Science.gov

Sample records for aerospace vehicles subject

  1. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  2. Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides lightning protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of lightning. Generic descriptions of the lightning environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for lightning protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.

  3. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  4. NASA aerospace database subject scope: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Outlined here is the subject scope of the NASA Aerospace Database, a publicly available subset of the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) Database. Topics of interest to NASA are outlined and placed within the framework of the following broad aerospace subject categories: aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry and materials, engineering, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical and computer sciences, physics, social sciences, space sciences, and general. A brief discussion of the subject scope is given for each broad area, followed by a similar explanation of each of the narrower subject fields that follow. The subject category code is listed for each entry.

  5. Atmospheric statistics for aerospace vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical analysis of atmospheric variables was performed for the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) design trade studies and the establishment of launch commit criteria. Atmospheric constraint statistics have been developed for the NASP test flight, the Advanced Launch System, and the National Launch System. The concepts and analysis techniques discussed in the paper are applicable to the design and operations of any future aerospace vehicle.

  6. Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

  7. Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

  8. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sowle, D.

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  9. Program For Simulating Dynamics Of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berning, M. J.; Sagis, K. D.

    1995-01-01

    SORT (Simulation and Optimization of Rocket Trajectories) is general-purpose three-degree-of-freedom with three axis static moment balance simulation of flight dynamics of arbitrary aerospace vehicle. Modular structure facilitates application to variety of trajectory-analysis problems. Contains math model of aerodynamics completely generalized. Computes both longitudinal and lateral forces and moments. In addition to fore-body coefficients, computes longitudinal base effect aerodynamic forces and moments. Simplified ballistic-coefficient model also available for analysis of ballistic entry. Written using ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  10. Analytical prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Piersol, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given recently to the formulation and validation of analytical models for the prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration response to acoustic and fluctuating pressures. This paper summarizes the development of such analytical models for two applications, (1) structural vibrations of the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle due to broadband rocket noise and aerodynamic boundary layer turbulence, and (2) structural vibrations of general aviation aircraft due to discrete frequency propeller and reciprocating engine exhaust noise. In both cases, the spatial exterior excitations are convected pressure fields which are described on the basis of measured cross spectra (coherence and phase) information. Structural modal data are obtained from analytical predictions, and structural responses to appropriate excitation fields are calculated. The results are compared with test data, and the strengths and weaknesses of the analytical models are assessed.

  11. Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

  12. Structural Health Management for Future Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Allison, S. G.; Woodard, S. E.; Wincheski, R. A.; Cooper, E. G.; Price, D. C.; Hedley, M.; Prokopenko, M.; Scott, D. A.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    Structural Health Management (SHM) will be of critical importance to provide the safety, reliability and affordability necessary for the future long duration space missions described in America's Vision for Space Exploration. Long duration missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond cannot be accomplished with the current paradigm of periodic, ground based structural integrity inspections. As evidenced by the Columbia tragedy, this approach is also inadequate for the current Shuttle fleet, thus leading to its initial implementation of on-board SHM sensing for impact detection as part of the return to flight effort. However, future space systems, to include both vehicles as well as structures such as habitation modules, will require an integrated array of onboard in-situ sensing systems. In addition, advanced data systems architectures will be necessary to communicate, store and process massive amounts of SHM data from large numbers of diverse sensors. Further, improved structural analysis and design algorithms will be necessary to incorporate SHM sensing into the design and construction of aerospace structures, as well as to fully utilize these sensing systems to provide both diagnosis and prognosis of structural integrity. Ultimately, structural integrity information will feed into an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system that will provide real-time knowledge of structural, propulsion, thermal protection and other critical systems for optimal vehicle management and mission control. This paper will provide an overview of NASA research and development in the area of SHM as well as to highlight areas of technology improvement necessary to meet these future mission requirements.

  13. Aerothermodynamic Flight Simulation Capabilities for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles G.

    1998-01-01

    Aerothermodynamics, encompassing aerodynamics, aeroheating, and fluid dynamics and physical processes, is the genesis for the design and development of advanced space transportation vehicles and provides crucial information to other disciplines such as structures, materials, propulsion, avionics, and guidance, navigation and control. Sources of aerothermodynamic information are ground-based facilities, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and engineering computer codes, and flight experiments. Utilization of this aerothermodynamic triad provides the optimum aerothermodynamic design to safely satisfy mission requirements while reducing design conservatism, risk and cost. The iterative aerothermodynamic process for initial screening/assessment of aerospace vehicle concepts, optimization of aerolines to achieve/exceed mission requirements, and benchmark studies for final design and establishment of the flight data book are reviewed. Aerothermodynamic methodology centered on synergism between ground-based testing and CFD predictions is discussed for various flow regimes encountered by a vehicle entering the Earth s atmosphere from low Earth orbit. An overview of the resources/infrastructure required to provide accurate/creditable aerothermodynamic information in a timely manner is presented. Impacts on Langley s aerothermodynamic capabilities due to recent programmatic changes such as Center reorganization, downsizing, outsourcing, industry (as opposed to NASA) led programs, and so forth are discussed. Sample applications of these capabilities to high Agency priority, fast-paced programs such as Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)/X-33 Phases I and 11, X-34, Hyper-X and X-38 are presented and lessons learned discussed. Lastly, enhancements in ground-based testing/CFD capabilities necessary to partially/fully satisfy future requirements are addressed.

  14. Vapor cycle compressors for aerospace vehicle thermal management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexter, Peter F.; Watts, Roland J.; Haskin, William L.

    1990-10-01

    An overview is given of approaches to achieving high reliability and long life in vapor cycle compressor design for aerospace vehicles. The requirements peculiar to aircraft and spacecraft cooling systems are described. Piston, rotary vane, rolling piston, helical screw, scroll, and centrifugal compressors being developed for aerospace applications are discussed.

  15. Atmospheric electricity criteria guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    Lightning has always been of concern for aerospace vehicle ground activities. The unexpected triggering of lightning discharges by the Apollo 12 space vehicle shortly after launch and the more recent repeated lightning strikes to the launch umbilical tower while the Apollo 15 space vehicle was being readied for launch have renewed interest in studies of atmospheric electricity as it relates to space vehicle missions. The material presented reflects some of the results of these studies with regard to updating the current criteria guidelines.

  16. Development of environmental criteria guidelines for aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    The types of guideline data on natural environmental conditions for the various major geographic locations that are applicable to the design of aerospace vehicles and associated equipment are discussed. Since relationships between aerospace vehicle parameters and atmospheric variables cannot always be clearly defined, there should be a close working relationship and team philosophy between the design/operational engineer and the respective organizations' aerospace meteorologists. Consideration should be given to protecting aerospace vehicles from some extremes by using support equipment and specialized monitoring personnel to advise on the expected occurrence of critical environmental conditions. It is pointed out that the services of these specialized personnel may be very economical in comparison with the more expensive designing that would be necessary to cope with all environmental possibilities. The environment considered here includes wind, atmospheric electricity, upper atmospheric density, and solar wind.

  17. Aerospace Meteorology Lessons Learned Relative to Aerospace Vehicle Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Aerospace Meteorology came into being in the 1950s as the development of rockets for military and civilian usage grew in the United States. The term was coined to identify those involved in the development of natural environment models, design/operational requirements, and environment measurement systems to support the needs of aerospace vehicles, both launch vehicles and spacecraft. It encompassed the atmospheric environment of the Earth, including Earth orbit environments. Several groups within the United States were active in this area, including the Department of Defense, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and a few of the aerospace industry groups. Some aerospace meteorology efforts were similar to those being undertaken relative to aviation interests. As part of the aerospace meteorology activities a number of lessons learned resulted that produced follow on efforts which benefited from these experiences, thus leading to the rather efficient and technologically current descriptions of terrestrial environment design requirements, prelaunch monitoring systems, and forecast capabilities available to support the development and operations of aerospace vehicles.

  18. HASA: Hypersonic Aerospace Sizing Analysis for the Preliminary Design of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, Gary J.; Berkowitz, Brian M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the hypersonic literature indicated that a general weight and sizing analysis was not available for hypersonic orbital, transport, and fighter vehicles. The objective here is to develop such a method for the preliminary design of aerospace vehicles. This report describes the developed methodology and provides examples to illustrate the model, entitled the Hypersonic Aerospace Sizing Analysis (HASA). It can be used to predict the size and weight of hypersonic single-stage and two-stage-to-orbit vehicles and transports, and is also relevant for supersonic transports. HASA is a sizing analysis that determines vehicle length and volume, consistent with body, fuel, structural, and payload weights. The vehicle component weights are obtained from statistical equations for the body, wing, tail, thermal protection system, landing gear, thrust structure, engine, fuel tank, hydraulic system, avionics, electral system, equipment payload, and propellant. Sample size and weight predictions are given for the Space Shuttle orbiter and other proposed vehicles, including four hypersonic transports, a Mach 6 fighter, a supersonic transport (SST), a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle, a two-stage Space Shuttle with a booster and an orbiter, and two methane-fueled vehicles.

  19. Incorporation of Nanosensors into Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional sensors are too big and heavy for installation in space vehicles, including the Space Shuttle Orbiter as well as future manned and unmanned vehicles currently in the early design phase. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the availability of smaller and more accurate sensors. Multiple and redundant nanosensors can be used to conduct more accurate and comprehensive measurements in a space vehicle. Early planning can lead to the relatively easy incorporation of miniature sensors sharing power and communication lines, thus reducing the requirement for large amount of electrical and/or optical cabling.

  20. Extensions to the Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brian, Geoffrey J.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) is a syntactical language for exchanging flight vehicle dynamic model data. It provides a framework for encoding entire flight vehicle dynamic model data packages for exchange and/or long-term archiving. Version 2.0.1 of DAVE-ML provides much of the functionality envisioned for exchanging aerospace vehicle data; however, it is limited in only supporting scalar time-independent data. Additional functionality is required to support vector and matrix data, abstracting sub-system models, detailing dynamics system models (both discrete and continuous), and defining a dynamic data format (such as time sequenced data) for validation of dynamics system models and vehicle simulation packages. Extensions to DAVE-ML have been proposed to manage data as vectors and n-dimensional matrices, and record dynamic data in a compatible form. These capabilities will improve the clarity of data being exchanged, simplify the naming of parameters, and permit static and dynamic data to be stored using a common syntax within a single file; thereby enhancing the framework provided by DAVE-ML for exchanging entire flight vehicle dynamic simulation models.

  1. Aerospace Vehicle Design, Spacecraft Section. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Research results are presented for the following groups: Project Mars Airplane Vehicle and Reconnaissance Instrument Carrier (MAVRIC), ACME, ARES, Project ACRONYM, Mars Aircraft Recepticle with Technical Instruments, Aerobraking, and Navigation (MARTIAN), and NOMADS. Each project is described by the following areas of focus: mission planning and costs; aerobraking systems; structures and thermal control systems; attitude and articulation control systems; comman and data control systems; science instrumentation; and power and propulsion systems.

  2. IPAD: Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Early work was performed to apply data base technology in support of the management of engineering data in the design and manufacturing environments. The principal objective of the IPAD project is to develop a computer software system for use in the design of aerospace vehicles. Two prototype systems are created for this purpose. Relational Information Manager (RIM) is a successful commercial product. The IPAD Information Processor (IPIP), a much more sophisticated system, is still under development.

  3. Advanced Materials and Multifunctional Structures for Aerospace Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    through covalent integration of functional nanotubes ”, Advanced Functional Materials, 14(7) (2004) 643-648. 185 R.Z. Ma, J. Wu, B.Q. Wei, J. Liang, and...on Advanced Materials for Multi Functional Structures in Aerospace Vehicles. The advanced synthesis, processing and the characterization techniques...when more than one primary function is performed either simultaneously or sequentially in time. These systems are based on metallic, ceramic and

  4. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Calvery, A. L.; Davis, D. A.; Dickmann, L.; Folger, D. H.; Jochem, E. N.; Kitto, C. M.; Vonlimbach, G.

    1977-01-01

    Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) system design requirements are given. The information is based on the IPAD User Requirements Document (D6-IPAD-70013-D) and the Integrated Information Processing Requirements Document (D6-IPAD-70012-D). General information about IPAD and a list of the system design requirements that are to be satisfied by the IPAD system are given. The system design requirements definition is to be considered as a baseline definition of the IPAD system design requirements.

  5. Textile mechanical elements in aerospace vehicle parachute systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, M. J.; French, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, design considerations, and design details for textile mechanical elements used in aerospace vehicle parachute systems are briefly reviewed. Friction burns are noted as a major cause of parachute system failures. The friction burn hazard can be minimized by designing for predeployment and deployment sequence control with textile mechanical restraints. Two basic restraint designs (restraint loops and line ties) are discussed and various applications of the designs shown.

  6. Guidance and Control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, J. L.; Naidu, D. S.; Charalambous, C. D.

    1989-01-01

    A neighboring optimal guidance scheme was devised for a nonlinear dynamic system with stochastic inputs and perfect measurements as applicable to fuel optimal control of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle. For the deterministic nonlinear dynamic system describing the atmospheric maneuver, a nominal trajectory was determined. Then, a neighboring, optimal guidance scheme was obtained for open loop and closed loop control configurations. Taking modelling uncertainties into account, a linear, stochastic, neighboring optimal guidance scheme was devised. Finally, the optimal trajectory was approximated as the sum of the deterministic nominal trajectory and the stochastic neighboring optimal solution. Numerical results are presented for a typical vehicle. A fuel-optimal control problem in aeroassisted noncoplanar orbital transfer is also addressed. The equations of motion for the atmospheric maneuver are nonlinear and the optimal (nominal) trajectory and control are obtained. In order to follow the nominal trajectory under actual conditions, a neighboring optimum guidance scheme is designed using linear quadratic regulator theory for onboard real-time implementation. One of the state variables is used as the independent variable in reference to the time. The weighting matrices in the performance index are chosen by a combination of a heuristic method and an optimal modal approach. The necessary feedback control law is obtained in order to minimize the deviations from the nominal conditions.

  7. Aerospace vehicle design, spacecraft section. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to create a manned Martian aircraft which can perform: scientific surveys of particular sites distant from the base; a deployment of scientific instrument packages by air drop that land rovers cannot accomplish; and rescue operations. Designing the airfoil requires a wing which can operate within the low Reynolds numbers apparent on Mars. The airfoil, NASA NLF(1)-1015 was chosen. The design of the aircraft is comparable to a P-38 military aircraft. The aircraft uses fuel cells to power the two propellers. A rocket-assisted takeoff is necessary to enable Romulus to liftoff. Although the design and creation of Romulus would be an expensive adventure, such a vehicle could be most useful in evaluating the Mars surface and in creating a habitat for mankind.

  8. Development of Structural Health Management Technology for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, NASA has focused considerable resources on the development of technologies for Structural Health Management (SHM). The motivations for these efforts are to increase the safety and reliability of aerospace structural systems, while at the same time decreasing operating and maintenance costs. Research and development of SHM technologies has been supported under a variety of programs for both aircraft and spacecraft including the Space Launch Initiative, X-33, Next Generation Launch Technology, and Aviation Safety Program. The major focus of much of the research to date has been on the development and testing of sensor technologies. A wide range of sensor technologies are under consideration including fiber-optic sensors, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, most notably being extremely light weight, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and have received considerable attention.

  9. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  10. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Andrew, William V.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has fruitfully completed its fourth year. Under the support of the AHE members and the joint effort of the research team, new and significant progress has been achieved in the year. Following the recommendations by the Advisory Task Force, the research effort is placed on more practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antennas, composite materials, and antenna efficiencies. In this annual report, the main topics to be addressed include composite materials and antenna technology. The research work on each topic has been driven by the AHE consortium members' interests and needs. The remarkable achievements and progresses in each subject is reported respectively in individual sections of the report. The work in the area of composite materials includes: modeling of low conductivity composite materials by using Green's function approach; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; modeling antenna elements mounted on a composite Comanche tail stabilizer; and antenna pattern control and efficiency estimate for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  11. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  12. Emerging Needs for Pervasive Passive Wireless Sensor Networks on Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating passive wireless sensor technology to reduce instrumentation mass and volume in ground testing, air flight, and space exploration applications. Vehicle health monitoring systems (VHMS) are desired on all aerospace programs to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Pervasive passive wireless sensor networks facilitate VHMS on aerospace vehicles. Future wireless sensor networks on board aerospace vehicles will be heterogeneous and will require active and passive network systems. Since much has been published on active wireless sensor networks, this work will focus on the need for passive wireless sensor networks on aerospace vehicles. Several passive wireless technologies such as microelectromechanical systems MEMS, SAW, backscatter, and chipless RFID techniques, have all shown potential to meet the pervasive sensing needs for aerospace VHMS applications. A SAW VHMS application will be presented. In addition, application areas including ground testing, hypersonic aircraft and spacecraft will be explored along with some of the harsh environments found in aerospace applications.

  13. Overview of integrated programs for aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of a joint industry/government project, denoted Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD), which focuses on development of technology and associated software for integrated company-wide management of engineering information is presented. Results to date are summarized and include an in-depth documentation of a representative design process for a large engineering project, the definition and design of computer-aided design software needed to support that process, and the release of prototype software to integrated selected design functions.

  14. Aerospace Sensor Systems: From Sensor Development To Vehicle Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of years of sensor system development and application for aerospace systems. The emphasis of this work is on developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion and crew vehicle systems as well as monitoring the safety of those systems. Specific areas of work include chemical species sensors, thin film thermocouples and strain gages, heat flux gages, fuel gages, SiC based electronic devices and sensors, space qualified electronics, and MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as integrated and multifunctional sensor systems. Each sensor type has its own technical challenges related to integration and reliability in a given application. The general approach has been to develop base sensor technology using microfabrication techniques, integrate sensors with "smart" hardware and software, and demonstrate those systems in a range of aerospace applications. Descriptions of the sensor elements, their integration into sensors systems, and examples of sensor system applications will be discussed. Finally, suggestions related to the future of sensor technology will be given. It is concluded that smart micro/nano sensor technology can revolutionize aerospace applications, but significant challenges exist in maturing the technology and demonstrating its value in real-life applications.

  15. Electric power processing, distribution and control for advanced aerospace vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krausz, A.; Felch, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a current study program to develop a rational basis for selection of power processing, distribution, and control configurations for future aerospace vehicles including the Space Station, Space Shuttle, and high-performance aircraft are presented. Within the constraints imposed by the characteristics of power generation subsystems and the load utilization equipment requirements, the power processing, distribution and control subsystem can be optimized by selection of the proper distribution voltage, frequency, and overload/fault protection method. It is shown that, for large space vehicles which rely on static energy conversion to provide electric power, high-voltage dc distribution (above 100 V dc) is preferable to conventional 28 V dc and 115 V ac distribution per MIL-STD-704A. High-voltage dc also has advantages over conventional constant frequency ac systems in many aircraft applications due to the elimination of speed control, wave shaping, and synchronization equipment.

  16. NASA R and T aerospace plane vehicles: Progress and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Progress made in key technologies such as materials, structures, aerothermodynamics, hypersonic aerodynamics, and hypersonic airbreathing propulsion are reported. Advances were made in more generic, areas such as active controls, flight computer hardware and software, and interdisciplinary analytical design methodology. These technology advances coupled with the development of and experiences with the Space Shuttle make feasible aerospace plane-type vehicles that meet the more demanding requirements of various DOD missions and/or an all-weather Shuttle II with reduced launch costs. Technology needs and high payoff technologies, and the technology advancements in propulsion, control-configured-vehicles, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, aerothermal loads, and materials and structures were studied. The highest payoff technologies of materials and structures including thermal-structural analysis and high temperature test techniques are emphasized. The high priority technology of propulsion, and plans, of what remains to be done rather than firm program commitments, are briefly discussed.

  17. Multiplexing Technology for Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William; Percy, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of damage mechanisms such as cracks and delaminations generate acoustic waves, which propagate through a structure. These waves can be detected and analyzed to provide the location and severity of damage as part of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. This methodology of damage detection is commonly known as acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, and is widely used on a variety of applications on civil structures. AE has been widely considered for SHM of aerospace vehicles. Numerous successful ground and flight test demonstrations have been performed, which show the viability of the technology for damage monitoring in aerospace structures. However, one significant current limitation for application of AE techniques on aerospace vehicles is the large size, mass, and power requirements for the necessary monitoring instrumentation. To address this issue, a prototype multiplexing approach has been developed and demonstrated in this study, which reduces the amount of AE monitoring instrumentation required. Typical time division multiplexing techniques that are commonly used to monitor strain, pressure and temperature sensors are not applicable to AE monitoring because of the asynchronous and widely varying rates of AE signal occurrence. Thus, an event based multiplexing technique was developed. In the initial prototype circuit, inputs from eight sensors in a linear array were multiplexed into two data acquisition channels. The multiplexer rapidly switches, in less than one microsecond, allowing the signals from two sensors to be acquired by a digitizer. The two acquired signals are from the sensors on either side of the trigger sensor. This enables the capture of the first arrival of the waves, which cannot be accomplished with the signal from the trigger sensor. The propagation delay to the slightly more distant neighboring sensors makes this possible. The arrival time from this first arrival provides a more accurate source location

  18. Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroth, Edmund C.; Pallix, Joan

    2006-01-01

    To achieve NASA's ambitious Integrated Space Transportation Program objectives, aerospace systems will implement a variety of new concept in health management. System level integration of IVHM technologies for real-time control and system maintenance will have significant impact on system safety and lifecycle costs. IVHM technologies will enhance the safety and success of complex missions despite component failures, degraded performance, operator errors, and environment uncertainty. IVHM also has the potential to reduce, or even eliminate many of the costly inspections and operations activities required by current and future aerospace systems. This presentation will describe the array of NASA programs participating in the development of IVHM technologies for NASA missions. Future vehicle systems will use models of the system, its environment, and other intelligent agents with which they may interact. IVHM will be incorporated into future mission planners, reasoning engines, and adaptive control systems that can recommend or execute commands enabling the system to respond intelligently in real time. In the past, software errors and/or faulty sensors have been identified as significant contributors to mission failures. This presentation will also address the development and utilization of highly dependable sohare and sensor technologies, which are key components to ensure the reliability of IVHM systems.

  19. Loft: An Automated Mesh Generator for Stiffened Shell Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2011-01-01

    Loft is an automated mesh generation code that is designed for aerospace vehicle structures. From user input, Loft generates meshes for wings, noses, tanks, fuselage sections, thrust structures, and so on. As a mesh is generated, each element is assigned properties to mark the part of the vehicle with which it is associated. This property assignment is an extremely powerful feature that enables detailed analysis tasks, such as load application and structural sizing. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is an overview of the code and its applications. The modeling approach that was used to create the finite element meshes is described. Several applications of the code are demonstrated, including a Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) wing-sizing study, a lunar lander stage study, a launch vehicle shroud shape study, and a two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) orbiter. Part two of the report is the program user manual. The manual includes in-depth tutorials and a complete command reference.

  20. On computer-aided design of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J. E.; Voigt, S. J.; Fulton, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Digital computers are being used in many engineering activities to support design work. This paper provides an overview of some of this work as it relates to the design of aerospace vehicles. Discussions are given of some of the complexities of the design process which lead to large design costs and time. A number of important but disjointed computer capabilities have evolved over the years in analysis, optimization, and graphics, and such capabilities aid in addressing the problem of design complexity. Examples of existing computer-aided design (CAD) systems are given and trends for future CAD systems are indicated, as well as their relationship to pertinent data management technology. It is suggested that major gains in design capability will occur through continued development of CAD methodology and that these gains may be accelerated through a large focused effort.

  1. Rapid Model Fabrication and Testing for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced methods for rapid fabrication and instrumentation of hypersonic wind tunnel models are being developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center. Rapid aeroheating model fabrication and measurement techniques using investment casting of ceramic test models and thermographic phosphors are reviewed. More accurate model casting techniques for fabrication of benchmark metal and ceramic test models are being developed using a combination of rapid prototype patterns and investment casting. White light optical scanning is used for coordinate measurements to evaluate the fabrication process and verify model accuracy to +/- 0.002 inches. Higher-temperature (<210C) luminescent coatings are also being developed for simultaneous pressure and temperature mapping, providing global pressure as well as global aeroheating measurements. Together these techniques will provide a more rapid and complete experimental aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic database for future aerospace vehicles.

  2. Complex multidisciplinary system composition for aerospace vehicle conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Lex

    Although, there exists a vast amount of work concerning the analysis, design, integration of aerospace vehicle systems, there is no standard for how this data and knowledge should be combined in order to create a synthesis system. Each institution creating a synthesis system has in house vehicle and hardware components they are attempting to model and proprietary methods with which to model them. This leads to the fact that synthesis systems begin as one-off creations meant to answer a specific problem. As the scope of the synthesis system grows to encompass more and more problems, so does its size and complexity; in order for a single synthesis system to answer multiple questions the number of methods and method interface must increase. As a means to curtail the requirement that the increase of an aircraft synthesis systems capability leads to an increase in its size and complexity, this research effort focuses on the idea that each problem in aerospace requires its own analysis framework. By focusing on the creation of a methodology which centers on the matching of an analysis framework towards the problem being solved, the complexity of the analysis framework is decoupled from the complexity of the system that creates it. The derived methodology allows for the composition of complex multi-disciplinary systems (CMDS) through the automatic creation and implementation of system and disciplinary method interfaces. The CMDS Composition process follows a four step methodology meant to take a problem definition and progress towards the creation of an analysis framework meant to answer said problem. The unique implementation of the CMDS Composition process take user selected disciplinary analysis methods and automatically integrates them, together in order to create a syntactically composable analysis framework. As a means of assessing the validity of the CMDS Composition process a prototype system (AVDDBMS) has been developed. AVD DBMS has been used to model the

  3. An operating system for future aerospace vehicle computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Berman, W. J.; Will, R. W.; Bynum, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for future aerospace vehicle computer operating systems are examined in this paper. The computer architecture is assumed to be distributed with a local area network connecting the nodes. Each node is assumed to provide a specific functionality. The network provides for communication so that the overall tasks of the vehicle are accomplished. The O/S structure is based upon the concept of objects. The mechanisms for integrating node unique objects with node common objects in order to implement both the autonomy and the cooperation between nodes is developed. The requirements for time critical performance and reliability and recovery are discussed. Time critical performance impacts all parts of the distributed operating system; e.g., its structure, the functional design of its objects, the language structure, etc. Throughout the paper the tradeoffs - concurrency, language structure, object recovery, binding, file structure, communication protocol, programmer freedom, etc. - are considered to arrive at a feasible, maximum performance design. Reliability of the network system is considered. A parallel multipath bus structure is proposed for the control of delivery time for time critical messages. The architecture also supports immediate recovery for the time critical message system after a communication failure.

