Science.gov

Sample records for aerospace regional aircraft

  1. 75 FR 7405 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model Jetstream Series 3101 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201... normal internal leakage in the hydraulic system, resulted in hydraulic pressure being supplied to...

  2. 75 FR 22517 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model Jetstream Series 3101 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 7405). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The... Order 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201 Airplanes AGENCY:...

  3. 75 FR 59170 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Models Jetstream Series 3101 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Regional Aircraft Models Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... comments by any of the following methods: ] Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov... regulations for practices, methods, and procedures the Administrator finds necessary for safety in...

  4. 75 FR 75882 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Models Jetstream Series 3101 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Regional Aircraft Models Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Register on September 27, 2010 (75 FR 59170). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods, and procedures the Administrator...

  5. 76 FR 14349 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... MLG leg pivot beam fastener bores for cracks. Do the inspections following British Aerospace Jetstream...) after replacement, eddy current inspect all the MLG leg pivot beam fastener bores for cracks. Do...

  6. Aircraft of Today. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.

    This textbook gives a brief idea about the modern aircraft used in defense and for commercial purposes. Aerospace technology in its present form has developed along certain basic principles of aerodynamic forces. Different parts in an airplane have different functions to balance the aircraft in air, provide a thrust, and control the general…

  7. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This revised textbook, one in the Aerospace Education II series, provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of…

  8. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This curriculum guide accompanies another publication in the Aerospace Education II series entitled "Propulsion Systems for Aircraft." The guide includes specific guidelines for teachers on each chapter in the textbook. Suggestions are included for objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points,…

  9. Aircraft of Today. [Aerospace Education I. Instructor Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This publication is prepared to accompany the textbook entitled "Aircraft of Today," published in the Aerospace Education I series. The curriculum guide provides guidelines for teachers in terms of various concepts stressed in each chapter and suggested methodology for instruction. The subdivisions in the guidebook for each chapter include…

  10. Stealth Aircraft Technology. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, manufacture, and history of aircraft incorporating stealth technology. Citations focus on construction materials, testing, aircraft performance, and technology assessment. Fighter aircraft, bombers, missiles, and helicopters represent coverage. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Thermal Decoating of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys for Aircraft Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñiz Lerma, Jose Alberto; Jung, In-Ho; Brochu, Mathieu

    2016-03-01

    Recycling of aircraft aluminum alloys can be complex due to the presence of their corrosion protection coating that includes inorganic compounds containing Cr(VI). In this study, the characterization and thermal degradation behavior of the coating on aluminum substrates coming from an aircraft destined for recycling are presented. Elements such as Sr, Cr, Si, Ba, Ti, S, C, and O were found in three different layers by EDS elemental mapping corresponding to SrCrO4, Rutile-TiO2, SiO2, and BaSO4 with an overall particle size D 50 = 1.96 µm. The thermal degradation profile analyzed by TGA showed four different stages. The temperature of complete degradation at the fourth stage occurred at 753.15 K (480 °C) at lower heating rates. At higher heating rates and holding an isotherm at the same temperature, the residence time to fully decompose the aircraft coating has been estimated as 4.0 ± 0.2 minutes. The activation energy calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and the modified Coats-Redfern methods for multiple fraction of decomposition showed a non-constant behavior indicating the complexity of the reaction. Finally, the concentration of Cr(VI) released to the environment during thermal decoating was obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. It was found that 2.6 ± 0.1 µg of Cr(VI)/mm2 of aluminum substrate could be released unless adequate particle controls are used.

  12. Thermal Decoating of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys for Aircraft Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñiz Lerma, Jose Alberto; Jung, In-Ho; Brochu, Mathieu

    2016-06-01

    Recycling of aircraft aluminum alloys can be complex due to the presence of their corrosion protection coating that includes inorganic compounds containing Cr(VI). In this study, the characterization and thermal degradation behavior of the coating on aluminum substrates coming from an aircraft destined for recycling are presented. Elements such as Sr, Cr, Si, Ba, Ti, S, C, and O were found in three different layers by EDS elemental mapping corresponding to SrCrO4, Rutile-TiO2, SiO2, and BaSO4 with an overall particle size D 50 = 1.96 µm. The thermal degradation profile analyzed by TGA showed four different stages. The temperature of complete degradation at the fourth stage occurred at 753.15 K (480 °C) at lower heating rates. At higher heating rates and holding an isotherm at the same temperature, the residence time to fully decompose the aircraft coating has been estimated as 4.0 ± 0.2 minutes. The activation energy calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and the modified Coats-Redfern methods for multiple fraction of decomposition showed a non-constant behavior indicating the complexity of the reaction. Finally, the concentration of Cr(VI) released to the environment during thermal decoating was obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. It was found that 2.6 ± 0.1 µg of Cr(VI)/mm2 of aluminum substrate could be released unless adequate particle controls are used.

  13. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  14. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  15. Design of the advanced regional aircraft, the DART-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, Steve; Gislason, Jason; Huffstetler, Mark; Mann, Jon; Withers, Ashley; Zimmerman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The need for regional aircraft stems from the problem of hub airport congestion. Regional travel will allow a passenger to commute from one spoke city to another spoke city without entering the congested hub airport. In addition, those people traveling longer routes may begin the flight at home instead of traveling to the hub airport. At this time, there is no American aerospace company that produces a regional transport for under 100 passengers. The intention of the Developmental Advanced Regional Transport (DART-75) is to fill this void with a modern, efficient regional aircraft. This design achieves the efficiency through a number of advanced features including three lifting surfaces, partial composite construction, and an advanced engine design. Efficiency is not the only consideration. Structural integrity, fatigue life, ease of maintenance, passenger comfort and convenience, and environmental aspects must all be considered. These factors force the design team to face many tradeoffs that are studied to find the best solution. The final consideration that cannot be overlooked is that of cost. The DART-75 is a 75-passenger medium-range regional transport intended for spoke-to-spoke, spoke-to-hub, and some hub-to-hub operations. Included are the general descriptions of the structures, weight and balance, stability and control, performance, and engine design.

  16. 78 FR 72598 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4) Will... product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as stress corrosion cracking of the main landing gear.... The subsequent investigation revealed stress corrosion cracking of the MLG yoke pintle housing as...

  17. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from July 1, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) Ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) Powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) Rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  18. Lightning as an Aircraft Hazard: (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning lightning strikes as an aircraft hazard. Aircraft designs to prevent or withstand lightning strikes, statistics on lightning strikes of aircraft, detection of strikes, remote monitoring and detection of lightning, initiation of lightning strikes by aircraft, effects of lightning strikes on aircraft structural and electronic components, modeling, and simulation of lightning strikes on aircraft are discussed. Remote detection of storms with regard to aircraft safety are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Potential and prospective implementation of carbon nanotubes on next generation aircraft and space vehicles: A review of current and expected applications in aerospace sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Omid; Elola, Maialen Chapartegui; Elizetxea, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes have instigated the interest of many different scientific fields since their authenticated introduction, more than two decades ago. Particularly in aerospace applications, the potential implementations of these advanced materials have been predicted to have a large impact on future aircraft and space vehicles, mainly due to their distinct features, which include superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. This article provides the very first consolidated review of the imminent prospects of utilizing carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles in aerospace sciences, based on their recent implementations and predicted future applications. Explicitly, expected carbon nanotube employment in aeronautics and astronautics are identified for commercial aircraft, military aircraft, rotorcraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, satellites, and space launch vehicles. Attention is devoted to future utilization of carbon nanotubes, which may comprise hydrogen storage encapsulation, composite material implementation, lightning protection for aircraft, aircraft icing mitigation, reduced weight of airframes/satellites, and alleviation of challenges related to future space launch. This study further sheds light onto recent actualized implementations of carbon nanotubes in aerospace applications, as well as current and prospective challenges related to their usage in aerospace sciences, encompassing health and safety hazards, large scale manufacturing, achievement of optimum properties, recycling, and environmental impacts.

  20. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from January 1, 1992 to June 30, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  1. U.S. aerospace industry opinion of the effect of computer-aided prediction-design technology on future wind-tunnel test requirements for aircraft development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treon, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the U.S. aerospace industry in late 1977 suggests that there will be an increasing use of computer-aided prediction-design technology (CPD Tech) in the aircraft development process but that, overall, only a modest reduction in wind-tunnel test requirements from the current level is expected in the period through 1995. Opinions were received from key spokesmen in 23 of the 26 solicited major companies or corporate divisions involved in the design and manufacture of nonrotary wing aircraft. Development programs for nine types of aircraft related to test phases and wind-tunnel size and speed range were considered.

  2. Drag Reduction Devices for Aircraft (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the modeling, application, testing, and development of drag reduction devices for aircraft. Slots, flaps, fences, large-eddy breakup (LEBU) devices, vortex generators and turbines, Helmholtz resonators, and winglets are among the devices discussed. Contour shaping to ensure laminar flow, control boundary layer transition, or minimize turbulence is also covered. Applications include the wings, nacelles, fuselage, empennage, and externals of aircraft designed for high-lift, subsonic, or supersonic operation. The design, testing, and development of directional grooves, commonly called riblets, are covered in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Design and analysis of aerospace structures at elevated temperatures. [aircraft, missiles, and space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. I.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of approaches that have emerged as useful in the incorporation of thermal loading considerations into advanced composite materials-based aerospace structural design practices. Sources of structural heating encompass not only propulsion system heat and aerodynamic surface heating at supersonic speeds, but the growing possibility of intense thermal fluxes from directed-energy weapons. The composite materials in question range from intrinsically nonheat-resistant polymer matrix systems to metal-matrix composites, and increasingly to such ceramic-matrix composites as carbon/carbon, which are explicitly intended for elevated temperature operation.

  4. Ikhana: Unmanned Aircraft System Western States Fire Missions. Monographs in Aerospace History, Number 44

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., obtained a civil version of the General Atomics MQ-9 unmanned aircraft system and modified it for research purposes. Proposed missions included support of Earth science research, development of advanced aeronautical technology, and improving the utility of unmanned aerial systems in general. The project team named the aircraft Ikhana a Native American Choctaw word meaning intelligent, conscious, or aware in order to best represent NASA research goals. Building on experience with these and other unmanned aircraft, NASA scientists developed plans to use the Ikhana for a series of missions to map wildfires in the western United States and supply the resulting data to firefighters in near-real time. A team at NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., developed a multispectral scanner that was key to the success of what became known as the Western States Fire Missions. Carried out by team members from NASA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, National Interagency Fire Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Federal Aviation Administration, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc., these flights represented an historic achievement in the field of unmanned aircraft technology.

  5. 76 FR 65105 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GIV-X Airplane; Isolation or Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... GIV-X Airplane; Isolation or Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized Internal..., a diverse set of functions, including: 1. Flight-safety related control, communication,...

  6. Eagle RTS: A design for a regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryer, Paul; Buckles, Jon; Lemke, Paul; Peake, Kirk

    1992-01-01

    This university design project concerns the Eagle RTS (Regional Transport System), a 66 passenger, twin turboprop aircraft with a range of 836 nautical miles. It will operate with a crew of two pilots and two flight attendents. This aircraft will employ the use of aluminum alloys and composite materials to reduce the aircraft weight and increase aerodynamic efficiency. The Eagle RTS will use narrow body aerodynamics with a canard configuration to improve performance. Leading edge technology will be used in the cockpit to improve flight handling and safety. The Eagle RTS propulsion system will consist of two turboprop engines with a total thrust of approximately 6300 pounds, 3150 pounds thrust per engine, for the cruise configuration. The engines will be mounted on the aft section of the aircraft to increase passenger safety in the event of a propeller failure. Aft mounted engines will also increase the overall efficiency of the aircraft by reducing the aircraft's drag. The Eagle RTS is projected to have a takeoff distance of approximately 4700 feet and a landing distance of 6100 feet. These distances will allow the Eagle RTS to land at the relatively short runways of regional airports.

  7. Design of a turbofan powered regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The majority of the market for small commercial transport aircraft is dominated by high-efficiency, propeller-driven aircraft of non-U.S. manufacture. During the past year senior student design teams at Purdue developed and then responded to a Request For Proposal (RFP) for a regional transport aircraft. The RFP development identified promising world markets and their needs. The students responded by designing aircraft with ranges of up to 1500 n.m. and passenger loads of 50 to 90. During the design project, special emphasis was placed upon keeping acquisition cost and direct operating costs at a low level while providing passengers with quality comfort levels. Twelve student teams worked for one semester developing their designs. Several of the more successful designs and those that placed a high premium on innovation are described. The depth of detail and analysis in these student efforts are also illustrated.

  8. In-Situ Load System for Calibrating and Validating Aerodynamic Properties of Scaled Aircraft in Ground-Based Aerospace Testing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Commo, Sean A. (Inventor); Lynn, Keith C. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor); Acheson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An In-Situ Load System for calibrating and validating aerodynamic properties of scaled aircraft in ground-based aerospace testing applications includes an assembly having upper and lower components that are pivotably interconnected. A test weight can be connected to the lower component to apply a known force to a force balance. The orientation of the force balance can be varied, and the measured forces from the force balance can be compared to applied loads at various orientations to thereby develop calibration factors.

  9. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  10. Development and Deployment of an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) Compliant Measurement System for nvPM Certification Measurements of Aircraft Engines - Current Status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitefield, P. D.; Hagen, D. E.; Lobo, P.; Miake-Lye, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aircraft Exhaust Emissions Measurement Committee (E-31) has published an Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6241 detailing the sampling system for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) from aircraft engines (SAE 2013). The system is designed to operate in parallel with existing International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 16 compliant combustion gas sampling systems used for emissions certification from aircraft engines captured by conventional (Annex 16) gas sampling rakes (ICAO, 2008). The SAE E-31 committee is also working to ballot an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) that will provide the methodology and system specification to measure nvPM from aircraft engines. The ARP is currently in preparation and is expected to be ready for ballot in 2015. A prototype AIR-compliant nvPM measurement system - The North American Reference System (NARS) has been built and evaluated at the MSTCOE under the joint sponsorship of the FAA, EPA and Transport Canada. It has been used to validate the performance characteristics of OEM AIR-compliant systems and is being used in engine certification type testing at OEM facilities to obtain data from a set of representative engines in the fleet. The data collected during these tests will be used by ICAO/CAEP/WG3/PMTG to develop a metric on which on the regulation for nvPM emissions will be based. This paper will review the salient features of the NARS including: (1) emissions sample transport from probe tip to the key diagnostic tools, (2) the mass and number-based diagnostic tools for nvPM mass and number concentration measurement and (3) methods employed to assess the extent of nvPM loss throughout the sampling system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of the recent results from inter-comparison studies conducted with other US - based systems that gives credence to the ARP's readiness for ballot.

  11. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The following areas of NASA's responsibilities are examined: (1) the Space Transportation System (STS) operations and evolving program elements; (2) establishment of the Space Station program organization and issuance of requests for proposals to the aerospace industry; and (3) NASA's aircraft operations, including research and development flight programs for two advanced X-type aircraft.

  12. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  13. Future regional transport aircraft market, constraints, and technology stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. Don; Foreman, Brent

    1992-01-01

    This report provides updated information on the current market and operating environment and identifies interlinking technical possibilities for competitive future commuter-type transport aircraft. The conclusions on the market and operating environment indicate that the regional airlines are moving toward more modern and effective fleets with greater passenger capacity and comfort, reduced noise levels, increased speed, and longer range. This direction leads to a nearly 'seamless' service and continued code-sharing agreements with the major carriers. Whereas the benefits from individual technologies may be small, the overall integration in existing and new aircraft designs can produce improvements in direct operating cost and competitiveness. Production costs are identified as being equally important as pure technical advances.

  14. Aircraft noise in the region of the Bucharest-Otopeni Airport. [noise pollution in airport environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costescu, M.; Gherghel, C.; Curtoglu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Aircraft noise, especially in the region adjoining airports, constitutes a problem that will be aggravated in the near future because of increasing aircraft traffic and the appearance of new types of large tonnage aircraft with continuously increasing powers and speeds. Criteria for the evaluation of aircraft noise are reported and some results of studies carried out in the region of Bucharest-Otopeni Airport are detailed.

  15. NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report is concerned with 'Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft' which was initiated to identify the technology needs associated with advanced, low-cost aluminum base materials for use as primary structural materials. Using a reference baseline aircraft, these materials concept will be further developed and evaluated both technically and economically to determine the most attractive combinations of designs, materials, and manufacturing techniques for major structural sections of an HSCT. Once this has been accomplished, the baseline aircraft will be resized, if applicable, and performance objectives and economic evaluations made to determine aircraft operating costs. The two primary objectives of this study are: (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials, and (2) to assess these materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT.

  16. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of the study "Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft" which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX without Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys, and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  17. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  18. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  19. Design of a turbofan powered regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The majority of the market for small commercial transport aircraft is dominated by high efficiency propeller driven aircraft of non-U.S. manufacture. During the past year, an aircraft was designed with ranges of up to 1500 nautical miles and passenger loads between 50 and 90. Special emphasis was placed upon keeping acquisition cost and direct operating costs at a low level while providing passengers with quality comfort levels. Several designs are presented which place a high premium on design innovation.

  20. 75 FR 19209 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    .... The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: Cracks have been found in the NLG steering jack piston rod... 2003, listed in this AD. As of June 26, 2007 (72 FR 28587, May 22, 2007), the Director of the Federal..., Revision 1, dated August 2003, listed in this AD. As of May 22, 2003 (68 FR 16195, April 3, 2003),...

  1. 75 FR 3418 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... proposed AD. Discussion On May 9, 2007, we issued AD 2007-10-14, Amendment 39-15055 (72 FR 28587, May 22... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will.... 39.13 by removing Amendment 39-15055 (72 FR 28587; May 22, 2007), and adding the following new...

  2. 76 FR 28635 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 16, 2011 (76 FR 14349). That NPRM proposed to... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... current inspect all the MLG leg pivot beam fastener bores for cracks. Do the inspections following...

  3. Aerospace Community. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, V. V.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, emphasizes the two sides of aerospace--military aerospace and civilian aerospace. Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion on the organization of Air Force bases and missile sites in relation to their missions. Chapter 2 examines the community services provided by Air Force bases. The topics…

  4. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  5. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  6. NASA Ames aerospace systems directorate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The Aerospace Systems Directorate is one of four research directorates at the NASA Ames Research Center. The Directorate conducts research and technology development for advanced aircraft and aircraft systems in intelligent computational systems and human-machine systems for aeronautics and space. The Directorate manages research and aircraft technology development projects, and operates and maintains major wind tunnels and flight simulation facilities. The Aerospace Systems Directorate's research and technology as it relates to NASA agency goals and specific strategic thrusts are discussed.

  7. Aircraft Spacings that Produce a Vortex-Free Region Below Flight Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical estimates are presented for the motion of vortex wakes shed by multiple aircraft flying in close formation. The purpose of the theoretical study was to determine whether the spacings between adjacent aircraft in close formations could be designed so that the lift-generated vortices being trailed would move upward rather than downward. In this way, a region below the formation is produced that is free of vortices. It was found that aircraft can be arranged in formations so that the inboard wake vortices all move upward rather than downward. The two outboard vortices travel downward at a greatly reduced velocity that depends on the number of aircraft in the formation. If the desired motions are to be produced, the lateral spacings between adjacent aircraft centerlines must be between 1.1 and 1.5 wingspans, and the vertical spacings between -0.025 and -0.15 wingspans. Since the range of acceptable spacings is small, it is recommended that the position accuracy between aircraft in the formation be kept within about + or - 0.01 wingspan of the center of acceptable spacings so that aircraft meandering do not cause unwanted vortex excursions. It was also found that, if the in-trail spacings between adjacent aircraft are more than 4 wingspans, the foregoing vertical spacings must be adjusted to allow for the additional downward travel of the vortices shed by leading aircraft.

  8. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  11. AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS OF REGIONAL TRANSPORT OF OZONE IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A regional scale aircraft sampling program was conducted during August 1979 to obtain data for validation of a regional scale photochemical air quality simulation model and for studying the physical and chemical processes important in long-range transport of ozone and ozone precu...

  12. Fire response test methods for aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Fire response methods which may be suitable for materials intended for aircraft and aerospace applications are presented. They address ignitability, smolder susceptibility, oxygen requirement, flash fire propensity, fire spread, heat release, fire containment, smoke evolution, and toxic gas evolution.

  13. The 12th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mechanisms developed for various aerospace applications are discussed. Specific topics covered include: boom release mechanisms, separation on space shuttle orbiter/Boeing 747 aircraft, payload handling, spaceborne platform support, and deployment of spaceborne antennas and telescopes.

  14. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  15. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stermer, R. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Current research in optical processing, and determination of its role in future aerospace systems was reviewed. It is shown that optical processing offers significant potential for aircraft and spacecraft control, pattern recognition, and robotics. It is demonstrated that the development of optical devices and components can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  16. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  17. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  18. Insitu aircraft verification of the quality of satellite cloud winds over oceanic regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Skillman, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    A five year aircraft experiment to verify the quality of satellite cloud winds over oceans using in situ aircraft inertial navigation system wind measurements is presented. The final results show that satellite measured cumulus cloud motions are very good estimators of the cloud base wind for trade wind and subtropical high regions. The average magnitude of the vector differences between the cloud motion and the cloud base wind is given. For cumulus clouds near frontal regions, the cloud motion agreed best with the mean cloud layer wind. For a very limited sample, cirrus cloud motions also most closely followed the mean wind in the cloud layer.

  19. Job Prospects for Aerospace Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the recent trends in job opportunities for aerospace engineers. Mentions some of the political, technological, and economic factors affecting the overall employment picture. Includes a description of the job prospects created by the general upswing of the large commercial aircraft market. (TW)

  20. Aerospace Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Jean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Sauk Rapids (Minnesota) High School aviation and aerospace curriculum that was developed by Curtis Olson and the space program developed by Gerald Mayall at Philadelphia's Northeast High School. Both were developed in conjunction with NASA. (JOW)

  1. CO2, NOx, and particle emissions from aircraft and support activities at a regional airport.

    PubMed

    Klapmeyer, Michael E; Marr, Linsey C

    2012-10-16

    The goal of this research was to quantify emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), particle number, and black carbon (BC) from in-use aircraft and related activity at a regional airport. Pollutant concentrations were measured adjacent to the airfield and passenger terminal at the Roanoke Regional Airport in Virginia. Observed NO(x) emission indices (EIs) for jet-powered, commuter aircraft were generally lower than those contained in the International Civil Aviation Organization databank for both taxi (same as idle) and takeoff engine settings. NO(x) EIs ranged from 1.9 to 3.7 g (kg fuel)(-1) across five types of aircraft during taxiing, whereas EIs were consistently higher, 8.8-20.6 g (kg fuel)(-1), during takeoff. Particle number EIs ranged from 1.4 × 10(16) to 7.1 × 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) and were slightly higher in taxi mode than in takeoff mode for four of the five types of aircraft. Diurnal patterns in CO(2) and NO(x) concentrations were influenced mainly by atmospheric conditions, while patterns in particle number concentrations were attributable mainly to patterns in aircraft activity. CO(2) and NO(x) fluxes measured by eddy covariance were higher at the terminal than at the airfield and were lower than found in urban areas. PMID:22963581

  2. Modeling Aircraft Emissions for Regional-scale Air Quality: Adapting a New Global Aircraft Emissions Database for the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, S.; Baek, B. H.; Vennam, P. L.; Woody, M. C.; Omary, M.; Binkowski, F.; Fleming, G.

    2012-12-01

    Commercial aircraft emit substantial amounts of pollutants during their complete activity cycle that ranges from landing-and-takeoff (LTO) at airports to cruising in upper elevations of the atmosphere, and affect both air quality and climate. Since these emissions are not uniformly emitted over the earth, and have substantial temporal and spatial variability, it is vital to accurately evaluate and quantify the relative impacts of aviation emissions on ambient air quality. Regional-scale air quality modeling applications do not routinely include these aircraft emissions from all cycles. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), a software system that dynamically models aircraft performance in space and time to calculate fuel burn and emissions from gate-to-gate for all commercial aviation activity from all airports globally. To process in-flight aircraft emissions and to provide a realistic representation of these for treatment in grid-based air quality models, we have developed an interface processor called AEDTproc that accurately distributes full-flight chorded emissions in time and space to create gridded, hourly model-ready emissions input data. Unlike the traditional emissions modeling approach of treating aviation emissions as ground-level sources or processing emissions only from the LTO cycles in regional-scale air quality studies, AEDTproc distributes chorded inventories of aircraft emissions during LTO cycles and cruise activities into a time-variant 3-D gridded structure. We will present results of processed 2006 global emissions from AEDT over a continental U.S. modeling domain to support a national-scale air quality assessment of the incremental impacts of aircraft emissions on surface air quality. This includes about 13.6 million flights within the U.S. out of 31.2 million flights globally. We will focus on assessing spatio-temporal variability of these commercial aircraft emissions, and

  3. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  4. New environmental regulation for the aerospace industry: The aerospace NESHAP

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, J.P.; Gampper, B.P.; Baker, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    40 CFR Part 63, Subpart GG, the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities, commonly referred to as the Aerospace NESHAP, was issued on September 1, 1995 and requires compliance by September 1, 1998. The regulation affects any facility that manufactures or reworks commercial, civil, or military aircraft vehicles or components and is a major source of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). The regulation targets reducing Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) and Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) emissions to the atmosphere. Processes affected by the new regulation include aircraft painting, paint stripping, chemical milling masking, solvent cleaning, and spray gun cleaning. Regulatory requirements affecting these processes are summarized, and different compliance options compared in terms of cost-effectiveness and industry acceptance. Strategies to reduce compliance costs and minimize recordkeeping burdens are also presented.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 59: Japanese Technological Innovation. Implications for Large Commercial Aircraft and Knowledge Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kotler, Mindy L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores three factors-public policy, the Japanese (national) innovation system, and knowledge-that influence technological innovation in Japan. To establish a context for the paper, we examine Japanese culture and the U.S. and Japanese patent systems in the background section. A brief history of the Japanese aircraft industry as a source of knowledge and technology for other industries is presented. Japanese and U.S. alliances and linkages in three sectors-biotechnology, semiconductors, and large commercial aircraft (LCA)-and the importation, absorption, and diffusion of knowledge and technology are examined next. The paper closes with implications for diffusing knowledge and technology, U.S. public policy, and LCA.

  6. Flow-Field Survey in the Test Region of the SR-71 Aircraft Test Bed Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Jones, Daniel; Weinstock, Vladimir D.

    2000-01-01

    A flat plate and faired pod have been mounted on a NASA SR-71A aircraft for use as a supersonic flight experiment test bed. A test article can be placed on the flat plate; the pod can contain supporting systems. A series of test flights has been conducted to validate this test bed configuration. Flight speeds to a maximum of Mach 3.0 have been attained. Steady-state sideslip maneuvers to a maximum of 2 deg have been conducted, and the flow field in the test region has been surveyed. Two total-pressure rakes, each with two flow-angle probes, have been placed in the expected vicinity of an experiment. Static-pressure measurements have been made on the flat plate. At subsonic and low supersonic speeds with no sideslip, the flow in the surveyed region is quite uniform. During sideslip maneuvers, localized flow distortions impinge on the test region. Aircraft sideslip does not produce a uniform sidewash over the test region. At speeds faster than Mach 1.5, variable-pressure distortions were observed in the test region. Boundary-layer thickness on the flat plate at the rake was less than 2.1 in. For future experiments, a more focused and detailed flow-field survey than this one would be desirable.

  7. Analysis and implementation of PM sampling methodology protocols to aid in the development of an ARP (aerospace recommended practice) for aircraft non-volatile PM measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catron, Brian Lowell

    Due to the growing concerns that particulate matter (PM) have on health and the environment, there is a need to include mass and number non-volatile PM measurements to current jet engine certification. This thesis looks at the necessary work required to help produce recommendations and perform background research to aid in the creation of an improved Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) (by the SAE E-31 Committee). This work addressed the following issues. The investigation began in the Missouri S&T Center of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research (COE) laboratory with an examination of the jet engine surrogate used, the miniCAST, as well as integrating it into the COE's PM measurement system. A clean PM sample line was aged by running a PM source through it until a steady state signal was measured by the instruments in order to make a recommended procedure for line conditioning as well as reconditioning. Several eductors were studied for their performance characteristics and compared against desired characteristics, which suggested a need to include a pressure relief valve to cap the sample pressure at the eductor entrance. A volatile particle remover (VPR) was studied for penetration and ability to remove volatile material. A prototype E-31 system was setup at the second alternative aviation fuel experiment (AAFEX II), which provided a direct comparison of probe tip dilution and downstream dilution and found comparable results when line loss was taken into account. Also performed at AAFEX II was a study that compared measured sample line penetration with theoretical calculations finding that theoretical calculations were an accurate alternative of measuring line loss. Two PM sampling systems were setup at an ARP demonstration and both system had similar results for both number and mass measurement. An instrument comparison was also performed that included an examination of condensation particle counter (CPC) cutoff size. It was also

  8. Soft impacts on aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrate, Serge

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the literature dealing with three types of soft impacts of concern for the aerospace applications, namely impacts of rain drops, hailstones and birds against aircraft. It describes the physics of the problem as it has become better understood through experiments, analyses, and numerical simulations. Some emphasis has been placed on the material models and the numerical approaches used in modeling these three types of projectiles.

  9. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on Reactive Nitrogen over the North Atlantic Flight Corridor Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D.; Liu, S. C.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A.

    1999-01-01

    The impact of aircraft emissions on reactive nitrogen in the upper troposphere (UT) and lowermost stratosphere (LS) was estimated using the NO(y)-O3 correlation obtained during the SASS Ozone and NO(x) Experiment (SONEX) carried out over the US continent and North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC) region in October and November 1997. To evaluate the large scale impact, we made a reference NO(y)-O3 relationship in air masses, upon which aircraft emissions were considered to have little impact. For this purpose, the integrated input of NO(x) from aircraft into an air mass along a 10-d back trajectory (DELTA-NO(y)) was calculated based on the ANCAT/EC2 emission inventory. The excess NO(y) (dNO(y)) was calculated from the observed NO(y) and the reference NO(y)-O3 relationship. As a result, a weak positive correlation was found between the dNO(y) and DELTA-NO(y), and dNO(y) and NO(x)/NO(y) values, while no positive correlation between the dNO(y) and CO values was found, suggesting that dNO(y) values can be used as a measure of the NO(x) input from aircraft emissions. The excess NO(y) values calculated from another NO(y)-O3 reference relationship made using in-situ CN data also agreed with these dNO(y) values, within the uncertainties. At the NAFC region (45 N - 60 N), the median value of dNO(y) in the troposphere increased with altitude above 9 km and reached 70 pptv (20% of NO(y)) at 11 km. The excess NO(x) was estimated to be about half of the dNO(y) values, corresponding to 30% of the observed NO(x) level. Higher dNO(y) values were generally found in air masses where O3 = 75 - 125 ppbv, suggesting a more pronounced effect around the tropopause. The median value of dNO(y) in the stratosphere at the NAFC region at 8.5 - 11.5 km was about 120 pptv. The higher dNO(y) values in the LS were probably due to the accumulated effect of aircraft emissions, given the long residence time of affected air in the LS. Similar dNO(y) values were also obtained in air masses sampled over

  10. Cross-stream ejection in the inter-wheel region of aircraft landing gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Philip; Ekmekci, Alis

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of aircraft noise is an important challenge currently faced by aircraft manufacturers. During approach and landing, the landing gears contribute a significant proportion of the aircraft generated noise. It is therefore critical that the key noise sources be identified and understood in order for effective mitigation methods to be developed. For a simplified two-wheel nose landing gear, a strong cross stream flow ejection phenomena has been observed to occur in the inter-wheel region in presence of wheel wells. The location and orientation of these flow ejections causes highly unsteady, three dimensional flow between the wheels that may impinge on other landing gear components, thereby potentially acting as a significant noise generator. The effects of changing the inter-wheel geometry (inter-wheel spacing, the wheel well depth and main strut geometry) upon the cross-stream ejection behaviour has been experimentally investigated using both qualitative flow visualisation and quantitative PIV techniques. A summary of the key results will be presented for the three main geometrical parameters under examination and the application of these findings to real life landing gears will be discussed. Thanks to Messier-Bugatti-Dowty and NSERC for their support for this project.

