiple input multiple output (MIMO) state-space representation is provided. Second, a composite proportional derivative (PD) control algorithms and a direct adaptive fuzzy control method are designed for the MIMO system. Also, a time delay compensation algorithm, bandstop and low-pass filters are utilized, under consideration of the control hysteresis and the caused high-frequency modal vibration due to the long stroke of the cylinder, gas compression and nonlinear factors of the pneumatic system. The convergence of the closed loop system is analyzed. Finally, experimental apparatus is constructed and experiments are conducted. The effectiveness of the designed controllers and the hybrid driving scheme is verified through simulation and experimental comparison studies. The numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system scheme of employing the pneumatic drive and piezoelectric actuator can suppress the vibration and achieve the desired positioning location simultaneously. Furthermore, the adopted adaptive fuzzy control algorithms can significantly enhance the control performance.

  3. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    An electronically controlled mechanical seal for use as the purge gas seal in a liquid oxygen turbo pump has been fabricated and tested under transient operating conditions. The thickness of the lubricating film is controlled by adjusting the coning of the carbon face. This is accomplished by applying a voltage to a piezoelectric actuator to which the carbon face is bonded. The seal has been operated with a closed-loop control system that utilizes either the leakage rate or the seal face temperature as the feedback. Both speed and pressure transients have been imposed on the seal. The transient tests have demonstrated that the seal is capable of maintaining low leakage rates while limiting the face temperatures.

  4. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Naidu, Desineni S.

    1990-01-01

    The first part of the report concerns broadly the summary of the work done in the areas of singular perturbations and time scales (SPaTS), aerobraking technology, guidance and aerocruise. The synergistic plane change problem connected with orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology, is addressed. The mission involves transfer from high Earth orbit to low Earth orbit with plane change being performed within the atmosphere. The complete mission consists of a deorbit phase, atmospheric phase, and finally reorbit phase. The atmospheric maneuver is composed of an entry mode, a cruise mode, and finally an exit mode. During the cruise mode, constant altitude and velocity are maintained by means of bank angle control with constant thrust or thrust control with constant bank angle. Comparisons between these two control strategies bring out some interesting features.

  5. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Naidu, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified method of matched asymptotic expansions was developed where the common part in composite solution is generated as a polynomial in stretched variable instead of actually evaluating the same from the outer solution. This methodology was applied to the solution of the exact equations for three dimensional atmospheric entry problems. Compared to previous works, the present simplified methodology yields explicit analytical expressions for various components of the composite solution without resorting to any type of transcendental equations to be solved only by numerical methods. The optimal control problem arising in the noncoplanar orbital transfer employing aeroassist was also addressed.

  6. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naidu, Desineni S.; Hibey, Joseph L.

    1988-01-01

    The optimal control problem arising in coplanar, orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology is addressed. The maneuver involves the transfer from high Earth orbit to low Earth orbit. A performance index is chosen the minimize the fuel consumpltion for the transfer. Simulations are carried out for establishing a corridor of entry conditions which are suitable for flying the spacecraft through the atmosphere. A highlight of the paper is the application of an efficient multiple shooting method for taming the notorious nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem resulting from optimization procedure.

  7. Aerospace plane guidance using geometric control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Mark A.; Mease, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    A reduced-order method employing decomposition, based on time-scale separation, of the 4-D state space in a 2-D slow manifold and a family of 2-D fast manifolds is shown to provide an excellent approximation to the full-order minimum-fuel ascent trajectory. Near-optimal guidance is obtained by tracking the reduced-order trajectory. The tracking problem is solved as regulation problems on the family of fast manifolds, using the exact linearization methodology from nonlinear geometric control theory. The validity of the overall guidance approach is indicated by simulation.

  8. An Observer-Based Friction Compensation Technique for Positioning Control of a Pneumatic Servo System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaki, Takahiro; Sano, Manabu

    This paper presents a technique to cope with undesirable frictional effects in positioning control of a pneumatic actuator. This technique is based on an observer for estimating the dynamically varying friction force on-line. The observer is derived from an available nonlinear observer for Coulomb friction by modifying it to fit the pneumatic actuator and to enhance its estimation ability. Our pneumatic servo system for positioning consists of an inner pressure control loop, an outer position control loop, the friction observer, and a velocity observer. In this system, the friction force is compensated by adjusting a desired pressure value sent from the outer loop to the inner loop according to the friction observer output. Experimental comparisons with a conventional control system using friction compensation by means of accelerometer information feedback were carried out and show that our system works with almost the same high positioning accuracy as the conventional system, despite having neither an accelerometer nor a velocity sensor, and is more advantageous from the perspective of cost performance.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Massage and Pneumatic Compression for Ultramarathon Recovery.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Badowski, Natalie; Chin, Joseph; Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Postexercise recovery techniques are widely used, but little research has examined their effectiveness. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of massage and pneumatic compression on recovery from a 161-km ultramarathon. Methods Participants in the 2015 161-km Western States Endurance Run were randomized to a 20-minute postrace intervention of massage, intermittent sequential pneumatic compression, or supine rest. Each subject completed two 400-m runs at maximum speed before the race and on days 3 and 5 after the race, and also provided muscle pain and soreness ratings and overall muscular fatigue scores before and for 7 days after the race. Results Among the 72 runners who finished the race and completed the study, comparison among intervention groups revealed no significant group or interaction effect on 400-m run time, but there was a significant (P<.0001) time effect. Immediately posttreatment, massage resulted in lower muscle pain and soreness ratings compared with the supine-rest control condition (P<.0001), while both massage (P<.0001) and pneumatic compression (P<.01) resulted in lower overall muscular fatigue scores compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between groups in any outcome 1 to 7 days after the race. Conclusion Single 20-minute sessions of postrace massage and intermittent sequential pneumatic compression provide some immediate subjective benefit. There is no evidence, however, that such treatments provide extended subjective or functional benefits of clinical importance. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02530190). Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):320-326. Epub 23 Mar 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6455. PMID:27011305

  10. A comparison of hydraulic, pneumatic, and electro-mechanical actuators for general aviation flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Rice, M.; Eysink, H.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical models for electromechanical (EM), pneumatic and hydraulic actuations are discussed. It is shown that EM and hydraulic actuators provide better and faster time responses than pneumatic actuators but EM actuators utilizing the recently developed samarium-cobalt technology have significant advantages in terms of size, weight and power requirements. In terms of ease and flexibility of installation EM actuators apparently have several advantages over hydraulic actuators, and cost is a primary reason for the popularity of EM actuation for secondary control function since no additional systems need to be added to the aircraft. While new rare earth magnets are currently in developmental stage, costs are relatively high; but continued research should bring prices down.

  11. Pneumatic Valve Operated by Multiplex Pneumatic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Yasutaka; Suzumori, Koichi; Kanda, Takefumi; Wakimoto, Shuichi

    A pneumatic system has several advantages, which are cheapness, lightweight, and reliability to human and environment. These advantages are adapted to some research areas, such as industrial lines, medical and nursing cares, and rehabilitation tools. However, the pneumatic system needs several devices; compressor, air tube, and control valve. This research aim to downsize pneumatic system. In this paper, a new method of multiplex pneumatic transmission for multi-pneumatic servo system is proposed. The valve for this system consists of two vibrators supported by springs, which was designed with simple and cheap structure. The working principle of the valve is vibrators resonance from multiplex pneumatic transmission and it is possible to work as ON/OFF valves without electric wire. Dynamic simulation was used to confirm the working principle of the resonance driving system. A prototype device confirming the principle was designed and developed based on the simulation. The experiments show that this new control system works very well to control two separated valves through single pneumatic tube.

  12. Motion and force controlled vibration testing. [of aerospace hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, Terry D.; Boatman, David J.; Kern, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for controlling both the input acceleration and force in vibration tests is proposed to alleviate the overtesting risks and the problems associated with response limiting in conventional vibration tests of aerospace hardware. Previous research on impedance and force controlled vibration tests is reviewed and a simple equation governing the dual control of acceleration and force is derived. A practical method for implementing the dual control technique in random vibration tests has been demonstrated in JPL's environmental test facility using a conventional digital controller operating in the extremal mode. The dual control technique provides appropriate real-time notching of the input acceleration and a corresponding reduction of the test item response at resonances. Issues concerning the need for force and acceleration phase information, the adequacy of specifying the blocked force, and the derivation of the total force for multipoint supports are discussed.

  13. Controlling remelting processes for superalloys and aerospace Ti alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgaard, D. K.; Williamson, R. L.; Beaman, J. J.

    1998-03-01

    Remelting is performed to facilitate the production of clean, fully dense, homogeneous castings of superalloys and aerospace titanium alloys and is crucial to the defect-free production of these important materials. Modern electroslag remelting and vacuum arc remelting control systems are closed-loop, single input-single output systems that oversimplify the physical properties of the processes; the ever-increasing demand for cleaner, more highly engineered, chemically tuned alloys has pushed these control methodologies to their limit. A new generation of these controllers is being developed by the Specialty Metals Process Consortium and Sandia National Laboratories to answer the challenges of remelting control for the next generation of alloys; these control systems will use multiple sensor inputs and apply material-specific system and process models.

  14. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI. PMID:25488196

  15. Pneumatic vortical flow control at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavella, Domingo A.; Schiff, Lewis B.; Cummings, Russell M.

    1990-01-01

    The injection of thin, high-momentum jets of air into the fuselage forebody boundary layers of the F-18 aircraft is explored numerically as a means of controlling the onset of fuselage vortices and of generating yaw control forces. The study was carried out for an angle of attack of 30 deg with symmetrical and asymmetrical blowing configurations. One-sided blowing results in a strongly asymmetrical flow pattern in the fore portion of the fuselage, leading to a net lateral force.

  16. Pneumatic jet-control valve for dual circulating fluidized beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Haibo; Dong, Pengfei; Zhu, Zhiping; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yukui; Lu, Qinggang

    2015-11-01

    With the rapid development of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology in different fields, the disadvantages of conventional non-mechanical valves are becoming more apparent, and they are not suitable to be used in complex CFB systems. In this paper, a novel non-mechanical valve named the jet-control valve is presented which can avoid the fluidization of solid particles. The feasibility and performance characteristics of the new valve are investigated with a cold-model dual CFB. The results show that compared with the conventional non-mechanical valve, the jet-control valve can transfer solid particles steadily over a larger range, prevent artesian flow, and improve the leakage characteristics. The effects of the operating parameters and structural parameters on the minimum aeration velocity, solid flow rate, and maximum solid flow rate are studied. A two-valve model is proposed to explain the transport capacity of the valve for one jet pipe. A semi-theoretical expression is obtained based on the experimental data with a maximum deviation of 30% providing useful guide for scaling-up the design.

  17. Computational optimization of a pneumatic forebody flow control concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Tavella, Domingo; Schiff, Lewis B.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of a tangential slot blowing concept for generating lateral control forces on an aircraft forebody is analyzed using computational fluid dynamics. The flow about a fighter forebody is computed using a multiple-zone, thin-layer Navier-Stokes code. Tangential slot blowing is modeled by the use of an actuator plane. The effects of slot location and slot length on the efficiency of the system are analyzed. Results of the study indicate that placement of the slot near the nose of the aircraft greatly enhances the efficiency of the system, while the length and circumferential location of the slot are of secondary importance. Efficiency is defined by the amount of side force or yawing moment obtained per unit blowing coefficient. The effect of sideslip on the system is also analyzed. The system is able to generate incremental changes in forces and moments in flows with sideslip angles up to 10 deg comparable to those obtained at zero sideslip. These results are used to determine a baseline configuration for an experimental study of the tangential slot blowing concept.

  18. Active control of crossflow-induced transition by means of in-line pneumatic actuator orifices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, J.; Barth, H. P.; Nitsche, W.

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of a pneumatic actuator system for controlling the crossflow vortex-induced laminar breakdown is investigated by means of hot-wire measurements. Steady blowing or suction through a spanwise row of periodically arranged orifices initiates a system of longitudinal vortices which reduces the amplitude of the most amplified stationary crossflow vortices. Thus, the onset of high-frequency secondary instability and the following laminar-turbulent transition was shifted farther downstream. All experiments were conducted at the redesigned DLR swept flat plate experiment in the open test section of the 1 m wind tunnel at the DLR in Göttingen.

  19. System design for active vibration control of aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, V.; Nagaraja, B. V.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Shree S, Amrutha; Muthaiah, Skanda N.

    2003-10-01

    Instrumentation, electronics, digital signal processing and related software form the basic building blocks of a system for implementation of Active Vibration Control (AVC) for smart aerospace structures. This paper essentially deals with the design, development and implementation of a 4 channel analog input sub-system essentially consisting of charge amplifiers, filters, gain amplifiers & Analog to Digital Converters (ADC), the subsequent Digital Signal Processor (DSP) hardware for implementation of the controller and finally a 4 Channel analog output subsystem consisting of Digital to Analog Converters (DAC), reconstruction filters & high voltage amplifiers. This system essentially interfaces to a structure with piezo-ceramic sensors and actuators for implementation of real time AVC on a smart beam. The paper also highlights some of the new ideas that have been incorporated into the system design.

  20. Control of transient vibrations due to stage movements in 6-dof active pneumatic table by inertial force compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jong-Oh; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2013-10-01

    Passive pneumatic tables are popularly used in precision measurements or processes for isolation of ground vibrations over frequency ranges higher than resonance frequencies of a few Hz typically. Recently, active pneumatic tables are also used often because the passive systems are liable to table excitations in the low resonance frequency ranges, causing long settling times. In studies on the active tables, disturbances onto the tables were often regarded to be unknown and, hence, feedback control algorithms were implemented. However, the disturbances are mostly due to inertial forces due to movement of equipment on the table, e.g., x-y stages. Such a movement is given relative to the table as command inputs. Since absolute motion of the table is normally measured in an active isolation table, absolute motion of the equipment can be easily estimated for calculation of the inertial force exerted onto the table by the moving equipment. Consequently, by compensating dynamic pressure inside the pneumatic chamber to counteract with the inertia force due to the equipment motion, resultant forces acting onto the table can be made zero. In this paper, how to apply the proposed feed-forward control algorithm to a 6-degree of freedom active pneumatic table with time-delay pneumatic control is presented. Performance of the inertial force compensation control evaluated through experiments is also discussed.

  1. Open loop pneumatic control of a Lysholm engine or turbine exhaust pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Plonski, B.A.

    1981-07-17

    A Lysholm engine, or helical screw expander, is currently being evaluated at the University of California, Berkeley for staging with a conventional turbine in geothermal energy conversion. A pneumatic closed loop, proportional-integral control system was implemented to control the Lysholm engine's exhaust pressure for performance testing of the engine at constant inlet/outlet pressure ratios. The control system will also be used to control the exhaust pressure of the conventional turbine during future testing of the staged Lysholm-turbine system. Analytical modeling of the control system was performed and successful tuning was achieved by applying Ziegler-Nichol's tuning method. Stable control and quick response, of approximately 1 minute, was demonstrated for load and set point changes in desired exhaust pressures.

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Sounding Rocket Pneumatic System Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armen, Jerald

    2010-01-01

    The recent fusion of decades of advancements in mathematical models, numerical algorithms and curve fitting techniques marked the beginning of a new era in the science of simulation. It is becoming indispensable to the study of rockets and aerospace analysis. In pneumatic system, which is the main focus of this paper, particular emphasis will be placed on the efforts of compressible flow in Attitude Control System of sounding rocket.

  3. Controls and Health Management Technologies for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2004-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of an Intelligent Engine. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Engine are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This paper describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  4. Control of a pneumatic power active lower-limb orthosis with filter-based iterative learning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chia-En; Chen, Jian-Shiang

    2014-05-01

    A filter-based iterative learning control (FILC) scheme is developed in this paper, which consists in a proportional-derivative (PD) feedback controller and a feedforward filter. Moreover, based on two-dimensional system theory, the stability of the FILC system is proven. The design criteria for a wavelet transform filter (WTF) - chosen as the feedforward filter - and the PD feedback controller are also given. Finally, using a pneumatic power active lower-limb orthosis (PPALO) as the controlled plant, the wavelet-based iterative learning control (WILC) implementation and the orchestration of a trajectory tracking control simulation are given in detail and the overall tracking performance is validated.

  5. Proceedings of the Fifth NASA/NSF/DOD Workshop on Aerospace Computational Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. (Editor); Man, G. K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Workshop on Aerospace Computational Control was one in a series of workshops sponsored by NASA, NSF, and the DOD. The purpose of these workshops is to address computational issues in the analysis, design, and testing of flexible multibody control systems for aerospace applications. The intention in holding these workshops is to bring together users, researchers, and developers of computational tools in aerospace systems (spacecraft, space robotics, aerospace transportation vehicles, etc.) for the purpose of exchanging ideas on the state of the art in computational tools and techniques.

  6. Semi-active damping strategy for beams system with pneumatically controlled granular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajkowski, Jacek M.; Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Bajer, Czesław I.

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with a control method for semi-active damping of a double beam system with a smart granular structure placed in a thin silicone envelope. The damping properties of the system are controlled pneumatically, by subjecting the granular material to underpressure at particular moments. A mathematical model of the layered beam with a granular damping structure is represented by the two degrees of freedom, modified Kelvin-Voigt model of two masses, a spring with controllable stiffness, and a viscous damper with a variable damping coefficient. The optimal control problem is posed, using the concept of switching of the parameters to increase the efficiency of suppressing the displacement's amplitude. The resulting control strategy was verified experimentally for free vibrations of a cantilever system. The research proved that the appropriate, periodic switching of the properties of the considered structure enables reducing the vibration more effectively than if the material is treated passively.

  7. Advances in Pneumatic-Controlled High-Lift Systems Through Pulsed Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Englar, Robet J.

    2003-01-01

    Circulation Control technologies have been around for 65 years, and have been successfully demonstrated in laboratories and flight vehicles alike. Yet there are few production aircraft flying today that implement these advances. Circulation Control techniques may have been overlooked due to perceived unfavorable trade offs of mass flow, pitching moment, cruise drag, noise, etc. Improvements in certain aspects of Circulation Control technology are the focus of this paper. This report will describe airfoil and blown high lift concepts that also address cruise drag reduction and reductions in mass flow through the use of pulsed pneumatic blowing on a Coanda surface. Pulsed concepts demonstrate significant reductions in mass flow requirements for Circulation Control, as well as cruise drag concepts that equal or exceed conventional airfoil systems.

  8. Pneumatic Flap Performance for a 2D Circulation Control Airfoil, Steady and Pulsed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    Circulation Control technologies have been around for 65 years, and have been successfully demonstrated in laboratories and flight vehicles alike, yet there are few production aircraft flying today that implement these advances. Circulation Control techniques may have been overlooked due to perceived unfavorable trade offs of mass flow, pitching moment, cruise drag, noise, etc. Improvements in certain aspects of Circulation Control technology are the focus of this paper. This report will describe airfoil and blown high lift concepts that also address cruise drag reduction and reductions in mass flow through the use of pulsed pneumatic blowing on a Coanda surface. Pulsed concepts demonstrate significant reductions in mass flow requirements cor Circulation Control, as well as cruise drag concepts that equal or exceed conventional airfoil systems.

  9. Perioperative external pneumatic calf compression as thromboembolism prophylaxis in gynecologic oncology: report of a randomized controlled trial

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke-Pearson, D.L.; Creasman, W.T.; Coleman, R.E.; Synan, I.S.; Hinshaw, W.M.

    1984-06-01

    Postoperative venous thromboembolic complications are a major problem for the gynecologic oncologist. External pneumatic calf compression (EPC), when applied intraoperatively and left on the patient's legs for 5 days postoperatively, has been previously demonstrated to significantly reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolic complications in patients undergoing surgery for pelvic malignancies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether a short perioperative course of EPC is also effective in preventing venous thromboembolic complications. One hundred ninety-four patients participated in a randomized controlled trial of perioperative external pneumatic calf compression. /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen scanning and impedance plethysmography were used as prospective surveillance methods in both groups. Venous thromboembolic complications were diagnosed in 12.4% of control group patients and in 18.6% of EPC group patients. External pneumatic calf compression when used only in the perioperative period appears to be of no benefit in reducing the incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolic complications.

  10. Genetic algorithm based active vibration control for a moving flexible smart beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Shi, Ming-li; Wang, Bin; Xie, Zhuo-wei

    2012-05-01

    A rod cylinder based pneumatic driving scheme is proposed to suppress the vibration of a flexible smart beam. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is employed to control the motion of the cylinder's piston rod for simultaneous positioning and vibration suppression. Firstly, the system dynamics model is derived using Hamilton principle. Its standard state-space representation is obtained for characteristic analysis, controller design, and simulation. Secondly, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize and tune the control gain parameters adaptively based on the specific performance index. Numerical simulations are performed on the pneumatic driving elastic beam system, using the established model and controller with tuned gains by GA optimization process. Finally, an experimental setup for the flexible beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder is constructed. Experiments for suppressing vibrations of the flexible beam are conducted. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pneumatic drive scheme and the adopted control algorithms are feasible. The large amplitude vibration of the first bending mode can be suppressed effectively.

  11. Fourth NASA Workshop on Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    A collection of papers presented at the Fourth NASA Workshop on Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems is given. The papers address modeling, systems identification, and control of flexible aircraft, spacecraft and robotic systems.

  12. Design, modeling and control of a pneumatically actuated manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Rongjie; Branson, David T; Zheng, Tianjiang; Guglielmino, Emanuele; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2013-09-01

    Biological tentacles, such as octopus arms, have entirely flexible structures and virtually infinite degrees of freedom (DOF) that allow for elongation, shortening and bending at any point along the arm length. The amazing dexterity of biological tentacles has driven the growing implementation of continuum manipulators in robotic systems. This paper presents a pneumatic manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures in some of their key features and functions, such as continuum morphology, intrinsic compliance and stereotyped motions with hyper redundant DOF. The kinematics and dynamics of the manipulator are formulated and identified, and a hierarchical controller taking inspiration from the structure of an octopus nervous system is used to relate desired stereotyped motions to individual actuator inputs. Simulations and experiments are carried out to validate the model and prototype where good agreement was found between the two. PMID:23851387

  13. Multi-application controls: Robust nonlinear multivariable aerospace controls applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enns, Dale F.; Bugajski, Daniel J.; Carter, John; Antoniewicz, Bob

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the general methodology used to apply Honywell's Multi-Application Control (MACH) and the specific application to the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) including piloted simulation handling qualities evaluation. The general steps include insertion of modeling data for geometry and mass properties, aerodynamics, propulsion data and assumptions, requirements and specifications, e.g. definition of control variables, handling qualities, stability margins and statements for bandwidth, control power, priorities, position and rate limits. The specific steps include choice of independent variables for least squares fits to aerodynamic and propulsion data, modifications to the management of the controls with regard to integrator windup and actuation limiting and priorities, e.g. pitch priority over roll, and command limiting to prevent departures and/or undesirable inertial coupling or inability to recover to a stable trim condition. The HARV control problem is characterized by significant nonlinearities and multivariable interactions in the low speed, high angle-of-attack, high angular rate flight regime. Systematic approaches to the control of vehicle motions modeled with coupled nonlinear equations of motion have been developed. This paper will discuss the dynamic inversion approach which explicity accounts for nonlinearities in the control design. Multiple control effectors (including aerodynamic control surfaces and thrust vectoring control) and sensors are used to control the motions of the vehicles in several degrees-of-freedom. Several maneuvers will be used to illustrate performance of MACH in the high angle-of-attack flight regime. Analytical methods for assessing the robust performance of the multivariable control system in the presence of math modeling uncertainty, disturbances, and commands have reached a high level of maturity. The structured singular value (mu) frequency response methodology is presented

  14. Observer-Based Magnetic Bearing Controller Developed for Aerospace Flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Dzu K.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of a versatile, observer-based magnetic bearing controller for aerospace flywheels was successfully developed and demonstrated on a magnetic bearing test rig (see the photograph) and an actual flywheel module. The objective of this development included a fast, yet low risk, control development process, and a robust, high-performance controller for a large variety of flywheels. This required a good system model, an efficient development procedure, and a model-based controller that addressed the key problems associated with flywheel and bearing imbalance, sensor error, and vibration. The model used in this control development and tuning procedure included the flexible rotor dynamics and motor-induced vibrations. Such a model was essential for low-risk scheduling of speed-dependent control parameters and for reliable evaluation of novel control strategies. The successfully tested control prototype utilized an extended Kalman filter to estimate the true rotor principal-axis motion from the raw sensor position feedback. For control refinement, the extended Kalman filter also estimated and eliminated the combined effects of mass-imbalance and sensor runouts from the input data. A key advantage of the design based on the extended Kalman filter is its ability to accurately estimate both the rotor's principal-axis position and gyroscopic rates with the least amount of phase lag. This is important for control parameter scheduling to dampen the gyroscopic motions. Because of large uncertainties in the magnetic bearing and imbalance characteristics, this state-estimation scheme alone is insufficient for containing the rotor motion within the desired 1-mil excursion radius. A nonlinear gain adjustment based on an estimation of the principal-axis orbit size was needed to provide a coarse (nonoptimal), but robust, control of the orbit growth. Control current minimization was achieved with a (steepest gradient) search of synchronous errors in the principal

  15. Passivity-based Robust Control of Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelkar, Atul G.; Joshi, Suresh M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the research work performed over the duration of the cooperative research agreement between NASA Langley Research Center and Kansas State University. The cooperative agreement which was originally for the duration the three years was extended by another year through no-cost extension in order to accomplish the goals of the project. The main objective of the research was to develop passivity-based robust control methodology for passive and non-passive aerospace systems. The focus of the first-year's research was limited to the investigation of passivity-based methods for the robust control of Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) single-input single-output (SISO), open-loop stable, minimum-phase non-passive systems. The second year's focus was mainly on extending the passivity-based methodology to a larger class of non-passive LTI systems which includes unstable and nonminimum phase SISO systems. For LTI non-passive systems, five different passification. methods were developed. The primary effort during the years three and four was on the development of passification methodology for MIMO systems, development of methods for checking robustness of passification, and developing synthesis techniques for passifying compensators. For passive LTI systems optimal synthesis procedure was also developed for the design of constant-gain positive real controllers. For nonlinear passive systems, numerical optimization-based technique was developed for the synthesis of constant as well as time-varying gain positive-real controllers. The passivity-based control design methodology developed during the duration of this project was demonstrated by its application to various benchmark examples. These example systems included longitudinal model of an F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) for pitch axis control, NASA's supersonic transport wind tunnel model, ACC benchmark model, 1-D acoustic duct model, piezo-actuated flexible link model, and NASA

  16. Active Pneumatic Vibration Control by Using Pressure and Velocity Measurements and Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Controller

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Yi; Liang, Jin-Wei; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control strategy to overcome nonlinear and time-varying characteristics of a diaphragm-type pneumatic vibration isolator (PVI) system. By combining an adaptive rule with fuzzy and sliding-mode control, the method has online learning ability when it faces the system's nonlinear and time-varying behaviors during an active vibration control process. Since the proposed scheme has a simple structure, it is easy to implement. To validate the proposed scheme, a composite control which adopts both chamber pressure and payload velocity as feedback signal is implemented. During experimental investigations, sinusoidal excitation at resonance and random-like signal are input on a floor base to simulate ground vibration. Performances obtained from the proposed scheme are compared with those obtained from passive system and PID scheme to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent control. PMID:23820746

  17. Effective suppression of pneumatic vibration isolators by using input-output linearization and time delay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Pyung-hun; Ki Han, Dong; Shin, Yun-ho; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new state space representation of pneumatic vibration isolators (PVIs) and a design of a robust control, Time Delay Control (TDC), based on it. The new state space model, derived by using the input-output linearization method, is of the phase variable form with the air mass-flow as the control input. This model offers a framework that enables simultaneous suppression of both seismic vibration and direct disturbance (or payload disturbance) with an accelerometer only. Based on this model, TDC is designed and verified with experiments on a single chamber PVI with an accelerometer only. In the experiment, the PVI with TDC successfully suppresses seismic vibration and direct disturbance, both individually and simultaneously. Faced with seismic vibration, the transmissibility of the PVI with TDC has virtually no resonance peak at low frequency; under direct disturbance, the former achieves a 68 percent reduction in settling time of the latter. The final analysis of experimental result shows that TDC effectively estimates the modeling error along with other uncertainties and cancels them, while achieving desired closed-loop dynamics.

  18. Application of pneumatic lift and control surface technology to advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The application of pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic technology to both the lifting and the control surfaces of advanced transport aircraft can provide revolutionary changes in the performance and operation of these vehicles, ranging in speed regime from Advanced Subsonic Transports to the High Speed Civil Transport, and beyond. This technology, much of it based on the Circulation Control Wing blown concepts, can provide aerodynamic force augmentations of 80 to 100 (i.e., return of 80-100 pounds of force per pound of input momentum from the blowing jet). This can be achieved without use of external mechanical surfaces. Clever application of this technology can provide no-moving-part lifting surfaces (wings/tails) integrated into the control system to greatly simplify aircraft designs while improving their aerodynamic performance. Lift/drag ratio may be pneumatically tailored to fit the current phase of the flight, and takeoff/landing performance can be greatly improved by reducing ground roll distances and liftoff/touchdown speeds. Alternatively, great increases in liftoff weights and payloads are possible, as are great reductions in wing and tail planform size, resulting in optimized cruise wing designs. Furthermore, lift generation independent of angle of attack provides much promise for increased safety of flight in the severe updrafts/downdrafts of microbursts and windshears, which is further augmented by the ability to sustain flight at greatly reduced airspeeds. Load-tailored blown wings can also reduce tip vorticity during highlift operations and the resulting vortex wake hazards near terminal areas. Reduced noise may also be possible as these jets can be made to operate at low pressures. The planned presentation will support the above statements through discussions of recent experimental and numerical (CFD) research and development of these advanced blown aerodynamic surfaces, portions of which have been conducted for NASA. Also to be presented will be

  19. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and...