  4. Optimization of Aerospace Structure Subject to Damage Tolerance Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgun, Mehmet A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this cooperative agreement was to seek computationally efficient ways to optimize aerospace structures subject to damage tolerance criteria. Optimization was to involve sizing as well as topology optimization. The work was done in collaboration with Steve Scotti, Chauncey Wu and Joanne Walsh at the NASA Langley Research Center. Computation of constraint sensitivity is normally the most time-consuming step of an optimization procedure. The cooperative work first focused on this issue and implemented the adjoint method of sensitivity computation in an optimization code (runstream) written in Engineering Analysis Language (EAL). The method was implemented both for bar and plate elements including buckling sensitivity for the latter. Lumping of constraints was investigated as a means to reduce the computational cost. Adjoint sensitivity computation was developed and implemented for lumped stress and buckling constraints. Cost of the direct method and the adjoint method was compared for various structures with and without lumping. The results were reported in two papers. It is desirable to optimize topology of an aerospace structure subject to a large number of damage scenarios so that a damage tolerant structure is obtained. Including damage scenarios in the design procedure is critical in order to avoid large mass penalties at later stages. A common method for topology optimization is that of compliance minimization which has not been used for damage tolerant design. In the present work, topology optimization is treated as a conventional problem aiming to minimize the weight subject to stress constraints. Multiple damage configurations (scenarios) are considered. Each configuration has its own structural stiffness matrix and, normally, requires factoring of the matrix and solution of the system of equations. Damage that is expected to be tolerated is local and represents a small change in the stiffness matrix compared to the baseline (undamaged

  5. Estimating Basic Preliminary Design Performances of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.; Alexander, Reginald

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamics and Performance Estimation Toolset is a collection of four software programs for rapidly estimating the preliminary design performance of aerospace vehicles represented by doing simplified calculations based on ballistic trajectories, the ideal rocket equation, and supersonic wedges through standard atmosphere. The program consists of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheet subprograms. The input and output data are presented in a user-friendly format, and calculations are performed rapidly enough that the user can iterate among different trajectories and/or shapes to perform "what-if" studies. Estimates that can be computed by these programs include: 1. Ballistic trajectories as a function of departure angles, initial velocities, initial positions, and target altitudes; assuming point masses and no atmosphere. The program plots the trajectory in two-dimensions and outputs the position, pitch, and velocity along the trajectory. 2. The "Rocket Equation" program calculates and plots the trade space for a vehicle s propellant mass fraction over a range of specific impulse and mission velocity values, propellant mass fractions as functions of specific impulses and velocities. 3. "Standard Atmosphere" will estimate the temperature, speed of sound, pressure, and air density as a function of altitude in a standard atmosphere, properties of a standard atmosphere as functions of altitude. 4. "Supersonic Wedges" will calculate the free-stream, normal-shock, oblique-shock, and isentropic flow properties for a wedge-shaped body flying supersonically through a standard atmosphere. It will also calculate the maximum angle for which a shock remains attached, and the minimum Mach number for which a shock becomes attached, all as functions of the wedge angle, altitude, and Mach number.

  6. Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. ENSAERO - A multidisciplinary program for fluid/structural interaction studies of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure is developed that uses a moving zonal grid concept to model complex flexible aerospace vehicles. The Euler/Navier-Stokes equations are used to model the flow, and computations are made using efficient methods based on both central and upwind schemes. The structure is represented by a finite element method which can model general aerospace vehicles. Provisions are made to accommodate other disciplines such as controls and thermal loads. The code is capable of computing unsteady flows on flexible wings with vortical flows. Adaptation of this procedure for parallel processing and validation for complete aerospace configurations is in progress.

  8. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  9. Status on Updated NASA Standard: "Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the updating of NASA's Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development. This handbook covers the primary terrestrial environment factors with which the design and operation of an aerospace vehicle is concerned. It is intended as a source document for the development of terrestrial environment design requirements and, in this regard, provides consistent and coordinated information for this purpose. The handbook and its predecessors have been used in the design, development, and operation of many NASA flight vehicles, payloads and related activities.

  10. Lightning Characteristics and Lightning Strike Peak Current Probabilities as Related to Aerospace Vehicle Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    1998-01-01

    A summary is presented of basic lightning characteristics/criteria for current and future NASA aerospace vehicles. The paper estimates the probability of occurrence of a 200 kA peak lightning return current, should lightning strike an aerospace vehicle in various operational phases, i.e., roll-out, on-pad, launch, reenter/land, and return-to-launch site. A literature search was conducted for previous work concerning occurrence and measurement of peak lighting currents, modeling, and estimating probabilities of launch vehicles/objects being struck by lightning. This paper presents these results.

  11. National meeting to review IPAD status and goals. [Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    A joint NASA/industry project called Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD) is described, which has the goal of raising aerospace-industry productivity through the application of computers to integrate company-wide management of engineering data. Basically a general-purpose interactive computing system developed to support engineering design processes, the IPAD design is composed of three major software components: the executive, data management, and geometry and graphics software. Results of IPAD activities include a comprehensive description of a future representative aerospace vehicle design process and its interface to manufacturing, and requirements and preliminary design of a future IPAD software system to integrate engineering activities of an aerospace company having several products under simultaneous development.

  12. SAE Mil-1394 For Military and Aerospace Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunga, Larry; Wroble, Mike; Kreska, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Unique opportunity to utilize new technology while increasing vehicle and crew member safety. Demonstration of new technology that can be utilized for Crew Exploration Vehicle and other future manned vehicles. Future work for other cameras in the vehicle that can be IEEE1394 based without major vehicle modifications. Demonstrates that LM can share information and knowledge between internal groups and NASA to assist in providing a product in support of the NASA Return to Flight Activities. This upgrade will provide a flight active data bus that is 100 times faster than any similar bus on the vehicle.

  13. Technology and methodology of separating two similar size aerospace vehicles within the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, J. P.; Wilhite, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the parallel separation, within the atmosphere, of two similar size aerospace vehicles has been investigated in technical areas such as static and dynamic stability, rocket exhaust plume interference, aerodynamic control, loads, and dynamic simulation. Advanced experimental and analysis techniques have been developed to analyze this problem. Results are presented which summarize some of this work. The effects of various parameters on the separation maneuver are illustrated using results from early and current space shuttle configurations. The technology and methodology that have been developed have helped verify the feasibility of separating similar size aerospace vehicles.

  14. Terrestrial environment (climatic) criteria guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler); Hill, C. K. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines on terrestrial environment data specifically applicable for NASA aerospace vehicles and associated equipment development are provided. The general distribution of natural environmental extremes in the conterminous United States that may be needed to specify design criteria in the transportation of space vehicle subsystems and components is considered. Atmospheric attenuation was included, since certain Earth orbital experiment missions are influenced by the Earth's atmosphere. Climatic extremes for worldwide operational needs is also included. Atmospheric chemistry, seismic criteria, and a mathematical model to predict atmospheric dispersion of aerospace engine exhaust cloud rise and growth are discussed. Atmospheric cloud phenomena are considered.

  15. IPAD applications to the design, analysis, and/or machining of aerospace structures. [Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, C. L.; Dovi, A. R.; Kurtze, W. L.; Storaasli, O. O.

    1981-01-01

    A computer software system for the processing and integration of engineering data and programs, called IPAD (Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design), is described. The ability of the system to relieve the engineer of the mundane task of input data preparation is demonstrated by the application of a prototype system to the design, analysis, and/or machining of three simple structures. Future work to further enhance the system's automated data handling and ability to handle larger and more varied design problems are also presented.

  16. Aerospace Vehicle Design, Spacecraft Section. Final Project Reports. Volume 2; Project Groups 6-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Three groups of student engineers in an aerospace vehicle design course present their designs for a vehicle that can be used to resupply the Space Station Freedam and provide emergency crew return to earth capability. The vehicle's requirements include a lifetime that exceeds six years, low cost, the capability for withstanding pressurization, launch, orbit, and reentry hazards, and reliability. The vehicle's subsystems are structures, communication and command data systems, attitude and articulation control, life support and crew systems, power and propulsion, reentry and recovery systems, and mission management, planning, and costing. Special attention is given to spacecraft communications.

  17. Aerospace Vehicle Design, Spacecraft Section. Volume 1: Project Groups 3-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Three groups of student engineers in an aerospace vehicle design course present their designs for a vehicle that can be used to resupply the Space Station Freedom and provide an emergency crew return to earth capability. The vehicle's requirements include a lifetime that exceeds six years, low cost, the capability for withstanding pressurization, launch, orbit, and reentry hazards, and reliability. The vehicle's subsystems are analyzed. These subsystems are structures, communication and command data systems, attitude and articulation control, life support and crew systems, power and propulsion, reentry and recovery systems, and mission management, planning, and costing.

  18. IPAD: Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The conference was organized to promote wider awareness of the IPAD program and its coming impact on American industry. The program focuses on technology issues that are critical to computer aided design manufacturing. Included is a description of a representative aerospace design process and its interface with manufacturing, the design of a future IPAD integrated computer aided design system, results to date in developing IPAD products and associated technology, and industry experiences and plans to exploit these products.

  19. Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    2004-01-01

    Aerospace Meteorology provides the identification of that aspect of meteorology that is concerned with the definition and modeling of atmospheric parameters for use in aerospace vehicle development, mission planning and operational capability assessments. One of the principal sources of this information is the NASA-HDBK-1001 "Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development'. This handbook was approved by the NASA Chief Engineer in 2000 as a NASA Preferred Technical Standard . Its technical contents were based on natural environment statistics/models and criteria developed mostly in the early 1990's. A task was approved to completely update the handbook to reflect the current state-of-the-art in the various terrestrial environment climatic areas.

  20. Grid Generation for Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization of an Aerospace Vehicle: Issues and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss grid generation issues and to challenge the grid generation community to develop tools suitable for automated multidisciplinary analysis and design optimization of aerospace vehicles. Special attention is given to the grid generation issues of computational fluid dynamics and computational structural mechanics disciplines.

  1. Requirements for multidisciplinary design of aerospace vehicles on high performance computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Robert G.

    1989-01-01

    The design of aerospace vehicles is becoming increasingly complex as the various contributing disciplines and physical components become more tightly coupled. This coupling leads to computational problems that will be tractable only if significant advances in high performance computing systems are made. Some of the modeling, algorithmic and software requirements generated by the design problem are discussed.

  2. VAMP: A computer program for calculating volume, area, and mass properties of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, P. J.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized procedure developed for analyzing aerospace vehicles evaluates the properties of elemental surface areas with specified thickness by accumulating and combining them with arbitrarily specified mass elements to form a complete evaluation. Picture-like images of the geometric description are capable of being generated.

  3. Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles. Aerospace Education III. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles." It provides guidelines for each chapter. The guide includes objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for…

  4. Thermal Performance of Composite Flexible Blanket Insulations for Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal performance of a Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation (C.F.B.I.) considered for potential use as a thermal protection system or thermal insulation for future hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aerospace Plane (N.A.S.P.). Thermophysical properties for these insulations were also measured including the thermal conductivity at various temperatures and pressures and the emissivity of the fabrics used in the flexible insulations. The thermal response of these materials subjected to aeroconvective heating from a plasma arc is also described. Materials tested included two surface variations of the insulations, and similar insulations coated with a Protective Ceramic Coating (P.C.C.). Surface and backface temperatures were measured in the flexible insulations and on Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (F.R.C.I.) used as a calibration model. The uncoated flexible insulations exhibited good thermal performance up to 35 W/sq cm. The use of a P.C.C. to protect these insulations at higher heating rates is described. The results from a computerized thermal analysis model describing thermal response of those materials subjected to the plasma arc conditions are included. Thermal and optical properties were determined including thermal conductivity for the rigid and flexible insulations and emissivity for the insulation fabrics. These properties were utilized to calculate the thermal performance of the rigid and flexible insulations at the maximum heating rate.

  5. "Fly-by-Wireless": A Revolution in Aerospace Vehicle Architecture for Instrumentation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace vehicle programs have always counted on the cables and connectors to provide power, grounding, data and time synchronization throughout a vehicle's life-cycle. Even with numerous improvements, wiring and connector problems and sensors continue to be key failure points, causing many hours of troubleshooting and replacement. Costly flight delays have been precipitated by the need to troubleshoot cables/connections, and/or repair a sensor. Wiring continues to be too expensive to remove once it is installed, even with the weight penalties. Miles of test instrumentation and low flight sensor wires still plague the aerospace industry. New technology options for data connectivity, processing and micro/nano manufacturing are making it possible to retrofit existing vehicles, like the Space Shuttle. New vehicles can now develop architectures that provide for and take advantage of alternatives to wired connectivity. This project motivates the aerospace industry and technology providers to establish: (1) A new emphasis for system engineering approaches to reduce cables and connectors. (2) Provisions for modularity and accessibility in the vehicle architecture. (3) A set of technologies that support alternatives to wired connectivity.

  6. Performance and Reliability Optimization for Aerospace Systems subject to Uncertainty and Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Uebelhart, Scott A.; Blaurock, Carl

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by the Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) for NASA Langley Research Center in the field of performance optimization for systems subject to uncertainty. The objective of the research is to develop design methods and tools to the aerospace vehicle design process which take into account lifecycle uncertainties. It recognizes that uncertainty between the predictions of integrated models and data collected from the system in its operational environment is unavoidable. Given the presence of uncertainty, the goal of this work is to develop means of identifying critical sources of uncertainty, and to combine these with the analytical tools used with integrated modeling. In this manner, system uncertainty analysis becomes part of the design process, and can motivate redesign. The specific program objectives were: 1. To incorporate uncertainty modeling, propagation and analysis into the integrated (controls, structures, payloads, disturbances, etc.) design process to derive the error bars associated with performance predictions. 2. To apply modern optimization tools to guide in the expenditure of funds in a way that most cost-effectively improves the lifecycle productivity of the system by enhancing the subsystem reliability and redundancy. The results from the second program objective are described. This report describes the work and results for the first objective: uncertainty modeling, propagation, and synthesis with integrated modeling.

  7. Decomposition-Based Decision Making for Aerospace Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Mavris, DImitri N.

    2005-01-01

    Most practical engineering systems design problems have multiple and conflicting objectives. Furthermore, the satisfactory attainment level for each objective ( requirement ) is likely uncertain early in the design process. Systems with long design cycle times will exhibit more of this uncertainty throughout the design process. This is further complicated if the system is expected to perform for a relatively long period of time, as now it will need to grow as new requirements are identified and new technologies are introduced. These points identify a need for a systems design technique that enables decision making amongst multiple objectives in the presence of uncertainty. Traditional design techniques deal with a single objective or a small number of objectives that are often aggregates of the overarching goals sought through the generation of a new system. Other requirements, although uncertain, are viewed as static constraints to this single or multiple objective optimization problem. With either of these formulations, enabling tradeoffs between the requirements, objectives, or combinations thereof is a slow, serial process that becomes increasingly complex as more criteria are added. This research proposal outlines a technique that attempts to address these and other idiosyncrasies associated with modern aerospace systems design. The proposed formulation first recasts systems design into a multiple criteria decision making problem. The now multiple objectives are decomposed to discover the critical characteristics of the objective space. Tradeoffs between the objectives are considered amongst these critical characteristics by comparison to a probabilistic ideal tradeoff solution. The proposed formulation represents a radical departure from traditional methods. A pitfall of this technique is in the validation of the solution: in a multi-objective sense, how can a decision maker justify a choice between non-dominated alternatives? A series of examples help the

  8. Development of methodologies for the estimation of thermal properties associated with aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal stress analyses are an important aspect in the development of aerospace vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at NASA-LaRC. These analyses require knowledge of the temperature within the structures which consequently necessitates the need for thermal property data. The initial goal of this research effort was to develop a methodology for the estimation of thermal properties of aerospace structural materials at room temperature and to develop a procedure to optimize the estimation process. The estimation procedure was implemented utilizing a general purpose finite element code. In addition, an optimization procedure was developed and implemented to determine critical experimental parameters to optimize the estimation procedure. Finally, preliminary experiments were conducted at the Aircraft Structures Branch (ASB) laboratory.

  9. PCSYS: The optimal design integration system picture drawing system with hidden line algorithm capability for aerospace vehicle configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Vanderburg, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    A vehicle geometric definition based upon quadrilateral surface elements to produce realistic pictures of an aerospace vehicle. The PCSYS programs can be used to visually check geometric data input, monitor geometric perturbations, and to visualize the complex spatial inter-relationships between the internal and external vehicle components. PCSYS has two major component programs. The between program, IMAGE, draws a complex aerospace vehicle pictorial representation based on either an approximate but rapid hidden line algorithm or without any hidden line algorithm. The second program, HIDDEN, draws a vehicle representation using an accurate but time consuming hidden line algorithm.

  10. Terrestrial environment (climatic) criteria guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development, 1993 revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1993-08-01

    Guidelines on terrestrial environment data specifically applicable in the development of design requirements/specifications for NASA aerospace vehicles and associated equipment development are provided. The primary geographic areas encompassed are the John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Vandenberg AFB, CA; Edwards AFB, CA; Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans, LA; John C. Stennis Space Center, MS; Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX; and the White Sands Missile Range, NM. In addition, a section was included to provide information on the general distribution of natural environmental extremes in the conterminous United States that may be needed to specify design criteria in the transportation of space vehicle subsystems and components. A summary of climatic extremes for worldwide operational needs is also included. Although not considered as a specific vehicle design criterion, a section on atmospheric attenuation was added since sensors on certain Earth orbital experiment missions are influenced by the Earth's atmosphere. The latest available information on probable climatic extremes is presented and supersedes information presented in TM X-64589, TM X-64757, TM X-78118, and TM-82473. Information is included on atmospheric chemistry, seismic criteria, and on a mathematical model to predict atmospheric dispersion of aerospace engine exhaust cloud rise and growth. There is also a section on atmospheric cloud phenomena. The information is recommended for use in the development of aerospace vehicle and associated equipment design and operational criteria, unless otherwise stated in contract work specifications. The environmental data are primarily limited to information below 90 km.

  11. Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Guidelines for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development, 1993 Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Guidelines on terrestrial environment data specifically applicable in the development of design requirements/specifications for NASA aerospace vehicles and associated equipment development are provided. The primary geographic areas encompassed are the John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Vandenberg AFB, CA; Edwards AFB, CA; Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans, LA; John C. Stennis Space Center, MS; Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX; and the White Sands Missile Range, NM. In addition, a section was included to provide information on the general distribution of natural environmental extremes in the conterminous United States that may be needed to specify design criteria in the transportation of space vehicle subsystems and components. A summary of climatic extremes for worldwide operational needs is also included. Although not considered as a specific vehicle design criterion, a section on atmospheric attenuation was added since sensors on certain Earth orbital experiment missions are influenced by the Earth's atmosphere. The latest available information on probable climatic extremes is presented and supersedes information presented in TM X-64589, TM X-64757, TM X-78118, and TM-82473. Information is included on atmospheric chemistry, seismic criteria, and on a mathematical model to predict atmospheric dispersion of aerospace engine exhaust cloud rise and growth. There is also a section on atmospheric cloud phenomena. The information is recommended for use in the development of aerospace vehicle and associated equipment design and operational criteria, unless otherwise stated in contract work specifications. The environmental data are primarily limited to information below 90 km.

  12. Technology development program for twenty-first century aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, William T.; Price, Douglas B.

    1987-01-01

    A program to meet the avionics technology needs for the design of future space transportation systems is presented. The program is designed to meet as many technology goals as possible by 1996 so decisions can be made as to which vehicles are feasible and which should be constructed.

  13. Multidisciplinary Design Techniques Applied to Conceptual Aerospace Vehicle Design. Ph.D. Thesis Final Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John Robert; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an emerging discipline within aerospace engineering. Its goal is to bring structure and efficiency to the complex design process associated with advanced aerospace launch vehicles. Aerospace vehicles generally require input from a variety of traditional aerospace disciplines - aerodynamics, structures, performance, etc. As such, traditional optimization methods cannot always be applied. Several multidisciplinary techniques and methods were proposed as potentially applicable to this class of design problem. Among the candidate options are calculus-based (or gradient-based) optimization schemes and parametric schemes based on design of experiments theory. A brief overview of several applicable multidisciplinary design optimization methods is included. Methods from the calculus-based class and the parametric class are reviewed, but the research application reported focuses on methods from the parametric class. A vehicle of current interest was chosen as a test application for this research. The rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle combines elements of rocket and airbreathing propulsion in an attempt to produce an attractive option for launching medium sized payloads into low earth orbit. The RBCC SSTO presents a particularly difficult problem for traditional one-variable-at-a-time optimization methods because of the lack of an adequate experience base and the highly coupled nature of the design variables. MDO, however, with it's structured approach to design, is well suited to this problem. The result of the application of Taguchi methods, central composite designs, and response surface methods to the design optimization of the RBCC SSTO are presented. Attention is given to the aspect of Taguchi methods that attempts to locate a 'robust' design - that is, a design that is least sensitive to uncontrollable influences on the design. Near-optimum minimum dry weight solutions are

  14. Creating a Simple Single Computational Approach to Modeling Rarefied and Continuum Flow About Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.

    1997-01-01

    We proposed to create a single computational code incorporating methods that can model both rarefied and continuum flow to enable the efficient simulation of flow about space craft and high altitude hypersonic aerospace vehicles. The code was to use a single grid structure that permits a smooth transition between the continuum and rarefied portions of the flow. Developing an appropriate computational boundary between the two regions represented a major challenge. The primary approach chosen involves coupling a four-speed Lattice Boltzmann model for the continuum flow with the DSMC method in the rarefied regime. We also explored the possibility of using a standard finite difference Navier Stokes solver for the continuum flow. With the resulting code we will ultimately investigate three-dimensional plume impingement effects, a subject of critical importance to NASA and related to the work of Drs. Forrest Lumpkin, Steve Fitzgerald and Jay Le Beau at Johnson Space Center. Below is a brief background on the project and a summary of the results as of the end of the grant.

  15. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Integrated information processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The engineering-specified requirements for integrated information processing by means of the Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system are presented. A data model is described and is based on the design process of a typical aerospace vehicle. General data management requirements are specified for data storage, retrieval, generation, communication, and maintenance. Information management requirements are specified for a two-component data model. In the general portion, data sets are managed as entities, and in the specific portion, data elements and the relationships between elements are managed by the system, allowing user access to individual elements for the purpose of query. Computer program management requirements are specified for support of a computer program library, control of computer programs, and installation of computer programs into IPAD.

  16. Terrestrial environment (Climatic) criteria guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development, 1977 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines are provided on terrestrial environment data specifically applicable for NASA aerospace vehicles and associated equipment development. Information is included on the general distribution of natural environment extremes in the conterminous United States that may be needed to specify design criteria in the transportation of space vehicle subsystems and components. Atmospheric attenuation was investigated since certain earth orbital experiment missions are influenced by the earth's atmosphere. A summary of climatic extremes for worldwide operational needs is also included. The latest available information on probable climatic extremes is presented with information on atmospheric chemistry, seismic criteria, and on a mathematical model to predict atmospheric dispersion of aerospace engine exhaust cloud rise and growth. Cloud phenomena are also considered.

  17. A technique for simulating turbulence for aerospace vehicle flight simulation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    An atmospheric turbulence model which accommodates variability of turbulence properties along an aerospace vehicle trajectory was developed. The technique involves the use of Dryden spectral forms in which the defining parameters are the standard deviations (sigma) and integral scales (L) of turbulence. These spectra are expressed as nondimensional functions of the nondimensional frequency Omega = omega L/V where omega is dimensional radian frequency and V is the true air speed of the aerospace vehicle. The nondimensional spectra are factored by standard techniques to obtain nondimensional linear recursive filters in the time domain whereby band-limited white-like noise can be operated upon to obtain nondimensional longitudinal, lateral, and vertical turbulence velocities, as functions of nondimensional time, tV/L, where t is time. Application of the technique to the simulation of the space shuttle orbiter entry flight phase is discussed.

  18. Development of integrated programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product program management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, J. M.; Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) is a computing system to support company-wide design information processing. This document presents a brief description of the management system used to direct and control a product-oriented program. This document, together with the reference design process (CR 2981) and the manufacture interactions with the design process (CR 2982), comprises the reference information that forms the basis for specifying IPAD system requirements.

  19. Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Guidelines for use in Aerospace Vehicle Development. 2008 Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the terrestrial environment that are specifically applicable in the development of design requirements/specifications for NASA aerospace vehicles, payloads, and associated ground support equipment. The primary geographic areas encompassed are the John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Vandenberg AFB, CA; Edwards AFB, CA; Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans, LA; John C. Stennis Space Center, MS; Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX; George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; and the White Sands Missile Range, NM. This document presents the latest available information on the terrestrial environment applicable to the design and operations of aerospace vehicles and supersedes information presented in NASA-HDBK-1001 and TM X-64589, TM X-64757, TM-78118, TM-82473, and TM-4511. Information is included on winds, atmospheric thermodynamic models, radiation, humidity, precipitation, severe weather, sea state, lightning, atmospheric chemistry, seismic criteria, and a model to predict atmospheric dispersion of aerospace engine exhaust cloud rise and growth. In addition, a section has been included to provide information on the general distribution of natural environmental extremes in the conterminous United States, and world-wide, that may be needed to specify design criteria in the transportation of space vehicle subsystems and components. A section on atmospheric attenuation has been added since measurements by sensors on certain Earth orbital experiment missions are influenced by the Earth s atmosphere. There is also a section on mission analysis, prelaunch monitoring, and flight evaluation as related to the terrestrial environment inputs. The information in these guidelines is recommended for use in the development of aerospace vehicle and related equipment design and associated operational criteria, unless otherwise stated in contract work specifications. The terrestrial environmental data in these guidelines are

  20. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) - IPAD user requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a requirements analysis task for Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) are presented. User requirements which, in part, will shape the IPAD system design are given. Requirements considered were: generation, modification, storage, retrieval, communication, reporting, and protection of information. Data manipulation and controls on the system and the information were also considered. Specific needs relative to the product design process are also discussed.