  11. Aerospace gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  12. Regional studies of potential carbon monoxide sources based on Space Shuttle and aircraft measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, R. E.; Shipley, S. T.; Connors, V. S.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon monoxide measurements made from the space shuttle show maxima over South America, central Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and China. The maxima appear to be associated with either concomitant or prior convection in the air masses which carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. Previous aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone over South America are shown to be consistent with this view. In the tropics the three regions of long-term mean rising motion, which form part of the Walker circulation, are associated with elevated carbon monoxide.

  13. Basic Aerospace Education Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Lists the most significant resource items on aerospace education which are presently available. Includes source books, bibliographies, directories, encyclopedias, dictionaries, audiovisuals, curriculum/planning guides, aerospace statistics, aerospace education statistics and newsletters. (BR)

  14. Aerospace Education - An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the surge of interest throughout the country in aerospace education and discusses what aerospace education is, the implications in career education and the relevance of aerospace education in the curriculum. (BR)

  15. The Aerospace Age. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is written for use only in the Air Force ROTC program and cannot be purchased on the open market. The book describes the historical development of aerospace industry. The first chapter contains a brief review of the aerospace environment and the nature of technological changes brought by the aerospace revolution. The following chapter…

  16. Ozone Loss in the Antarctic Vortex Boundary Region from in situ Observations with the Geophysica Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E.; Volk, C. M.; Riediger, O.; Strunk, M.; Schmidt, U.; Ulanovsky, A.; Ravegnani, F.; Redaelli, G.

    2003-04-01

    We analyse the distribution of ozone depletion in the Antarctic vortex edge region from in situ measurements taken from the Russian high-altitude aircraft M-55 "Geophysica" during the APE-GAIA campaign (Airborne Polar Experiment - Geophysica Aircraft In Antarctica) based out of Ushuaia, Argentina (54° S) in September and October 1999. The University of Frankfurt's High Altitude Gas Analyzer (HAGAR) provided in situ measurements of N2O, CFC-12, CFC-11, halon-1211 every 90 s, SF6 every 45 s, and CO2 every 10 s. Ozone was measured at high resolution by the Fast Ozone Analyzer (FOZAN). During 5 southbound flights toward the Antarctic vortex the Geophysica penetrated the vortex edge at various potential temperatures between 380 K and 480 K and performed dives inside the vortex yielding vertical profiles in one case down to the tropopause. The amount of lost ozone in the measured air has been estimated from the deviations from the compact extra-vortex O3-N2O relationship. While nearly complete ozone loss is found only in air clearly inside the vortex, ozone loss up to 60% is routinely found in a transition region extending 5° northward from the edge delineated by sharp meridional tracer gradients. We investigate whether this transition region lies indeed outside the vortex by applying alternative methods for defining the vortex edge, including potential vorticity and a new method using the observed relation of N2O with potential temperature (Greenblatt et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2002). We also examine the correlations between O3, CO2, and N2O to investigate the possibility that the decreased ozone within the transition region is caused by outward mixing from the vortex core.

  17. Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: the ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiger, Anke; Thomas, Jennie L.; Schlager, Hans; Law, Kathy; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Schäfler, Andreas; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Rose, Maximilian; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Marelle, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Arctic change has opened the region to new industrial activities, most notably transit shipping and resource extraction. The impacts that Arctic industrialization will have on pollutants and Arctic climate are not well understood. In order to understand how shipping and offshore oil/gas extraction impact on Arctic tropospheric chemistry and composition, we conducted the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society, a European Union Seventh Framework Programme project) aircraft campaign. The campaign was conducted in July 2012 using the DLR Falcon research aircraft, based in Andenes, Norway. The Falcon was equipped with a suite of trace gas and aerosol instruments (black carbon, ozone, as well as other trace species) to characterize these emissions and their atmospheric chemistry. The Falcon performed nine scientific flights to study emissions from different ships (e.g. cargo, passenger, and fishing vessels) and a variety of offshore extraction facilities (e.g. drilling rigs, production and storage platforms) off the Norwegian Coast. Distinct differences in chemical and aerosol composition were found in emissions from these increasing pollution sources. We also studied the composition of biomass burning plumes imported from Siberian wildfires to put the emerging local pollution within a broader context. In addition to our measurements, we used a regional chemical transport model to study the influence of emerging pollution sources on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. We will present an overview on the measured trace gas and aerosol properties of the different emission sources and discuss the impact of future local anthropogenic activities on the Arctic air composition by combining measurements with model simulations.

  18. Aerospace Science Education, A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilburn, Paul

    This curriculum guide was developed by the Alaska State Department of Education for the purpose of aiding elementary and secondary school teachers in incorporating elements of aerospace science in the classroom. The section of the guide designed for elementary school teachers includes chapters under the headings: Aircraft, Airports, Weather,…

  19. Advanced lightweight alloys for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.; Lee, Eui W.; Donnellan, Mary E.; Thompson, James J.

    1989-05-01

    The design requirements of the next generation of advanced aerospace vehicles and propulsion systems necessitate the development of structural materials with properties vastly superior to those which are currently achievable. Recognizing that each class of materials possesses its own unique set of advantages and disadvantages, the designers of tomorrow's aircraft must choose wisely from the plethora of available alloys.

  20. SIERRA-Flux: Measuring Regional Surface Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Water Vapor from an Unmanned Aircraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fladeland; Yates, Emma Louise; Bui, Thaopaul Van; Dean-Day, Jonathan; Kolyer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Eddy-Covariance Method for quantifying surface-atmosphere fluxes is a foundational technique for measuring net ecosystem exchange and validating regional-to-global carbon cycle models. While towers or ships are the most frequent platform for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange, experiments using aircraft for flux measurements have yielded contributions to several large-scale studies including BOREAS, SMACEX, RECAB by providing local-to-regional coverage beyond towers. The low-altitude flight requirements make airborne flux measurements particularly dangerous and well suited for unmanned aircraft.

  1. 38th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 38th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 38th AMs, hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center in Williamsburg, Virginia, was held May 17-19, 2006. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals, tribology, actuators, aircraft mechanisms, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  2. Quasi-Linear Parameter Varying Representation of General Aircraft Dynamics Over Non-Trim Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2007-01-01

    For applying linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis and analysis to a nonlinear system, it is required that a nonlinear system be represented in the form of an LPV model. In this paper, a new representation method is developed to construct an LPV model from a nonlinear mathematical model without the restriction that an operating point must be in the neighborhood of equilibrium points. An LPV model constructed by the new method preserves local stabilities of the original nonlinear system at "frozen" scheduling parameters and also represents the original nonlinear dynamics of a system over a non-trim region. An LPV model of the motion of FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Subscale Experimental Research) is constructed by the new method.

  3. Assessing Regional Scale Fluxes of Mass, Momentum, and Energy with Small Environmental Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, Rommel Callejo

    Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal regions of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and the Barrow Peninsula on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. The coastal region of Magdalena Bay is comprised of the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert ecosystems all adjacent and within a few kilometers, while the Barrow Peninsula is a mosaic of small ponds, thaw lakes, different aged vegetated thaw-lake basins ( VDTLBs ) and interstitial tundra which have been dynamically formed by both short- and long-term processes. We used a combination of tower- and small environmental research aircraft (SERA)-based eddy covariance measurements to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of CO2, latent, and sensible heat fluxes along with MODIS NDVI, and land surface information, to scale the SERA-based CO2 fluxes up to the regional scale. In the first part of this research, the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert areas of northern Magdalena Bay were studied. SERA-derived average midday CO2 fluxes from the desert showed a slight uptake of -1.32 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1, the coastal ocean also showed uptake of -3.48 mumol CO2 m-2 s -1, and the lagoon mangroves showed the highest uptake of -8.11 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1. Additional simultaneous measurements of NDVI allowed simple linear modeling of CO2 flux as a function of NDVI for the mangroves of the Magdalena Bay region. In the second part of this research, the spatial variability of ecosystem fluxes across the 1802 km2 Barrow Peninsula region was studied. During typical 2006 summer conditions, the midday hourly CO2 flux over the region was -2.04 x 105 kgCO2 hr-1. The CO2 fluxes among the interstitial tundra, Ancient and Old VDTLBs, as well as between the Medium and Young VDTLBs were not significantly different. Combined, the interstitial tundra and Old and Ancient

  4. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-05-01

    More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) region by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2) mixing ratios (χ(H2)) and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD). More than 120 of the analyzed samples contained air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). These show that χ(H2) does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal tropopause (TP), whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D); the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (χ(CH4)) and nitrous oxide (χ(N2O)), as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δD[‰]=-0.35 · χ(CH4)[ppb]+768 and δD[‰]=-1.90· χ(N2O)[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally for the LMS. Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in χ(H2), but δD is up to 12.3‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD decrease is correlated with the χ(CH4) increase in these samples. The significant correlation with χ(CH4) and the absence of a perceptible χ(H2) increase that accompanies the δD decrease indicates that microbial production of very D-depleted H2 in the wet season may contribute to this phenomenon. Some of the samples have very high χ(H2) and very low δD values, which indicates a pollution effect. Aircraft engine exhaust plumes are a suspected cause, since the effect mostly occurs in samples

  5. The stable isotopic composition of molecular hydrogen in the tropopause region probed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    More than 450 air samples that were collected in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) region around the tropopause (TP) by the CARIBIC aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) have been analyzed for molecular hydrogen (H2) mixing ratios (m(H2)) and H2 isotopic composition (deuterium content, δD). More than 120 of the analysed samples consisted of air from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). These show that m(H2) does not vary appreciably with O3-derived height above the thermal TP, whereas δD does increase with height. The isotope enrichment is caused by competing H2 production and destruction processes that enrich the stratospheric H2 reservoir in deuterium (D); the exact shapes of the profiles are mainly determined by mixing of stratospheric with tropospheric air. Tight negative correlations are found between δD and the mixing ratios of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of the relatively long lifetimes of these three species. The correlations are described by δ D [‰]=-0.35 · m(CH4)[ppb]+768 and δD [‰]=-1.90 · m(N2O)[ppb]+745. These correlations are similar to previously published results and likely hold globally. Samples that were collected from the Indian subcontinent up to 40° N before, during and after the summer monsoon season show no significant seasonal change in m(H2), but δD is up to 15‰ lower in the July, August and September monsoon samples. This δD lowering is correlated with m(CH4) increase. The significant correlation with m(CH4) and the absence of a perceptible m(H2) increase that accompanies the δD lowering indicates that microbial production of very D-depleted H2 in the wet season may contribute to this phenomenon. Some of the samples have very high m(H2) and very low δD values, which indicates a pollution effect. Aircraft engine exhaust plumes are a suspected cause, since the effect mostly occurs in samples collected close to airports

  6. Aerospace materials for nonaerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Dawn, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Many of the flame-resistant nonmetallic materials that were developed for the Apollo and Skylab programs are discussed for commercial and military applications. Interchanges of information are taking place with the government agencies, industries, and educational institutions, which are interested in applications of fire-safe nonmetallic materials. These materials are particularly applicable to the design of aircraft, mass transit interiors, residential and public building constructions, nursing homes and hospitals, and to other fields of fire safety applications. Figures 22, 23 and 24 show the potential nonaerospace applications of flame-resistant aerospace materials are shown.

  7. National Aero-Space Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the technology development management objectives thus far planned for the DOD/NASA National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). The technology required by NASP will first be developed in ground-based facilities and then integrated during the design and construction of the X-30 experimental aircraft. Five airframe and three powerplant manufacturers are currently engaged in an 18-month effort encompassing design studies and tradeoff analyses. The first flight of the X-30 is scheduled for early 1993.

  8. Regional CO2 fluxes for eastern Amazonia derived from aircraft vertical profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, L. V.; Miller, J. B.; D'Amelio, M. T.; Wofsy, S.; Tans, P.

    2008-12-01

    We have determined regional scale (~105 - 106 km2) CO2 fluxes using atmospheric measurements from aircraft vertical profiles over eastern Amazonia (site SAN: 02°51'S; 54°57'W). Profiles started December 2000 and have continued through 2008. 17 air samples per profile were collected aboard light aircraft between the surface and 4-5 km using the NOAA/ESRL semi- automatic portable flask package. We use a column integration technique to determine the CO2 flux for each vertical profile, where the measured CO2 profile is differenced from a CO2 background, which was determined using co-measured SF6 as a transport tracer. Two NOAA/ESRL background sites, Ascension Island (ASC) located in the Atlantic Ocean (8°S, 14°W) and Barbados (RPB) located in the Atlantic Ocean (12°N, 59°W) were used to calculate the fractions of air arriving at the sites studied. Back trajectories from the HYSPLIT model were calculated for every profile every 500m of altitude to determine the time the air mass took to travel between the coast and SAN. The observed flux, which is representative of that between the coast and measurement sites, averaged -0.03 ± 1.5 g C m-2day-1 for the wet season and 0.3 ± 0.9 g C m-2day-1 for the dry season. The flux variability is high, probably reflecting the dynamic nature of the response of the terrestrial biosphere to environmental conditions. We have attempted to remove the influence of biomass burning from the fluxes using measurements of co-measured CO. This reduces the dry season flux to -0.04 ± 1.2 g C m- 2day-1. We will compare these results to the seasonality found in eddy covariance measurements and to that estimated from models of the terrestrial biosphere.

  9. An Aerospace Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill

    1972-01-01

    Describes the 16-day, 10,000 mile national tour of the nation's major aerospace research and development centers by 65 students enrolled in Central Washington State College's Summer Aerospace Workshop. (Author/MB)

  10. Comparison of impacts of aircraft emissions within the boundary layer on the regional ozone in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Kang, Yoon-Hee

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the air pollutants emitted from aircraft within the boundary layer (BL) were investigated for their impacts on the ozone (O3) concentration at and around three international airports (Incheon, RKSI; Gimpo, RKSS; and Jeju, RKPC) using the WRF-CMAQ modeling system during the summer of 2010. The analysis was performed using two sets of simulation scenarios: (1) with (i.e., TOTAL case) and (2) without aircraft emissions (i.e., BASE case). The model study suggested that aircraft emissions within the BL over the three airports can have a significant impact on the O3 (and NOx) concentrations in the source regions (the airports) and their surrounding/downwind areas. A significant negative impact of aircraft emissions on the O3 concentrations in the late afternoon (19:00 LST) was predicted near the three airports with their largest impact of -20 ppb near the RKSI at 19:00 LST. This was attributed mainly to the high NOx conditions in the VOC-limited areas and possibly in part to the rapid titration of O3 by NO around these airports. The rate of photochemical O3 destruction due to the aircraft emissions near the three airports was the most dominant contributor to the O3 levels compared to the other physical processes.

  11. The 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity are reported. Some of the topics covered include: lightning, lightning suppression, aerospace vehicles, aircraft safety, flight safety, aviation meteorology, thunderstorms, atmospheric electricity, warning systems, weather forecasting, electromagnetic coupling, electrical measurement, electrostatics, aircraft hazards, flight hazards, meteorological parameters, cloud (meteorology), ground effect, electric currents, lightning equipment, electric fields, measuring instruments, electrical grounding, and aircraft instruments.

  12. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glascoff, W. G., III

    The textbook provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of properties of the atmosphere. How different…

  13. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, T. E.

    The main part of the book centers on the discussion of the engines in an airplane. After describing the terms and concepts of power, jets, and rockets, the author describes the reciprocating engines. The description of diesel engines helps to explain why these are not used in airplanes. The discussion of the carburetor is followed by a discussion…

  14. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, T. E.

    This is a revised text used for the Air Force ROTC program. The main part of the book centers on the discussion of the engines in an airplane. After describing the terms and concepts of power, jets, and rockets, the author describes reciprocating engines. The description of diesel engines helps to explain why these are not used in airplanes. The…

  15. The solar atmosphere and the structure of active regions. [aircraft accidents, weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical analyses of solar activities are presented. The effect of these activities on aircraft and weather conditions was studied. Topics considered are: (1) solar flares; (2) solar X-rays; and (3) solar magnetic fields (charts are shown).

  16. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  17. Aerospace applications of advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.; Langenbeck, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced metallic materials within the Al-base family are being developed for applications on current and future aerospace vehicles. These advanced materials offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved vehicle performance. Aerospace applications of advanced metallic materials include space structures, fighters, military and commercial transport aircraft, and missiles. Structural design requirements, including not only static and durability/damage tolerance criteria but also environmental considerations, drive material selections. Often trade-offs must be made regarding strength, fracture resistance, cost, reliability, and maintainability in order to select the optimum material for a specific application. These trade studies not only include various metallic materials but also many times include advanced composite materials. Details of material comparisons, aerospace applications, and material trades will be presented.

  18. A comparison of vertical velocity in cirrus obtained from aircraft and lidar divergence measurements during FIRE. [First ISCCP Regional Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, A. J.; Lenschow, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques are presented to obtain vertical velocity in cirrus clouds from in situ aircraft lateral wind measurements and from ground-based remote Doppler lidar measurements. The approach used is to calculate w from the integral of the divergence of the horizontal velocity around a closed path. Divergence measurements from both aircraft and Doppler lidar are discussed. The principal errors in the calculation of w from aircraft lateral wind measurements are bias in the lateral wind, ground speed errors, and error due to vertical shear of the horizontal wind. For Doppler lidar measurements the principal errors are in the estimate of mean terminal velocity and the zeroth order coefficients of the Fourier series that is fitted to the data. The technique is applied to a cirrus cloud investigated during the FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Regional Experiment) Cirrus Intensive Field Observation Program. The results indicate that the error in w is about + or - 14 cm/s from the aircraft technique; this can be reduced to about + or - 2 to 3 cm/s with technical improvements in both ground speed and lateral velocity measurements. The error in w from Doppler lidar measurements, which is about + or - 8 cm/s, can be reduced to about + or - 5 cm/s by improvements in the Doppler velocity measurements with technology that is currently available.

  19. Sputtering and ion plating for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1981-01-01

    Sputtering and ion plating technologies are reviewed in terms of their potential and present uses in the aerospace industry. Sputtering offers great universality and flexibility in depositing any material or in the synthesis of new ones. The sputter deposition process has two areas of interest: thin film and fabrication technology. Thin film sputtering technology is primarily used for aerospace mechanical components to reduce friction, wear, erosion, corrosion, high temperature oxidation, diffusion and fatigue, and also to sputter-construct temperature and strain sensors for aircraft engines. Sputter fabrication is used in intricate aircraft component manufacturing. Ion plating applications are discussed in terms of the high energy evaporant flux and the high throwing power. Excellent adherence and 3 dimensional coverage are the primary attributes of this technology.

  20. Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: the ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiger, A.; Thomas, J. L.; Schlager, H.; Law, K.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Schaefler, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.; Raut, J.; Marelle, L.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic sea ice has decreased dramatically in the past few decades, which has opened the Arctic Ocean to transit shipping and hydrocarbon extraction. These anthropogenic activities are expected to increase emissions of air pollutants and climate forcers (e.g. aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic troposphere significantly in the future. However, large knowledge gaps exist how these emissions influence regional air pollution and Arctic climate. Here we present an overview on the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society, a European Union Seventh Framework Programme project) aircraft campaign, which primarily focused on studying emissions from emerging Arctic pollution sources. During the ACCESS campaign in July 2012, the DLR Falcon was based in Andenes, Norway, and was equipped with a suite of trace gas and aerosol instruments (black carbon, ozone, as well as other trace species). During nine scientific flights, emissions from different ship types (e.g. cargo, passenger, and fishing vessels) and a variety of offshore extraction facilities (e.g. drilling rigs, production and storage platforms) were probed off the Norwegian Coast. The emissions from these increasing pollution sources showed distinct differences in chemical and aerosol composition. To put the emerging local pollution within a broader context, we also measured sulfur-rich emissions originating from industrial activities on the Kola Peninsula and black carbon containing biomass burning plumes imported from Siberian wildfires. We will present an overview on the trace gas and aerosol properties of the different emission sources, and discuss the influence of future local anthropogenic activities on the Arctic air composition by combining measurements with model simulations.

  1. Infrared signature studies of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahulikar, Shripad P.; Sonawane, Hemant R.; Arvind Rao, G.

    2007-10-01

    Infrared (IR) emissions from aircraft are used to detect, track, and lock-on to the target. MAN Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS) have emerged as a major cause of aircraft and helicopter loss. Therefore, IR signature studies are important to counter this threat for survivability enhancement, and are an important aspect of stealth technology. This paper reviews contemporary developments in this discipline, with particular emphasis on IR signature prediction from aerospace vehicles. The role of atmosphere in IR signature analysis, and relation between IR signature level and target susceptibility are illustrated. Also, IR signature suppression systems and countermeasure techniques are discussed, to highlight their effectiveness and implications in terms of penalties.

  2. Proceedings of the NASA Aerospace Technology Symposium 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Reports are presented from the NASA Aerospace Technology Symposium 2002 on the following: Geo-Referenced Altitude Hold For Latex Ballons; NASA Spaceport Research: Opportunities For space Grant and EPSCoR Involvement; Numerical Simulation Of The Combustion Of Fuel Droplets: Applications, Aircraft/Spacecraft Flight Control, Guidance Navigation; Expertise In System Dynamics and Control, Control Theory and Aerospace Education Ooutreach Opportunities; and Technology For The Improvement Of General Aviation Security: A Needs Assessmemt.

  3. SIERRA-Flux: measuring regional surface fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor from an unmanned aircraft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fladeland, M. M.; Yates, E. L.; Bui, T. P.; Dean-Day, J. M.; Kolyer, R.; Schiro, K.; Berthold, R.; Iraci, L. T.; Loewenstein, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Eddy-Covariance Method for quantifying surface-atmosphere fluxes is a foundational technique for measuring net ecosystem exchange and validating regional-to-global carbon cycle models. While towers or ships are the more frequent platform for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange, experiments using aircraft for flux measurements have yielded contributions to several large-scale studies including BOREAS, SMACEX, RECAB by providing local-to-regional coverage beyond towers. The low-altitude flight requirements make airborne flux measurements particularly dangerous and well suited for unmanned aircraft. In a series of flights in June of 2011, the NASA SIERRA carried a payload consisting of the NASA Ames Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) and a fast response (10Hz) CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor analyzer in order to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring fluxes from unmanned aircraft and to characterize accuracy and precision based upon ground measurements. The flights were conducted in Railroad Valley, NV in order to provide a simple model for understanding biases and uncertainties. This paper describes the system specifications, provides preliminary data compared against coincident ground measurements, and discusses future applications of the system.

  4. Supercomputing in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Yee, Helen

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: numerical aerodynamic simulation; computational mechanics; supercomputers; aerospace propulsion systems; computational modeling in ballistics; turbulence modeling; computational chemistry; computational fluid dynamics; and computational astrophysics.

  5. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  6. The impact of transition training on adapting to Technically Advanced Aircraft at regional airlines: Perceptions of pilots and instructor pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Renzo, John Carl, Jr.

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesis about pilot and instructor pilot perceptions of how effectively pilots learn and use new technology, found in Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA), given initial type of instrumentation training. New aviation technologies such as Glass Cockpits in technically advanced aircraft are complex and can be difficult to learn and use. The research questions focused on the type of initial instrumentation training to determine the differences among pilots trained using various types of instrumentation ranging from aircraft equipped with traditional analog instrumentation to aircraft equipped with glass cockpits. A convenience sample of Pilots in Training (PT) and Instructor Pilots (IP) was selected from a regional airline. The research design used a mixed methodology. Pilots in training completed a thirty-two question quantitative questionnaire and instructor pilots completed a five question qualitative questionnaire. Findings and conclusions. This investigation failed to disprove the null hypothesis. The type of instrumentation training has no significant effect on newly trained regional airline pilot perceived ability to adapt to advanced technology cockpits. Therefore, no evidence exists from this investigation to support the early introduction and training of TAA. While the results of this investigation were surprising, they are nonetheless, instructive. Even though it would seem that there would be a relationship between exposure to and use of technically advanced instrumentation, apparently there was no perceived relationship for this group of airline transport pilots. However, a point of interest is that these pilots were almost evenly divided in their opinion of whether or not their previous training had prepared them for transition to TAA. The majority also believed that the type of initial instrumentation training received does make a difference when transitioning to TAA. Pilots believed

  7. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  8. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  9. Comparison of in-situ, aircraft, and satellite based land surface temperature measurements over a mixed agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, P.; Baker, B.; Kochendorfer, J.; Dumas, E.; Meyers, T. P.; Guillevic, P. C.; Corda, S.; Muratore, J. F.; Simmons, D.

    2013-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable in the study of the exchange of energy and water between the land surface and the atmosphere, and it influences land surface physical processes at regional and global scales. With the objective of quantifying the spatial variability and overall representativeness of single-point surface temperature measurements and to improve the accuracy of satellite LST measurements, airborne campaigns were conducted over a mixed agricultural area near Bondville, Illinois during 2012 and 2013. During the campaigns, multiple measurements of surface temperature were made using infra-red temperature sensors at micrometeorological tower sites, which include NOAA's Climate Reference Network (CRN) and nearby flux tower sites, and onboard an instrumented Piper Navajo airborne research aircraft. In addition to this, daily LST products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), onboard the NASA Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System satellites were used. The aircraft-based and satellite-based LST measurements were compared with the in situ, tower-based LST measurements. Observations indicate large spatial and temporal variability of land surface temperature over the Bondville area. Our results show good agreement between in situ, aircraft and satellite measurements. The agreement was better with the LST data from the flux tower than those from CRN tower.

  10. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  11. Hybrid techniques for complex aerospace electromagnetics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberle, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Important aerospace electromagnetics problems include the evaluation of antenna performance on aircraft and the prediction and control of the aircraft's electromagnetic signature. Due to the ever increasing complexity and expense of aircraft design, aerospace engineers have become increasingly dependent on computer solutions. Traditionally, computational electromagnetics (CEM) has relied primarily on four disparate techniques: the method of moments (MoM), the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, the finite element method (FEM), and high frequency asymptotic techniques (HFAT) such as ray tracing. Each of these techniques has distinct advantages and disadvantages, and no single technique is capable of accurately solving all problems of interest on computers that are available now or will be available in the foreseeable future. As a result, new approaches that overcome the deficiencies of traditional techniques are beginning to attract a great deal of interest in the CEM community. Among these new approaches are hybrid methods which combine two or more of these techniques into a coherent model. During the ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program a hybrid FEM/MoM computer code was developed and applied to a geometry containing features found on many modern aircraft.

  12. Fourth NASA Workshop on Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    A collection of papers presented at the Fourth NASA Workshop on Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems is given. The papers address modeling, systems identification, and control of flexible aircraft, spacecraft and robotic systems.

  13. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  14. Fretting fatigue of 2XXX series aerospace aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giummarra, Cindie

    Fretting is a wear mechanism that occurs at the contact region between two materials subject to minute cyclic relative motion. Fretting causes the initiation of surface cracks within the first few thousand cycles, which in the presence of a fatigue stress, grow to cause material failure approximately 10 to 100 times earlier than expected under standard fatigue conditions. Examples of fretting fatigue have been seen in joints in aircraft, and the aerospace industry acknowledges the possibility of catastrophic failure from this mechanism. Improvements in a material's resistance to fretting would benefit aluminum alloys in aerospace applications. This research investigated the effect of microstructural properties on the fretting response in 2XXX series aerospace aluminum alloys. Fretting wear and fretting fatigue tests were conducted to determine the influence of slip characteristics, alloy purity, grain orientation and yield strength on fretting crack initiation and growth. Crack length measurements and micrographs of the fretting indicated there was no significant difference in the fretting response of these alloys based on their microstructural characteristics. Results showed that fretting initiated cracks in the first 1--8% of the life while standard fatigue initiation took around 90% of the life. This reduction in initiation resulted in a shorter life under fretting conditions. Additionally, fretting normalized the initiation time in all alloys which eliminated any intrinsic initiation resistance. The alloys with the highest stress-life (S-N) fatigue properties exhibiting a greater reduction in fatigue strength under fretting conditions. The fretting stresses appeared to influence the crack growth to a distance below the surface of approximately 17mum under fretting fatigue conditions, after which some cracks changed direction and propagated under the influence of the fatigue stress. Under fretting wear conditions, the cracks tended to arrest at a depth of 8

  15. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  16. Bayesian framework for aerospace gas turbine engine prognostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidan, M. A.; Mills, A. R.; Harrison, R. F.

    Prognostics is an emerging capability of modern health monitoring that aims to increase the fidelity of failure predictions. In the aerospace industry, it is a key technology to maximise aircraft availability, offering a route to increase time in-service and reduce operational disruption through improved asset management.

  17. Public Sector Benefits From Aerospace Research and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jeffrey T.

    1973-01-01

    Many benefits from aerospace research have occurred: research on quiet aircraft engines, worldwide news coverage, contributions to the national economy, development of reliable fluid amplifiers and logic systems, attempts to control airport congestion, a low speed air sensor for use on a pulmonary flow meter and even as a flow meter in a large…

  18. Geometric requirements for multidisciplinary analysis of aerospace-vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Kerr, Patirca A.

    1992-01-01

    The geometric requirements for creating surfaces and grids for multidisciplinary analysis and optimization of aerospace-vehicle designs are described. Geometric surface representations are outlined and compared. Directions for future designs are proposed. High-speed civil transport aircraft configurations are targeted to demonstrate the processes.

  19. Evaluating Aerospace Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Rex L.

    1978-01-01

    Declining enrollments in aerospace teacher workshops suggest the need for evaluation and cost effectiveness measurements. A major purpose of this article is to illustrate some typical evaluation methodologies, including the semantic differential. (MA)

  20. Aerospace bibliography, seventh edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blashfield, J. F. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Space travel, planetary probes, applications satellites, manned spaceflight, the impacts of space exploration, future space activities, astronomy, exobiology, aeronautics, energy, space and the humanities, and aerospace education are covered.