  20. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and...

  1. Active pneumatic control of centrifugal microfluidic flows for lab-on-a-chip applications.

    PubMed

    Clime, Liviu; Brassard, Daniel; Geissler, Matthias; Veres, Teodor

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports a novel method of controlling liquid motion on a centrifugal microfluidic platform based on the integration of a regulated pressure pump and a programmable electromechanical valving system. We demonstrate accurate control over the displacement of liquids within the system by pressurizing simultaneously multiple ports of the microfluidic device while the platform is rotating at high speed. Compared to classical centrifugal microfluidic platforms where liquids are solely driven by centrifugal and capillary forces, the method presented herein adds a new degree of freedom for fluidic manipulation, which represents a paradigm change in centrifugal microfluidics. We first demonstrate how various core microfluidic functions such as valving, switching, and reverse pumping (i.e., against the centrifugal field) can be easily achieved by programming the pressures applied at dedicated access ports of the microfluidic device. We then show, for the first time, that the combination of centrifugal force and active pneumatic pumping offers the possibility of mixing fluids rapidly (~0.1 s) and efficiently based on the creation of air bubbles at the bottom of a microfluidic reservoir. Finally, the suitability of the developed platform for performing complex bioanalytical assays in an automated fashion is demonstrated in a DNA harvesting experiment where recovery rates of about 70% were systematically achieved. The proposed concept offers the interesting prospect to decouple basic microfluidic functions from specific material properties, channel dimensions and fabrication tolerances, surface treatments, or on-chip active components, thus promoting integration of complex assays on simple and low-cost microfluidic cartridges. PMID:25860103

  2. Three Dimensional Solution of Pneumatic Active Control of Forebody Vortex Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; SharafEl-Din, Hazem H.; Liu, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Pneumatic active control of asymmetric vortical flows around a slender pointed forebody is investigated using the three dimensional solution for the compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equation. The computational applications cover the normal and tangential injection control of asymmetric flows around a 5 degree semi-apex angle cone at a 40 degree angle of attack, 1.4 freestream Mach number and 6 x 10(exp 6) freestream Reynolds number (based on the cone length). The effective tangential angle range of 67.5 approaches minus 67.5 degrees is used for both normal and tangential ports of injection. The effective axial length of injection is varied from 0.03 to 0.05. The computational solver uses the implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting finite volume scheme, and the grid consists of 161 x 55 x 65 points in the wrap around, normal and axial directions, respectively. The results show that tangential injection is more effective than normal injection.

  3. Energy spectra of the pneumatically positioned neutron sources at LLNL's Hazards control standards and calibration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thorngate, J.H.

    1987-06-15

    The Hazards Control Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains a Standards and Calibration Laboratory that includes three neutron sources (two /sup 252/Cf and one /sup 238/PuBe that can be positioned pneumatically for irradiations. Ten moderators exist to modify the neutron energy spectra produced by these sources. The thicknesses and materials of these moderators are: 25-cm water; 5-, 10-, 15-, and 25-cm heavy water; 20-cm aluminum; and 2-, 5-, 10-, and 15-cm polyethylene. We used a multisphere spectrometer to measure the neutron spectra at 2 m from both the PuBe source and the smaller Cf source, with the sources bare, and in all of the moderators. These data were reduced in 25 energy groups ranging from 0.25 eV to 16 MeV. Except for the 15-m polyethylene moderator, we also made measurements using a liquid-scintillator fast-neutron spectrometer. These data were reduced in 0.1-MeV increments from 0.5 to 12.5 MeV. Spectra from the measurements and from independent calculations are presented in tabular and graphic form. Dosimetric values, calculated from both the measured and calculated spectra, are also presented.

  4. Softworms: the design and control of non-pneumatic, 3D-printed, deformable robots.

    PubMed

    Umedachi, T; Vikas, V; Trimmer, B A

    2016-04-01

    Robots that can easily interact with humans and move through natural environments are becoming increasingly essential as assistive devices in the home, office and hospital. These machines need to be safe, effective, and easy to control. One strategy towards accomplishing these goals is to build the robots using soft and flexible materials to make them much more approachable and less likely to damage their environment. A major challenge is that comparatively little is known about how best to design, fabricate and control deformable machines. Here we describe the design, fabrication and control of a novel soft robotic platform (Softworms) as a modular device for research, education and public outreach. These robots are inspired by recent neuromechanical studies of crawling and climbing by larval moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera, caterpillars). Unlike most soft robots currently under development, the Softworms do not rely on pneumatic or fluidic actuators but are electrically powered and actuated using either shape-memory alloy microcoils or motor tendons, and they can be modified to accept other muscle-like actuators such as electroactive polymers. The technology is extremely versatile, and different designs can be quickly and cheaply fabricated by casting elastomeric polymers or by direct 3D printing. Softworms can crawl, inch or roll, and they are steerable and even climb steep inclines. Softworms can be made in any shape but here we describe modular and monolithic designs requiring little assembly. These modules can be combined to make multi-limbed devices. We also describe two approaches for controlling such highly deformable structures using either model-free state transition-reward matrices or distributed, mechanically coupled oscillators. In addition to their value as a research platform, these robots can be developed for use in environmental, medical and space applications where cheap, lightweight and shape-changing deformable robots will provide new

  5. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  6. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  7. Wind Tunnel Results of Pneumatic Forebody Vortex Control Using Rectangular Slots a Chined Forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Michael; Meyn, Larry A.

    1994-01-01

    A subsonic wind tunnel investigation of pneumatic vortex flow control on a chined forebody using slots was accomplished at a dynamic pressure of 50 psf resulting in a R(n)/ft of 1.3 x 10(exp 6). Data were acquired from angles of attack ranging from -4deg to +34deg at side slips of +0.4deg and +10.4deg. The test article used in this study was the 10% scale Fighter Lift and Control (FLAC) advanced diamond winged, vee-tailed fighter configuration. Three different slot blowing concepts were evaluated; outward, downward, and tangential with ail blowing accomplished asymmetrically. The results of three different mass flows (0.067, 0.13, and 0.26 lbm/s; C(sub mu)'s of less than or equal to 0.006, 0.011. and 0.022 respectively) were analyzed and reported. Test data are presented on the effects of mass flows, slot lengths and positions and blowing concepts on yawing moment and side force generation. Results from this study indicate that the outward and downward blowing slots developed yawing moment and side force increments in the direction opposite of the blowing side while the tangential blowing slots generated yawing moment and side force increments in the direction towards the blowing side. The outward and downward blowing slots typically produced positive pitching moment increments while the tangential blowing slots typically generated negative pitching moment increments. The slot blowing nearest the forebody apex was most effective at generating the largest increments and as the slot was moved aft or increased in length, its effectiveness at generating forces and moments diminished.

  8. Haptic control of a pneumatic muscle actuator to provide resistance for simulated isokinetic exercise; part II: control development and testing.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kara L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Neidhard-Doll, Amy T

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of resistance for strength training and rehabilitation. The objective of this work was to control a PMA for use in isokinetic exercise, potentially benefiting anyone in need of optimal strength training through a joint's range of motion. The controller, based on an inverse three-element phenomenological model and adaptive nonlinear control, allows the system to operate as a type of haptic device. A human quadriceps dynamic simulator was developed (as described in Part I of this work) so that control effectiveness and accommodation could be tested prior to human implementation. Tracking error results indicate that the control system is effective at producing PMA displacement and resistance necessary for a scaled, simulated neuromuscular actuator to maintain low-velocity isokinetic movement during simulated concentric and eccentric knee extension. PMID:23495753

  9. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  10. Control of Speed and Power in a Humanoid Robot Arm Using Pneumatic Actuators for Human-Robot Coexisting Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Kiyoshi

    A new type of humanoid robot arm which can coexist and be interactive with human beings are looked for. For the purpose of implementation of human smooth and fast movement to a pneumatic robot, the author used a humanoid robot arm with pneumatic agonist-antagonist actuators as endoskeletons which has control mechanism in the stiffness of each joint, and the controllability was experimentally discussed. Using Kitamori's method to experimentally decide the control gains and using I-PD controller, three joints of the humanoid robot arm were experimentally controlled. The damping control algorithm was also adopted to the wrist joint, to modify the speed in accordance with the power. The results showed that the controllability to step-wise input was less than one degree in error to follow the target angles, and the time constant was less than one second. The simultaneous input of command to three joints was brought about the overshoot of about ten percent increase in error. The humanoid robot arm can generate the calligraphic motions, moving quickly at some times but slowly at other times, or particularly softly on some occasions but stiffly on other occasions at high accuracy.

  11. Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles. Aerospace Education III. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles." It provides guidelines for each chapter. The guide includes objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for teaching,…

  12. Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Mackin, T. E.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, includes a discussion of the essentials of propulsion, control, and guidance and the conditions of space travel. Chapter 1 provides a brief account of basic laws of celestial mechanics. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 are devoted to the chemical principles of propulsion. Included are the basics of…

  13. Feasibility and testing of lighweight, energy efficient, additive manufactured pneumatic control valve

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J.; Mell, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    AeroValve s innovative pneumatic valve technology recycles compressed air through the valve body with each cycle of the valve, and was reported to reduce compressed air requirements by an average of 25% 30%.This technology collaboration project between ORNL and Aerovalve confirms the energy efficiency of valve performance. Measuring air consumption per work completed, the AeroValve was as much as 85% better than the commercial Festo valve.

  14. Adaptive robust motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders with LuGre model-based friction compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Deyuan; Tao, Guoliang; Liu, Hao; Zhu, Xiaocong

    2014-07-01

    Friction compensation is particularly important for motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders at low speed movement. However, most of the existing model-based friction compensation schemes use simple classical models, which are not enough to address applications with high-accuracy position requirements. Furthermore, the friction force in the cylinder is time-varying, and there exist rather severe unmodelled dynamics and unknown disturbances in the pneumatic system. To deal with these problems effectively, an adaptive robust controller with LuGre model-based dynamic friction compensation is constructed. The proposed controller employs on-line recursive least squares estimation (RLSE) to reduce the extent of parametric uncertainties, and utilizes the sliding mode control method to attenuate the effects of parameter estimation errors, unmodelled dynamics and disturbances. In addition, in order to realize LuGre model-based friction compensation, the modified dual-observer structure for estimating immeasurable friction internal state is developed. Therefore, a prescribed motion tracking transient performance and final tracking accuracy can be guaranteed. Since the system model uncertainties are unmatched, the recursive backstepping design technology is applied. In order to solve the conflicts between the sliding mode control design and the adaptive control design, the projection mapping is used to condition the RLSE algorithm so that the parameter estimates are kept within a known bounded convex set. Finally, the proposed controller is tested for tracking sinusoidal trajectories and smooth square trajectory under different loads and sudden disturbance. The testing results demonstrate that the achievable performance of the proposed controller is excellent and is much better than most other studies in literature. Especially when a 0.5 Hz sinusoidal trajectory is tracked, the maximum tracking error is 0.96 mm and the average tracking error is 0.45 mm. This

  15. Generalized Predictive and Neural Generalized Predictive Control of Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelkar, Atul G.

    2000-01-01

    The research work presented in this thesis addresses the problem of robust control of uncertain linear and nonlinear systems using Neural network-based Generalized Predictive Control (NGPC) methodology. A brief overview of predictive control and its comparison with Linear Quadratic (LQ) control is given to emphasize advantages and drawbacks of predictive control methods. It is shown that the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) methodology overcomes the drawbacks associated with traditional LQ control as well as conventional predictive control methods. It is shown that in spite of the model-based nature of GPC it has good robustness properties being special case of receding horizon control. The conditions for choosing tuning parameters for GPC to ensure closed-loop stability are derived. A neural network-based GPC architecture is proposed for the control of linear and nonlinear uncertain systems. A methodology to account for parametric uncertainty in the system is proposed using on-line training capability of multi-layer neural network. Several simulation examples and results from real-time experiments are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  16. Development of a multiplexed bypass control system for aerospace batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    A breadboard bypass control system was developed to control a battery comprised of 26 JPL-developed negative limited Ni-Cd cells. The system was designed to automatically remove cells from the circuit when their voltages exceeded a fixed limit on charge and fell below a fixed limit on discharge. Major components of the system consisted of a cell voltage monitor, a multiplexing circuit, and individual electromechanical relays for each cell. The system was found to function well in controlling the battery during a simulated 10-month MM-71 mission and a 2-month simulated low earth orbit cycling mission. A flight version of the bypass system was estimated to have a total parts count of 150 and total weight of 1.63 kg. When fully developed, the system shows promise for improving life and reliability of spacecraft batteries.

  17. Analysis of Thermal Control Coatings on MISSE for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria; Kenny, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment. Engineers and scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center have analyzed a number of these materials, including: Zinc oxide/potassium silicate coating, Zinc oxide/potassium silicate/silicone coating, Zinc orthotitanate/potassium silicate coating, Electrically conductive thermal control coatings and Various coatings for part marking, automated rendezvous and capture, and astronaut visual aids These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atormc oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was very limited for some samples. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. The effect of contamination from an active space station on the performance of white thermal control coatings is discussed.

  18. Contamination control engineering design guidelines for the aerospace community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tribble, A. C. (Principal Investigator); Boyadjian, B.; Davis, J.; Haffner, J.; McCullough, E.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces, solar arrays, and optical devices may be adversely affected by a small quantity of molecular and/or particulate contamination. What is rarely discussed is how one: (1) quantifies the level of contamination that must be maintained in order for the system to function properly, and (2) enforces contamination control to ensure compliance with requirements. This document is designed to address these specific issues and is intended to serve as a handbook on contamination control for the reader, illustrating process and methodology while providing direction to more detailed references when needed. The effects of molecular contamination on reflecting and transmitting surfaces are examined and quantified in accordance with MIL STD 1246C. The generation, transportation, and deposition of molecular contamination is reviewed and specific examples are worked to illustrate the process a design engineer can use to estimate end of life cleanliness levels required by solar arrays, thermal control surfaces, and optical surfaces. A similar process is used to describe the effect of particulate contamination as related to percent area coverage (PAC) and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). Relationships between PAC and surface cleanliness, which include the effects of submicron sized particles, are developed and BRDF is related to specific sensor design parameters such as Point Source Transmittance (PST). The pros and cons of various methods of preventing, monitoring, and cleaning surfaces are examined and discussed.

  19. An integrated analytic tool and knowledge-based system approach to aerospace electric power system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, William R.; Henderson, Eric; Gandikota, Kapal

    1986-10-01

    Future aerospace electric power systems require new control methods because of increasing power system complexity, demands for power system management, greater system size and heightened reliability requirements. To meet these requirements, a combination of electric power system analytic tools and knowledge-based systems is proposed. The continual improvement in microelectronic performance has made it possible to envision the application of sophisticated electric power system analysis tools to aerospace vehicles. These tools have been successfully used in the measurement and control of large terrestrial electric power systems. Among these tools is state estimation which has three main benefits. The estimator builds a reliable database for the system structure and states. Security assessment and contingency evaluation also require a state estimator. Finally, the estimator will, combined with modern control theory, improve power system control and stability. Bad data detection as an adjunct to state estimation identifies defective sensors and communications channels. Validated data from the analytic tools is supplied to a number of knowledge-based systems. These systems will be responsible for the control, protection, and optimization of the electric power system.

  20. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.

    1999-01-01

    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  1. Integrated software health management for aerospace guidance, navigation, and control systems: A probabilistic reasoning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaya, Timmy

    Embedded Aerospace Systems have to perform safety and mission critical operations in a real-time environment where timing and functional correctness are extremely important. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) systems substantially rely on complex software interfacing with hardware in real-time; any faults in software or hardware, or their interaction could result in fatal consequences. Integrated Software Health Management (ISWHM) provides an approach for detection and diagnosis of software failures while the software is in operation. The ISWHM approach is based on probabilistic modeling of software and hardware sensors using a Bayesian network. To meet memory and timing constraints of real-time embedded execution, the Bayesian network is compiled into an Arithmetic Circuit, which is used for on-line monitoring. This type of system monitoring, using an ISWHM, provides automated reasoning capabilities that compute diagnoses in a timely manner when failures occur. This reasoning capability enables time-critical mitigating decisions and relieves the human agent from the time-consuming and arduous task of foraging through a multitude of isolated---and often contradictory---diagnosis data. For the purpose of demonstrating the relevance of ISWHM, modeling and reasoning is performed on a simple simulated aerospace system running on a real-time operating system emulator, the OSEK/Trampoline platform. Models for a small satellite and an F-16 fighter jet GN&C (Guidance, Navigation, and Control) system have been implemented. Analysis of the ISWHM is then performed by injecting faults and analyzing the ISWHM's diagnoses.

  2. Aerospace Community. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, V. V.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, emphasizes the two sides of aerospace--military aerospace and civilian aerospace. Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion on the organization of Air Force bases and missile sites in relation to their missions. Chapter 2 examines the community services provided by Air Force bases. The topics…

  3. Effect of sequential pneumatic compression therapy on venous blood velocity, refilling time, pain and quality of life in women with varicose veins: a randomized control study

    PubMed Central

    Yamany, Abeer; Hamdy, Bassant

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sequential pneumatic compression therapy on venous blood flow, refilling time, pain level, and quality of life in women with varicose veins. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight females with varicose veins were selected and randomly allocated to a control group, and experimental group. Maximum and mean venous blood velocities, the refilling time, pain by visual analog scale and quality of life by Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire were measured in all patients before and after six weeks of treatment. Both groups received lower extremity exercises; in addition, patients in the experimental group received sequential pneumatic compression therapy for 30 minutes daily, five days a week for six weeks. [Results] All measured parameters improved significantly in both groups, comparison of post treatment measurements between groups showed that the maximum and mean blood flow velocity, the pain level, and quality of life were significantly higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. On the other hand there was no significant difference between groups for refilling time. [Conclusion] Sequential pneumatic compression therapy with the applied parameters was an effective modality for increasing venous blood flow, reducing pain, and improving quality of women life with varicose veins. PMID:27512247

  4. NASA Glenn Research in Controls and Diagnostics for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. Also the propulsion systems required to enable the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Vision for Space Exploration in an affordable manner will need to have high reliability, safety and autonomous operation capability. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This paper describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  5. A new adaptive control approach for aerospace vehicles with parameter uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Yungsun; Speyer, Jason L.

    1989-01-01

    A new stochastic adaptive control structure is developed for the problem of combined parameter estimation and control of aerospace vehicles with changing parameters. Parameter uncertainties are modeled as first-order Gauss-Markov processes, and are introduced to the system dynamics through a small parameter. It is assumed that an accurate inertial measurement unit gives perfect measurements of the state variables. Since the stochastic system is assumed to be Gauss-Markov, the density function of the parameters given these measurements is conditionally Gaussian. Based on this conditionally Gaussian density, the problem of minimizing a quadratic cost over an infinite time horizon can be set up within the framework of stochastic optimal control theory. The optimal feedback control law is derived from a straightforward expansion of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, based on the LQG solution. The resulting nonlinear controller is applied to the pitch axis control of a space platform with uncertain moments of inertia and is shown to produce marked improvement over a fixed controller.

  6. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  7. High-voltage, high-power, solid-state remote power controllers for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Two general types of remote power controller (RPC) that combine the functions of a circuit breaker and a switch were developed for use in direct-current (dc) aerospace systems. Power-switching devices used in these designs are the relatively new gate-turnoff thyristor (GTO) and poweer metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET). The various RPC's can switch dc voltages to 1200 V and currents to 100 A. Seven different units were constructed and subjected to comprehensive laboratory and thermal vacuum testing. Two of these were dual units that switch both positive and negative voltages simultaneously. The RPC's using MOSFET's have slow turnon and turnoff times to limit voltage spiking from high di/dt. The GTO's have much faster transition times. All RPC's have programmable overload tripout and microsecond tripout for large overloads. The basic circuits developed can be used to build switchgear limited only by the ratings of the switching device used.

  8. The Petrocarb pneumatic feeding system: A proven method for feeding particulate solids at controlled rates. [for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reintjes, H.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the principal features of the Petrocarb Pneumatic Feeding System is given. Early development and various commercial applications are included. It is concluded that the Petrocarb Injection System is capable of feeding dry solids into most of the processes being developed for utilizing coal.

  9. Design, fabrication and test of a pneumatically controlled, renewable, microfluidic bead trapping device for sequential injection analysis applications.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guocheng; Lu, Donglai; Fu, Zhifeng; Du, Dan; Ozanich, Richard M; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a pneumatically controlled, renewable, microfluidic device for conducting bead-based assays in an automated sequential injection analysis system. The device used a "brick wall"-like pillar array (pillar size: 20 μm length × 50 μm width × 45 μm height) with 5 μm gaps between the pillars serving as the micro filter. The flow channel where bead trapping occurred is 500 μm wide × 75 μm deep. An elastomeric membrane and an air chamber were located underneath the flow channel. By applying pressure to the air chamber, the membrane is deformed and pushed upward against the filter structure. This effectively traps beads larger than 5 μm and creates a "bed" or micro column of beads that can be perfused and washed with liquid samples and reagents. Upon completion of the assay process, the pressure is released and the beads are flushed out from underneath the filter structure to renew the device. Mouse IgG was used as a model analyte to test the feasibility of using the proposed device for immunoassay applications. Resulting microbeads from an on-chip fluorescent immunoassay were individually examined using flow cytometry. The results show that the fluorescence signal intensity distribution is fairly narrow indicating high chemical reaction uniformity among the beads population. Electrochemical on-chip assay was also conducted. A detection limit of 1 ppb was achieved and good device reliability and repeatability were demonstrated. The novel microfluidic-based beads-trapping device thus opens up a new pathway to design micro-bead based immunoassays for various applications. PMID:26566573

  10. Design, fabrication and test of a pneumatically controlled, renewable, microfluidic bead trapping device for sequential injection analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Lu, Donglai; Fu, Zhifeng; Du, Dan; Ozanich, Richard M.; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a pneumatically controlled,renewable, microfluidic device for conducting bead-based assays in an automated sequential injection analysis system. The device used a “brick wall”-like pillar array (pillar size: 20 μm length X 50 μm width X 45 μm height) with 5 μm gaps between the pillars serving as the micro filter. The flow channel where bead trapping occurred is 500 μm wide X 75 μm deep. An elastomeric membrane and an air chamber were located underneath the flow channel. By applying pressure to the air chamber, the membrane is deformed and pushed upward against the filter structure. This effectively traps beads larger than 5 μm and creates a “bed” or micro column of beads that can be perfused and washed with liquid samples and reagents. Upon completion of the assay process, the pressure is released and the beads are flushed out from underneath the filter structure to renew the device. Mouse IgG was used as a model analyte to test the feasibility of using the proposed device for immunoassay applications. Resulting microbeads from an on-chip fluorescent immunoassay were individually examined using flow cytometry. The results show that the fluorescence signal intensity distribution is fairly narrow indicating high chemical reaction uniformity among the beads population. Electrochemical onchip assay was also conducted. A detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL1 ppb was achieved and good device reliability and repeatability were demonstrated. The novel microfluidic-based beadstrapping device thus opens up a new pathway to design micro-bead based biosensor immunoassays for clinical and othervarious applications.

  11. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagdal, Karl T.; King, Edward L.; Follstaedt, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment.

  12. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagdal, K.T.; King, E.L.; Follstaedt, D.W.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment. 6 figs.

  13. State observer-based sliding mode control for semi-active hydro-pneumatic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hongbin; Chen, Sizhong; Zhao, Yuzhuang; Liu, Gang; Yang, Lin

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes an improved virtual reference model for semi-active suspension to coordinate the vehicle ride comfort and handling stability. The reference model combines the virtues of sky-hook with ground-hook control logic, and the hybrid coefficient is tuned according to the longitudinal and lateral acceleration so as to improve the vehicle stability especially in high-speed condition. Suspension state observer based on unscented Kalman filter is designed. A sliding mode controller (SMC) is developed to track the states of the reference model. The stability of the SMC strategy is proven by means of Lyapunov function taking into account the nonlinear damper characteristics and sprung mass variation of the vehicle. Finally, the performance of the controller is demonstrated under three typical working conditions: the random road excitation, speed bump road and sharp acceleration and braking. The simulation results indicated that, compared with the traditional passive suspension, the proposed control algorithm can offer a better coordination between vehicle ride comfort and handling stability. This approach provides a viable alternative to costlier active suspension control systems for commercial vehicles.

  14. NASA Glenn Research in Controls and Diagnostics for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. This presentation describes the current CDB activities in support of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission, with an emphasis on activities under the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) projects of the Aviation Safety Program. Under IVHM, CDB focus is on developing advanced techniques for monitoring the health of the aircraft engine gas path with a focus on reliable and early detection of sensor, actuator and engine component faults. Under IRAC, CDB focus is on developing adaptive engine control technologies which will increase the probability of survival of aircraft in the presence of damage to flight control surfaces or to one or more engines. The technology development plans are described as well as results from recent research accomplishments.

  15. Flight evaluation of pneumatic forebody vortex control in post-stall flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walchli, Lawrence A.

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) X-29 description; Vortex Flow Control (VFC) technology description; (3) X-29 VFC wind tunnel results (forebody only); (4) X-29 VFC wind tunnel results (full configuration yawing moment); (5) X-29 VFC wind tunnel results (full configuration C(sub n) with sideslip); (6) X-29VFC wind tunnel results (full configuration pitching moment); (7) VFC optimized nozzle details; (8) X-29 forebody nozzle configuration; (9) X-29 VFC system stored gas schematic; (10) X-29 VFC system stored gas installation; (11) VFC effectiveness at zero sideslip; (12) VFC effectiveness at 35 AOA with sideslip; (13) 'VFC Roll' at 40 AOA; (14) Effects of VFC on wing rock; (15) Integrated controls C(sub n) prediction; (16) Proposed F-15 with lateral control laws with active VFC; (17) Simulated F-15 roll performance with active VFC; (18) Simulated F-15 spin recovery with active VFC; (19) Test team restructuring; (20) testbed selection; (21) Simulation for risk reduction; (22) Benefits of high pressure system; and (23) Advanced weapon system integration.

  16. Reduced-impact sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    DOEpatents

    Polsky, Yarom; Grubelich, Mark C.; Vaughn, Mark R.

    2012-05-15

    A method and means of minimizing the effect of elastic valve recoil in impact applications, such as percussive drilling, where sliding spool valves used inside the percussive device are subject to poor positioning control due to elastic recoil effects experienced when the valve impacts a stroke limiting surface. The improved valve design reduces the reflected velocity of the valve by using either an energy damping material, or a valve assembly with internal damping built-in, to dissipate the compression stress wave produced during impact.

  17. Wind tunnel investigation of a high lift system with pneumatic flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, Pricop Mihai; Mircea, Boscoianu; Daniel-Eugeniu, Crunteanu

    2016-06-01

    Next generation passenger aircrafts require more efficient high lift systems under size and mass constraints, to achieve more fuel efficiency. This can be obtained in various ways: to improve/maintain aerodynamic performance while simplifying the mechanical design of the high lift system going to a single slotted flap, to maintain complexity and improve the aerodynamics even more, etc. Laminar wings have less efficient leading edge high lift systems if any, requiring more performance from the trailing edge flap. Pulsed blowing active flow control (AFC) in the gap of single element flap is investigated for a relatively large model. A wind tunnel model, test campaign and results and conclusion are presented.

  18. Basic Pneumatics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessehaye, Michael

    This instructor's guide is designed for use by industrial vocational teachers in teaching a course on basic pneumatics. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: an introduction to pneumatics (including the operation of a service station hoist); fundamentals and physical laws; air compressors (positive displacement compressors;…

  19. Rotary pneumatic valve

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary pneumatic valve which is thrust balanced and the pneumatic pressure developed produces only radial loads on the valve cylinder producing negligible resistance and thus minimal torque on the bearings of the valve. The valve is multiplexed such that at least two complete switching cycles occur for each revolution of the cylinder spindle.

  20. Quality control and health monitoring of aerospace composites via quadrupole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Catherine; Vierkoetter, Stephanie A.

    2005-05-01

    Techniques for quality control and health monitoring of aerospace composite structures must be reliable, nonintrusive and preferably, non-contacting. Quadrupole resonance (QR) spectroscopy can fill this need. Previously, we have demonstrated that Quadrupole Resonance can be used for nondestructive inspection of polymeric fiber-reinforced composites, which can be exploited for both in-service inspection and on-going structural health monitoring.1-6 In this paper we present an extension of this work, applying the QR method to the quality control of composite parts manufactured via pultrusion. In order to use the QR method for quality control of composite parts they must contain a small amount of tiny crystals of a QR active compound. These crystals are embedded in the part during the manufacture by blending it into the uncured resin. The QR active crystals sense any residual strains that may form inside the part during the manufacturing process. The crystals are interrogated via a single-side coil detector head, which transmits radio frequency (RF) pulses into the composite part. The strain-dependent QR response from the crystals is picked up by the same detector head. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the QR method is very successful at distinguishing composites parts manufactured under optimal conditions from those that were manufactured with a misaligned die or at reduced temperatures. Both QR frequency and line widths were used as a distinguishing parameter.