  1. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

  2. Dynamic Gas Flow Effects on the ESD of Aerospace Vehicle Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Kapat, Jayanta; Ahmed, Kareem; Cox, Rachel E.; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Calle, Luz M.; Mulligan, Jaysen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a dynamic version of Paschen's Law that takes into account the flow of ambient gas past aerospace vehicle surfaces. However, the classic Paschen's Law does not take into account the flow of gas of an aerospace vehicle, whose surfaces may be triboelectrically charged by dust or ice crystal impingement, traversing the atmosphere. The basic hypothesis of this work is that the number of electron-ion pairs created per unit distance by the electric field between the electrodes is mitigated by the electron-ion pairs removed per unit distance by the flow of gas. The revised Paschen equation must be a function of the mean velocity, v(sub xm), of the ambient gas and reduces to the classical version of Paschen's law when the gas mean velocity, v(sub xm) = 0. New formulations of Paschen's Law, taking into account Mach number and dynamic pressure, derived by the authors, will be discussed. These equations will be evaluated by wind tunnel experimentation later this year. Based on the results of this work, it is hoped that the safety of aerospace vehicles will be enhanced with a redefinition of electrostatic launch commit criteria. It is also possible that new products, such as new anti-static coatings, may be formulated from this data.

  3. AVID - A design system for technology studies of advanced transportation concepts. [Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Rehder, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic AVID (Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design) is a general system for conceptual and preliminary design currently being applied to a broad range of future space transportation and spacecraft vehicle concepts. AVID hardware includes a minicomputer allowing rapid designer interaction. AVID software includes (1) an executive program and communication data base which provide the automated capability to couple individual programs, either individually in an interactive mode or chained together in an automatic sequence mode; and (2) the individual technology and utility programs which provide analysis capability in areas such as graphics, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, weights, sizing, and costs.

  4. A telescopic cinema sound camera for observing high altitude aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2014-09-01

    Rockets and other high altitude aerospace vehicles produce interesting visual and aural phenomena that can be remotely observed from long distances. This paper describes a compact, passive and covert remote sensing system that can produce high resolution sound movies at >100 km viewing distances. The telescopic high resolution camera is capable of resolving and quantifying space launch vehicle dynamics including plume formation, staging events and payload fairing jettison. Flight vehicles produce sounds and vibrations that modulate the local electromagnetic environment. These audio frequency modulations can be remotely sensed by passive optical and radio wave detectors. Acousto-optic sensing methods were primarily used but an experimental radioacoustic sensor using passive micro-Doppler radar techniques was also tested. The synchronized combination of high resolution flight vehicle imagery with the associated vehicle sounds produces a cinema like experience that that is useful in both an aerospace engineering and a Hollywood film production context. Examples of visual, aural and radar observations of the first SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket launch are shown and discussed.

  5. Dynamic Data Driven Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-08

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Dynamic data driven application systems (DDDAS); surrogate modeling; reduced order modeling; multifidelity methods; self-aware UAV...title and subtitle with volume number and part number, if applicable . On classified documents, enter the title classification in parentheses. 5a...for problems in which the Gaussian kernel has a variable bandwidth. To the best of our knowledge, all of these experiments are impossible or

  6. A Conceptual Aerospace Vehicle Structural System Modeling, Analysis and Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    A process for aerospace structural concept analysis and design is presented, with examples of a blended-wing-body fuselage, a multi-bubble fuselage concept, a notional crew exploration vehicle, and a high altitude long endurance aircraft. Aerospace vehicle structures must withstand all anticipated mission loads, yet must be designed to have optimal structural weight with the required safety margins. For a viable systems study of advanced concepts, these conflicting requirements must be imposed and analyzed early in the conceptual design cycle, preferably with a high degree of fidelity. In this design process, integrated multidisciplinary analysis tools are used in a collaborative engineering environment. First, parametric solid and surface models including the internal structural layout are developed for detailed finite element analyses. Multiple design scenarios are generated for analyzing several structural configurations and material alternatives. The structural stress, deflection, strain, and margins of safety distributions are visualized and the design is improved. Over several design cycles, the refined vehicle parts and assembly models are generated. The accumulated design data is used for the structural mass comparison and concept ranking. The present application focus on the blended-wing-body vehicle structure and advanced composite material are also discussed.

  7. Combined Loads Test Fixture for Thermal-Structural Testing Aerospace Vehicle Panel Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Roger A.; Richards, W. Lance; DeAngelis, Michael V.

    2004-01-01

    A structural test requirement of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program has resulted in the design, fabrication, and implementation of a combined loads test fixture. Principal requirements for the fixture are testing a 4- by 4-ft hat-stiffened panel with combined axial (either tension or compression) and shear load at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 915 F, keeping the test panel stresses caused by the mechanical loads uniform, and thermal stresses caused by non-uniform panel temperatures minimized. The panel represents the side fuselage skin of an experimental aerospace vehicle, and was produced for the NASP program. A comprehensive mechanical loads test program using the new test fixture has been conducted on this panel from room temperature to 500 F. Measured data have been compared with finite-element analyses predictions, verifying that uniform load distributions were achieved by the fixture. The overall correlation of test data with analysis is excellent. The panel stress distributions and temperature distributions are very uniform and fulfill program requirements. This report provides details of an analytical and experimental validation of the combined loads test fixture. Because of its simple design, this unique test fixture can accommodate panels from a variety of aerospace vehicle designs.

  8. Needs and Opportunities for Uncertainty-Based Multidisciplinary Design Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Kenny, Sean P; Luckring, James M.; Maghami, Peiman; Padula, Sharon L.; Stroud, W. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    This report consists of a survey of the state of the art in uncertainty-based design together with recommendations for a Base research activity in this area for the NASA Langley Research Center. This report identifies the needs and opportunities for computational and experimental methods that provide accurate, efficient solutions to nondeterministic multidisciplinary aerospace vehicle design problems. Barriers to the adoption of uncertainty-based design methods are identified. and the benefits of the use of such methods are explained. Particular research needs are listed.

  9. Modeling aerosol losses and clothing effects in fires. [for aerospace vehicle environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The described modification of a physiochemical fire model predicts physical effects in clothed humans exposed to elevated temperatures as well as gas and aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere of an aerospace vehicle. The modifications involve the reduction in aerosol concentrations caused by settling and some improvements in dealing with mass and heat transfer effects. Predicted skin temperatures are found to be within 2 C of experimental values for the cases studied, and model predictions of total body enthalpy seem to correlate with symptomology observed experimentally.

  10. NDE of Fiber Reinforced Foam Composite Structures for Future Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, james; Roth, Don; Hopkins, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the complexities of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber reinforced foam composite structures to be used for aerospace vehicles in the future.Various views of fiber reinforced foam materials are shown and described. Conventional methods of NDE for composites are reviewed such as Micro-computed X-Ray Tomography, Thermography, Shearography, and Phased Array Ultrasonics (PAUT). These meth0ods appear to work well on the face sheet and face sheet ot core bond, they do not provide adequate coverage for the webs. There is a need for additional methods that will examine the webs and web to foam core bond.

  11. Thermographic testing used on the X-33 space launch vehicle program by BFGoodrich Aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, Douglas D.

    1999-03-01

    The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStarTM, an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite- epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor (1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain view, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, (2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at Nasa Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and (3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.

  12. Thermographic Testing Using on the X-33 Space Launch Vehicle Program by BFGoodrich Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA, under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStar(Trademark), an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite-epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor 1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountainview, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, 2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at NASA Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and 3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.

  13. Design of Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, D. W.; Ravikumar, R.

    1997-01-01

    In this report, thin film deposition of one of the model candidate materials for use as water repellent coating on the thermal protection systems (TPS) of an aerospace vehicle was investigated. The material tested was boron nitride (BN), the water-repellent properties of which was detailed in our other investigation. Two different methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD), were used to prepare the BN films on a fused quartz substrate (one of the components of thermal protection systems on aerospace vehicles). The deposited films were characterized by a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The BN films were observed to be amorphous in nature, and a CVD-deposited film yielded a contact angle of 60 degrees with water, similar to the pellet BN samples investigated previously. This demonstrates that it is possible to use the bulk sample wetting properties as a guideline to determine the candidate waterproofing material for the TPS.

  14. Development of Methodologies for the Estimation of Thermal Properties Associated with Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal stress analysis is an important aspect in the design of aerospace structures and vehicles such as the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC). These structures are complex and are often composed of numerous components fabricated from a variety of different materials. The thermal loads on these structures induce temperature variations within the structure, which in turn result in the development of thermal stresses. Therefore, a thermal stress analysis requires knowledge of the temperature distributions within the structures which consequently necessitates the need for accurate knowledge of the thermal properties, boundary conditions and thermal interface conditions associated with the structural materials. The goal of this proposed multi-year research effort was to develop estimation methodologies for the determination of the thermal properties and interface conditions associated with aerospace vehicles. Specific objectives focused on the development and implementation of optimal experimental design strategies and methodologies for the estimation of thermal properties associated with simple composite and honeycomb structures. The strategy used in this multi-year research effort was to first develop methodologies for relatively simple systems and then systematically modify these methodologies to analyze complex structures. This can be thought of as a building block approach. This strategy was intended to promote maximum usability of the resulting estimation procedure by NASA-LARC researchers through the design of in-house experimentation procedures and through the use of an existing general purpose finite element software.

  15. Development and Evaluation of Sensor Concepts for Ageless Aerospace Vehicles: Report 4 - Phase 1 Implementation of the Concept Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, David; Batten, Adam; Carpenter, David; Dunlop, John; Edwards, Graeme; Farmer, Tony; Gaffney, Bruce; Hedley, Mark; Hoschke, Nigel; Isaacs, Peter; Johnson, Mark; Lewis, Chris; Murdoch, Alex; Poulton, Geoff; Price, Don; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Rees, David; Scott, Andrew; Seneviratne, Sarath; Valencia, Philip; Wang, Peter; Whitnall, Denis

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the first phase of the implementation of the Concept Demonstrator. The Concept Demonstrator system is a powerful and flexible experimental test-bed platform for developing sensors, communications systems, and multi-agent based algorithms for an intelligent vehicle health monitoring system for deployment in aerospace vehicles. The Concept Demonstrator contains sensors and processing hardware distributed throughout the structure, and uses multi-agent algorithms to characterize impacts and determine an appropriate response to these impacts.

  16. Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-03

    AND SUBTITLE Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle...Center program to be able to expose Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) space-inspired science centers for DC Metro beltway schools

  17. Review of improved Monte Carlo methods in uncertainty-based design optimization for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xingzhi; Chen, Xiaoqian; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Yao, Wen

    2016-10-01

    Ever-increasing demands of uncertainty-based design, analysis, and optimization in aerospace vehicles motivate the development of Monte Carlo methods with wide adaptability and high accuracy. This paper presents a comprehensive review of typical improved Monte Carlo methods and summarizes their characteristics to aid the uncertainty-based multidisciplinary design optimization (UMDO). Among them, Bayesian inference aims to tackle the problems with the availability of prior information like measurement data. Importance sampling (IS) settles the inconvenient sampling and difficult propagation through the incorporation of an intermediate importance distribution or sequential distributions. Optimized Latin hypercube sampling (OLHS) is a stratified sampling approach to achieving better space-filling and non-collapsing characteristics. Meta-modeling approximation based on Monte Carlo saves the computational cost by using cheap meta-models for the output response. All the reviewed methods are illustrated by corresponding aerospace applications, which are compared to show their techniques and usefulness in UMDO, thus providing a beneficial reference for future theoretical and applied research.

  18. Complex multidisciplinary systems decomposition for aerospace vehicle conceptual design and technology acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omoragbon, Amen

    Although, the Aerospace and Defense (A&D) industry is a significant contributor to the United States' economy, national prestige and national security, it experiences significant cost and schedule overruns. This problem is related to the differences between technology acquisition assessments and aerospace vehicle conceptual design. Acquisition assessments evaluate broad sets of alternatives with mostly qualitative techniques, while conceptual design tools evaluate narrow set of alternatives with multidisciplinary tools. In order for these two fields to communicate effectively, a common platform for both concerns is desired. This research is an original contribution to a three-part solution to this problem. It discusses the decomposition step of an innovation technology and sizing tool generation framework. It identifies complex multidisciplinary system definitions as a bridge between acquisition and conceptual design. It establishes complex multidisciplinary building blocks that can be used to build synthesis systems as well as technology portfolios. It also describes a Graphical User Interface Designed to aid in decomposition process. Finally, it demonstrates an application of the methodology to a relevant acquisition and conceptual design problem posed by the US Air Force.

  19. Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook For Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale; Vaughan, William W.

    2004-01-01

    An update of the NASA 'Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development' (NASA-HDBK-1001) is currently in the final process of completion for release in late-2004 or early 2005. The current version of the Handbook was approved by the NASA Chief Engineer in 2000 as a NASA Preferred Technical Standard. However, it was based on natural environment criteria developed mostly in the early 1990's. Therefore, a task was approved to completely update the Handbook in order to reflect the current state-of-the-art in the various terrestrial environmental climatic criteria areas. The technical areas include: Winds, atmospheric constituents, thermodynamic parameters/models/extremes, humidity, electricity, precipitation/fog/icing, cloud phenomena/cover, diffusion/toxic release, severe weather/tornado/hurricane, solar/thermal radiation, geologic hazards, and sea state. A summary of this extensive update will be presented along with some key examples of the new contents. Earlier versions of this publication have been extensively used by the aerospace community, especially program managers and design engineers for required natural terrestrial environment inputs to use in mission planning, development studies and trades, plus by those concerned with terrestrial environment descriptions for the major test ranges within the United States.

  20. Simulink-Based Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David m.; Bacon, Barton J.

    2006-01-01

    The Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV) is a Simulink-based approach to providing an engineering quality desktop simulation capability for finding trim solutions, extracting linear models for vehicle analysis and control law development, and generating open-loop and closed-loop time history responses for control system evaluation. It represents a useful level of maturity rather than a finished product. The layout is hierarchical and supports concurrent component development and validation, with support from the Concurrent Versions System (CVS) software management tool. Real Time Workshop (RTW) is used to generate pre-compiled code for substantial component modules, and templates permit switching seamlessly between original Simulink and code compiled for various platforms. Two previous limitations are addressed. Turn around time for incorporating tabular model components was improved through auto-generation of required Simulink diagrams based on data received in XML format. The layout was modified to exploit a Simulink "compile once, evaluate multiple times" capability for zero elapsed time for use in trimming and linearizing. Trim is achieved through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with a narrow, script definable interface to the vehicle model which facilitates incorporating new models.

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Aerospace Vehicle During a Subsonic Pitch-Over Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.

    1996-01-01

    Time-dependent CFD has been used to predict aerospace vehicle aerodynamics during a subsonic rotation maneuver. The inviscid 3D3U code is employed to solve the 3-D unsteady flow field using an unstructured grid of tetrahedra. As this application represents a challenge to time-dependent CFD, observations concerning spatial and temporal resolution are included. It is shown that even for a benign rotation rate, unsteady aerodynamic effects are significant during the maneuver. Possibly more significant, however, the rotation maneuver creates ow asymmetries leading to yawing moment, rolling moment, and side force which are not present in the quasi-steady case. A series of steady solutions at discrete points in the maneuver are also computed for comparison with wind tunnel measurements and as a means of quantifying unsteady effects.

  2. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 2; Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Weston, R. P.; Samareh, J. A.; Mason, B. H.; Green, L. L.; Biedron, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a high-speed civil transport configuration. The paper describes both the preliminary results from implementing and validating the multidisciplinary analysis and the results from an aerodynamic optimization. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture compliant software product. A companion paper describes the formulation of the multidisciplinary analysis and optimization system.

  3. Some aspects of algorithm performance and modeling in transient thermal analysis of structures. [aerospace vehicle structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Robinson, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The status of an effort to increase the efficiency of calculating transient temperature fields in complex aerospace vehicle structures is described. The advantages and disadvantages of explicit and implicit algorithms are discussed. A promising set of implicit algorithms with variable time steps, known as the GEAR package is described. Four test problems, used for evaluating and comparing various algorithms, were selected and finite element models of the configurations are described. These problems include a space shuttle frame component, an insulated cylinder, a metallic panel for a thermal protection system, and a model of the space shuttle orbiter wing. Results generally indicate a preference for implicit oer explicit algorithms for solution of transient structural heat transfer problems when the governing equations are stiff.

  4. Overview of the Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venneri, S. L.

    1983-01-01

    To respond to national needs for improved productivity in engineering design and manufacturing, a NASA supported joint industry/government project is underway denoted Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD). The objective is to improve engineering productivity through better use of computer technology. It focuses on development of data base management technology and associated software for integrated company wide management of engineering and manufacturing information. Results to date on the IPAD project include an in depth documentation of a representative design process for a large engineering project, the definition and design of computer aided design software needed to support that process, and the release of prototype software to manage engineering information. This paper provides an overview of the IPAD project and summarizes progress to date and future plans.

  5. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 1; Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Townsend, J. C.; Salas, A. O.; Samareh, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, V.; Barthelemy, J.-F.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity, finite element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a highspeed civil transport configuration. The paper describes the engineering aspects of formulating the optimization by integrating these analysis codes and associated interface codes into the system. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) compliant software product. A companion paper presents currently available results.

  6. Energy harvesting by means of flow-induced vibrations on aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daochun; Wu, Yining; Da Ronch, Andrea; Xiang, Jinwu

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviews the design, implementation, and demonstration of energy harvesting devices that exploit flow-induced vibrations as the main source of energy. Starting with a presentation of various concepts of energy harvesters that are designed to benefit from a general class of flow-induced vibrations, specific attention is then given at those technologies that may offer, today or in the near future, a potential benefit to extend the operational capabilities and to monitor critical parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles. Various phenomena characterized by flow-induced vibrations are discussed, including limit cycle oscillations of plates and wing sections, vortex-induced and galloping oscillations of bluff bodies, vortex-induced vibrations of downstream structures, and atmospheric turbulence and gusts. It was found that linear or linearized modeling approaches are commonly employed to support the design phase of energy harvesters. As a result, highly nonlinear and coupled phenomena that characterize flow-induced vibrations are neglected in the design process. The Authors encourage a shift in the current design paradigm: considering coupled nonlinear phenomena, and adequate modeling tools to support their analysis, from a design limitation to a design opportunity. Special emphasis is placed on identifying designs and implementations applicable to aircraft configurations. Application fields of flow-induced vibrations-based energy harvesters are discussed including power supply for wireless sensor networks and simultaneous energy harvest and control. A large body of work on energy harvesters is included in this review journal. Whereas most of the references claim direct applications to unmanned aerial vehicles, it is apparent that, in most of the cases presented, the working principles and characteristics of the energy harvesters are incompatible with any aerospace applications. Finally, the challenges that hold back the integration of energy harvesting

  7. Limiting performance of ground transportation vehicles subject to transient loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, W. D.; Wang, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    A computational approach to determining the limiting performance of vehicles subject to transient disturbances based on response variable criteria is set forth. For the purposes of a limiting performance study, the transportation system dynamics are described using second- or first-order equations in which the sought for quantity is a vector of time-varying functions called control or isolator forces that have replaced portions of the physical system. Computations are performed as a linear programming problem. As an example of the limiting performance of vehicles in protecting passengers or cargo under crash conditions, the problem of lading damage of a rail vehicle that is struck by another vehicle is considered.

  8. The suitability of selected multidisciplinary design and optimization techniques to conceptual aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Four methods for preliminary aerospace vehicle design are reviewed. The first three methods (classical optimization, system decomposition, and system sensitivity analysis (SSA)) employ numerical optimization techniques and numerical gradients to feed back changes in the design variables. The optimum solution is determined by stepping through a series of designs toward a final solution. Of these three, SSA is argued to be the most applicable to a large-scale highly coupled vehicle design where an accurate minimum of an objective function is required. With SSA, several tasks can be performed in parallel. The techniques of classical optimization and decomposition can be included in SSA, resulting in a very powerful design method. The Taguchi method is more of a 'smart' parametric design method that analyzes variable trends and interactions over designer specified ranges with a minimum of experimental analysis runs. Its advantages are its relative ease of use, ability to handle discrete variables, and ability to characterize the entire design space with a minimum of analysis runs.

  9. A Survey of Emerging Materials for Revolutionary Aerospace Vehicle Structures and Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Shuart, Mark J.; Gray, Hugh R.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan identifies the long-term goal of providing safe and affordable space access, orbital transfer, and interplanetary transportation capabilities to enable scientific research, human, and robotic exploration, and the commercial development of space. Numerous scientific and engineering breakthroughs will be required to develop the technology required to achieve this goal. Critical technologies include advanced vehicle primary and secondary structure, radiation protection, propulsion and power systems, fuel storage, electronics and devices, sensors and science instruments, and medical diagnostics and treatment. Advanced materials with revolutionary new capabilities are an essential element of each of these technologies. A survey of emerging materials with applications to aerospace vehicle structures and propulsion systems was conducted to assist in long-term Agency mission planning. The comprehensive survey identified materials already under development that could be available in 5 to 10 years and those that are still in the early research phase and may not be available for another 20 to 30 years. The survey includes typical properties, a description of the material and processing methods, the current development status, and the critical issues that must be overcome to achieve commercial viability.

  10. Development of a teaching tool to encourage high school students to study aerospace technical subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gale, Anita; Edwards, Dick

    1998-01-01

    This report details the efforts to develop a design competition aimed at high school students which will encourage them to study aerospace technical subjects. It has been shown that such competitions - based on an industry simulation game - are valuable ways to energize high school students to study in this area. Under the grant, a new competition scenario was developed, in keeping with NASA-Dryden's mission to develop aircraft and foster knowledge about aeronautics. Included are preliminary background materials and information which, if the grant is continued, would form the basis of a national competition for high school students, wherein they would design an Aerospaceport in a future year, taking into consideration the requirements of aircraft, spacecraft- ground transportation systems, passengers who use the facility, and employees who operate it. Many of the Competition methods were studied and tested during two existing local competitions in the disadvantaged communities of Lancaster and Victorville, California.

  11. Robust/optimal temperature profile control of a high-speed aerospace vehicle using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vivek; Padhi, Radhakant; Balakrishnan, S N

    2007-07-01

    An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. A 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. "Snapshot" solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the "proper orthogonal decomposition" (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. A low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. An ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with a single-network-adaptive-critic (SNAC) controller for this approximate nonlinear model. Actual control in the original domain is calculated with the same POD basis functions through a reverse mapping. Further contribution of this paper includes development of an online robust neurocontroller to account for unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainties inherent in such a complex dynamic system. A neural network (NN) weight update rule that guarantees boundedness of the weights and relaxes the need for persistence of excitation (PE) condition is presented. Simulation studies show that in a fairly extensive but compact domain, any desired temperature profile can be achieved starting from any initial temperature profile. Therefore, the ADP and NN-based controllers appear to have the potential to become controller synthesis tools for nonlinear distributed parameter systems.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems /IPAD/ An executive summary. II. [for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.; Hansen, S. D.; Redhed, D. D.; Southall, J. W.; Kawaguchi, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems with particular attention to Integrated Program for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) project. An analysis of all the ingredients of IPAD indicates the feasibility of a significant cost and flowtime reduction in the product design process involved. It is also concluded that an IPAD-supported design process will provide a framework for configuration control, whereby the engineering costs for design, analysis and testing can be controlled during the air vehicle development cycle.

  13. Probabilistic material degradation model for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical and thermal fatigue, and creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, L.

    1992-01-01

    A probabilistic general material strength degradation model has been developed for structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to diverse random effects. The model has been implemented in two FORTRAN programs, PROMISS (Probabilistic Material Strength Simulator) and PROMISC (Probabilistic Material Strength Calibrator). PROMISS calculates the random lifetime strength of an aerospace propulsion component due to as many as eighteen diverse random effects. Results are presented in the form of probability density functions and cumulative distribution functions of lifetime strength. PROMISC calibrates the model by calculating the values of empirical material constants.

  14. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the

  15. New techniques for laser beam atmospheric extinction measurements from manned and unmanned aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Novel techniques for laser beam atmospheric extinction measurements, suitable for several air and space platform applications, are presented in this paper. Extinction measurements are essential to support the engineering development and the operational employment of a variety of aerospace electro-optical sensor systems, allowing calculation of the range performance attainable with such systems in current and likely future applications. Such applications include ranging, weaponry, Earth remote sensing and possible planetary exploration missions performed by satellites and unmanned flight vehicles. Unlike traditional LIDAR methods, the proposed techniques are based on measurements of the laser energy (intensity and spatial distribution) incident on target surfaces of known geometric and reflective characteristics, by means of infrared detectors and/or infrared cameras calibrated for radiance. Various laser sources can be employed with wavelengths from the visible to the far infrared portions of the spectrum, allowing for data correlation and extended sensitivity. Errors affecting measurements performed using the proposed methods are discussed in the paper and algorithms are proposed that allow a direct determination of the atmospheric transmittance and spatial characteristics of the laser spot. These algorithms take into account a variety of linear and non-linear propagation effects. Finally, results are presented relative to some experimental activities performed to validate the proposed techniques. Particularly, data are presented relative to both ground and flight trials performed with laser systems operating in the near infrared (NIR) at λ= 1064 nm and λ= 1550 nm. This includes ground tests performed with 10 Hz and 20 KHz PRF NIR laser systems in a large variety of atmospheric conditions, and flight trials performed with a 10 Hz airborne NIR laser system installed on a TORNADO aircraft, flying up to altitudes of 22,000 ft.