  1. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  2. Runway Independent Aircraft Extremely Short Takeoff and Landing Regional Airliner: The Model 110

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Airports throughout the United States are plagued with growing congestion. With the increase in air traffic predicted in the next few years, congestion will worsen. The accepted solution of building larger airplanes to carry more travelers is no longer a viable option, as airports are unable to accommodate larger aircraft without expensive infrastructure changes. Past NASA research has pointed to the need for a new approach, which can economically and safely utilize smaller airports. To study this option further, NASA requested the California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly/SLO) to design a baseline aircraft to be used for system studies. The requirements put forth by NASA are summarized. The design team was requested to create a demonstrator vehicle, which could be built without requiring enabling technology development. To this end, NASA requested that the tested and proven high-lift system of the Boeing C-17 Globemaster III be combined with the fuselage of the BAe-146. NASA also requested that Cal Poly determine the availability and usability of underutilized airports starting with California, then expanding if time and funds permitted to the U.S.

  3. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 42: An analysis of the transfer of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the US aerospace industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura F.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. aerospace industry has a long history of federal support for research related to its needs. Since the establishment of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1915, the federal government has provided continuous research support related to flight and aircraft design. This research has contributed to the international preeminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a sociological analysis of aerospace engineers and scientists and how their attitudes and behaviors impact the flow of scientific and technical information (STI). We use a constructivist framework to explain the spotty dissemination of federally funded aerospace research. Our research is aimed towards providing federal policymakers with a clearer understanding of how and when federally funded aerospace research is used. This understanding will help policymakers design improved information transfer systems that will aid the competitiveness of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  4. Ethernet for Aerospace Applications - Ethernet Heads for the Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of aerospace applications is to reduce the cost and complexity of avionic systems. Ethernet is a highly scalable, flexible, and popular protocol. The aerospace market is large, with a forecasted production of over 50,000 turbine-powered aircraft valued at $1.7 trillion between 2012 and 2022. Boeing estimates demand for commercial aircraft by 2033 to total over 36,000 with a value of over $5 trillion. In 2014 US airlines served over 750 million passengers and this is growing over 2% yearly. Electronic fly-by-wire is now used for all airliners and high performance aircraft. Although Ethernet has been widely used for four decades, its use in aerospace applications is just beginning to become common. Ethernet is the universal solution in commercial networks because of its high bandwidths, lower cost, openness, reliability, maintainability, flexibility, and interoperability. However, when Ethernet was designed applications with time-critical, safety relevant and deterministic requirements were not given much consideration. Many aerospace applications use a variety of communication architectures that add cost and complexity. Some of them are SpaceWire, MIL-STD-1553, Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX), and Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTE). Aerospace network designers desire to decrease the number of networks to reduce cost and effort while improving scalability, flexibility, openness, maintainability, and reliability. AFDX and TTE are being considered more for critical aerospace systems because they provide redundancy, failover protection, guaranteed timing, and frame priority and are based on Ethernet IEEE 802.3. This paper explores the use of AFDX and TTE for aerospace applications.

  5. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  6. IT Data Mining Tool Uses in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Gilena A.; Freeman, Kenneth; Jones, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Data mining has a broad spectrum of uses throughout the realms of aerospace and information technology. Each of these areas has useful methods for processing, distributing, and storing its corresponding data. This paper focuses on ways to leverage the data mining tools and resources used in NASA's information technology area to meet the similar data mining needs of aviation and aerospace domains. This paper details the searching, alerting, reporting, and application functionalities of the Splunk system, used by NASA's Security Operations Center (SOC), and their potential shared solutions to address aircraft and spacecraft flight and ground systems data mining requirements. This paper also touches on capacity and security requirements when addressing sizeable amounts of data across a large data infrastructure.

  7. Global distribution of halogenated tracers in the UTLS region during the TACTS/ESMVal campaigns using the HALO aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keber, Timo; Engel, Andreas; Boenisch, Harald; Sala, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    The Upper Troposphere / Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) represents an important region for the exchange of air between the stratosphere and the troposphere. Tropospheric gaseous compounds such as greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances (ODS) are transported into the lower stratosphere on different pathways. Especially the two-way horizontal transport across the subtropical jet was further investigated during the "TACTS - Transport and Composition in the UT/LMS" campaign. We will present in-situ measurements of long-lived and very short-lived (VSLS) halocarbons and Sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) in the UTLS region. The measurements were performed with a sophisticated two channel in-situ instrument on board of the new German research aircraft for atmospheric science HALO (The High Altitude and LOng Range Research Aircraft) during the two campaigns TACTS and "ESMVal - Earth System Modell Validation". The first channel is a gas chromatography (GC) system coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) which operates in negative chemical ionization mode. This GC/MS channel is able to measure halocarbons in ambient air with a time resolution of four minutes. For the measurement of SF6 and CFC-12 the second channel provides its own GC system with an electron capture detector (ECD). With the GC/ECD we achieve a time resolution of 60 seconds. The dataset includes 13 flights with a total of 120 flight hours and a coverage from 80° N to 65° S with a maximum altitude of 15 km. The measurements include halogenated hydrocarbons with a wide span of chemical lifetimes reaching from 100 years for CFC-12 to 26 days for CHBr3. On the basis of this distribution we can improve our understanding of transport timescales, compositions and pathways in the UTLS region. Furthermore we discuss the distribution in respect of atmospheric transport and lifetimes.

  8. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  9. Interdisciplinary optimum design. [of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1986-01-01

    Problems related to interdisciplinary interactions in the design of a complex engineering systems are examined with reference to aerospace applications. The interdisciplinary optimization problems examined include those dealing with controls and structures, materials and structures, control and stability, structure and aerodynamics, and structure and thermodynamics. The discussion is illustrated by the following specific applications: integrated aerodynamic/structural optimization of glider wing; optimization of an antenna parabolic dish structure for minimum weight and prescribed emitted signal gain; and a multilevel optimization study of a transport aircraft.

  10. Fiber optic smart structures for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric

    Fiber optic smart structures as applied to aerospace platforms are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on advantages of these structures which include weight saving for equivalent performance, immunity to electromagnetic interference, the ability to multiplex a number of fiber optic sensors along a single line, the inherent high bandwidth of fiber optic sensors and the data links supporting them, the ability to perform in extremely hostile environments at high temperatures, vibration, and shock loadings. It is concluded that fiber optic smart structures have a considerable potential to enhance the value of future aircraft and spacecraft through improved reliability, maintainability, and flight performance augmentation.

  11. Aerospace engineering educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, William; Klett, David; Lai, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The principle goal of the educational component of NASA CORE is the creation of aerospace engineering options in the mechanical engineering program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To accomplish this goal, a concerted effort during the past year has resulted in detailed plans for the initiation of aerospace options in both the BSME and MSME programs in the fall of 1993. All proposed new courses and the BSME aerospace option curriculum must undergo a lengthy approval process involving two cirriculum oversight committees (School of Engineering and University level) and three levels of general faculty approval. Assuming approval is obtained from all levels, the options will officially take effect in Fall '93. In anticipation of this, certain courses in the proposed curriculum are being offered during the current academic year under special topics headings so that current junior level students may graduate in May '94 under the BSME aerospace option. The proposed undergraduate aerospace option curriculum (along with the regular mechanical engineering curriculum for reference) is attached at the end of this report, and course outlines for the new courses are included in the appendix.

  12. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  13. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297.

  14. Emerging Needs for Pervasive Passive Wireless Sensor Networks on Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating passive wireless sensor technology to reduce instrumentation mass and volume in ground testing, air flight, and space exploration applications. Vehicle health monitoring systems (VHMS) are desired on all aerospace programs to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Pervasive passive wireless sensor networks facilitate VHMS on aerospace vehicles. Future wireless sensor networks on board aerospace vehicles will be heterogeneous and will require active and passive network systems. Since much has been published on active wireless sensor networks, this work will focus on the need for passive wireless sensor networks on aerospace vehicles. Several passive wireless technologies such as microelectromechanical systems MEMS, SAW, backscatter, and chipless RFID techniques, have all shown potential to meet the pervasive sensing needs for aerospace VHMS applications. A SAW VHMS application will be presented. In addition, application areas including ground testing, hypersonic aircraft and spacecraft will be explored along with some of the harsh environments found in aerospace applications.

  15. Advances in Computational Stability Analysis of Composite Aerospace Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Degenhardt, R.; Araujo, F. C. de

    2010-09-30

    European aircraft industry demands for reduced development and operating costs. Structural weight reduction by exploitation of structural reserves in composite aerospace structures contributes to this aim, however, it requires accurate and experimentally validated stability analysis of real structures under realistic loading conditions. This paper presents different advances from the area of computational stability analysis of composite aerospace structures which contribute to that field. For stringer stiffened panels main results of the finished EU project COCOMAT are given. It investigated the exploitation of reserves in primary fibre composite fuselage structures through an accurate and reliable simulation of postbuckling and collapse. For unstiffened cylindrical composite shells a proposal for a new design method is presented.

  16. Study on Design of High Efficiency and Light Weight Composite Propeller Blade for a Regional Turboprop Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Changduk; Lee, Kyungsun

    2013-03-01

    In this study, aerodynamic and structural design of the composite propeller blade for a regional turboprop aircraft is performed. The thin and wide chord propeller blade of high speed turboprop aircraft should have proper strength and stiffness to carry various kinds of loads such as high aerodynamic bending and twisting moments and centrifugal forces. Therefore the skin-spar-foam sandwich structure using high strength and stiffness carbon/epoxy composite materials is used to improve the lightness. A specific design procedure is proposed in this work as follows; firstly the aerodynamic configuration design, which is acceptable for the design requirements, is carried out using the in-house code developed by authors, secondly the structure design loads are determined through the aerodynamic load case analysis, thirdly the spar flange and the skin are preliminarily sized by consideration of major bending moments and shear forces using both the netting rule and the rule of mixture, and finally, the stress analysis is performed to confirm the structural safety and stability using finite element analysis commercial code, MSC. NASTRAN/PATRAN. Furthermore the additional analysis is performed to confirm the structural safety due to bird strike impact on the blade during flight operation using a commercial code, ANSYS. To realize the proposed propeller design, the prototype blades are manufactured by the following procedure; the carbon/epoxy composite fabric prepregs are laid up for skin and spar on a mold using the hand lay-up method and consolidated with a proper temperature and vacuum in the oven. To finalize the structural design, the full-scale static structural test is performed under the simulated aerodynamic loads using 3 point loading method. From the experimental results, it is found that the designed blade has a good structural integrity, and the measured results agree well with the analytical results as well.

  17. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  18. Aerospace Bibliography. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blashfield, Jean F., Comp.

    Provided for teachers and the general adult reader is an annotated and graded list of books and reference materials dealing with aerospace subjects. Only non-fiction books and pamphlets that need to be purchased from commercial or government sources are included. Free industrial materials and educational aids are not included because they tend to…

  19. Aerospace at Saint Francis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Discusses an aviation/aerospace program as a science elective for 11th and 12th year students. This program is multi-faceted and addresses the needs of a wide variety of students. Its main objective is to present aviation and space sciences which will provide a good base for higher education in these areas. (SK)

  20. Inter-comparison of CALIPSO and CloudSat retrieved profiles of aerosol and cloud microphysical parameters with aircraft profiles over a tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmakumari, B.; Harikishan, G.; Maheskumar, R. S.

    2016-05-01

    Satellites play a major role in understanding the spatial and vertical distribution of aerosols and cloud microphysical parameters over a large area. However, the inherent limitations in satellite retrievals can be improved through inter-comparisons with airborne platforms. Over the Indian sub-continent, the vertical profiles retrieved from space-borne lidar such as CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization) on board the satellite CALIPSO and Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) on board the satellite CloudSat were inter- compared with the aircraft observations conducted during Cloud Aerosol Interactions and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX). In the absence of high clouds, both aircraft and CALIOP showed similar features of aerosol layering and water-ice cloud signatures. As CALIOP could not penetrate the thick clouds, the aerosol information below the cloud is missed. While the aircraft could measure high concentrations below the cloud base and above the low clouds in the presence of high clouds. The aircraft derived liquid water content (LWC) and droplet effective radii (Re) showed steady increase from cloud base to cloud top with a variable cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC). While the CloudSat derived LWC, CDNC and Re showed increase from the cloud top to cloud base in contradiction to the aircraft measurements. The CloudSat profiles are underestimated as compared to the corresponding aircraft profiles. Validation of satellite retrieved vertical profiles with aircraft measurements is very much essential over the tropics to improve the retrieval algorithms and to constrain the uncertainties in the regional cloud parameterization schemes.

  1. Aircraft-Based Estimate of Total Methane Emissions from the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Kort, Eric A; Shepson, Paul B; Brewer, Alan; Cambaliza, Maria; Conley, Stephen A; Davis, Ken; Deng, Aijun; Hardesty, Mike; Herndon, Scott C; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lavoie, Tegan; Lyon, David; Newberger, Tim; Pétron, Gabrielle; Rella, Chris; Smith, Mackenzie; Wolter, Sonja; Yacovitch, Tara I; Tans, Pieter

    2015-07-01

    We present estimates of regional methane (CH4) emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Barnett Shale, Texas, using airborne atmospheric measurements. Using a mass balance approach on eight different flight days in March and October 2013, the total CH4 emissions for the region are estimated to be 76 ± 13 × 10(3) kg hr(-1) (equivalent to 0.66 ± 0.11 Tg CH4 yr(-1); 95% confidence interval (CI)). We estimate that 60 ± 11 × 10(3) kg CH4 hr(-1) (95% CI) are emitted by natural gas and oil operations, including production, processing, and distribution in the urban areas of Dallas and Fort Worth. This estimate agrees with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate for nationwide CH4 emissions from the natural gas sector when scaled by natural gas production, but it is higher than emissions reported by the EDGAR inventory or by industry to EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. This study is the first to show consistency between mass balance results on so many different days and in two different seasons, enabling better quantification of the related uncertainty. The Barnett is one of the largest production basins in the United States, with 8% of total U.S. natural gas production, and thus, our results represent a crucial step toward determining the greenhouse gas footprint of U.S. onshore natural gas production. PMID:26148550

  2. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: application of the results of a large polysomnographic field study.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Samel, Alexander; Isermann, Ullrich

    2006-05-01

    The Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) investigated the influence of nocturnal aircraft noise on sleep in polysomnographic laboratory and field studies between 1999 and 2004. The results of the field studies were used by the Regional Council of Leipzig (Germany) for the establishment of a noise protection plan in the official approval process for the expansion of Leipzig/Halle airport. Methods and results of the DLR field study are described in detail. Special attention is given to the dose-response relationship between the maximum sound pressure level of an aircraft noise event and the probability to wake up, which was used to establish noise protection zones directly related to the effects of noise on sleep. These protection zones differ qualitatively and quantitatively from zones that are solely based on acoustical criteria. The noise protection plan for Leipzig/Halle airport is presented and substantiated: (1) on average, there should be less than one additional awakening induced by aircraft noise, (2) awakenings recalled in the morning should be avoided as much as possible, and (3) aircraft noise should interfere as little as possible with the process of falling asleep again. Issues concerned with the representativeness of the study sample are discussed. PMID:16708935

  3. Aircraft Observations into the Characteristics of Biomass Burning Instigated 'Regional Haze' Over the Amazon during the SAMBBA Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, Eoghan

    2013-04-01

    E. J. N. Darbyshire, J. D. Allan, M. Flynn, W. T. Morgan, A. Hodgson, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, K. Longo, P. Artaxo and H. Coe Aerosols associated with large scale Biomass Burning (BB) impact upon weather and climate at global and regional scales. However, quantitative evaluation of these effects is impeded by i) a limited understanding of BB processes and ii) a lack of quantitative knowledge of precise BB aerosol physiochemical characteristics, thus resulting in large model uncertainties. One region where these uncertainties are especially manifest is the Amazon Basin (AzB). Intense and widespread burning results in high atmospheric loadings of BB aerosol, which over the course of the dry season develops into a so-called 'regional haze'. This cloaks the AzB in a complex and inhomogeneous mix of BB emissions, characterized by large Aerosol Optical Depths (>1), low visibility and poor air quality. This haze has a substantial impact on the radiation budget over the AzB through direct scattering/absorption and indirect cloud microphysics effects. In order to best constrain the model uncertainties, and given the scale of the AzB earth-atmosphere system, an intensive observation campaign by multiple international institutions was instigated in the South American Biomass Burning Analyses (SAMBBA) project. The findings reported here are from the SAMBBA aircraft campaign, conducted during the 2012 dry season using the large UK research aircraft (FAAM BAe-146). The dense (high AOD), persistent haze expected throughout the campaign was only present for the first five or so days, due to removal via washout/transportation associated with large storms. For the remaining period, a haze was present but much reduced in area and intensity (mostly AOD's <0.6) and far more localized and spatially heterogeneous. Across the three weeks, multiple burns with differing characteristics, origins and processes were sampled, giving rise to haze from various sources, such as rainforest in

  4. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  5. Materials for aerospace

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.A.

    1986-10-01

    Early last year the US Office of Science and Technology put forward an agenda for American aerospace activity in the coming decades. The plan established goals for subsonic, supersonic and transatmospheric hypersonic flight. Those goals, together with Reagan Administration's programs for a space station and the Strategic Defense Initiative, serve as a driving force for extensive improvements in the materials that enable airplanes and spacecraft to function efficiently. The development of materials, together with advances in the technology of fabricating parts, will play a key role in aerospace systems of the future. Among the materials developments projected for the year 2000 are new composites and alloys for structural members; superalloys, ceramics and glass composites for propulsion systems, and carbon-carbon composites (carbon fibers in a carbon matrix) for high-temperature applications in places where resistance to heat and ablation is critical. 5 figures.

  6. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  7. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Doris J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Transfer Team is to assist NASA in achieving widespread utilization of aerospace technology in terrestrial applications. Widespread utilization implies that the application of NASA technology is to benefit a significant sector of the economy and population of the Nation. This objective is best attained by stimulating the introduction of new or improved commercially available devices incorporating aerospace technology. A methodology is presented for the team's activities as an active transfer agent linking NASA Field Centers, industry associations, user groups, and the medical community. This methodology is designed to: (1) identify priority technology requirements in industry and medicine, (2) identify applicable NASA technology that represents an opportunity for a successful solution and commercial product, (3) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process, and (4) successfully develop a new product based on NASA technology.

  8. NASA's activities in the conservation of strategic aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The United States imports 50-100 percent of certain metals critical to the aerospace industry, namely, cobalt, columbium, chromium, and tantalum. In an effort to reduce this dependence on foreign sources, NASA is planning a program called Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM), which will provide technology minimizing strategic metal content in the components of aerospace structures such as aircraft engines. With a proposed starting date of October 1981, the program will consist of strategic element substitution, process technology development, and alternate materials research. NASA's two-fold pre-COSAM studies center on, first, substitution research involving nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys (Waspaloy, Udimet-700, MAE-M247, Rene 150, HA-188) used in turbine disks, low-pressure blades, turbine blades, and combustors; and, second, alternate materials research devoted initially to investigating possible structural applications of the intermetallic alloys nickel aluminide and iron aluminide.

  9. Future Civil Aircraft and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J.; Zuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    New aircraft technologies are presented that have the potential to expand the air transportation system and reduce congestion through new operating capabilities while also providing greater levels of safety and environmental compatibility. These new capabilities will result from current and planned civil aeronautics technology at the NASA Ames, Lewis, and Langley Research Centers and will cover the complete spectrum of current aircraft and new vehicle concepts including rotorcraft (helicopters and tilt rotors), vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, subsonic transports, high-speed transports, and hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles. New technologies will improve efficiency, affordability, safety, and environmental compatibility of current aircraft and will enable the development of new transportation system. The new capabilities of vehicles could lead to substantial market opportunities and economic growth and could improve the competitive position of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  10. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  11. AI aerospace components

    SciTech Connect

    Heindel, T.A.; Murphy, T.B.; Rasmussen, A.N.; Mcfarland, R.Z.; Montgomery, R.E.; Pohle, G.E.; Heard, A.E.; Atkinson, D.J.; Wedlake, W.E.; Anderson, J.M. Mitre Corp., Houston, TX Unisys Corp., Houston, TX Rockwell International Corp., El Segundo, CA NASA, Kennedy Space Center, Cocoa Beach, FL JPL, Pasadena, CA Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc., Austin, TX McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Co., McLean, VA )

    1991-10-01

    An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.

  12. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  13. Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Vitko, J. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Workshop concentrated on reviewing and refining the science experiments planned for the UAV Demonstration Flights (UDF) scheduled at the Oklahoma Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in April 1994. These experiments were focused around the following sets of parameters: Clear sky, daylight; Clear-sky, night-to-day transition; Clear sky - improve/validate the accuracy of radiative fluxes derived from satellite-based measurements; Daylight, clouds of opportunity; and, Daylight, broken clouds.

  14. Studies of aircraft wake chemistry and dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G.; Farlow, N. H.; Anderson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Use of aerospace technology to study aircraft wakes is reviewed. It is shown how aerospace vehicles can be used to provide data for increased understanding of the atmosphere and of aircraft exhaust trails where knowledge is inadequate to evaluate fully the potential impact of the engine emissions. Models of aircraft near-field exhaust wakes are characterized by jet, vortex, and dispersion regimes. Wake growth in the jet regime is self-determined and rapid, whereas further spreading is inhibited in the vortex regime because of circulating vortex motion. Wake diffusion in the dispersion regime is initially influenced by aircraft induced turbulence but is dominated later by small-scale atmospheric turbulence. Computed fluid mechanical results show the importance of effects such as wake buoyancy, wind shear, turbulence, and traffic corridor exhaust buildup on dispersion of the wake. In the jet regime the exhaust characteristics and thermochemistry serve to illustrate initial chemical changes involving potential pollutant species.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Golich, Vicki L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the research, development and production (RD&P) of large commercial aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalization.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  17. CORBASec Used to Secure Distributed Aerospace Propulsion Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners are developing a Common Object Request Broker (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines. It was developed by Glenn and is being managed by the NASA Ames Research Center as the lead center reporting directly to NASA Headquarters' Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Glenn is an active domain member of the Object Management Group: an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and manages computer industry specifications (i.e., CORBA) for interoperable enterprise applications. When NPSS is deployed, it will assemble a distributed aerospace propulsion simulation scenario from proprietary analytical CORBA servers and execute them with security afforded by the CORBASec implementation. The NPSS CORBASec test bed was initially developed with the TPBroker Security Service product (Hitachi Computer Products (America), Inc., Waltham, MA) using the Object Request Broker (ORB), which is based on the TPBroker Basic Object Adaptor, and using NPSS software across different firewall products. The test bed has been migrated to the Portable Object Adaptor architecture using the Hitachi Security Service product based on the VisiBroker 4.x ORB (Borland, Scotts Valley, CA) and on the Orbix 2000 ORB (Dublin, Ireland, with U.S. headquarters in Waltham, MA). Glenn, GE Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft are the initial industry partners contributing to the NPSS CORBASec test bed. The test bed uses Security SecurID (RSA Security Inc., Bedford, MA) two-factor token-based authentication together with Hitachi Security Service digital-certificate-based authentication to validate the various NPSS users. The test

  18. Prospect of HIP application in aerospace and power plant industry

    SciTech Connect

    Boris, B.I.; Genrikh, G.S.; Oleg, F.Ch.

    1996-12-31

    Technology used in production of PM superalloy disks and shafts for military and civil aircraft engines was proposed in published works of Academicians A.F. Bewlov, A.I. Tselicov, Professor N.F. Anoshkin, their disciples and associates about 20 years ago. This technology determined progress in this field for all preceding years and played a remarkable role in both aviation material science and aerospace. This technology contributed to successful development of gas turbine engines for such dazzling specimens of Soviet aircraft and space vehicles as MiG-29, MiG-31, IL-096, TU-204, IL-114, Energia-Buran rocket-space shuttle system, etc.

  19. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel report to the NASA acting administrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The level of activity of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel was increased smewhat during 1985 in concert with the increased mission rate of the National Space Transportation System, the evolutionary changes in management and operation of that program, and the preparation of the Vandenberg Launch Site; the implementation of the Program Definition Phase of the Space Station Program; and the actual flight testing of the X-29 research aircraft. Impending payload STS missions and NASA's overall aircraft operations are reviewed. The safety aspects of the LEASAT salvage mission were assessed. The findings and recommendation of the committee are summerized.

  20. A Survey of Power Electronics Applications in Aerospace Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Elbuluk, Malik E.

    2001-01-01

    The insertion of power electronics in aerospace technologies is becoming widespread. The application of semiconductor devices and electronic converters, as summarized in this paper, includes the International Space Station, satellite power system, and motor drives in 'more electric' technology applied to aircraft, starter/generators and reusable launch vehicles. Flywheels, servo systems embodying electromechanical actuation, and spacecraft on-board electric propulsion are discussed. Continued inroad by power electronics depends on resolving incompatibility of using variable frequency for 400 Hz-operated aircraft equipment. Dual-use electronic modules should reduce system development cost.

  1. The aerospace energy systems laboratory: Hardware and software implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Oneil-Rood, Nora

    1989-01-01

    For many years NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility has employed automation in the servicing of flight critical aircraft batteries. Recently a major upgrade to Dryden's computerized Battery Systems Laboratory was initiated to incorporate distributed processing and a centralized database. The new facility, called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL), is being mechanized with iAPX86 and iAPX286 hardware running iRMX86. The hardware configuration and software structure for the AESL are described.

  2. Industrial Design in Aerospace/Role of Aesthetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    Industrial design creates and develops concepts and specifications that seek to simultaneously and synergistically optimize function, production, value and appearance. The inclusion of appearance, or esthetics, as a major design metric represents both an augmentation of conventional engineering design and an intersection with artistic endeavor(s). Report surveys past and current industrial design practices and examples across aerospace including aircraft and spacecraft, both exterior and interior.

  3. 76 FR 30231 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... advancements in supersonic aircraft technology aimed at reducing the intensity of sonic boom. DATES: The public... Whisper'', the aerospace company's latest effort to provide a solution to the traditional sonic boom. A supersonic aircraft such as the Concorde in cruise produces a traditional jagged ``N-wave'' sonic...

  4. A New Approach to Aircraft Robust Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Tierno, Jorge E.

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed algorithm for nonlinear system performance analysis has been applied to an F16 aircraft to begin evaluating the suitability of the method for aerospace problems. The algorithm has a potential to be much more efficient than the current methods in performance analysis for aircraft. This paper is the initial step in evaluating this potential.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 14: An analysis of the technical communications practices reported by Israeli and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Elazar, David; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their view about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are working in cryogenics, adaptive walls, and magnetic suspension. A slightly modified version was sent to Israeli aerospace engineers and scientists working at Israel Aircraft Industries, LTD. Responses of the Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  6. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  7. Science Applications Appropriate for Investigation with Uninhabited Aerospace Systems (UASs) in the next 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarquhar, G. M.

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle (ARM UAV) program and the ARM Aerial Vehicle Program (ARM AVP) have explored the use of uninhabited aerospace systems (UASs) for collecting data to address the largest source of uncertainty in global warming studies, namely the interaction of clouds with solar and terrestrial radiation. This presentation will review the past use of UASs and the measurement techniques and instruments suitable for UASs that were developed within ARM UAV. Thereafter it will be shown that UASs have unique capabilities (long endurance flights, the potential to make routine or continuous flights, the ability to fly in under sampled regions, and the capability to fly closely stacked patterns at multiple levels) that make them highly appropriate for research in the atmospheric sciences. Science questions better suited for exploration with UASs than with piloted aircraft will then be reviewed. These include observing convective cloud systems over their complete lifetime, determining how atmospheric properties vary over multiple scales, resolving how cloud properties vary with meteorological conditions and aerosol composition and optical depth, determining how cloud properties vary with sea surface temperature, making observations in data sparse regions, providing a comprehensive data set for evaluation of remote sensing retrievals, and quantifying atmospheric heating rate profiles.

  8. Mobile Computing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Swietek, Gregory E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The use of commercial computer technology in specific aerospace mission applications can reduce the cost and project cycle time required for the development of special-purpose computer systems. Additionally, the pace of technological innovation in the commercial market has made new computer capabilities available for demonstrations and flight tests. Three areas of research and development being explored by the Portable Computer Technology Project at NASA Ames Research Center are the application of commercial client/server network computing solutions to crew support and payload operations, the analysis of requirements for portable computing devices, and testing of wireless data communication links as extensions to the wired network. This paper will present computer architectural solutions to portable workstation design including the use of standard interfaces, advanced flat-panel displays and network configurations incorporating both wired and wireless transmission media. It will describe the design tradeoffs used in selecting high-performance processors and memories, interfaces for communication and peripheral control, and high resolution displays. The packaging issues for safe and reliable operation aboard spacecraft and aircraft are presented. The current status of wireless data links for portable computers is discussed from a system design perspective. An end-to-end data flow model for payload science operations from the experiment flight rack to the principal investigator is analyzed using capabilities provided by the new generation of computer products. A future flight experiment on-board the Russian MIR space station will be described in detail including system configuration and function, the characteristics of the spacecraft operating environment, the flight qualification measures needed for safety review, and the specifications of the computing devices to be used in the experiment. The software architecture chosen shall be presented. An analysis of the

  9. Aerospace structures supportability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Howard Wesley

    1989-04-01

    This paper is about supportability in its general sense, with emphasis on aerospace structures. Reliability and maintainability (R&M) are described and defined from the standpoint of both structural analysis. Accessability, inspectability, and replaceability are described as design attributes. Reliability and probability of failure are shown to be in the domain of the analysis. Availability and replaceability are traditional logistic responsibilities which are influenced by supportability engineers. The USAF R&M 2000 process is described, and the R&M 1988 Workshop at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is also included in the description.

  10. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  11. The Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I. Instructor Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This publication provides guidelines for teachers using the textbook entitled "Aerospace Environment," published in the Aerospace Education I series. Major categories included in each chapter are objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, instructional aids, projects, and further reading. Background…

  12. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Data acquired on the actual flight experience with the various subsystems are assessed. These subsystems include: flight control and performance, structural integrity, orbiter landing gear, lithium batteries, EVA and prebreathing, and main engines. Improvements for routine operations are recommended. Policy issues for operations and flight safety for aircraft operations are discussed.

  13. Development of a Dynamically Configurable, Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Reed, John A.

    2003-01-01

    The following reports are presented on this project:A first year progress report on: Development of a Dynamically Configurable,Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation; A second year progress report on: Development of a Dynamically Configurable, Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation; An Extensible, Interchangeable and Sharable Database Model for Improving Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design; Interactive, Secure Web-enabled Aircraft Engine Simulation Using XML Databinding Integration; and Improving the Aircraft Design Process Using Web-based Modeling and Simulation.

  14. New developments in aluminum for aircraft and automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petit, Jocelyn I.

    1994-01-01

    A common bond for the aircraft and automobile industry is the need for cost-efficient, lightweight structures such as provided by aluminum based materials. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and cover the following: new developments in aluminum for aircraft and automobiles; forces shaping future automotive materials needs; aluminum strength/weakness versus competitive materials; evolution of aluminum aerospace alloys; forces shaping future aircraft materials needs; fiber/metal structural laminates; and property requirements for jetliner and military transport applications.