  1. Simulink-Based Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David m.; Bacon, Barton J.

    2006-01-01

    The Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV) is a Simulink-based approach to providing an engineering quality desktop simulation capability for finding trim solutions, extracting linear models for vehicle analysis and control law development, and generating open-loop and closed-loop time history responses for control system evaluation. It represents a useful level of maturity rather than a finished product. The layout is hierarchical and supports concurrent component development and validation, with support from the Concurrent Versions System (CVS) software management tool. Real Time Workshop (RTW) is used to generate pre-compiled code for substantial component modules, and templates permit switching seamlessly between original Simulink and code compiled for various platforms. Two previous limitations are addressed. Turn around time for incorporating tabular model components was improved through auto-generation of required Simulink diagrams based on data received in XML format. The layout was modified to exploit a Simulink "compile once, evaluate multiple times" capability for zero elapsed time for use in trimming and linearizing. Trim is achieved through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with a narrow, script definable interface to the vehicle model which facilitates incorporating new models.

  2. Electric versus hydraulics versus pneumatics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers from a conference which considered the advantages and disadvantages of electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and actuators. The volume follows on the success of the 1983 conference on electric and hydraulic drives. Topics considered include fork lift trucks - an ideal application for regenerative transmissions; a hybrid-electric power system with hydrostatic transmission; electrics and hydraulics on roadheader machinery; hydraulic, electrical, pneumatic control - which way to go. an electrically-powered servo to drive the two axes of a missile launching platform - pros and cons when compared with the traditional hydraulic solution; the encapsulation of a novel intrinsically safe displacement transducer; mobile cryogenic pumping systems; automation of a wood-turning machine, hydraulic or electric. The choice of a servo motor for a specific application; developments in the design and control of pneumatic linear actuators; compressed air purification for instrumentation in the high technology industries; trends in prime mover choice for powered hand tools; and choosing the drive system for the right application.

  3. Pneumatically erected rigid habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salles, Bradley

    1992-01-01

    The pneumatically erected rigid habitat concept consists of a structure based on an overexpanded metal bellows. The basic concept incorporates the advantages of both inflatable and rigid structures. The design and erection detail are presented with viewgraphs.

  4. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  5. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  6. Aerospace Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Jean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Sauk Rapids (Minnesota) High School aviation and aerospace curriculum that was developed by Curtis Olson and the space program developed by Gerald Mayall at Philadelphia's Northeast High School. Both were developed in conjunction with NASA. (JOW)

  7. Control design for robust stability in linear regulators: Application to aerospace flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yedavalli, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    Time domain stability robustness analysis and design for linear multivariable uncertain systems with bounded uncertainties is the central theme of the research. After reviewing the recently developed upper bounds on the linear elemental (structured), time varying perturbation of an asymptotically stable linear time invariant regulator, it is shown that it is possible to further improve these bounds by employing state transformations. Then introducing a quantitative measure called the stability robustness index, a state feedback conrol design algorithm is presented for a general linear regulator problem and then specialized to the case of modal systems as well as matched systems. The extension of the algorithm to stochastic systems with Kalman filter as the state estimator is presented. Finally an algorithm for robust dynamic compensator design is presented using Parameter Optimization (PO) procedure. Applications in a aircraft control and flexible structure control are presented along with a comparison with other existing methods.

  8. Integration of pyrotechnics into aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1993-01-01

    The application of pyrotechnics to aerospace systems has been resisted because normal engineering methods cannot be used in design and evaluation. Commonly used approaches for energy sources, such as electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic, do not apply to explosive and pyrotechnic devices. This paper introduces the unique characteristics of pyrotechnic devices, describes how functional evaluations can be conducted, and demonstrates an engineering approach for pyrotechnic integration. Logic is presented that allows evaluation of two basic types of pyrotechnic systems to demonstrate functional margin.

  9. "Fly-by-Wireless": A Revolution in Aerospace Vehicle Architecture for Instrumentation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace vehicle programs have always counted on the cables and connectors to provide power, grounding, data and time synchronization throughout a vehicle's life-cycle. Even with numerous improvements, wiring and connector problems and sensors continue to be key failure points, causing many hours of troubleshooting and replacement. Costly flight delays have been precipitated by the need to troubleshoot cables/connections, and/or repair a sensor. Wiring continues to be too expensive to remove once it is installed, even with the weight penalties. Miles of test instrumentation and low flight sensor wires still plague the aerospace industry. New technology options for data connectivity, processing and micro/nano manufacturing are making it possible to retrofit existing vehicles, like the Space Shuttle. New vehicles can now develop architectures that provide for and take advantage of alternatives to wired connectivity. This project motivates the aerospace industry and technology providers to establish: (1) A new emphasis for system engineering approaches to reduce cables and connectors. (2) Provisions for modularity and accessibility in the vehicle architecture. (3) A set of technologies that support alternatives to wired connectivity.

  10. Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wuzhou; Psaltis, Demetri

    2010-02-01

    We presented a tunable optofluidic dye laser with integrated elastomeric air-gap etalon controlled by air pressure. The chip was fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via replica molding. It comprises a liquid waveguide and microscale air-gap mirrors providing the feedback. The lasing wavelength is chosen by the interference between two parallel PDMS-air interfaces inside the internal tunable air-gap etalon, of which pneumatic tuning can be realized by inflating the air-gap etalon with compressed air. This dye laser exhibits a pumping threshold of 1.6 μJ/pulse, a lasing linewidth of 3 nm, and a tuning range of 14 nm.

  11. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  12. Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial to Analyze the Effects of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression on Edema Following Autologous Femoropopliteal Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    te Slaa, Alexander; Dolmans, Dennis E. J. G. J.; Ho, Gwan H.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; van der Waal, Jan C. H.; de Groot, Hans G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients who undergo autologous femoropopliteal bypass surgery develop postoperative edema in the revascularized leg. The effects of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) to treat and to prevent postreconstructive edema were examined in this study. Methods In a prospective randomized trial, patients were assigned to one of two groups. All patients suffered from peripheral arterial disease, and all were subjected to autologous femoropopliteal bypass reconstruction. Patients in group 1 used a compression stocking (CS) above the knee exerting 18 mmHg (class I) on the leg postoperatively for 1 week (day and night). Patients in group 2 used IPC on the foot postoperatively at night for 1 week. The lower leg circumference was measured preoperatively and at five postoperative time points. A multivariate analysis was done using a mixed model analysis of variance. Results A total of 57 patients were analyzed (CS 28; IPC 29). Indications for operation were severe claudication (CS 13; IPC 13), rest pain (10/5), or tissue loss (7/11). Revascularization was performed with either a supragenicular (CS 13; IPC10) or an infragenicular (CS 15; IPC 19) autologous bypass. Leg circumference increased on day 1 (CS/IPC): 0.4%/2.7%, day 4 (2.1%/6.1%), day 7 (2.5%/7.9%), day 14 (4.7%/7.3%), and day 90 (1.0%/3.3%) from baseline (preoperative situation). On days 1, 4, and 7 there was a significant difference in leg circumference between the two treatment groups. Conclusions Edema following femoropopliteal bypass surgery occurs in all patients. For the prevention and treatment of that edema the use of a class I CS proved superior to treatment with IPC. The use of CS remains the recommended practice following femoropopliteal bypass surgery. PMID:21104251

  13. Prevention of deep vein thrombosis in potential neurosurgical patients. A randomized trial comparing graduated compression stockings alone or graduated compression stockings plus intermittent pneumatic compression with control

    SciTech Connect

    Turpie, A.G.; Hirsh, J.; Gent, M.; Julian, D.; Johnson, J.

    1989-03-01

    In a randomized trial of neurosurgical patients, groups wearing graduated compression stockings alone (group 1) or graduated compression stockings plus intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) (group 2) were compared with an untreated control group in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In both active treatment groups, the graduated compression stockings were continued for 14 days or until hospital discharge, if earlier. In group 2, IPC was continued for seven days. All patients underwent DVT surveillance with iodine 125-labeled fibrinogen leg scanning and impedance plethysmography. Venography was carried out if either test became abnormal. Deep vein thrombosis occurred in seven (8.8%) of 80 patients in group 1, in seven (9.0%) of 78 patients in group 2, and in 16 (19.8%) of 81 patients in the control group. The observed differences among these rates are statistically significant. The results of this study indicate that graduated compression stockings alone or in combination with IPC are effective methods of preventing DVT in neurosurgical patients.

  14. Spot-Welding Gun With Adjustable Pneumatic Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed spot-welding gun equipped with pneumatic spring, which could be bellows or piston and cylinder, exerts force independent of position along stroke. Applies accurate controlled force to joint welded, without precise positioning at critical position within stroke.

  15. Pneumatic conveyance apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Matzolf, Athneal D.; Hera, Kevin R.

    2010-05-04

    A pneumatic nozzle capable of removing dry solid debris, liquids, and mixtures of solid and liquid waste is provided. The pneumatic nozzle uses a pressurized gas stream to push materials through the nozzle. The force of a pressurized gas stream provides a partial vacuum to allow material to be introduced into an opening of a nozzle via a slight suction force. Thereafter, individual particles and materials introduced into the pneumatic nozzle are pushed by a stream of pressurized gas through the nozzle.

  16. Low-order design and high-order simulation of active closed-loop control for aerospace structures under construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark J.

    1989-01-01

    Partially constructed/assembled structures in space are complicated enough but their dynamics will also be operating in closed-loop with feedback controllers. The dynamics of such structures are modeled by large-scale finite element models. The model dimension L is extremely large (approximately 10,000) while the numbers of actuators (M) and sensors (P) are small. The model parameters M(sub m) mass matrix, D(sub o) damping matrix, and K(sub o) stiffness matrix, are all symmetric and sparse (banded). Thus simulation of open-loop structure models of very large dimension can be accomplished by special integration techniques for sparse matrices. The problem of simulation of closed-loop control of such structures is complicated by the addition of controllers. Simulation of closed-loop controlled structures is an essential part of the controller design and evaluation process. Current research in the following areas is presented: high-order simulation of actively controlled aerospace structures; low-order controller design and SCI compensation for unmodeled dynamics; prediction of closed-loop stability using asymptotic eigenvalue series; and flexible robot manipulator control experiment.

  17. Continued Development and Improvement of Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2005-07-15

    The objective of this applied research effort led by Georgia Tech Research Institute is the application of pneumatic aerodynamic technology previously developed and patented by us to the design of an appropriate Heavy Vehicle (HV) tractor-trailer configuration, and experimental confirmation of this pneumatic configuration's improved aerodynamic characteristics. In Phases I to IV of our previous DOE program (Reference 1), GTRI has developed, patented, wind-tunnel tested and road-tested blown aerodynamic devices for Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles (PHVs) and Pneumatic Sports Utility Vehicles (PSUVs). To further advance these pneumatic technologies towards HV and SUV applications, additional Phase V tasks were included in the first year of a continuing DOE program (Reference 2). Based on the results of the Phase IV full-scale test programs, these Phase V tasks extended the application of pneumatic aerodynamics to include: further economy and performance improvements; increased aerodynamic stability and control; and safety of operation of Pneumatic HVs. Continued development of a Pneumatic SUV was also conducted during the Phase V program. Phase V was completed in July, 2003; its positive results towards development and confirmation of this pneumatic technology are reported in References 3 and 4. The current Phase VI of this program was incrementally funded by DOE in order to continue this technology development towards a second fuel economy test on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle. The objectives of this current Phase VI research and development effort (Ref. 5) fall into two categories: (1) develop improved pneumatic aerodynamic technology and configurations on smaller-scale models of the advanced Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle (PHV); and based on these findings, (2) redesign, modify, and re-test the modified full-scale PHV test vehicle. This second objective includes conduct of an on-road preliminary road test of this configuration to prepare it for a second series of SAE Type-U fuel

  18. Analysis of fine coal pneumatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, M.P.; Rohatgi, N.D.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Many fossil fuel energy processes depend on the movement of solids by pneumatic transport. Despite the considerable amount of work reported in the literature on pneumatic transport, the design of new industrial systems for new products continues to rely to a great extent on empiricism. A pilot-scale test facility has been constructed at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and is equipped with modern sophisticated measuring techniques (such as Pressure Transducers, Auburn Monitors, Micro Motion Mass flowmeters) and an automatic computer-controlled data acquisition system to study the effects of particle pneumatic transport. Pittsburgh Seam and Montana rosebud coals of varying size consist and moisture content were tested in the atmospheric and pressurized coal flow test loops (AP/CFTL and HP/CFTL) at PETC. The system parameters included conveying gas velocity, injector tank pressure, screw conveyor speed, pipe radius, and pipe bends. In the following report, results from the coal flow tests were presented and analyzed. Existing theories and correlations on two-phase flows were reviewed. Experimental data were compared with values calculated from empirically or theoretically derived equations available in the literature, and new correlations were proposed, when applicable, to give a better interpretation of the data and a better understanding of the various flow regimes involved in pneumatic transport. 55 refs., 56 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  20. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  1. Aerospace gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  2. The complication of pneumatic retinopexy.

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, G F; Tornambe, P E; Brinton, D A; Flood, T P; Green, S; Grizzard, W S; Hammer, M E; Leff, S R; Mascuilli, L; Morgan, C M

    1990-01-01

    There have been 26 published series with a total of 1274 detachments operated with pneumatic retinopexy. Eighty percent were reattached with a single procedure and 98% with reoperations. New breaks occurred in 13% and PVR in 4%. The complications published in 101 papers on pneumatic retinopexy in the last 5 years are analyzed as to frequency, prevention, management, and results. PMID:2095021

  3. Pneumatic Pellet-Transporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George; Pugsley, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Pneumatic system transports food pellets to confined animals. Flow of air into venturi assembly entrains round pellets, drawing them from reservoir into venturi for transport by airflow. Pneumatic pellet-transporting system includes venturi assembly, which creates flow of air that draws pellets into system.

  4. Pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Terra, E R; Guedes, F R; Manzi, F R; Bóscolo, F N

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a case of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus in the pterygoid process and greater wing of the sphenoid bone, observed on a panoramic radiograph. Conventional radiographs and computerized tomography in axial and coronal sections confirmed the presence of the pneumatization of these structures. PMID:16421265

  5. Basic Aerospace Education Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Lists the most significant resource items on aerospace education which are presently available. Includes source books, bibliographies, directories, encyclopedias, dictionaries, audiovisuals, curriculum/planning guides, aerospace statistics, aerospace education statistics and newsletters. (BR)

  6. Aerospace Education - An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the surge of interest throughout the country in aerospace education and discusses what aerospace education is, the implications in career education and the relevance of aerospace education in the curriculum. (BR)

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 37: The impact of political control on technical communications: A comparative study of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Until the recent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party exerted a strict control of access to and dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI). This article presents models of the Soviet-style information society and the Western-style information society and discusses the effects of centralized governmental control of information on Russian technical communication practices. The effects of political control on technical communication are then used to interpret the results of a survey of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the time devoted to technical communication, their collaborative writing practices and their attitudes toward collaboration, the kinds of technical documents they produce and use, and their use of computer technology, and their use of and the importance to them of libraries and technical information centers. The data are discussed in terms of tentative conclusions drawn from the literature. Finally, we conclude with four questions concerning government policy, collaboration, and the flow of STI between Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  8. The Aerospace Age. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is written for use only in the Air Force ROTC program and cannot be purchased on the open market. The book describes the historical development of aerospace industry. The first chapter contains a brief review of the aerospace environment and the nature of technological changes brought by the aerospace revolution. The following chapter…

  9. AI aerospace components

    SciTech Connect

    Heindel, T.A.; Murphy, T.B.; Rasmussen, A.N.; Mcfarland, R.Z.; Montgomery, R.E.; Pohle, G.E.; Heard, A.E.; Atkinson, D.J.; Wedlake, W.E.; Anderson, J.M. Mitre Corp., Houston, TX Unisys Corp., Houston, TX Rockwell International Corp., El Segundo, CA NASA, Kennedy Space Center, Cocoa Beach, FL JPL, Pasadena, CA Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc., Austin, TX McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Co., McLean, VA )

    1991-10-01

    An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.

  10. Pneumatic stowing seals mines

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovec, D.

    1983-11-01

    A mechanized technique to seal abandoned mines has been used successfully to close 13 openings at Duquesne Light Co.'s mined-out Warwick No. 2 mine, near Greensboro, Pa. The mechanized system, which uses a pneumatic stower and crushed limestone, closed the entries more economically and in less time than it would have taken to install traditional concrete block stopping and clay plug seals, according to John C. Draper. Draper, a mining engineer with Duquesne Light's coal department, was in charge of installing the Warwick seals in a Bureau of Mines-sponsored field test on the pneumatic sealing technique. The lowest estimated cost for installing conventional stopping and plug closures for the 13 Warwick openings was $225,000, says Draper, while the openings were closed using the mechanized system for $245,000. Draper says the newer stopping cost more in the instance because work was stopped often to gather information for the experiment. The experimental closures were installed in 38 days. The job would have taken at least 149 days if traditional closures were being installed, Draper say. To install a traditional concrete block/clay plug closure, the mine opening must be cleaned thoroughly and the roof must be supported for some 3 ft from the outside. Then a solid wall or stopping must be built 25 ft from the surface and the entry must be packed with clay to the surface. Much of this job requires workers to remain underground. In pneumatic stowing, 1 1/2-in. crushed limestone with fines is conveyed through a pipeline and into the mine opening under low air pressure. Watertight seals can be installed by blowing about 10 ft of rock into the opening against the top to act as roof support. Safety posts are installed and about 10 or 15 ft of mine entry is cleaned. About 2 in. of raw cement or bentonite is placed on the floor and limestone mixed with dry cement or bentonite is blown into the opening.

  11. Performance Monitoring and Assessment of Neuro-Adaptive Controllers for Aerospace Applications Using a Bayesian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Pramod; Guenther, Kurt; Hodgkinson, John; Jacklin, Stephen; Richard, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Soares, Fola

    2005-01-01

    Modern exploration missions require modern control systems-control systems that can handle catastrophic changes in the system's behavior, compensate for slow deterioration in sustained operations, and support fast system ID. Adaptive controllers, based upon Neural Networks have these capabilities, but they can only be used safely if proper verification & validation (V&V) can be done. In this paper we present our V & V approach and simulation result within NASA's Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS).

  12. Microfluidic Pneumatic Cages: A Novel Approach for In-chip Crystal Trapping, Manipulation and Controlled Chemical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Abrishamkar, Afshin; Paradinas, Markos; Bailo, Elena; Rodriguez-Trujillo, Romen; Pfattner, Raphael; Rossi, René M; Ocal, Carmen; deMello, Andrew J; Amabilino, David B; Puigmartí-Luis, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The precise localization and controlled chemical treatment of structures on a surface are significant challenges for common laboratory technologies. Herein, we introduce a microfluidic-based technology, employing a double-layer microfluidic device, which can trap and localize in situ and ex situ synthesized structures on microfluidic channel surfaces. Crucially, we show how such a device can be used to conduct controlled chemical reactions onto on-chip trapped structures and we demonstrate how the synthetic pathway of a crystalline molecular material and its positioning inside a microfluidic channel can be precisely modified with this technology. This approach provides new opportunities for the controlled assembly of structures on surface and for their subsequent treatment. PMID:27500740

  13. Applications of aerospace technology in industry, a technology transfer profile: Contamination control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The strong influence NASA-sponsored research has had on the development of solutions to difficult contamination problems is considered. The contamination control field is comprised of an industrial base, supplying the tools of control; a user base, adopting control techniques; and a technical base, expanding the concepts of control. Both formal and informal mechanisms used by NASA to communicate a variety of technical advances are reviewed and certain examples of the expansion of the user base through technology transfer are given. Issues related to transfer of NASA-generated contamination control technology are emphasized.

  14. Control system estimation and design for aerospace vehicles with time delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgaier, G. R.; Williams, T. L.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of estimation and control of discrete, linear, time-varying systems are considered. Previous solutions to these problems involved either approximate techniques, open-loop control solutions, or results which required excessive computation. The estimation problem is solved by two different methods, both of which yield the identical algorithm for determining the optimal filter. The partitioned results achieve a substantial reduction in computation time and storage requirements over the expanded solution, however. The results reduce to the Kalman filter when no delays are present in the system. The control problem is also solved by two different methods, both of which yield identical algorithms for determining the optimal control gains. The stochastic control is shown to be identical to the deterministic control, thus extending the separation principle to time delay systems. The results obtained reduce to the familiar optimal control solution when no time delays are present in the system.

  15. Miniature liquid flow sensor and feedback control of electroosmotic and pneumatic flows for a micro gas analysis system.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei

    2006-01-01

    Accurate liquid flow control is important in most chemical analyses. In this work, the measurement of liquid flow in microliters per minute was performed, and feedback control of the flow rate was examined. The flow sensor was arranged on a channel made in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) block. The center of the channel was cooled by a miniature Peltier device, and the change in temperature balance along the channel formed by the flow was measured by two temperature sensors. Using this flow sensor, feedback flow control was examined with two pumping methods. One was the electroosmotic flow method, made by applying a high voltage (HV) between the reagent and waste reservoirs; the other was the piezo valve method, in which a micro-valve-seat was fabricated in a PDMS cavity with a silicone diaphragm. The latter was adopted for a micro gas analysis system (microGAS) for measuring atmospheric H2S and SO2. The obtained baselines were stable, and better limits of detection were obtained. PMID:16429774

  16. Worst-case analysis and linear parameter-varying gain-scheduled control of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob

    In this thesis, two main subjects are discussed. The first is a worst-case performance analysis, the second is a linear parameter varying (LPV) synthesis using a blending approach. On the first subject, a linear fractional transformation (LFT) model of the linearized X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) has been developed to facilitate the analysis of its flight control system. The LFT model represents uncertainty in nine aerodynamic stability derivatives at a given flight condition. The X-38 LFT model, combined with a controller at specific flight conditions, is used to determine the aerodynamic coefficients within a predefined set that result in the worst-case performance and worst-case gain/phase margins of the closed-loop system. LPV and mu controllers are synthesized for the X-38 CRV lateral-directional axes over the candidate flight envelope and compared with the baseline gain-scheduled classical control design. Worst-case analysis of the LPV and mu controllers are compared with the baseline gain-scheduled classical control design. Analysis and time simulations show that the LPV controller achieves significant performance and robustness improvements when compared to a linear mu controller and the baseline gain-scheduled controller. On the second subject, a quasi-LPV model of the F-16 longitudinal axes was developed using three methods: Jacobian linearization, state transformation and function substitution. Time simulations of quasi-LPV models show that the quasi-LPV models developed using state transformation and function substitution accurately represent the nonlinear dynamics of the F-16 longitudinal axes. In designing an LPV controller for the F-16 longitudinal axes, the function substitution quasi-LPV models are used since these quasi-LPV models can represent the nonlinear dynamics at non-trim points. Two LPV controllers are synthesized for the F-16 longitudinal axes for two separated flight envelopes: low and high altitude regions. Blending these controllers

  17. NASA Workshop on Distributed Parameter Modeling and Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, Virginia B. (Compiler); Keckler, Claude R. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in modeling and controlling flexible systems, there remains a need for improvements in model accuracy and in control performance. The finite element models of flexible systems are unduly complex and are almost intractable to optimum parameter estimation for refinement using experimental data. Distributed parameter or continuum modeling offers some advantages and some challenges in both modeling and control. Continuum models often result in a significantly reduced number of model parameters, thereby enabling optimum parameter estimation. The dynamic equations of motion of continuum models provide the advantage of allowing the embedding of the control system dynamics, thus forming a complete set of system dynamics. There is also increased insight provided by the continuum model approach.

  18. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Aerospace Computational Control, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Douglas E. (Editor); Man, Guy K. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Conference topics included definition of tool requirements, advanced multibody component representation descriptions, model reduction, parallel computation, real time simulation, control design and analysis software, user interface issues, testing and verification, and applications to spacecraft, robotics, and aircraft.

  19. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Aerospace Computational Control, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Douglas E. (Editor); Man, Guy K. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This volume of the conference proceedings contain papers and discussions in the following topical areas: Parallel processing; Emerging integrated capabilities; Low order controllers; Real time simulation; Multibody component representation; User environment; and Distributed parameter techniques.

  20. Research on optimal control, stabilization and computational algorithms for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1985-01-01

    The research carried out in the areas of optimal control and estimation theory and its applications under this grant is reviewed. A listing of the 257 publications that document the research results is presented.

  1. Research on optimal control, stabilization and computational algorithms for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1984-01-01

    The research carried out in the areas of optimal control and estimation theory and its applications under this grant is reviewed. A listing of the 257 publications that document the research results is presented.

  2. NASA Dryden Status: Aerospace Control and Guidance Sub-Committee Meeting 109

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Dryden has been engaging in some exciting work that will enable lighter weight and more fuel efficient vehicles through advanced control and dynamics technologies. The main areas of emphasis are Enabling Light-weight Flexible Structures, real time control surface optimization for fuel efficiency and autonomous formation flight. This presentation provides a description of the current and upcoming work in these areas. Additionally, status is for the Dreamchaser pilot training activity and KQ-X autonomous aerial refueling.

  3. Performance Monitoring and Assessment of Neuro-Adaptive Controllers for Aerospace Applications Using a Bayesian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Pramod; Jacklin, Stephen; Schumann, Johann; Guenther, Kurt; Richard, Michael; Soares, Fola

    2005-01-01

    Modem aircraft, UAVs, and robotic spacecraft pose substantial requirements on controllers in the light of ever increasing demands for reusability, affordability, and reliability. The individual systems (which are often nonlinear) must be controlled safely and reliably in environments where it is virtually impossible to analyze-ahead of time- all the important and possible scenarios and environmental factors. For example, system components (e.g., gyros, bearings of reaction wheels, valves) may deteriorate or break during autonomous UAV operation or long-lasting space missions, leading to a sudden, drastic change in vehicle performance. Manual repair or replacement is not an option in such cases. Instead, the system must be able to cope with equipment failure and deterioration. Controllability of the system must be retained as good as possible or re-established as fast as possible with a minimum of deactivation or shutdown of the system being controlled. In such situations the control engineer has to employ adaptive control systems that automatically sense and correct themselves whenever drastic disturbances and/or severe changes in the plant or environment occur.

  4. Electronically controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications--Part 2: Transient tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Paul J.; Salant, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    An electronically controlled mechanical seal for use as the purge gas seal in a liquid oxygen turbopump has been fabricated and tested under transient operating conditions. The thickness of the lubricating film is controlled by adjusting the coning of the carbon face. This is accomplished by applying a voltage to a piezoelectric actuator to which the carbon face is bonded. The seal has been operated with a closed-loop control system that utilizes either the leakage rate or seal face temperature as the feedback. Both speed and pressure transients have been imposed on the seal. The transient tests have demonstrated that the seal is capable of maintaing low leakage rates while limiting face temperatures.

  5. Smart Multifunctional Coatings for Corrosion Detection and Control in the Aerospace Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  6. Electronically controled mechanical seal for aerospace applications -- Part 1: Design, analysis, and steady state tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.; Wolff, Paul; Navon, Samuel

    1994-01-01

    An electronically-controlled mechanial seal, for use as the purge gas seal in a liquid oxygen turbopump, has been designed, analyzed, and built. The thickness of the lubricating film between the faces is controlled by adjusting the coning of the carbon face. This is done by applying a voltage across a piezoelectric element to which the carbon face is bound. Steady state tests have shown that the leakage rate (and film thickness) can be adjusted over a substantial range, utilizing the available range of voltage.

  7. Formulation of a minimum variance deconvolution technique for compensation of pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    Increasingly, aircraft system designs require that aerodynamic parameters derived from pneumatic measurements be employed as control-system feedbacks. Such high frequency pressure measurements' accuracy is compromised by pressure distortion due to frictional attenuation and pneumatic resonance within the sensing system. A pneumatic distortion model is here formulated and reduced to a low-order state-variable model which retains most of the full model's dynamic characteristics. This reduced-order model is coupled with standard results from minimum variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate for pneumatic-distortion effects.

  8. Refined Synthesis and Characterization of Controlled Diameter, Narrow Size Distribution Microparticles for Aerospace Research Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemsin, Pacita I.; Wohl, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Flow visualization using polystyrene microspheres (PSL)s has enabled researchers to learn a tremendous amount of information via particle based diagnostic techniques. To better accommodate wind tunnel researchers needs, PSL synthesis via dispersion polymerization has been carried out at NASA Langley Research Center since the late 1980s. When utilizing seed material for flow visualization, size and size distribution are of paramount importance. Therefore, the work described here focused on further refinement of PSL synthesis and characterization. Through controlled variation of synthetic conditions (chemical concentrations, solution stirring speed, temperature, etc.) a robust, controllable procedure was developed. The relationship between particle size and salt concentration, MgSO4, was identified enabling the determination of PSL diameters a priori. Suggestions of future topics related to PSL synthesis, stability, and size variation are also described.

  9. Further Analysis of Thermal Control Coatings on MISSE for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Mike; McNulty, Robert; Finckenor, Miria

    2009-01-01

    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment. Engineers and scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center have analyzed a number of these materials, including Z93P zinc oxide/potassium silicate coating, YB-71P zinc orthotitanate/potassium silicate coating, NZOT, which is a low-cost alternative to YB-71P, several electrically conductive/static dissipative thermal control coatings, as well as black coatings for part marking and automated rendezvous and capture. These were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was very limited for some samples. Results from the one-year exposure of MISSE-3 and MISSE-4 are compared to the four-year exposure of MISSE-1 and MISSE-2. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. The effect of contamination from an active space station on the performance of white thermal control coatings is discussed.

  10. An Overview of Brazilian Developments in Beamed Energy Aerospace Propulsion and Vehicle Performance Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minucci, M. A. S.