  16. Associated with aerospace vehicles development of methodologies for the estimation of thermal properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal stress analyses are an important aspect in the development of aerospace vehicles at NASA-LaRC. These analyses require knowledge of the temperature distributions within the vehicle structures which consequently necessitates the need for accurate thermal property data. The overall goal of this ongoing research effort is to develop methodologies for the estimation of the thermal property data needed to describe the temperature responses of these complex structures. The research strategy undertaken utilizes a building block approach. The idea here is to first focus on the development of property estimation methodologies for relatively simple conditions, such as isotropic materials at constant temperatures, and then systematically modify the technique for the analysis of more and more complex systems, such as anisotropic multi-component systems. The estimation methodology utilized is a statistically based method which incorporates experimental data and a mathematical model of the system. Several aspects of this overall research effort were investigated during the time of the ASEE summer program. One important aspect involved the calibration of the estimation procedure for the estimation of the thermal properties through the thickness of a standard material. Transient experiments were conducted using a Pyrex standard at various temperatures, and then the thermal properties (thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity) were estimated at each temperature. Confidence regions for the estimated values were also determined. These results were then compared to documented values. Another set of experimental tests were conducted on carbon composite samples at different temperatures. Again, the thermal properties were estimated for each temperature, and the results were compared with values obtained using another technique. In both sets of experiments, a 10-15 percent off-set between the estimated values and the previously determined values was found. Another effort

  17. Aerospace Toolbox---a flight vehicle design, analysis, simulation ,and software development environment: I. An introduction and tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Paul M.; Wells, Randy

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents a demonstrated approach to significantly reduce the cost and schedule of non real-time modeling and simulation, real-time HWIL simulation, and embedded code development. The tool and the methodology presented capitalize on a paradigm that has become a standard operating procedure in the automotive industry. The tool described is known as the Aerospace Toolbox, and it is based on the MathWorks Matlab/Simulink framework, which is a COTS application. Extrapolation of automotive industry data and initial applications in the aerospace industry show that the use of the Aerospace Toolbox can make significant contributions in the quest by NASA and other government agencies to meet aggressive cost reduction goals in development programs. The part I of this paper provides a detailed description of the GUI based Aerospace Toolbox and how it is used in every step of a development program; from quick prototyping of concept developments that leverage built-in point of departure simulations through to detailed design, analysis, and testing. Some of the attributes addressed include its versatility in modeling 3 to 6 degrees of freedom, its library of flight test validated library of models (including physics, environments, hardware, and error sources), and its built-in Monte Carlo capability. Other topics to be covered in this part include flight vehicle models and algorithms, and the covariance analysis package, Navigation System Covariance Analysis Tools (NavSCAT). Part II of this paper, to be published at a later date, will conclude with a description of how the Aerospace Toolbox is an integral part of developing embedded code directly from the simulation models by using the Mathworks Real Time Workshop and optimization tools. It will also address how the Toolbox can be used as a design hub for Internet based collaborative engineering tools such as NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) and Lockheed Martin's Interactive Missile Design Environment

  18. Closed form solutions of constrained trajectories - Application in optimal ascent of aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping; Samsundar, John

    1992-01-01

    The present consideration of the flight trajectory of hypersonic aerospace vehicles subject to a class of path constraints notes the constrained dynamics to constitute a natural two-timescale system, so that problems of trajectory optimization and guidance can be dramatically simplified by means of the asymptotic analytical solutions thus obtained. An illustrative application in ascent trajectory optimization for an aerospace vehicle is presented.

  19. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

  20. Advanced information processing system - Status report. [for fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, L. D.; Lala, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is designed to provide a fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing architecture for a broad range of aerospace vehicles. The AIPS architecture also has attributes to enhance system effectiveness such as graceful degradation, growth and change tolerance, integrability, etc. Two key building blocks being developed by the AIPS program are a fault and damage tolerant processor and communication network. A proof-of-concept system is now being built and will be tested to demonstrate the validity and performance of the AIPS concepts.

  1. An evaluation of a constrained test method for obtaining free body responses. [with application to aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A.; Giansante, N.; Bartlett, F. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A method for obtaining free body responses from dynamic tests on a constrained structure is investigated for practical feasibility. The method is based on the principle that a constrained structure can be considered to be a free body acted upon by multiple forces which include the forces of constraint. By measuring these forces and by exciting the structure so as to develop linearly independent sets of forces, the response of the free body to one force at a time can be computed. Techniques for producing these independent forces are discussed. The development of the theory, computer simulations of tests of representative aerospace vehicles (including experimental error), and a description and listing of the computer programs developed are included. The procedure appears to be a practical method for obtaining in-flight characteristics of such vehicles.

  2. Aerospace Toolbox--a flight vehicle design, analysis, simulation, and software development environment II: an in-depth overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Paul M.

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a demonstrated approach to significantly reduce the cost and schedule of non real-time modeling and simulation, real-time HWIL simulation, and embedded code development. The tool and the methodology presented capitalize on a paradigm that has become a standard operating procedure in the automotive industry. The tool described is known as the Aerospace Toolbox, and it is based on the MathWorks Matlab/Simulink framework, which is a COTS application. Extrapolation of automotive industry data and initial applications in the aerospace industry show that the use of the Aerospace Toolbox can make significant contributions in the quest by NASA and other government agencies to meet aggressive cost reduction goals in development programs. The part I of this paper provided a detailed description of the GUI based Aerospace Toolbox and how it is used in every step of a development program; from quick prototyping of concept developments that leverage built-in point of departure simulations through to detailed design, analysis, and testing. Some of the attributes addressed included its versatility in modeling 3 to 6 degrees of freedom, its library of flight test validated library of models (including physics, environments, hardware, and error sources), and its built-in Monte Carlo capability. Other topics that were covered in part I included flight vehicle models and algorithms, and the covariance analysis package, Navigation System Covariance Analysis Tools (NavSCAT). Part II of this series will cover a more in-depth look at the analysis and simulation capability and provide an update on the toolbox enhancements. It will also address how the Toolbox can be used as a design hub for Internet based collaborative engineering tools such as NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) and Lockheed Martin's Interactive Missile Design Environment (IMD).

  3. An Inverse Interpolation Method Utilizing In-Flight Strain Measurements for Determining Loads and Structural Response of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkarayev, S.; Krashantisa, R.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    An important and challenging technology aimed at the next generation of aerospace vehicles is that of structural health monitoring. The key problem is to determine accurately, reliably, and in real time the applied loads, stresses, and displacements experienced in flight, with such data establishing an information database for structural health monitoring. The present effort is aimed at developing a finite element-based methodology involving an inverse formulation that employs measured surface strains to recover the applied loads, stresses, and displacements in an aerospace vehicle in real time. The computational procedure uses a standard finite element model (i.e., "direct analysis") of a given airframe, with the subsequent application of the inverse interpolation approach. The inverse interpolation formulation is based on a parametric approximation of the loading and is further constructed through a least-squares minimization of calculated and measured strains. This procedure results in the governing system of linear algebraic equations, providing the unknown coefficients that accurately define the load approximation. Numerical simulations are carried out for problems involving various levels of structural approximation. These include plate-loading examples and an aircraft wing box. Accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are discussed in detail. The experimental validation of the methodology by way of structural testing of an aircraft wing is also discussed.

  4. Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Mackin, T. E.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, includes a discussion of the essentials of propulsion, control, and guidance and the conditions of space travel. Chapter 1 provides a brief account of basic laws of celestial mechanics. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 are devoted to the chemical principles of propulsion. Included are the basics of…

  5. Development of Multidisciplinary, Multifidelity Analysis, Integration, and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-27

    Optimization," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics Systems, Vol. 34, 817-823. Singh, G. and Grandhi, R. V., "Mixed-Variable Optimization...containing the design space S. AS3. The objective function (the augmented Lagrangian function), , satisfies a Lipschitz condition. In words, the

  6. Computational simulation of probabilistic lifetime strength for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.; Trimble, Greg A.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a fourth year effort of a research program conducted for NASA-LeRC by The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) are presented. The research included on-going development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects or primitive variables. These primitive variables may include high temperature, fatigue, or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation was randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above-described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with regression analysis of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constants for each effect or primitive variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from industry and the open literature for materials typically for applications in aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 was analyzed using the developed methodology.

  7. Computational simulation of probabilistic lifetime strength for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.; Trimble, Greg A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a fourth year effort of a research program, conducted for NASA-LeRC by the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The research included on-going development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subject to a number of effects or primitive variables. These primitive variables may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation has been randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above-described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with regression analysis of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constants for each effect or primitive variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from industry and the open literature for materials typically for applications in aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 has been analyzed using the developed methodology.

  8. Mass Efficiency Considerations for Thermally Insulated Structural Skin of an Aerospace Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2012-01-01

    An approximate equation was derived to predict the mass of insulation required to limit the maximum temperature reached by an insulated structure subjected to a transient heating pulse. In the course of the derivation two figures of merit were identified. One figure of merit correlates to the effectiveness of the heat capacity of the underlying structural material in reducing the amount of required insulation. The second figure of merit provides an indicator of the mass efficiency of the insulator material. An iterative, one dimensional finite element analysis was used to size the external insulation required to protect the structure at a single location on the Space Shuttle Orbiter and a reusable launch vehicle. Required insulation masses were calculated for a range of different materials for both structure and insulator. The required insulation masses calculated using the approximate equation were shown to typically agree with finite element results within 10 to 20 percent over the range of parameters studied. Finite element results closely followed the trends indicated by both figures of merit.

  9. Military handbook: Metallic materials and elements for aerospace vehicle structures, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-11-01

    Since many aerospace companies manufacture both commercial and military products, the standardization of metallic materials design data, which are acceptable to government procuring or certification agencies, is very beneficial to those manufacturers as well as governmental agencies. Although the design requirements for military and commercial products may differ greatly, the required design values for the strength of materials and elements and other needed material characteristics are often identical. Therefore this publication is to provide standardized design values and related design information for metallic materials and structural elements used in aerospace structures. The data contained herein or from approved items in the minutes of MIL-RDBK-5 coordination meetings are acceptable to the Air Force, the Navy, the Army, and the Federal Aviation Administration. Approval by the procuring or certificating agency must be obtained for the use of design values for products not contained herein.

  10. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2016-07-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  11. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 6: IPAD system development and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redhed, D. D.; Tripp, L. L.; Kawaguchi, A. S.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The strategy of the IPAD implementation plan presented, proposes a three phase development of the IPAD system and technical modules, and the transfer of this capability from the development environment to the aerospace vehicle design environment. The system and technical module capabilities for each phase of development are described. The system and technical module programming languages are recommended as well as the initial host computer system hardware and operating system. The cost of developing the IPAD technology is estimated. A schedule displaying the flowtime required for each development task is given. A PERT chart gives the developmental relationships of each of the tasks and an estimate of the operational cost of the IPAD system is offered.

  12. A Compendium of Wind Statistics and Models for the NASA Space Shuttle and Other Aerospace Vehicle Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Adelfang, S. I.

    1998-01-01

    The wind profile with all of its variations with respect to altitude has been, is now, and will continue to be important for aerospace vehicle design and operations. Wind profile databases and models are used for the vehicle ascent flight design for structural wind loading, flight control systems, performance analysis, and launch operations. This report presents the evolution of wind statistics and wind models from the empirical scalar wind profile model established for the Saturn Program through the development of the vector wind profile model used for the Space Shuttle design to the variations of this wind modeling concept for the X-33 program. Because wind is a vector quantity, the vector wind models use the rigorous mathematical probability properties of the multivariate normal probability distribution. When the vehicle ascent steering commands (ascent guidance) are wind biased to the wind profile measured on the day-of-launch, ascent structural wind loads are reduced and launch probability is increased. This wind load alleviation technique is recommended in the initial phase of vehicle development. The vehicle must fly through the largest load allowable versus altitude to achieve its mission. The Gumbel extreme value probability distribution is used to obtain the probability of exceeding (or not exceeding) the load allowable. The time conditional probability function is derived from the Gumbel bivariate extreme value distribution. This time conditional function is used for calculation of wind loads persistence increments using 3.5-hour Jimsphere wind pairs. These increments are used to protect the commit-to-launch decision. Other topics presented include the Shuttle Shuttle load-response to smoothed wind profiles, a new gust model, and advancements in wind profile measuring systems. From the lessons learned and knowledge gained from past vehicle programs, the development of future launch vehicles can be accelerated. However, new vehicle programs by their very

  13. Atmospheric/Space Environment Support Lessons Learned Regarding Aerospace Vehicle Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    In modern government and aerospace industry institutions the necessity of controlling current year costs often leads to high mobility in the technical workforce, "one-deep" technical capabilities, and minimal mentoring for young engineers. Thus, formal recording, use, and teaching of lessons learned are especially important in the maintenance and improvement of current knowledge and development of new technologies, regardless of the discipline area. Within the NASA Technical Standards Program Website http://standards.nasa.gov there is a menu item entitled "Lessons Learned/Best Practices". It contains links to a large number of engineering and technical disciplines related data sets that contain a wealth of lessons learned information based on past experiences. This paper has provided a small sample of lessons learned relative to the atmospheric and space environment. There are many more whose subsequent applications have improved our knowledge of the atmosphere and space environment, and the application of this knowledge to the engineering and operations for a variety of aerospace programs.

  14. Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Guidelines for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development, 1973 Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, G. E. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Guidelines are provided on probable climatic extremes and terrestrial environment data applicable to space vehicle and associated equipment design and development. Operational criteria for ground support sites are emphasized.

  15. Natural orbital environment definition guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. Jeffrey (Editor); Smith, Robert E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document provides definitions of the natural near-Earth space environment suitable for use in the initial development/design phase of any space vehicle. The natural environment includes the neutral atmosphere, plasma, charged particle radiation, electromagnetic radiation (EMR), meteoroids, orbital debris, magnetic field, physical and thermal constants, and gravitational field. Communications and other unmanned satellites operate in geosynchronous-Earth orbit (GEO); therefore, some data are given for GEO, but emphasis is on altitudes from 200 km to 1000 km (low-Earth orbit (LEO)). This document does not cover the induced environment of other effects resulting from presence of the space vehicle. Manmade factors are included as part of the ambient natural environment; i.e., orbital debris and radio frequency (RF) noise generated on Earth, because they are not caused by the presence of the space vehicle but form part of the ambient environment that the space vehicle experiences.

  16. Design and fabrication of metallic thermal protection systems for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varisco, A.; Bell, P.; Wolter, W.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop a lightweight, efficient metallic thermal protection system (TPS) for application to future shuttle-type reentry vehicles, advanced space transports, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Technical requirements were generally derived from the space shuttle. A corrugation-stiffened beaded-skin TPS design was used as a baseline. The system was updated and modified to incorporate the latest technology developments and design criteria. The primary objective was to minimize mass for the total system.

  17. Potential and prospective implementation of carbon nanotubes on next generation aircraft and space vehicles: A review of current and expected applications in aerospace sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Omid; Elola, Maialen Chapartegui; Elizetxea, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes have instigated the interest of many different scientific fields since their authenticated introduction, more than two decades ago. Particularly in aerospace applications, the potential implementations of these advanced materials have been predicted to have a large impact on future aircraft and space vehicles, mainly due to their distinct features, which include superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. This article provides the very first consolidated review of the imminent prospects of utilizing carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles in aerospace sciences, based on their recent implementations and predicted future applications. Explicitly, expected carbon nanotube employment in aeronautics and astronautics are identified for commercial aircraft, military aircraft, rotorcraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, satellites, and space launch vehicles. Attention is devoted to future utilization of carbon nanotubes, which may comprise hydrogen storage encapsulation, composite material implementation, lightning protection for aircraft, aircraft icing mitigation, reduced weight of airframes/satellites, and alleviation of challenges related to future space launch. This study further sheds light onto recent actualized implementations of carbon nanotubes in aerospace applications, as well as current and prospective challenges related to their usage in aerospace sciences, encompassing health and safety hazards, large scale manufacturing, achievement of optimum properties, recycling, and environmental impacts.

  18. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1998-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. Three Principal Investigators; Drs. Renaud, Brockman and Batill directed this effort. During the four and a half year grant period, six Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student received full or partial support, while four Computer Science and Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student were supported. During each of the summers up to four undergraduate students were involved in related research activities. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (N4DO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to

  19. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 4: IPAD system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, W.; Carpenter, L. C.; Redhed, D. D.; Hansen, S. D.; Anderson, L. O.; Kawaguchi, A. S.

    1973-01-01

    The computing system design of IPAD is described and the requirements which form the basis for the system design are discussed. The system is presented in terms of a functional design description and technical design specifications. The functional design specifications give the detailed description of the system design using top-down structured programming methodology. Human behavioral characteristics, which specify the system design at the user interface, security considerations, and standards for system design, implementation, and maintenance are also part of the technical design specifications. Detailed specifications of the two most common computing system types in use by the major aerospace companies which could support the IPAD system design are presented. The report of a study to investigate migration of IPAD software between the two candidate 3rd generation host computing systems and from these systems to a 4th generation system is included.

  20. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: A Multidisciplinary Design System for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John K.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze ma or propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of design process and to provide the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), a multidisciplinary system of analysis tools that is focussed on extending the simulation capability from components to the full system. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.

  1. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1999-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to a sensitivity based Concurrent Subspace Optimization (CSSO) NMO algorithm; the development of a neural network response surface based CSSO-MDO algorithm; and the integration of distributed computing and process scheduling into the MDO environment. This report overviews research efforts in each of these focus. A complete bibliography of research produced with support of this grant is attached.

  2. Experimental design of an interlaboratory study for trace metal analysis of liquid fluids. [for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenbauer-Seng, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    The accurate determination of trace metals and fuels is an important requirement in much of the research into and development of alternative fuels for aerospace applications. Recognizing the detrimental effects of certain metals on fuel performance and fuel systems at the part per million and in some cases part per billion levels requires improved accuracy in determining these low concentration elements. Accurate analyses are also required to ensure interchangeability of analysis results between vendor, researcher, and end use for purposes of quality control. Previous interlaboratory studies have demonstrated the inability of different laboratories to agree on the results of metal analysis, particularly at low concentration levels, yet typically good precisions are reported within a laboratory. An interlaboratory study was designed to gain statistical information about the sources of variation in the reported concentrations. Five participant laboratories were used on a fee basis and were not informed of the purpose of the analyses. The effects of laboratory, analytical technique, concentration level, and ashing additive were studied in four fuel types for 20 elements of interest. The prescribed sample preparation schemes (variations of dry ashing) were used by all of the laboratories. The analytical data were statistically evaluated using a computer program for the analysis of variance technique.

  3. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-29

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  4. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Aerospace planes and trans-atmospheric vehicles - Recent US studies revive dormant technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, B.

    1986-03-01

    A technology-readiness and performance prospects evaluation is made for next-generation large aircraft capable of reaching and sustaining hypersonic (Mach 5 and above) speeds with air breathing powerplants as well as of leaving the earth's atmosphere for Space Shuttle-like operations employing nonairbreathing propulsion. Both DARPA and NASA are currently sponsoring research in the materials, configuration design, propulsion and fuel systems, and control and navigation methods, that are entailed by such vehicles. Attention is given to cryogenically fueled 'air turboramjet' engine technology, which encompasses turbojet (low speed), ramjet (high speed), and rocket (exoatmospheric) propulsion cycles.

  6. Hypersonic aerospace vehicle leading-edge cooling using heat-pipe, transpiration and film-cooling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Modlin, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of cooling hypersonic-vehicle leading-edge structures exposed to severe aerodynamic surface heat fluxes was studied, using a combination of liquid-metal heat pipes and surface-mass-transfer cooling techniques. A generalized, transient, finite-difference-based hypersonic leading-edge cooling model was developed that incorporated these effects and was demonstrated on an assumed aerospace plane-type wing leading edge section and a SCRAMJET engine inlet leading-edge section. The hypersonic leading-edge cooling model was developed using an existing, experimentally verified heat-pipe model. Then the existing heat-pipe model was modified by adding both transpiration and film-cooling options as new surface boundary conditions. The models used to predict the leading-edge surface heat-transfer reduction effects of the transpiration and film cooling were modifications of more-generalized, empirically based models obtained from the literature. It is concluded that cooling leading-edge structures exposed to severe hypersonic-flight environments using a combination of liquid-metal heat pipe, surface transpiration, and film cooling methods appears feasible.

  7. Analysis and measurements of low frequency lightning component penetration through aerospace vehicle metal and graphite skins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robb, J. D.; Chen, T.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the shielding properties of mixed metal and graphite composite structures has illustrated some important aspects of electromagnetic field penetration into the interior. These include: (1) that graphite access doors on metallic structures will attenuate lightning magnetic fields very little; conversely, metal doors on a graphite structure will also attenuate fields from lightning strike currents very little, i.e., homogeneity of the shield is a critical factor in shielding and (2) that continuous conductors between two points inside a graphite skin such as an air data probe metallic tubing connection to an air data computer can allow large current penetrations into a vehicle interior. The true weight savings resulting from the use of composite materials can only be evaluated after the resulting electromagnetic problems such as current penetrations have been solved, and this generally requires weight addition in the form of cable shields, conductor bonding or external metallization.

  8. Structural Analysis Methods for Structural Health Management of Future Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Two finite element based computational methods, Smoothing Element Analysis (SEA) and the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM), are reviewed, and examples of their use for structural health monitoring are discussed. Due to their versatility, robustness, and computational efficiency, the methods are well suited for real-time structural health monitoring of future space vehicles, large space structures, and habitats. The methods may be effectively employed to enable real-time processing of sensing information, specifically for identifying three-dimensional deformed structural shapes as well as the internal loads. In addition, they may be used in conjunction with evolutionary algorithms to design optimally distributed sensors. These computational tools have demonstrated substantial promise for utilization in future Structural Health Management (SHM) systems.

  9. Analysis of internal ablation for the thermal control of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camberos, Jose A.; Roberts, Leonard

    1989-01-01

    A new method of thermal protection for transatmospheric vehicles is introduced. The method involves the combination of radiation, ablation and transpiration cooling. By placing an ablating material behind a fixed-shape, porous outer shield, the effectiveness of transpiration cooling is made possible while retaining the simplicity of a passive mechanism. A simplified one-dimensional approach is used to derive the governing equations. Reduction of these equations to non-dimensional form yields two parameters which characterize the thermal protection effectiveness of the shield and ablator combination for a given trajectory. The non-dimensional equations are solved numerically for a sample trajectory corresponding to glide re-entry. Four typical ablators are tested and compared with results obtained by using the thermal properties of water. For the present level of analysis, the numerical computations adequately support the analytical model.

  10. An Overview of Brazilian Developments in Beamed Energy Aerospace Propulsion and Vehicle Performance Control

    SciTech Connect

    Minucci, M. A. S.

    2008-04-28

    Beamed energy propulsion and beamed energy vehicle performance control concepts are equally promising and challenging. In Brazil, the two concepts are being currently investigated at the Prof Henry T Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, of the Institute for Advanced Studies--IEAv, in collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute--RPI, Troy, NY, and the United States Air force Research Laboratory-AFRL. Until recently, only laser energy addition for hypersonic flow control was being investigated at the Laboratory using a 0.3 m nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T2, and two 7 joule CO{sub 2} TEA lasers. Flow visualization, model pressure and heat flux measurements of the laser energy addition perturbed flow around a model were produced as a result of this joint IEAv-RPI investigation. Presently, with the participation of AFRL and the newly commissioned 0.6 m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T3, a more ambitious project is underway. Two 400 Joule Lumonics 620 CO{sub 2} TEA lasers will deliver a 20 cm X 25 cm propulsive laser beam to a complete laser propelled air breather/rocket hypersonic engine, located inside T3 test section. Schlieren photographs of the flow inside de engine as well as surface and heat flux measurements will be performed for free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25. The present paper discusses past, present and future Brazilian activities on beamed energy propulsion and related technologies.

  11. An Overview of Brazilian Developments in Beamed Energy Aerospace Propulsion and Vehicle Performance Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minucci, M. A. S.

    2008-04-01

    Beamed energy propulsion and beamed energy vehicle performance control concepts are equally promising and challenging. In Brazil, the two concepts are being currently investigated at the Prof Henry T Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, of the Institute for Advanced Studies—IEAv, in collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute—RPI, Troy, NY, and the United States Air force Research Laboratory-AFRL. Until recently, only laser energy addition for hypersonic flow control was being investigated at the Laboratory using a 0.3 m nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T2, and two 7 joule CO2 TEA lasers. Flow visualization, model pressure and heat flux measurements of the laser energy addition perturbed flow around a model were produced as a result of this joint IEAv-RPI investigation. Presently, with the participation of AFRL and the newly commissioned 0.6 m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T3, a more ambitious project is underway. Two 400 Joule Lumonics 620 CO2 TEA lasers will deliver a 20 cm X 25 cm propulsive laser beam to a complete laser propelled air breather/rocket hypersonic engine, located inside T3 test section. Schlieren photographs of the flow inside de engine as well as surface and heat flux measurements will be performed for free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25. The present paper discusses past, present and future Brazilian activities on beamed energy propulsion and related technologies.

  12. Analysis and Sizing for Transient Thermal Heating of Insulated Aerospace Vehicle Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical solution was derived for the transient response of an insulated structure subjected to a simplified heat pulse. The solution is solely a function of two nondimensional parameters. Simpler functions of these two parameters were developed to approximate the maximum structural temperature over a wide range of parameter values. Techniques were developed to choose constant, effective thermal properties to represent the relevant temperature and pressure-dependent properties for the insulator and structure. A technique was also developed to map a time-varying surface temperature history to an equivalent square heat pulse. Equations were also developed for the minimum mass required to maintain the inner, unheated surface below a specified temperature. In the course of the derivation, two figures of merit were identified. Required insulation masses calculated using the approximate equation were shown to typically agree with finite element results within 10%-20% over the relevant range of parameters studied.