  15. Analytical prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Piersol, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given recently to the formulation and validation of analytical models for the prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration response to acoustic and fluctuating pressures. This paper summarizes the development of such analytical models for two applications, (1) structural vibrations of the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle due to broadband rocket noise and aerodynamic boundary layer turbulence, and (2) structural vibrations of general aviation aircraft due to discrete frequency propeller and reciprocating engine exhaust noise. In both cases, the spatial exterior excitations are convected pressure fields which are described on the basis of measured cross spectra (coherence and phase) information. Structural modal data are obtained from analytical predictions, and structural responses to appropriate excitation fields are calculated. The results are compared with test data, and the strengths and weaknesses of the analytical models are assessed.

  16. Analytical prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Piersol, A. G.

    1981-09-01

    Considerable attention has been given recently to the formulation and validation of analytical models for the prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration response to acoustic and fluctuating pressures. This paper summarizes the development of such analytical models for two applications, (1) structural vibrations of the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle due to broadband rocket noise and aerodynamic boundary layer turbulence, and (2) structural vibrations of general aviation aircraft due to discrete frequency propeller and reciprocating engine exhaust noise. In both cases, the spatial exterior excitations are convected pressure fields which are described on the basis of measured cross spectra (coherence and phase) information. Structural modal data are obtained from analytical predictions, and structural responses to appropriate excitation fields are calculated. The results are compared with test data, and the strengths and weaknesses of the analytical models are assessed.

  17. The national aero-space plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane is an extremely versatile and adaptable aircraft. It can be developed into an Orient Express that would dramatically improve trade with countries in Asia and elsewhere: a commuter transport to ferry men and materials to space, an advanced tactical fighter or bomber, and an unparalleled high altitude spy-plane to observe troubled spots all over the globe. Utilizing the technology developed by this pilot program, it will be possible to quickly and easily get to low Earth orbit, go halfway around the world in a fraction of the time it previously took, and lead the world in the development of advanced technology to improve our lives and the lives of many others.

  18. Limitless Horizons: Careers in Aerospace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary H.

    This is a manual for acquainting students with pertinent information relating to career choices in aerospace science, engineering, and technology. The first chapter presents information about the aerospace industry by describing disciplines typical of this industry. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) classification system…

  19. Limitless Horizons. Careers in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A manual is presented for use by counselors in career guidance programs. Pertinent information is provided on choices open in aerospace sciences, engineering, and technology. Accredited institutions awarding degrees in pertinent areas are listed as well as additional sources of aerospace career information. NASA's role and fields of interest are emphasized.

  20. Aerospace Activities and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Piper, Martha

    1975-01-01

    Describes how science activities can be used to stimulate language development in the elementary grades. Two aerospace activities are described involving liquid nitrogen and the launching of a weather balloon which integrate aerospace interests into the development of language skills. (BR)

  1. [Aerospace radiobiology: 35 years (1960-1995)].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Davydov, B I

    1996-01-01

    The paper gives a brief history of the birth and development of aerospace radiobiology at the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. It covers from the first radiobiological investigations in space to the insurance of radiation safety for helicopter air crews who took part in cleaning-up operations of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The workers of the Radiobiological Laboratory have performed some research theoretical and practical tasks in the interests of aviation and space, civil and military medicine: the impact of gravitation and radiation on genetic structures has been studied, a radiation safety system for vehicles of different use has been developed, new principles in the standardization of EMF for radiofrequency and microwave bands have been proposed, the new radioprotective agent indralin (B, B-190) has been discovered, which is accepted for supply and used in rotary wing aircraft pilots during liquidation works at the Chernobyl atomic power station. New experimental data on the combined effects of radiation and non-radiation flight factors have been obtained. Basically new data on the mechanism of action of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on the brain have been also gained, a system for assessing the health and rehabilitation of pilots that cleaned-up the Chernobyl accident has been developed. Professor Pavel Petrovich Saksonov, RF Honoured Scientist, has the honour to create a school of aerospace radiobiology. PMID:8963185

  2. Research Opportunities in Advanced Aerospace Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Bangert, Linda S.; Garber, Donald P.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McKinley, Robert E.; Sutton, Kenneth; Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Weinstein, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    This report is a review of a team effort that focuses on advanced aerospace concepts of the 21st Century. The paper emphasis advanced technologies, rather than cataloging every unusual aircraft that has ever been attempted. To dispel the myth that "aerodynamics is a mature science" an extensive list of "What we cannot do, or do not know" was enumerated. A zeit geist, a feeling for the spirit of the times, was developed, based on existing research goals. Technological drivers and the constraints that might influence these technological developments in a future society were also examined. The present status of aeronautics, space exploration, and non-aerospace applications, both military and commercial, including enabling technologies are discussed. A discussion of non-technological issues affecting advanced concepts research is presented. The benefit of using the study of advanced vehicles as a tool to uncover new directions for technology development is often necessary. An appendix is provided containing examples of advanced vehicle configurations currently of interest.

  3. Requirements for regional short-haul air service and the definition of a flight program to determine neighborhood reactions to small transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feher, K.; Bollinger, L.; Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the current status and future requirements of an intraregional short haul air service is given. A brief definition of the different types of short haul air service is given. This is followed by a historical review of previous attempts to develop short haul air service in high density urban areas and an assessment of the current status. The requirements for intraregional air service, the need for economic and environmental viability and the need for a flight research program are defined. A detailed outline of a research program that would determine urban community reaction to frequent operations of small transport aircraft is also given. Both the operation of such an experiment in a specific region (San Francisco Bay area) and the necessary design modifications of an existing fixed wing aircraft which could be used in the experiment are established. An estimate is made of overall program costs.

  4. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  5. Aerospace in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    National research and technology trends are introduced in the environment of accelerating change. NASA and the federal budget are discussed. The U.S. energy dependence on foreign oil, the increasing oil costs, and the U.S. petroleum use by class are presented. The $10 billion aerospace industry positive contribution to the U.S. balance of trade of 1979 is given as an indicator of the positive contribution of NASA in research to industry. The research work of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, industry, universities, and business to maintain U.S. world leadership in advanced technology.

  6. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  7. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  8. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  9. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a 5-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASAs safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are "one deep." The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting "brain drain" could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning.

  10. Large scale, regional, CH4 and net CO2 fluxes using nested chamber, tower, aircraft flux, remote sensing, and modeling approaches in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, Walter; Moreaux, Virginie; Kalhori, Aram; Losacco, Salvatore; Murphy, Patrick; Wilkman, Eric; Zona, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    The topographic, environmental, biotic, and metabolic heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes can be large even despite a seemingly homogeneous landscape. The error of estimating and simulating fluxes due to extant heterogeneity is commonly overlooked in regional and global estimates. We evaluate the pattern and controls on spatial heterogeneity on GHG fluxes over varying spatial scales and compare to standard estimates of NEE and other greenhouse gas fluxes. Data from the north slope of Alaska from up to a 16 year flux record from up to 7 permanent towers, over 20 portable tower locations, and hundreds of hours of aircraft fluxes, are used to evaluate the spatial variability of fluxes and to better estimate regional fluxes. Significant heterogeneity of fluxes is identified at varying scales from sub-meter scale to >100km. A careful consideration of the effect that heterogeneity causes when estimating ecosystem fluxes is critical to reliable regional and global estimates. The combination of tower, flux aircraft, remote sensing, and modeling can be used to provide reliable, accurate, regional assessments of CH4and CO2 fluxes or large areas of heterogeneous landscape.

  11. Heterogeneity of CH4 and net CO2 Fluxes Using Nested Chamber, Tower, Aircraft, Remote Sensing, and Modeling Approaches in Arctic Alaska for Regional Flux Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, W. C.; Moreaux, V.; Kalhori, A. A. M.; Murphy, P.; Wilkman, E.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Zhuang, Q.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.; Fisher, J. B.; Gioli, B.; Zona, D.

    2014-12-01

    The topographic, environmental, biotic, and metabolic heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes can be large even despite a seemingly homogeneous landscape. The error of estimating and simulating fluxes due to extant heterogeneity is commonly overlooked in regional and global estimates. Here we evaluate the pattern and controls on spatial heterogeneity on CH4 and CO2 fluxes over varying spatial scales. Data from the north slope of Alaska from chambers, up to a 16 year CO2 flux record from up to 7 permanent towers, over 20 portable tower locations, eddy covariance CH4 fluxes over several years and sites, new year-around CO2 and CH4 flux installations, hundreds of hours of aircraft concentration and fluxes, and terrestrial biosphere and flux inverse modeling, are used to evaluate the spatial variability of fluxes and to better estimate regional fluxes. Significant heterogeneity of fluxes is identified at varying scales from sub-meter scale to >100km. A careful consideration of the effect that heterogeneity causes when estimating ecosystem fluxes is critical to reliable regional and global estimates. The combination of eddy covariance tower flux, aircraft, remote sensing, and modeling can be used to provide reliable, accurate, regional assessments of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from large areas of heterogeneous landscape.

  12. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  13. PREFACE: Trends in Aerospace Manufacturing 2009 International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Keith; Gault, Rosemary; Allen, Adrian

    2011-12-01

    The aerospace industry is rapidly changing. New aircraft structures are being developed and aero-engines are becoming lighter and more environmentally friendly. In both areas, innovative materials and manufacturing methods are used in an attempt to get maximum performance for minimum cost. At the same time, the structure of the industry has changed and there has been a move from large companies designing, manufacturing components and assembling aircraft to one of large global supply chains headed by large system integrators. All these changes have forced engineers and managers to bring in innovations in design, materials, manufacturing technologies and supply chain management. In September 2009, the Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) at the University of Sheffield held the inaugural Trends in Aerospace Manufacturing conference (TRAM09). This brought together 28 speakers over two days, who presented in sessions on advanced manufacturing trends for the aerospace sector. Areas covered included new materials, including composites, advanced machining, state of the art additive manufacturing techniques, assembly and supply chain issues.

  14. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  15. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  16. The 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the conference are reported. The conference focussed on lightning protection, detection, and forecasting. The conference was divided into 26 sessions based on research in lightning, static electricity, modeling, and mapping. These sessions spanned the spectrum from basic science to engineering, concentrating on lightning prediction and detection and on safety for ground facilities, aircraft, and aerospace vehicles.

  17. An artist's rendering of the 21st Century Aerospace Vehicle, sometimes nicknamed the Morphing Airpla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's rendering shows advanced concepts NASA envisions for an aircraft of the future. Called the 21st Century Aerospace Vehicle, and sometimes nicknamed the Morphing Airplane, the concept includes a variety of smart technologies that could enable inflight configuration changes for optimum flight characteristics.

  18. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  19. The FASST Aerospace Student Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Leonard

    1976-01-01

    Describes a three-day Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), at which students from 20 colleges and universities and six Soviet students discussed the application of aerospace technology to the problems of society. (MLH)

  20. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  1. Ball Aerospace AMSD Progress Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, Mark; Brown, Robert; Chaney, David; Lightsey, Paul; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The current status of the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator program being performed by Ball Aerospace is presented. The hexagonal low-areal density Beryllium mirror blank has been fabricated and undergoing polishing at the time of this presentation.

  2. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  3. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  4. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  5. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  6. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 2: Safety. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 524

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographic citations are presented to describe and define aircraft safety methods, equipment, and criteria. Some of the subjects discussed are: (1) fire and explosion suppression using whiffle balls, (2) ultraviolet flame detecting sensors, (3) evaluation of flame arrestor materials for aircraft fuel systems, (4) crash fire prevention system for supersonic commercial aircraft, and (5) fire suppression for aerospace vehicles.

  7. Multi-Year Estimates of Regional Alaskan Net CO2 Exchange: Constraining a Remote-Sensing Based Model with Aircraft Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindaas, J.; Commane, R.; Luus, K. A.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.; Henderson, J.; Mountain, M. E.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, J. B.; Lin, J. C.; Daube, B. C.; Pittman, J. V.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaskan region has historically been a sink of atmospheric CO2, but permafrost currently stores large amounts of carbon that are vulnerable to release to the atmosphere as northern high-latitudes continue to warm faster than the global average. We use aircraft CO2 data with a remote-sensing based model driven by MODIS satellite products and validated by CO2 flux tower data to calculate average daily CO2 fluxes for the region of Alaska during the growing seasons of 2012 and 2013. Atmospheric trace gases were measured during CARVE (Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) aboard the NASA Sherpa C-23 aircraft. For profiles along the flight track, we couple the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, and convolve these footprints of surface influence with our remote-sensing based model, the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis Respiration Model (PolarVPRM). We are able to calculate average regional fluxes for each month by minimizing the difference between the data and model column integrals. Our results provide a snapshot of the current state of regional Alaskan growing season net ecosystem exchange (NEE). We are able to begin characterizing the interannual variation in Alaskan NEE and to inform future refinements in process-based modeling that will produce better estimates of past, present, and future pan-Arctic NEE. Understanding if/when/how the Alaskan region transitions from a sink to a source of CO2 is crucial to predicting the trajectory of future climate change.

  8. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  9. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report is based on the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in calendar year 2000. During this year, the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) moved into high gear. The launch of the Russian Service Module was followed by three Space Shuttle construction and logistics flights and the deployment of the Expedition One crew. Continuous habitation of the ISS has begun. To date, both the ISS and Space Shuttle programs have met or exceeded most of their flight objectives. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, it is clear that safety was always placed ahead of cost and schedule. This safety consciousness permitted the Panel to devote more of its efforts to examining the long-term picture. With ISS construction accelerating, demands on the Space Shuttle will increase. While Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft will make some flights, the Space Shuttle remains the primary vehicle to sustain the ISS and all other U.S. activities that require humans in space. Development of a next generation, human-rated vehicle has slowed due to a variety of technological problems and the absence of an approach that can accomplish the task significantly better than the Space Shuttle. Moreover, even if a viable design were currently available, the realities of funding and development cycles suggest that it would take many years to bring it to fruition. Thus, it is inescapable that for the foreseeable future the Space Shuttle will be the only human-rated vehicle available to the U.S. space program for support of the ISS and other missions requiring humans. Use of the Space Shuttle will extend well beyond current planning, and is likely to continue for the life of the ISS.

  10. Design search and optimization in aerospace engineering.

    PubMed

    Keane, A J; Scanlan, J P

    2007-10-15

    In this paper, we take a design-led perspective on the use of computational tools in the aerospace sector. We briefly review the current state-of-the-art in design search and optimization (DSO) as applied to problems from aerospace engineering, focusing on those problems that make heavy use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This ranges over issues of representation, optimization problem formulation and computational modelling. We then follow this with a multi-objective, multi-disciplinary example of DSO applied to civil aircraft wing design, an area where this kind of approach is becoming essential for companies to maintain their competitive edge. Our example considers the structure and weight of a transonic civil transport wing, its aerodynamic performance at cruise speed and its manufacturing costs. The goals are low drag and cost while holding weight and structural performance at acceptable levels. The constraints and performance metrics are modelled by a linked series of analysis codes, the most expensive of which is a CFD analysis of the aerodynamics using an Euler code with coupled boundary layer model. Structural strength and weight are assessed using semi-empirical schemes based on typical airframe company practice. Costing is carried out using a newly developed generative approach based on a hierarchical decomposition of the key structural elements of a typical machined and bolted wing-box assembly. To carry out the DSO process in the face of multiple competing goals, a recently developed multi-objective probability of improvement formulation is invoked along with stochastic process response surface models (Krigs). This approach both mitigates the significant run times involved in CFD computation and also provides an elegant way of balancing competing goals while still allowing the deployment of the whole range of single objective optimizers commonly available to design teams. PMID:17519198

  11. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  12. Aircraft Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  13. An overview of the British Aerospace HOTOL transatmospheric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesnard, J.

    1986-01-01

    British Aerospace's space-going aircraft and economical launcher Hotol, so named for its horizontal take-off and landing ability, is described. The craft uses Rolls Royce's new Swallow engine, the principle behind which is still secret, which burns atmospheric oxygen until it leaves the atmosphere and then switches to liquid oxygen. This lightens the craft's fuel load tremendously, so that it can carry significant payloads and still take off and land like a normal airplane. A typical future mission for the craft is described.

  14. The Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory: A BITBUS networking application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Oneill-Rood, Nora

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility developed a computerized aircraft battery servicing facility called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL). This system employs distributed processing with communications provided by a 2.4-megabit BITBUS local area network. Customized handlers provide real time status, remote command, and file transfer protocols between a central system running the iRMX-II operating system and ten slave stations running the iRMX-I operating system. The hardware configuration and software components required to implement this BITBUS application are required.

  15. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) activities during 2002. The format of the report has been modified to capture a long-term perspective. Section II is new and highlights the Panel's view of NASA's safety progress during the year. Section III contains the pivotal safety issues facing NASA in the coming year. Section IV includes the program area findings and recommendations. The Panel has been asked by the Administrator to perform several special studies this year, and the resulting white papers appear in Appendix C. The year has been filled with significant achievements for NASA in both successful Space Shuttle operations and International Space Station (ISS) construction. Throughout the year, safety has been first and foremost in spite of many changes throughout the Agency. The relocation of the Orbiter Major Modifications (OMMs) from California to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) appears very successful. The transition of responsibilities for program management of the Space Shuttle and ISS programs from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to NASA Headquarters went smoothly. The decision to extend the life of the Space Shuttle as the primary NASA vehicle for access to space is viewed by the Panel as a prudent one. With the appropriate investments in safety improvements, in maintenance, in preserving appropriate inventories of spare parts, and in infrastructure, the Space Shuttle can provide safe and reliable support for the ISS for the foreseeable future. Indications of an aging Space Shuttle fleet occurred on more than one occasion this year. Several flaws went undetected in the early prelaunch tests and inspections. In all but one case, the problems were found prior to launch. These incidents were all handled properly and with safety as the guiding principle. Indeed, launches were postponed until the problems were fully understood and mitigating action could be taken. These incidents do, however, indicate the need to analyze the

  16. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  17. Hypersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.

  18. Aerosols upwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign: regional scale biomass burning, dust and volcanic ash from aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Steinbrecher, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the MILAGRO Campaign March/April 2006 a series of aircraft flights with the FZK microlight D-MIFU were performed in the area southeast of Mexico City starting from Puebla airport, circling the national park area of Ixtachiuatl and Popocatepetl and scanning the Chalco valley down to Cuautla in the Cuernavaca province. All flights were combined with vertical profiles up to 4500 m a.s.l. in several locations, typically north of volcano Ixtachiuatl on the Puebla side, above Chalco or Tenago del Aire and south of volcano Popocatepetl, either at Cuautla or Atlixco. In Tenango del Aire a ceilometer was additionally operated continuously for characterization of the planetary boundary layer. The aircraft carried a set of aerosol instrumentation, fine and coarse particles and size distributions as well as a 7 wavelength aethalometer. Additionally meteorological parameters, temperature and dewpoint, global radiation and actinic radiation balance, respectively photolysis rates, and ozone concentrations were measured. The instrumentation allowed to characterize the aerosol according to their sources and also their impact on radiation transfer. Biomass burning aerosol, windblown dust and volcanic ash were identified within the upwind area of Mexico City with large differences between the dry season in the first weeks of the campaign and the by far cleaner situation after beginning thunderstorm activity towards the end of the campaign. Also the aerosol characteristics inside and outside the Mexico City basin were often completely different. With wind speeds of ~ 5 m/sec from southerly directions in the Chalco valley the aerosol mixture can reach the City within ~ 2 h. Rural aerosol mixtures from the Cuernavaca plain were mixed during the transport with dust from the MC basin. Very high intensity biomass burning plumes normally reached higher altitudes and produced pyrocumulus clouds. These aerosols were injected mainly into the free troposphere. Within the MC basin a large

  19. Emerging aerospace technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. F., Jr.; Milov, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The United States Government has a long history of promoting the advancement of technology to strengthen the economy and national defense. An example is NASA, which was formed in 1958 to establish and maintain U.S. space technology leadership. This leadership has resulted in technological benefits to many fields and the establishment of new commercial industries, such as satellite communications. Currently, NASA's leading technology development at Ames Research Center includes the Tilt Rotor XV-15, which provides the versatility of a helicopter with the speed of a turboprop aircraft; the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator, which is pushing the state of the art in advanced computational mathematics and computer simulation; and the Advanced Automation and Robotics programs, which will improve all areas of space development as well as life on Earth. Private industry is involved in maintaining technological leadership through NASA's Commercial Use of Space Program, which provides for synergistic relationships among government, industry, and academia. The plan for a space station by 1992 has framed much of NASA's future goals and has provided new areas of opportunity for both domestic space technology and leadership improvement of life on Earth.

  20. Structural health management of aerospace hotspots under fatigue loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Sunilkumar

    Sustainability and life-cycle assessments of aerospace systems, such as aircraft structures and propulsion systems, represent growing challenges in engineering. Hence, there has been an increasing demand in using structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques for continuous monitoring of these systems in an effort to improve safety and reduce maintenance costs. The current research is part of an ongoing multidisciplinary effort to develop a robust SHM framework resulting in improved models for damage-state awareness and life prediction, and enhancing capability of future aircraft systems. Lug joints, a typical structural hotspot, were chosen as the test article for the current study. The thesis focuses on integrated SHM techniques for damage detection and characterization in lug joints. Piezoelectric wafer sensors (PZTs) are used to generate guided Lamb waves as they can be easily used for onboard applications. Sensor placement in certain regions of a structural component is not feasible due to the inaccessibility of the area to be monitored. Therefore, a virtual sensing concept is introduced to acquire sensor data from finite element (FE) models. A full three dimensional FE analysis of lug joints with piezoelectric transducers, accounting for piezoelectrical-mechanical coupling, was performed in Abaqus and the sensor signals were simulated. These modeled sensors are called virtual sensors. A combination of real data from PZTs and virtual sensing data from FE analysis is used to monitor and detect fatigue damage in aluminum lug joints. Experiments were conducted on lug joints under fatigue loads and sensor signals collected were used to validate the simulated sensor response. An optimal sensor placement methodology for lug joints is developed based on a detection theory framework to maximize the detection rate and minimize the false alarm rate. The placement technique is such that the sensor features can be directly correlated to damage. The technique accounts for a

  1. Assessment of avionics technology in European aerospace organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinec, D. A.; Baumbick, Robert; Hitt, Ellis; Leondes, Cornelius; Mayton, Monica; Schwind, Joseph; Traybar, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the observations and recommendations made by a technical panel formed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The panel, comprising prominent experts in the avionics field, was tasked to visit various organizations in Europe to assess the level of technology planned for use in manufactured civil avionics in the future. The primary purpose of the study was to assess avionics systems planned for implementation or already employed on civil aircraft and to evaluate future research, development, and engineering (RD&E) programs, address avionic systems and aircraft programs. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the technology addressed by NASa programs is commensurate with the needs of the aerospace industry at an international level. The panel focused on specific technologies, including guidance and control systems, advanced cockpit displays, sensors and data networks, and fly-by-wire/fly-by-light systems. However, discussions the panel had with the European organizations were not limited to these topics.

  2. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  3. Reusable aerospace system with horizontal take-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozino-Lozinskii, G. E.; Shkadov, L. M.; Plokhikh, V. P.

    1990-10-01

    An aerospace system (ASS) concept aiming at cost reductions for launching facilities, reduction of ground preparations for start and launch phases, flexibility of use, international inspection of space systems, and emergency rescue operations is presented. The concept suggests the utilization of an AN-225 subsonic carrier aircraft capable of carrying up to 250 ton of the external load, external fuel tank, and orbital spacecraft. It includes a horizontal take-off, full reusable or single-use system, orbital aircraft with hypersonic characteristics, the use of an air-breathing jet engine on the first stage of launch, and the utilization of advanced structural materials. Among possible applications for ASS are satellite launches into low supporting orbits, suborbital cargo and passenger flights, scientific and economic missions, and the technical servicing of orbital vehicles and stations.

  4. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  5. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time. PMID:17817782

  6. Serial Escape System For Aircraft Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    Emergency escape system for aircraft and aerospace vehicles ejects up to seven crewmembers, one by one, within 120 s. Intended for emergencies in which disabled craft still in stable flight at no more than 220 kn (113 m/s) equivalent airspeed and sinking no faster than 110 ft/s (33.5 m/s) at altitudes up to 50,000 ft (15.2 km). Ejection rockets load themselves from magazine after each crewmember ejected. Jumpmaster queues other crewmembers and helps them position themselves on egress ramp. Rockets pull crewmembers clear of aircraft structure. Provides orderly, controlled exit and avoids ditching at sea or landing in rough terrain.

  7. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    PubMed

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these. PMID:22097645

  8. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC'S, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application, verification, compliant coatings including corrosion protection system and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  9. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Clark-Ingram, M.; Hessler, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  10. Aerospace Education for the Melting Pot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joels, Kerry M.

    1979-01-01

    Aerospace education is eminently suited to provide a framework for multicultural education. Effective programs accommodating minorities' frames of reference to the rapidly developing disciplines of aerospace studies have been developed. (RE)

  11. Aerospace Education and the Elementary Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This articles attempts to stimulate otherwise reluctant school teachers to involve aerospace education in their content repertoire. Suggestions are made to aid the teacher in getting started with aerospace education. (MDR)

  12. Accommodation of Nontraditional Aerospace Degree Aspirants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukert, Michael A.

    1977-01-01

    Presents results of a national survey of institutions offering college level aerospace studies. Primary survey concern is the availability of nontraditional aerospace education programs; however, information pertaining to institution characteristics, program characteristics, and staffing are also included. (SL)

  13. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Current research in optical processing is reviewed. Its role in future aerospace systems is determined. The development of optical devices and components demonstrates that system concepts can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  15. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  16. The very large airplane: safety, health, and comfort considerations. Air Transport Medicine Committee, Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    In recent years, aircraft manufacturers have been considering a very large airplane with a capacity of 600-1000 passengers. The human factors aspects of such an unprecedented enterprise demand that the aerospace medicine community take an active role early on in the design phase. Consequently, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an international task force to prepare a paper containing pertinent human factors recommendations for the manufacturers. This paper, including the recommendations herein, has been forwarded to Boeing and Airbus as well as to 50 major airlines of the world. PMID:9327122

  17. CONTACT: sensors for aerospace and Fano-resonance photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, Forrest J.; Zhou, Weidong; Chow, Alice

    2010-04-01

    CONTACT or Consortium for Nanomaterials for Aerospace Commerce and Technology is a cooperative program between the Air Force Research Laboratory and seven Texas universities focused on four research areas in aerospace. This paper summarizes recent developments in one of those areas, sensors, for eventual use in aircraft and spacecraft. We report direct measurement of spectrally selective absorption properties of PbSe and PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) in Si nanomembrane photonic crystal cavities on flexible plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The interaction of CQD absorption with photonic crystal Fano resonances is presented both analytically and experimentally for use in wavelength selective sensors.

  18. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  19. 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    The proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held in Pasadena Hilton, Pasadena, California on May 16-18, 2012. Lockheed Martin Space Systems cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include gimbals and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and Mars Science Laboratory mechanisms.

  20. 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of the 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Ames Research Center hosted the conference, which was held at the Four Points Sheraton, Sunnyvale, California, on May 9-11, 2001. The symposium was sponsored by the Mechanisms Education Association. Technology areas covered included bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; and other mechanisms for spacecraft and large space structures.

  1. Careers in the Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.

    The document briefly presents career information in the field of aerospace industry. Employment exists in three areas: (1) professional and technical occupations in research and development (engineers, scientists, and technicians); (2) administrative, clerical, and related occupations (engineers, scientists, technicians, clerks, secretaries,…

  2. Technology utilization. [aerospace technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    NASA developed technologies were used to tackle problems associated with safety, transportation, industry, manufacturing, construction and state and local governments. Aerospace programs were responsible for more innovations for the benefit of mankind than those brought about by either major wars, or peacetime programs. Briefly outlined are some innovations for manned space flight, satellite surveillance applications, and pollution monitoring techniques.

  3. Graphical simulation for aerospace manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Bien, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Simulation software has become a key technological enabler for integrating flexible manufacturing systems and streamlining the overall aerospace manufacturing process. In particular, robot simulation and offline programming software is being credited for reducing down time and labor cost, while boosting quality and significantly increasing productivity.

  4. Ball Aerospace Actuator Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Lana; Lightsey, Paul; Quigley, Phil; Rutkowski, Joel; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ambient testing characterizing step size and repeatability for the Ball Aerospace Cryogenic Nano-Positioner actuators for the AMSD (Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator) program has been completed and are presented. Current cryogenic testing is underway. Earlier cryogenic test results for a pre-cursor engineering model are presented.

  5. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  6. Aerospace for the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This packet includes games and activities concerning aerospace education for the very young. It is designed to develop and strengthen basic concepts and skills in a non-threatening atmosphere of fun. Activities include: (1) "The Sun, Our Nearest Star"; (2) "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, How I Wonder Where You Are"; (3) "Shadows"; (4) "The Earth…

  7. Aerospace/Aviation Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.

    The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study aviation and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of aviation science and occupational…

  8. 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Litty, Edward C. (Compiler); Sevilla, Donald R. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held at the Pasadena Conference and Exhibition Center, Pasadena, California, on May 19-21, 1999. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  9. Development of Structural Health Management Technology for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, NASA has focused considerable resources on the development of technologies for Structural Health Management (SHM). The motivations for these efforts are to increase the safety and reliability of aerospace structural systems, while at the same time decreasing operating and maintenance costs. Research and development of SHM technologies has been supported under a variety of programs for both aircraft and spacecraft including the Space Launch Initiative, X-33, Next Generation Launch Technology, and Aviation Safety Program. The major focus of much of the research to date has been on the development and testing of sensor technologies. A wide range of sensor technologies are under consideration including fiber-optic sensors, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, most notably being extremely light weight, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and have received considerable attention.

  10. Biomimetic optical sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Gorospe, George E.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Barrett, Steven F.

    2015-05-01

    We report on a fiber optic sensor based on the physiological aspects of the eye and vision-related neural layers of the common housefly (Musca domestica) that has been developed and built for aerospace applications. The intent of the research is to reproduce select features from the fly's vision system that are desirable in image processing, including high functionality in low-light and low-contrast environments, sensitivity to motion, compact size, lightweight, and low power and computation requirements. The fly uses a combination of overlapping photoreceptor responses that are well approximated by Gaussian distributions and neural superposition to detect image features, such as object motion, to a much higher degree than just the photoreceptor density would imply. The Gaussian overlap in the biomimetic sensor comes from the front-end optical design, and the neural superposition is accomplished by subsequently combining the signals using analog electronics. The fly eye sensor is being developed to perform real-time tracking of a target on a flexible aircraft wing experiencing bending and torsion loads during flight. We report on results of laboratory experiments using the fly eye sensor to sense a target moving across its field of view.