    2008-04-01

    Beamed energy propulsion and beamed energy vehicle performance control concepts are equally promising and challenging. In Brazil, the two concepts are being currently investigated at the Prof Henry T Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, of the Institute for Advanced Studies—IEAv, in collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute—RPI, Troy, NY, and the United States Air force Research Laboratory-AFRL. Until recently, only laser energy addition for hypersonic flow control was being investigated at the Laboratory using a 0.3 m nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T2, and two 7 joule CO2 TEA lasers. Flow visualization, model pressure and heat flux measurements of the laser energy addition perturbed flow around a model were produced as a result of this joint IEAv-RPI investigation. Presently, with the participation of AFRL and the newly commissioned 0.6 m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T3, a more ambitious project is underway. Two 400 Joule Lumonics 620 CO2 TEA lasers will deliver a 20 cm X 25 cm propulsive laser beam to a complete laser propelled air breather/rocket hypersonic engine, located inside T3 test section. Schlieren photographs of the flow inside de engine as well as surface and heat flux measurements will be performed for free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25. The present paper discusses past, present and future Brazilian activities on beamed energy propulsion and related technologies.

  11. An Overview of Brazilian Developments in Beamed Energy Aerospace Propulsion and Vehicle Performance Control

    SciTech Connect

    Minucci, M. A. S.

    2008-04-28

    Beamed energy propulsion and beamed energy vehicle performance control concepts are equally promising and challenging. In Brazil, the two concepts are being currently investigated at the Prof Henry T Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, of the Institute for Advanced Studies--IEAv, in collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute--RPI, Troy, NY, and the United States Air force Research Laboratory-AFRL. Until recently, only laser energy addition for hypersonic flow control was being investigated at the Laboratory using a 0.3 m nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T2, and two 7 joule CO{sub 2} TEA lasers. Flow visualization, model pressure and heat flux measurements of the laser energy addition perturbed flow around a model were produced as a result of this joint IEAv-RPI investigation. Presently, with the participation of AFRL and the newly commissioned 0.6 m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T3, a more ambitious project is underway. Two 400 Joule Lumonics 620 CO{sub 2} TEA lasers will deliver a 20 cm X 25 cm propulsive laser beam to a complete laser propelled air breather/rocket hypersonic engine, located inside T3 test section. Schlieren photographs of the flow inside de engine as well as surface and heat flux measurements will be performed for free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25. The present paper discusses past, present and future Brazilian activities on beamed energy propulsion and related technologies.

  12. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  13. Autonomic and Apoptotic, Aeronautical and Aerospace Systems, and Controlling Scientific Data Generated Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy (Inventor); Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A self-managing system that uses autonomy and autonomicity is provided with the self-* property of autopoiesis (self-creation). In the event of an agent in the system self-destructing, autopoiesis auto-generates a replacement. A self-esteem reward scheme is also provided and can be used for autonomic agents, based on their performance and trust. Art agent with greater self-esteem may clone at a greater rate compared to the rate of an agent with lower self-esteem. A self-managing system is provided for a high volume of distributed autonomic/self-managing mobile agents, and autonomic adhesion is used to attract similar agents together or to repel dissimilar agents from an event horizon. An apoptotic system is also provided that accords an "expiry date" to data and digital objects, for example, that are available on the internet, which finds usefulness not only in general but also for controlling the loaning and use of space scientific data.

  14. An Aerospace Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill

    1972-01-01

    Describes the 16-day, 10,000 mile national tour of the nation's major aerospace research and development centers by 65 students enrolled in Central Washington State College's Summer Aerospace Workshop. (Author/MB)

  15. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stermer, R. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Current research in optical processing, and determination of its role in future aerospace systems was reviewed. It is shown that optical processing offers significant potential for aircraft and spacecraft control, pattern recognition, and robotics. It is demonstrated that the development of optical devices and components can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  16. PNEUMATIC PUMPING TEST FOR SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ pneumatic pumping tests were performed to estimate the pneumatic permeability at a site containing soils contaminated with aviation gasoline. etermination of pneumatic permeability was necessary to evaluate soil-air discharge or pore volume exchange rates. ressure propaga...

  17. 117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111), LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL (AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111) OF LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL (AT LEFT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Dynamic interleaved 1H/31P STEAM MRS at 3 Tesla using a pneumatic force-controlled plantar flexion exercise rig

    PubMed Central

    Meyerspeer, M.; Krššák, M.; Kemp, G.J.; Roden, M.; Moser, E.

    2016-01-01

    1 Objective To develop a measurement method for interleaved acquisition of 1H and 31P STEAM localised spectra of exercising human calf muscle. 2 Materials and Methods A nonmagnetic exercise rig with a pneumatic piston and sensors for force and pedal angle was constructed to enable plantar flexion measured in the 3 Tesla MR scanner, which holds the dual tuned (1H,31P) surface coil used for signal transmission and reception. 3 Results 31P spectra acquired in interleaved mode benefit from higher SNR (factor of 1.34± 0.06 for PCr) compared to standard acquisition due to the Nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) and substantial PCr/Pi changes during exercise can be observed in 31P spectra. 1H spectral quality is equal to that in single mode experiments and allows Cr2 changes to be monitored. 4 Conclusion The feasibility of dynamic interleaved localised 1H and 31P spectroscopy during plantar flexion exercise has been demonstrated using a custom-built pneumatic system for muscle activation. This opens the possibility of studying the dynamics of metabolism with multi nuclear MRS in a single run. PMID:16320091

  20. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  1. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electricity is major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of the industry’s variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significant...

  2. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electricity is a major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significantly decrease e...

  3. Supercomputing in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Yee, Helen

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: numerical aerodynamic simulation; computational mechanics; supercomputers; aerospace propulsion systems; computational modeling in ballistics; turbulence modeling; computational chemistry; computational fluid dynamics; and computational astrophysics.

  4. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  5. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  6. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  7. Pneumatic well casing pressure regulating system

    SciTech Connect

    Flohr, M.C.

    1987-10-20

    A pneumatic well casing pressure regulating system is described comprising: a hydraulically actuated choke for relieving well casing pressure; a continually running source of pneumatic pressure pulses; first means for applying pulses of hydraulic fluid corresponding to the pneumatic pressure pulses to the choke for opening the choke one step for each pulse of hydraulic fluid when actual casing pressure is higher than a desired casing pressure; and second means for applying pulses of hydraulic fluid corresponding to the pneumatic pressure pulses to the choke for closing the choke one step for each pulse of hydraulic fluid when actual casing pressure is less than a desired casing pressure.

  8. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  13. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  14. Application of Model-based Prognostics to a Pneumatic Valves Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Gorospe, George

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic-actuated valves play an important role in many applications, including cryogenic propellant loading for space operations. Model-based prognostics emphasizes the importance of a model that describes the nominal and faulty behavior of a system, and how faulty behavior progresses in time, causing the end of useful life of the system. We describe the construction of a testbed consisting of a pneumatic valve that allows the injection of faulty behavior and controllable fault progression. The valve opens discretely, and is controlled through a solenoid valve. Controllable leaks of pneumatic gas in the testbed are introduced through proportional valves, allowing the testing and validation of prognostics algorithms for pneumatic valves. A new valve prognostics approach is developed that estimates fault progression and predicts remaining life based only on valve timing measurements. Simulation experiments demonstrate and validate the approach.

  15. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. 236.565 Section 236.565... preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. Where... train stop or train control device when the double-heading cock is placed in double-heading...

  16. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. 236.565 Section 236.565... preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. Where... train stop or train control device when the double-heading cock is placed in double-heading...

  17. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. 236.565 Section 236.565... preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. Where... train stop or train control device when the double-heading cock is placed in double-heading...

  18. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. 236.565 Section 236.565... preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. Where... train stop or train control device when the double-heading cock is placed in double-heading...

  19. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. 236.565 Section 236.565... preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. Where... train stop or train control device when the double-heading cock is placed in double-heading...

  20. RANGE INCREASER FOR PNEUMATIC GAUGES

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, A.H.; Seaborn, G.B. Jr.

    1960-09-27

    An improved pneumatic gage is offered in which the linear range has been increased without excessive air consumption. This has been accomplished by providing an expansible antechamber connected to the nozzle of the gage so that the position of the nozzle with respect to the workpiece is varied automatically by variation in pressure within the antechamber. This arrangement ensures that the nozzle-to-workpiece clearance is maintained within certain limits, thus obtaining a linear relation of air flow to nozzle-to-workpiece clearance over a wider range.

  1. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.

    1984-11-06

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  2. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume IV: Sections 10--Security Storage and Control; 11--Organisation and Management; 12--Networks and External Sources of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, S. C., Ed.

    The last of four volumes in a series describing the basic documentation practices involved in the initial setting up and subsequent operation of an information-library organization to provide defense-aerospace scientific and technical information services, this manual consists of three sections. In "Security Storage and Control," Michael Sims…

  3. Evaluating Aerospace Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Rex L.

    1978-01-01

    Declining enrollments in aerospace teacher workshops suggest the need for evaluation and cost effectiveness measurements. A major purpose of this article is to illustrate some typical evaluation methodologies, including the semantic differential. (MA)

  4. Aerospace bibliography, seventh edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blashfield, J. F. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Space travel, planetary probes, applications satellites, manned spaceflight, the impacts of space exploration, future space activities, astronomy, exobiology, aeronautics, energy, space and the humanities, and aerospace education are covered.

  5. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  6. Optimizing pneumatic conveying of biomass materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCianni, Matthew Edward Michael

    2011-12-01

    Biomass is a readily available but underutilized energy resource. One of the main challenges is the inability of biomass feed stocks like corn stover or wood chips to flow freely without intermittent jamming. This research integrated an automated pneumatic conveying system to efficiently transport biomass into a biomass reactor. Material was held in a storage container until an end effector attached to a 3-axis controller engaged the material to flow through pneumatic vacuum in the carrier fluid of air. The material was disengaged from the carrier fluid through centripetal forces induced by a cyclone separator. As the air was pulled out of the cyclone, the biomass drops out the bottom due to gravitational forces and fell into a secondary storage hopper. The second storage container was for testing purposes only, where the actual apparatus would use a vertically oriented lock hopper to feed material into the biomass reactor. In the experimental test apparatus, sensors measured the storage hopper weight (mass-flow rate), pressure drop from the blower, and input power consumption of the motor. Parameters that were adjusted during testing include pipe diameter, material type, and motor speed. Testing indicated that decreasing the motor speed below its maximum still allows for conveyance of the material without blockage forming in the piping. The data shows that the power consumption of the system can be reduced based on the size and weight of the material introduced to the conveying pipe. Also, conveying certain materials proved to be problematic with particular duct diameters. Ultimately, an optimal duct diameter that can perform efficiently for a broad range of materials was chosen for the given system. Through these improvements, the energy return on investment will be improved for biomass feed stocks, which is taking a step in the right direction to secure the nation's energy independence.

  7. Caudal Pneumaticity and Pneumatic Hiatuses in the Sauropod Dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Wedel, Mathew J.; Taylor, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula—those that leave few or no skeletal traces—in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy. PMID:24205162

  8. Electric versus pneumatic power in hand prostheses for children.

    PubMed

    Plettenburg, D H

    1989-01-01

    Most externally powered hand prostheses for children with a unilateral congenital below-elbow amputation are myoelectrically controlled. All of them are electrically powered. Despite the success of fitting children with this kind of prostheses, there are some disadvantages: prosthetic weight is high, operating speed is low, the system is vulnerable and its size prohibits fitting it to patients with a long fore-arm stump. It will be shown that pneumatic power can overcome most of these disadvantages. PMID:2733004

  9. Development of Pneumatic Robot Hand and Construction of Master-Slave System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Nishino, Shinya; Komatsubara, Hiroyuki; Kudawara, Tatsuwo; Hirano, Masanori

    Recently, research and development has focused on robots that work in place of people. It is necessary for robots to perform the same flexible motions as people. Additionally, such robots need to incorporate high-level safety features in order not to injure people. For creation of such robots, we need to develop a robot hand that functions like a human hand. At the same time, this type of robot hand can be used as an artificial hand. Here, we present artificial muscle-type pneumatic actuators as the driving source of a robot hand that is both safe and flexible. Some development of robot hands using pneumatic actuators has already taken place. But, until now, when a pneumatic actuator is used, a big compressor is needed. So, the driving system also needs to be big; enlargement of the driving system is a major problem. Consequently, in this research, we develop a low-pressure, low-volume pneumatic actuator for driving a robot hand that works flexibly and safely on the assumption that it will be in contact with people. We develop a five-fingered robot hand with pneumatic actuators. And, we construct a master-slave system to enable the robot hand to perform the same operations as a human hand. We make a 1-link arm that has one degree of freedom using a pneumatic actuator, and construct a control system for the 1-link arm and verify its control performance.

  10. Characterization of sprays for thermo-stabilized pneumatic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Ochowiak, M; Doligalski, M; Broniarz-Press, L; Matuszak, M; Gościniak, A

    2016-03-31

    The research presents the nebulizer spray chamber temperature controller responsible for controlling temperature of aerosol produced as a result of nebulizing process. The motivation to make an attempt to improve modern pneumatic devices was the shortage of this kind of apparatuses on the market allowing the production of thermos aerosol. A designed temperature controlling system for pneumatic nebulizers aims at increasing and stabilizing temperature of produced aerosols and increasing aerosol therapy safety. The system is intended for producing aerosol in the process of pneumatic nebulization with the temperature similar to that of the human body. Experiments that were carried out confirmed good performance of the device. It was proved that with the increase of temperature the amount of big droplets fall and the entire spectrum of the droplet diameter moves towards smaller droplet diameter values. Reduction of liquid viscosity related to the increase of temperature leads to the reduction of droplet diameter and, as a result, the reduction of the Sauter mean diameter value. PMID:26825254

  11. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  12. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  13. Development of pneumatic thrust-deflecting powered-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.; Harris, M. J.; Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Improvements introduced into the Circulation Control Wing/Upper Surface Blowing (CCW/USB) STOL concept (Harris et al., 1982) are described along with results of the full-scale static ground tests and model-scale wind tunnel investigations. Tests performed on the full-scale pneumatic thrust-deflecting system installed on the NASA QSRA aircraft have demonstrated that, relative to the original baseline configuration, a doubling of incremental thrust deflection due to blowing resulted from improvements that increased the blowing span and momentum, as well as from variations in blowing slot height and geometry of the trailing edge. A CCW/Over the Wing model has been built and tested, which was shown to be equivalent to the CCW/USB system in terms of pneumatic thrust deflection and lift generation, while resolving the problem of cruise thrust loss due to exhaust scrubbing on the wing upper surface.

  14. Aerospace engineering educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, William; Klett, David; Lai, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The principle goal of the educational component of NASA CORE is the creation of aerospace engineering options in the mechanical engineering program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To accomplish this goal, a concerted effort during the past year has resulted in detailed plans for the initiation of aerospace options in both the BSME and MSME programs in the fall of 1993. All proposed new courses and the BSME aerospace option curriculum must undergo a lengthy approval process involving two cirriculum oversight committees (School of Engineering and University level) and three levels of general faculty approval. Assuming approval is obtained from all levels, the options will officially take effect in Fall '93. In anticipation of this, certain courses in the proposed curriculum are being offered during the current academic year under special topics headings so that current junior level students may graduate in May '94 under the BSME aerospace option. The proposed undergraduate aerospace option curriculum (along with the regular mechanical engineering curriculum for reference) is attached at the end of this report, and course outlines for the new courses are included in the appendix.

  15. Development of myopia as a hazard for workers in pneumatic caissons

    PubMed Central

    Onoo, A; Kiyosawa, M; Takase, H; Mano, Y

    2002-01-01

    Background/aim: Pneumatic caisson engineering has been developed for large civil engineering constructions. Because of complaints of blurred vision by personnel working in pneumatic caissons, the development of myopia was suspected. The aim of this study was to determine the cause of the blurred vision and the mechanism underlying the changes. Methods: 12 caisson workers underwent a complete ophthalmological examination after completing up to 11 weeks of work (4 days/week) in a pneumatic caisson. Six months later, nine of the workers were examined again. Results: Nine subjects were myopic at the initial examination, and seven of these were considered to have developed the myopia after starting to work in the pneumatic caisson. Six months after completion of the work, the mean refractive change was significantly towards hyperopia. Conclusions: The blurred vision in pneumatic caisson workers was in all likelihood due to the development of myopia. The refractive shift towards hyperopia after completion of work in the pneumatic caisson supports this and demonstrates that the changes were temporary. The myopia is similar to the myopia seen in patients treated by hyperbaric oxygen. Careful monitoring of the refraction of caisson workers should be performed for industrial health control. PMID:12386088

  16. Comprehensive integration of homogeneous bioassays via centrifugo-pneumatic cascading.

    PubMed

    Godino, Neus; Gorkin, Robert; Linares, Ana V; Burger, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-02-21

    This work for the first time presents the full integration and automation concept for a range of bioassays leveraged by cascading a centrifugo-pneumatic valving scheme to sequentially move several liquids through shared channel segments for multi-step sample preparation into the detection zone. This novel centrifugo-pneumatic liquid handling significantly simplifies system manufacture by obviating the need for complex surface functionalization procedures or hybrid material integration, as it is common in conventional valving methods such as capillary burst valves or sacrificial valves. Based on the centrifugo-pneumatic valving scheme, this work presents a toolkit of operational elements implementing liquid loading/transfer, metering, mixing and sedimentation in a microstructured polymer disc. As a proof of concept for the broad class of homogeneous bioassays, the full integration and automation of a colorimetric nitrate/nitrite test for the detection of clinically relevant nitric oxide (NO) in whole blood is implemented. First, 40 μL of plasma is extracted from a 100 μL sample of human blood, incubated for one hour with the enzymatic mixture (60 μL), and finally reacted with 100 μL of colorimetric (Greiss) reagents. Following just a single loading phase at the beginning of the process, all of these steps are automated through the centrifugo-pneumatic cascade with a high level of flow control and synchronization. Our system shows good correlation with controls up to 50 μM of nitrate, which adequately covers the healthy human range (4 to 45.3 μM). PMID:23250328

  17. Pneumatic transfer of solids into wells

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatman, R. E.; Freeman, E. R.; Gottschling, J.; Simon, J.

    1985-04-23

    A method for pneumatically transferring particulate solid materials into an earth formation penetrated by a well bore is shown. A gas is flowed into the well bore to establish the desired injection rate and pressure. A particulate solid material is then added to the established gas flow passing into the well bore by flowing a gas containing an entrained particulate solid material into the established gas flow to thereby transfer the solid particulate material pneumatically into the well bore.

  18. Pneumatic fracturing of low permeability media

    SciTech Connect

    Schuring, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    Pneumatic fracturing of soils to enhance the removal and treatment of dense nonaqueous phase liquids is described. The process involves gas injection at a pressure exceeding the natural stresses and at a flow rate exceeding the permeability of the formation. The paper outlines geologic considerations, advantages and disadvantages, general technology considerations, low permeability media considerations, commercial availability, efficiency, and costs. Five case histories of remediation using pneumatic fracturing are briefly summarized. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Lipin

    2005-03-15

    The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

  20. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.

  1. Pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Toshio; Takagi, Atsushi

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents the construction of a pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer. The one-wheel car model can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system subject to excitation from a road profile. The active control is composed of fuzzy and disturbance controls, and functions by actuating a pneumatic actuator. A phase lead-lag compensator is inserted to counter the performance degradation due to the delay of the pneumatic actuator. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension improves much the vibration suppression of the car model. PMID:15323000

  2. The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

  3. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  4. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297.

  5. History of Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control with Emphasis on Flight Resrearch: Monographs in Aerospace History Number 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braslow, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    The paper contains the following sections: Foreword; Preface; Laminar-Flow Control Concepts and Scope of Monograph; Early Research on Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control (Research from the 1930s through the War Years; Research from after World War II to the Mid-1960s); Post X-21 Research on Suction-Type Laminar-Flow Control; Status of Laminar-Flow Control Technology in the Mid-1990s; Glossary; Document 1-Aeronautics Panel, AACB, R&D Review, Report of the Subpanel on Aeronautic Energy Conservation/Fuels; Document 2-Report of Review Group on X-21A Laminar Flow Control Program; Document 3-Langley Research Center Announcement, Establishment of Laminar Flow Control Working Group; Document 4-Intercenter Agreement for Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Glove Flights, LaRC and DFRC; Document 5-Flight Report NLF-144, of AFTIF-111 Aircraft with the TACT Wing Modified by a Natural Laminar Flow Glove; Document 6-Flight Record, F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Aircraft; Index; and About the Author.

  6. Automated pneumatic transfer irradiation system for delayed neutron counting

    SciTech Connect

    Heifer, Paul G.; Millard, Hugh T. Jr.; Zermane, Albert J

    1982-07-01

    The Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor has been used for uranium and thorium neutron activation analysis by delayed neutron counting for the past eleven years. As the requirements for analysis increased the original General Atomic pneumatic system was upgraded in several stages. By 1979 we had reached the practical limits of safe through-put for that system and a new pneumatic transfer system was built. A single large Roots type blower is used to drive four individual transfer tubes simultaneously (two termini in the core and two outside the reflector). A microprocessor controls the operation and is paced by a minicomputer, which is also used to collect and reduce the counting data. Two irradiations and counting cycles are performed on each sample, one in the core, a Cd-lined terminus for thorium, and one in the reflector mounted terminus for uranium. Video displays at both the reactor console and the pneumatic system operating station indicate the status of the system and the locations of the samples at all times. This highly automated system is capable of 1,200 irradiations for delayed neutron counting in a 10 hour day, and, in addition, incorporates programmable versatility for other irradiation-counting experiments, and provides a high degree of reactor and radiological safety with only remote operator attention. (author)

  7. Combustion Processes in the Aerospace Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggett, Clayton

    1969-01-01

    The aerospace environment introduces new and enhanced fire hazards because the special atmosphere employed may increase the frequency and intensity of fires, because the confinement associated with aerospace systems adversely affects the dynamics of fire development and control, and because the hostile external environments limit fire control and rescue operations. Oxygen enriched atmospheres contribute to the fire hazard in aerospace systems by extending the list of combustible fuels, increasing the probability of ignition, and increasing the rates of fire spread and energy release. A system for classifying atmospheres according to the degree of fire hazard, based on the heat capacity of the atmosphere per mole of oxygen, is suggested. A brief exploration of the dynamics of chamber fires shows that such fires will exhibit an exponential growth rate and may grow to dangerous size in a very short time. Relatively small quantities of fuel and oxygen can produce a catastrophic fire in a closed chamber.

  8. Machine intelligence and autonomy for aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Ewald (Editor); Lum, Henry (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present volume discusses progress toward intelligent robot systems in aerospace applications, NASA Space Program automation and robotics efforts, the supervisory control of telerobotics in space, machine intelligence and crew/vehicle interfaces, expert-system terms and building tools, and knowledge-acquisition for autonomous systems. Also discussed are methods for validation of knowledge-based systems, a design methodology for knowledge-based management systems, knowledge-based simulation for aerospace systems, knowledge-based diagnosis, planning and scheduling methods in AI, the treatment of uncertainty in AI, vision-sensing techniques in aerospace applications, image-understanding techniques, tactile sensing for robots, distributed sensor integration, and the control of articulated and deformable space structures.

  9. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  10. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The following areas of NASA's responsibilities are examined: (1) the Space Transportation System (STS) operations and evolving program elements; (2) establishment of the Space Station program organization and issuance of requests for proposals to the aerospace industry; and (3) NASA's aircraft operations, including research and development flight programs for two advanced X-type aircraft.

  11. Aerospace Bibliography. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blashfield, Jean F., Comp.

    Provided for teachers and the general adult reader is an annotated and graded list of books and reference materials dealing with aerospace subjects. Only non-fiction books and pamphlets that need to be purchased from commercial or government sources are included. Free industrial materials and educational aids are not included because they tend to…

  12. Aerospace at Saint Francis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Discusses an aviation/aerospace program as a science elective for 11th and 12th year students. This program is multi-faceted and addresses the needs of a wide variety of students. Its main objective is to present aviation and space sciences which will provide a good base for higher education in these areas. (SK)

  13. The ascending trajectories performance and control to minimize the heat load for the transatmospheric aero-space planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, J.; Al-Garni, A.

    The goal of airbreathing transatmospheric vehicle (TAV) ascending trajectory performance and control definition is the minimization of heat loads/unit area near the stagnation point, modeling the vehicle as a point-variable mass with drag polar and variable thrust. Initially, the present effort proceeds analytically to define the aerodynamic and thrust controls required for TAV transfer from one specified state to another, while satisfying such equality constraints as constant dynamic pressure and constant rate-of-climb. Extensive numerical optimization algorithms are then applied. An illustrative numerical example is presented.

  14. [Is pneumatic sample transport system also a carrier for microorganisms?].

    PubMed

    Alpat, Saygin Nayman; Ozgüneş, Ilhan; Aybey, Aşkin Derya; Ertem, Osman Turgut; Akşit, Filiz

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible infection and contamination risk of the pneumatic system used in our hospital and to establish essential infection control measures. The study was conducted in a quaternary health care center with 1.000 bed capacity. A total of 614 specimens were taken 2 times weekly from the pneumatic transport system and its carriers at 22 wards, 5 intensive care units, 3 laboratories, 2 blood taking units, and pharmacy. Samples were also obtained from the fingertips of 33 subjects using the system, before and after contact with the carriers. A questionnaire that consisted of 8 questions was applied to 224 subjects who worked in those units, evaluating the degree of compliance to the obligations for the cleaning of the pneumatic system and carriers and their approach in case of visible pollution at the system. Bacterial growth was observed in 15.2% (45/296) of samples in the 1st week and 7.6% (18/238) of the samples in the 2nd week, making a total of 11.8% (63/534) bacterial growth. No growth was detected from the areas where the carriers were placed. Of these 69.8% were coagulase negative staphylococci, 11.1% diphteroids, 7.9% Acinetobacter Iwoffii, 4.8% Staphylococcus aureus, 4.8% Bacillus spp. and 1.6% Enterococcus durans. Acinetobacter baumannii and Aspergillus were detected at two fingertip samples taken before the contact with carriers, while again A. baumannii and Enterobacter cloacae were detected at the samples following contact. Moreover, 31.3% of the subjects noted that they cleaned the carriers only if any visible contamination was present. In addition, 14.3% reported that they have encountered broken or spilled up material in the system for more than 5 times, 10.3% reported that they followed the instructions in case of presence of infected material inside the carriers, 23.7% reported that they always washed their hands after any contact with the carriers, 9.8% noted that they always used gloves during contact

  15. Rod-based Fabrication of Customizable Soft Robotic Pneumatic Gripper Devices for Delicate Tissue Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Low, Jin-Huat; Yeow, Chen-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soft compliant gripping is essential in delicate surgical manipulation for minimizing the risk of tissue grip damage caused by high stress concentrations at the point of contact. It can be achieved by complementing traditional rigid grippers with soft robotic pneumatic gripper devices. This manuscript describes a rod-based approach that combined both 3D-printing and a modified soft lithography technique to fabricate the soft pneumatic gripper. In brief, the pneumatic featureless mold with chamber component is 3D-printed and the rods were used to create the pneumatic channels that connect to the chamber. This protocol eliminates the risk of channels occluding during the sealing process and the need for external air source or related control circuit. The soft gripper consists of a chamber filled with air, and one or more gripper arms with a pneumatic channel in each arm connected to the chamber. The pneumatic channel is positioned close to the outer wall to create different stiffness in the gripper arm. Upon compression of the chamber which generates pressure on the pneumatic channel, the gripper arm will bend inward to form a close grip posture because the outer wall area is more compliant. The soft gripper can be inserted into a 3D-printed handling tool with two different control modes for chamber compression: manual gripper mode with a movable piston, and robotic gripper mode with a linear actuator. The double-arm gripper with two actuatable arms was able to pick up objects of sizes up to 2 mm and yet generate lower compressive forces as compared to elastomer-coated and non-coated rigid grippers. The feasibility of having other designs, such as single-arm or hook gripper, was also demonstrated, which further highlighted the customizability of the soft gripper device, and it's potential to be used in delicate surgical manipulation to reduce the risk of tissue grip damage. PMID:27584722

  16. Aerospace Applications of Integer and Combinatorial Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in formulating and solving integer and combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem, for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on an orbiting platform and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  17. Aerospace applications on integer and combinatorial optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in formulating and solving integer and combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem. for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on an orbiting platform and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  18. Aerospace applications of integer and combinatorial optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in solving combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem, for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on a large space structure and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  19. Aircraft of Today. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.

    This textbook gives a brief idea about the modern aircraft used in defense and for commercial purposes. Aerospace technology in its present form has developed along certain basic principles of aerodynamic forces. Different parts in an airplane have different functions to balance the aircraft in air, provide a thrust, and control the general…

  20. The 15th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technological areas covered include: aerospace propulsion; aerodynamic devices; crew safety; space vehicle control; spacecraft deployment, positioning, and pointing; deployable antennas/reflectors; and large space structures. Devices for payload deployment, payload retention, and crew extravehicular activities on the space shuttle orbiter are also described.

  1. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  2. Materials for aerospace

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.A.

    1986-10-01

    Early last year the US Office of Science and Technology put forward an agenda for American aerospace activity in the coming decades. The plan established goals for subsonic, supersonic and transatmospheric hypersonic flight. Those goals, together with Reagan Administration's programs for a space station and the Strategic Defense Initiative, serve as a driving force for extensive improvements in the materials that enable airplanes and spacecraft to function efficiently. The development of materials, together with advances in the technology of fabricating parts, will play a key role in aerospace systems of the future. Among the materials developments projected for the year 2000 are new composites and alloys for structural members; superalloys, ceramics and glass composites for propulsion systems, and carbon-carbon composites (carbon fibers in a carbon matrix) for high-temperature applications in places where resistance to heat and ablation is critical. 5 figures.