  13. Global stabilization using LSS-Theorem: Applications to Robotics and Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, AbdulRazzak

    Underactuated mechanical systems are gaining interest as they can sometimes provide the desired motion or functionality at reduced cost due to their using fewer expensive actuators. The term "underactuated" refers to the fact that such mechanical systems have fewer actuators than degrees of freedom, which makes them very difficult to control. Moreover, underactuated robots have nonlinear dynamics which must be tackled with nonlinear control techniques. Furthermore, control theory for underactuated mechanical systems has been an active area of research for the past 15-20 years. Most of the research has focused on local and global asymptotic stabilization by feedback. Underactuated systems can either possess nonminimum phase or minimum phase characteristics. For minimum phase underactuated systems, the stabilization problem is rather simple and many existing control design methodologies have been proved powerful in providing a solution to this problem. For nonminimum phase underactuated systems, asymptotic stabilization problem has been, and still is, an attractive subject to the researchers in the field of nonlinear control system and theory. In particular, global asymptotic stabilization (GAS) at a desired equilibrium point of such systems by means of a single smooth static or dynamic state feedback law is still largely an open problem in the literature. In this thesis, the problem of GAS via a smooth static state feedback law is addressed for a class of an underactuated nonlinear system that is affine (possibly non affine) in the control, partially feedback linearizable, nonminimum phase and (possibly) has a non-integrable acceleration constraint. The core result of the thesis is formulated through a theorem that the author refers to through this thesis as the Legend of Salah Salman (LSS) Theorem. LSS theorem states the existence of a smooth static state feedback law that globally asymptotically stabilizes the origin of the nonlinear underactuated system that is

  14. Civil Air Patrol and Aerospace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, John V.

    1972-01-01

    Aerospace education is a branch of general education concerned with communicating knowledge, imparting skills, and developing attitudes necessary to interpret aerospace activities and the total impact of air and space vehicles upon society. (Author)

  15. Concepts and Development of Bio-Inspired Distributed Embedded Wired/Wireless Sensor Array Architectures for Acoustic Wave Sensing in Integrated Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghoshal, Anindya; Prosser, William H.; Kirikera, Goutham; Schulz, Mark J.; Hughes, Derke J.; Orisamolu, Wally

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of acoustic emissions in plate structures and their sensing by embedded or surface bonded piezoelectric sensor arrays. Three different modeling efforts for acoustic emission (AE) wave generation and propagation are discussed briefly along with their advantages and disadvantages. Continuous sensors placed at right angles on a plate are being discussed as a new approach to measure and locate the source of acoustic waves. Evolutionary novel signal processing algorithms and bio-inspired distributed sensor array systems are used on large structures and integrated aerospace vehicles for AE source localization and preliminary results are presented. These systems allow for a great reduction in the amount of data that needs to be processed and also reduce the chances of false alarms from ambient noises. It is envisioned that these biomimetic sensor arrays and signal processing techniques will be useful for both wireless and wired sensor arrays for real time health monitoring of large integrated aerospace vehicles and earth fixed civil structures. The sensor array architectures can also be used with other types of sensors and for other applications.

  16. Aerospace Community. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, V. V.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, emphasizes the two sides of aerospace--military aerospace and civilian aerospace. Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion on the organization of Air Force bases and missile sites in relation to their missions. Chapter 2 examines the community services provided by Air Force bases. The topics…

  17. A predication model for combustion modes of the scramjet-powered aerospace vehicle based on the nonlinear features of the isolator flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Hongxin; Chetehouna, Khaled; Gascoin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engine remains the most promising airbreathing engine cycle for hypersonic flight, particularly the high-performance dual-mode scramjet in the range of flight Mach number from 4 to 7, because it can operates under different combustion modes. Isolator is a very key component of the dual-mode scramjet engine. In this paper, nonlinear characteristics of combustion mode transition is theoretically analyzed. The discontinuous sudden changes of static pressure and Mach number are obtained as the mode transition occurs, which emphasizing the importance of predication and control of combustion modes. In this paper, a predication model of different combustion modes is developed based on these these nonlinear features in the isolator flow field. it can provide a valuable reference for control system design of the scramjet-powered aerospace vehicle.

  18. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  19. Subjective and objective evaluation of sense of space for vehicle occupants based on anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Hiamtoe, Pitarn; Steinhardt, Florian; Köhler, Uwe; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    At present, the number of the vehicle requirements has been continuously increasing. These requirements can be related to the customer as well as the technical requirements. Among these, the "feeling of space" of the occupants inside the vehicles can be regarded as one of the most important factors. In this respect, the driver and passengers should be able to experience positive feeling of space inside the vehicle. There are numerous factors that can influence the sense of space inside the vehicle. These include geometry (vehicle dimensions), light exposure, ambient lights, colors, material selection and material surface. Depending on the selection, the sense of space can be dramatically influenced by these factors. In general, human feeling is subjective and cannot be measured by any instrument. The measure can nevertheless be carried out by utilizing the method of subjective evaluation. Throughout the experiments, the method of evaluation is developed and the factors which can influence the interior feeling are analyzed. In this process, psychological perception, architectural aspects and anthropometry are considered and knowledge from the other domains is transferred in the form of a multidisciplinary approach. The experiments with an aim to evaluate the overall sense of space in the vehicle are carried out based on the physical mock up of BMW 1 series (E87). The space perception with different interior dimensions and anthropometric data of test persons are also analyzed. The use of Computer Aided Technology was shown by CATIA V5, PCMAN and RAMSIS. The results show a good correlation between the subjective evaluation and the geometric values.

  20. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  1. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD) Volume 7: IPAD benefits and impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, S. D.; Southall, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The potential benefits, impact and spinoff of IPAD technology are described. The benefits are projected from a flowtime and labor cost analysis of the design process and a study of the flowtime and labor cost savings being experienced with existing integrated systems. Benefits in terms of designer productivity, company effectiveness, and IPAD as a national resource are developed. A description is given of the potential impact of information handling as an IPAD technology, upon task and organization structure and people who use IPAD. Spinoff of IPAD technology to nonaerospace industries is discussed. The results of a personal survey made of aerospace, nonaerospace, government and university sources are given.

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 544 - Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and Franchisees) Subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and Franchisees) Subject to the Reporting Requirements of Part 544 C Appendix C to Part... Appendix C to Part 544—Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 544 - Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and Franchisees) Subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and Franchisees) Subject to the Reporting Requirements of Part 544 C Appendix C to Part... Appendix C to Part 544—Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and...

  4. A discrete time model of a power conditioner fed permanent magnet brushless dc motor system for aerospace and electric vehicle applications for design purpose using finite elements for machine parameter determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehl, T. W.

    1980-12-01

    A discrete state space model of a power conditioner fed permanent magnet brushless dc motor for aerospace and electric vehicle applications is developed. The parameters which describe that machine portion of this model are derived from a two dimensional nonlinear magnetic field analysis using the finite element method. The model predicts the instantaneous mechanical and electrical behavior of a prototype electromechanical actuator for possible use on board the shuttle orbiter. The model is also used to simulate the instantaneous performance of an advanced electric vehicle propulsion unit. The results of the computer simulations are compared with experimental test data and excellent agreement between the two is found in all cases.

  5. National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Artists concept of the X-30 aerospace plane flying through Earth's atmosphere on its way to low-Earth orbit. the experimental concept is part of the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The X-30 is planned to demonstrate the technology for airbreathing space launch and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 117), by James Schultz.

  6. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  7. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  8. Design of flight vehicles and their systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnik, V. S.

    A multiple approach to the design of aerospace vehicles is considered along with the processing characteristics of systems for automated design work in the initial stage of aerospace vehicle design, complex problems in the theory of optimal control and differential games, the choice of allowable errors regarding the parameters of mathematical models of aerospace vehicles, and a study of the sensitivity of mathematical models of aerospace vehicles. Attention is also given to the combination of a semigroup approach and the method of Lagrange multipliers as a suitable means for the solution of distinct optimization problems with constraints in the form of inequalities, a method for increasing the search rate in a search for extrema, and the realization of combinatorial objectives on an electronic computer. Other subjects discussed are related to the construction of a graphical structural representation of a layout diagram for an aerospace vehicle, a flywheel energy storage device, and the effect of vibration on the tightness of rubber-metal valve seals.

  9. Aerospace Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Jean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Sauk Rapids (Minnesota) High School aviation and aerospace curriculum that was developed by Curtis Olson and the space program developed by Gerald Mayall at Philadelphia's Northeast High School. Both were developed in conjunction with NASA. (JOW)

  10. Environmental effects on composite airframes: A study conducted for the ARM UAV Program (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Composite materials are affected by environments differently than conventional airframe structural materials are. This study identifies the environmental conditions which the composite-airframe ARM UAV may encounter, and discusses the potential degradation processes composite materials may undergo when subjected to those environments. This information is intended to be useful in a follow-on program to develop equipment and procedures to prevent, detect, or otherwise mitigate significant degradation with the ultimate goal of preventing catastrophic aircraft failure.

  11. Aerospace Bibliography, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This third edition bibliography lists books and teaching aids related to aeronautics and space. Aeronautics titles are limited to aerospace-related research subjects, and books on astronomy to those directly related to space exploration. Also listed are pertinent references like pamphlets, films, film strips, booklets, charts, pictures,…

  12. Aerospace Bibliography. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blashfield, Jean F., Comp.

    Provided for teachers and the general adult reader is an annotated and graded list of books and reference materials dealing with aerospace subjects. Only non-fiction books and pamphlets that need to be purchased from commercial or government sources are included. Free industrial materials and educational aids are not included because they tend to…

  13. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  14. Palm cooling to reduce heat strain in subjects during simulated armoured vehicle transport.

    PubMed

    Kuennen, Matthew R; Gillum, Trevor L; Amorim, Fabiano T; Kwon, Young Sub; Schneider, Suzanne M

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether palm cooling (PC) could reduce heat strain, measured through changes in core, mean skin, mean body temperatures, and thermal sensation in resting hyperthermic subjects wearing chemical protective garments. Ten male subjects performed three exercise bouts (6.1 km h(-1), 2-4% grade) in a hot, dry environment [mean (SD) air temperature 42.2 (0.5 degrees C), relative humidity 36.5 (1%)] until core temperature reached 38.8 degrees C. Subjects then simulated transport in an armoured vehicle by resting in a seated position for 50 min with either no cooling (NC), (PC at 10 degrees C) or palm cooling with vacuum application around the hand (PCVAC, 10 degrees C, 7.47 kPa negative pressure). Core, skin, and mean body temperatures with PC and PCVAC were lower (P < 0.05) than NC from 15 to 50 min of cooling, and thermal sensation was lower (P < 0.05) from 30 to 50 min, with no differences in any variables between PC and PCVAC. Maximal heat extraction averaged 42 (12 W), and core temperature was reduced by 0.38 (0.21 degrees C) after 50 min of PC. Heat extraction with PC was modest compared to other cooling approaches in the literature.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix B- to Part 544... - Appendix B- to Part 544 Issuers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appendix B- to Part 544 Issuers of Motor Vehicle... Issuers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting Requirements Only in Designated... Appendix B— to Part 544 Issuers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A- to Part 544... - Appendix A- to Part 544 Insurers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appendix A- to Part 544 Insurers of Motor Vehicle... A- to Part 544 Insurers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting Requirements in... REQUIREMENTS Pt. 544, App. A Appendix A— to Part 544 Insurers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject...

  17. Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10521 TITLE: Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous ...Optimisation of Flight Vehicles in a Concurrent Multi-Disciplinary Environment [la Conception et l’optimisation aerodynamiques des vehicules eriens dans un...ADP010499 thru AI W3SSIFIED 25-1 Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents Abhijit Deshmukh, Timothy Middelkoop University of

  18. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  19. 76 FR 53072 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... year for vehicles in the United States, these dates have limited relevance, if any, to vehicles that... Flexibility Act. At present, 65 such entities are registered with NHTSA. The adopted amendments will not... 150 percent of the entered value of the vehicle as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury,...

  20. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  1. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Vibration control of bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicle using multiple tuned mass friction dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisal, Alka Y.; Jangid, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    The effectiveness of tuned mass friction damper (TMFD) in reducing undesirable resonant response of the bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicular load is investigated. A Taiwan high-speed railway (THSR) bridge subjected to Japanese SKS (Salkesa) train load is considered. The bridge is idealized as a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam with uniform properties throughout the length of the bridge, and the train's vehicular load is modeled as a series of moving forces. Simplified model of vehicle, bridge and TMFD system has been considered to derive coupled differential equations of motion which is solved numerically using the Newmark's linear acceleration method. The critical train velocities at which the bridge undergoes resonant vibration are investigated. Response of the bridge is studied for three different arrangements of TMFD systems, namely, TMFD attached at mid-span of the bridge, multiple tuned mass friction dampers (MTMFD) system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge and MTMFD system with distributed TMFD units along the length of the bridge. The optimum parameters of each TMFD system are found out. It has been demonstrated that an optimized MTMFD system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge is more effective than an optimized TMFD at the same place with the same total mass and an optimized MTMFD system having TMFD units distributed along the length of the bridge. However, the distributed MTMFD system is more effective than an optimized TMFD system, provided that TMFD units of MTMFD system are distributed within certain limiting interval and the frequency of TMFD units is appropriately distributed.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 544 - Issuers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting Requirements Only in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting Requirements Only in Designated States B Appendix B to Part 544 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INSURER REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Pt. 544, App. B Appendix B to Part 544—Issuers...

  5. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  6. Dynamic interactions of an integrated vehicle-electromagnetic energy harvester-tire system subject to uneven road excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jing Tang; Sun, Zhe; Zhou, Sulian; Tan, Mingyi

    2017-03-01

    An investigation is undertaken of an integrated mechanical-electromagnetic coupling system consisting of a rigid vehicle with heave, roll, and pitch motions, four electromagnetic energy harvesters and four tires subject to uneven road excitations in order to improve the passengers' riding comfort and harvest the lost engine energy due to uneven roads. Following the derived mathematical formulations and the proposed solution approaches, the numerical simulations of this interaction system subject to a continuous sinusoidal road excitation and a single ramp impact are completed. The simulation results are presented as the dynamic response curves in the forms of the frequency spectrum and the time history, which reveals the complex interaction characteristics of the system for vibration reductions and energy harvesting performance. It has addressed the coupling effects on the dynamic characteristics of the integrated system caused by: (1) the natural modes and frequencies of the vehicle; (2) the vehicle rolling and pitching motions; (3) different road excitations on four wheels; (4) the time delay of a road ramp to impact both the front and rear wheels, etc., which cannot be tackled by an often used quarter vehicle model. The guidelines for engineering applications are given. The developed coupling model and the revealed concept provide a means with analysis idea to investigate the details of four energy harvester motions for electromagnetic suspension designs in order to replace the current passive vehicle isolators and to harvest the lost engine energy. Potential further research directions are suggested for readers to consider in the future.

  7. Leak Detection and Location Technology Assessment for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Coffey, Neil C.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2008-01-01

    Micro Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) and other impacts can cause leaks in the International Space Station and other aerospace vehicles. The early detection and location of leaks is paramount to astronaut safety. Therefore this document surveys the state of the art in leak detection and location technology for aerospace vehicles.

  8. 40 CFR 80.527 - Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be downgraded to motor vehicle diesel...

  9. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume I: Sections 1--Acquisition and Sources; 2--Descriptive Cataloguing; 3--Abstracting and Subject Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, S. C., Ed.

    The first volume in a series of publications describing the basic documentation practices involved in the initial setting up and subsequent operation of an information-library organization to provide defense-aerospace scientific and technical information services, this manual consists of three sections. "Acquisition and Sources," by…

  10. Aerospace Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry.

  11. Aerospace Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry. PMID:28216729

  12. International Conference on Aerospace Trends...2001 - From Aeroplane to Aerospace Plane, Thiruvananthapuram, India, June 27, 28, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-08-01

    Consideration is given to operational characteristics of future launch vehicles, trends in propulsion technology, technology challenges in the development of cryogenic propulsion systems for future reusable space-launch vehicles, estimation of the overall drag coefficient of an aerospace plane, and self-reliance in aerospace structures. Attention is also given to basic design concepts for smart actuators for aerospace plane control, a software package for the preliminary design of a helicopter, and multiconstraint wing optimization.

  13. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  14. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  15. Aerospace Education - An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the surge of interest throughout the country in aerospace education and discusses what aerospace education is, the implications in career education and the relevance of aerospace education in the curriculum. (BR)

  16. Basic Aerospace Education Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Lists the most significant resource items on aerospace education which are presently available. Includes source books, bibliographies, directories, encyclopedias, dictionaries, audiovisuals, curriculum/planning guides, aerospace statistics, aerospace education statistics and newsletters. (BR)

  17. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  18. Aerospace gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  19. Motion of an Articulated Vehicle with Two-Dimensional Sections Subject to Lateral Obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonyuk, E. Ya.; Zabuga, A. T.

    2016-07-01

    Some aspects of the geometry, kinematics, and dynamics of a three-section robotic vehicle with a front steerable wheel are studied. The constraints between the wheels and the flat ground are assumed nonholonomic. The vehicle moves in a narrow L-shaped corridor. A path for the characteristic points of the sections of the robot is designed. A dynamic model of the system is developed. The maximum possible dimensions of the robot that allow its unimpeded and non-stop motion are determined. The kinetostatic analysis of the load on a three-section vehicle moving along a planned path is modeled. The holonomic and nonholonomic constraint reactions between the wheels and the ground and in the joints between the sections are determined

  20. Full-Scale Experiment on the Behavior of a Railway Vehicle being Subjected to Lateral Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibino, Yu; Shimomura, Takayuki; Tanifuji, Katsuya

    In order to verify the validity of “a Detailed Equation,” a full scale experiment was conducted. The Detailed Equation is an equation of the equilibrium of the forces that act on a railway vehicle, which is similar to an equation for solving the overturning problem of a rigid body, but the external forces and the displacement of the car body are taken into account in detail. In the full scale experiment, a lateral force (representing the crosswind) was applied to the test vehicle, and the behavior of the vehicle was examined. As a result, it has been verified that the Detailed Equation is valid for evaluating the critical wind speed of overturning or the wheel unloading ratio.

  1. The Aerospace Age. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is written for use only in the Air Force ROTC program and cannot be purchased on the open market. The book describes the historical development of aerospace industry. The first chapter contains a brief review of the aerospace environment and the nature of technological changes brought by the aerospace revolution. The following chapter…

  2. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  3. 76 FR 2631 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... for sale in the United States are typically assigned model year designations for marketing purposes... purpose of marketing vehicles in the United States, these dates have limited relevance, if any, to... policy issues arising out of legal mandates, the President's priorities, or the principles set forth...

  4. 29 CFR 500.103 - Activities not subject to vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Agricultural machinery and equipment excluded. Vehicle safety standards or insurance requirements issued under... agricultural worker on a tractor, combine, harvester, picker, other similar machinery and equipment while such... on such machinery and equipment or being engaged in transportation incidental thereto. The...

  5. 29 CFR 500.103 - Activities not subject to vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Agricultural machinery and equipment excluded. Vehicle safety standards or insurance requirements issued under... agricultural worker on a tractor, combine, harvester, picker, other similar machinery and equipment while such... on such machinery and equipment or being engaged in transportation incidental thereto. The...

  6. Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation

    SciTech Connect

    McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

    2005-03-18

    The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring.

  7. Dynamic response analysis of a heavy commercial vehicle subjected to extreme road operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnaraj, K.; Mangalaramanan, S. P.; Lakshmana Rao, C.

    2009-08-01

    Wheel excitations measured on a heavy commercial vehicle by driving it through extreme road operating conditions, are considered as inputs to perform dynamic response analysis in a simulated laboratory and computational environment. From initial modal analysis results using finite elements, critical vehicle frame rail locations are identified for dynamic laboratory strain measurements on a six poster road load simulator that employs dynamic wheel excitations as input. Dynamic stresses calculated from measured strain values are then compared with computationally obtained stress results on each of these locations. This study also points out all geometric locations and vibration modes that may affect the design behavior of the frame members under extreme road operating conditions. The results obtained from this work can be considered for further fatigue life prediction and design optimization of chassis frame rail assembly.

  8. Study of passenger subjective response to ideal and real-vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, R. H.; Mikulka, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stimulus received by subjects tested on the passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA) is defined. Additional analyses on the data collected from field tests using buses, were conducted to assess the relation between subjective ratings of ride quality and vibrations measured on the buses, and to better define the vibration stimulus measured in the field. The relation of subjective evaluation of simulations of bus rides produced by the DRQA to subjective evaluations of the actual bus rides is discussed. The relative contribution of the seat and floor vibration to human comfort in a simulated aircraft ride environment is discussed along with the determination of equal comfort curves through magnitude estimation.

  9. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  10. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  11. 40 CFR 80.527 - Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... is subject to the downgrade limitation: Any distributor, retailer, or wholesale purchaser consumer... cause the violation. (e) Special provisions for retail outlets and wholesale...

  12. 40 CFR 80.527 - Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... is subject to the downgrade limitation: Any distributor, retailer, or wholesale purchaser consumer... cause the violation. (e) Special provisions for retail outlets and wholesale...

  13. 40 CFR 80.527 - Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... is subject to the downgrade limitation: Any distributor, retailer, or wholesale purchaser consumer... cause the violation. (e) Special provisions for retail outlets and wholesale...

  14. Structures Technology for Future Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Venneri, Samuel L.; Paul, Donald B.; Hopkins, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of structures technology for future aerospace systems is given. Discussion focuses on developments in component technologies that will improve the vehicle performance, advance the technology exploitation process, and reduce system life-cycle costs. The component technologies described are smart materials and structures, multifunctional materials and structures, affordable composite structures, extreme environment structures, flexible load bearing structures, and computational methods and simulation-based design. The trends in each of the component technologies are discussed and the applicability of these technologies to future aerospace vehicles is described.

  15. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: Cumulative index, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 190 through 201 of 'Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography.' It includes three indexes-subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  16. An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in the Design and Manufacturing of Large Composite Structures for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Shuart, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    The results of an assessment of the state-of-the-art in the design and manufacturing of large composite structures are described. The focus of the assessment is on the use of polymeric matrix composite materials for large airframe structural components. such as those in commercial and military aircraft and space transportation vehicles. Applications of composite materials for large commercial transport aircraft, general aviation aircraft, rotorcraft, military aircraft. and unmanned rocket launch vehicles are reviewed. The results of the assessment of the state-of-the-art include a summary of lessons learned, examples of current practice, and an assessment of advanced technologies under development. The results of the assessment conclude with an evaluation of the future technology challenges associated with applications of composite materials to the primary structures of commercial transport aircraft and advanced space transportation vehicles.

  17. Stochastic vibration of the vehicle-bridge system subject to non-uniform ground motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D. Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Kennedy, D.; Williams, F. W.

    2014-03-01

    A study of a train moving along a cable-stayed bridge is performed by considering both the stationary track irregularity and a non-stationary earthquake. A detailed bridge model with 3972 degrees of freedom is established while the train model consists of two locomotives and eight carriages. The equations of motion of the coupled system are obtained by using the displacement continuous condition at the contact, with track irregularities. The earthquake is assumed to occur once the train has entered the bridge. The pseudo-excitation method is used to find the random responses of the coupled system, and the results indicate that the effect of the earthquake is much greater than that of the track irregularities. The paper discusses the influence of the intensity of the earthquake, the wave propagation velocity, the speed of the train, and the dynamic interaction between the vehicles and the bridge.

  18. Development of aerospace nursing.

    PubMed

    Barron, N J

    1975-04-01

    In the initial development, the primary purpose of the USAF aerospace nursing program was to prepare the nurse to function as an integral member of the aerospace medical team in support of bioastronautics, occupational health and aerospace medical research programs. The absence of an expanded manned space program has required the aerospace nurse to redirect her energies toward the immediate needs of the aerospace medicine program. Many of the aerospace nurse's more specific functions are dependent upon the mission objectives of the command and military base to which she is assigned. Aerospace nursing reflects a concern for the total health needs of the Air Force community and the application of a holistic approach. It includes all aspects of health and all environmental hazards which alter health. The development of aerospace nursing paves the way for this expanded view of nursing practice.

  19. An Aerospace Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill

    1972-01-01

    Describes the 16-day, 10,000 mile national tour of the nation's major aerospace research and development centers by 65 students enrolled in Central Washington State College's Summer Aerospace Workshop. (Author/MB)

  20. Aerospace Industry and Research. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, T. E.

    This book, to be used in the Air Force ROTC program only, discusses various aspects of the aerospace industry and its importance to the society. Not only does a modern and strong aerospace technology help in national defense, but it is a major economic industry as well. The vast number of people employed could shake the roots of economic…

  1. Aerospace applications of advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.; Langenbeck, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced metallic materials within the Al-base family are being developed for applications on current and future aerospace vehicles. These advanced materials offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved vehicle performance. Aerospace applications of advanced metallic materials include space structures, fighters, military and commercial transport aircraft, and missiles. Structural design requirements, including not only static and durability/damage tolerance criteria but also environmental considerations, drive material selections. Often trade-offs must be made regarding strength, fracture resistance, cost, reliability, and maintainability in order to select the optimum material for a specific application. These trade studies not only include various metallic materials but also many times include advanced composite materials. Details of material comparisons, aerospace applications, and material trades will be presented.

  2. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report is based on the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in calendar year 2000. During this year, the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) moved into high gear. The launch of the Russian Service Module was followed by three Space Shuttle construction and logistics flights and the deployment of the Expedition One crew. Continuous habitation of the ISS has begun. To date, both the ISS and Space Shuttle programs have met or exceeded most of their flight objectives. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, it is clear that safety was always placed ahead of cost and schedule. This safety consciousness permitted the Panel to devote more of its efforts to examining the long-term picture. With ISS construction accelerating, demands on the Space Shuttle will increase. While Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft will make some flights, the Space Shuttle remains the primary vehicle to sustain the ISS and all other U.S. activities that require humans in space. Development of a next generation, human-rated vehicle has slowed due to a variety of technological problems and the absence of an approach that can accomplish the task significantly better than the Space Shuttle. Moreover, even if a viable design were currently available, the realities of funding and development cycles suggest that it would take many years to bring it to fruition. Thus, it is inescapable that for the foreseeable future the Space Shuttle will be the only human-rated vehicle available to the U.S. space program for support of the ISS and other missions requiring humans. Use of the Space Shuttle will extend well beyond current planning, and is likely to continue for the life of the ISS.