  11. An outbreak of illness among aerospace workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, P. J.; Simon, G. E.; Katon, W. J.; Altman, L. C.; Ayars, G. H.; Johnson, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    A multispecialty panel of physicians evaluated a case series of 53 composite-materials workers in a large aircraft manufacturing facility who filed workers' compensation claims for illness labeled by the media as the "aerospace syndrome." Possible skin and respiratory tract exposures included formaldehyde, phenol, particulates, epoxy resins, and trace organic solvents, but measured concentrations were well below all regulatory and consensus standards. Most workers had histories of transient skin or respiratory tract irritation consistent with the known potential toxicity of these materials. None of the workers tested had immunoglobulin IgG or IgE antibodies to human serum albumin complexed with formaldehyde. A majority (74%) met DSM-III-R [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition, revised] criteria for major depression, panic disorder, or both. Most of these psychiatric disorders were of a recent onset, correlating in time with the use of phenol- and formaldehyde-impregnated composite material. Psychosocial factors were thought to have played a major role in the high prevalence of illness in this group and should be evaluated directly in well-controlled epidemiologic studies of similar crisis-building situations in the future. PMID:2098006

  12. Smart electronics and MEMS for aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper, smart electronics and MEMS are employed to sense and control the drag in aircraft structures. The sensors are fabricated with interdigital transducers printed on a piezoelectric polymer. They in turn are mounted onto an ultra thin Penn State's novel RF antenna (Patent field). The sensor are designed to measure both pressure and shear of the fluid flow on aerospace structures. The wave form measurements may be monitored at a remote location either at the cockpit or elsewhere via the antennas in the sensors and an outside antenna. The integrated MEMS actuators which comprise of cantilever-, diaphram- and microbridge-based MEMS with suitable smart electronics etched onto the structure are controlled by the built-in antennas through feedback and feedforward control architecture. The integration of such materials and smart electronics into the skin of airfoil is ideal for sensing and controlling drag. The basic idea of this concept involves detection of the point of transition from laminar to turbulent flow and transmitting acoustical energy into the boundary layer so that the low energy fluid particles accelerate in the transverse direction and mix with the high energy flow outside of the boundary layer. 3D microriblets can be fabricated using stereo lithography and UV curable conducting polymers. The control of drag using these active microriblets are outlined.

  13. The use of β titanium alloys in the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, R. R.; Briggs, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    Beta titanium alloys have been available since the 1950s (Ti-13V-11Cr-3Mo or B120VCA), but significant applications of these alloys, beyond the SR-71 Blackbird, have been slow in coming. The next significant usage of a β alloy did not occur until the mid-1980s on the B-1B bomber. This aircraft used Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn sheet due to its capability for strip rolling, improved formability, and higher strength than Ti-6Al-4V. The next major usage was on a commercial aircraft, the Boeing 777, which made extensive use of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al high-strength forgings. Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn environmental control system ducting, castings, and springs were also used, along with Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr (β-C) springs. Beta-21S was also introduced for high-temperature usage. More recent work at Boeing has focused on the development of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr, a high-strength alloy that can be used at higher strength than Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al and is much more robust; it has a much wider, or friendlier, processing window. This, along with additional studies at Boeing, and from within the aerospace industry in general will be discussed in detail, summarizing applications and the rationale for the selection of this alloy system for aerospace applications.

  14. Tropospheric Ozone Increases in the TTL over the Southern African Region (1990-2007): Insights from Sonde and Aircraft Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, N. V.; Thompson, A. M.; Kollonige, D. E.; Coetzee, G.; Thouret, V.; Posny, F.

    2013-12-01

    Ozonesonde records from the early 1990s through 2007 over two subtropical stations, Irene (near Pretoria, South Africa) and Réunion Island (21S, 55W, ~3500 km NE of Irene in the southwest Indian Ocean) have been reported to exhibit free tropospheric (FT) ozone increases. We re-analyzed FT ozone in the1990-2007 Irene sondes, filling in mid-1990s gaps with ozone profiles taken by Measurements of Ozone by Airbus In-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) over nearby Johannesburg. We applied a multivariate regression model to monthly averaged data from the combined dataset as well as to 1992-2011 FT and TTL ozone from Réunion sondes. Taking into account terms for the seasonal cycle, ENSO, and potential vorticity (PV) anomalies, we found that: (1) Statistically significant trends appear predominantly in the middle troposphere up to the tropopause layer (6-11 km over Irene, 6-15 km over Réunion) in winter (June-August), with an increase ~ 1 ppbv/yr over Irene and ~2 ppbv/yr over Réunion. Both stations display a less intense ozone increase above 7 km in November-December. (2) Variability in TTL dynamics and stratosphere-troposphere interactions were considered as plausible explanations for the Irene ozone increases. For the spring, there is a pronounced sensitivity to PV anomalies (+ 70 ppbv ozone/PV unit). We compare these results to our prior study of TTL wave activity at Irene and Réunion and relationships among waves, TTL ozone variability and oscillations like the ENSO. Trend (change in ppbv ozone/year) computed from multivariate regression model for 4-15 km, profiles from Réunion sondes, 1992-2011. Diagonal shading denotes statistical significance.

  15. Non-homogeneous vertical distribution of methane over Indian region using surface, aircraft and satellite based data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, M.; Nair, Prabha R.

    2016-09-01

    The upper tropospheric methane (UCH4) data from Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC), the column average mixing ratio of methane (XCH4) from SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) and near-surface methane at two locations- Cape Rama, Goa, a Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) network station and Ahmedabad (23.03°N; 72.45°E) were analysed to understand vertical inhomogenities in methane mixing ratio and the seasonal changes in the latitude sector 13°-24°N over India. XCH4 and UCH4 were found to follow more or less similar pattern over all the three latitude sectors, with the peak occurring in July-August, and minimum in late winter. The seasonal amplitude in XCH4 is less at low latitude sector (∼64 ppbv) compared to that of high latitudes (∼101 ppbv at 18°-22°N and 88 ppbv at 22°-24°N). On the other hand, the near surface methane shows opposite pattern peaking in winter attaining low in monsoon. During monsoon when methane sources are active at the surface, XCH4 > UCH4 and during other seasons UCH4 > XCH4 indicating presence of high altitude layers. This analysis revealed non-homogeneous distribution of methane in the troposphere indicative of stratified layers. The role of convective activity, boundary layer meteorology and long-range transport in controlling the seasonal changes in the vertical distribution of methane are examined in this study.

  16. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  17. Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides lightning protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of lightning. Generic descriptions of the lightning environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for lightning protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.

  18. Regional Variations in U.S. Diurnal Temperature Range for the 11 14 September 2001 Aircraft Groundings: Evidence of Jet Contrail Influence on Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

    2004-03-01

    The grounding of all commercial aircraft within U.S. airspace for the 3-day period following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks provides a unique opportunity to study the potential role of jet aircraft contrails in climate. Contrails are most similar to natural cirrus clouds due to their high altitude and strong ability to efficiently reduce outgoing infrared radiation. However, they typically have a higher albedo than cirrus; thus, they are better at reducing the surface receipt of incoming solar radiation. These contrail characteristics potentially suppress the diurnal temperature range (DTR) when contrail coverage is both widespread and relatively long lasting over a specific region. During the 11 14 September 2001 grounding period natural clouds and contrails were noticeably absent on high-resolution satellite imagery across the regions that typically receive abundant contrail coverage. A previous analysis of temperature data for the grounding period reported an anomalous increase in the U.S.-averaged, 3-day DTR value. Here, the spatial variation of the DTR anomalies as well as the separate contributions from the maximum and minimum temperature departures are analyzed. These analyses are undertaken to better evaluate the role of jet contrail absence and synoptic weather patterns during the grounding period on the DTR anomalies.It is shown that the largest DTR increases occurred in regions where contrail coverage is typically most prevalent during the fall season (from satellite-based contrail observations for the 1977 79 and 2000 01 periods). These DTR increases occurred even in those areas reporting positive departures of tropospheric humidity, which may reduce DTR, during the grounding period. Also, there was an asymmetric departure from the normal maximum and minimum temperatures suggesting that daytime temperatures responded more to contrail absence than did nighttime temperatures, which responded more to synoptic conditions. The application of a

  19. Recent NASA progress in composites. [application to spacecraft and aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenfels, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The application of composites in aerospace vehicle structures is reviewed. Research and technology program results and specific applications to space vehicles, aircraft engines, and aircraft and helicopter structures are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is given to flight service evaluation programs that are or will be accumulating substantial experience with secondary and primary structural components on military and commercial aircraft to increase confidence in their use.

  20. Influence of Ohio River Valley Emissions on Fine Particle Sulfate Measured from Aircraft over Large Regions of the Eastern United States and Canada during INTEX-NA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, Christopher J.; Sandholm, Scott; Kim, Saewung; Stickel, Robert E.; Huey, L. Gregory; Weber, Rodney J.

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of fine inorganic aerosol composition were made with a particle-into-liquid sampler coupled to dual ion chromatographs (PILS-IC) as part of the NASA INTEX-NA study. The sampling campaign, which lasted from 1 July to 14 August 2004, centered over the eastern United States and Canada and showed that sulfate was the dominant inorganic species measured. The highest sulfate concentrations were observed at altitudes below 2 km, and back trajectory analyses showed a distinct difference between air masses that had or had not intercepted the Ohio River valley (ORV) region. Air masses encountered below 2 km with a history over the ORV had sulfate concentrations that were higher by a factor of 3.2 and total sulfur (S) concentrations higher by 2.5. The study's highest sulfate concentrations were found in these air masses. The sulfur of the ORV air masses was also more processed with a mean sulfate to total sulfur molar ratio of 0.5 compared to 0.3 in non-ORV measurements. Results from a second, independent trajectory model agreed well with those from the primary analysis. These ORV-influenced air masses were encountered on multiple days and were widely spread across the eastern United States and western Atlantic region.

  1. 37th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is reporting problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 37th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 37th AMS, hosted by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Galveston, Texas, was held May 19, 20 and 21, 2004. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, tribology, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station and Mars Rover mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  2. 39th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 39th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the United States and abroad. The 39th AMS was held in Huntsville, Alabama, May 7-9, 2008. During these 3 days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals and positioning mechanisms, tribology, actuators, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and sensors. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  3. 34th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for organizing the AMS. Now in its 34th year, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 34th AMS, hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, was held May 10, 11 and 12, 2000. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the vendor fair gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  4. Lattice Structures For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Olmo, E.; Grande, E.; Samartin, C. R.; Bezdenejnykh, M.; Torres, J.; Blanco, N.; Frovel, M.; Canas, J.

    2012-07-01

    The way of mass reduction improving performances in the aerospace structures is a constant and relevant challenge in the space business. The designs, materials and manufacturing processes are permanently in evolution to explore and get mass optimization solutions at low cost. In the framework of ICARO project, EADS CASA ESPACIO (ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator which shows that lattice type of grid structures is a promising weight saving solution for replacing some traditional metallic and composite structures for space applications. A virtual testing methodology was used in order to support the design of a high modulus CFRP cylindrical lattice technology demonstrator. The manufacturing process, based on composite Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) technology developed by ECE, allows obtaining high quality low weight lattice structures potentially applicable to a wide range of aerospace structures. Launcher payload adaptors, satellite platforms, antenna towers or instrument supports are some promising candidates.

  5. Third Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Cross, D. R. (Editor); Caruso, S. V. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, other ozone depleting chemicals, and specific hazardous materials is well underway. The phaseout of these chemicals has mandated changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. We are beyond discovery and initiation of these new developments and are now in the implementation phase. This conference provided a forum for materials and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess the evolving replacement and clean propulsion technologies from the standpoint of their significance, application, impact on aerospace systems, and utilization by the research and development community. The use of these new technologies, their selection and qualification, their implementation, and the needs and plans for further developments are presented.

  6. The K-1 reusable aerospace vehicle: managing to achieve low cost.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller (HM), George E.; Lepore, Debra Facktor

    2000-03-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is developing the world's first privately funded, fully reusable aerospace vehicle, the K-1. This vehicle represents a new implementation of proven technologies, designed by an elite, experienced team of engineers and managers and implemented by the best manufacturing capability in the United States. Kistler Aerospace expects to begin commercial operations of the K-1 in 2000. Market researchers predict that during the next decade telecommunications satellite ventures will require launch services for over 1,400 payloads to LEO. This prediction greatly exceeds the current available industry capacity. The K-1 was designed primarily to meet this anticipated growth in demand. Significant progress has been made in constructing the K-1 vehicle fleet. The fully reusable K-1 vehicle is designed to lower the cost of access to space, increase launch reliability, and reduce lead-time-to-launch requirements. The K-1 will offer significant cost benefits and aircraft type reliability based on a proven flight record.

  7. STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Michael E. Fisher, President of AeroVisions International, has introduced the Culex light twin engine aircraft which offers economy of operation of a single engine plane, the ability to fly well on one engine, plus the capability of flying from short, unimproved fields of takeoff and landing distances less than 35 feet. Key element of design is an airfoil developed by Langley. Culex was originally intended to be factory built aircraft for special utility markets. However, it is now offered as a build-it-yourself kit plane.

  8. Magnetic Gearboxes for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A.; Sanchez-Garcia-Casarrubios, Juan; Cristache, Christian; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic gearboxes are contactless mechanisms for torque-speed conversion. They present no wear, no friction and no fatigue. They need no lubricant and can be customized for other mechanical properties as stiffness or damping. Additionally, they can protect structures and mechanisms against overloads, limitting the transmitted torque. In this work, spur, planetary and "magdrive" or "harmonic drive" configurations are compared considering their use in aerospace applications. The most recent test data are summarized to provide some useful help for the design engineer.

  9. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Obie H., Jr. (Compiler); Rogers, John F. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  10. Spectroscopic Measurement Techniques for Aerospace Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Hurley, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    The conditions that characterize aerospace flows are so varied, that a single diagnostic technique is not sufficient for its measurement. Fluid dynamists use knowledge of similarity to help categorize and focus on different flow conditions. For example, the Reynolds number represents the ratio of inertial to viscous forces in a flow. When the velocity scales, length scales, and gas density are large and the magnitude of the molecular viscosity is low, the Reynolds number becomes large. This corresponds to large scale vehicles (e.g Airbus A380), fast moving objects (e.g. artillery projectiles), vehicles in dense fluids (e.g. submarine in water), or flows with low dynamic viscosity (e.g. skydiver in air). In each of these cases, the inertial forces dominate viscous forces, and unsteady turbulent fluctuations in the flow variables are observed. In contrast, flows with small length scales (e.g. dispersion of micro-particles in a solid rocket nozzle), slow moving objects (e.g. micro aerial vehicles), flows with low density gases (e.g. atmospheric re-entry), or fluids with a large magnitude of viscosity (e.g. engine coolant flow), all have low Reynolds numbers. In these cases, viscous forces become very important and often the flows can be steady and laminar. The Mach number, which is the ratio of the velocity to the speed of sound in the medium, also helps to differentiate types of flows. At very low Mach numbers, acoustic waves travel much faster than the object, and the flow can be assumed to be incompressible (e.g. Cessna 172 aircraft). As the object speed approaches the speed of sound, the gas density can become variable (e.g. flow over wing of Learjet 85). When the object speed is higher than the speed of sound (Ma > 1), the presences of shock waves and other gas dynamic features can become important to the vehicle performance (e.g. SR-71 Blackbird). In the hypersonic flow regime (Ma > 5), large changes in temperature begin to affect flow properties, causing real

  11. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on industry KIBO is postulated in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo entomocole industry is the first production company in Europe to human food, it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and in the universities of Angers, Nantes, Lille.

  12. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on this postulate KIBO in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo industry is the first entomocole production company creat in Europe to human food; it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and various universities in France.

  13. Ball Aerospace Hybrid Space Cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, W.; Glaister, D. S.; Hendershott, P.; Kotsubo, V.; Lock, J. S.; Marquardt, E.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the design, development, testing, and performance at Ball Aerospace of a long-life hybrid (combination of Stirling and Joule-Thomson [J-T] thermodynamic cycles) space cryocooler. Hybrid coolers are synergistic combinations of two thermodynamic cycles that combine advantages of each cycle to yield overall improved performance. Hybrid cooler performance advantages include: 1) load leveling of large heat loads; 2) remote cryogenic cooling with very low to negligible induced vibration and jitter; 3) very low redundant (off state) cooler penalties; 4) high power efficiency, especially at low temperatures; and 5) simplified system integration with capability to cross gimbals and no need for thermal straps or switches. Ball Aerospace is currently developing several different hybrid cooler systems. The 35 K hybrid cooler provides 2.0 W at 35 K and 8.5 W at 85 K with an emphasis on load leveling of high transient heat loads and remote, low vibration cooling. The 10 K hybrid cooler provides 200 mW at 10 K, 700 mW at 15 K, and 10.7 W at 85 K with an emphasis on power efficiency. In addition, Ball Aerospace built and tested a complete hybrid cooler that met the requirements of the JWST Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) cooler including providing 80 mW at 6 K and 100 mW at 18 K for a total system (28 V) power of 310 W.

  14. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-01

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  15. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-10

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  16. Development of a Dynamically Configurable,Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Reed, John A.

    2003-01-01

    This research is aimed at developing a neiv and advanced simulation framework that will significantly improve the overall efficiency of aerospace systems design and development. This objective will be accomplished through an innovative integration of object-oriented and Web-based technologies ivith both new and proven simulation methodologies. The basic approach involves Ihree major areas of research: Aerospace system and component representation using a hierarchical object-oriented component model which enables the use of multimodels and enforces component interoperability. Collaborative software environment that streamlines the process of developing, sharing and integrating aerospace design and analysis models. . Development of a distributed infrastructure which enables Web-based exchange of models to simplify the collaborative design process, and to support computationally intensive aerospace design and analysis processes. Research for the first year dealt with the design of the basic architecture and supporting infrastructure, an initial implementation of that design, and a demonstration of its application to an example aircraft engine system simulation.

  17. Selection, testing, lubrication, and sealing of single row tapered roller bearings for aerospace wheel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    The paper describes available technology and current aerospace industry practices used for the selection, testing, lubrication, and sealing of single row tapered roller bearings to reduce bearing damage as a problem in the aircraft industry. Particular attention is given to the military publications available from Standardization Documents Order Desk and to other publications that can be used as reference; the bearing quality classification, analytical sizing, fatigue analysis, operating conditions, and lubrications; the design of bearing sealing and the environment to be concerned with; and the laboratory testing and aircraft monitoring of single row tapered roller bearings.

  18. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  19. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  20. The design and fabrication of microstrip omnidirectional array antennas for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, T. G.; Appleton, M. W.; Lusby, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    A microstrip antenna design concept was developed that will provide quasi-omnidirectional radiation pattern characteristics about cylindrical and conical aerospace structures. L-band and S-band antenna arrays were designed, fabricated, and, in some cases, flight tested for rocket, satellite, and aircraft drone applications. Each type of array design is discussed along with a thermal cover design that was required for the sounding rocket applications.

  1. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

  2. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  3. Controls and Health Management Technologies for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2004-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of an Intelligent Engine. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Engine are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This paper describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  4. History of SAR at Lockheed Martin (previously Goodyear Aerospace)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasswell, Stephen W.

    2005-05-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was invented by Carl Wiley at Goodyear Aircraft Company in Goodyear, Arizona, in 1951. From that time forward, as the company became Goodyear Aerospace Corporation, Loral Corporation, and finally Lockheed Martin Corporation, the Arizona employees past and present played a long and storied role in numerous SAR firsts. These include the original SAR patent (known as Simultaneous Doppler Buildup), the first demonstration SAR and flight test, the first operational SAR system, the first operational SAR data link, the first 5-foot resolution operational SAR system, the first 1-foot resolution SAR system, and the first large scale SAR digital processor. The company has installed and flown over five hundred SAR systems on more than thirty different types of aircraft for numerous countries throughout the world. The company designed and produced all of the evolving high performance SAR systems for the U. S. Air Force SR-71 "Blackbird" spy plane throughout its entire operational history, spanning some twenty-nine years. Recent SAR accomplishments include long-range standoff high performance SAR systems, smaller high resolution podded SAR systems for fighter aircraft, and foliage penetration (FOPEN) SAR. The company is currently developing the high performance SAR/MTI (Moving Target Indication) radar for the Army Aerial Common Sensor (ACS) system.

  5. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  6. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  7. Linear-array systems for aerospace NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert A.; Willsher, Stephen J.; Bending, Jamie M.

    1999-12-02

    Rapid large-area inspection of composite structures for impact damage and multi-layered aluminum skins for corrosion has been a recognized priority for several years in both military and civil aerospace applications. Approaches to this requirement have followed two clearly different routes: the development of novel large-area inspection systems, and the enhancement of current ultrasonic or eddy-current methods to reduce inspection times. Ultrasonic inspection is possible with standard flaw detection equipment but the addition of a linear ultrasonic array could reduce inspection times considerably. In order to investigate their potential, 9-element and 17-element linear ultrasonic arrays for composites, and 64-element arrays for aluminum skins, have been developed to DERA specifications for use with the ANDSCAN area scanning system. A 5 m{sup 2} composite wing surface has been scanned with a scan resolution of approximately 3 mm in 6 hours. With subsequent software and hardware improvements all four composite wing surfaces (top/bottom, left/right) of a military fighter aircraft can potentially be inspected in less than a day. Array technology has been very widely used in the medical ultrasound field although rarely above 10 MHz, whereas lap-joint inspection requires a pulse center-frequency of 12 to 20 MHz in order to resolve the separate interfaces in the lap joint. A 128 mm-long multi-element array of 5 mmx2 mm ultrasonic elements for use with the ANDSCAN scanning software was produced to a DERA specification by an NDT manufacturer with experience in the medical imaging field. This paper analyses the performance of the transducers that have been produced and evaluates their use in scanning systems of different configurations.

  8. Linear-array systems for aerospace NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert A.; Willsher, Stephen J.; Bending, Jamie M.

    1999-12-01

    Rapid large-area inspection of composite structures for impact damage and multi-layered aluminum skins for corrosion has been a recognized priority for several years in both military and civil aerospace applications. Approaches to this requirement have followed two clearly different routes: the development of novel large-area inspection systems, and the enhancement of current ultrasonic or eddy-current methods to reduce inspection times. Ultrasonic inspection is possible with standard flaw detection equipment but the addition of a linear ultrasonic array could reduce inspection times considerably. In order to investigate their potential, 9-element and 17-element linear ultrasonic arrays for composites, and 64-element arrays for aluminum skins, have been developed to DERA specifications for use with the ANDSCAN® area scanning system. A 5 m2 composite wing surface has been scanned with a scan resolution of approximately 3 mm in 6 hours. With subsequent software and hardware improvements all four composite wing surfaces (top/bottom, left/right) of a military fighter aircraft can potentially be inspected in less than a day. Array technology has been very widely used in the medical ultrasound field although rarely above 10 MHz, whereas lap-joint inspection requires a pulse center-frequency of 12 to 20 MHz in order to resolve the separate interfaces in the lap joint. A 128 mm-long multi-element array of 5 mm×2 mm ultrasonic elements for use with the ANDSCAN® scanning software was produced to a DERA specification by an NDT manufacturer with experience in the medical imaging field. This paper analyses the performance of the transducers that have been produced and evaluates their use in scanning systems of different configurations.

  9. Passengers' perception of the safety demonstration on board an aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruenruoy, Ratchada

    The cabin safety demonstration on board an aircraft is one of the methods to provide safety information for passengers before aircraft takeoff. However, passengers' enthusiasm toward safety demonstrations is normally low. Therefore, the study of passengers' perception toward safety briefings on board an aircraft is important in increasing the safety awareness for the travelling public on commercial aircraft. A survey was distributed to measure the perceptions of Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) faculty and staff, Aerospace students, and international students who have traveled in the last year. It was generally found that watching the cabin safety demonstration before aircraft takeoff was believed to be important for passengers. However, the attention to the safety demonstration remained low because the safety briefings were not good enough in terms of clear communication, particularly in the recorded audio demonstration and the live safety demonstration methods of briefing.

  10. Unification - An international aerospace information issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific and Technical Information (STI) represents the results of large investments in research and development (R&D) and the expertise of a nation and is a valuable resource. For more than four decades, NASA and its predecessor organizations have developed and managed the preeminent aerospace information system. NASA obtains foreign materials through its international exchange relationships, continually increasing the comprehensiveness of the NASA Aerospace Database (NAD). The NAD is de facto the international aerospace database. This paper reviews current NASA goals and activities with a view toward maintaining compatibility among international aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  11. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  12. Aerospace Activities in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Wiggins, Kenneth E.

    1974-01-01

    Describes 17 activities which are aerospace oriented and yet provide an interdisciplinary approach to learning. Some of the activities described involve paper airplanes, parachutes, model rockets, etc. (BR)

  13. Standard test method for corrosion of low-embrittling cadmium plate by aircraft maintenance chemicals. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1989-02-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F-7 on Aerospace and Aircraft and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F07.07 on Qualification Testing of Aircraft Cleaning Materials. Current edition approved Nov. 17, 1988. Published February 1989 and reapproved 1998.

  14. Analysis of North Atlantic Aircraft Data on Oxygenated Intermediate Species Using an Adapted Regional Chemistry-Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert; Mathur, Rohit; Alapaty, Kiran; Hanna, Adel; Binkowski, Frank; Guan, Hong; Esswein, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Our study is on the interaction of nitrogen oxides with organics as they are exported from their complex sources in Eastern North America. Both urban and specific industrial emissions contribute the nitrogen of the C-H-O-N compounds that affect the global atmosphere, helping determine both ozone and the self-cleaning radical chemistry of the troposphere mediated by the OH radical. Different industrial sources, urban, and natural emissions contribute the organic C. Peroxyacetyl nitrate, CH3C(double bonds O)OONO2 is the most interesting compound for which we can measure the outflow to the full depth of the Atlantic troposphere. As we adapt the 3-d chemical model to describe outflow for specific periods with sufficient accuracy, we are analyzing some valuable information in the NARE-97 complete airborne dataset. (NARE: North Atlantic Regional Experiment). Ames researchers find that there are substantial puzzles in the ratios of PAN/NO2. Peroxy acetyl nitrate provides one of the major long-distance export pathways for active nitrogen from Eastern North America. It should be closely linked with NO, (defined as the sum NO + NO2) by simple thermal association and decomposition reactions, at least when the ambient temperature is substantially above 5 C.

  15. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  16. Cognitive engineering in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress that was made with respect to the objectives and goals of the research that is being carried out in the Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory (CSEL) under a Cooperative Agreement with NASA Ames Research Center is described. The major objective of this project is to expand the research base in Cognitive Engineering to be able to support the development and human-centered design of automated systems for aerospace applications. This research project is in support of the Aviation Safety/Automation Research plan and related NASA research goals in space applications.

  17. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  18. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  19. Aerospace Payloads Leak Test Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovsky, Oleg; Grayson, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized and sealed aerospace payloads can leak on orbit. When dealing with toxic or hazardous materials, requirements for fluid and gas leakage rates have to be properly established, and most importantly, reliably verified using the best Nondestructive Test (NDT) method available. Such verification can be implemented through application of various leak test methods that will be the subject of this paper, with a purpose to show what approach to payload leakage rate requirement verification is taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scope of this paper will be mostly a detailed description of 14 leak test methods recommended.

  20. 76 FR 58776 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    .... 10:30-11:00 Coffee Break-- Networking. 11:00-12:30 Presentations: Canada's Aerospace Market, Quebec's... aerospace sub-markets was often in the top 5. Industry estimates expected Canada's aerospace sector...

  1. Aerospace Communications Security Technologies Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2003-01-01

    In light of the events of September 11, 2001, NASA senior management requested an investigation of technologies and concepts to enhance aviation security. The investigation was to focus on near-term technologies that could be demonstrated within 90 days and implemented in less than 2 years. In response to this request, an internal NASA Glenn Research Center Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance Aviation Security Tiger Team was assembled. The 2-year plan developed by the team included an investigation of multiple aviation security concepts, multiple aircraft platforms, and extensively leveraged datalink communications technologies. It incorporated industry partners from NASA's Graphical Weather-in-the-Cockpit research, which is within NASA's Aviation Safety Program. Two concepts from the plan were selected for demonstration: remote "black box," and cockpit/cabin surveillance. The remote "black box" concept involves real-time downlinking of aircraft parameters for remote monitoring and archiving of aircraft data, which would assure access to the data following the loss or inaccessibility of an aircraft. The cockpit/cabin surveillance concept involves remote audio and/or visual surveillance of cockpit and cabin activity, which would allow immediate response to any security breach and would serve as a possible deterrent to such breaches. The datalink selected for the demonstrations was VDL Mode 2 (VHF digital link), the first digital datalink for air-ground communications designed for aircraft use. VDL Mode 2 is beginning to be implemented through the deployment of ground stations and aircraft avionics installations, with the goal of being operational in 2 years. The first demonstration was performed December 3, 2001, onboard the LearJet 25 at Glenn. NASA worked with Honeywell, Inc., for the broadcast VDL Mode 2 datalink capability and with actual Boeing 757 aircraft data. This demonstration used a cockpitmounted camera for video surveillance and a coupling to

  2. Nanotechnology research for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, Forrest J.; Lozano, Karen; Gutierrez, Jose M.; Chipara, Mircea; Thapa, Ram; Chow, Alice

    2009-04-01

    Nanotechnology is impacting the future of the military and aerospace. The increasing demands for high performance and property-specific applications are forcing the scientific world to take novel approaches in developing programs and accelerating output. CONTACT or Consortium for Nanomaterials for Aerospace Commerce and Technology is a cooperative nanotechnology research program in Texas building on an infrastructure that promotes collaboration between universities and transitioning to industry. The participants of the program include the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), five campuses of the University of Texas (Brownsville, Pan American, Arlington, Austin, and Dallas), the University of Houston, and Rice University. Through the various partnerships between the intellectual centers and the interactions with AFRL and CONTACT's industrial associates, the program represents a model that addresses the needs of the changing and competitive technological world. Into the second year, CONTACT has expanded to twelve projects that cover four areas of research: Adaptive Coatings and Surface Engineering, Nano Energetics, Electromagnetic Sensors, and Power Generation and Storage. This paper provides an overview of the CONTACT program and its projects including the research and development of new electrorheological fluids with nanoladen suspensions and composites and the potential applications.

  3. An overview of Ball Aerospace cryogen storage and delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, J.; Keller, J.; Mills, G.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Starting on the Gemini program in the 1960s, Beech Aircraft (now Ball Aerospace) has been designing and manufacturing dewars for a variety of cryogens including liquid hydrogen and oxygen. These dewars flew on the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle spacecraft providing fuel cell reactants resulting in over 150 manned spaceflights. Since Space Shuttle, Ball has also built the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for the Boeing Phantom Eye unmanned aerial vehicle. Returning back to its fuel cell days, Ball has designed, built and tested a volume-constrained liquid hydrogen and oxygen tank system for reactant delivery to fuel cells on unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). Herein past history of Ball technology is described. Testing has been completed on the UUV specific design, which will be described.

  4. Aerospace energy systems laboratory: Requirements and design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, operates a mixed fleet of research aircraft employing nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries in a variety of flight-critical applications. Dryden's Battery Systems Laboratory (BSL), a computerized facility for battery maintenance servicing, has developed over two decades into one of the most advanced facilities of its kind in the world. Recently a major BSL upgrade was initiated with the goal of modernization to provide flexibility in meeting the needs of future advanced projects. The new facility will be called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL) and will employ distributed processing linked to a centralized data base. AESL will be both a multistation servicing facility and a research laboratory for the advancement of energy storage system maintenance techniques. This paper describes the baseline requirements for the AESL and the design approach being taken for its mechanization.