  3. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  4. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Doris J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Transfer Team is to assist NASA in achieving widespread utilization of aerospace technology in terrestrial applications. Widespread utilization implies that the application of NASA technology is to benefit a significant sector of the economy and population of the Nation. This objective is best attained by stimulating the introduction of new or improved commercially available devices incorporating aerospace technology. A methodology is presented for the team's activities as an active transfer agent linking NASA Field Centers, industry associations, user groups, and the medical community. This methodology is designed to: (1) identify priority technology requirements in industry and medicine, (2) identify applicable NASA technology that represents an opportunity for a successful solution and commercial product, (3) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process, and (4) successfully develop a new product based on NASA technology.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Amperometric Chips with Pneumatic Micropumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujita, Yuichi; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Chikae, Miyuki; Torai, Soichiro; Takamura, Yuzuru; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2008-04-01

    We fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT) amperometric chips with pneumatic micropumps by the combination of amperometric biosensors based on CNT-arrayed electrodes and microchannels with pneumatic micropumps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane). On the chip, phosphate buffer solution and potassium ferricyanide, K3[Fe(CN)6], were introduced into the CNT electrodes using each pneumatic micropump and electrochemically measured by differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicate that our chip can automatically exchange reagents on the CNT electrodes and clearly detect molecules. Moreover, by modifying the CNT electrodes with enzyme glucose oxidase, glucose molecules could be detected using our chips by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. We conclude that microfluidic chips with CNT-arrayed electrodes are a promising candidate for the development of hand-held electrochemical biosensors.

  6. Development of prosthetic arm with pneumatic prosthetic hand and tendon-driven wrist.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Hiroyuki; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Kan, Hiroto; Hirano, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Recently, various prosthetic arms have been developed, but few are both attractive and functional. Considering human coexistence, prosthetic arms must be both safe and flexible. In this research, we developed a novel prosthetic arm with a five-fingered prosthetic hand using our original pneumatic actuators and a slender tendon-driven wrist using a wire drive and two small motors. Because the prosthetic hand's driving source is comprised of small pneumatic actuators, the prosthetic hand is safe when it makes contact with people; it can also operate flexibly. In addition, the arm has a tendon-driven wrist to expand its motion space and to perform many operations. First, we explain the pneumatic hand's drive mechanism and its tendon-driven wrist. Next, we identify the characteristics of the hand and the wrist and construct a control system for this arm and verify its control performance. PMID:19964378

  7. A magnetorheological fluid embedded pneumatic vibration isolator allowing independently adjustable stiffness and damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaocong; Jing, Xingjian; Cheng, Li

    2011-08-01

    A magnetorheological (MR) fluid embedded pneumatic vibration isolator (MrEPI) with hybrid and compact connection of pneumatic spring and MR damping elements is proposed in this study. The proposed MrEPI system allows independent nonlinear stiffness and damping control with considerable maneuverable ranges. Meanwhile, it allows convenient switching between different passive and active vibration control modes, thus providing more flexibility and versatility in applications. To demonstrate the advantageous dynamic performance of the MrEPI, a nonlinear non-dimensional dynamic model is developed with full consideration of the nonlinear elements involved. A systematic analysis is therefore conducted which can clearly reveal the influence on system output performance caused by each physically important parameter and provide a useful insight into the analysis and design of nonlinear vibration isolators with pneumatic and MR elements.

  8. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  9. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  10. Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Vitko, J. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Workshop concentrated on reviewing and refining the science experiments planned for the UAV Demonstration Flights (UDF) scheduled at the Oklahoma Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in April 1994. These experiments were focused around the following sets of parameters: Clear sky, daylight; Clear-sky, night-to-day transition; Clear sky - improve/validate the accuracy of radiative fluxes derived from satellite-based measurements; Daylight, clouds of opportunity; and, Daylight, broken clouds.

  11. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 49 CFR 236.817 - Switch, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, electro-pneumatic. 236.817 Section 236.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, electro-pneumatic. A switch operated by an electro-pneumatic switch-and-lock movement....

  16. PNEUMATIC PUMP TEST FOR DESIGN OF SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ pneumatic pumping tests were performed to estimate the pneumatic permeability at a site containing soils contaminated with aviation gasoline. Determination of pneumatic permeability was necessary to evaluate soil-air discharge or pore volume exchange rates. Pressure propa...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  18. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  19. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  20. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  1. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  2. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. Proceedings of the NASA Aerospace Technology Symposium 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Reports are presented from the NASA Aerospace Technology Symposium 2002 on the following: Geo-Referenced Altitude Hold For Latex Ballons; NASA Spaceport Research: Opportunities For space Grant and EPSCoR Involvement; Numerical Simulation Of The Combustion Of Fuel Droplets: Applications, Aircraft/Spacecraft Flight Control, Guidance Navigation; Expertise In System Dynamics and Control, Control Theory and Aerospace Education Ooutreach Opportunities; and Technology For The Improvement Of General Aviation Security: A Needs Assessmemt.

  14. Aerospace NESHAP: A collaborative approach to implementation

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, M.; Lee, A.; Williamson, C.; Willenberg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of the Aerospace National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) is to minimize emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from major sources who manufacture or rework aerospace vehicles or components. The NESHAP requires emission reductions through implementation of work practices, application of slower evaporating solvents and coatings with low-HAP and low-VOC content, usage of high transfer efficiency spray equipment, and installation of high capture efficiency exhaust filtration for coatings containing metals. The rule also requires extensive monitoring, recordkeeping, and self-reporting to track compliance. For existing sources the rule becomes effective September 1,1998. Over the past year the Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency (PSAPCA) has worked with the Boeing Company and EPA to identify the requirements of the aerospace NESHAP, understand what it means in everyday practice, and develop an enforcement strategy for ensuring compliance. A workshop was held with aerospace manufacturers, local regulators, and EPA to discuss implementation of the rule. Issues regarding compliance efforts and determinations were openly discussed. Subsequent to the workshop, PSAPCA and the Boeing Company participated in several mock inspections to review facility compliance efforts before the rule became effective. Collaborative efforts also ensued to develop operating permit monitoring requirements. Aerospace NESHAP requirements were incorporated into these permits. There are still questions regarding compliance determinations that must be further discussed and resolved. But by using the collaborative approach and having regulators and sources working together, there is a process to work out answers and approaches that will lead to an increased mutual understanding of the aerospace NESHAP and eventual compliance with the standard.

  15. Powered glove with electro-pneumatic actuation unit for the disabled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Kosuke; Kumano, Shinichi; Moromugi, Shunji; Ishimatsu, Takakazu

    2007-12-01

    Authors have been developing a powered glove for people suffering from paralysis on their fingers to support their daily activity. Small air cylinders are used as actuators for this glove. Pneumatically-driven system has high advantages in case soft actuation is preferable. However, there are some problems to be solved in the pneumatically-driven system if the system is supposed to be used in our daily life. Huge air compressor is needed and solenoid valves emit loud sound for example. These problems are hurdles to commercialize the powered glove. To solve these problems authors have developed a new actuation unit by integrating an electric cylinder and an air cylinder. This actuation unit has advantages of both the electric actuation and the pneumatic actuation. Its advanced grip control ability has demonstrated through several experiments. The experimental results are reported in this paper.

  16. Operation of a dilute-phase pneumatic transport system at the new waste calcining facility

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.P.; Bodner, S.S.

    1990-03-15

    The New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) converts radioactive liquid solutions to granular solids in fluidized-bed calcination process. these very erosive solids are dilute-phase pneumatically transported to stainless steel bins for interim storage. The entire NWCF pneumatic transport system is located in highly radioactive cells so the system must be very reliable and free from erosion failures. The NWCF pneumatic transport system uses blinded tees, blinded laterals, wear pads and a specially designed fines metering valve to control the erosion in the system. The NWCF has processed and transported to interim storage approximately 1,350 cubic meters of calcine since initial start-up in 1982. This paper presents the operating history including data on erosion rates measured at various locations at NWCF.

  17. Pneumatics. Student's Manual [and] Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Troy

    The student's manual in this two-part instructional kit is designed to help the following types of students learn introductory technical material related to pneumatics: (1) groups of trade and industrial students with a variety of vocational objectives and (2) homogeneous groups in which the learning levels of individual students vary…

  18. Management of achalasia: surgery or pneumatic dilation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel E; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2011-06-01

    Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder of unknown cause, characterised by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and impaired lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Patients present at all ages, primarily with dysphagia for solids/liquids and bland regurgitation. The diagnosis is suggested by barium esophagram or endoscopy and confirmed by esophageal manometry. Achalasia cannot be cured. Instead, our goal is to relieve symptoms, improve esophageal emptying and prevent the development of megaesophagus. The most successful therapies are pneumatic dilation and surgical myotomy. The advantages of pneumatic dilation include an outpatient procedure, minimal pain, return to work the next day, mild if any GERD, and can be performed in any age group and even during pregnancy. Pneumatic dilation does not hinder future myotomy, and all cost analyses find it less expensive than Heller myotomy. Laparoscopic myotomy with a partial fundoplication has the advantage of being a single procedure, dysphagia relief is longer at the cost of more troubling heartburn, and a myotomy may be more effective treatment in adolescents and younger adults, especially men. Over a two year horizon, the clinical success of pneumatic dilation and laparoscopic myotomy are comparable in a recent large European randomised trial. The prognosis for achalasia patients to return to near-normal swallowing and good quality of life are excellent, but few are "cured" with a single treatment and intermittent "touch up" procedures may be required. PMID:21303915

  19. Field demonstration of two pneumatic backfilling technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dyni, R.C.; Burnett, M.; Philbin, D.

    1995-12-31

    This US Bureau of Mines (USBM) report summarizes a field demonstration of pneumatic backfilling technologies conducted at the abandoned Hillside Coal and Iron Slope in Vandling, PA. Researchers demonstrated two pneumatic backfilling technologies recently developed under the USBM`s Abandoned Mine Reclamation Research Program, the Pneumatic Pipefeeder and the High-Efficiency Ejector. Both systems had previously been evaluated at the USBM`s subsidence abatement investigation laboratory near Fairchance, PA. The objective of the demonstration was to fill 100% of the abandoned tunnel with backfill stone to prevent further subsidence. The pneumatic Pipefeeder was used for 21 days, at a rate of 63 to 124 t/d (69 to 136 st/d), to fill 88% of the tunnel. The High-Efficiency Ejector was used for 2 days, at a rate of 125 to 132 T/d (138 to 146 st/d) to fill the remaining 12% of the tunnel. The backfill placed by both systems was tightly compacted. The major problem encountered was wear on the polyethylene pipeline from the abrasion of the high-velocity backfill. The use of heavier steel pipe minimized the problem. A cost analysis for the entire project is given.

  20. PNEUMATIC FRACTIONATOR FOR CLEANING GINNED LINT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pneumatic fractionator has long been used to determine foreign matter content of seed cotton at the USDA Cotton Ginning Laboratories. Spawned from discussions at a Cotton Incorporated Lint Cleaning Summit and building on 1970s research at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory, an e...

  1. Evaluating a device for pneumatic lint cleaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research exploring innovative techniques to clean ginned lint while reducing short fiber and neps has led to evaluations of a pneumatic fractionator. This device is typically used to determine foreign matter content of seed cotton at the USDA cotton ginning research laboratories. No modifications we...

  2. Pneumatic boot for helicopter rotor deicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaha, B. J.; Evanich, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Pneumatic deicer boots for helicopter rotor blades were tested. The tests were conducted in the 6 by 9 ft icing research tunnel on a stationary section of a UH-IH helicopter main rotor blade. The boots were effective in removing ice and in reducing aerodynamic drag due to ice.

  3. Vertebral Pneumaticity in the Ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Revealed by Computed Tomography Imaging and Reappraisal of Axial Pneumaticity in Ornithomimosauria.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akinobu; Eugenia Leone Gold, Maria; Brusatte, Stephen L; Benson, Roger B J; Choiniere, Jonah; Davidson, Amy; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Among extant vertebrates, pneumatization of postcranial bones is unique to birds, with few known exceptions in other groups. Through reduction in bone mass, this feature is thought to benefit flight capacity in modern birds, but its prevalence in non-avian dinosaurs of variable sizes has generated competing hypotheses on the initial adaptive significance of postcranial pneumaticity. To better understand the evolutionary history of postcranial pneumaticity, studies have surveyed its distribution among non-avian dinosaurs. Nevertheless, the degree of pneumaticity in the basal coelurosaurian group Ornithomimosauria remains poorly known, despite their potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the early evolution of pneumatic bones along the lineage leading to birds. Historically, the identification of postcranial pneumaticity in non-avian dinosaurs has been based on examination of external morphology, and few studies thus far have focused on the internal architecture of pneumatic structures inside the bones. Here, we describe the vertebral pneumaticity of the ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus with the aid of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Complementary examination of external and internal osteology reveals (1) highly pneumatized cervical vertebrae with an elaborate configuration of interconnected chambers within the neural arch and the centrum; (2) anterior dorsal vertebrae with pneumatic chambers inside the neural arch; (3) apneumatic sacral vertebrae; and (4) a subset of proximal caudal vertebrae with limited pneumatic invasion into the neural arch. Comparisons with other theropod dinosaurs suggest that ornithomimosaurs primitively exhibited a plesiomorphic theropod condition for axial pneumaticity that was extended among later taxa, such as Archaeornithomimus and large bodied Deinocheirus. This finding corroborates the notion that evolutionary increases in vertebral pneumaticity occurred in parallel among independent lineages of bird

  4. Vertebral Pneumaticity in the Ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Revealed by Computed Tomography Imaging and Reappraisal of Axial Pneumaticity in Ornithomimosauria

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Akinobu; Eugenia Leone Gold, Maria; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Choiniere, Jonah; Davidson, Amy; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Among extant vertebrates, pneumatization of postcranial bones is unique to birds, with few known exceptions in other groups. Through reduction in bone mass, this feature is thought to benefit flight capacity in modern birds, but its prevalence in non-avian dinosaurs of variable sizes has generated competing hypotheses on the initial adaptive significance of postcranial pneumaticity. To better understand the evolutionary history of postcranial pneumaticity, studies have surveyed its distribution among non-avian dinosaurs. Nevertheless, the degree of pneumaticity in the basal coelurosaurian group Ornithomimosauria remains poorly known, despite their potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the early evolution of pneumatic bones along the lineage leading to birds. Historically, the identification of postcranial pneumaticity in non-avian dinosaurs has been based on examination of external morphology, and few studies thus far have focused on the internal architecture of pneumatic structures inside the bones. Here, we describe the vertebral pneumaticity of the ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus with the aid of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Complementary examination of external and internal osteology reveals (1) highly pneumatized cervical vertebrae with an elaborate configuration of interconnected chambers within the neural arch and the centrum; (2) anterior dorsal vertebrae with pneumatic chambers inside the neural arch; (3) apneumatic sacral vertebrae; and (4) a subset of proximal caudal vertebrae with limited pneumatic invasion into the neural arch. Comparisons with other theropod dinosaurs suggest that ornithomimosaurs primitively exhibited a plesiomorphic theropod condition for axial pneumaticity that was extended among later taxa, such as Archaeornithomimus and large bodied Deinocheirus. This finding corroborates the notion that evolutionary increases in vertebral pneumaticity occurred in parallel among independent lineages of bird

  5. Pneumatic hammer in aerostatic thrust bearings with single orifice compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Zhongke; Tao, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    In dealing with the phenomenon of the pneumatic hammer in aerostatic thrust bearings, the vibrant model of the one-single freedom system has been established to study the pneumatic hammer from the point of sympathetic vibration. It is found that the bearings show a tendency to result in the pneumatic hammer with the increase of air supply pressure, and the occurrence probability of the pneumatic hammer will be reduced when the gas film thickness is maintained within a certain range. Meanwhile, the existence of the pneumatic hammer, which is caused by sympathetic vibration, is experimentally verified, and it is found that gas bearings undergo certain disturbance, which causes the system to produce micro breadth vibration. Accordingly, the micro breadth vibration causes the gas film and thrust face to form flow/structure coupled to excite the pneumatic hammer. Therefore, it provides another path to study the pneumatic hammer and is of academic value.

  6. Study on application of aerospace technology to improve surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Youngblood, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The areas where aerospace technology could be used to improve the reliability and performance of metallic, orthopedic implants was assessed. Specifically, comparisons were made of material controls, design approaches, analytical methods and inspection approaches being used in the implant industry with hardware for the aerospace industries. Several areas for possible improvement were noted such as increased use of finite element stress analysis and fracture control programs on devices where the needs exist for maximum reliability and high structural performance.

  7. Aerospace structures supportability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard Wesley

    1989-04-01

    This paper is about supportability in its general sense, with emphasis on aerospace structures. Reliability and maintainability (R&M) are described and defined from the standpoint of both structural analysis. Accessability, inspectability, and replaceability are described as design attributes. Reliability and probability of failure are shown to be in the domain of the analysis. Availability and replaceability are traditional logistic responsibilities which are influenced by supportability engineers. The USAF R&M 2000 process is described, and the R&M 1988 Workshop at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is also included in the description.

  8. The Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I. Instructor Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This publication provides guidelines for teachers using the textbook entitled "Aerospace Environment," published in the Aerospace Education I series. Major categories included in each chapter are objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, instructional aids, projects, and further reading. Background…

  9. Aerospace Nickel-cadmium Cell Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Strawn, D. Michael; Hall, Stephen W.

    2001-01-01

    During the early years of satellites, NASA successfully flew "NASA-Standard" nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) cells manufactured by GE/Gates/SAFF on a variety of spacecraft. In 1992 a NASA Battery Review Board determined that the strategy of a NASA Standard Cell and Battery Specification and the accompanying NASA control of a standard manufacturing control document (MCD) for Ni-Cd cells and batteries was unwarranted. As a result of that determination, standards were abandoned and the use of cells other than the NASA Standard was required. In order to gain insight into the performance and characteristics of the various aerospace Ni-Cd products available, tasks were initiated within the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program that involved the procurement and testing of representative aerospace Ni-Cd cell designs. A standard set of test conditions was established in order to provide similar information about the products from various vendors. The objective of this testing was to provide independent verification of representative commercial flight cells available in the marketplace today. This paper will provide a summary of the verification tests run on cells from various manufacturers: Sanyo 35 Ampere-hour (Ali) standard and 35 Ali advanced Ni-Cd cells, SAFr 50 Ah Ni-Cd cells and Eagle-Picher 21 Ali Magnum and 21 Ali Super Ni-CdTM cells from Eagle-Picher were put through a full evaluation. A limited number of 18 and 55 Ali cells from Acme Electric were also tested to provide an initial evaluation of the Acme aerospace cell designs. Additionally, 35 Ali aerospace design Ni-MH cells from Sanyo were evaluated under the standard conditions established for this program. Ile test program is essentially complete. The cell design parameters, the verification test plan and the details of the test result will be discussed.

  10. Trajectory optimization for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this second phase research is to investigate the optimal ascent trajectory for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) from runway take-off to orbital insertion and address the unique problems associated with the hypersonic flight trajectory optimization. The trajectory optimization problem for an aerospace plane is a highly challenging problem because of the complexity involved. Previous work has been successful in obtaining sub-optimal trajectories by using energy-state approximation and time-scale decomposition techniques. But it is known that the energy-state approximation is not valid in certain portions of the trajectory. This research aims at employing full dynamics of the aerospace plane and emphasizing direct trajectory optimization methods. The major accomplishments of this research include the first-time development of an inverse dynamics approach in trajectory optimization which enables us to generate optimal trajectories for the aerospace plane efficiently and reliably, and general analytical solutions to constrained hypersonic trajectories that has wide application in trajectory optimization as well as in guidance and flight dynamics. Optimal trajectories in abort landing and ascent augmented with rocket propulsion and thrust vectoring control were also investigated. Motivated by this study, a new global trajectory optimization tool using continuous simulated annealing and a nonlinear predictive feedback guidance law have been under investigation and some promising results have been obtained, which may well lead to more significant development and application in the near future.

  11. LPT. Low power test (TAN641) interior. Heating and ventilating pneumatic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Low power test (TAN-641) interior. Heating and ventilating pneumatic and electrical control panel. Contract nearly complete. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: December 19, 1957. INEEL negative no. 57-6198 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Comparitive Assessment of Isokinetic and Pneumatic Lower Limb Strength in Functionally-Limited Elderly Subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between isokinetic and pneumatic knee extensor strength in functionally-limited elders and to compare the respective changes in knee extensor peak torque and one repetition maximum strength (1RM) after a randomized controlled progressive ...

  13. Empirical modeling of dynamic behaviors of pneumatic artificial muscle actuators.

    PubMed

    Wickramatunge, Kanchana Crishan; Leephakpreeda, Thananchai

    2013-11-01

    Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) actuators yield muscle-like mechanical actuation with high force to weight ratio, soft and flexible structure, and adaptable compliance for rehabilitation and prosthetic appliances to the disabled as well as humanoid robots or machines. The present study is to develop empirical models of the PAM actuators, that is, a PAM coupled with pneumatic control valves, in order to describe their dynamic behaviors for practical control design and usage. Empirical modeling is an efficient approach to computer-based modeling with observations of real behaviors. Different characteristics of dynamic behaviors of each PAM actuator are due not only to the structures of the PAM actuators themselves, but also to the variations of their material properties in manufacturing processes. To overcome the difficulties, the proposed empirical models are experimentally derived from real physical behaviors of the PAM actuators, which are being implemented. In case studies, the simulated results with good agreement to experimental results, show that the proposed methodology can be applied to describe the dynamic behaviors of the real PAM actuators. PMID:23871151

  14. Pneumatically Actuated Miniature Peristaltic Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Feldman, Jason; Svehla, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Pneumatically actuated miniature peristaltic vacuum pumps have been proposed for incorporation into advanced miniature versions of scientific instruments that depend on vacuum for proper operation. These pumps are expected to be capable of reaching vacuum-side pressures in the torr to millitorr range (from .133 down to .0.13 Pa). Vacuum pumps that operate in this range are often denoted roughing pumps. In comparison with previously available roughing pumps, these pumps are expected to be an order of magnitude less massive and less power-hungry. In addition, they would be extremely robust, and would operate with little or no maintenance and without need for oil or other lubricants. Portable mass spectrometers are typical examples of instruments that could incorporate the proposed pumps. In addition, the proposed pumps could be used as roughing pumps in general laboratory applications in which low pumping rates could be tolerated. The proposed pumps could be designed and fabricated in conventionally machined and micromachined versions. A typical micromachined version (see figure) would include a rigid glass, metal, or plastic substrate and two layers of silicone rubber. The bottom silicone layer would contain shallow pump channels covered by silicone arches that could be pushed down pneumatically to block the channels. The bottom silicone layer would be covered with a thin layer of material with very low gas permeability, and would be bonded to the substrate everywhere except in the channel areas. The top silicone layer would be attached to the bottom silicone layer and would contain pneumatic- actuation channels that would lie crosswise to the pump channels. This version is said to be micromachined because the two silicone layers containing the channels would be fabricated by casting silicone rubber on micromachined silicon molds. The pneumatic-actuation channels would be alternately connected to a compressed gas and (depending on pump design) either to atmospheric

  15. Limitless Horizons: Careers in Aerospace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary H.

    This is a manual for acquainting students with pertinent information relating to career choices in aerospace science, engineering, and technology. The first chapter presents information about the aerospace industry by describing disciplines typical of this industry. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) classification system…

  16. Limitless Horizons. Careers in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A manual is presented for use by counselors in career guidance programs. Pertinent information is provided on choices open in aerospace sciences, engineering, and technology. Accredited institutions awarding degrees in pertinent areas are listed as well as additional sources of aerospace career information. NASA's role and fields of interest are emphasized.

  17. Aerospace Activities and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Piper, Martha

    1975-01-01

    Describes how science activities can be used to stimulate language development in the elementary grades. Two aerospace activities are described involving liquid nitrogen and the launching of a weather balloon which integrate aerospace interests into the development of language skills. (BR)

  18. Experimental characterization of the effects of pneumatic tubing on unsteady pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Lindsey, William T.; Curry, Robert E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in aircraft control system designs have, with increasing frequency, required that air data be used as flight control feedback. This condition requires that these data be measured with accuracy and high fidelity. Most air data information is provided by pneumatic pressure measuring sensors. Typically unsteady pressure data provided by pneumatic sensing systems are distorted at high frequencies. The distortion is a result of the pressure being transmitted to the pressure sensor through a length of connective tubing. The pressure is distorted by frictional damping and wave reflection. As a result, air data provided all-flush, pneumatically sensed air data systems may not meet the frequency response requirements necessary for flight control augmentation. Both lab and flight test were performed at NASA-Ames to investigate the effects of this high frequency distortion in remotely located pressure measurement systems. Good qualitative agreement between lab and flight data are demonstrated. Results from these tests are used to describe the effects of pneumatic distortion in terms of a simple parametric model.

  19. Automation technology for aerospace power management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The growing size and complexity of spacecraft power systems coupled with limited space/ground communications necessitate increasingly automated onboard control systems. Research in computer science, particularly artificial intelligence has developed methods and techniques for constructing man-machine systems with problem-solving expertise in limited domains which may contribute to the automation of power systems. Since these systems perform tasks which are typically performed by human experts they have become known as Expert Systems. A review of the current state of the art in expert systems technology is presented, and potential applications in power systems management are considered. It is concluded that expert systems appear to have significant potential for improving the productivity of operations personnel in aerospace applications, and in automating the control of many aerospace systems.

  20. Prognostics for Ground Support Systems: Case Study on Pneumatic Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Goebel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Prognostics technologies determine the health (or damage) state of a component or sub-system, and make end of life (EOL) and remaining useful life (RUL) predictions. Such information enables system operators to make informed maintenance decisions and streamline operational and mission-level activities. We develop a model-based prognostics methodology for pneumatic valves used in ground support equipment for cryogenic propellant loading operations. These valves are used to control the flow of propellant, so failures may have a significant impact on launch availability. Therefore, correctly predicting when valves will fail enables timely maintenance that avoids launch delays and aborts. The approach utilizes mathematical models describing the underlying physics of valve degradation, and, employing the particle filtering algorithm for joint state-parameter estimation, determines the health state of the valve and the rate of damage progression, from which EOL and RUL predictions are made. We develop a prototype user interface for valve prognostics, and demonstrate the prognostics approach using historical pneumatic valve data from the Space Shuttle refueling system.

  1. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  2. Aerospace in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    National research and technology trends are introduced in the environment of accelerating change. NASA and the federal budget are discussed. The U.S. energy dependence on foreign oil, the increasing oil costs, and the U.S. petroleum use by class are presented. The $10 billion aerospace industry positive contribution to the U.S. balance of trade of 1979 is given as an indicator of the positive contribution of NASA in research to industry. The research work of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, industry, universities, and business to maintain U.S. world leadership in advanced technology.

  3. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  4. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  5. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a 5-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASAs safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are "one deep." The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting "brain drain" could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning.

  6. Pneumatic Proboscis Heat-Flow Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacny, Kris; Hedlund, Magnus; Mumm, Eric; Shasho, Jeffrey; Chu, Philip; Kumar, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    Heat flow is a fundamental property of a planet, and provides significant constraints on the abundance of radiogenic isotopes, the thermal evolution and differentiation history, and the mechanical properties of the lithosphere. Heat-flow measurements are also essential in achieving at least four of the goals set out by the National Research Council for future lunar exploration. The heat-flow probe therefore directly addresses the goal of the Lunar Geophysical Network, which is to understand the interior structure and composition of the Moon. A key challenge for heat flow measurement is to install thermal sensors to the depths approximately equal to 3 m that are not influenced by the diurnal, annual, and longer-term fluctuations of the surface thermal environment. In addition, once deployed, the heat flow probe should cause little disturbance to the thermal regime of the surrounding regolith. A heat-flow probe system was developed that has two novel features: (1) it utilizes a pneumatic (gas) approach, excavates a hole by lofting the lunar soil out of the hole, and (2) deploys the heat flow probe, which utilizes a coiled up tape as a thermal probe to reach greater than 3-meter depth. The system is a game-changer for small lunar landers as it exhibits extremely low mass, volume, and simple deployment. The pneumatic system takes advantage of the helium gas used for pressurizing liquid propellant of the lander. Normally, helium is vented once the lander is on the surface, but it can be utilized for powering pneumatic systems. Should sufficient helium not be available, a simple gas delivery system may be taken specifically for the heat flow probe. Either way, the pneumatic heat flow probe system would be much lighter than other systems that entirely rely on the electrical power of the lander.

  7. System Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Tai, Jimmy C.; Kirby, Michelle M.; Roth, Bryce A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aspiration of this study was to objectively assess the feasibility of the application of a low speed pneumatic technology, in particular Circulation Control (CC) to an HSCT concept. Circulation Control has been chosen as an enabling technology to be applied on a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This technology has been proven for various subsonic vehicles including flight tests on a Navy A-6 and computational application on a Boeing 737. Yet, CC has not been widely accepted for general commercial fixed-wing use but its potential has been extensively investigated for decades in wind tunnels across the globe for application to rotorcraft. More recently, an experimental investigation was performed at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) with application to an HSCT-type configuration. The data from those experiments was to be applied to a full-scale vehicle to assess the impact from a system level point of view. Hence, this study attempted to quantitatively assess the impact of this technology to an HSCT. The study objective was achieved in three primary steps: 1) Defining the need for CC technology; 2) Wind tunnel data reduction; 3) Detailed takeoff/landing performance assessment. Defining the need for the CC technology application to an HSCT encompassed a preliminary system level analysis. This was accomplished through the utilization of recent developments in modern aircraft design theory at Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL). These developments include the creation of techniques and methods needed for the identification of technical feasibility show stoppers. These techniques and methods allow the designer to rapidly assess a design space and disciplinary metric enhancements to enlarge or improve the design space. The takeoff and landing field lengths were identified as the concept "show-stoppers". Once the need for CC was established, the actual application of data and trends was assessed. This assessment entailed a reduction of the

  8. Experimental Development and Evaluation of Pneumatic Powered-Lift Super-STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Campbell, Bryan A.