  3. The 15th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technological areas covered include: aerospace propulsion; aerodynamic devices; crew safety; space vehicle control; spacecraft deployment, positioning, and pointing; deployable antennas/reflectors; and large space structures. Devices for payload deployment, payload retention, and crew extravehicular activities on the space shuttle orbiter are also described.

  4. The 1990 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Lewis M. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4-6, 1990. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers as well as participation in like kind from the European Space Agency member nations. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, lithium based chemistries, and advanced technologies as they relate to high reliability operations in aerospace applications.

  5. The 2001 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeff C. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 34th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center, November 27-29, 2001. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the US Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies.

  6. The 2000 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, J. C. (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 33nd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 14-16, 2000. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, lithium-ion, lithium-sulfur, and silver-zinc technologies.

  7. The 1999 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, J. C. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 32nd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 16-18, 1999. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the US Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies.

  8. Probability and Statistics in Aerospace Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.; Howell, L. W.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph was prepared to give the practicing engineer a clear understanding of probability and statistics with special consideration to problems frequently encountered in aerospace engineering. It is conceived to be both a desktop reference and a refresher for aerospace engineers in government and industry. It could also be used as a supplement to standard texts for in-house training courses on the subject.

  9. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  10. A randomized double-masked study to compare the ocular safety, tolerability, and efficacy of bromfenac 0.075% compared with vehicle in cataract surgery subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Kamran; Walters, Thomas; DaVanzo, Robert; Lindstrom, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a low-dose version of bromfenac 0.075% in DuraSite® (bromfenac 0.075%) compared with DuraSite® vehicle (vehicle) alone for the treatment of postoperative inflammation and ocular pain after cataract surgery. Methods A multicenter, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial of 240 subjects randomized in a 2:1 ratio to bromfenac 0.075% or vehicle was conducted. Subjects were dosed BID beginning 1 day before the cataract surgery, the day of surgery, and 14 days after surgery. A slit lamp biomicroscopy examination was performed to evaluate the signs of inflammation, including anterior chamber cells (ACC) and anterior chamber flare (ACF). The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of subjects with an ACC grade of 0 at Day 15. Secondary efficacy endpoints included the proportion of subjects who achieved a pain score of 0 at each postsurgical visual analog scale (VAS) assessment and the proportion of subjects with an ACF grade of 0 at Day 15. Results At Day 15, proportionally more subjects in the bromfenac 0.075% group than in the vehicle group had an ACC grade of 0 (57.1% vs 18.8%, respectively; P<0.001). At each of the postsurgical time points (Days 1, 8, 15, and 29), proportionally more bromfenac 0.075%-treated subjects (76.8%, 90.5%, 92.9%, and 85.1%, respectively) had no pain (a VAS score of 0) compared with the vehicle-treated subjects (48.2%, 38.8%, 42.4%, and 47.1%, respectively), and at each time point, these differences in proportions were statistically significant (P<0.001). More subjects in the bromfenac 0.075% group had complete ACF resolution (151/167; 90.4%) compared to those in the vehicle group (54/85; 63.5%). There were no new safety signals reported. Conclusion Bromfenac 0.075% in DuraSite is safe, well tolerated, and effective at reducing inflammation and preventing pain associated with cataract surgery. PMID:27920490

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  12. Automated design of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Mccomb, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in structural analysis of aerospace vehicles is characterized, automated design technology is discussed, and an indication is given of the future direction of research in analysis and automated design. Representative computer programs for analysis typical of those in routine use in vehicle design activities are described, and results are shown for some selected analysis problems. Recent and planned advances in analysis capability are indicated. Techniques used to automate the more routine aspects of structural design are discussed, and some recently developed automated design computer programs are described. Finally, discussion is presented of early accomplishments in interdisciplinary automated design systems, and some indication of the future thrust of research in this field is given.

  13. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  14. Supercomputing in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Yee, Helen

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: numerical aerodynamic simulation; computational mechanics; supercomputers; aerospace propulsion systems; computational modeling in ballistics; turbulence modeling; computational chemistry; computational fluid dynamics; and computational astrophysics.

  15. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to the vehicle...,” “Front Seat,” “Rear Seat” and where applicable, “Not Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating... size of 12 point. All remaining text and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified...

  16. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to the vehicle...,” “Front Seat,” “Rear Seat” and where applicable, “Not Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating... size of 12 point. All remaining text and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified...

  17. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to the vehicle...,” “Front Seat,” “Rear Seat” and where applicable, “Not Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating... size of 12 point. All remaining text and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified...

  18. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to the vehicle...,” “Front Seat,” “Rear Seat” and where applicable, “Not Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating... size of 12 point. All remaining text and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified...

  19. Next Generation Spacecraft, Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes research on reusable launch vehicles, aerospace planes, shuttle replacement, crew/cargo transfer vehicle, related X-craft, orbital space plane, and next generation launch technology.

  20. Index of aerospace mechanisms symposia proceedings 1-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinaldo, A.; Wilson, J.

    1986-01-01

    This index, organized in five sections (by symposium, by title, by author, by subject, and by project), brings together information on the first 19 Aerospace Mechanisms symposia. Key words are included, cross-referencing all the symposia, and the eighteenth and nineteenth symposia are cross-indexed by project. The Aerospace Mechanisms symposia are devoted to discussions of design, fabrication, test, and operational use of aerospace mechanisms; this is the first index that compiles information on symposia held from 1966 through 1985.

  1. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) activities during 2002. The format of the report has been modified to capture a long-term perspective. Section II is new and highlights the Panel's view of NASA's safety progress during the year. Section III contains the pivotal safety issues facing NASA in the coming year. Section IV includes the program area findings and recommendations. The Panel has been asked by the Administrator to perform several special studies this year, and the resulting white papers appear in Appendix C. The year has been filled with significant achievements for NASA in both successful Space Shuttle operations and International Space Station (ISS) construction. Throughout the year, safety has been first and foremost in spite of many changes throughout the Agency. The relocation of the Orbiter Major Modifications (OMMs) from California to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) appears very successful. The transition of responsibilities for program management of the Space Shuttle and ISS programs from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to NASA Headquarters went smoothly. The decision to extend the life of the Space Shuttle as the primary NASA vehicle for access to space is viewed by the Panel as a prudent one. With the appropriate investments in safety improvements, in maintenance, in preserving appropriate inventories of spare parts, and in infrastructure, the Space Shuttle can provide safe and reliable support for the ISS for the foreseeable future. Indications of an aging Space Shuttle fleet occurred on more than one occasion this year. Several flaws went undetected in the early prelaunch tests and inspections. In all but one case, the problems were found prior to launch. These incidents were all handled properly and with safety as the guiding principle. Indeed, launches were postponed until the problems were fully understood and mitigating action could be taken. These incidents do, however, indicate the need to analyze the

  2. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter.

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 544 - Issuers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting Requirements in Each State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuers of Motor Vehicle Insurance Policies Subject to the Reporting Requirements in Each State in Which They Do Business A Appendix A to Part 544... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INSURER REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Pt. 544, App. A Appendix A to...

  4. Experiments and analysis concerning the use of external burning to reduce aerospace vehicle transonic drag. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    The external combustion of hydrogen to reduce transonic drag was investigated. A control volume analysis is developed and indicates that the specific impulse performance of external burning is competitive with other forms of airbreathing propulsion and depends on the fuel-air ratio, freestream Mach number, and the severity of the base drag. A method is presented for sizing fuel injectors for a desired fuel-air ratio in the unconfined stream. A two-dimensional Euler analysis is also presented which indicates that the total axial force generated by external burning depends on the total amount of energy input and is independent of the transverse and streamwise distribution of heat addition. Good agreement between the Euler and control volume analysis is demonstrated. Features of the inviscid external burning flowfield are discussed. Most notably, a strong compression forms at the sonic line within the burning stream which may induce separation of the plume and prevent realization of the full performance potential. An experimental program was conducted in a Mach 1.26 free-jet to demonstrate drag reduction on a simple expansion ramp geometry, and verify hydrogen-air stability limits at external burning conditions. Stable combustion appears feasible to Mach number of between 1.4 and 2 depending on the vehicle flight trajectory. Drag reduction is demonstrated on the expansion ramp at Mach 1.26; however, force levels showed little dependence on fuel pressure or altitude in contrast to control volume analysis predictions. Various facility interference mechanisms and scaling issues were studied and are discussed.

  5. Improved Verification for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace systems are subject to many stringent performance requirements to be verified with low risk. This report investigates verification planning using conditional approaches vice the standard classical statistical methods, and usage of historical surrogate data for requirement validation and in verification planning. The example used in this report to illustrate the results of these investigations is a proposed mission assurance requirement with the concomitant maximum acceptable verification risk for the NASA Constellation Program Orion Launch Abort System (LAS). This report demonstrates the following improvements: 1) verification planning using conditional approaches vice classical statistical methods results in plans that are more achievable and feasible; 2) historical surrogate data can be used to bound validation of performance requirements; and, 3) incorporation of historical surrogate data in verification planning using conditional approaches produces even less costly and more reasonable verification plans. The procedures presented in this report may produce similar improvements and cost savings in verification for any stringent performance requirement for an aerospace system.

  6. Supersonic Wind Tunnels (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, operation, performance, and use of supersonic wind tunnels. References cover the design of flow nozzles, diffusers, test sections, and ejectors for tunnels driven by compressed air, high-pressure gases, or cryogenic liquids. Methods for flow calibration, boundary layer control, local and freestream turbulence reduction, and force measurement are discussed. Instrusive and non-intrusive instrumentation, sources of measurement error, and measurement corrections are also covered. The citations also include the testing of inlets, nozzles, airfoils, and other components of aerospace vehicles that must operate supersonically. Comprehensive coverage of wind tunnel force balancing systems, and blowdown and supersonic wind tunnels are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  8. A RESOURCE BOOK OF AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln Public Schools, NE.

    THIS RESOURCE BOOK OF ACTIVITIES WAS WRITTEN FOR TEACHERS OF GRADES K-6, TO HELP THEM INTEGRATE AEROSPACE SCIENCE WITH THE REGULAR LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF THE CLASSROOM. SUGGESTIONS ARE MADE FOR INTRODUCING AEROSPACE CONCEPTS INTO THE VARIOUS SUBJECT FIELDS SUCH AS LANGUAGE ARTS, MATHEMATICS, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, SOCIAL STUDIES, AND OTHERS. SUBJECT…

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 10: The NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge DIffusion Research Project in helping to maintain U.S. competitiveness is addressed. The phases of the project are examined in terms of the focus, emphasis, subjects, methods, and desired outcomes. The importance of the project to aerospace R&D is emphasized.

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 39: The role of computer networks in aerospace engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Ann P.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from an empirical investigation into the use of computer networks in aerospace engineering. Such networks allow aerospace engineers to communicate with people and access remote resources through electronic mail, file transfer, and remote log-in. The study drew its subjects from private sector, government and academic organizations in the U.S. aerospace industry. Data presented here were gathered in a mail survey, conducted in Spring 1993, that was distributed to aerospace engineers performing a wide variety of jobs. Results from the mail survey provide a snapshot of the current use of computer networks in the aerospace industry, suggest factors associated with the use of networks, and identify perceived impacts of networks on aerospace engineering work and communication.

  11. 49 CFR 393.100 - Which types of commercial motor vehicles are subject to the cargo securement standards of this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Protection Against Shifting and Falling Cargo § 393.100..., spilling, blowing or falling from the motor vehicle. (c) Prevention against shifting of load. Cargo must...

  12. Aerospace Payloads Leak Test Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovsky, Oleg; Grayson, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized and sealed aerospace payloads can leak on orbit. When dealing with toxic or hazardous materials, requirements for fluid and gas leakage rates have to be properly established, and most importantly, reliably verified using the best Nondestructive Test (NDT) method available. Such verification can be implemented through application of various leak test methods that will be the subject of this paper, with a purpose to show what approach to payload leakage rate requirement verification is taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scope of this paper will be mostly a detailed description of 14 leak test methods recommended.

  13. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  14. Aerospace bibliography, seventh edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blashfield, J. F. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Space travel, planetary probes, applications satellites, manned spaceflight, the impacts of space exploration, future space activities, astronomy, exobiology, aeronautics, energy, space and the humanities, and aerospace education are covered.

  15. The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

  16. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 242 through 253 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes six indexes--subject, personal author, corporate source, contract number, report number, and accession number.

  17. Emerging CFD technologies and aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    With the recent focus on the needs of design and applications CFD, research groups have begun to address the traditional bottlenecks of grid generation and surface modeling. Now, a host of emerging technologies promise to shortcut or dramatically simplify the simulation process. This paper discusses the current status of these emerging technologies. It will argue that some tools are already available which can have positive impact on portions of the design cycle. However, in most cases, these tools need to be integrated into specific engineering systems and process cycles to be used effectively. The rapidly maturing status of unstructured and Cartesian approaches for inviscid simulations makes suggests the possibility of highly automated Euler-boundary layer simulations with application to loads estimation and even preliminary design. Similarly, technology is available to link block structured mesh generation algorithms with topology libraries to avoid tedious re-meshing of topologically similar configurations. Work in algorithmic based auto-blocking suggests that domain decomposition and point placement operations in multi-block mesh generation may be properly posed as problems in Computational Geometry, and following this approach may lead to robust algorithmic processes for automatic mesh generation.

  18. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program continues its research on variety of main topics identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities center on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. While most of the topics are a continuation of previous works, special effort has been focused on some of the areas due to recommendations from the last annual conference. The main topics addressed in this report are: composite materials, and antenna technology. The area of composite materials continues getting special attention in this period. The research has focused on: (1) measurements of the electrical properties of low-conductivity materials; (2) modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on the scattering patterns; (3) preliminary analysis on interaction of electromagnetic fields with multi-layered graphite fiberglass plates; and (4) finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of fields penetration through composite panels of a helicopter.

  19. Advanced Electromagnetic Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis; Birtcher, Craig R.; Georgakopoulos, Stavros; Han, Dong-Ho; Ballas, Gerasimos

    1999-01-01

    The imminent destructive threats of Lightning on helicopters and other airborne systems has always been a topic of great interest to this research grant. Previously, the lightning induced currents on the surface of the fuselage and its interior were predicted using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method as well as the NEC code. The limitations of both methods, as applied to lightning, were identified and extensively discussed in the last meeting. After a thorough investigation of the capabilities of the FDTD, it was decided to incorporate into the numerical method a subcell model to accurately represent current diffusion through conducting materials of high conductivity and finite thickness. Because of the complexity of the model, its validity will be first tested for a one-dimensional FDTD problem. Although results are not available yet, the theory and formulation of the subcell model are presented and discussed here to a certain degree. Besides lightning induced currents in the interior of an aircraft, penetration of electromagnetic fields through apertures (e.g., windows and cracks) could also be devastating for the navigation equipment, electronics, and communications systems in general. The main focus of this study is understanding and quantifying field penetration through apertures. The simulation is done using the FDTD method and the predictions are compared with measurements and moment method solutions obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center. Cavity-backed slot (CBS) antennas or slot antennas in general have many applications in aircraft-satellite type of communications. These can be flushmounted on the surface of the fuselage and, therefore, they retain the aerodynamic shape of the aircraft. In the past, input impedance and radiation patterns of CBS antennas were computed using a hybrid FEM/MoM code. The analysis is now extended to coupling between two identical slot antennas mounted on the same structure. The predictions are performed using both the hybrid FEM/MoM and the FDTD NEWS code. The results are compared with each other as well as with measurements performed in the ElectroMagnetic Anechoic Chamber (EMAC) of ASU. In addition to self and mutual impedances versus frequency, the comparisons include mutual coupling S(sub 12) as a function of distance for various slot orientations.

  20. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1991-01-01

    During this period the research program addressed the following three topics: (1) composite materials; (2) precipitation static (P-Static); and (3) antenna technology. On the topic of Composite Materials our main efforts were directed toward making measurements on several new samples of composite materials made available to ASU by Stanford Research Institute (SRI) through the efforts of Mr. Frank Casler of AVRADA. These samples can be classified into three distinct materials with each material having its own distinct electrical properties. In addition, attempts were made to make predictions of the effects on antenna patterns by composite materials. This will take a greater emphasis in the next reporting period. In Precipitation Static (P-Static), the main effort was devoted toward developing a Voltage Finite-Difference Time-Domain computer code to account for the voltage variation on a conducting body as the primary source of corona discharge, instead of the electric field. Due to complexities stemming from the interactions between the potentials, the fields, and current sources, the decision was made to begin with a simple two-dimensional problem without the corona discharge and check our programs in a series of simple models, culminating in the full corona discharge problem. This report deals with the first stage of such development. During this reporting period, the main effort in Antenna Technology was toward the design, fabrication, and testing of a cavity-backed slot antenna using ferrite material. Using the ferrite material available to us during this period, the resonances of this antenna were around 5 and 8 GHz. Attempts will be made to model such an antenna and to lower its resonance down into the VHF and UHF bands.

  1. Aerospace vehicle design, spacecraft section. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The next major step in the evolution of the space program is the exploration of the planet Mars. In preparation for this, much research is needed on the problem of surveying the planet surface. An aircraft appears to be a viable solution because it can carry men and equipment large distances in a short period of time as compared with ground transportation. The problems and design of an aircraft which would be able to survey the planet Mars are examined.

  2. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics is centered on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. Progress was made on three major topics: composite materials; precipitation static corona discharge; and antenna technology. In composite materials, the research has focused on the measurements of their electrical properties, and the modeling of material discontinuities and their effect on the radiation pattern of antennas mounted on or near material surfaces. The electrical properties were used to model antenna performance when mounted on composite materials. Since helicopter platforms include several antenna systems at VHF and UHF bands, measuring techniques are being explored that can be used to measure the properties at these bands. The effort on corona discharge and precipitation static was directed toward the development of a new two dimensional Voltage Finite Difference Time Domain computer program. Results indicate the feasibility of using potentials for simulating electromagnetic problems in the cases where potentials become primary sources. In antenna technology the focus was on Polarization Diverse Conformal Microstrip Antennas, Cavity Backed Slot Antennas, and Varactor Tuned Circular Patch Antennas. Numerical codes were developed for the analysis of two probe fed rectangular and circular microstrip patch antennas fed by resistive and reactive power divider networks.

  3. Aerospace vehicle water-waste management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecoraro, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

  4. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Naidu, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified method of matched asymptotic expansions was developed where the common part in composite solution is generated as a polynomial in stretched variable instead of actually evaluating the same from the outer solution. This methodology was applied to the solution of the exact equations for three dimensional atmospheric entry problems. Compared to previous works, the present simplified methodology yields explicit analytical expressions for various components of the composite solution without resorting to any type of transcendental equations to be solved only by numerical methods. The optimal control problem arising in the noncoplanar orbital transfer employing aeroassist was also addressed.

  5. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Naidu, Desineni S.

    1990-01-01

    The first part of the report concerns broadly the summary of the work done in the areas of singular perturbations and time scales (SPaTS), aerobraking technology, guidance and aerocruise. The synergistic plane change problem connected with orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology, is addressed. The mission involves transfer from high Earth orbit to low Earth orbit with plane change being performed within the atmosphere. The complete mission consists of a deorbit phase, atmospheric phase, and finally reorbit phase. The atmospheric maneuver is composed of an entry mode, a cruise mode, and finally an exit mode. During the cruise mode, constant altitude and velocity are maintained by means of bank angle control with constant thrust or thrust control with constant bank angle. Comparisons between these two control strategies bring out some interesting features.

  6. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naidu, Desineni S.; Hibey, Joseph L.

    1988-01-01

    The optimal control problem arising in coplanar, orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology is addressed. The maneuver involves the transfer from high Earth orbit to low Earth orbit. A performance index is chosen the minimize the fuel consumpltion for the transfer. Simulations are carried out for establishing a corridor of entry conditions which are suitable for flying the spacecraft through the atmosphere. A highlight of the paper is the application of an efficient multiple shooting method for taming the notorious nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem resulting from optimization procedure.

  7. The 1992 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 23rd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 15-19, 1992. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including sodium-sulfur and various bipolar designs.

  8. The 1998 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 31st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on October 27-29, 1998. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-hydrogen, silver-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-based technologies, as well as results from destructive physical analyses on various cell chemistries.

  9. The 1997 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 30th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 18-20, 1997. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, lithium, lithium-ion, and silver-zinc technologies, as well as various aspects of nickel electrode design.

  10. The 1993 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 26th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on 16-18 Nov. 1993. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including various bipolar designs.

  11. Directory of aerospace safety specialized information sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, E. A.; Rubens, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    A directory is presented to make available to the aerospace safety community a handbook of organizations and experts in specific, well-defined areas of safety technology. It is designed for the safety specialist as an aid for locating both information sources and individual points of contact (experts) in engineering related fields. The file covers sources of data in aerospace design, tests, as well as information in hazard and failure cause identification, accident analysis, materials characteristics, and other related subject areas. These 171 organizations and their staff members, hopefully, should provide technical information in the form of documentation, data and consulting expertise. These will be sources that have assembled and collated their information, so that it will be useful in the solution of engineering problems. One of the goals of the project in the United States that have and are willing to share data of value to the aerospace safety community.

  12. Advanced Engineering Environments: Implications for Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D.

    2001-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's aerospace industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker all face the developer of aerospace systems. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments (AEEs) to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. These advances will enable modeling and simulation of manufacturing methods, which will in turn allow manufacturing considerations to be included much earlier in the system development cycle. Significant cost savings, increased quality, and decreased manufacturing cycle time are expected to result. This paper will give an overview of the NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment, the agency initiative to develop an AEE, with a focus on the anticipated benefits in aerospace manufacturing.

  13. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Secondary to a Motor Vehicle Accident: A Single-Subject Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galovski, Tara E.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are fairly common occurrences in all developed countries. Although only a small percentage of total MVAs result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the high base rate in the population has resulted in the estimation that MVAs are the leading cause of PTSD in the United States. Occupations that require…

  14. Aerospace engineering educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, William; Klett, David; Lai, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The principle goal of the educational component of NASA CORE is the creation of aerospace engineering options in the mechanical engineering program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To accomplish this goal, a concerted effort during the past year has resulted in detailed plans for the initiation of aerospace options in both the BSME and MSME programs in the fall of 1993. All proposed new courses and the BSME aerospace option curriculum must undergo a lengthy approval process involving two cirriculum oversight committees (School of Engineering and University level) and three levels of general faculty approval. Assuming approval is obtained from all levels, the options will officially take effect in Fall '93. In anticipation of this, certain courses in the proposed curriculum are being offered during the current academic year under special topics headings so that current junior level students may graduate in May '94 under the BSME aerospace option. The proposed undergraduate aerospace option curriculum (along with the regular mechanical engineering curriculum for reference) is attached at the end of this report, and course outlines for the new courses are included in the appendix.

  15. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  16. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297.

  17. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  18. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  19. Proceedings of the Fifth NASA/NSF/DOD Workshop on Aerospace Computational Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. (Editor); Man, G. K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Workshop on Aerospace Computational Control was one in a series of workshops sponsored by NASA, NSF, and the DOD. The purpose of these workshops is to address computational issues in the analysis, design, and testing of flexible multibody control systems for aerospace applications. The intention in holding these workshops is to bring together users, researchers, and developers of computational tools in aerospace systems (spacecraft, space robotics, aerospace transportation vehicles, etc.) for the purpose of exchanging ideas on the state of the art in computational tools and techniques.

  20. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The following areas of NASA's responsibilities are examined: (1) the Space Transportation System (STS) operations and evolving program elements; (2) establishment of the Space Station program organization and issuance of requests for proposals to the aerospace industry; and (3) NASA's aircraft operations, including research and development flight programs for two advanced X-type aircraft.

  1. Aerospace at Saint Francis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Discusses an aviation/aerospace program as a science elective for 11th and 12th year students. This program is multi-faceted and addresses the needs of a wide variety of students. Its main objective is to present aviation and space sciences which will provide a good base for higher education in these areas. (SK)

  2. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  3. Aerospace technology comes home.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C

    1997-07-01

    Science is expanding the options for homebound patients. Many of the new technologies coming into the home care industry are the result of aerospace innovations. What are these new technologies, and what can the home care industry expect to see in the future.

  4. How Might People Near National Roads Be Affected by Traffic Noise as Electric Vehicles Increase in Number? A Laboratory Study of Subjective Evaluations of Environmental Noise.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ian; Kennedy, John; Martin, Susanna; Rice, Henry

    2016-01-01

    We face a likely shift to electric vehicles (EVs) but the environmental and human consequences of this are not yet well understood. Simulated auditory traffic scenes were synthesized from recordings of real conventional and EVs. These sounded similar to what might be heard by a person near a major national road. Versions of the simulation had 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% EVs. Participants heard the auditory scenes in random order, rating each on five perceptual dimensions such as pleasant-unpleasant and relaxing-stressful. Ratings of traffic noise were, overall, towards the negative end of these scales, but improved significantly when there were high proportions of EVs in the traffic mix, particularly when there were 80% or 100% EVs. This suggests a shift towards a high proportion of EVs is likely to improve the subjective experiences of people exposed to traffic noise from major roads. The effects were not a simple result of EVs being quieter: ratings of bandpass-filtered versions of the recordings suggested that people's perceptions of traffic noise were specifically influenced by energy in the 500-2000 Hz band. Engineering countermeasures to reduce noise in this band might be effective for improving the subjective experience of people living or working near major roads, even for conventional vehicles; energy in the 0-100 Hz band was particularly associated with people identifying sound as 'quiet' and, again, this might feed into engineering to reduce the impact of traffic noise on people.