  5. Aerospace medicine at Brooks AFB, TX: hail and farewell.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, Sarah A; Webb, James T

    2011-05-01

    With the impending termination of USAF operations at Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in San Antonio, TX, it is time to consider its historic role in Aerospace Medicine. The base was established in 1917 as a flight training center for the U.S. Army Air Service and in 1926 became home to its School of Aviation Medicine. The school moved to San Antonio's Randolph Field in 1931, but in 1959 it returned to Brooks where it occupied new facilities to support its role as a national center for U.S. Air Force aerospace medicine, including teaching, clinical medicine, and research. The mission was then expanded to encompass support of U.S. military and civilian space programs. With the abrupt termination of the military space program in 1969, research at Brooks focused on clinical aviation medicine and support of advanced military aircraft while continuing close cooperation with NASA in support of orbital spaceflight and the journey to the Moon. Reorganization in the 1990s assigned all research functions at Brooks to the Human Systems Division and its successors, leaving to USAFSAM the missions related to clinical work and teaching. In 2002 the USAF and the city of San Antonio implemented shared operation of Brooks as a "City-Base" in the hope of deflecting threatened closure. Nevertheless, under continuing pressure to consolidate military facilities in the United States, the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission ordered Brooks closed by 2011, with its aerospace medicine functions relocated to new facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH. PMID:21614874

  6. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  7. The 42nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor); Hakun, Claef (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development, and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  8. NASA Elementary Aerospace Activities Free to Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes the contents of Elementary School Aerospace Activities: A Resource for Teachers. Activities examine a variety of topics in aerospace education and are intended to be used with children ages 5-11. The book is available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) for $3.00. (CP)

  9. Aerospace Power Technology for Potential Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace technology that is being developed for space and aeronautical applications has great potential for providing technical advances for terrestrial power systems. Some recent accomplishments arising from activities being pursued at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centers is described in this paper. Possible terrestrial applications of the new aerospace technology are also discussed.

  10. The 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by NASA Johnson Space Center and held at the South Shore Harbour Conference Facility on May 17-19, 1995, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  11. The 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings of the 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held at the Cleveland Marriott Society Center on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  12. The 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center on May 13, 14, and 15, 1992 are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  13. Aerospace Resources for Science and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald, Ed.; Smith, Kenneth L., Ed.

    This publication on Aerospace Programs is a special edition of "Technology Education" featuring descriptions of 15 select aerospace education programs from diverse localities spanning the full range of instructional levels. Following introductory material, the monograph contains the following largely unedited program descriptions: (1) summaries of…

  14. The 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, Ron (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at ARC, Moffett Field, California, on 12-14 May 1993, are reported. Technological areas covered include the following: actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  15. iSTEM: The Aerospace Engineering Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed The Paper Plane Challenge as one of a three-part response to The Aerospace Engineering Challenge. The Aerospace Engineering Challenge was the second of three multi-part activities that they had developed with the teachers during the year. Their aim was to introduce students to the exciting world of engineering, where they…

  16. Future V/STOL Aircraft For The Pacific Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1992-01-01

    Report describes geography and transportation needs of Asian Pacific region, and describes aircraft configurations suitable for region and compares performances. Examines applications of high-speed rotorcraft, vertical/short-takeoff-and-landing (V/STOL) aircraft, and short-takeoff-and landing (STOL) aircraft. Configurations benefit commerce, tourism, and development of resources.

  17. Health monitoring studies on composite structures for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.

  18. Amplified piezoelectric actuators: from aerospace to underwater applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchilloux, Philippe; Claeyssen, Frank; Le Letty, Ronan

    2004-07-01

    Aerospace and underwater applications typically require actuators capable of large displacements, precise positioning, and fast response times. To meet these requirements, several classes of actuators based on low-voltage piezoelectric materials have been developed, and, in the case of the Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators (APA series), space qualified. The APA actuators offer large displacements (up to 1mm), large deformations (up to 3%), and large forces (up to 1kN) at low electrical power. These actuators can withstand large external forces and have successfully passed severe qualification tests such as centrifugal accelerations and vibration forces encountered during space launch. Aerospace applications of APAs include scientific instrumentation, such as telescopes and microscopes, microsatellite propulsion valves, and structural vibration control. Aeronautical applications include active flap control in aircraft wings and helicopter blades. Underwater applications focus on the silencing of ships, the piezodiagnostic (NDE) of structural defects in pipelines and hulls, and guidance systems of unmanned vehicles. This paper reviews the use of piezoelectric actuators, in particular APAs, in such applications. Qualification results, when available, are presented and discussed.

  19. Application of Smart Solid State Sensor Technology in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Dungan, L.K.; Makel, D.; Ward, B.; Androjna, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace applications require a range of chemical sensing technologies to monitor conditions in both space vehicles and aircraft operations. One example is the monitoring of oxygen. For example, monitoring of ambient oxygen (O2) levels is critical to ensuring the health, safety, and performance of humans living and working in space. Oxygen sensors can also be incorporated in detection systems to determine if hazardous leaks are occurring in space propulsion systems and storage facilities. In aeronautic applications, O2 detection has been investigated for fuel tank monitoring. However, as noted elsewhere, O2 is not the only species of interest in aerospace applications with a wide range of species of interest being relevant to understand an environmental or vehicle condition. These include combustion products such as CO, HF, HCN, and HCl, which are related to both the presence of a fire and monitoring of post-fire clean-up operations. This paper discusses the development of an electrochemical cell platform based on a polymer electrolyte, NAFION, and a three-electrode configuration. The approach has been to mature this basic platform for a range of applications and to test this system, combined with "Lick and Stick" electronics, for its viability to monitor an environment related to astronaut crew health and safety applications with an understanding that a broad range of applications can be addressed with a core technology.

  20. Studies in automatic speech recognition and its application in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michael Robinson

    Human communication is characterized in terms of the spectral and temporal dimensions of speech waveforms. Electronic speech recognition strategies based on Dynamic Time Warping and Markov Model algorithms are described and typical digit recognition error rates are tabulated. The application of Direct Voice Input (DVI) as an interface between man and machine is explored within the context of civil and military aerospace programmes. Sources of physical and emotional stress affecting speech production within military high performance aircraft are identified. Experimental results are reported which quantify fundamental frequency and coarse temporal dimensions of male speech as a function of the vibration, linear acceleration and noise levels typical of aerospace environments; preliminary indications of acoustic phonetic variability reported by other researchers are summarized. Connected whole-word pattern recognition error rates are presented for digits spoken under controlled Gz sinusoidal whole-body vibration. Correlations are made between significant increases in recognition error rate and resonance of the abdomen-thorax and head subsystems of the body. The phenomenon of vibrato style speech produced under low frequency whole-body Gz vibration is also examined. Interactive DVI system architectures and avionic data bus integration concepts are outlined together with design procedures for the efficient development of pilot-vehicle command and control protocols.

  1. Design and flight test of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight control system on the NASA F-15 test aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Edward A.; Urnes, James M., Sr.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the design, development and flight testing of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight control system performed at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), St. Louis, Missouri and at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, California. This research and development program was conducted by MDA and directed by NASA through the Dryden Flight Research Facility for the period beginning January 1991 and ending December 1993. A propulsion steering backup to the aircraft conventional flight control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on a NASA F-15 test aircraft. The Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight system utilizes collective and differential thrust changes to steer an aircraft that experiences partial or complete failure of the hydraulically actuated control surfaces. The PCA flight control research has shown that propulsion steering is a viable backup flight control mode and can assist the pilot in safe landing recovery of a fighter aircraft that has damage to or loss of the flight control surfaces. NASA, USAF and Navy evaluation test pilots stated that the F-15 PCA design provided the control necessary to land the aircraft. Moreover, the feasibility study showed that PCA technology can be directly applied to transport aircraft and provide a major improvement in the survivability of passengers and crew of controls damaged aircraft.

  2. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  3. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  4. Automated design of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Mccomb, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in structural analysis of aerospace vehicles is characterized, automated design technology is discussed, and an indication is given of the future direction of research in analysis and automated design. Representative computer programs for analysis typical of those in routine use in vehicle design activities are described, and results are shown for some selected analysis problems. Recent and planned advances in analysis capability are indicated. Techniques used to automate the more routine aspects of structural design are discussed, and some recently developed automated design computer programs are described. Finally, discussion is presented of early accomplishments in interdisciplinary automated design systems, and some indication of the future thrust of research in this field is given.

  5. ASAP Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the First Quarterly Report for the newly reconstituted Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP). The NASA Administrator rechartered the Panel on November 18,2003, to provide an independent, vigilant, and long-term oversight of NASA's safety policies and programs well beyond Return to Flight of the Space Shuttle. The charter was revised to be consistent with the original intent of Congress in enacting the statute establishing ASAP in 1967 to focus on NASA's safety and quality systems, including industrial and systems safety, risk-management and trend analysis, and the management of these activities.The charter also was revised to provide more timely feedback to NASA by requiring quarterly rather than annual reports, and by requiring ASAP to perform special assessments with immediate feedback to NASA. ASAP was positioned to help institutionalize the safety culture of NASA in the post- Stafford-Covey Return to Flight environment.

  6. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Novel Nanolaminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Martin; Mazuruk, consty

    2006-01-01

    Nanolaminate manufacturing (NLM) is a new way of developing materials whose properties can far exceed those of homogeneous materials. Traditional alloys, composites and bulk laminates tend to average the properties of the materials from which they were made. With nanostructured materials, the high density of interfaces between dissimilar materials results in novel material properties. For example, materials made -from alternating nanoscale layers of metals and oxides have exhibited thermal conductivities far below those of the oxides themselves. Also, metallic nanolaminates can have peak strengths 100 times lager than the bulk constituent metals. Recent work at MSFC has focused on the development of nickel/aluminum oxide (Ni/Al2O3)) nanolaminates. Ni/Al2O3 nanolaminates are expected to have better strength, creep and fatigue resistance, oxygen compatibility, and corrosion resistance than the traditional metal-matrix composites of this material, which has been used in a variety of aerospace applications. A chemical vapor deposition (CW) system has been developed and optimized for the deposition of nanolaminates. Nanolaminates with layer thicknesses between 10 and 300 nm have been successfully grown and characterization has included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) Nanolaminates have a large variety of potential applications. They can be tailored to have both very small and anisotropic thermal conductivities and are promising as thermal coatings for both rock$ engine components and aerobraking structures. They also have the potential to be used in aerospace applications where strength at high temperatures, corrosion resistance or resistance to hydrogen embrittlement is important. Both CVD and magnetron sputtering facilities are available for the deposition of nanolayered materials. Characterization equipment includes SEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and mechanical tensile pull

  8. Integrity assessment of preforms and thick textile reinforced composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saboktakin Rizi, Abbasali

    bundle occurred around tufting reinforcements. The variation of preform geometry was achieved by laser scanning. Furthermore, the CT capability was investigated as a means for recognizing the shapes and locations of voids in composites. Tufted composites with transverse tufting suffer less reduction in the tensile strength than those with longitudinal tufting. Tufted composites are found to have lower fatigue life ithan untufted composites, while an improved compressive strength and tensile strength at high strain rate are observed. Tufting improves the mechanical properties of tufted honeycomb composites under local compression and bending loadings. Mostly, the damage initiates from resin-rich regions around the tufting reinforcements. The acceptance of 3D tufted composites for use in primary aerospace structures is highly dependent on the accuracy and reliability of experimental data to recognize the degree to which tufting reinforcements improve or degrade the mechanical properties. In this thesis, the correlation between the tufted preforms and composite properties and the changes to mechanical properties is discussed for a specific tufting configuration. Experimental data are reported on both the low-rate and high-rate static and fatigue strengths at various stress levels. Microstructural examination is carried out by using the high resolution microscopy and CT techniques. The results of this thesis contribute to the investigation of the integrity and damage tolerance in 3D tufted composites toward certifying purposes for future transport aircraft. Since the certification of tufted composites for aerospace applications is still problematic due to the lack of dependable non-destructive evaluation techniques for their inspection and those manufacturing factors can considerably influence their performance, this is an important problem to tackle in the field of aerospace composite engineering.

  9. NASA Glenn Research in Controls and Diagnostics for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. This presentation describes the current CDB activities in support of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission, with an emphasis on activities under the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) projects of the Aviation Safety Program. Under IVHM, CDB focus is on developing advanced techniques for monitoring the health of the aircraft engine gas path with a focus on reliable and early detection of sensor, actuator and engine component faults. Under IRAC, CDB focus is on developing adaptive engine control technologies which will increase the probability of survival of aircraft in the presence of damage to flight control surfaces or to one or more engines. The technology development plans are described as well as results from recent research accomplishments.

  10. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  11. The 1990 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Lewis M. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4-6, 1990. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers as well as participation in like kind from the European Space Agency member nations. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, lithium based chemistries, and advanced technologies as they relate to high reliability operations in aerospace applications.

  12. Strain characterization of embedded aerospace smart materials using shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Andrei G.; Müller, Bernhard; Sinke, Jos; Groves, Roger M.

    2015-04-01

    The development of smart materials for embedding in aerospace composites provides enhanced functionality for future aircraft structures. Critical flight conditions like icing of the leading edges can affect the aircraft functionality and controllability. Hence, anti-icing and de-icing capabilities are used. In case of leading edges made of fibre metal laminates heater elements can be embedded between composite layers. However this local heating causes strains and stresses in the structure due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the different laminated materials. In order to characterize the structural behaviour during thermal loading full-field strain and shape measurement can be used. In this research, a shearography instrument with three spatially-distributed shearing cameras is used to measure surface displacement gradients which give a quantitative estimation of the in- and out-of-plane surface strain components. For the experimental part, two GLARE (Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy) specimens with six different embedded copper heater elements were manufactured: two copper mesh shapes (straight and S-shape), three connection techniques (soldered, spot welded and overlapped) and one straight heater element with delaminations. The surface strain behaviour of the specimens due to thermal loading was measured and analysed. The comparison of the connection techniques of heater element parts showed that the overlapped connection has the smallest effect on the surface strain distribution. Furthermore, the possibility of defect detection and defect depth characterisation close to the heater elements was also investigated.

  13. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  14. Methods for integrating optical fibers with advanced aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, Stephen H.; May, Russell G.; Murphy, Kent A.; Claus, Richard O.; Tran, Tuan A.; Miller, Mark S.

    1993-07-01

    Optical fibers are attractive candidates for sensing applications in near-term smart materials and structures, due to their inherent immunity to electromagnetic interference and ground loops, their capability for distributed and multiplexed operation, and their high sensitivity and dynamic range. These same attributes also render optical fibers attractive for avionics busses for fly-by-light systems in advanced aircraft. The integration of such optical fibers with metal and composite aircraft and aerospace materials, however, remains a limiting factor in their successful use in such applications. This paper first details methods for the practical integration of optical fiber waveguides and cable assemblies onto and into materials and structures. Physical properties of the optical fiber and coatings which affect the survivability of the fiber are then considered. Mechanisms for the transfer of the strain from matrix to fiber for sensor and data bus fibers integrated with composite structural elements are evaluated for their influence on fiber survivability, in applications where strain or impact is imparted to the assembly.

  15. Aircraft technology opportunities for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1988-01-01

    New aircraft technologies are presented that have the potential to expand the air transportation system and reduce congestion through new operating capabilities, and at the same time provide greater levels of safety and environmental compatibility. Both current and planned civil aeronautics technology at the NASA Ames, Lewis, and Langley Research Centers are addressed. The complete spectrum of current aircraft and new vehicle concepts is considered including rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotors), vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, subsonic transports, high speed transports, and hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles. New technologies for current aircraft will improve efficiency, affordability, safety, and environmental compatibility. Research and technology promises to enable development of new vehicles that will revolutionize or greatly change the transportation system. These vehicles will provide new capabilities which will lead to enormous market opportunities and economic growth, as well as improve the competitive position of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  16. Systems study of transport aircraft incorporating advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the potential benefits of utilizing advanced aluminum alloys in commercial transport aircraft and to define the effort necessary to develop fully the alloys to a viable commercial production capability. The comprehensive investigation (1) established realistic advanced aluminum alloy property goals to maximize aircraft systems effectiveness (2) identified performance and economic benefits of incorporating the advanced alloy in future advanced technology commercial aircraft designs (3) provided a recommended plan for development and integration of the alloys into commercial aircraft production (4) provided an indication of the timing and investigation required by the metal producing industry to support the projected market and (5) evaluate application of advanced aluminum alloys to other aerospace and transit systems as a secondary objective. The results of the investigation provided a roadmap and identified key issues requiring attention in an advanced aluminum alloy and applications technology development program.

  17. Development Cycle Time Simulation for Civil Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitz, William; Berardino, Frank; Golaszewski, Richard; Johnson, Jesse

    2001-01-01

    Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) will be one of the major factors affecting the future of the civil aerospace industry. This focus is the end reflection of the level of competition in the commercial large carrier aircraft industry. Aircraft manufacturer must minimize costs and pass a portion of those savings onto buyers. CTR is one strategy used to move the manufacturing firm down the cost curve. The current NASA Airframe Development Cycle Time Reduction Goal is 50% by year 2022. This goal is not achievable based on the program analysis done by the LMI/GRA team. This may mean that the current roster of NASA CTR programs needs to be reexamined or that the program technology progress factors, as determined by the NASA experts, were understated. Programs that duplicate the reductions of others should be replaced with non-duplicative programs. In addition, new programs targeting a specific part of the cycle can be developed.

  18. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    The 2-D and 3-D advance computer codes being developed for use in the design of such hypersonic aircraft as the National Aero-Space Plane require comparison of the computational results with a broad spectrum of experimental data to fully assess the validity of the codes. This is particularly true for complex flow fields with control surfaces present and for flows with separation, such as leeside flow. Therefore, the objective is to provide a hypersonic experimental data base required for validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes and for development of more thorough understanding of the flow physics necessary for these codes. This is being done by implementing a comprehensive test program for a generic all-body hypersonic aircraft model in the NASA/Ames 3.5 foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel over a broad range of test conditions to obtain pertinent surface and flowfield data. Results from the flow visualization portion of the investigation are presented.

  19. Laminar flow control for transport aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of laminar flow control into transport aircraft is discussed. Design concepts for the wing surface panel of laminar flow control transport aircraft are described. The development of small amounts of laminar flow on small commercial transports with natural or hybrid flow control is examined. Techniques for eliminating the insect contamination problem in the leading-edge region are proposed.

  20. Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chown Chou (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    In response to the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, the Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines was organized by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held on July 29-30, 1997 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio. The objective is to develop consensus among experts in the field of aerosols from gas turbine combustors and engines as to important issues and venues to be considered. Workshop participants' expertise included engine and aircraft design, combustion processes and kinetics, atmospheric science, fuels, and flight operations and instrumentation.

  1. Applications of structural optimization methods to fixed-wing aircraft and spacecraft in the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Hirokazu; Neill, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    This report is the summary of a technical survey on the applications of structural optimization in the U.S. aerospace industry through the 1980s. Since applications to rotary wing aircraft will be covered by other literature, applications to fixed-wing aircraft and spacecraft were considered. It became clear that very significant progress has been made during this decade, indicating this technology is about to become one of the practical tools in computer aided structural design.

  2. Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

    1994-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  3. Recent advances in bonded composite repair technology for metallic aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.A.; Chester, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    Advanced fiber composites such as boron/epoxy can be employed as adhesively bonded patches to repair or to reinforce metallic aerospace components. This approach provides many advantages over conventional mechanically fastened metallic patches, including improved fatigue behavior, reduced corrosion and easy conformance to complex aerodynamic contours. Bonded composite repairs have been shown to provide high levels of bond durability under aircraft operating conditions. The recent application of bonded composite repairs to military and civil aircraft is described.

  4. Unification - An international aerospace information opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Science and technology projects are becoming more and more international and interdisciplinary. Other parts of the world, notably Europe, are increasingly powerful players in the aerospace industry. This change has led to the development of various aerospace information initiatives in other countries. With scarce resources in all areas of government and industry, the NASA STI Program is reviewing its current acquisition and exchange practices and policies to factor in the changing requirements and new opportunities within the international community. Current NASA goals and activities are reviewed with a new view toward developing a scenario for establishing an international aerospace database, maintaining compatibility among national aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  5. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: Cumulative index, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 190 through 201 of 'Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography.' It includes three indexes-subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  6. Fred Haise Honored at Aerospace Appreciation Night

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired NASA astronaut and test pilot Fred Haise was honored recently by the Lancaster, Calif., Jethawks baseball team at its Aerospace Appreciation Night. Best known as one of the Apollo 13 crew, ...

  7. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  8. Unification: An international aerospace information issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1991-01-01

    Science and technology projects are becoming more and more international and interdisciplinary. Other parts of the world, notably Europe, are increasingly powerful players in the aerospace business. This change has led to the development of various aerospace information initiatives in other countries. With scarce resources in all areas of government and industry, the NASA STI Program is reviewing its current acquisition and exchange practices and policies to factor in the changing requirements and new opportunities within the international community. Current NASA goals and activities are reviewed with a view toward developing a scenario for establishing an international aerospace data base, maintaining compatibility among national aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  10. The 11th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical devices and drives developed for aerospace applications are described. Satellite flywheels, magnetic bearings, a missile umbilical system, a cartridge firing device, and an oiler for satellite bearing lubrication are among the topics discussed.

  11. The 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Numerous topics related to aerospace mechanisms were discussed. Deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, hydraulic actuators, positioning mechanisms, electric motors, communication satellite instruments, redundancy, lubricants, bearings, space stations, rotating joints, and teleoperators are among the topics covered.

  12. The 11th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Various mechanisms in aerospace engineering were presented at this conference. Specifications, design, and use of spacecraft and missile components are discussed, such as tail assemblies, radiometers, magnetormeters, pins, reaction wheels, ball bearings, actuators, mirrors, nutation dampers, airfoils, solar arrays, etc.

  13. The 25th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two papers are documented regarding aeronautical and spacecraft hardware. Technological areas include actuators, latches, cryogenic mechanisms, vacuum tribology, bearings, robotics, ground support equipment for aerospace applications, and other mechanisms.

  14. Unification: An international aerospace information opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.; Carroll, Bonnie C.

    1992-01-01

    Science and technology projects are becoming more and more international and interdisciplinary. Other parts of the world, notably Europe, are increasingly powerful players in the aerospace industry. This change has led to the development of various aerospace information initiatives in other countries. With scarce resources in all areas of government and industry, the NASA STI Program is reviewing its current acquisition and exchange practices and policies to factor in the changing requirements and new opportunities within the international community. Current NASA goals and activities are reviewed with a new view toward developing a scenario for establishing an international aerospace database, maintaining compatibility among national aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  15. The 24th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings of the symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  16. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  17. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  18. Probability and Statistics in Aerospace Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.; Howell, L. W.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph was prepared to give the practicing engineer a clear understanding of probability and statistics with special consideration to problems frequently encountered in aerospace engineering. It is conceived to be both a desktop reference and a refresher for aerospace engineers in government and industry. It could also be used as a supplement to standard texts for in-house training courses on the subject.

  19. The 2000 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, J. C. (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 33nd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 14-16, 2000. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, lithium-ion, lithium-sulfur, and silver-zinc technologies.

  20. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  1. The 1999 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, J. C. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 32nd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 16-18, 1999. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the US Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies.

  2. The 2001 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeff C. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 34th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center, November 27-29, 2001. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the US Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies.

  3. Crew factors in the aerospace workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of technological change in the aerospace workplace on pilot performance are discussed. Attention is given to individual and physiological problems, crew and interpersonal problems, environmental and task problems, organization and management problems, training and intervention problems. A philosophy and conceptual framework for conducting research on these problems are presented and two aerospace studies are examined which investigated: (1) the effect of leader personality on crew effectiveness and (2) the working undersea habitat known as Aquarius.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Arctic CH4 and net CO2 Fluxes Using Nested Chamber, Tower, Aircraft, Remote Sensing, and Modeling Approaches for Regional Flux Identification and Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, Walter; Kalhori, Aram; Miller, Charles; Gioli, Beniamino; Luus, Kristina; Chang, Rachel; Lindaas, Jakob; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steve; Zona, Donatella

    2015-04-01

    The hydrological, cryogenic, topographic, environmental, biotic, and metabolic heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes can be large even despite a seemingly homogeneous landscape. The error of estimating and simulating fluxes due to the existing heterogeneity is commonly overlooked in regional and global estimates. Here we evaluate the pattern and controls on spatial heterogeneity on CH4 and CO2 fluxes over varying spatial scales. Data from the north slope of Alaska from chambers, up to a 16 year CO2 flux record from up to 7 permanent towers, over 20 portable tower locations, eddy covariance CH4 fluxes over several years and sites, new year-around CO2 and CH4 flux installations, hundreds of hours of aircraft concentration and fluxes, and terrestrial biosphere data driven models and flux inverse modeling, are used to evaluate the spatial variability of fluxes and to better estimate regional fluxes. Significant heterogeneity of fluxes is identified at varying scales from sub-meter scale to >100km. A careful consideration of the effect that heterogeneity has on estimating ecosystem fluxes is critical to reliable regional and global estimates. The combination of eddy covariance tower flux, aircraft, remote sensing, and modeling can be used to provide reliable, accurate, regional assessments of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from large areas of heterogeneous landscape.

  5. Aerospace Technology Innovation. Volume 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Janelle (Editor); Cousins, Liz (Editor); Bennett, Evonne (Editor); Vendette, Joel (Editor); West, Kenyon (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Whether finding new applications for existing NASA technologies or developing unique marketing strategies to demonstrate them, NASA's offices are committed to identifying unique partnering opportunities. Through their efforts NASA leverages resources through joint research and development, and gains new insight into the core areas relevant to all NASA field centers. One of the most satisfying aspects of my job comes when I learn of a mission-driven technology that can be spun-off to touch the lives of everyday people. NASA's New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging is one such initiative. Not only does it promise to provide greater dividends for the country's investment in aerospace research, but also to enhance the American quality of life. This issue of Innovation highlights the new NASA-sponsored initiative in medical imaging. Early in 2001, NASA announced the launch of the New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging initiative to promote the partnership and commercialization of NASA technologies in the medical imaging industry. NASA and the medical imaging industry share a number of crosscutting technologies in areas such as high-performance detectors and image-processing tools. Many of the opportunities for joint development and technology transfer to the medical imaging market also hold the promise for future spin back to NASA.

  6. Graphite Nanoreinforcements for Aerospace Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drzal, Lawrence T.

    2005-01-01

    New advances in the reinforcement of polymer matrix composite materials are critical for advancement of the aerospace industry. Reinforcements are required to have good mechanical and thermal properties, large aspect ratio, excellent adhesion to the matrix, and cost effectiveness. To fulfill the requirements, nanocomposites in which the matrix is filled with nanoscopic reinforcing phases having dimensions typically in the range of 1nm to 100 nm show considerably higher strength and modulus with far lower reinforcement content than their conventional counterparts. Graphite is a layered material whose layers have dimensions in the nanometer range and are held together by weak Van der Waals forces. Once these layers are exfoliated and dispersed in a polymer matrix as nano platelets, they have large aspect ratios. Graphite has an elastic modulus that is equal to the stiffest carbon fiber and 10-15 times that of other inorganic reinforcements, and it is also electrically and thermally conductive. If the appropriate surface treatment can be found for graphite, its exfoliation and dispersion in a polymer matrix will result in a composite with excellent mechanical properties, superior thermal stability, and very good electrical and thermal properties at very low reinforcement loadings.

  7. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  8. Development of Parametric Mass and Volume Models for an Aerospace SOFC/Gas Turbine Hybrid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornabene, Robert; Wang, Xiao-yen; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2005-01-01

    In aerospace power systems, mass and volume are key considerations to produce a viable design. The utilization of fuel cells is being studied for a commercial aircraft electrical power unit. Based on preliminary analyses, a SOFC/gas turbine system may be a potential solution. This paper describes the parametric mass and volume models that are used to assess an aerospace hybrid system design. The design tool utilizes input from the thermodynamic system model and produces component sizing, performance, and mass estimates. The software is designed such that the thermodynamic model is linked to the mass and volume model to provide immediate feedback during the design process. It allows for automating an optimization process that accounts for mass and volume in its figure of merit. Each component in the system is modeled with a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches. A description of the assumptions and design analyses is presented.

  9. A Briefing on Metrics and Risks for Autonomous Decision-Making in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai Frank; Galvan, Jose Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Significant technology advances will enable future aerospace systems to safely and reliably make decisions autonomously, or without human interaction. The decision-making may result in actions that enable an aircraft or spacecraft in an off-nominal state or with slightly degraded components to achieve mission performance and safety goals while reducing or avoiding damage to the aircraft or spacecraft. Some key technology enablers for autonomous decision-making include: a continuous state awareness through the maturation of the prognostics health management field, novel sensor development, and the considerable gains made in computation power and data processing bandwidth versus system size. Sophisticated algorithms and physics based models coupled with these technological advances allow reliable assessment of a system, subsystem, or components. Decisions that balance mission objectives and constraints with remaining useful life predictions can be made autonomously to maintain safety requirements, optimal performance, and ensure mission objectives. This autonomous approach to decision-making will come with new risks and benefits, some of which will be examined in this paper. To start, an account of previous work to categorize or quantify autonomy in aerospace systems will be presented. In addition, a survey of perceived risks in autonomous decision-making in the context of piloted aircraft and remotely piloted or completely autonomous unmanned autonomous systems (UAS) will be presented based on interviews that were conducted with individuals from industry, academia, and government.

  10. Fibre reinforced composites in aircraft construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soutis, C.

    2005-02-01

    Fibrous composites have found applications in aircraft from the first flight of the Wright Brothers’ Flyer 1, in North Carolina on December 17, 1903, to the plethora of uses now enjoyed by them on both military and civil aircrafts, in addition to more exotic applications on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), space launchers and satellites. Their growing use has risen from their high specific strength and stiffness, when compared to the more conventional materials, and the ability to shape and tailor their structure to produce more aerodynamically efficient structural configurations. In this paper, a review of recent advances using composites in modern aircraft construction is presented and it is argued that fibre reinforced polymers, especially carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) can and will in the future contribute more than 50% of the structural mass of an aircraft. However, affordability is the key to survival in aerospace manufacturing, whether civil or military, and therefore effort should be devoted to analysis and computational simulation of the manufacturing and assembly process as well as the simulation of the performance of the structure, since they are intimately connected.

  11. Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Ethane (C2H6) From Aircraft and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Spectra in the 3000/ cm Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Harvey, G. A.; Devi, V. Malathy; Stokes, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    A number or prominent Q-branches or the upsilon(sub 7) band or C2H6 have been identified near 3000/ cm in aircraft and ground-based infrared solar absorption spectra. The aircraft spectra provide the column amount above 12 km at various altitudes. The column amount is strongly correlated with tropopause height and can be described by a constant mixing ratio of 0.46 ppbv in the upper troposphere and a mixing ratio scale height of 3.9 km above the tropopause. The, ground-based spectra yield a column of 9.0 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm above 2.1 km; combining these results implies a tropospheric mixing ratio of approximately 0.63 ppbv.