    2005-01-01

    The powered-lift Channel Wing concept has been combined with pneumatic Circulation Control aerodynamic and propulsive technology to generate a Pneumatic Channel Wing (PCW) configuration intended to have Super-STOL or VSTOL capability while eliminating many of the operational problem areas of the original Channel Wing vehicle. Wind-tunnel development and evaluations of a PCW powered model conducted at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) have shown substantial lift capabilities for the blown configuration (CL values of 10 to 11). Variation in blowing of the channel was shown to be more efficient than variation in propeller thrust in terms of lift generation. Also revealed was the ability to operate unstalled at very high angles of attack of 40 deg - 45 deg, or to achieve very high lift at much lower angle of attack to increase visibility and controllability. In order to provide greater flexibility in Super-STOL takeoffs and landings, the blown model also displayed the ability to interchange thrust and drag by varying blowing without any moving parts. A preliminary design study of this pneumatic vehicle based on the two technologies integrated into a simple Pneumatic Channel Wing configuration showed very strong Super-STOL potential. This paper presents these experimental results, discusses variations in the configuration geometry under development, and addresses additional considerations to extend this integrated technology to advanced design studies of PCW-type vehicles.

  9. Development of Pneumatic Channel Wing Powered-Lift Advanced Super-STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Campbell, Bryan A.

    2002-01-01

    The powered-lift Channel Wing concept has been combined with pneumatic Circulation Control aerodynamic and propulsive technology to generate a Pneumatic Channel Wing configuration intended to have Super-STOL or VSTOL capability while eliminating many of the operational problem areas of the original Channel Wing vehicle. A preliminary design study of this pneumatic vehicle based on previous wind-tunnel and flight-test data for the two technologies integrated into a simple Pneumatic Channel Wing (PCW) configuration showed very strong Super-STOL potential. Wind-tunnel development and evaluations of a PCW powered model conducted at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) have shown substantial lift capabilities for the blown configuration (C(sub L) values of 8.5 to 9.0). Variation in blowing of the channel was shown to be more efficient than variation in propeller thrust. Also revealed was the ability to operate unstalled at very high angles of attack of 40 deg-45 deg, or to achieve very high lift at much lower angle of attack to increase visibility and controllability. In order to provide greater flexibility in Super-STOL takeoffs and landings, the blown model also displayed the ability to interchange thrust and drag by varying blowing without any moving parts. This paper presents these experimental results, discusses variations in the configuration geometry under development, and extends this integrated technology to advanced design studies of PCW-type vehicles.

  10. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  11. NK-1 Removable Cryogenic Shroud (A Study of the Bimba Pneumatic Cylinder)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K; Stefanescu, D

    2003-02-07

    The Mark 1 Cryostat requires a cryogenic shroud that must be retracted immediately before firing the NIF laser. This paper evaluates a pneumatic cylinder that has been chosen to open and close the shroud. After a variety of motion control and vacuum compatibility experiments, we concluded that the Bimba feedback control cylinder may be used to retract the shroud with certain modifications to its control system and additional rod seals.

  12. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. MANUAL DEGATING OPERATIONS PERFORMED BY SLEDGEHAMMERS AND PNEUMATIC WEDGE SEPARATORS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANUAL DEGATING OPERATIONS PERFORMED BY SLEDGE-HAMMERS AND PNEUMATIC WEDGE SEPARATORS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Shaking, Degating & Sand Systems, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  16. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  17. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  18. The FASST Aerospace Student Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Leonard

    1976-01-01

    Describes a three-day Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), at which students from 20 colleges and universities and six Soviet students discussed the application of aerospace technology to the problems of society. (MLH)

  19. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  20. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  1. Ball Aerospace AMSD Progress Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, Mark; Brown, Robert; Chaney, David; Lightsey, Paul; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The current status of the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator program being performed by Ball Aerospace is presented. The hexagonal low-areal density Beryllium mirror blank has been fabricated and undergoing polishing at the time of this presentation.

  2. Vacuum pressure generation via microfabricated converging-diverging nozzles for operation of automated pneumatic logic.

    PubMed

    Christoforidis, Theodore; Werner, Erik M; Hui, Elliot E; Eddington, David T

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidic devices with integrated pneumatic logic enable automated fluid handling without requiring external control instruments. These chips offer the additional advantage that they may be powered by vacuum and do not require an electricity source. This work describes a microfluidic converging-diverging (CD) nozzle optimized to generate vacuum at low input pressures, making it suitable for microfluidic applications including powering integrated pneumatic logic. It was found that efficient vacuum pressure was generated for high aspect ratios of the CD nozzle constriction (or throat) width to height and diverging angle of 3.6(o). In specific, for an inlet pressure of 42.2 psia (290.8 kPa) and a volumetric flow rate of approximately 1700 sccm, a vacuum pressure of 8.03 psia (55.3 kPa) was generated. To demonstrate the capabilities of our converging - diverging nozzle device, we connected it to a vacuum powered peristaltic pump driven by integrated pneumatic logic and obtained tunable flow rates from 0 to 130 μL/min. Finally, we demonstrate a proof of concept system for use where electricity and vacuum pressure are not readily available by powering a CD nozzle with a bicycle tire pump and pressure regulator. This system is able to produce a stable vacuum sufficient to drive pneumatic logic, and could be applied to power automated microfluidics in limited resource settings. PMID:27469475

  3. Pressurization, Pneumatic, and Vent Subsystems of the X-34 Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedayat, A.; Steadman, T. E.; Brown, T. M.; Knight, K. C.; White, C. E., Jr.; Champion, R. H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In pressurization systems, regulators and orifices are use to control the flow of the pressurant. For the X-34 Main Propulsion System, three pressurization subsystem design configuration options were considered. In the first option, regulators were used while in the other options, orifices were considered. In each design option, the vent/relief system must be capable of relieving the pressurant flow without allowing the tank pressure to rise above proof, therefore, impacts on the propellant tank vent system were investigated and a trade study of the pressurization system was conducted. The analysis indicated that design option using regulators poses least risk. Then, a detailed transient thermal/fluid analysis of the recommended pressurization system was performed. Helium usage, thermodynamic conditions, and overpressurization of each propellant tank were evaluated. The pneumatic and purge subsystem is used for pneumatic valve actuation, Inter-Propellant Seal purges, Engine Spin Start, and engine purges at the required interface pressures, A transient analysis of the pneumatic and purge subsystem provided helium usage and flow rates to Inter-Propellant Seal and engine interfaces. Fill analysis of the helium bottles of pressurization and pneumatic subsystems during ground operation was performed. The required fill time and the stored

  4. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  5. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  6. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  7. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  8. Pneumatic transport of coal by steam

    SciTech Connect

    Ekmann, J.M.; Wildman, D.J.; Mathur, M.P.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Steam has been suggested as the transport gas in power plant facilities where the availability high pressure steam already exists. The transport of coal pneumatically by the use of steam to a loading ratio of 10 has been studied experimentally in a 0.0107 meter diameter pipe. Analysis of the energy losses in transport of the steam-coal mixture has been carried out using a model based on thermodynamic and fluid mechanics principles. Good agreement between the data and model has been obtained.

  9. Pneumatic transport of coal by steam

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Mathur, M.P.; Ekmann, J.M.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Steam has been suggested as the transport gas in power plant facilities where the availability of high pressure steam already exists. The transport of coal pneumatically by the use of steam to a loading ratio of 10 has been studied experimentally in a 3/8'' pipe. Analysis of the energy losses in transport of the steam-coal mixture has been carried out using a model based on thermodynamic and fluid mechanics principles. Good agreement between the data and model has been obtained. 4 references, 2 figures.

  10. Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Actuation and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leephakpreeda, Thananchai; Wickramatunge, Kanchana C.

    2009-10-01

    A Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) yields a natural muscle-like actuator with a high force to weight ratio, a soft and flexible structure, and adaptable compliance for a humanoid robot, rehabilitation and prosthetic appliances to the disabled, etc. To obtain optimum design and usage, the mechanical behavior of the PAM need to be understood. In this study, observations of experimental results reveal an empirical model for relations of physical variables, contraction and air pressure within the PAM, as compared to mechanical characteristics, such as stiffness or/and pulling forces of the PAM available now in market.

  11. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  12. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or...

  13. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or...

  14. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or...

  15. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or...

  16. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or...

  17. Evaluating a pneumatic fractionator for cleaning ginned lint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pneumatic fractionator has long been used to determine foreign matter content of seed cotton at the USDA Cotton Ginning Laboratories. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device. No modifications were made to the standard device, except that air p...

  18. Web-Based Learning and Instruction Support System for Pneumatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chiaming; Li, Wu-Jeng

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a Web-based learning and instructional system for Pneumatics. The system includes course material, remote data acquisition modules, and a pneumatic laboratory set. The course material is in the HTML format accompanied with text, still and animated images, simulation programs, and computer aided design tools. The data…

  19. Interdisciplinary optimum design. [of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1986-01-01

    Problems related to interdisciplinary interactions in the design of a complex engineering systems are examined with reference to aerospace applications. The interdisciplinary optimization problems examined include those dealing with controls and structures, materials and structures, control and stability, structure and aerodynamics, and structure and thermodynamics. The discussion is illustrated by the following specific applications: integrated aerodynamic/structural optimization of glider wing; optimization of an antenna parabolic dish structure for minimum weight and prescribed emitted signal gain; and a multilevel optimization study of a transport aircraft.

  20. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report is based on the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in calendar year 2000. During this year, the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) moved into high gear. The launch of the Russian Service Module was followed by three Space Shuttle construction and logistics flights and the deployment of the Expedition One crew. Continuous habitation of the ISS has begun. To date, both the ISS and Space Shuttle programs have met or exceeded most of their flight objectives. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, it is clear that safety was always placed ahead of cost and schedule. This safety consciousness permitted the Panel to devote more of its efforts to examining the long-term picture. With ISS construction accelerating, demands on the Space Shuttle will increase. While Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft will make some flights, the Space Shuttle remains the primary vehicle to sustain the ISS and all other U.S. activities that require humans in space. Development of a next generation, human-rated vehicle has slowed due to a variety of technological problems and the absence of an approach that can accomplish the task significantly better than the Space Shuttle. Moreover, even if a viable design were currently available, the realities of funding and development cycles suggest that it would take many years to bring it to fruition. Thus, it is inescapable that for the foreseeable future the Space Shuttle will be the only human-rated vehicle available to the U.S. space program for support of the ISS and other missions requiring humans. Use of the Space Shuttle will extend well beyond current planning, and is likely to continue for the life of the ISS.

  1. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  2. Anatomical Factors Influencing Pneumatization of the Petrous Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Seunghun; Choi, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aim of the present study was to define the relationship between petrous apex pneumatization and the nearby major anatomical landmarks using temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images. Methods This retrospective, Institutional Review Board-approved study analyzed CT images of 84 patients that showed normal findings bilaterally. Pneumatization of the petrous apex was classified using two methods. Eight parameters were as follows: angle between the posterior cranial fossa and internal auditory canal, Morimitsu classification of anterior epitympanic space, distance between the carotid canal and jugular bulb, distance between the cochlear modiolus and carotid canal, distance between the tympanic segment and jugular bulb, high jugular bulb, distance between the vertical segment and jugular bulb, and distance between the lateral semicircular canals and middle cranial fossa. Results There was a significant difference in Morimitsu classification of the anterior epitympanic space between the two classification methods. Poorly pneumatic upper petrous apices were distributed uniformly in three types of Morimitsu classification, but more pneumatic upper petrous apices were found more often in anterior type. Lower petrous apex was well pneumatized regardless of the types of anterior epitympanic space, but the largest amount of pneumatization was found more frequently in the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space. Conclusion This study showed that there was no reliable anatomic marker to estimate petrous apex pneumatization and suggests that the pneumatization of the petrous apex may be an independent process from other part of the temporal bone, and may not be influenced by the nearby major anatomical structures in the temporal bone. In this study, the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space was found to be closely related to more well-pneumatized petrous apices, which implies that the anterior saccule of the saccus medius may be the main factor

  3. Scaling of pneumatic digital logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Philip N; Ahrar, Siavash; Hui, Elliot E

    2015-03-01

    The scaling of integrated circuits to smaller dimensions is critical for achieving increased system complexity and speed. Digital logic circuits composed of pneumatic microfluidic components have to this point been limited to a circuit density of 2-4 gates cm(-2), constraining the complexity of the digital systems that can be achieved. We explored the use of precision machining techniques to reduce the size of pneumatic valves and resistors, and to achieve more accurate and efficient placement of ports and vias. In this way, we attained an order of magnitude increase in circuit density, reaching as high as 36 gates cm(-2). A 12-bit binary counter circuit composed of 96 gates was realized in an area of 360 mm(2). The reduction in size also brought an order of magnitude increase in speed. The frequency of a 13-stage ring oscillator increased from 2.6 Hz to 22.1 Hz, and the maximum clock frequency of a binary counter increased from 1/3 Hz to 6 Hz. PMID:25591784

  4. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) activities during 2002. The format of the report has been modified to capture a long-term perspective. Section II is new and highlights the Panel's view of NASA's safety progress during the year. Section III contains the pivotal safety issues facing NASA in the coming year. Section IV includes the program area findings and recommendations. The Panel has been asked by the Administrator to perform several special studies this year, and the resulting white papers appear in Appendix C. The year has been filled with significant achievements for NASA in both successful Space Shuttle operations and International Space Station (ISS) construction. Throughout the year, safety has been first and foremost in spite of many changes throughout the Agency. The relocation of the Orbiter Major Modifications (OMMs) from California to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) appears very successful. The transition of responsibilities for program management of the Space Shuttle and ISS programs from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to NASA Headquarters went smoothly. The decision to extend the life of the Space Shuttle as the primary NASA vehicle for access to space is viewed by the Panel as a prudent one. With the appropriate investments in safety improvements, in maintenance, in preserving appropriate inventories of spare parts, and in infrastructure, the Space Shuttle can provide safe and reliable support for the ISS for the foreseeable future. Indications of an aging Space Shuttle fleet occurred on more than one occasion this year. Several flaws went undetected in the early prelaunch tests and inspections. In all but one case, the problems were found prior to launch. These incidents were all handled properly and with safety as the guiding principle. Indeed, launches were postponed until the problems were fully understood and mitigating action could be taken. These incidents do, however, indicate the need to analyze the

  5. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  6. Pneumatically driven peristaltic micropumps utilizing serpentine-shape channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2006-02-01

    This study presents a novel pneumatic micropump featuring a serpentine-shape (S-shape) microchannel. Fluid is driven through the device by the hydrodynamic pressure generated by the peristaltic action of membranes located at the intersections of the fluidic microchannel and the S-shape microchannel. The pneumatic micropump is fabricated in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) using MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-systems)-based techniques. The micropump provides an improved pumping rate and is controlled using a single electromagnetic valve (EMV) switch. The experimental results reveal that the pumping rate can be increased by increasing the operational frequency of the EMV, the pressure of the externally supplied compressed air or the number of membranes. As the compressed air travels along the S-shape microchannel, it causes the membranes to deflect. The time-phased deflection of successive membranes along the microchannel length generates a peristaltic effect which drives the fluid along the microfluidic channel. The maximum attainable pumping rate is influenced by the time interval between the deflections of adjacent membranes, and is therefore affected by the geometric characteristics of the serpentine microchannel. The back pressure of the serpentine-shape micropump is measured at a fixed peak frequency to prove its ability to overcome the fluidic resistance. The optimum operating conditions and geometric parameters of the micropump are verified experimentally. It is found that the maximum pumping rate is 7.43 µl min-1 and is provided by a micropump with seven membranes actuated by 20 psi air pressure and 9 Hz operational frequency. The preliminary results of the current paper were presented at the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (IEEE ROBIO 2005), Hong Kong SAR, 29 June-03 July 2005.

  7. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Robin; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Loth, Eric; Kogler, Géza; Manwaring, Scott D; Tyson, Serena N; Shorter, K Alex; Gilmer, Joel N

    2009-01-01

    Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO) to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot) carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1). Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle. PMID:19527526

  8. Pneumatic artificial muscle actuators for compliant robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ryan Michael

    Robotic systems are increasingly being utilized in applications that require interaction with humans. In order to enable safe physical human-robot interaction, light weight and compliant manipulation are desirable. These requirements are problematic for many conventional actuation systems, which are often heavy, and typically use high stiffness to achieve high performance, leading to large impact forces upon collision. However, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators that can satisfy these safety requirements while offering power-to-weight ratios comparable to those of conventional actuators. PAMs are extremely lightweight actuators that produce force in response to pressurization. These muscles demonstrate natural compliance, but have a nonlinear force-contraction profile that complicates modeling and control. This body of research presents solutions to the challenges associated with the implementation of PAMs as actuators in robotic manipulators, particularly with regard to modeling, design, and control. An existing PAM force balance model was modified to incorporate elliptic end geometry and a hyper-elastic constitutive relationship, dramatically improving predictions of PAM behavior at high contraction. Utilizing this improved model, two proof-of-concept PAM-driven manipulators were designed and constructed; design features included parallel placement of actuators and a tendon-link joint design. Genetic algorithm search heuristics were employed to determine an optimal joint geometry; allowing a manipulator to achieve a desired torque profile while minimizing the required PAM pressure. Performance of the manipulators was evaluated in both simulation and experiment employing various linear and nonlinear control strategies. These included output feedback techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic, a model-based control for computed torque, and more advanced controllers, such as sliding mode, adaptive sliding mode, and

  9. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    PubMed

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these. PMID:22097645

  10. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC'S, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application, verification, compliant coatings including corrosion protection system and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  11. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Clark-Ingram, M.; Hessler, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  12. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  13. Compensating for pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Leondes, Cornelius T.

    1990-01-01

    A technique of compensating for pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices was developed and verified. This compensation allows conventional pressure sensing technology to obtain improved unsteady pressure measurements. Pressure distortion caused by frictional attenuation and pneumatic resonance within the sensing system makes obtaining unsteady pressure measurements by conventional sensors difficult. Most distortion occurs within the pneumatic tubing which transmits pressure impulses from the aircraft's surface to the measurement transducer. To avoid pneumatic distortion, experiment designers mount the pressure sensor at the surface of the aircraft, (called in-situ mounting). In-situ transducers cannot always fit in the available space and sometimes pneumatic tubing must be run from the aircraft's surface to the pressure transducer. A technique to measure unsteady pressure data using conventional pressure sensing technology was developed. A pneumatic distortion model is reduced to a low-order, state-variable model retaining most of the dynamic characteristics of the full model. The reduced-order model is coupled with results from minimum variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate for the effects of pneumatic distortion. Both postflight and real-time algorithms are developed and evaluated using simulated and flight data.

  14. Aerospace Education for the Melting Pot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joels, Kerry M.

    1979-01-01

    Aerospace education is eminently suited to provide a framework for multicultural education. Effective programs accommodating minorities' frames of reference to the rapidly developing disciplines of aerospace studies have been developed. (RE)

  15. Aerospace Education and the Elementary Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This articles attempts to stimulate otherwise reluctant school teachers to involve aerospace education in their content repertoire. Suggestions are made to aid the teacher in getting started with aerospace education. (MDR)

  16. Accommodation of Nontraditional Aerospace Degree Aspirants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukert, Michael A.

    1977-01-01

    Presents results of a national survey of institutions offering college level aerospace studies. Primary survey concern is the availability of nontraditional aerospace education programs; however, information pertaining to institution characteristics, program characteristics, and staffing are also included. (SL)

  17. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Current research in optical processing is reviewed. Its role in future aerospace systems is determined. The development of optical devices and components demonstrates that system concepts can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  18. Mobile Computing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Swietek, Gregory E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The use of commercial computer technology in specific aerospace mission applications can reduce the cost and project cycle time required for the development of special-purpose computer systems. Additionally, the pace of technological innovation in the commercial market has made new computer capabilities available for demonstrations and flight tests. Three areas of research and development being explored by the Portable Computer Technology Project at NASA Ames Research Center are the application of commercial client/server network computing solutions to crew support and payload operations, the analysis of requirements for portable computing devices, and testing of wireless data communication links as extensions to the wired network. This paper will present computer architectural solutions to portable workstation design including the use of standard interfaces, advanced flat-panel displays and network configurations incorporating both wired and wireless transmission media. It will describe the design tradeoffs used in selecting high-performance processors and memories, interfaces for communication and peripheral control, and high resolution displays. The packaging issues for safe and reliable operation aboard spacecraft and aircraft are presented. The current status of wireless data links for portable computers is discussed from a system design perspective. An end-to-end data flow model for payload science operations from the experiment flight rack to the principal investigator is analyzed using capabilities provided by the new generation of computer products. A future flight experiment on-board the Russian MIR space station will be described in detail including system configuration and function, the characteristics of the spacecraft operating environment, the flight qualification measures needed for safety review, and the specifications of the computing devices to be used in the experiment. The software architecture chosen shall be presented. An analysis of the

  19. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  20. Asymmetric pneumatization of the petrous apex.

    PubMed

    Roland, P S; Meyerhoff, W L; Judge, L O; Mickey, B E

    1990-07-01

    Three patients with high-intensity MR signals from one petrous apex, but nonpathologic fine-cut computed tomography are reported. In two of the three patients, normal bone marrow within the petrous apex on one side is believed to have generated the high-intensity signal. In one of the three patients, the etiology of the MR image remains obscure, but may represent the earliest stages of petrous cholesterol granuloma or mucocele. We have reviewed 500 head CT scans performed for non-otologic reasons, in an attempt to establish the frequency of this finding. The literature on MR and CT imaging of the petrous apex and asymmetric pneumatization of the petrous apex is reviewed. PMID:2117735

  1. Pneumatic grading applied to sugarcane products

    SciTech Connect

    Roka A., G.A.; Boisan C., M.A.; Frolov, V.F.

    1988-09-10

    There are secondary products from processing sugar cane, consisting of light particles having irregular elongated forms and falling into various size fractions: bagasso up to 5 mm, bagassilo 5-0.3 mm, and meole < 0.3 mm. These contain water, since they are obtained in the early stages of making cane sugar. Much of the bagasso and bagassilo is burned in situ in steam boilers at the sugar plants. Also, the various fractions are used in making paper, wood-straw board, and as ingredients for fodder and fertilizers, in addition to raw material in furfural production. These uses require grading and drying. In pneumatic grading, one uses the outgoing combustion products from the steam boilers at the plants and at the same time provides drying. Experiments were conducted in order to perform design calculations on grading these products.

  2. Job Prospects for Aerospace Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the recent trends in job opportunities for aerospace engineers. Mentions some of the political, technological, and economic factors affecting the overall employment picture. Includes a description of the job prospects created by the general upswing of the large commercial aircraft market. (TW)

  3. 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    The proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held in Pasadena Hilton, Pasadena, California on May 16-18, 2012. Lockheed Martin Space Systems cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include gimbals and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and Mars Science Laboratory mechanisms.

  4. 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of the 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Ames Research Center hosted the conference, which was held at the Four Points Sheraton, Sunnyvale, California, on May 9-11, 2001. The symposium was sponsored by the Mechanisms Education Association. Technology areas covered included bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; and other mechanisms for spacecraft and large space structures.

  5. Careers in the Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.

    The document briefly presents career information in the field of aerospace industry. Employment exists in three areas: (1) professional and technical occupations in research and development (engineers, scientists, and technicians); (2) administrative, clerical, and related occupations (engineers, scientists, technicians, clerks, secretaries,…

  6. Technology utilization. [aerospace technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    NASA developed technologies were used to tackle problems associated with safety, transportation, industry, manufacturing, construction and state and local governments. Aerospace programs were responsible for more innovations for the benefit of mankind than those brought about by either major wars, or peacetime programs. Briefly outlined are some innovations for manned space flight, satellite surveillance applications, and pollution monitoring techniques.

  7. Graphical simulation for aerospace manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Bien, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Simulation software has become a key technological enabler for integrating flexible manufacturing systems and streamlining the overall aerospace manufacturing process. In particular, robot simulation and offline programming software is being credited for reducing down time and labor cost, while boosting quality and significantly increasing productivity.

  8. Ball Aerospace Actuator Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Lana; Lightsey, Paul; Quigley, Phil; Rutkowski, Joel; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ambient testing characterizing step size and repeatability for the Ball Aerospace Cryogenic Nano-Positioner actuators for the AMSD (Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator) program has been completed and are presented. Current cryogenic testing is underway. Earlier cryogenic test results for a pre-cursor engineering model are presented.

  9. Aerospace for the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This packet includes games and activities concerning aerospace education for the very young. It is designed to develop and strengthen basic concepts and skills in a non-threatening atmosphere of fun. Activities include: (1) "The Sun, Our Nearest Star"; (2) "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, How I Wonder Where You Are"; (3) "Shadows"; (4) "The Earth…

  10. Aerospace/Aviation Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.

    The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study aviation and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of aviation science and occupational…

  11. 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Litty, Edward C. (Compiler); Sevilla, Donald R. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held at the Pasadena Conference and Exhibition Center, Pasadena, California, on May 19-21, 1999. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  12. Manually Operatable On-Chip Bistable Pneumatic Microstructures for Microfluidic Manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, A.; Pan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Bistable microvalves are of particular interest because of their distinct nature requiring energy consumption only during the transition between the open and closed states. This characteristic can be highly advantageous in reducing the number of external inputs and the complexity of control circuitries for microfluidic devices as contemporary lab-on-a-chip platforms are transferring from research settings to low-resource environments with high integratability and small form factor. In this paper, we first present manually operatable, on-chip bistable pneumatic microstructures (BPM) for microfluidic manipulation. The structural design and operation of the BPM devices can be readily integrated into any pneumatically powered microfluidic network consisting of pneumatic and fluidic channels. It is mainly comprised of a vacuum activation chamber (VAC) and a pressure release chamber (PRC), which users have direct control through finger pressing to switch between bistable vacuum state (VS) or atmospheric state (AS). We have integrated multiple BPM devices into a 4-to-1 microfluidic multiplexor to demonstrate on-chip digital flow switching from different sources. Furthermore, we have shown its clinical relevance in a point-of-care diagnostic chip that process blood samples to identify the distinct blood types (A/B/O) on chip. PMID:25007840

  13. Dynamics of a pneumatic artificial muscle actuation system driving a trailing edge flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi.

  14. Design and application of a gripper for microparts using flexure hinges and pneumatic actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Jochen; Zuehlke, Detlef

    2001-10-01

    In this paper a new gripper for microparts with dimensions of 200 to 3500 micrometers is presented that is especially designed for industrial suitability. This covers beside repeatability of position and force robustness of the mechanical structure, simple interfaces of the gripper's control structure and long service life. The minimization of the grippers size and weight is no superior objective because today's precision robots usually have sufficient payload and working space. To achieve this goal well tested technology from micro- an macro handling devices are combined. The new gripper is made up of a symmetrical guiding mechanism based on flexure hinges of aluminum and it is driven by a pneumatic actuator. In the first step the maximal gripping force can easily be limited by the working pressure of the pneumatic actuator. Standard open/ close commands provide a robust control interface. The technology of pneumatic actuation is well known and reliable. Since minimization of size is not the primary goal, a long service life can be achieved by limiting the mechanical stress in the flexure hinges. A skirt of aluminum protects the guiding device against destruction caused by collisions. The new gripper has been realized and has been used in a microassembly station where it proved its reliability and robustness in thousands of gripping cycles thus demonstrating its industrial suitability. An experimental evaluation was carried out in order to assess the properties of the gripper.

  15. 23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A COREBLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A CORE-BLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE BOXES WITH RESIGN IMPREGNATED SAND AND CREATED A CORE THAT THEN REQUIRED BAKING, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA TO REMOVE ANY EXCESS OR LOOSE SAND. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. A PNEUMATIC CONVEYING TEST RIG FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report analyzes the material properties and system parameters relevant to the pneumatic conveying of municipal solid waste and its processed fractions. Comparisons are made with the conveying of conventional industrial feedstocks, and a rationale for sizing and specification...

  18. Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, also showing mirror to reflect view of communications switchboard - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  19. 14 CFR 25.1438 - Pressurization and pneumatic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pressure tested to 2.0 times, and proof pressure tested to 1.5 times, the maximum normal operating pressure. (b) Pneumatic system elements must be burst pressure tested to 3.0 times, and proof pressure...

  20. Dynamic behavior of valves with pneumatic chamber for reciprocating compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Kurohashi, M.; Aoshima, M.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the dynamic behavior of valves with pneumatic chambers for reciprocating compressors. These are known as 'damped valves' and are capable of reducing the impact on the valve seat and valve stopper. The characteristics of the dynamic behavior of the damped valves were clarified by calculating newly derived governing equations of valve dynamics. From the calculated results, it becomes apparent that the volume of the pneumatic chambers and the clearance between the pneumatic chamber and the valve have a large influence on the impact speed of the valves. Furthermore, the valves tend to close later for a higher compressor speed to oscillate at a larger amplitude for a lower density of gas such as hydrogen. These tendencies show that the selection of the specification of damped valves is very important. The stiffness of the valve spring and the lift of the valve also affect valve behavior as with valves without pneumatic chambers.