  5. How Might People Near National Roads Be Affected by Traffic Noise as Electric Vehicles Increase in Number? A Laboratory Study of Subjective Evaluations of Environmental Noise

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ian; Kennedy, John; Martin, Susanna; Rice, Henry

    2016-01-01

    We face a likely shift to electric vehicles (EVs) but the environmental and human consequences of this are not yet well understood. Simulated auditory traffic scenes were synthesized from recordings of real conventional and EVs. These sounded similar to what might be heard by a person near a major national road. Versions of the simulation had 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% EVs. Participants heard the auditory scenes in random order, rating each on five perceptual dimensions such as pleasant–unpleasant and relaxing–stressful. Ratings of traffic noise were, overall, towards the negative end of these scales, but improved significantly when there were high proportions of EVs in the traffic mix, particularly when there were 80% or 100% EVs. This suggests a shift towards a high proportion of EVs is likely to improve the subjective experiences of people exposed to traffic noise from major roads. The effects were not a simple result of EVs being quieter: ratings of bandpass-filtered versions of the recordings suggested that people’s perceptions of traffic noise were specifically influenced by energy in the 500–2000 Hz band. Engineering countermeasures to reduce noise in this band might be effective for improving the subjective experience of people living or working near major roads, even for conventional vehicles; energy in the 0–100 Hz band was particularly associated with people identifying sound as ‘quiet’ and, again, this might feed into engineering to reduce the impact of traffic noise on people. PMID:26938865

  6. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to determine the feasibility of utilizing controllable mechanical seals for aerospace applications. A potential application was selected as a demonstration case: the buffer gas seal in a LOX (liquid oxygen) turbopump. Currently, floating ring seals are used in this application. Their replacement with controllable mechanical seals would result in substantially reduced leakage rates. This would reduce the required amount of stored buffer gas, and therefore increase the vehicle payload. For such an application, a suitable controllable mechanical seal was designed and analyzed.

  7. Application of thermal spray coatings to aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, H.L.

    1994-12-31

    Reusable launch vehicles located by the ocean are subject to harsh seacoast environments before launch and immersion after splashdown at sea and tow back to the refurbishment facility. The use of various thermal spray processes for depositing corrosion and erosion protective materials to the alloy substrates has potential for enhancing the corrosion/erosion resistance and useful life of those expensive large reusable aerospace structures. Thermal spray processes such as high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF), plasma, arc spray and conventional oxygen fuel spray and the IVD process (pure aluminum only) have been used to coat test panels and scrap flight hardware with various applied materials. Pure aluminum, aluminum/aluminum oxide matrix (DURALCAN), and pure zinc have been applied over 2219-T87 aluminum alloy, 4340 steel alloy substrates. Salt spray testing has been conducted in accordance with ASTM B-117 as well as beach exposure tests at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Adhesion tests have been performed for all materials applied to the various substrates as well as monitoring of substrate temperatures during the spray process. The pure aluminum, zinc, and aluminum/aluminum oxide matrix material afforded excellent corrosion protection in both beach exposure and salt spray environments. in conclusion, tests and actual applications have shown that the various thermal spray processes and coating materials have significant potential for enhancing corrosion/erosion resistance and extending the useful service life of expensive aerospace structures exposed to marine environments. The ability to effectively repair damaged IVD aluminum coated substrates using arc sprayed material adds flexibility to the maintenance process. Due to the excellent adhesion and corrosion protection of the substrate, tests are underway to determine if chromate conversion coating can be eliminated prior to primer/topcoat application.

  8. When Failure Means Success: Accepting Risk in Aerospace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Singer, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last three decades, NASA has been diligent in qualifying systems for human space flight. As the Agency transitions from operating the Space Shuttle, its employees must learn to accept higher risk levels to generate the data needed to certify its next human space flight system. The Marshall Center s Engineering workforce is developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle for safety, reliability, and cost-effective operations. This presentation will provide a risk retrospective, using first-hand examples from the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA) and the X-33 single-stage-to-orbit flight demonstrators, while looking ahead to the upcoming Ares I-X uncrewed test flight. The DC-XA was successfully flown twice in 26 hours, setting a new turnaround-time record. Later, one of its 3 landing gears did not deploy, it tipped over, and was destroyed. During structural testing, the X-33 s advanced composite tanks were unable to withstand the forces to which it was subjected and the project was later cancelled. These are examples of successful failures, as the data generated are captured in databases used by vehicle designers today. More recently, the Ares I-X flight readiness review process was streamlined in keeping with the mission's objectives, since human lives are not at stake, which reflects the beginning of a cultural change. Failures are acceptable during testing, as they provide the lessons that actually lead to mission success. These and other examples will stimulate the discussion of when to accept risk in aerospace projects.

  9. Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajamani, Ravi; Saxena, Abhinav; Kramer, Frank; Augustin, Mike; Schroeder, John B.; Goebel, Kai; Shao, Ginger; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a "real-world" example related to designing a landing gear system. The team hopes that this paper and presentation will help start a dialog with the larger aerospace community and that the feedback can be used to improve the ARP and subsequently the practice of IVHM from a systems engineering point-of-view.

  10. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  11. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Doris J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Transfer Team is to assist NASA in achieving widespread utilization of aerospace technology in terrestrial applications. Widespread utilization implies that the application of NASA technology is to benefit a significant sector of the economy and population of the Nation. This objective is best attained by stimulating the introduction of new or improved commercially available devices incorporating aerospace technology. A methodology is presented for the team's activities as an active transfer agent linking NASA Field Centers, industry associations, user groups, and the medical community. This methodology is designed to: (1) identify priority technology requirements in industry and medicine, (2) identify applicable NASA technology that represents an opportunity for a successful solution and commercial product, (3) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process, and (4) successfully develop a new product based on NASA technology.

  12. An Aerospace Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-25

    aircraft order share of Boeing or Air - bus in recent years.24 America’s leadership in the high-technology sector is also faltering and, if not corrected...Executive Order 9781, establishing the Air Coordinating Commit- tee, with the mission to “examine aviation problems and development affecting more...robotics, drones, information technologies, energy research, and aerospace design. Establish a New Air and Space Structure Like its predecessor

  13. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  14. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  15. AI aerospace components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Murphy, Terri B.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.; Montgomery, Ronnie E.; Pohle, George E.; Heard, Astrid E.; Atkinson, David J.; Wedlake, William E.; Anderson, John M.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.

  16. Aerospace Engineering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. Activities such as the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) project at NASA Ames Research Center study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities will be reported.

  17. Optical Characterization of Window Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Strength Data for an Aerospace Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neergaard, Lynn; Malone, Tina; Gentz, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace vehicles are produced in limited quantities that do not always allow development of MIL-HDBK-5 A-basis design allowables. One method of examining production and composition variations is to perform 100% lot acceptance testing for aerospace Aluminum (Al) alloys. This paper discusses statistical trends seen in strength data for one Al alloy. A four-step approach reduced the data to residuals, visualized residuals as a function of time, grouped data with quantified scatter, and conducted analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  19. Statistical Analysis of Strength Data for an Aerospace Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neergaard, L.; Malone, T.

    2001-01-01

    Aerospace vehicles are produced in limited quantities that do not always allow development of MIL-HDBK-5 A-basis design allowables. One method of examining production and composition variations is to perform 100% lot acceptance testing for aerospace Aluminum (Al) alloys. This paper discusses statistical trends seen in strength data for one Al alloy. A four-step approach reduced the data to residuals, visualized residuals as a function of time, grouped data with quantified scatter, and conducted analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  20. Optical characterization of window materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M.

    2013-09-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  1. Development of Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology have led to the availability of smaller and more accurate sensors. Computer power to process large amounts of data is no longer the prevailing issue; thus multiple and redundant sensors can be used to obtain more accurate and comprehensive measurements in a space vehicle. The successful integration and commercialization of micro- and nanotechnology for aerospace applications require that a close and interactive relationship be developed between the technology provider and the end user early in the project. Close coordination between the developers and the end users is critical since qualification for flight is time-consuming and expensive. The successful integration of micro- and nanotechnology into space vehicles requires a coordinated effort throughout the design, development, installation, and integration processes

  2. Increasing the Mobility of Dismounted Marines. Small Unit Mobility Enhancement Technologies: Unmanned Ground Vehicles Market Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Robotic Porter (Israel Aerospace Industries, Ltd.) ...........................................16 10 . Ranlo (Defense Technologies, Inc... 10 5. Selected Data for Top 15 Candidate Systems...26 10 . Vehicle Mobility (Speed) Scoring

  3. Research Opportunities in Advanced Aerospace Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Bangert, Linda S.; Garber, Donald P.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McKinley, Robert E.; Sutton, Kenneth; Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Weinstein, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    This report is a review of a team effort that focuses on advanced aerospace concepts of the 21st Century. The paper emphasis advanced technologies, rather than cataloging every unusual aircraft that has ever been attempted. To dispel the myth that "aerodynamics is a mature science" an extensive list of "What we cannot do, or do not know" was enumerated. A zeit geist, a feeling for the spirit of the times, was developed, based on existing research goals. Technological drivers and the constraints that might influence these technological developments in a future society were also examined. The present status of aeronautics, space exploration, and non-aerospace applications, both military and commercial, including enabling technologies are discussed. A discussion of non-technological issues affecting advanced concepts research is presented. The benefit of using the study of advanced vehicles as a tool to uncover new directions for technology development is often necessary. An appendix is provided containing examples of advanced vehicle configurations currently of interest.

  4. Interactive Web-Based and Hands-On Engineering Education: A Freshman Aerospace Design Course at MIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Dava J.

    "Introduction to Aerospace and Design" is a 3-hour per week freshman elective course at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that culminates in a Lighter-Than-Air (LTA) vehicle design competition, exposing freshmen to the excitement of aerospace engineering design typically taught in the junior or senior years. In addition to the…

  5. Impact of aerospace advancements on capabilities of reusable earth-to-orbit ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, H. D., Jr.; Leingang, J. L.

    1990-10-01

    Aerospace developments are bringing about the possibility of effective, fully reusable vehicles for transport of people and cargo between earth and space. This paper will indicate the magnitude of earth-to-orbit improvement that these developments may provide for single and multistage vehicles and for rocket and airbreathing flight.

  6. Vehicle capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacke, Kenneth L.

    1998-12-01

    Primex Aerospace Company, under contract with the U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC), has developed a portable vehicle capture system for use at vehicle checkpoints. Currently when a vehicle does not stop at a checkpoint, there are three possible reactions: let the vehicle go unchallenged, pursue the vehicle or stop the vehicle with lethal force. This system provides a non-lethal alternative that will stop and contain the vehicle. The system is completely portable with the heaviest component weighing less than 120 pounds. It can be installed with no external electrical power or permanent anchors required. In its standby mode, the system does not impede normal traffic, but on command erects a barrier in less than 1.5 seconds. System tests have been conducted using 5,100 and 8.400 pound vehicles, traveling at speeds up to 45 mph. The system is designed to minimize vehicle damage and occupant injury, typically resulting in deceleration forces of less than 2.5 gs on the vehicle. According to the drivers involved in tests at 45 mph, the stopping forces feel similar to a panic stop with the vehicle brakes locked. The system is completely reusable and be rapidly reset.

  7. Fuzzy Logic Approaches to Multi-Objective Decision-Making in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    Fuzzy logic allows for the quantitative representation of multi-objective decision-making problems which have vague or fuzzy objectives and parameters. As such, fuzzy logic approaches are well-suited to situations where alternatives must be assessed by using criteria that are subjective and of unequal importance. This paper presents an overview of fuzzy logic and provides sample applications from the aerospace industry. Applications include an evaluation of vendor proposals, an analysis of future space vehicle options, and the selection of a future space propulsion system. On the basis of the results provided in this study, fuzzy logic provides a unique perspective on the decision-making process, allowing the evaluator to assess the degree to which each option meets the evaluation criteria. Future decision-making should take full advantage of fuzzy logic methods to complement existing approaches in the selection of alternatives.

  8. Limitless Horizons. Careers in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A manual is presented for use by counselors in career guidance programs. Pertinent information is provided on choices open in aerospace sciences, engineering, and technology. Accredited institutions awarding degrees in pertinent areas are listed as well as additional sources of aerospace career information. NASA's role and fields of interest are emphasized.

  9. Aerospace Activities and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Piper, Martha

    1975-01-01

    Describes how science activities can be used to stimulate language development in the elementary grades. Two aerospace activities are described involving liquid nitrogen and the launching of a weather balloon which integrate aerospace interests into the development of language skills. (BR)

  10. Limitless Horizons: Careers in Aerospace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary H.

    This is a manual for acquainting students with pertinent information relating to career choices in aerospace science, engineering, and technology. The first chapter presents information about the aerospace industry by describing disciplines typical of this industry. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) classification system…

  11. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  12. Design of cryogenic tanks for space vehicles shell structures analytical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copper, Charles; Mccarthy, K.; Pilkey, W. D.; Haviland, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    The initial objective was to study the use of superplastically formed corrugated hat section stringers and frames in place of integrally machined stringers over separate frames for the tanks of large launch vehicles subjected to high buckling loads. The ALS was used as an example. The objective of the follow-on project was to study methods of designing shell structures subjected to severe combinations of structural loads and thermal gradients, with emphasis on new combinations of structural arrangements and materials. Typical applications would be to fuselage sections of high speed civil transports and to cryogenic tanks on the National Aerospace Plane.

  13. The 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity are reported. Some of the topics covered include: lightning, lightning suppression, aerospace vehicles, aircraft safety, flight safety, aviation meteorology, thunderstorms, atmospheric electricity, warning systems, weather forecasting, electromagnetic coupling, electrical measurement, electrostatics, aircraft hazards, flight hazards, meteorological parameters, cloud (meteorology), ground effect, electric currents, lightning equipment, electric fields, measuring instruments, electrical grounding, and aircraft instruments.

  14. Displacement Theories for In-Flight Deformed Shape Predictions of Aerospace Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Richards, W. L.; Tran, Van t.

    2007-01-01

    Displacement theories are developed for a variety of structures with the goal of providing real-time shape predictions for aerospace vehicles during flight. These theories are initially developed for a cantilever beam to predict the deformed shapes of the Helios flying wing. The main structural configuration of the Helios wing is a cantilever wing tubular spar subjected to bending, torsion, and combined bending and torsion loading. The displacement equations that are formulated are expressed in terms of strains measured at multiple sensing stations equally spaced on the surface of the wing spar. Displacement theories for other structures, such as tapered cantilever beams, two-point supported beams, wing boxes, and plates also are developed. The accuracy of the displacement theories is successfully validated by finite-element analysis and classical beam theory using input-strains generated by finite-element analysis. The displacement equations and associated strain-sensing system (such as fiber optic sensors) create a powerful means for in-flight deformation monitoring of aerospace structures. This method serves multiple purposes for structural shape sensing, loads monitoring, and structural health monitoring. Ultimately, the calculated displacement data can be visually displayed to the ground-based pilot or used as input to the control system to actively control the shape of structures during flight.

  15. Aerospace and military

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.A.; Esch, K

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews military and aerospace developments of 1989. The Voyager spacecraft returned astounding imagery from Neptune, sophisticated sensors were launched to explore Venus and Jupiter, and another craft went into earth orbit to explore cosmic rays, while a huge telescope is to be launched early in 1990. The U.S. space shuttle redesign was completed and access to space has become no longer purely a governmental enterprise. In the military realm, events within the Soviet bloc, such as the Berlin Wall's destruction, have popularized arms control. Several big treaties could be signed within the year. Massive troop, equipment, and budget reductions are being considered, along with a halt or delay of major new weapons systems. For new missions, the U.S. military is retreating to its role of a century ago - patrolling the nation's borders, this time against narcotics traffickers.

  16. Aerospace in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    National research and technology trends are introduced in the environment of accelerating change. NASA and the federal budget are discussed. The U.S. energy dependence on foreign oil, the increasing oil costs, and the U.S. petroleum use by class are presented. The $10 billion aerospace industry positive contribution to the U.S. balance of trade of 1979 is given as an indicator of the positive contribution of NASA in research to industry. The research work of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, industry, universities, and business to maintain U.S. world leadership in advanced technology.

  17. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  18. Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, D. E. (Editor); Stanley, D. C. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The next millennium challenges us to produce innovative materials, processes, manufacturing, and environmental technologies that meet low-cost aerospace transportation needs while maintaining US leadership. The pursuit of advanced aerospace materials, manufacturing processes, and environmental technologies supports the development of safer, operational, next-generation, reusable, and expendable aeronautical and space vehicle systems. The Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology Conference (AMPET) provided a forum for manufacturing, environmental, materials, and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess advances in these key technology areas.

  19. Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) user's guide, version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillin, Mark L.; Spangler, Jan L.; Dahmen, Stephen M.; Rehder, John J.

    1993-01-01

    The Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) software package is used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. It provides a highly interactive and dynamic capability for generating geometries with Bezier cubic patches. Features include automatic generation of commonly used aerospace constructs (e.g., wings and multilobed tanks); cross-section skinning; wireframe and shaded presentation; area, volume, inertia, and center-of-gravity calculations; and interfaces to various aerodynamic and structural analysis programs. A comprehensive description of SMART and how to use it is provided.

  20. Magnetic Gearing Versus Conventional Gearing in Actuators for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puchhammer, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic geared actuators (MGA) are designed to perform highly reliable, robust and precise motion on satellite platforms or aerospace vehicles. The design allows MGA to be used for various tasks in space applications. In contrast to conventional geared drives, the contact and lubrication free force transmitting elements lead to a considerable lifetime and range extension of drive systems. This paper describes the fundamentals of magnetic wobbling gears (MWG) and the deduced inherent characteristics, and compares conventional and magnetic gearing.

  1. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a 5-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASAs safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are "one deep." The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting "brain drain" could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning.

  2. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

  3. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  4. The prospects for European aerospace transporters. III - Applications of aerospace transporters. IV - Historical and political considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. Q.; Ashford, D. M.

    1989-03-01

    A small, near-term-developed aerospace transporter would be useful for launching small satellites, servicing satellites in orbit, and supplying space stations, as well as furnishing a technology-development base for subsequent, larger vehicles. These larger vehicles have a potential cost/flight that is estimated to be of the order of 1000 times lower than that of the NASA Space Shuttle, at traffic levels typical of their use in tourism. An additional part of this work notes that the evolution of space transportation to date has been driven by considerations of defense policy and international prestige, with little priority given to the launch cost reductions that would be of paramount importance to passenger-carrying commercial ventures.

  5. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  6. Fundamentals of Aeronautical and Aerospace Medical Science,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-17

    184) -I & A0A1 8 F ORE IGN TIC.iOLOY DIV UUIAN?-PAT?1m5 APA ON i tFUND~AMENTALS OF AERONAUTICAL AND AEROSPACE MEDICAL SCtEC.j (UlIJUL lI MC 01*0. A...xysel, con- rSin.- more than 1/5 of the air, is essential for human metabolism. Since human beings have lived constantly under norma " air pressure...Temperature under different air flow rate, research subjects wearing norma ; indoor clothing: 1) dry bulb temperature, C; 9) air flow, m/sec; 3) wet

  7. Trajectory optimization for the National aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1993-01-01

    While continuing the application of the inverse dynamics approach in obtaining the optimal numerical solutions, the research during the past six months has been focused on the formulation and derivation of closed-form solutions for constrained hypersonic flight trajectories. Since it was found in the research of the first year that a dominant portion of the optimal ascent trajectory of the aerospace plane is constrained by dynamic pressure and heating constraints, the application of the analytical solutions significantly enhances the efficiency in trajectory optimization, provides a better insight to understanding of the trajectory and conceivably has great potential in guidance of the vehicle. Work of this period has been reported in four technical papers. Two of the papers were presented in the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference (Hilton Head, SC, August, 1992) and Fourth International Aerospace Planes Conference (Orlando, FL, December, 1992). The other two papers have been accepted for publication by Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, and will appear in 1993. This report briefly summarizes the work done in the past six months and work currently underway.

  8. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  9. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  10. Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.

    2012-08-01

    Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.

  11. Computer Architecture. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development in the field of computer architecture. Design of computer systems, microcomputer components, and digital networks are among the topics discussed. Multimicroprocessor system performance, software development, and aerospace avionics applications are also included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Secondary aerospace batteries and battery materials: A bibliography, 1969 - 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P.; Halpert, G.; Ekpanyaskun, S.; Nche, P.

    1976-01-01

    This annotated bibliography on the subject of secondary aerospace battery materials and related physical and electrochemical processes was compiled from references to journal articles published between 1969 and 1974. A total of 332 citations are arranged in chronological order under journal titles. Indices by system and component, techniques and processes, and author are included.

  13. Fun in Flight: Exploring Careers in the Aerospace World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This packet is designed to help kindergarten and elementary students become aware of their own interests, attitudes, and abilities by introducing them to various aerospace careers. The activities can serve as a positive motivator in influencing students to learn their regular school subjects, acquire good work habits, and develop positive…

  14. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

  15. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 474

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This bibliography lists reports, articles and other documents recently introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information database. Subject coverage includes: Aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life and flightcrew behavior and performance.

  16. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  17. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  18. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  19. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.

  20. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  1. Spectroscopic Measurement Techniques for Aerospace Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Hurley, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    The conditions that characterize aerospace flows are so varied, that a single diagnostic technique is not sufficient for its measurement. Fluid dynamists use knowledge of similarity to help categorize and focus on different flow conditions. For example, the Reynolds number represents the ratio of inertial to viscous forces in a flow. When the velocity scales, length scales, and gas density are large and the magnitude of the molecular viscosity is low, the Reynolds number becomes large. This corresponds to large scale vehicles (e.g Airbus A380), fast moving objects (e.g. artillery projectiles), vehicles in dense fluids (e.g. submarine in water), or flows with low dynamic viscosity (e.g. skydiver in air). In each of these cases, the inertial forces dominate viscous forces, and unsteady turbulent fluctuations in the flow variables are observed. In contrast, flows with small length scales (e.g. dispersion of micro-particles in a solid rocket nozzle), slow moving objects (e.g. micro aerial vehicles), flows with low density gases (e.g. atmospheric re-entry), or fluids with a large magnitude of viscosity (e.g. engine coolant flow), all have low Reynolds numbers. In these cases, viscous forces become very important and often the flows can be steady and laminar. The Mach number, which is the ratio of the velocity to the speed of sound in the medium, also helps to differentiate types of flows. At very low Mach numbers, acoustic waves travel much faster than the object, and the flow can be assumed to be incompressible (e.g. Cessna 172 aircraft). As the object speed approaches the speed of sound, the gas density can become variable (e.g. flow over wing of Learjet 85). When the object speed is higher than the speed of sound (Ma > 1), the presences of shock waves and other gas dynamic features can become important to the vehicle performance (e.g. SR-71 Blackbird). In the hypersonic flow regime (Ma > 5), large changes in temperature begin to affect flow properties, causing real

  2. Software for aerospace education: A bibliography, 2nd edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Roth, Susan Kies; Phelps, Malcom V.

    1990-01-01

    This is the second aerospace education software bibliography to be published by the NASA Educational Technology Branch in Washington, DC. Unlike many software bibliographies, this bibliography does not evaluate and grade software according to its quality and value to the classroom, nor does it make any endorsements or warrant scientific accuracy. Rather, it describes software, its subject, approach, and technical details. This bibliography is intended as a convenience to educators. The specific software included represents replies to more than 300 queries to software producers for aerospace education programs.

  3. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1980 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 203 through 214 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography is presented. It includes three indexes--subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  4. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 138 through 149 of AEROSPACE MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY: A CONTINUING BIBLIOGRAPHY. It includes three indexes -- subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  5. A cumulative index to the 1977 issues of a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 164 through 175 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes-- subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  6. A cumulative index to the 1976 issues of a continuing bibliography on Aerospace Medicine and Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 151 through 162 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography. It includes three indexes - subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  7. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 390)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 102 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System. Subject coverage includes: life sciences (general), aerospace medicine, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and space biology.

  8. A cumulative index to the 1972 issues of a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 99 through 110 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes - subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  9. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 398)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 66 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during Feb. 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine, life sciences, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and space biology.

  10. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1982 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 229 through 240 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  11. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes (supplement 401)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography lists 140 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during May 1995. Subject coverage includes: aerospace medicine, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and space biology.

  12. A cumulative index to a continuing bibliography on aerospace medicine and biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 177 through 188 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology is presented. The bibliography includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  13. Aerospace medicine and biology: A cumulative index to the continuing bibliography of the 1973 issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in Supplements 112 through 123 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology A Continuing Bibliography is presented. It includes three indexes: subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  14. SEPEC conference proceedings: Hypermedia and Information Reconstruction. Aerospace applications and research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on hypermedia and information reconstruction are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: real-world hypermedia projects, aerospace applications, and future directions in hypermedia research and development.

  15. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1974 issues of a continuing bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in supplements 125 through 136 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. It includes three indexes--subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  16. A US History of Airbreathing/Rocket Combined-Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion for Powering Future Aerospace Transports, with a Look Ahead to the Year 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1999-01-01

    A technohistorical and forward-planning overview of U.S. developments in combined airbreathing/rocket propulsion for advanced aerospace vehicle applications is presented. Such system approaches fall into one of two categories: (1) Combination propulsion systems (separate, non-interacting engines installed), and (2) Combined-Cycle systems. The latter, and main subject, comprises a large family of closely integrated engine types, made up of both airbreathing and rocket derived subsystem hardware. A single vehicle-integrated, multimode engine results, one capable of operating efficiently over a very wide speed and altitude range, atmospherically and in space. While numerous combination propulsion systems have reached operational flight service, combined-cycle propulsion development, initiated ca. 1960, remains at the subscale ground-test engine level of development. However, going beyond combination systems, combined-cycle propulsion potentially offers a compelling set of new and unique capabilities. These capabilities are seen as enabling ones for the evolution of Spaceliner class aerospace transportation systems. The following combined-cycle hypersonic engine developments are reviewed: (1) RENE (rocket engine nozzle ejector), (2) Cryojet and LACE, (3) Ejector Ramjet and its derivatives, (4) the seminal NASA NAS7-377 study, (5) Air Force/Marquardt Hypersonic Ramjet, (6) Air Force/Lockheed-Marquardt Incremental Scramjet flight-test project, (7) NASA/Garrett Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE), (8) National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), (9) all past projects; and such current and planned efforts as (10) the NASA ASTP-ART RBCC project, (11) joint CIAM/NASA DNSCRAM flight test,(12) Hyper-X, (13) Trailblazer,( 14) W-Vehicle and (15) Spaceliner 100. Forward planning programmatic incentives, and the estimated timing for an operational Spaceliner powered by combined-cycle engines are discussed.