  12. Infrared measurements of atmospheric ethane (C2H6) from aircraft and ground-based solar absorption spectra in the 3000/cm region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Harvey, G. A.; Devi, V. M.; Stokes, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    A number of prominent Q-branches of the nu-7 band of C2H6 have been identified near 3000/cm in aircraft and ground-based infrared solar absorption spectra. The aircraft spectra provide the column amount above 12 km at various altitudes. The column amount is strongly correlated with tropopause height and can be described by a constant mixing ratio of 0.46 ppbv in the upper troposphere and a mixing ratio scale height of 3.9 km above the tropopause. The ground-based spectra yield a column of 9.0 x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm above 2.1 km; combining these results implies a tropospheric mixing ratio of approximately 0.63 ppbv.

  13. Jet aircraft engine emissions database development: 1992 military, charter, and nonscheduled traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metwally, Munir

    1995-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions database for the military, charter, and non-scheduled traffic for the year 1992 were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report also includes a comparison with a previous emission database for year 1990. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  14. Aircraft-type dependency of contrail evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterstrasser, S.; Görsch, N.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of aircraft type on contrail evolution is assessed using a large eddy simulation model with Lagrangian ice microphysics. Six different aircraft ranging from the small regional airliner Bombardier CRJ to the largest aircraft Airbus A380 are taken into account. Differences in wake vortex properties and fuel flow lead to considerable variations in the early contrail geometric depth and ice crystal number. Larger aircraft produce contrails with more ice crystals (assuming that the number of initially generated ice crystals per kilogram fuel is constant). These initial differences are reduced in the first minutes, as the ice crystal loss during the vortex phase is stronger for larger aircraft. In supersaturated air, contrails of large aircraft are much deeper after 5 min than those of small aircraft. A parameterization for the final vertical displacement of the wake vortex system is provided, depending only on the initial vortex circulation and stratification. Cloud resolving simulations are used to examine whether the aircraft-induced initial differences have a long-lasting mark. These simulations suggest that the synoptic scenario controls the contrail cirrus evolution qualitatively. However, quantitative differences between the contrail cirrus properties of the various aircraft remain over the total simulation period of 6 h. The total extinctions of A380-produced contrails are about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than those from contrails of a Bombardier CRJ.

  15. Novel atmospheric extinction measurement techniques for aerospace laser system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Novel techniques for laser beam atmospheric extinction measurements, suitable for manned and unmanned aerospace vehicle applications, are presented in this paper. Extinction measurements are essential to support the engineering development and the operational employment of a variety of aerospace electro-optical sensor systems, allowing calculation of the range performance attainable with such systems in current and likely future applications. Such applications include ranging, weaponry, Earth remote sensing and possible planetary exploration missions performed by satellites and unmanned flight vehicles. Unlike traditional LIDAR methods, the proposed techniques are based on measurements of the laser energy (intensity and spatial distribution) incident on target surfaces of known geometric and reflective characteristics, by means of infrared detectors and/or infrared cameras calibrated for radiance. Various laser sources can be employed with wavelengths from the visible to the far infrared portions of the spectrum, allowing for data correlation and extended sensitivity. Errors affecting measurements performed using the proposed methods are discussed in the paper and algorithms are proposed that allow a direct determination of the atmospheric transmittance and spatial characteristics of the laser spot. These algorithms take into account a variety of linear and non-linear propagation effects. Finally, results are presented relative to some experimental activities performed to validate the proposed techniques. Particularly, data are presented relative to both ground and flight trials performed with laser systems operating in the near infrared (NIR) at λ = 1064 nm and λ = 1550 nm. This includes ground tests performed with 10 Hz and 20 kHz PRF NIR laser systems in a large variety of atmospheric conditions, and flight trials performed with a 10 Hz airborne NIR laser system installed on a TORNADO aircraft, flying up to altitudes of 22,000 ft.

  16. Development of lightweight structural health monitoring systems for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Matthew

    This thesis investigates the development of structural health monitoring systems (SHM) for aerospace applications. The work focuses on each aspect of a SHM system covering novel transducer technologies and damage detection techniques to detect and locate damage in metallic and composite structures. Secondly the potential of energy harvesting and power arrangement methodologies to provide a stable power source is assessed. Finally culminating in the realisation of smart SHM structures. 1. Transducer Technology A thorough experimental study of low profile, low weight novel transducers not normally used for acoustic emission (AE) and acousto-ultrasonics (AU) damage detection was conducted. This included assessment of their performance when exposed to aircraft environments and feasibility of embedding these transducers in composites specimens in order to realise smart structures. 2. Damage Detection An extensive experimental programme into damage detection utilising AE and AU were conducted in both composites and metallic structures. These techniques were used to assess different damage mechanism within these materials. The same transducers were used for novel AE location techniques coupled with AU similarity assessment to successfully detect and locate damage in a variety of structures. 3. Energy Harvesting and Power Management Experimental investigations and numerical simulations were undertaken to assess the power generation levels of piezoelectric and thermoelectric generators for typical vibration and temperature differentials which exist in the aerospace environment. Furthermore a power management system was assessed to demonstrate the ability of the system to take the varying nature of the input power and condition it to a stable power source for a system. 4. Smart Structures The research conducted is brought together into a smart carbon fibre wing showcasing the novel embedded transducers for AE and AU damage detection and location, as well as vibration energy

  17. Processing infrared images of aircraft lapjoints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Hazari; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for processing IR images of aging aircraft lapjoint data are discussed. Attention is given to a technique for detecting disbonds in aircraft lapjoints which clearly delineates the disbonded region from the bonded regions. The technique is weak on unpainted aircraft skin surfaces, but can be overridden by using a self-adhering contact sheet. Neural network analysis on raw temperature data has been shown to be an effective tool for visualization of images. Numerical simulation results show the above processing technique to be an effective tool in delineating the disbonds.

  18. Analysis and test of low profile aluminum aerospace tank dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, R.; Wilhelm, J. M.

    1993-12-01

    In order to increase the structural performance of cryogenic tanks, the aerospace industry is beginning to employ low-profile bulkheads in new generation launch vehicle designs. This report details the analysis and test of one such dome made from 2219 aluminum. Such domes have two potential failure modes under internal pressure, general tensile failure and hoop compression buckling (in regions near the equator). The test determined the buckling load and ultimate tensile load of the hardware and showed that both compared well with the analysis predictions. This effort was conducted under the auspices of NASA and the General Dynamics Cryogenic Tank Technology Program (CTTP).

  19. Analysis and test of low profile aluminum aerospace tank dome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, R.; Wilhelm, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to increase the structural performance of cryogenic tanks, the aerospace industry is beginning to employ low-profile bulkheads in new generation launch vehicle designs. This report details the analysis and test of one such dome made from 2219 aluminum. Such domes have two potential failure modes under internal pressure, general tensile failure and hoop compression buckling (in regions near the equator). The test determined the buckling load and ultimate tensile load of the hardware and showed that both compared well with the analysis predictions. This effort was conducted under the auspices of NASA and the General Dynamics Cryogenic Tank Technology Program (CTTP).

  20. Comparison and analysis of two modern methods in the structural health monitoring techniques in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Role of air transport in the development and expansion of world trade leading to economic growth of different countries is undeniable. Continuing the world's trade sustainability without expansion of aerospace is next to impossible. Based on enormous expenses for design, manufacturing and maintenance of different aerospace structures, correct and timely diagnosis of defects in those structures to provide for maximum safety has the highest importance. Amid all this, manufacturers of commercial and even military aircrafts are after production of less expensive, lighter, higher fuel economy and nonetheless, higher safety. As such, two events has prevailed in the aerospace industries: (1) Utilization of composites for the fuselage as well as other airplane parts, (2) using modern manufacturing methods. Arrival of two these points have created the need for upgrading of the present systems as well as innovating newer methods in diagnosing and detection of defects in aerospace structures. Despite applicability of nondestructive testing (NDT) methods in aerospace for decades, due to some limitations in the defect detection's certainty, particularly for composite material and complex geometries, shadow of doubt has fallen on maintaining complete confidence in using NDT. These days, two principal approach are ahead to tackle the above mentioned problems. First, approach for the short range is the creative and combinational mean to increase the reliability of NDT and for the long run, innovation of new methods on the basis of structural health monitoring (SHM) is in order. This has led to new philosophy in the maintenance area and in some instances; field of design has also been affected by it.

  1. Aerospace induction motor actuators driven from a 20-kHz power link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace electromechanical actuators utilizing induction motors are under development in sizes up to 40 kW. While these actuators have immediate application to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, several potential applications are currently under study including the Advanced Aircraft Program. Several recent advances developed for the Space Station Freedom have allowed induction motors to be selected as a first choice for such applications. Among these technologies are bi-directional electronics and high frequency power distribution techniques. Each of these technologies are discussed with emphasis on their impact upon induction motor operation.

  2. Computerized structural sizing at NASA Langley Research Center. [low mass design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. J.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Walz, J. E.; Bush, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Programs at the NASA Langley Research Center associated with the development of computerized structural sizing technology are reviewed. Particular attention is given to (1) lightweight columns for space structure applications, (2) stiffened composite panels for aerospace structures, (3) thermal structures for high-speed aircraft and space vehicles, (4) structural sizing methodology for finite-element structural models, (5) the sizing of large complex structural systems in multidisciplinary environments. Improvements to computational efficiency are noted with reference to a reduced number of sizing variables, a reduced number of constraints, and improved sizing algorithms.

  3. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  4. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  5. Mortality of aerospace workers exposed to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R W; Kelsh, M A; Zhao, K; Heringer, S

    1998-07-01

    We measured mortality rates in a cohort of 20,508 aerospace workers who were followed up over the period 1950-1993. A total of 4,733 workers had occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. In addition, trichloroethylene was present in some of the washing and drinking water used at the work site. We developed a job-exposure matrix to classify all jobs by trichloroethylene exposure levels into four categories ranging from "none" to "high" exposure. We calculated standardized mortality ratios for the entire cohort and the trichloroethylene exposed subcohort. In the standardized mortality ratio analyses, we observed a consistent elevation for nonmalignant respiratory disease, which we attribute primarily to the higher background rates of respiratory disease in this region. We also compared trichloroethylene-exposed workers with workers in the "low" and "none" exposure categories. Mortality rate ratios for nonmalignant respiratory disease were near or less than 1.00 for trichloroethylene exposure groups. We observed elevated rare ratios for ovarian cancer among those with peak exposure at medium and high levels] relative risk (RR) = 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84-8.99] and among women with high cumulative exposure (RR = 7.09; 95% CI = 2.14-23.54). Among those with peak exposures at medium and high levels, we observed slightly elevated rate ratios for cancers of the kidney (RR = 1.89; 95% CI = 0.85-4.23), bladder (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.52-3.81), and prostate (RR = 1.47; 95% CI = 0.85-2.55). Our findings do not indicate an association between trichloroethylene exposure and respiratory cancer, liver cancer, leukemia or lymphoma, or all cancers combined. PMID:9647907

  6. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  7. Combustion Processes in the Aerospace Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggett, Clayton

    1969-01-01

    The aerospace environment introduces new and enhanced fire hazards because the special atmosphere employed may increase the frequency and intensity of fires, because the confinement associated with aerospace systems adversely affects the dynamics of fire development and control, and because the hostile external environments limit fire control and rescue operations. Oxygen enriched atmospheres contribute to the fire hazard in aerospace systems by extending the list of combustible fuels, increasing the probability of ignition, and increasing the rates of fire spread and energy release. A system for classifying atmospheres according to the degree of fire hazard, based on the heat capacity of the atmosphere per mole of oxygen, is suggested. A brief exploration of the dynamics of chamber fires shows that such fires will exhibit an exponential growth rate and may grow to dangerous size in a very short time. Relatively small quantities of fuel and oxygen can produce a catastrophic fire in a closed chamber.

  8. Heart-Lung Interactions in Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, Gordon Kim

    1991-01-01

    Few of the heart-lung interactions that are discussed have been studied in any detail in the aerospace environment, but is seems that many such interactions must occur in the setting of altered accelerative loadings and pressure breathing. That few investigations are in progress suggests that clinical and academic laboratory investigators and aerospace organizations are further apart than during the pioneering work on pressure breathing and acceleration tolerance in the 1940s. The purpose is to reintroduce some of the perennial problems of aviation physiology as well as some newer aerospace concerns that may be of interest. Many possible heart-lung interactions are pondered, by necessity often drawing on data from within the aviation field, collected before the modern understanding of these interactions developed, or on recent laboratory data that may not be strictly applicable. In the field of zero-gravity effects, speculation inevitably outruns the sparse available data.

  9. NSWC Crane Aerospace Cell Test History Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harry; Moore, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    The Aerospace Cell Test History Database was developed to provide project engineers and scientists ready access to the data obtained from testing of aerospace cell designs at Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division. The database is intended for use by all aerospace engineers and scientists involved in the design of power systems for satellites. Specifically, the database will provide a tool for project engineers to review the progress of their test at Crane and to have ready access to data for evaluation. Additionally, the database will provide a history of test results that designers can draw upon to answer questions about cell performance under certain test conditions and aid in selection of a cell for a satellite battery. Viewgraphs are included.

  10. Sealed aerospace metal-hydride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine

    1992-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride and silver metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications. There is a growing market for smaller, lower cost satellites which require higher energy density power sources than aerospace nickel-cadmium at a lower cost than space nickel-hydrogen. These include small LEO satellites, tactical military satellites and satellite constellation programs such as Iridium and Brilliant Pebbles. Small satellites typically do not have the spacecraft volume or the budget required for nickel-hydrogen batteries. NiCd's do not have adequate energy density as well as other problems such as overcharge capability and memory effort. Metal hydride batteries provide the ideal solution for these applications. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems.

  11. Knowledge-based diagnosis for aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The need for automated diagnosis in aerospace systems and the approach of using knowledge-based systems are examined. Research issues in knowledge-based diagnosis which are important for aerospace applications are treated along with a review of recent relevant research developments in Artificial Intelligence. The design and operation of some existing knowledge-based diagnosis systems are described. The systems described and compared include the LES expert system for liquid oxygen loading at NASA Kennedy Space Center, the FAITH diagnosis system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the PES procedural expert system developed at SRI International, the CSRL approach developed at Ohio State University, the StarPlan system developed by Ford Aerospace, the IDM integrated diagnostic model, and the DRAPhys diagnostic system developed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  12. Directory of aerospace safety specialized information sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, E. A.; Rubens, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    A directory is presented to make available to the aerospace safety community a handbook of organizations and experts in specific, well-defined areas of safety technology. It is designed for the safety specialist as an aid for locating both information sources and individual points of contact (experts) in engineering related fields. The file covers sources of data in aerospace design, tests, as well as information in hazard and failure cause identification, accident analysis, materials characteristics, and other related subject areas. These 171 organizations and their staff members, hopefully, should provide technical information in the form of documentation, data and consulting expertise. These will be sources that have assembled and collated their information, so that it will be useful in the solution of engineering problems. One of the goals of the project in the United States that have and are willing to share data of value to the aerospace safety community.

  13. Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Research efforts to reduce the dependence of the aerospace industry on strategic metals, such as cobalt (Co), columbium (Cb), tantalum (Ta), and chromium (Cr), by providing the materials technology needed to minimize the strategic metal content of critical aerospace components for gas turbine engines are addressed. Thrusts in three technology areas are identified: near term activities in the area of strategic element substitution; intermediate-range activities in the area of materials processing; and long term, high risk activities in the area of 'new classes' of high temprature metallic materials. Specifically, the role of cobalt in nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys vital to the aerospace industry is examined along with the mechanical and physical properties of intermetallics that will contain a minimum of the stragetic metals.

  14. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  15. Aerospace manpower transfer to small business enterprises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a program to effect transfer of aerospace professional people from the ranks of the unemployed into gainful employment in the small business community was investigated. The effectiveness of accomplishing transfer of technology from the aerospace effort into the private sector through migration of people rather than products or hardware alone was also studied. Two basic methodologies were developed. One involves the matching of ex-aerospace professionals and small companies according to their mutual needs. A training and indoctrination program is aimed at familiarizing the professional with the small company environment, and a program of follow-up counseling is defined. The second methodology incorporates efforts to inform and arouse interest among the nonaerospace business community toward affirmative action programs that will serve mutual self-interests of the individuals, companies, and communities involved.

  16. Machine intelligence and autonomy for aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Ewald (Editor); Lum, Henry (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present volume discusses progress toward intelligent robot systems in aerospace applications, NASA Space Program automation and robotics efforts, the supervisory control of telerobotics in space, machine intelligence and crew/vehicle interfaces, expert-system terms and building tools, and knowledge-acquisition for autonomous systems. Also discussed are methods for validation of knowledge-based systems, a design methodology for knowledge-based management systems, knowledge-based simulation for aerospace systems, knowledge-based diagnosis, planning and scheduling methods in AI, the treatment of uncertainty in AI, vision-sensing techniques in aerospace applications, image-understanding techniques, tactile sensing for robots, distributed sensor integration, and the control of articulated and deformable space structures.

  17. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  18. The comprehensive aerospace index (CASI): Tracking the economic performance of the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattedi, Adriana Prest; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Ramos, Fernando Manuel; Rosa, Reinaldo Roberto

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we described the Comprehensive AeroSpace Index (CASI), a financial index aimed at representing the economic performance of the aerospace industry. CASI is build upon a data set of approximately 20 years of daily close prices set, from January 1987 to June 2007, from a comprehensive sample of leading aerospace-related companies with stocks negotiated on the New York Exchange (NYSE) and on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. We also introduced the sub-indices CASI-AERO, for aeronautical segment, and CASI-SAT, for satellite segment, and considered the relation between them. These three indices are compared to others aerospace indices and to more traditional general financial indices like DJIA, S&P500 and Nasdaq. Our results have shown that the CASI is an index that describes very well the aerospace sector behavior, since it is able to reflect the aeronautical segment comportment as well as the satellite one. Therefore, in this sense, it can be considered as a representative index of the aerospace sector. Moreover, the creation of two sub-indices, the CASI-AERO and the CASI-SAT, allows to elucidate capital movements within the aerospace sector, particularly those of speculative nature, like the dot.com bubble and crash of 1998-2001.

  19. Aerospace NESHAP: A collaborative approach to implementation

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, M.; Lee, A.; Williamson, C.; Willenberg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of the Aerospace National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) is to minimize emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from major sources who manufacture or rework aerospace vehicles or components. The NESHAP requires emission reductions through implementation of work practices, application of slower evaporating solvents and coatings with low-HAP and low-VOC content, usage of high transfer efficiency spray equipment, and installation of high capture efficiency exhaust filtration for coatings containing metals. The rule also requires extensive monitoring, recordkeeping, and self-reporting to track compliance. For existing sources the rule becomes effective September 1,1998. Over the past year the Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency (PSAPCA) has worked with the Boeing Company and EPA to identify the requirements of the aerospace NESHAP, understand what it means in everyday practice, and develop an enforcement strategy for ensuring compliance. A workshop was held with aerospace manufacturers, local regulators, and EPA to discuss implementation of the rule. Issues regarding compliance efforts and determinations were openly discussed. Subsequent to the workshop, PSAPCA and the Boeing Company participated in several mock inspections to review facility compliance efforts before the rule became effective. Collaborative efforts also ensued to develop operating permit monitoring requirements. Aerospace NESHAP requirements were incorporated into these permits. There are still questions regarding compliance determinations that must be further discussed and resolved. But by using the collaborative approach and having regulators and sources working together, there is a process to work out answers and approaches that will lead to an increased mutual understanding of the aerospace NESHAP and eventual compliance with the standard.

  20. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  1. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  2. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported

  3. Development of a teaching tool to encourage high school students to study aerospace technical subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gale, Anita; Edwards, Dick

    1998-01-01

    This report details the efforts to develop a design competition aimed at high school students which will encourage them to study aerospace technical subjects. It has been shown that such competitions - based on an industry simulation game - are valuable ways to energize high school students to study in this area. Under the grant, a new competition scenario was developed, in keeping with NASA-Dryden's mission to develop aircraft and foster knowledge about aeronautics. Included are preliminary background materials and information which, if the grant is continued, would form the basis of a national competition for high school students, wherein they would design an Aerospaceport in a future year, taking into consideration the requirements of aircraft, spacecraft- ground transportation systems, passengers who use the facility, and employees who operate it. Many of the Competition methods were studied and tested during two existing local competitions in the disadvantaged communities of Lancaster and Victorville, California.

  4. Scenario-Based Specification and Evaluation of Architectures for Health Monitoring of Aerospace Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Sundaram, P.

    2001-01-01

    HUMS systems have been an area of increased research in the recent times due to two main reasons: (a) increase in the occurrences of accidents in the aerospace, and (b) stricter FAA regulations on aircrafts maintenance [2]. There are several problems associated with the maintenance of aircrafts that the HUMS systems can solve through the use of several monitoring technologies.This paper documents our methodology of employing scenarios in the specification and evaluation of architecture for HUMS. Section 2 investigates related works that use scenarios in software development. Section 3 describes how we use scenarios in our work, which is followed by a demonstration of our methods in the development of KUMS in section 4. Conclusion summarizes results.

  5. The 1993 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 26th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on 16-18 Nov. 1993. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including various bipolar designs.

  6. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference: Exectutive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The papers from this conference are being published in a separate volume as NASA CP-3298.

  7. The Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    The aerospace vehicle interactive design (AVID) is a computer aided design that was developed for the conceptual and preliminary design of aerospace vehicles. The AVID system evolved from the application of several design approaches in an advanced concepts environment in which both mission requirements and vehicle configurations are continually changing. The basic AVID software facilitates the integration of independent analysis programs into a design system where the programs can be executed individually for analysis or executed in groups for design iterations and parametric studies. Programs integrated into an AVID system for launch vehicle design include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, mass properties, and economics.

  8. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  9. The 1998 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 31st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on October 27-29, 1998. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, silver-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-based technologies, as well as results from destructive physical analyses on various cell chemistries.

  10. Aerospace Applications of Integer and Combinatorial Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in formulating and solving integer and combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem, for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on an orbiting platform and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  11. Aerospace applications on integer and combinatorial optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in formulating and solving integer and combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem. for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on an orbiting platform and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  12. Aerospace applications of integer and combinatorial optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in solving combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem, for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on a large space structure and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  13. Second Conference on NDE for Aerospace Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodis, Kenneth W. (Compiler); Bryson, Craig C. (Compiler); Workman, Gary L. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation and inspection procedures must constantly improve rapidly in order to keep pace with corresponding advances being made in aerospace material and systems. In response to this need, the 1989 Conference was organized to provide a forum for discussion between the materials scientists, systems designers, and NDE engineers who produce current and future aerospace systems. It is anticipated that problems in current systems can be resolved more quickly and that new materials and structures can be designed and manufactured in such a way as to be more easily inspected and to perform reliably over the life cycle of the system.

  14. The 1992 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 23rd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 15-19, 1992. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including sodium-sulfur and various bipolar designs.

  15. The 1997 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 30th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 18-20, 1997. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, lithium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies, as well as various aspects of nickel electrode design.

  16. NASA aerospace database subject scope: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Outlined here is the subject scope of the NASA Aerospace Database, a publicly available subset of the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) Database. Topics of interest to NASA are outlined and placed within the framework of the following broad aerospace subject categories: aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry and materials, engineering, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical and computer sciences, physics, social sciences, space sciences, and general. A brief discussion of the subject scope is given for each broad area, followed by a similar explanation of each of the narrower subject fields that follow. The subject category code is listed for each entry.

  17. Aircraft noise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The problems related to aircraft noise were studied. Physical origin (sound), human reaction (noise), quantization of noise and sound sources of aircraft noise are discussed. Noise abatement at the source, technical, fleet-political and air traffic measures are explained. The measurements and future developments are also discussed. The position of Lufthansa as regards aircraft noise problems is depicted.

  18. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  19. Aerodynamic aircraft design methods and their notable applications: Survey of the activity in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, Kozo; Takanashi, Susumu

    1991-01-01

    An overview of aerodynamic aircraft design methods and their recent applications in Japan is presented. A design code which was developed at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and is in use now is discussed, hence, most of the examples are the result of the collaborative work between heavy industry and the National Aerospace Laboratory. A wide variety of applications in transonic to supersonic flow regimes are presented. Although design of aircraft elements for external flows are the main focus, some of the internal flow applications are also presented. Recent applications of the design code, using the Navier Stokes and Euler equations in the analysis mode, include the design of HOPE (a space vehicle) and Upper Surface Blowing (USB) aircraft configurations.

  20. Reach and its Impact: NASA and US Aerospace Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    REACH is a European law that threatens to impact materials used within the US aerospace communities, including NASA. The presentation briefly covers REACH and generally, its perceived impacts to NASA and the aerospace community within the US.

  1. Aerospace engineers: We're tomorrow-minded people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Brief job-related autobiographical sketches of engineers working on NASA aerospace projects are presented. Career and educational guidance is offered to students thinking about entering the aerospace field.

  2. 76 FR 1600 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Sector Panel: Deloitte Touche, AIAC, Minister of Transport, NRC. 10:30-11:00 Coffee break-- Networking... 2009 Canada was the United States' 6th largest aerospace export market, and in many aerospace...

  3. Aerospace Technicians: We're Tomorrow-Minded People

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Brief job-related autobiographical sketches of technicians working on NASA aerospace projects are presented. Career and educational guidance is offered to students thinking about entering the field of aerospace technology.

  4. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The general objective of the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program was to conduct research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and associated thermal gradient structures. The following research areas were actively investigated: (1) mechanical and environmental degradation mechanisms in advanced light metals and composites; (2) aerospace materials science; (3) mechanics of materials and composites for aerospace structures; and (4) thermal gradient structures.

  5. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  6. A preliminary investigation of the potential applicability of the IPAD system to non-aerospace industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbert, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the applicability of the planned Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system to the design activities of non-aerospace industries was carried out. It was determined that IPAD could be of significant benefit to a number of industries, with the most likely users being the heavy construction and automotive industries. Two additional short studies were initiated to investigate the possible impact of IPAD on a national energy program and on urban and regional planning activities of local and state governments. These initial studies indicated the possibility of significant payoff in these areas and the need for further investigations. It was also determined that utilization of IPAD by non-aerospace industries will probably involve a long stepwise process, since these industries maintain a policy of gradual introduction of new technology.

  7. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  8. Application of heuristic optimization in aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenning

    Genetic algorithms and the related heuristic optimization strategies are introduced and their applications in the aircraft design are developed. Generally speaking, genetic algorithms belong to non-deterministic direct search methods, which are most powerful in finding optimum or near-optimum solutions of a very complex system where a little priori knowledge is known. Therefore they have a wide application in aerospace systems. Two major aircraft optimal design projects are illustrated in this dissertation. The first is the application of material optimization of aligned fiber laminate composites in the presence of stress concentrations. After a large number of tests on laminates with different layers, genetic algorithms find an alignment pattern in a certain range for the Boeing Co. specified material. The second project is the application of piezoelectric actuator placement on a generic tail skins to reduce the 2nd mode vibration caused by buffet, which is part of a Boeing project to control the buffet effect on aircraft. In this project, genetic algorithms are closely involved with vibration analysis and finite element analysis. Actuator optimization strategies are first tested on the theoretical beam models to gain experience, and then the generic tail model is applied. Genetic algorithms achieve a great success in optimizing up to 888 actuator parameters on the tail skins.

  9. 77 FR 38090 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, July 20, 2012, 11:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. EDT... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive...

  10. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, H. C.; Beadles, R. L.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Courtney, M. W.; Rouse, D. J.; Scearce, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Medical products utilizing and incorporating aerospace technology were studied. A bipolar donor-recipient model for medical transfer is presented. The model is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and aerospace technology which constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by medical community of new medical products based on aerospace technology.

  11. Teachers, Aerospace, Involvement: The Ingredients for Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Rex; Bell, Michael L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a two week workshop which concentrated on involving teachers in action oriented aerospace activities and sharing ideas and materials for the application of aerospace concepts in the classroom. Research was also done to see if participants' attitudes toward aerospace education could be positively influenced to enhance personal teaching…

  12. 76 FR 62455 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, October 21, 2011, 12:30 to 2 p.m. Central.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Susan Burch, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel...

  13. 77 FR 1955 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, January 27, 2012, Time 11 a.m.-12:30 p.m... CONTACT: Ms. Susan Burch, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Administrative Officer, National Aeronautics...

  14. 76 FR 65750 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and... Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. SUMMARY: Pursuant to sections 14(b)(1) and 9(c) of the Federal Advisory... of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel is in the public interest in connection with...

  15. Beamforming for aircraft noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Robert P.

    2003-10-01

    Phased array beamforming for aircraft noise source location has a long history, including early work on jet noise, wind tunnel measurements, and flyover testing. In the last 10 years, advancements in sparse 2-D and 3-D arrays, wind tunnel test techniques, and computer power have made phased array measurements almost common. Large aerospace companies and national research institutes have an advantage in access to major facilities and hundreds of measurement microphones, but universities and even consulting companies can perform tests with electret microphones and PC data acquisition systems. The type of testing remains a blend of science and art. A complex noise source is approximated by a mathematical model, and the microphones are deployed to evaluate the parameters of the model. For example, the simplest, but often the best, approach is to assume a distribution of mutually incoherent monopoles. This leads to an imaging process analogous to photography. Other models include coherent distributions of multipoles or duct modes. It is sometimes important to simulate the results that would have been obtained from single microphone measurements of part of the airplane in an ideal environment, had such measurements been feasible.

  16. Aerospace Concepts at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents materials compiled to assist the elementary teacher in preparing teaching units in aerospace education. Suggests specific and general objectives and lists important concepts and questions pertaining to areas such as: history of flight, weather and flying, airplanes, jets, rockets, space travel, and the solar system. (MLH)

  17. NASA's Software Bank (Heath Tecna Aerospace)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Heath Tecna Aerospace used a COSMIC program, "Analysis of Filament Reinforced Metal Shell Pressure Vessels," to predict stresses in motorcase walls in a composite hybrid rocket and calculate the ideal geometry for the domes at either end of the filament-wound pressure vessel. The COSMIC program predictions were confirmed in testing.

  18. The 17th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings of the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft tether, magnetic bearing suspension, explosive welding, and a deployable/retractable mast are also described.

  19. Atmospheric statistics for aerospace vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical analysis of atmospheric variables was performed for the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) design trade studies and the establishment of launch commit criteria. Atmospheric constraint statistics have been developed for the NASP test flight, the Advanced Launch System, and the National Launch System. The concepts and analysis techniques discussed in the paper are applicable to the design and operations of any future aerospace vehicle.

  20. The 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. L. (Compiler); Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings of the 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Topics covered include: robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  1. Using Aerospace Technology To Design Orthopedic Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    Technology originally developed to optimize designs of composite-material aerospace structural components used to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants. Development effort focused on designing knee implants, long-term goal to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants in general.

  2. Aerospace Education Curriculum Guide (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    GRADES OR AGES: K-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Aerospace education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into two main sections, one each for primary and secondary levels. Each section is further subdivided into several parts. The guide is printed and staple bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: Activities at each level…

  3. International Space Programs. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmer, S. B.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, is a collection of the diverse information available regarding the international space programs. The five goals listed for the book are: to examine the Soviet space program, to understand the future of Soviet space activity, to examine other national and international space programs, to…

  4. Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casula, G.; Lenzi, F.; Vitiello, C.