  1. 118. TUBING AT BACK SIDE OF PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. TUBING AT BACK SIDE OF PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Inline evenflow material distributor for pneumatic material feed systems

    DOEpatents

    Thiry, Michael J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus for reducing clogs in a pneumatic material feed line, such as employed in abrasive waterjet machining systems, by providing an evenflow feed of material therethrough. The apparatus preferably includes a hollow housing defining a housing volume and having an inlet capable of connecting to an upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, an outlet capable of connecting to a downstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, and an air vent located between the inlet and outlet for venting excess air pressure out from the housing volume. A diverter, i.e. an impingement object, is located at the inlet and in a path of incoming material from the upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, to break up clumps of ambient moisture-ridden material impinging on the diverter. And one or more filter screens is also preferably located in the housing volume to further break up clumps and provide filtering.

  3. Dry ice plug for hydraulic and pneumatic pipe flushing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francino, L.; Rauch, S.

    1972-01-01

    Development of technique to clear blockages in hydraulic and pneumatic pipes is discussed. Technique consists of using dry ice plug to separate sensitive components from flushing fluid. Diagram of equipment and principles of operation are presented.

  4. Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides lightning protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of lightning. Generic descriptions of the lightning environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for lightning protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.

  5. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. - Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrogation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  6. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being, developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrocation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being, applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  7. Design and validation of a MR-compatible pneumatic manipulandum.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Aaron J; Zimbelman, Janice L; Scheidt, Robert A

    2007-07-30

    The combination of functional MR imaging and novel robotic tools may provide unique opportunities to probe the neural systems underlying motor control and learning. Here, we describe the design and validation of a MR-compatible, 1 degree-of-freedom pneumatic manipulandum along with experiments demonstrating its safety and efficacy. We first validated the robot's ability to apply computer-controlled loads about the wrist, demonstrating that it possesses sufficient bandwidth to simulate torsional spring-like loads during point-to-point flexion movements. Next, we verified the MR-compatibility of the device by imaging a head phantom during robot operation. We observed no systematic differences in two measures of MRI signal quality (signal/noise and field homogeneity) when the robot was introduced into the scanner environment. Likewise, measurements of joint angle and actuator pressure were not adversely affected by scanning. Finally, we verified device efficacy by scanning 20 healthy human subjects performing rapid wrist flexions against a wide range of spring-like loads. We observed a linear relationship between joint torque at peak movement extent and perturbation magnitude, thus demonstrating the robot's ability to simulate spring-like loads in situ. fMRI revealed task-related activation in regions known to contribute to the control of movement including the left primary sensorimotor cortex and right cerebellum. PMID:17498811

  8. Variable recruitment in bundles of miniature pneumatic artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    DeLaHunt, Sylvie A; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Wereley, Norman M

    2016-01-01

    The natural compliance and force generation properties of pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) allow them to operate like human muscles in anthropomorphic robotic manipulators. Traditionally, manipulators use a single PAM or multiple PAMs actuated in unison in place of a human muscle. However, these standard manipulators can experience significant efficiency losses when operated outside their target performance ranges at low actuation pressures. This study considers the application of a variable recruitment control strategy to a parallel bundle of miniature PAMs as an attempt to mimic the selective recruitment of motor units in a human muscle. Bundles of miniature PAMs are experimentally characterized, their actuation behavior is modeled, and the efficiency gains and losses associated with the application of a variable recruitment control strategy are assessed. This bio-inspired control strategy allows muscle bundles to operate the fewest miniature PAMs necessary to achieve a desired performance objective, improving the muscle bundle's operating efficiency over larger ranges of force generation and displacement. The study also highlights the need for improved PAM fabrication techniques to facilitate the production of identical miniature PAMs for inclusion in muscle bundles. PMID:27623216

  9. New environmental regulation for the aerospace industry: The aerospace NESHAP

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, J.P.; Gampper, B.P.; Baker, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    40 CFR Part 63, Subpart GG, the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities, commonly referred to as the Aerospace NESHAP, was issued on September 1, 1995 and requires compliance by September 1, 1998. The regulation affects any facility that manufactures or reworks commercial, civil, or military aircraft vehicles or components and is a major source of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). The regulation targets reducing Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) and Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) emissions to the atmosphere. Processes affected by the new regulation include aircraft painting, paint stripping, chemical milling masking, solvent cleaning, and spray gun cleaning. Regulatory requirements affecting these processes are summarized, and different compliance options compared in terms of cost-effectiveness and industry acceptance. Strategies to reduce compliance costs and minimize recordkeeping burdens are also presented.

  10. Safety aspects of pneumatic transport. Information Circular/1985

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    The work reported here deals with the safety aspects of pneumatic transport of underground coal, as well as the hazards inherent in more conventional haulage systems. Included are three designs for different applications of pneumatic haulage: off-loading a continuous-mining machine on a room-and-pillar section, vertical hoisting through a 1,200-ft shaft, and off-loading a tunnel-boring machine driving a 2,000-ft tunnel.

  11. High-Torque, Lightweight, Pneumatically Driven Wrench For Small Spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Pneumatically driven wrench provides torque up to 3,000 lb. per ft. in small space. Designed to reach into 2.6 x 2.75 x 6 in. pocket. Weighs approximately 25 lbs. Includes reversible pneumatic motor (electric motor could be used instead) and slip clutch. Also includes device indicating total angle through which wrench turned bolt or nut. This feature used for turn-of-the-nut tightening method.

  12. Development of pneumatic actuator with low-wave reflection characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H.; Tsung, T. T.; Jwo, C. S.; Chiang, J. C.

    2010-08-01

    This study aims at the development of a less reflective electromagnetic pneumatic actuator often used in the anechoic chamber. Because a pneumatic actuator on the market is not appropriate for use in such a chamber and a metallic one has high dielectric constant which generates reflective electromagnetic waves to influence test parameters in the chamber. The newly developed pneumatic actuator is made from low dielectric constant plastics with less reflective of electromagnetic. A turbine-type air motor is used to develop the pneumatic actuator and a employ Prony tester is used to run the brake horsepower test for the performance test of pneumatic actuator. Test results indicate that the pneumatic actuator in the minimal starting flow is 17 l/min, and it generates a brake horsepower of 48 mW; in the maximum flow is 26 l/min, it generates a brake horsepower of 108 mW. Therefore, it works with a torque between 0.24 N-m and 0.55 N-m, and such a torque will be sufficient to drive the target button.

  13. Public Sector Benefits From Aerospace Research and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jeffrey T.

    1973-01-01

    Many benefits from aerospace research have occurred: research on quiet aircraft engines, worldwide news coverage, contributions to the national economy, development of reliable fluid amplifiers and logic systems, attempts to control airport congestion, a low speed air sensor for use on a pulmonary flow meter and even as a flow meter in a large…

  14. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 474

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This bibliography lists reports, articles and other documents recently introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information database. Subject coverage includes: Aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life and flightcrew behavior and performance.

  15. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

  16. A simultaneous spin/eject mechanism for aerospace payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, G. D.; Banks, T. N.

    1976-01-01

    A simultaneous spin/eject mechanism was developed for aerospace applications requiring a compact, passive device which would accommodate payload support and controlled-release functions, and which would provide a highly accurate spin-ejection motion to the payload. The mechanism satisfied the requirements and is adaptable to other deployment applications.

  17. Aerospace Medicine and Biology. A continuing bibliography with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography lists 244 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in February 1981. Aerospace medicine and aerobiology topics are included. Listings for physiological factors, astronaut performance, control theory, artificial intelligence, and cybernetics are included.

  18. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Data acquired on the actual flight experience with the various subsystems are assessed. These subsystems include: flight control and performance, structural integrity, orbiter landing gear, lithium batteries, EVA and prebreathing, and main engines. Improvements for routine operations are recommended. Policy issues for operations and flight safety for aircraft operations are discussed.

  19. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Dimaio, Simon P; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  20. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; DiMaio, Simon P.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  1. 38th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 38th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 38th AMs, hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center in Williamsburg, Virginia, was held May 17-19, 2006. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals, tribology, actuators, aircraft mechanisms, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  2. 37th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is reporting problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 37th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 37th AMS, hosted by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Galveston, Texas, was held May 19, 20 and 21, 2004. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, tribology, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station and Mars Rover mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  3. 39th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 39th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the United States and abroad. The 39th AMS was held in Huntsville, Alabama, May 7-9, 2008. During these 3 days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals and positioning mechanisms, tribology, actuators, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and sensors. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  4. 34th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for organizing the AMS. Now in its 34th year, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 34th AMS, hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, was held May 10, 11 and 12, 2000. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the vendor fair gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  5. Lattice Structures For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Olmo, E.; Grande, E.; Samartin, C. R.; Bezdenejnykh, M.; Torres, J.; Blanco, N.; Frovel, M.; Canas, J.

    2012-07-01

    The way of mass reduction improving performances in the aerospace structures is a constant and relevant challenge in the space business. The designs, materials and manufacturing processes are permanently in evolution to explore and get mass optimization solutions at low cost. In the framework of ICARO project, EADS CASA ESPACIO (ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator which shows that lattice type of grid structures is a promising weight saving solution for replacing some traditional metallic and composite structures for space applications. A virtual testing methodology was used in order to support the design of a high modulus CFRP cylindrical lattice technology demonstrator. The manufacturing process, based on composite Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) technology developed by ECE, allows obtaining high quality low weight lattice structures potentially applicable to a wide range of aerospace structures. Launcher payload adaptors, satellite platforms, antenna towers or instrument supports are some promising candidates.

  6. Third Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Cross, D. R. (Editor); Caruso, S. V. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, other ozone depleting chemicals, and specific hazardous materials is well underway. The phaseout of these chemicals has mandated changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. We are beyond discovery and initiation of these new developments and are now in the implementation phase. This conference provided a forum for materials and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess the evolving replacement and clean propulsion technologies from the standpoint of their significance, application, impact on aerospace systems, and utilization by the research and development community. The use of these new technologies, their selection and qualification, their implementation, and the needs and plans for further developments are presented.

  7. Development of a 3D parallel mechanism robot arm with three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators combined with a stereo vision system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

  8. Magnetic Gearboxes for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A.; Sanchez-Garcia-Casarrubios, Juan; Cristache, Christian; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic gearboxes are contactless mechanisms for torque-speed conversion. They present no wear, no friction and no fatigue. They need no lubricant and can be customized for other mechanical properties as stiffness or damping. Additionally, they can protect structures and mechanisms against overloads, limitting the transmitted torque. In this work, spur, planetary and "magdrive" or "harmonic drive" configurations are compared considering their use in aerospace applications. The most recent test data are summarized to provide some useful help for the design engineer.

  9. Soft impacts on aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrate, Serge

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the literature dealing with three types of soft impacts of concern for the aerospace applications, namely impacts of rain drops, hailstones and birds against aircraft. It describes the physics of the problem as it has become better understood through experiments, analyses, and numerical simulations. Some emphasis has been placed on the material models and the numerical approaches used in modeling these three types of projectiles.

  10. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Obie H., Jr. (Compiler); Rogers, John F. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  11. Hybrid techniques for complex aerospace electromagnetics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberle, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Important aerospace electromagnetics problems include the evaluation of antenna performance on aircraft and the prediction and control of the aircraft's electromagnetic signature. Due to the ever increasing complexity and expense of aircraft design, aerospace engineers have become increasingly dependent on computer solutions. Traditionally, computational electromagnetics (CEM) has relied primarily on four disparate techniques: the method of moments (MoM), the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, the finite element method (FEM), and high frequency asymptotic techniques (HFAT) such as ray tracing. Each of these techniques has distinct advantages and disadvantages, and no single technique is capable of accurately solving all problems of interest on computers that are available now or will be available in the foreseeable future. As a result, new approaches that overcome the deficiencies of traditional techniques are beginning to attract a great deal of interest in the CEM community. Among these new approaches are hybrid methods which combine two or more of these techniques into a coherent model. During the ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program a hybrid FEM/MoM computer code was developed and applied to a geometry containing features found on many modern aircraft.

  12. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on industry KIBO is postulated in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo entomocole industry is the first production company in Europe to human food, it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and in the universities of Angers, Nantes, Lille.

  13. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on this postulate KIBO in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo industry is the first entomocole production company creat in Europe to human food; it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and various universities in France.

  14. Ball Aerospace Hybrid Space Cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, W.; Glaister, D. S.; Hendershott, P.; Kotsubo, V.; Lock, J. S.; Marquardt, E.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the design, development, testing, and performance at Ball Aerospace of a long-life hybrid (combination of Stirling and Joule-Thomson [J-T] thermodynamic cycles) space cryocooler. Hybrid coolers are synergistic combinations of two thermodynamic cycles that combine advantages of each cycle to yield overall improved performance. Hybrid cooler performance advantages include: 1) load leveling of large heat loads; 2) remote cryogenic cooling with very low to negligible induced vibration and jitter; 3) very low redundant (off state) cooler penalties; 4) high power efficiency, especially at low temperatures; and 5) simplified system integration with capability to cross gimbals and no need for thermal straps or switches. Ball Aerospace is currently developing several different hybrid cooler systems. The 35 K hybrid cooler provides 2.0 W at 35 K and 8.5 W at 85 K with an emphasis on load leveling of high transient heat loads and remote, low vibration cooling. The 10 K hybrid cooler provides 200 mW at 10 K, 700 mW at 15 K, and 10.7 W at 85 K with an emphasis on power efficiency. In addition, Ball Aerospace built and tested a complete hybrid cooler that met the requirements of the JWST Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) cooler including providing 80 mW at 6 K and 100 mW at 18 K for a total system (28 V) power of 310 W.

  15. Output Feedback M-MRAC Backstepping With Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Sriniva

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a certainty equivalence output feedback backstepping adaptive control design method for the systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties without over-parametrization. It uses a fast prediction model to estimate the unknown parameters, which is independent of the control design. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters. The approach is applied to aerospace control problems and tested in numerical simulations.

  16. HRA Aerospace Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Compared to equipment designed to perform the same function over and over, humans are just not as reliable. Computers and machines perform the same action in the same way repeatedly getting the same result, unless equipment fails or a human interferes. Humans who are supposed to perform the same actions repeatedly often perform them incorrectly due to a variety of issues including: stress, fatigue, illness, lack of training, distraction, acting at the wrong time, not acting when they should, not following procedures, misinterpreting information or inattention to detail. Why not use robots and automatic controls exclusively if human error is so common? In an emergency or off normal situation that the computer, robotic element, or automatic control system is not designed to respond to, the result is failure unless a human can intervene. The human in the loop may be more likely to cause an error, but is also more likely to catch the error and correct it. When it comes to unexpected situations, or performing multiple tasks outside the defined mission parameters, humans are the only viable alternative. Human Reliability Assessments (HRA) identifies ways to improve human performance and reliability and can lead to improvements in systems designed to interact with humans. Understanding the context of the situation that can lead to human errors, which include taking the wrong action, no action or making bad decisions provides additional information to mitigate risks. With improved human reliability comes reduced risk for the overall operation or project.

  17. Critical Systems Engineering Accelerator: Aerospace Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ricardo; Fernandez, Gonzalo; Regada, Raul; Basanta, Luis; Alana, Elena; Del Carmen Lomba, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays, the complexity and functionality of space systems is increasing more and more. Safety critical systems have to guarantee strong safety and dependability constraints. This paper presents CRYSTAL (Critical sYSTem engineering AcceLeration), a cross-domain ARTEMIS project for increasing the efficiency of the embedded software development in the industry through the definition of an integrated tool chain. CRYSTAL involves four major application domains: Aerospace, Automotive, Rail and Medical Healthcare. The impact in the Space Domain will be evaluated through a demonstrator implemented using CRYSTAL framework: the Low Level Software for an Avionics Control Unit, capable to run Application SW for autonomous navigation, image acquisition control, data compression and/or data handling. Finally, the results achieved will be evaluated taking into account the ECSS (European Committee for Space Standardization) standards and procedures.

  18. Trajectory optimization for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an efficient and robust trajectory optimization tool for the optimal ascent problem of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). This report is organized in the following order to summarize the complete work: Section two states the formulation and models of the trajectory optimization problem. An inverse dynamics approach to the problem is introduced in Section three. Optimal trajectories corresponding to various conditions and performance parameters are presented in Section four. A midcourse nonlinear feedback controller is developed in Section five. Section six demonstrates the performance of the inverse dynamics approach and midcourse controller during disturbances. Section seven discusses rocket assisted ascent which may be beneficial when orbital altitude is high. Finally, Section eight recommends areas of future research.

  19. Aerospace Flywheel Technology Development for IPACS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLallin, Kerry L.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Fausz, Jerry; Bauer, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) are cooperating under a space act agreement to sponsor the research and development of aerospace flywheel technologies to address mutual future mission needs. Flywheel technology offers significantly enhanced capability or is an enabling technology. Generally these missions are for energy storage and/or integrated power and attitude control systems (IPACS) for mid-to-large satellites in low earth orbit. These missions require significant energy storage as well as a CMG or reaction wheel function for attitude control. A summary description of the NASA and AFRL flywheel technology development programs is provided, followed by specific descriptions of the development plans for integrated flywheel system tests for IPACS applications utilizing both fixed and actuated flywheel units. These flywheel system development tests will be conducted at facilities at AFRL and NASA Glenn Research Center and include participation by industry participants Honeywell and Lockheed Martin.

  20. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An assessment of NASA's safety performance for 1983 affirms that NASA Headquarters and Center management teams continue to hold the safety of manned flight to be their prime concern, and that essential effort and resources are allocated for maintaining safety in all of the development and operational programs. Those conclusions most worthy of NASA management concentration are given along with recommendations for action concerning; product quality and utility; space shuttle main engine; landing gear; logistics and management; orbiter structural loads, landing speed, and pitch control; the shuttle processing contractor; and the safety of flight operations. It appears that much needs to be done before the Space Transportation System can achieve the reliability necessary for safe, high rate, low cost operations.

  1. Reversible thermo-pneumatic valves on centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Aeinehvand, Mohammad Mahdi; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Kazemzadeh, Amin; Rothan, Hussin A; Yusof, Rohana; Madou, Marc

    2015-08-21

    Centrifugal microfluidic systems utilize a conventional spindle motor to automate parallel biochemical assays on a single microfluidic disk. The integration of complex, sequential microfluidic procedures on these platforms relies on robust valving techniques that allow for the precise control and manipulation of fluid flow. The ability of valves to consistently return to their former conditions after each actuation plays a significant role in the real-time manipulation of fluidic operations. In this paper, we introduce an active valving technique that operates based on the deflection of a latex film with the potential for real-time flow manipulation in a wide range of operational spinning speeds. The reversible thermo-pneumatic valve (RTPV) seals or reopens an inlet when a trapped air volume is heated or cooled, respectively. The RTPV is a gas-impermeable valve composed of an air chamber enclosed by a latex membrane and a specially designed liquid transition chamber that enables the efficient usage of the applied thermal energy. Inputting thermo-pneumatic (TP) energy into the air chamber deflects the membrane into the liquid transition chamber against an inlet, sealing it and thus preventing fluid flow. From this point, a centrifugal pressure higher than the induced TP pressure in the air chamber reopens the fluid pathway. The behaviour of this newly introduced reversible valving system on a microfluidic disk is studied experimentally and theoretically over a range of rotational frequencies from 700 RPM to 2500 RPM. Furthermore, adding a physical component (e.g., a hemispherical rubber element) to induce initial flow resistance shifts the operational range of rotational frequencies of the RTPV to more than 6000 RPM. An analytical solution for the cooling of a heated RTPV on a spinning disk is also presented, which highlights the need for the future development of time-programmable RTPVs. Moreover, the reversibility and gas impermeability of the RTPV in the

  2. Pneumatic retinopexy versus scleral buckle for repairing simple rhegmatogenous retinal detachments

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Elham; Sena, Dayse F; Fallano, Katherine A; Crews, Jonathan; Do, Diana V

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a full-thickness break in the sensory retina, caused by vitreous traction on the retina. While pneumatic retinopexy, scleral buckle, and vitrectomy are the accepted surgical interventions for eyes with RRD, their relative effectiveness has remained controversial. Objectives The objectives of this review were to assess the effectiveness and safety of pneumatic retinopexy versus scleral buckle or pneumatic retinopexy versus a combination treatment of scleral buckle and vitrectomy for people with RRD. The secondary objectives were to summarize any data on economic measures and quality of life. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to January 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 13 January 2015. Selection criteria We included all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of pneumatic retinopexy versus scleral buckle (with or without vitrectomy) for eyes with RRD. Data collection and analysis After screening for eligibility, two review authors independently extracted study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. We followed systematic review standards as set forth by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included two randomized controlled trials (218 eyes of 216 participants) comparing the effectiveness of

  3. Characteristic analysis and experimental evaluation of artificial pneumatic cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Soo; Bae, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2005-12-01

    The fluidic muscle cylinder consists of an air bellows tube, flanges and lock nuts. Its features are softness of material and motion, simplicity of structure, low production cost and high power efficiency. Recently, unlikely the pneumatic cylinder, the fluidic muscle cylinder without air leakage, stick slip, friction, and seal was developed as a new concept actuator. It has the characteristics such as light weight, low price, high response, durable design, long life, high power, high contraction, which is innovative product fulfilling RT(Robot Technology) which is one of the nation-leading next generation strategy technologies 6T as well as cleanness technology. The application fields of the fluidic muscle cylinder are so various like fatigue tester, brake, accelerator, high technology testing device such as driving simulator, precise position, velocity, intelligent servo actuator under special environment such as load controlling system, and intelligent robot. In this study, we carried out the finite element modeling and analysis about the main design variables such as contraction ration and force, diameter increment of fluidic muscle cylinder. On the basis of finite element analysis, the prototype of fluidic muscle cylinder was fabricated and tested. Finally, we compared the results between the test and the finite element analysis.

  4. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  5. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  6. Development of an Upper Limb Power Assist System Using Pneumatic Actuators for Farming Lift-up Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Eiichi; Harada, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masaaki

    A power assist system has lately attracted considerable attention to lifting-up an object without low back pain. We have been developing power assist systems with pneumatic actuators for the elbow and shoulder to farming support of lifting-up a bag of rice weighing 30kg. This paper describes the mechanism and control method of this power assist system. The pneumatic rotary actuator supports shoulder motion, and the air cylinder supports elbow motion. In this control method, the surface electromyogram(EMG) signals are used as input information of the controller. The joint support torques of human are calculated based on the antigravity term of necessary joint torques, which are estimated on the dynamics of a human approximated link model. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism and control method of the power assist system.

  7. Unification - An international aerospace information issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific and Technical Information (STI) represents the results of large investments in research and development (R&D) and the expertise of a nation and is a valuable resource. For more than four decades, NASA and its predecessor organizations have developed and managed the preeminent aerospace information system. NASA obtains foreign materials through its international exchange relationships, continually increasing the comprehensiveness of the NASA Aerospace Database (NAD). The NAD is de facto the international aerospace database. This paper reviews current NASA goals and activities with a view toward maintaining compatibility among international aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  8. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  9. Aerospace Activities in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Wiggins, Kenneth E.

    1974-01-01

    Describes 17 activities which are aerospace oriented and yet provide an interdisciplinary approach to learning. Some of the activities described involve paper airplanes, parachutes, model rockets, etc. (BR)

  10. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  11. Verification and Validation of Neural Networks for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale; Nelson, Stacy; Schumman, Johann; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Center V&V working group and NASA Ames Research Center Automated Software Engineering (ASE) group collaborated to prepare this report. The purpose is to describe V&V processes and methods for certification of neural networks for aerospace applications, particularly adaptive flight control systems like Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS) that use neural networks. This report is divided into the following two sections: 1) Overview of Adaptive Systems; and 2) V&V Processes/Methods.

  12. Verification and Validation of Neural Networks for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale; Nelson, Stacy; Schumann, Johann

    2002-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Center V&V working group and NASA Ames Research Center Automated Software Engineering (ASE) group collaborated to prepare this report. The purpose is to describe V&V processes and methods for certification of neural networks for aerospace applications, particularly adaptive flight control systems like Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS) that use neural networks. This report is divided into the following two sections: Overview of Adaptive Systems and V&V Processes/Methods.

  13. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

  14. An adaptive guidance algorithm for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradt, J. E.; Hardtla, J. W.; Cramer, E. J.

    The specifications for proposed space transportation systems are placing more emphasis on developing reusable avionics subsystems which have the capability to respond to vehicle evolution and diverse missions while at the same time reducing the cost of ground support for mission planning, contingency response and verification and validation. An innovative approach to meeting these goals is to specify the guidance problem as a multi-point boundary value problen and solve that problem using modern control theory and nonlinear constrained optimization techniques. This approach has been implemented as Gamma Guidance (Hardtla, 1978) and has been successfully flown in the Inertial Upper Stage. The adaptive guidance algorithm described in this paper is a generalized formulation of Gamma Guidance. The basic equations are presented and then applied to four diverse aerospace vehicles to demonstrate the feasibility of using a reusable, explicit, adaptive guidance algorithm for diverse applications and vehicles.

  15. Artificial Immune System Approaches for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) combine a priori knowledge with the adapting capabilities of biological immune system to provide a powerful alternative to currently available techniques for pattern recognition, modeling, design, and control. Immunology is the science of built-in defense mechanisms that are present in all living beings to protect against external attacks. A biological immune system can be thought of as a robust, adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. Biological immune systems use a finite number of discrete "building blocks" to achieve this adaptiveness. These building blocks can be thought of as pieces of a puzzle which must be put together in a specific way-to neutralize, remove, or destroy each unique disturbance the system encounters. In this paper, we outline AIS models that are immediately applicable to aerospace problems and identify application areas that need further investigation.

  16. Cognitive engineering in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress that was made with respect to the objectives and goals of the research that is being carried out in the Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory (CSEL) under a Cooperative Agreement with NASA Ames Research Center is described. The major objective of this project is to expand the research base in Cognitive Engineering to be able to support the development and human-centered design of automated systems for aerospace applications. This research project is in support of the Aviation Safety/Automation Research plan and related NASA research goals in space applications.

  17. Aerospace materials for nonaerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Dawn, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Many of the flame-resistant nonmetallic materials that were developed for the Apollo and Skylab programs are discussed for commercial and military applications. Interchanges of information are taking place with the government agencies, industries, and educational institutions, which are interested in applications of fire-safe nonmetallic materials. These materials are particularly applicable to the design of aircraft, mass transit interiors, residential and public building constructions, nursing homes and hospitals, and to other fields of fire safety applications. Figures 22, 23 and 24 show the potential nonaerospace applications of flame-resistant aerospace materials are shown.

  18. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  19. Aerospace Payloads Leak Test Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovsky, Oleg; Grayson, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized and sealed aerospace payloads can leak on orbit. When dealing with toxic or hazardous materials, requirements for fluid and gas leakage rates have to be properly established, and most importantly, reliably verified using the best Nondestructive Test (NDT) method available. Such verification can be implemented through application of various leak test methods that will be the subject of this paper, with a purpose to show what approach to payload leakage rate requirement verification is taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scope of this paper will be mostly a detailed description of 14 leak test methods recommended.

  20. National Aero-Space Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the technology development management objectives thus far planned for the DOD/NASA National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The technology required by NASP will first be developed in ground-based facilities and then integrated during the design and construction of the X-30 experimental aircraft. Five airframe and three powerplant manufacturers are currently engaged in an 18-month effort encompassing design studies and tradeoff analyses. The first flight of the X-30 is scheduled for early 1993.

  1. Salivary Stone Pneumatic Lithotripsy in a Live Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Walvekar, Rohan R; Hoffman, Henry T; Kolenda, Jack; Hernandez, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic fragmentation and removal of artificial calculi in a live porcine model employing intracorporeal pneumatic lithotripsy. In this experimental study, 7 submandibular ducts were accessed and artificial calculi placed. A salivary pneumatic lithotripter probe was inserted through an interventional sialendoscope to fragment the calculi. A salivary duct catheter was then used to flush stone fragments, followed by endoscopy to assess complete fragmentation and ductal trauma. Ultimately, 7 artificial stones (3-10 mm, 4F/5F) were successfully fragmented without causing significant endoluminal trauma. Number of pulses for adequate stone fragmentation averaged 20 (range, 5-31). In all cases, stone fragments were successfully flushed out with the salivary duct catheter. Postprocedure endoscopy confirmed ductal integrity in all 7 ducts. While more studies are needed, this preliminary animal model demonstrates efficacy of endoscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for the management of sialolithiasis. PMID:27048662

  2. 76 FR 58776 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    .... 10:30-11:00 Coffee Break-- Networking. 11:00-12:30 Presentations: Canada's Aerospace Market, Quebec's... aerospace sub-markets was often in the top 5. Industry estimates expected Canada's aerospace sector...

  3. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... tubing; (2) Beams or girders extending below the ceiling or other obstructions do not detract from...

  4. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... tubing; (2) Beams or girders extending below the ceiling or other obstructions do not detract from...

  5. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... tubing; (2) Beams or girders extending below the ceiling or other obstructions do not detract from...

  6. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... tubing; (2) Beams or girders extending below the ceiling or other obstructions do not detract from...

  7. Nanotechnology research for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, Forrest J.; Lozano, Karen; Gutierrez, Jose M.; Chipara, Mircea; Thapa, Ram; Chow, Alice

    2009-04-01

    Nanotechnology is impacting the future of the military and aerospace. The increasing demands for high performance and property-specific applications are forcing the scientific world to take novel approaches in developing programs and accelerating output. CONTACT or Consortium for Nanomaterials for Aerospace Commerce and Technology is a cooperative nanotechnology research program in Texas building on an infrastructure that promotes collaboration between universities and transitioning to industry. The participants of the program include the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), five campuses of the University of Texas (Brownsville, Pan American, Arlington, Austin, and Dallas), the University of Houston, and Rice University. Through the various partnerships between the intellectual centers and the interactions with AFRL and CONTACT's industrial associates, the program represents a model that addresses the needs of the changing and competitive technological world. Into the second year, CONTACT has expanded to twelve projects that cover four areas of research: Adaptive Coatings and Surface Engineering, Nano Energetics, Electromagnetic Sensors, and Power Generation and Storage. This paper provides an overview of the CONTACT program and its projects including the research and development of new electrorheological fluids with nanoladen suspensions and composites and the potential applications.

  8. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  9. The use of pneumatically generated water pressure signals for aquifer characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, M.; Roberts, R.; Chace, D.

    2013-12-01

    The use of pneumatically generated pressure signals for aquifer characterization Hydraulic tests are the most reliable method of obtaining estimates of hydrologic properties, such as conductivity, that are essential for flow and transport modeling. The use of a sinusoidal signal for hydraulic testing is well established, with Streltsova (1988), Rasmussen (2003) and others having developed analytic solutions. Sinusoidal tests provide a unique easily distinguished signal that reduces ambiguity during analysis and we show that a sinusoidal pressure signal propagates farther into the formation than a standard slug-test signal. If a sinusoidal test is combined with a slug and/or a constant rate test, it can further reduce uncertainty in the estimated parameter values. We demonstrate how pneumatic pressure can be used to generate all three of these signals. By positioning pressure transducers both below the water level and in the head space above the water, we can monitor the total pressure acting on the formation and the changes in water level. From the changes in water level, it is possible to calculate the flow rate in and out of the well, assuming that the well diameter and water density are known. Using gas flow controllers with a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system we are able to precisely control the pressures in the well. The use of pneumatic pressure has the advantage that it requires less equipment (no pumps) and produces no water. We also show how the numerical well test analysis program nSIGHTS can be used to analyze all three types of tests simultaneously and to assess the relative contribution of each type of test to the parameter estimation. nSIGHTS was recently released as open source by Sandia National Laboratories and is available for free.

  10. Hydrodynamic injection with pneumatic valving for microchip electrophoresis with total analyte utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Danielson, William F.; Agrawal, Nitin; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-04-26

    A novel hydrodynamic injector that is directly controlled by a pneumatic valve has been developed for reproducible microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devices used for evaluation comprise a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a pneumatic valve aligned at the intersection of the channels. A low pressure (≤ 3 psi) applied to the sample reservoir is sufficient to drive sample into the separation channel. The rapidly actuated pneumatic valve enables injection of discrete sample plugs as small as ~100 pL for CE separation. The injection volume can be easily controlled by adjusting the intersection geometry, the solution back pressure and the valve actuation time. Sample injection could be reliably operated at different frequencies (< 0.1 Hz to >2 Hz) with good reproducibility (peak height relative standard deviation ≤ 3.6%) and no sampling biases associated with the conventional electrokinetic injections. The separation channel was dynamically coated with a cationic polymer, and FITC-labeled amino acids were employed to evaluate the CE separation. Highly efficient (≥ 7.0 × 103 theoretical plates for the ~2.4 cm long channel) and reproducible CE separations were obtained. The demonstrated method has numerous advantages compared with the conventional techniques, including repeatable and unbiased injections, no sample waste, high duty cycle, controllable injected sample volume, and fewer electrodes with no need for voltage switching. The prospects of implementing this injection method for coupling multidimensional separations, for multiplexing CE separations and for sample-limited bioanalyses are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of a pneumatic Martian soil sampler concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, John L.; Neathery, James K.; Stencel, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The pneumatic soil sampler concept was successfully demonstrated by penetrating a Martian simulant soil to a depth of 2 meters. Working gas pressure, composition, and pulsing were evaluated with the objective of minimizing gas usage. Also, the probe penetration force was investigated with the objective of minimizing probe weight. Gas and probe penetration force, while not yet optimized, are within the range which make the soil sampler concept feasible. While the tests described in this report did not answer all the questions and address all the variables associated with pneumatic soil sampling, valuable data experience and knowledge were gained which can be used to further develop the concept.

  12. Aerospace technology development of three types of solid state remote power controllers for 120VDC with current ratings of five, and thirty amperes, one type having current limiting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The first generation of remote power controllers (RPC) developed included: a 5-ampere design (Type 1), capable of limiting maximum overload current to 15 amperes for .1 sec; and 5-ampere noncurrent (Type 2) and 30-ampere noncurrent (Type 3) limiting designs, both with selectable instant trip levels for high-current overload. Each design provides overcurrent protection through an inverse I squared T trip-out function with an automatic reset option and demonstrates step-applied fault capability with a 4000-ampere surge, fast-risetime (low-inductance) power source. They also meet MIL - STD - 461A specification for electromagnetic interference. The second generation RPCs traded off specification compliance for reduction in cost and complexity for the Type 1 and 2 designs and give comparable or improved performance in most areas. The noncurrent limiting RPC proved to be a more economical and feasible method of overload protection for certain load types.

  13. Smart electronics and MEMS for aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper, smart electronics and MEMS are employed to sense and control the drag in aircraft structures. The sensors are fabricated with interdigital transducers printed on a piezoelectric polymer. They in turn are mounted onto an ultra thin Penn State's novel RF antenna (Patent field). The sensor are designed to measure both pressure and shear of the fluid flow on aerospace structures. The wave form measurements may be monitored at a remote location either at the cockpit or elsewhere via the antennas in the sensors and an outside antenna. The integrated MEMS actuators which comprise of cantilever-, diaphram- and microbridge-based MEMS with suitable smart electronics etched onto the structure are controlled by the built-in antennas through feedback and feedforward control architecture. The integration of such materials and smart electronics into the skin of airfoil is ideal for sensing and controlling drag. The basic idea of this concept involves detection of the point of transition from laminar to turbulent flow and transmitting acoustical energy into the boundary layer so that the low energy fluid particles accelerate in the transverse direction and mix with the high energy flow outside of the boundary layer. 3D microriblets can be fabricated using stereo lithography and UV curable conducting polymers. The control of drag using these active microriblets are outlined.

  14. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  15. The 42nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor); Hakun, Claef (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development, and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  16. NASA Elementary Aerospace Activities Free to Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes the contents of Elementary School Aerospace Activities: A Resource for Teachers. Activities examine a variety of topics in aerospace education and are intended to be used with children ages 5-11. The book is available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) for $3.00. (CP)

  17. Aerospace Power Technology for Potential Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace technology that is being developed for space and aeronautical applications has great potential for providing technical advances for terrestrial power systems. Some recent accomplishments arising from activities being pursued at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centers is described in this paper. Possible terrestrial applications of the new aerospace technology are also discussed.

  18. The 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by NASA Johnson Space Center and held at the South Shore Harbour Conference Facility on May 17-19, 1995, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  19. The 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings of the 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held at the Cleveland Marriott Society Center on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  20. The 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center on May 13, 14, and 15, 1992 are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  1. Aerospace Resources for Science and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald, Ed.; Smith, Kenneth L., Ed.

    This publication on Aerospace Programs is a special edition of "Technology Education" featuring descriptions of 15 select aerospace education programs from diverse localities spanning the full range of instructional levels. Following introductory material, the monograph contains the following largely unedited program descriptions: (1) summaries of…

  2. The 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, Ron (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at ARC, Moffett Field, California, on 12-14 May 1993, are reported. Technological areas covered include the following: actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  3. iSTEM: The Aerospace Engineering Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed The Paper Plane Challenge as one of a three-part response to The Aerospace Engineering Challenge. The Aerospace Engineering Challenge was the second of three multi-part activities that they had developed with the teachers during the year. Their aim was to introduce students to the exciting world of engineering, where they…

  4. Assistive acting movement therapy devices with pneumatic rotary-type soft actuators.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, André; Baiden, David; Ivlev, Oleg

    2012-12-01

    Inherent compliance and assistive behavior are assumed to be essential properties for safe human-robot interaction. Rehabilitation robots demand the highest standards in this respect because the machine interacts directly with weak persons who are often sensitive to pain. Using novel soft fluidic actuators with rotary elastic chambers (REC actuators), compact, lightweight, and cost-effective therapeutic devices can be developed. This article describes modular design and control strategies for new assistive acting robotic devices for upper and lower extremities. Due to the inherent compliance and natural back-drivability of pneumatic REC actuators, these movement therapy devices provide gentle treatment, whereby the interaction forces between humans and the therapy device are estimated without the use of expensive force/torque sensors. An active model-based gravity compensation based on separated models of the robot and of the individual patient's extremity provides the basis for effective assistive control. The utilization of pneumatic actuators demands a special safety concept, which is merged with control algorithms to provide a sufficient level of safeness and to catch any possible system errors and/or emergency situations. A self-explanatory user interface allows for easy, intuitive handling. Prototypes are very comfortable for use due to several control routines that work in the background. Assistive devices have been tested extensively with several healthy persons; the knee/hip movement therapy device is now under clinical trials at the Clinic for Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery at the Klinikum Stuttgart. PMID:23241570

  5. Wearable air supply for pneumatic artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Sipin, A J; Fabrey, W J; Smith, S H; Doussourd, J D; Olsen, D B

    1992-08-01

    An experimental wearable air supply for pneumatic artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices has been built and tested. The unit eliminates the need for tethering to a large, stationery driver. The miniaturized air supply is designed for ambulatory patients with implanted pulsatile pneumatic total artificial hearts (TAH) or pneumatic left-ventricular assist devices (LVAD), to permit mobility in clinical and home settings. The device has major short-term utility as a supply for pneumatic TAH or VAD bridges in patients awaiting heart transplants. The system design for the wearable driver includes a novel, fast rotary compressor, driven by a brushless direct current (DC) motor to supply air to the ventricle through an electromagnetically actuated directional valve, all controlled by a microcomputer. Stroke volume from 0 to 200 cc; pulse rate from 60 to 160 bpm, and duty cycle from 33% to 50% are selected on a keyboard, and the selected or measured parameters can be shown on a liquid crystal display. For control of delivery from a single ventricular assist device, stroke volume is controlled by variation of compressor speed. In the wearable air supply for a TAH, a single compressor drives both ventricles alternately through a double-acting directional valve. Air volume delivered to the left ventricle is adjusted by variation of compressor speed, and air volume to the right ventricle by variation of ejection time. The effect on blood flow rate of the lower impedance to the right ventricle is compensated by provision of a two-stage compressor, in which a single stage drives the right ventricle, and both stages connected in parallel drive the left ventricle. The overall dimensions of the prototype air supply for driving either a TAH or LVAD are 4.5 by 7.8 by 4.5 inches, including an emergency battery with a duration of 15 to 30 min depending on load. The weight is presently 5.5 lb, but this will be reduced in a production design and for a dedicated LVAD air supply

  6. Sensors Applications, Volume 6, Sensors in Aerospace Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeser, Hans Peter; von Schoenermark, Maria; Young, Erick T.

    2005-08-01

    This volume gives a detailed overview of the sensor systems employed in aerospace technology, such as sensors for different spectral ranges from the UV to NIR, temperature measuring, radio- and microwave detection and satellite positioning systems. Furthermore, atmospheric measurements for meteorological and deep space exploration purposes as well as land surveys and geological applications are treated in detail. The book series Sensors Applications covers the application of up-to-date sensor principles in key areas, such as process monitoring, building control, household appliances, health care, automobile, aerospace, or environmental technology. Microelectronics have become indispensable in measurement and control technology, meeting the increasing demand for sophisticated sensor systems. The series covers the growing need for comprehensive information on the wide variety of available systems and their purposes, potentials, applications and limitations.

  7. Formal Safety Certification of Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    integrated with other code generators such as RealTime Workshop or even applied to legacy code. Our approach circumvents the historical problems with formal methods by increasing the degree of automation on all levels. The restriction to safety policies (as opposed to arbitrary functional behavior) results in simpler proof problems that can generally be solved by fully automatic theorem proves. An automated linking mechanism between the safety conditions and the code provides some of the traceability mandated by process standards such as DO-178B. An automated explanation mechanism uses semantic markup added by the verification condition generator to produce natural-language explanations of the safety conditions and thus supports their interpretation in relation to the code. It shows an automatically generated certification browser that lets users inspect the (generated) code along with the safety conditions (including textual explanations), and uses hyperlinks to automate tracing between the two levels. Here, the explanations reflect the logical structure of the safety obligation but the mechanism can in principle be customized using different sets of domain concepts. The interface also provides some limited control over the certification process itself. Our long-term goal is a seamless integration of certification, code generation, and manual coding that results in a "certified pipeline" in which specifications are automatically transformed into executable code, together with the supporting artifacts necessary for achieving and demonstrating the high level of assurance needed in the aerospace domain.

  8. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  9. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  10. Automated design of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Mccomb, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in structural analysis of aerospace vehicles is characterized, automated design technology is discussed, and an indication is given of the future direction of research in analysis and automated design. Representative computer programs for analysis typical of those in routine use in vehicle design activities are described, and results are shown for some selected analysis problems. Recent and planned advances in analysis capability are indicated. Techniques used to automate the more routine aspects of structural design are discussed, and some recently developed automated design computer programs are described. Finally, discussion is presented of early accomplishments in interdisciplinary automated design systems, and some indication of the future thrust of research in this field is given.

  11. ASAP Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the First Quarterly Report for the newly reconstituted Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP). The NASA Administrator rechartered the Panel on November 18,2003, to provide an independent, vigilant, and long-term oversight of NASA's safety policies and programs well beyond Return to Flight of the Space Shuttle. The charter was revised to be consistent with the original intent of Congress in enacting the statute establishing ASAP in 1967 to focus on NASA's safety and quality systems, including industrial and systems safety, risk-management and trend analysis, and the management of these activities.The charter also was revised to provide more timely feedback to NASA by requiring quarterly rather than annual reports, and by requiring ASAP to perform special assessments with immediate feedback to NASA. ASAP was positioned to help institutionalize the safety culture of NASA in the post- Stafford-Covey Return to Flight environment.

  12. Assessing a pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study assessed a pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device for ginned lint. Results from a test that used two line pressures and three fractionation times showed that higher line pressure and longer fractionation time produced fiber that was shorter in staple length, contained more neps, a...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3610...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3610...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3610...

  16. The Pneumatic Common: Learning in, with and from the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    Air is an immersive substance that envelopes us and binds us together, yet it has dominantly been taken for granted and left out of educational and other theorizations. This article develops a conceptualization of the "pneumatic common" in order to address this gap. The specific intervention staged is within recent educational literature…

  17. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... paraplegics walk. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food... distribution before May 28, 1976. Any other rigid pneumatic structure orthosis shall have an approved PMA or...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paraplegics walk. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food... distribution before May 28, 1976. Any other rigid pneumatic structure orthosis shall have an approved PMA or...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.86 - Pneumatic equipment lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pneumatic equipment lubricants. 3201.86 Section 3201.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.86...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1438 - Pressurization and pneumatic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... elements must be burst pressure tested to 2.0 times, and proof pressure tested to 1.5 times, the maximum normal operating pressure. (b) Pneumatic system elements must be burst pressure tested to 3.0 times, and proof pressure tested to 1.5 times, the maximum normal operating pressure. (c) An analysis, or...

  1. Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with scale. Not in use August 1994. Turntable rotated with engine and tender on balance by two persons, one on either side at ground level - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  2. Pneumatic vacuum tube message center, basement room 23, looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pneumatic vacuum tube message center, basement room 23, looking southeast toward doorway and corridor. Note soundproof walls, pedestal flooring, and cable tray suspended from the ceiling - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  3. Textile mechanical elements in aerospace vehicle parachute systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, M. J.; French, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, design considerations, and design details for textile mechanical elements used in aerospace vehicle parachute systems are briefly reviewed. Friction burns are noted as a major cause of parachute system failures. The friction burn hazard can be minimized by designing for predeployment and deployment sequence control with textile mechanical restraints. Two basic restraint designs (restraint loops and line ties) are discussed and various applications of the designs shown.

  4. AIAA Computing in Aerospace 10, San Antonio, TX, March 28-30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A conference covered a wide range of topics related to the use of computers and computer software in the many branches of aerospace engineering. Specific areas covered included: space flight operations, satellite control, ground systems, computer hardware, computer software, human-computer interactions, artificial intelligence, avionics, computer tool development, aerospace computer systems, and computer tools. For individual titles, see A95-90630 through A95-90707.

  5. Single line reversing system capsular pneumatic freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.B.

    1999-07-01

    In the 1800's the first Pneumatic Tube Systems sent a carrier vertically from one floor to another in a hospital using a foot-powered bellows. The carrier was returned to the starting point down the same tube using gravity. This was the first Single Line Reversing system. As the stations were moved apart horizontally the foot-powered bellows at both ends became ineffective and were replaced with a single blower or exhauster. The blower/exhauster ran continuously therefore a second line for returning carriers to the starting point, had to be installed - hence Twin Line systems. These systems were used for transporting mail, paperwork, medications, steel mill samples, parts, tools, medical lab samples, etc., in hospitals, stores and other businesses. Twin Line systems were very popular until about 1970 at which time installation labor and material costs became expensive and controls were becoming unnecessarily complicated and expensive. These reasons plus new technology forced the return to Single Line Reversing technology. Back in the 1800's three ``people transporting'' subways were built. A fourth system was built under the Pentagon in the 1950's or 1960's. It is difficult to find information on this one. All are Single Line Reversing systems. The difference between a Single Line Reversing and a Twin Line system is exactly as the names imply. The principle of the operation of these systems is covered herein. The physics for these two kinds of systems is the same. The Single Line Reversing system is technically more complex but capital and operating expense is far less costly. These costs are discussed herein.

  6. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Novel Nanolaminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Martin; Mazuruk, consty

    2006-01-01

    Nanolaminate manufacturing (NLM) is a new way of developing materials whose properties can far exceed those of homogeneous materials. Traditional alloys, composites and bulk laminates tend to average the properties of the materials from which they were made. With nanostructured materials, the high density of interfaces between dissimilar materials results in novel material properties. For example, materials made -from alternating nanoscale layers of metals and oxides have exhibited thermal conductivities far below those of the oxides themselves. Also, metallic nanolaminates can have peak strengths 100 times lager than the bulk constituent metals. Recent work at MSFC has focused on the development of nickel/aluminum oxide (Ni/Al2O3)) nanolaminates. Ni/Al2O3 nanolaminates are expected to have better strength, creep and fatigue resistance, oxygen compatibility, and corrosion resistance than the traditional metal-matrix composites of this material, which has been used in a variety of aerospace applications. A chemical vapor deposition (CW) system has been developed and optimized for the deposition of nanolaminates. Nanolaminates with layer thicknesses between 10 and 300 nm have been successfully grown and characterization has included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) Nanolaminates have a large variety of potential applications. They can be tailored to have both very small and anisotropic thermal conductivities and are promising as thermal coatings for both rock$ engine components and aerobraking structures. They also have the potential to be used in aerospace applications where strength at high temperatures, corrosion resistance or resistance to hydrogen embrittlement is important. Both CVD and magnetron sputtering facilities are available for the deposition of nanolayered materials. Characterization equipment includes SEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and mechanical tensile pull

  8. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  9. Pneumatic fractures in Confined Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Turkaya, Semih

    2016-04-01

    We will present our ongoing study of the patterns formed when air flows into a dry, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. This is an optically transparent system consisting of two glass plates separated by 0.5 to 1 mm, containing a packing of dry 80 micron beads in between. The cell is rectangular and has an air-permeable boundary (blocking beads) at one short edge, while the other three edges are completely sealed. The granular medium is loosely packed against the semi-permeable boundary and fills about 80 % of the cell volume. This leaves an empty region at the sealed side, where an inlet allows us to set and maintain the air at a constant overpressure (0.1 - 2 bar). For the air trapped inside the cell to relax its overpressure it has to move through the deformable granular medium. Depending on the applied overpressure and initial density of the medium, we observe a range of different behaviors such as seepage through the pore-network with or without an initial compaction of the solid, formation of low density bubbles with rearrangement of particles, granular fingering/fracturing, and erosion inside formed channels/fractures. The experiments are recorded with a high-speed camera at a framerate of 1000 images/s and a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels. We use various image processing techniques to characterize the evolution of the air invasion patterns and the deformations in the surrounding material. The experiments are similar to deformation processes in porous media which are driven by pore fluid overpressure, such as mud volcanoes and hydraulic or pneumatic (gas-induced) fracturing, and the motivation is to increase the understanding of such processes by optical observations. In addition, this setup is an experimental version of the numerical models analyzed by Niebling et al. [1,2], and is useful for comparison with their results. In a directly related project [3], acoustic emissions from the cell plate are recorded during

  10. Propulsion System with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for Powering Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneva, Ivanka; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Cherelle, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design of device for control of new propulsion system with pneumatic artificial muscles. The propulsion system can be used for ankle joint articulation, for assisting and rehabilitation in cases of injured ankle-foot complex, stroke patients or elderly with functional weakness. Proposed device for control is composed by microcontroller, generator for muscles contractions and sensor system. The microcontroller receives the control signals from sensors and modulates ankle joint flex- ion and extension during human motion. The local joint control with a PID (Proportional-Integral Derivative) position feedback directly calculates desired pressure levels and dictates the necessary contractions. The main goal is to achieve an adaptation of the system and provide the necessary joint torque using position control with feedback.

  11. The experimentation research of IR imaging system capability affected by sapphire window's pneumatic calefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang-peng; Pan, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yun-qiang

    2009-07-01

    In the inclement pneumatic calefaction condition, the window of IR imaging system will be calefied and emit infrared radiation, so that the Signal-to-Noise and quality of target IR image are felled off that are from the imaging system. At this rate the physical characteristic of IR window direct affect capability of imaging system controlled and guided homing by IR tracker and measure precision of target IR characteristics. The properties of sapphire make it an ideal choice for the high speed missile applications compared to other existing or emerging materials. But the research has not been reported about the infrared radiation characteristic of sapphire as the IR window. In this paper, based on an IR imaging system using the sapphire window, the experimentation and conclusions of IR thermal image measurement affected by IR window's pneumatic calefaction have been accomplished. Firstly, the temperatures of sapphire window at supersonic flight extended over 1 km and 15 km from the ground have been estimated by calculating the flow and state variables and the aerodynamic heating into the window. On the base of the results calculated the window static state calefaction experimentation and electric arc wind tunnel experimentation had been designed and completed to validate the effect degree of pneumatic calefaction to the imaging system. With the temperatures of the sapphire window rising, in the image coming from the imaging system, the peak luminance of target image detected is increased, the background average luminance of the image is also increased, and the margin of above two varies in a little range. The data obtained from the different temperature experimentation have demonstrated that the IR flux due to the sapphire window becomes heated by friction with the air and heat transfer to the dome can obscure the target image created by the onboard IR sensor, depress Signal-to-Noise and resolving power of the imaging system, but can not overload the detector.

  12. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  13. The 1990 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Lewis M. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4-6, 1990. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers as well as participation in like kind from the European Space Agency member nations. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, lithium based chemistries, and advanced technologies as they relate to high reliability operations in aerospace applications.

  14. Design of a pneumatically powered wearable exoskeleton with biomimetic support and actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyev, A.; Alaraje, N.; Seidel, C.; Carlson, Z.; Breda, B.

    Powered exoskeletons are designed to assist and protect the wearer. Depending on the situation they may be used to protect soldiers and construction workers, aid the survival of people in dangerous environments, or assist patients in rehabilitation. Regardless of the application there are strict requirements for designing and producing exoskeleton suites. They must be durable but light weight and flexible, have reliable power control and modulation, capable of detecting unsafe and invalid motions, and may require significant weight lifting capabilities. In this article we present an on-going research on robotic exoskeleton replicating of human muscle functions. A single wearable knee-joint prototype described in this article combines the use of soft pneumatic muscle-like actuators and a control system based off the users own natural muscle signals. The Pneumatic Exoskeleton uses bioelectrical signals to detect movement intention from the pilot. This paper details the technical design aspects of a lower-limb robotic exoskeleton with possibility of further expansion to fully functioning robotic exoskeleton suit.

  15. Pneumatic artificial rubber muscle using shape-memory polymer sheet with embedded electrical heating wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Kazuto; Sugitani, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Naohiro; Sakaguchi, Seiya; Noritsugu, Toshiro; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2014-12-01

    Shape-memory polymer (SMP) can be deformed by applying a small load above its glass transition temperature (Tg). Shape-memory polymer maintains its shape after it has cooled below Tg and returns to a predefined shape when subsequently heated above Tg. The reversible change in the elastic modulus between the glassy and rubbery states of an SMP can be on the order of several hundred times. Based on the change in stiffness of the SMP in relation to the change in temperature, the present study attempts to evaluate the application of the SMP to soft actuators of a robot. In order to control the temperature of the SMP, we developed an SMP sheet with an embedded electrical heating wire. We formed a uniform, thin SMP sheet without air bubbles using a heat press. The SMP sheet with a heating wire can be heated quickly and can be maintained at a constant temperature. Moreover, the effects of the embedded wire on the mechanical properties in bending and tensile tests were small. Then, we applied the SMP sheet with the embedded electrical heating wire to a pneumatic artificial rubber muscle. The enhanced versatility of SMP sheet applications is demonstrated through a series of experiments conducted using a prototype. The initial shape and bending displacement of the pneumatic artificial rubber muscle can be changed by controlling the temperature of the SMP sheet.

  16. Computer simulation of the pneumatic separator in the pneumatic-electrostatic separation system for recycling waste printed circuit boards with electronic components.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-05-01

    Technologies could be integrated in different ways into automatic recycling lines for a certain kind of electronic waste according to practical requirements. In this study, a new kind of pneumatic separator with openings at the dust hooper was applied combing with electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit boards. However, the flow pattern and the particles' movement behavior could not be obtained by experimental methods. To better control the separation quantity and the material size distribution, computational fluid dynamics was used to model the new pneumatic separator giving a detailed understanding of the mechanisms. Simulated results showed that the tangential velocity direction reversed with a relatively small value. Axial velocity exhibited two sharp decreases at the x axis. It is indicated that the bottom openings at the dust hopper resulted in an enormous change in the velocity profile. A new phenomenon that was named dusting was observed, which would mitigate the effect of particles with small diameter on the following electrostatic separation and avoid materials plugging caused by the waste printed circuit boards special properties effectively. The trapped materials were divided into seven grades. Experimental results showed that the mass fraction of grade 5, grade 6, and grade 7 materials were 27.54%, 15.23%, and 17.38%, respectively. Grade 1 particles' mass fraction was reduced by 80.30% compared with a traditional separator. Furthermore, the monocrystalline silicon content in silicon element in particles with a diameter of -0.091 mm was 18.9%, higher than that in the mixed materials. This study could serve as guidance for the future material flow control, automation control, waste recycling, and semiconductor storage medium destruction. PMID:23560940

  17. Wear Characteristics of Oleophobic Coatings in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Hamza; Siddiqui, Bilal A.; Saleem, Sajid

    This paper investigates the wear characteristics of oleophobic coatings when applied over Inconel 718, which has widespread applications in the aerospace industry. Coatings once applied were selectively exposed to controlled uni-and then multi-directional stand storm conditions. Size and speed of sand particles colliding with the work surface were carefully moderated to simulate sand storm conditions. Study of friction was performed using Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM) coupled with standard optical microscopy. The analysis has been used to devise a coefficient of friction value and in turn suggest wear behavior of the coated surface including the time associated with exposure of the base substrate. The analysis after validation aims to suggest methods for safe usage of these coatings for aerospace applications.

  18. Comprehensive Design Reliability Activities for Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, R. L.; Whitley, M. R.; Knight, K. C.

    2000-01-01

    This technical publication describes the methodology, model, software tool, input data, and analysis result that support aerospace design reliability studies. The focus of these activities is on propulsion systems mechanical design reliability. The goal of these activities is to support design from a reliability perspective. Paralleling performance analyses in schedule and method, this requires the proper use of metrics in a validated reliability model useful for design, sensitivity, and trade studies. Design reliability analysis in this view is one of several critical design functions. A design reliability method is detailed and two example analyses are provided-one qualitative and the other quantitative. The use of aerospace and commercial data sources for quantification is discussed and sources listed. A tool that was developed to support both types of analyses is presented. Finally, special topics discussed include the development of design criteria, issues of reliability quantification, quality control, and reliability verification.

  19. D3: A Collaborative Infrastructure for Aerospace Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Joan; Filman, Robert E.; Knight, Chris; Korsmeyer, David J.; Lee, Diana D.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    DARWIN is a NASA developed, Internet-based system for enabling aerospace researchers to securely and remotely access and collaborate on the analysis of aerospace vehicle design data, primarily the results of wind-tunnel testing and numeric (e.g., computational fluid dynamics) model executions. DARWIN captures, stores and indexes data, manages derived knowledge (such as visualizations across multiple data sets) and provides an environment for designers to collaborate in the analysis of the results of testing. DARWIN is an interesting application because it supports high volumes of data, integrates multiple modalities of data display (e.g. images and data visualizations), and provides non-trivial access control mechanisms. DARWIN enables collaboration by allowing not only sharing visualizations of data, but also commentary about and view of data.

  20. Wear Characteristics of Oleophobic Coatings in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Hamza; Basit, Kanza

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the wear characteristics of oleophobic coatings when applied over Inconel 718, which has widespread applications in the aerospace industry. Coatings once applied were selectively exposed to controlled uni-and then multi-directional stand storm conditions. Size and speed of sand particles colliding with the work surface were carefully moderated to simulate sand storm conditions. Study of friction was performed using Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM) coupled with standard optical microscopy. The analysis has been used to devise a coefficient of friction value and in turn suggest wear behavior of the coated surface including the time associated with exposure of the base substrate. The analysis after validation aims to suggest methods for safe usage of these coatings for aerospace applications.