    2008-08-01

    Mechanical and thermo-physical properties of composites materials with thermoplastic matrix (PEEK/IM7, TPI/IM7 and PPS/IM7) used for aerospace applications have been analyzed as function of two different process techniques: compression molding and fiber placement process "hot gas assisted."

  5. The 21st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    During the symposium technical topics addressed included deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, actuators, latching devices, positioning mechanisms, robotic manipulators, and automated mechanisms synthesis. A summary of the 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium panel discussions is included as an appendix. However, panel discussions on robotics for space and large space structures which were held are not presented herein.

  6. The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

  7. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 242 through 253 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes six indexes--subject, personal author, corporate source, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  8. Aerospace Management, Volume 5 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaprielyan, S. Peter

    Presented are articles and reports dealing with aspects of the aerospace programs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Of major concern are the technological and managerial challenges within the space station and space shuttle programs. Other reports are given on: (1) medical experiments, (2) satellites, (3) international…

  9. Spacecraft and their Boosters. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, provides a description of some of the discoveries that spacecraft have made possible and of the experience that American astronauts have had in piloting spacecraft. The basic principles behind the operation of spacecraft and their boosters are explained. Descriptions are also included on…

  10. The 15th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technological areas covered include: aerospace propulsion; aerodynamic devices; crew safety; space vehicle control; spacecraft deployment, positioning, and pointing; deployable antennas/reflectors; and large space structures. Devices for payload deployment, payload retention, and crew extravehicular activities on the space shuttle orbiter are also described.

  11. Advanced Engineering Environments: Implications for Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D.

    2001-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's aerospace industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker all face the developer of aerospace systems. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments (AEEs) to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. These advances will enable modeling and simulation of manufacturing methods, which will in turn allow manufacturing considerations to be included much earlier in the system development cycle. Significant cost savings, increased quality, and decreased manufacturing cycle time are expected to result. This paper will give an overview of the NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment, the agency initiative to develop an AEE, with a focus on the anticipated benefits in aerospace manufacturing.

  12. Trajectory optimization for the National Aerospace Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this second phase research is to investigate the optimal ascent trajectory for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) from runway take-off to orbital insertion and address the unique problems associated with the hypersonic flight trajectory optimization. The trajectory optimization problem for an aerospace plane is a highly challenging problem because of the complexity involved. Previous work has been successful in obtaining sub-optimal trajectories by using energy-state approximation and time-scale decomposition techniques. But it is known that the energy-state approximation is not valid in certain portions of the trajectory. This research aims at employing full dynamics of the aerospace plane and emphasizing direct trajectory optimization methods. The major accomplishments of this research include the first-time development of an inverse dynamics approach in trajectory optimization which enables us to generate optimal trajectories for the aerospace plane efficiently and reliably, and general analytical solutions to constrained hypersonic trajectories that has wide application in trajectory optimization as well as in guidance and flight dynamics. Optimal trajectories in abort landing and ascent augmented with rocket propulsion and thrust vectoring control were also investigated. Motivated by this study, a new global trajectory optimization tool using continuous simulated annealing and a nonlinear predictive feedback guidance law have been under investigation and some promising results have been obtained, which may well lead to more significant development and application in the near future.

  13. Certification Processes for Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    This document is a quick reference guide with an overview of the processes required to certify safety-critical and mission-critical flight software at selected NASA centers and the FAA. Researchers and software developers can use this guide to jumpstart their understanding of how to get new or enhanced software onboard an aircraft or spacecraft. The introduction contains aerospace industry definitions of safety and safety-critical software, as well as, the current rationale for certification of safety-critical software. The Standards for Safety-Critical Aerospace Software section lists and describes current standards including NASA standards and RTCA DO-178B. The Mission-Critical versus Safety-Critical software section explains the difference between two important classes of software: safety-critical software involving the potential for loss of life due to software failure and mission-critical software involving the potential for aborting a mission due to software failure. The DO-178B Safety-critical Certification Requirements section describes special processes and methods required to obtain a safety-critical certification for aerospace software flying on vehicles under auspices of the FAA. The final two sections give an overview of the certification process used at Dryden Flight Research Center and the approval process at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL).

  14. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  15. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, B.; Beall, H. C.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Eakes, R. E.; Kizakevich, P. N.; Mccartney, M.; Rouse, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Utilization of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) technology in medicine is discussed. The objective is best obtained by stimulation of the introduction of new or improved commercially available medical products incorporating aerospace technology. A bipolar donor/recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented to provide a basis for the team's methodology. That methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and NASA technology that, in combination, constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial transfers were completed: the Stowaway, a lightweight wheelchair that provides mobility for the disabled and elderly in the cabin of commercial aircraft, and Micromed, a portable medication infusion pump for the reliable, continuous infusion of medications such as heparin or insulin. The marketing and manufacturing factors critical to the commercialization of the lightweight walker incorporating composite materials were studied. Progress was made in the development and commercialization of each of the 18 currently active projects.

  16. An overview of SAFENET and its implications for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, George C.; Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    The survivable, adaptable fiber optic embeddable network (SAFENET) is a draft standard for local area networking (LAN) developed by the Navy which, when adopted, will become a military standard. The standard is being developed for procurement specifications of computer resources to be used on ships and aircraft and has some of the real-time concerns that network standards for space vehicles have. Architecture and survivability are considered. It is noted that the token-ring LAN must implement the IEEE 802.5 recommended practice for dual ring reconfiguration, which is currently being reviewed for inclusion into the IEEE standard. A trunk coupling unit is used at each station to isolate a station from the ring in case of failure. Up to five stations can be bypassed in this fashion. Communication architecture has an OSI profile but differs from the standard concept of the seven layers by allowing alternate suits and breaking the layers into three groupings of services to allow for physical interfacing. It also provides several paths, even if only one profile is used. Management and synchronization protocols are discussed and security issues are addressed. Implications for aerospace applications are considered and it is projected that interoperability with the Navy and other U.S. Government systems may require SAFENET specifications for NASA systems.

  17. Post-optimality analysis in aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Gage, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    This analysis pertains to the applicability of optimal sensitivity information to aerospace vehicle design. The present analysis demonstrates that post-optimality information generated through first-order computations can be used to accurately predict file effect of constraint and parameter perturbations on the optimal solution. This assessment is based on the solution of an aircraft design problem in which the post-optimality estimates are shown to be within a few percent of the true solution over the practical range of constraint and parameter variations. Through solution of a reusable, single-stage-to-orbit, launch vehicle design problem, this optimal sensitivity information is also shown to improve the efficiency of the design process. For a hierarchically decomposed problem, this computational efficiency is realizable by estimating the main-problem objective gradient through optimal sensitivity calculations. By reducing the need for finite differentiation of a re-optimized subproblem, a significant decrease in the number of objective function evaluations required to reach the optimal solution is obtained.

  18. Post-Optimality Analysis In Aerospace Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Gage, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    This analysis pertains to the applicability of optimal sensitivity information to aerospace vehicle design. An optimal sensitivity (or post-optimality) analysis refers to computations performed once the initial optimization problem is solved. These computations may be used to characterize the design space about the present solution and infer changes in this solution as a result of constraint or parameter variations, without reoptimizing the entire system. The present analysis demonstrates that post-optimality information generated through first-order computations can be used to accurately predict the effect of constraint and parameter perturbations on the optimal solution. This assessment is based on the solution of an aircraft design problem in which the post-optimality estimates are shown to be within a few percent of the true solution over the practical range of constraint and parameter variations. Through solution of a reusable, single-stage-to-orbit, launch vehicle design problem, this optimal sensitivity information is also shown to improve the efficiency of the design process, For a hierarchically decomposed problem, this computational efficiency is realized by estimating the main-problem objective gradient through optimal sep&ivity calculations, By reducing the need for finite differentiation of a re-optimized subproblem, a significant decrease in the number of objective function evaluations required to reach the optimal solution is obtained.

  19. Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Finite element analysis of composites materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhaniza, M.; Ariffin, M. K. A.; Ali, Aidy; Mustapha, F.; Noraini, A. W.

    2010-05-01

    Composites materials are intended to be used more extensively as an alternative of aluminum structure in aircraft and aerospace applications. This is due to their attractive properties as high strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness-to-weight ratio. Besides that it clarifies the growing interest for composites materials due to advantages of lightweight, high strength, high stiffness, superior fatigue life, tremendous corrosion resistance and low cost manufacturing. In this study, a finite element analysis (FEA) of fiberglass unidirectional E-type was analyzed in the framework of ABAQUS finite element commercial software. The analysis was done to quantify the mechanical properties and response of unidirectional E-glass in term of tensile, compression and thermal responses. From the analysis, the maximum and minimum values of stress and strain for E-glass 21xK43 Gevetex and Silenka E-glass 1200tex were obtained and stress-strain curve is presented. The ultimate load of failure, elastic behavior, tensile strength and other properties for each laminated plates under tensile and thermal-stress are determined from stress-strain curves. The simulation will run twice for each material where the first simulation based on orientation angles of 45° for ply-1, -45° for ply-2 and 90° for ply-3 while the second simulation, the orientation angles is 0° for all plies. The simulation is successfully conducted and verified by experimental data.

  1. Compliance with the Aerospace MACT Standard at Lockheed Martin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurucz, K.L.; Vicars, S.; Fetter, S.; Mueller, T.

    1997-12-31

    Actions taken and planned at four Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) facilities to comply with the Aerospace MACT Standard are reviewed. Many LMC sites have taken proactive steps to reduce emissions and implement low VOC coating technology. Significant administrative, facility, and material challenges remain to achieve compliance with the upcoming NESHAP and Control Technology Guideline (CTG) standards. The facilities discussed herein set up programs to develop and implement compliance strategies. These facilities manufacture military aircraft, missiles, satellites, rockets, and electronic guidance and communications systems. Some of the facilities are gearing up for new production lines subject to new source MACT standards. At this time the facilities are reviewing compliance status of all primers, topcoats, maskants and solvents subject to the standard. Facility personnel are searching for the most efficient methods of satisfying the recordkeeping, reporting and monitoring, sections of the standards while simultaneously preparing or reviewing their Title V permit applications. Facility decisions on paint booths are the next highest priority. Existing dry filter paint booths will be subject to the filtration standard for existing paint booths which requires the use of two-stage filters. Planned paint booths for the F-22 program, and other new booths must comply with the standard for new and rebuilt booths which requires three stage or HEPA filters. Facilities looking to replace existing water wash paint booths, and those required to retrofit the air handling equipment to accommodate the two-stage filters, are reviewing issues surrounding the rebuilt source definition.

  2. Comparison of on-board aircraft NiCad battery chargers. Report for June 1978-May 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A test was conducted at the Applied Technology Laboratory at Fort Eustis, Virginia to establish the performance characteristics of several on-board aircraft NiCad battery chargers. The test assessed performance characteristics of chargers from Utah Research and Development Company, Aerospace Avionics Corp., Eldec Corp., and Chrysler Corp. These performance characteristics were also compared to the battery performance associated with a simulated aircraft bus charging source. Adjunct tests investigated battery maintenance procedures.

  3. Maneuvering technology for advanced fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Michael G.; Harris, Scott H.; Byers, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    The need for increased maneuverability has its genesis from the first aerial combat engagement when two adversaries entangled themselves in a deadly aerial dance trying to gain the advantage over the other. It has only been in the past two decades that technologies have been investigated to increase aircraft control at maneuver attitudes that are typically dominated by highly separated flows. These separated flow regions are aggravated by advanced fighter aircraft shapes required to defeat an electronic enemy. This paper discusses passive and active devices that can be used to enhance the maneuverability of advanced fighter aircraft through vortex flow control, boundary layer control, and innovative flow manipulation.

  4. Environmental protection agency aircraft emissions standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittredge, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from aircraft were investigated in order to determine: (1) the extent to which such emissions affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout the United States; and (2) the technological feasibility of controlling such emissions. The basic information supporting the need for aircraft emissions standards is summarized. The EPA ambient air quality standards are presented. Only the primary (health related) standards are shown. Of the six pollutants, only the first three, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides, are influenced significantly by aircraft.

  5. Dryden F-8 Research Aircraft Fleet 1973 in flight, DFBW and SCW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    . Digital-fly-by-wire is more efficient because it is lighter and takes up less space than the hydraulic systems it replaced. This either reduces the fuel required to fly or increases the number of passengers or pounds of cargo the aircraft can carry. Digital fly-by-wire is currently used in a variety of aircraft ranging from F/A-18 fighters to the Boeing 777. The DFBW research program is considered one of the most significant and most successful NASA aeronautical programs since the inception of the agency. F-8 aircraft were built originally for the U.S. Navy by LTV Aerospace of Dallas, Texas. The aircraft had a wingspan of 35 feet, 2 inches; was 54 feet, 6 inches long; and was powered by a Pratt & Whitney J57 turbojet engine. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the trailing edge. The Supercritical Wing was designed to delay the formation of and reduce the shock wave over the wing just below and above the speed of sound (transonic region of flight). Delaying the shock wave at these speeds results in less drag. Results of the NASA flight research at the Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (later renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center) demonstrated that aircraft using the supercritical wing concept would have increased cruising speed, improved fuel efficiency, and greater flight range than those using conventional wings. As a result, supercritical wings are now commonplace on virtually every modern subsonic commercial transport. Results of the NASA project showed the SCW had increased the transonic efficiency of the F-8 as much as 15 percent and proved that passenger transports with supercritical wings, versus conventional wings, could save $78 million (in

  6. Aerospace Nickel-cadmium Cell Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Strawn, D. Michael; Hall, Stephen W.

    2001-01-01

    During the early years of satellites, NASA successfully flew "NASA-Standard" nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) cells manufactured by GE/Gates/SAFF on a variety of spacecraft. In 1992 a NASA Battery Review Board determined that the strategy of a NASA Standard Cell and Battery Specification and the accompanying NASA control of a standard manufacturing control document (MCD) for Ni-Cd cells and batteries was unwarranted. As a result of that determination, standards were abandoned and the use of cells other than the NASA Standard was required. In order to gain insight into the performance and characteristics of the various aerospace Ni-Cd products available, tasks were initiated within the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program that involved the procurement and testing of representative aerospace Ni-Cd cell designs. A standard set of test conditions was established in order to provide similar information about the products from various vendors. The objective of this testing was to provide independent verification of representative commercial flight cells available in the marketplace today. This paper will provide a summary of the verification tests run on cells from various manufacturers: Sanyo 35 Ampere-hour (Ali) standard and 35 Ali advanced Ni-Cd cells, SAFr 50 Ah Ni-Cd cells and Eagle-Picher 21 Ali Magnum and 21 Ali Super Ni-CdTM cells from Eagle-Picher were put through a full evaluation. A limited number of 18 and 55 Ali cells from Acme Electric were also tested to provide an initial evaluation of the Acme aerospace cell designs. Additionally, 35 Ali aerospace design Ni-MH cells from Sanyo were evaluated under the standard conditions established for this program. Ile test program is essentially complete. The cell design parameters, the verification test plan and the details of the test result will be discussed.

  7. Aerospace Meteorology Lessons Learned Relative to Aerospace Vehicle Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Aerospace Meteorology came into being in the 1950s as the development of rockets for military and civilian usage grew in the United States. The term was coined to identify those involved in the development of natural environment models, design/operational requirements, and environment measurement systems to support the needs of aerospace vehicles, both launch vehicles and spacecraft. It encompassed the atmospheric environment of the Earth, including Earth orbit environments. Several groups within the United States were active in this area, including the Department of Defense, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and a few of the aerospace industry groups. Some aerospace meteorology efforts were similar to those being undertaken relative to aviation interests. As part of the aerospace meteorology activities a number of lessons learned resulted that produced follow on efforts which benefited from these experiences, thus leading to the rather efficient and technologically current descriptions of terrestrial environment design requirements, prelaunch monitoring systems, and forecast capabilities available to support the development and operations of aerospace vehicles.

  8. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  9. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  10. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  11. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  12. Effects of Ageing on Aerosol Composition and Size Distribution Based on Regional Scale Aircraft Observations During the 2002 and 2004 ICARTT Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, L.; Daum, P.; Springston, S.; Lee, Y.; Wang, J.

    2005-12-01

    In the summers of 2002 and 2004 the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample aerosols and aerosol precursors in the Midwest and Eastern U.S. We present data on the spatial distribution of aerosols and their physical and chemical properties. Most of the sub-micron size aerosol consists of organics and sulfate. Only a minor fraction of the organic aerosol can be attributed to primary emissions. Formation of secondary organic aerosol is observed as an increase in the organic to CO ratio as a function of photochemical age. Organic aerosol is measured using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). We present comparisons between the AMS and a PCASP, DMA, and nephelometer - as this bears upon our conclusions. Production of aerosol sulfate can likewise be observed as a change in the sulfate to CO ratio but is more easily studied by following the time evolution of a point source plume such as was done for the Homer and Keystone power plants, located east of Pittsburgh. Concomitant with the addition of aerosol mass are changes in size spectra and optical properties.

  13. Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Russell M.; Freeman, H. JoAnne

    1999-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design and analysis (MDA) has become the normal mode of operation within most aerospace companies, but the impact of these changes have largely not been reflected at many universities. On an effort to determine if the emergence of multidisciplinary design concepts should influence engineering curricula, NASA has asked several universities (Virginia Tech, Georgia Tech, Clemson, BYU, and Cal Poly) to investigate the practicality of introducing MDA concepts within their undergraduate curricula. A multidisciplinary team of faculty, students, and industry partners evaluated the aeronautical engineering curriculum at Cal Poly. A variety of ways were found to introduce MDA themes into the curriculum without adding courses or units to the existing program. Both analytic and educational tools for multidisciplinary design of aircraft have been developed and implemented.

  14. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  15. Knowledge-Based Aircraft Automation: Managers Guide on the use of Artificial Intelligence for Aircraft Automation and Verification and Validation Approach for a Neural-Based Flight Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, Ron

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this report was to integrate the powerful tools of artificial intelligence into the traditional process of software development. To maintain the US aerospace competitive advantage, traditional aerospace and software engineers need to more easily incorporate the technology of artificial intelligence into the advanced aerospace systems being designed today. The future goal was to transition artificial intelligence from an emerging technology to a standard technology that is considered early in the life cycle process to develop state-of-the-art aircraft automation systems. This report addressed the future goal in two ways. First, it provided a matrix that identified typical aircraft automation applications conducive to various artificial intelligence methods. The purpose of this matrix was to provide top-level guidance to managers contemplating the possible use of artificial intelligence in the development of aircraft automation. Second, the report provided a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the traditional process of software development. The matrix was developed by organizing the discipline of artificial intelligence into the following six methods: logical, object representation-based, distributed, uncertainty management, temporal and neurocomputing. Next, a study of existing aircraft automation applications that have been conducive to artificial intelligence implementation resulted in the following five categories: pilot-vehicle interface, system status and diagnosis, situation assessment, automatic flight planning, and aircraft flight control. The resulting matrix provided management guidance to understand artificial intelligence as it applied to aircraft automation. The approach taken to develop a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the software engineering life cycle was to start with the existing software quality assurance standards and to change these standards to include neural network

  16. Aerospace vehicle design, spacecraft section. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to create a manned Martian aircraft which can perform: scientific surveys of particular sites distant from the base; a deployment of scientific instrument packages by air drop that land rovers cannot accomplish; and rescue operations. Designing the airfoil requires a wing which can operate within the low Reynolds numbers apparent on Mars. The airfoil, NASA NLF(1)-1015 was chosen. The design of the aircraft is comparable to a P-38 military aircraft. The aircraft uses fuel cells to power the two propellers. A rocket-assisted takeoff is necessary to enable Romulus to liftoff. Although the design and creation of Romulus would be an expensive adventure, such a vehicle could be most useful in evaluating the Mars surface and in creating a habitat for mankind.

  17. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  18. Aerospace vehicle design, spacecraft section. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The next major step in the evolution of the space program is the exploration of the planet Mars. In preparation for this, much research is needed on the problem of surveying the planet surface. An aircraft appears to be a viable solution because it can carry men and equipment large distances in a short period of time as compared with ground transportation. The problems and design of an aircraft which would be able to survey the planet Mars are examined.

  19. Modeling Flight: The Role of Dynamically Scaled Free-Flight Models in Support of NASA's Aerospace Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The state of the art in aeronautical engineering has been continually accelerated by the development of advanced analysis and design tools. Used in the early design stages for aircraft and spacecraft, these methods have provided a fundamental understanding of physical phenomena and enabled designers to predict and analyze critical characteristics of new vehicles, including the capability to control or modify unsatisfactory behavior. For example, the relatively recent emergence and routine use of extremely powerful digital computer hardware and software has had a major impact on design capabilities and procedures. Sophisticated new airflow measurement and visualization systems permit the analyst to conduct micro- and macro-studies of properties within flow fields on and off the surfaces of models in advanced wind tunnels. Trade studies of the most efficient geometrical shapes for aircraft can be conducted with blazing speed within a broad scope of integrated technical disciplines, and the use of sophisticated piloted simulators in the vehicle development process permits the most important segment of operations the human pilot to make early assessments of the acceptability of the vehicle for its intended mission. Knowledgeable applications of these tools of the trade dramatically reduce risk and redesign, and increase the marketability and safety of new aerospace vehicles. Arguably, one of the more viable and valuable design tools since the advent of flight has been testing of subscale models. As used herein, the term "model" refers to a physical article used in experimental analyses of a larger full-scale vehicle. The reader is probably aware that many other forms of mathematical and computer-based models are also used in aerospace design; however, such topics are beyond the intended scope of this document. Model aircraft have always been a source of fascination, inspiration, and recreation for humans since the earliest days of flight. Within the scientific

  20. Automation technology for aerospace power management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The growing size and complexity of spacecraft power systems coupled with limited space/ground communications necessitate increasingly automated onboard control systems. Research in computer science, particularly artificial intelligence has developed methods and techniques for constructing man-machine systems with problem-solving expertise in limited domains which may contribute to the automation of power systems. Since these systems perform tasks which are typically performed by human experts they have become known as Expert Systems. A review of the current state of the art in expert systems technology is presented, and potential applications in power systems management are considered. It is concluded that expert systems appear to have significant potential for improving the productivity of operations personnel in aerospace applications, and in automating the control of many aerospace systems.

  1. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; O'Donnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high-performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  2. NASA aerospace flight battery systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  3. Aerospace Applications of Optimization under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon; Gumbert, Clyde; Li, Wu

    2003-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) Branch at NASA Langley Research Center develops new methods and investigates opportunities for applying optimization to aerospace vehicle design. This paper describes MDO Branch experiences with three applications of optimization under uncertainty: (1) improved impact dynamics for airframes, (2) transonic airfoil optimization for low drag, and (3) coupled aerodynamic/structures optimization of a 3-D wing. For each case, a brief overview of the problem and references to previous publications are provided. The three cases are aerospace examples of the challenges and opportunities presented by optimization under uncertainty. The present paper will illustrate a variety of needs for this technology, summarize promising methods, and uncover fruitful areas for new research.

  4. Aerospace Applications of Optimization under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon; Gumbert, Clyde; Li, Wu

    2006-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) Branch at NASA Langley Research Center develops new methods and investigates opportunities for applying optimization to aerospace vehicle design. This paper describes MDO Branch experiences with three applications of optimization under uncertainty: (1) improved impact dynamics for airframes, (2) transonic airfoil optimization for low drag, and (3) coupled aerodynamic/structures optimization of a 3-D wing. For each case, a brief overview of the problem and references to previous publications are provided. The three cases are aerospace examples of the challenges and opportunities presented by optimization under uncertainty. The present paper will illustrate a variety of needs for this technology, summarize promising methods, and uncover fruitful areas for new research.

  5. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  6. Explosion welding and cutting in aerospace engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volgin, L. A.; Koroteev, A. Ia.; Malakovich, A. P.; Petushkov, V. G.; Sitalo, V. G.; Novikov, V. K.

    The paper presents the results of works of the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute and other Soviet organizations on the development of technology for explosion-welding of multilayer transition pieces and pipes used in the manufacture of aerospace products. Equipment and accessories used for this technology are described; in particular, a powerful explosion chamber of a tubular structure for up to 200 kg of explosives is presented. Information is also given about linear explosion separation devices.

  7. Integration of pyrotechnics into aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1993-01-01

    The application of pyrotechnics to aerospace systems has been resisted because normal engineering methods cannot be used in design and evaluation. Commonly used approaches for energy sources, such as electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic, do not apply to explosive and pyrotechnic devices. This paper introduces the unique characteristics of pyrotechnic devices, describes how functional evaluations can be conducted, and demonstrates an engineering approach for pyrotechnic integration. Logic is presented that allows evaluation of two basic types of pyrotechnic systems to demonstrate functional margin.

  8. Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajamani, Ravi; Saxena, Abhinav; Kramer, Frank; Augustin, Mike; Schroeder, John B.; Goebel, Kai; Shao, Ginger; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a "real-world" example related to designing a landing gear system. The team hopes that this paper and presentation will help start a dialog with the larger aerospace community and that the feedback can be used to improve the ARP and subsequently the practice of IVHM from a systems engineering point-of-view.

  9. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  10. Venus Atmospheric Exploration by Solar Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; LaMarre, C.; Colozza, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Venus atmosphere is a favorable environment for flying powered aircraft. The atmospheric pressure makes flight much easier than on planets such as Mars. Above the clouds, solar energy is available in abundance on Venus, and the slow rotation of Venus allows a solar airplane to be designed for flight within continuous sunlight. The atmosphere between 50 km and 75 km on Venus is one of the most dynamic and interesting regions of the planet. The challenge for a Venus aircraft will be the fierce winds and caustic atmosphere. In order to remain on the sunlit side of Venus, an exploration aircraft will have to be capable of sustained flight at or above the wind speed. An aircraft would be a powerful tool for exploration. By learning how Venus can be so similar to Earth, and yet so different, we will learn to better understand the climate and geological history of the Earth.

  11. Thermographic Inspection of Aerospace Tankage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouvier, Carl; Russell, Samuel; Walker, James; Wilkerson, Chuck

    2003-01-01

    Thermography has been shown to be the ideal technical and economic inspection method for two applications - post-machining evaluations and for field inspections of damage and repair. For most manufacturing applications ultrasonic inspections are already available and established. There is no question about the detectability or cost when inspecting hardware out of the autoclave. But when the part is too large to bring to the scanning inspection system or you do not want to remove the hardware from its current setup then a more portable or field applicable inspection is required. This paper will describe two applications of thermography on composite inspections. The NASA NDE Team and Lockheed Martin conducted the work at NASA s George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The first application was inspecting machined hardware. The technique and example data will be presented along with the advantages of thermography. Examples of drilling holes and trimming the edges will be discussed. The second application will be the evaluation of damage in a composite part and the subsequent repair of the region will be presented. The technique, data, and benefits of this application will also be presented along with the follow-up inspection of the post- repaired hardware.

  12. Civil Applications For New V/STOL and STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1990-01-01

    New designs offer benefits in congested urban areas and remote regions. Report explores potential uses in civil aviation of advanced rotorcraft, vertical/short-takeoff-and-landing (V/STOL) aircraft, and short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) aircraft. Future opportunities overcome formidable geographic barriers and lack of major airport facilities, bringing fast, flexible transportation to remote areas. Aircraft relieves congestion at airports in densely populated areas by utilizing pads and short runways without interfering with large-air-carrier traffic.

  13. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  14. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  15. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  16. Analysis of Aircraft Control Performance using a Fuzzy Rule Base Representation of the Cooper-Harper Aircraft Handling Quality Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Chris; Gupta, Pramod; Schumann, Johann

    2006-01-01

    The Cooper-Harper rating of Aircraft Handling Qualities has been adopted as a standard for measuring the performance of aircraft since it was introduced in 1966. Aircraft performance, ability to control the aircraft, and the degree of pilot compensation needed are three major key factors used in deciding the aircraft handling qualities in the Cooper- Harper rating. We formulate the Cooper-Harper rating scheme as a fuzzy rule-based system and use it to analyze the effectiveness of the aircraft controller. The automatic estimate of the system-level handling quality provides valuable up-to-date information for diagnostics and vehicle health management. Analyzing the performance of a controller requires a set of concise design requirements and performance criteria. Ir, the case of control systems fm a piloted aircraft, generally applicable quantitative design criteria are difficult to obtain. The reason for this is that the ultimate evaluation of a human-operated control system is necessarily subjective and, with aircraft, the pilot evaluates the aircraft in different ways depending on the type of the aircraft and the phase of flight. In most aerospace applications (e.g., for flight control systems), performance assessment is carried out in terms of handling qualities. Handling qualities may be defined as those dynamic and static properties of a vehicle that permit the pilot to fully exploit its performance in a variety of missions and roles. Traditionally, handling quality is measured using the Cooper-Harper rating and done subjectively by the human pilot. In this work, we have formulated the rules of the Cooper-Harper rating scheme as fuzzy rules with performance, control, and compensation as the antecedents, and pilot rating as the consequent. Appropriate direct measurements on the controller are related to the fuzzy Cooper-Harper rating system: a stability measurement like the rate of change of the cost function can be used as an indicator if the aircraft is under

  17. Finite-element thermo-viscoplastic analysis of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Ajay; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Thornton, Earl A.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent thermo-viscoplastic response of aerospace structures subjected to intense aerothermal loads is predicted using the finite-element method. The finite-element analysis uses the Bodner-Partom unified viscoplastic constitutive relations to determine rate-dependent nonlinear material behavior. The methodology is verified by comparison with experimental data and other numerical results for a uniaxially-loaded bar. The method is then used (1) to predict the structural response of a rectangular plate subjected to line heating along a centerline, and (2) to predict the thermal-structural response of a convectively-cooled engine cowl leading edge subjected to aerodynamic shock-shock interference heating. Compared to linear elastic analysis, the viscoplastic analysis results in lower peak stresses and regions of plastic deformations.

  18. Finite element thermo-viscoplastic analysis of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Ajay K.; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Thornton, Earl A.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent thermo-viscoplastic response of aerospace structures subjected to intense aerothermal loads is predicted using the finite-element method. The finite-element analysis uses the Bodner-Partom unified viscoplastic constitutive relations to determine rate-dependent nonlinear material behavior. The methodology is verified by comparison with experimental data and other numerical results for a uniaxially-loaded bar. The method is then used (1) to predict the structural response of a rectangular plate subjected to line heating along a centerline, and (2) to predict the thermal-structural response of a convectively-cooled engine cowl leading edge subjected to aerodynamic shock-shock interference heating. Compared to linear elastic analysis, the viscoplastic analysis results in lower peak stresses and regions of plastic deformations.

  19. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  20. Fuzzy Structures Analysis of Aircraft Panels in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Victor W.; Buehrle, Ralph D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper concerns an application of the fuzzy structures analysis (FSA) procedures of Soize to prototypical aerospace panels in MSC/NASTRAN, a large commercial finite element program. A brief introduction to the FSA procedures is first provided. The implementation of the FSA methods is then disclosed, and the method is validated by comparison to published results for the forced vibrations of a fuzzy beam. The results of the new implementation show excellent agreement to the benchmark results. The ongoing effort at NASA Langley and Penn State to apply these fuzzy structures analysis procedures to real aircraft panels is then described.