  17. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  18. Information processing for aerospace structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; White, Edward V.; Baumann, Erwin W.

    1998-06-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology provides a means to significantly reduce life cycle of aerospace vehicles by eliminating unnecessary inspections, minimizing inspection complexity, and providing accurate diagnostics and prognostics to support vehicle life extension. In order to accomplish this, a comprehensive SHM system will need to acquire data from a wide variety of diverse sensors including strain gages, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, crack growth gages, corrosion sensors, and piezoelectric transducers. Significant amounts of computer processing will then be required to convert this raw sensor data into meaningful information which indicates both the diagnostics of the current structural integrity as well as the prognostics necessary for planning and managing the future health of the structure in a cost effective manner. This paper provides a description of the key types of information processing technologies required in an effective SHM system. These include artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks, expert systems, and fuzzy logic for nonlinear modeling, pattern recognition, and complex decision making; signal processing techniques such as Fourier and wavelet transforms for spectral analysis and feature extraction; statistical algorithms for optimal detection, estimation, prediction, and fusion; and a wide variety of other algorithms for data analysis and visualization. The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of information processing for SHM, discuss various technologies which can contribute to accomplishing this role, and present some example applications of information processing for SHM implemented at the Boeing Company.

  19. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  20. Aerospace Education and the Elementary Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This articles attempts to stimulate otherwise reluctant school teachers to involve aerospace education in their content repertoire. Suggestions are made to aid the teacher in getting started with aerospace education. (MDR)

  1. Accommodation of Nontraditional Aerospace Degree Aspirants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukert, Michael A.

    1977-01-01

    Presents results of a national survey of institutions offering college level aerospace studies. Primary survey concern is the availability of nontraditional aerospace education programs; however, information pertaining to institution characteristics, program characteristics, and staffing are also included. (SL)

  2. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Current research in optical processing is reviewed. Its role in future aerospace systems is determined. The development of optical devices and components demonstrates that system concepts can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  3. Aerospace Education for the Melting Pot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joels, Kerry M.

    1979-01-01

    Aerospace education is eminently suited to provide a framework for multicultural education. Effective programs accommodating minorities' frames of reference to the rapidly developing disciplines of aerospace studies have been developed. (RE)

  4. Aerospace Education: Is the Sky the Limit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little Soldier, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Provides suggestions on ways to include aerospace education in an integrated elementary school curriculum that focuses on content from the social and physical sciences and emphasizes process skills. Activities that build understanding of aerospace concepts are described. (BB)

  5. D3: A Collaborative Infrastructure for Aerospace Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Joan; Filman, Robert E.; Knight, Chris; Korsmeyer, David J.; Lee, Diana D.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    DARWIN is a NASA developed, Internet-based system for enabling aerospace researchers to securely and remotely access and collaborate on the analysis of aerospace vehicle design data, primarily the results of wind-tunnel testing and numeric (e.g., computational fluid dynamics) model executions. DARWIN captures, stores and indexes data, manages derived knowledge (such as visualizations across multiple data sets) and provides an environment for designers to collaborate in the analysis of the results of testing. DARWIN is an interesting application because it supports high volumes of data, integrates multiple modalities of data display (e.g. images and data visualizations), and provides non-trivial access control mechanisms. DARWIN enables collaboration by allowing not only sharing visualizations of data, but also commentary about and view of data.

  6. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC'S, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application, verification, compliant coatings including corrosion protection system and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  7. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    PubMed

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.

  8. Computers and the aerospace engineer

    SciTech Connect

    Trego, L.E.

    1990-03-01

    The use of computers in aerospace for design and analysis is described, and examples of project enhancements are presented. NASA is working toward the design of a numerical test cell that will allow integrated, multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization of propulsion systems. It is noted that with continuing advances in computer technology, including areas such as three-dimensional computer-aided design, finite element analysis, supercomputers, and artificial intelligence, the possibilities seem limitless for the aerospace engineer. Research projects are currently underway for design and/or reconfiguration of the V-22, B-767, SCRAMJET engines, F-16, and X29A using these techniques.

  9. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Clark-Ingram, M.; Hessler, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  10. NASA Crew Launch Vehicle Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The US. Vision for Space Exploration, announced January 2004, outlines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. These include: 1) Flying the Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. Following the confirmation of the new NASA Administrator in April 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts from government and industry to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which provided in-depth information for selecting the follow-on launch vehicle designs to enable these goals, The ESAS team analyzed a number of potential launch systems, with a focus on: (1) a human-rated launch vehicle for crew transport and (2) a heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) to carry cargo. After several months of intense study utilizing technical performance, budget, and schedule objectives, the results showed that the optimum architecture to meet the challenge of safe, reliable crew transport is a two-stage variant of the Space Shuttle propulsion system - utilizing the reusable Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) as the first stage, along with a new upper stage that uses a derivative of the RS-25 Space Shuttle Main Engine to deliver 25 metric tons to low-Earth orbit. The CEV that this new Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) lofts into space

  11. Aerospace Bibliography, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aerospace Education Council, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography, intended for elementary and secondary school teachers, their pupils, and general adult readers contains grade level coded lists of books, reference works, periodicals, and teaching aids dealing with astronomy and space flight subjects. The reading material is listed alphabetically by author. The teaching aids in Part…

  12. Aerospace Bibliography. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aerospace Education Council, Washington, DC.

    This sixth edition of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) bibliography presents an updated list of books, references, periodicals, and other educational materials related to space flight and space science. To find materials on a particular subject and for a specific reading level, users are advised to refer first to Part…

  13. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  14. The 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the conference are reported. The conference focussed on lightning protection, detection, and forecasting. The conference was divided into 26 sessions based on research in lightning, static electricity, modeling, and mapping. These sessions spanned the spectrum from basic science to engineering, concentrating on lightning prediction and detection and on safety for ground facilities, aircraft, and aerospace vehicles.

  15. Modification of two Navy electric vehicles located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    This report covers the modification of two electric vehicles that are the property of the Navy located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNLA) is funded for electric vehicle activity through The Aerospace Corporation, purchase order number W0403. Per the Statement-of-work, Paragraph 3.10, SNLA is to provide technical assistance to electric vehicle programs as directed by The Aerospace Corporation.

  16. Training of aerospace medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1985-03-01

    In the U. S. there are 23 recognized medical specialty boards. One of these is preventive medicine. Within preventive medicine there are three areas: Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Medicine, and Public Health/General Preventive Medicine. The preventive medicine specialties have a common core of required training including biostatistics, epidemiology, health services administration and environmental health. These, plus associated topics are covered during year one of training. Year two of training involves clinical rotations specifically tailored to the eye, ear, heart, lungs and brain, plus flight training to the private pilot level, and a Masters Degree research project for the required thesis. During year three the physicians in aerospace medicine practice full-time aerospace medicine in a NASA or other government laboratory or a private facility. To date, more than 40 physicians have received aerospace medicine training through the Wright State University School of Medicine program. Among these are physicians from Japan, Australia, Taiwan, Canada and Mexico. In addition to the civilian program at Wright State University, there are programs conducted by the U. S. Air Force and Navy. The Wright State program has been privileged to have officers from the U. S. Army, Navy and Air Force. A substantial supporter of the Wright State program is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and a strong space component is contained in the program.

  17. Aerospace Education: A Pilot Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlovich, Jack; Fagle, David

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of K-12 aerospace education materials. The ninth-grade component, adopted as a pilot program, consists of four parts: history, applications (principles of flight, weather, navigation), spin-offs of research, and careers/organizations. Program evaluation results are reported. (JN)

  18. 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Litty, Edward C. (Compiler); Sevilla, Donald R. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held at the Pasadena Conference and Exhibition Center, Pasadena, California, on May 19-21, 1999. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  19. Technology utilization. [aerospace technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    NASA developed technologies were used to tackle problems associated with safety, transportation, industry, manufacturing, construction and state and local governments. Aerospace programs were responsible for more innovations for the benefit of mankind than those brought about by either major wars, or peacetime programs. Briefly outlined are some innovations for manned space flight, satellite surveillance applications, and pollution monitoring techniques.

  20. Aerospace for the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This packet includes games and activities concerning aerospace education for the very young. It is designed to develop and strengthen basic concepts and skills in a non-threatening atmosphere of fun. Activities include: (1) "The Sun, Our Nearest Star"; (2) "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, How I Wonder Where You Are"; (3) "Shadows"; (4) "The Earth…

  1. Careers in the Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.

    The document briefly presents career information in the field of aerospace industry. Employment exists in three areas: (1) professional and technical occupations in research and development (engineers, scientists, and technicians); (2) administrative, clerical, and related occupations (engineers, scientists, technicians, clerks, secretaries,…

  2. Job Prospects for Aerospace Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the recent trends in job opportunities for aerospace engineers. Mentions some of the political, technological, and economic factors affecting the overall employment picture. Includes a description of the job prospects created by the general upswing of the large commercial aircraft market. (TW)

  3. Ceramic composites: Enabling aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have the potential for significant impact on the performance of aerospace propulsion and power systems. In this paper, the potential benefits are discussed in broad qualitative terms and are illustrated by some specific application case studies. The key issues in need of resolution for the potential of ceramics to be realized are discussed.

  4. 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of the 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Ames Research Center hosted the conference, which was held at the Four Points Sheraton, Sunnyvale, California, on May 9-11, 2001. The symposium was sponsored by the Mechanisms Education Association. Technology areas covered included bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; and other mechanisms for spacecraft and large space structures.

  5. Aerospace Education: How Children Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Glenda F.

    Ways children learn are described and related to aerospace education. Discussion focuses on (1) providing activities on the child's level of understanding; (2) considering the whole child; (3) stimulating curiosity; (4) encouraging thinking; (5) presenting varied experiences; and (6) integrating curriculum areas in each learning activity. Ideas…

  6. Graphical simulation for aerospace manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Bien, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Simulation software has become a key technological enabler for integrating flexible manufacturing systems and streamlining the overall aerospace manufacturing process. In particular, robot simulation and offline programming software is being credited for reducing down time and labor cost, while boosting quality and significantly increasing productivity.

  7. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  8. Aerospace/Aviation Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.

    The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study aviation and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of aviation science and occupational…

  9. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-05-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  10. 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    The proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held in Pasadena Hilton, Pasadena, California on May 16-18, 2012. Lockheed Martin Space Systems cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include gimbals and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and Mars Science Laboratory mechanisms.

  11. Automatix Incorporated in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, C.

    1983-03-01

    Robotic assembly and artificial vision applications are currently employed or have potential in aerospace manufacturing. Automatix vision guided robotics have been used for electronic component assembly, welding of aluminum alloys with both gas metal arc welding (MIG). Other applications include gas tungsten arc welding (TIG), and visual gauging. The unique control concept has provided a single robotic controller with virtual robotic arm interchangeability.

  12. Aeroelastic character of a National Aerospace Plane demonstrator concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spain, Charles V.; Zeiler, Thomas A.; Gibbons, Michael D.; Soistmann, David L.; Pozefsky, Peter; Dejesus, Rafael O.; Brannon, Cyprian P.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides an analytical assessment of the flutter character of an unclassified National Aerospace Plane configuration known as the demonstrator. Linear subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic analysis indicate that the vehicle is prone to body-freedom flutter resulting from the decrease in vibration frequency of the all-moveable wing at high flight dynamic pressures. As the wing-pivot frequency decreases, it couples with the vehicle short-period mode resulting in dynamic instability. A similar instability sometimes occurs when the pivot mode couples with the fuselage-bending mode. Also assessed, for supersonic flight conditions, are configuration variations that include relocation of the wing further aft on the lifting-body fuselage, and the addition of body flaps to the rear of the vehicle. These changes are destabilizing because they result in severe wing-pivot/fuselage-bending instabilities at dynamic pressures lower than the instabilities indicated for the original demonstrator. Finally, a two-point wing support and actuation system concept is proposed for the National Aerospace Plane, which if developed may (according to cursory analysis) enhance overall stability.

  13. The aerobraking space transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Glen; Carpenter, Brian; Corns, Steve; Harris, Robert; Jun, Brian; Munro, Bruce; Pulling, Eric; Sekhon, Amrit; Welton, Walt; Jakubowski, A.

    1990-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Station and the proposed Geosynchronous Operation Support Center (GeoShack) in the early 21st century, the need for a cost effective, reusable orbital transport vehicle has arisen. This transport vehicle will be used in conjunction with the Space Shuttle, the Space Station, and GeoShack. The vehicle will transfer mission crew and payloads between low earth and geosynchronous orbits with minimal cost. Recent technological advances in thermal protection systems such as those employed in the Space Shuttle have made it possible to incorporate and aerobrake on the transfer vehicle to further reduce transport costs. The research and final design configuration of the aerospace senior design team from VPISU, working in conjunction with NASA, are presented. The topic of aerobraking and focuses on the evolution of an Aerobraking Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV), is addressed.

  14. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes, supplement 143

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This supplement to Aerospace Medicine and Biology (NASA SP-7011) lists 251 reports, articles and other documents announced during June 1975 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) or in International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA). The first issue of the bibliography was published in July 1964; since that time, monthly supplements have been issued. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, and environmental effects to which man is subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects of biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. In general, emphasis is placed on applied research, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  15. Aerospace medicine and biology: A continuing bibliography with indexes, supplement 107, October 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This Supplement of Aerospace Medicine and Biology lists 353 reports, articles, and other documents announced during September 1972 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports or in International Aerospace Abstracts. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which man is subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects of biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. In general, emphasis is placed on applied research, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  16. Analysis and test of low profile aluminum aerospace tank dome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, R.; Wilhelm, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to increase the structural performance of cryogenic tanks, the aerospace industry is beginning to employ low-profile bulkheads in new generation launch vehicle designs. This report details the analysis and test of one such dome made from 2219 aluminum. Such domes have two potential failure modes under internal pressure, general tensile failure and hoop compression buckling (in regions near the equator). The test determined the buckling load and ultimate tensile load of the hardware and showed that both compared well with the analysis predictions. This effort was conducted under the auspices of NASA and the General Dynamics Cryogenic Tank Technology Program (CTTP).

  17. Micro/Nanoscale Chemicalsensor Systems for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary; Xu, Jennifer; Evans, Laura; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin; Ward, Benjamin; Rowe, Scott; Makel, Darby; Liu, Chung Chiun; Dutta, Prabir; Berger, Gordon; VanderWal, Randy

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace industry requires development of a range of chemical-sensor technologies for applications including emissions monitoring as well as fuel-leak and fire detection. Improvements in sensing technology are necessary to increase safety, reduce emissions, and increase performance. The overall aim is to develop intelligent-vehicle systems that can autonomously monitor their state and respond to environmental changes. A range of chemical sensors is under development to meet these needs, based in part on microfabrication technology which produces sensors of minimal size, weight, and power consumption. We have fabricated a range of sensor platforms, integrated them with hardware to form complete sensor systems, and demonstrated their applicability.

  18. A Survey of Power Electronics Applications in Aerospace Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Elbuluk, Malik E.

    2001-01-01

    The insertion of power electronics in aerospace technologies is becoming widespread. The application of semiconductor devices and electronic converters, as summarized in this paper, includes the International Space Station, satellite power system, and motor drives in 'more electric' technology applied to aircraft, starter/generators and reusable launch vehicles. Flywheels, servo systems embodying electromechanical actuation, and spacecraft on-board electric propulsion are discussed. Continued inroad by power electronics depends on resolving incompatibility of using variable frequency for 400 Hz-operated aircraft equipment. Dual-use electronic modules should reduce system development cost.

  19. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes NASA SP-7O11 lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  20. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 475

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  1. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 476

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP-1998-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion. Each entry in the publication consists of a standard bibliographic citation accompanied, in most cases, by an abstract.

  2. The 1994 27th Annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 15-17, 1994 are presented. The workshop was attended by representatives from various government agencies, as well as contractors and manufacturers, both U.S. and abroad. The subjects covered included: (1) nickel-cadium; (2) nickel-hydrogen, (3) nickel-metal hydride, and (4) lithium based technologies, as well as flight and ground test data.

  3. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  4. Analysis of Steel-With-Composite Material Substitution in Military Vehicle Hull Floors Subjected to Shallow-Buried Landmine-Detonation Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    attenuated) shock-induced soil response within this zone is dominated by reversible /elastic deformation of the soil. It is generally believed that the...vehicles/structures; in the work of Bergeron et al. (2002), an instrumented ballistic pendulum was utilized to investigate mine detonation-induced...2002), “ Pendulum techniques to measure land mine blast loading”, paper presented at the Seventh International MABS Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, June 10

  5. Requirements for effective use of CFD in aerospace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective on the requirements that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology must meet for its effective use in aerospace design. General observations are made on current aerospace design practices and deficiencies are noted that must be rectified for the U.S. aerospace industry to maintain its leadership position in the global marketplace. In order to rectify deficiencies, industry is transitioning to an integrated product and process development (IPPD) environment and design processes are undergoing radical changes. The role of CFD in producing data that design teams need to support flight vehicle development is briefly discussed. An overview of the current state of the art in CFD is given to provide an assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the variety of methods currently available, or under development, to produce aerodynamic data. Effectiveness requirements are examined from a customer/supplier view point with design team as customer and CFD practitioner as supplier. Partnership between the design team and CFD team is identified as an essential requirement for effective use of CFD. Rapid turnaround, reliable accuracy, and affordability are offered as three key requirements that CFD community must address if CFD is to play its rightful role in supporting the IPPD design environment needed to produce high quality yet affordable designs.

  6. Sensor Selection and Optimization for Health Assessment of Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Kopasakis, George; Santi, Louis M.; Sowers, Thomas S.; Chicatelli, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace systems are developed similarly to other large-scale systems through a series of reviews, where designs are modified as system requirements are refined. For space-based systems few are built and placed into service these research vehicles have limited historical experience to draw from and formidable reliability and safety requirements, due to the remote and severe environment of space. Aeronautical systems have similar reliability and safety requirements, and while these systems may have historical information to access, commercial and military systems require longevity under a range of operational conditions and applied loads. Historically, the design of aerospace systems, particularly the selection of sensors, is based on the requirements for control and performance rather than on health assessment needs. Furthermore, the safety and reliability requirements are met through sensor suite augmentation in an ad hoc, heuristic manner, rather than any systematic approach. A review of the current sensor selection practice within and outside of the aerospace community was conducted and a sensor selection architecture is proposed that will provide a justifiable, defendable sensor suite to address system health assessment requirements.

  7. Sensor Selection and Optimization for Health Assessment of Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Kopasakis, George; Santi, Louis M.; Sowers, Thomas S.; Chicatelli, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace systems are developed similarly to other large-scale systems through a series of reviews, where designs are modified as system requirements are refined. For space-based systems few are built and placed into service. These research vehicles have limited historical experience to draw from and formidable reliability and safety requirements, due to the remote and severe environment of space. Aeronautical systems have similar reliability and safety requirements, and while these systems may have historical information to access, commercial and military systems require longevity under a range of operational conditions and applied loads. Historically, the design of aerospace systems, particularly the selection of sensors, is based on the requirements for control and performance rather than on health assessment needs. Furthermore, the safety and reliability requirements are met through sensor suite augmentation in an ad hoc, heuristic manner, rather than any systematic approach. A review of the current sensor selection practice within and outside of the aerospace community was conducted and a sensor selection architecture is proposed that will provide a justifiable, dependable sensor suite to address system health assessment requirements.

  8. Visualization in aerospace research with a large wall display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yuichi

    2002-05-01

    National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan has built a large- scale visualization system with a large wall-type display. The system has been operational since April 2001 and comprises a 4.6x1.5-meter (15x5-foot) rear projection screen with 3 BARCO 812 high-resolution CRT projectors. The reason we adopted the 3-gun CRT projectors is support for stereoscopic viewing, ease with color/luminosity matching and accuracy of edge-blending. The system is driven by a new SGI Onyx 3400 server of distributed shared-memory architecture with 32 CPUs, 64Gbytes memory, 1.5TBytes FC RAID disk and 6 IR3 graphics pipelines. Software is another important issue for us to make full use of the system. We have introduced some applications available in a multi- projector environment such as AVS/MPE, EnSight Gold and COVISE, and been developing some software tools that create volumetric images with using SGI graphics libraries. The system is mainly used for visualization fo computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation sin aerospace research. Visualized CFD results are of our help for designing an improved configuration of aerospace vehicles and analyzing their aerodynamic performances. These days we also use it for various collaborations among researchers.

  9. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  10. Lattice Structures For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Olmo, E.; Grande, E.; Samartin, C. R.; Bezdenejnykh, M.; Torres, J.; Blanco, N.; Frovel, M.; Canas, J.

    2012-07-01

    The way of mass reduction improving performances in the aerospace structures is a constant and relevant challenge in the space business. The designs, materials and manufacturing processes are permanently in evolution to explore and get mass optimization solutions at low cost. In the framework of ICARO project, EADS CASA ESPACIO (ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator which shows that lattice type of grid structures is a promising weight saving solution for replacing some traditional metallic and composite structures for space applications. A virtual testing methodology was used in order to support the design of a high modulus CFRP cylindrical lattice technology demonstrator. The manufacturing process, based on composite Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) technology developed by ECE, allows obtaining high quality low weight lattice structures potentially applicable to a wide range of aerospace structures. Launcher payload adaptors, satellite platforms, antenna towers or instrument supports are some promising candidates.

  11. Third Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Cross, D. R. (Editor); Caruso, S. V. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, other ozone depleting chemicals, and specific hazardous materials is well underway. The phaseout of these chemicals has mandated changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. We are beyond discovery and initiation of these new developments and are now in the implementation phase. This conference provided a forum for materials and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess the evolving replacement and clean propulsion technologies from the standpoint of their significance, application, impact on aerospace systems, and utilization by the research and development community. The use of these new technologies, their selection and qualification, their implementation, and the needs and plans for further developments are presented.

  12. 34th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for organizing the AMS. Now in its 34th year, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 34th AMS, hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, was held May 10, 11 and 12, 2000. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the vendor fair gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  13. 38th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 38th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 38th AMs, hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center in Williamsburg, Virginia, was held May 17-19, 2006. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals, tribology, actuators, aircraft mechanisms, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  14. 39th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 39th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the United States and abroad. The 39th AMS was held in Huntsville, Alabama, May 7-9, 2008. During these 3 days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals and positioning mechanisms, tribology, actuators, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and sensors. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  15. 37th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is reporting problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 37th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 37th AMS, hosted by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Galveston, Texas, was held May 19, 20 and 21, 2004. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, tribology, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station and Mars Rover mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  16. Magnetic Gearboxes for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A.; Sanchez-Garcia-Casarrubios, Juan; Cristache, Christian; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic gearboxes are contactless mechanisms for torque-speed conversion. They present no wear, no friction and no fatigue. They need no lubricant and can be customized for other mechanical properties as stiffness or damping. Additionally, they can protect structures and mechanisms against overloads, limitting the transmitted torque. In this work, spur, planetary and "magdrive" or "harmonic drive" configurations are compared considering their use in aerospace applications. The most recent test data are summarized to provide some useful help for the design engineer.

  17. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, O.H. Jr.; Rogers, J.F.

    1996-05-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for some articles from this proceedings.

  18. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Obie H., Jr. (Compiler); Rogers, John F. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  19. Aerospace Materials for Extreme Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-07

    AFOSR/RTD Air Force Research Laboratory AEROSPACE MATERIALS FOR EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS Date: 7 March 2013 Report Documentation Page Form...ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for...to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA

  20. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on this postulate KIBO in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo industry is the first entomocole production company creat in Europe to human food; it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and various universities in France.

  1. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on industry KIBO is postulated in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo entomocole industry is the first production company in Europe to human food, it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and in the universities of Angers, Nantes, Lille.

  2. Meteorological regimes for the classification of aerospace air quality predictions for NASA-Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Sloan, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for developing a statistical air quality assessment for the launch of an aerospace vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center in terms of existing climatological data sets. The procedure can be refined as developing meteorological conditions are identified for use with the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion (REED) description. Classical climatological regimes for the long range analysis can be narrowed as the synoptic and mesoscale structure is identified. Only broad synoptic regimes are identified at this stage of analysis. As the statistical data matrix is developed, synoptic regimes will be refined in terms of the resulting eigenvectors as applicable to aerospace air quality predictions.

  3. High-Temperature Properties of Ceramic Fibers and Insulations for Thermal Protection of Atmospheric Entry and Hypersonic Cruise Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Pitts, William C.; Araujo, Myrian; Zimmerman, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Multilayer insulations which will operate in the 500C to 1000C temperature range are being considered for possible applications on aerospace vehicles subject to convective and radiative heating during atmospheric entry. The insulations described in this paper consist of ceramic fabrics, insulations, and metal foils quilted together using ceramic thread. As these types of insulations have highly anisotropic properties, the total heat transfer characteristics of these insulations must be determined. Data are presented on the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of four types of multilayer insulations and are compared to the baseline Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation

  4. Some cable suspension systems and their effects on the flexural frequencies of slender aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of several cable suspension configurations on the first free-free flexural frequency of uniform beams have been determined by experiment and analysis. The results of this study confirm that in general the larger the test vehicle the larger is the flexural frequency measurement error attributable to a given cable suspension configuration. For horizontally oriented beams representing modern aerospace vehicles of average size and flexibility, the restraining effects of all but the shortest support cables were minor. The restraining effects of support cables of moderate length attached near the base of vertically oriented vehicles were overshadowed by the effects of beam compression due to gravity.

  5. An overview of Ball Aerospace cryogen storage and delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, J.; Keller, J.; Mills, G.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Starting on the Gemini program in the 1960s, Beech Aircraft (now Ball Aerospace) has been designing and manufacturing dewars for a variety of cryogens including liquid hydrogen and oxygen. These dewars flew on the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle spacecraft providing fuel cell reactants resulting in over 150 manned spaceflights. Since Space Shuttle, Ball has also built the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for the Boeing Phantom Eye unmanned aerial vehicle. Returning back to its fuel cell days, Ball has designed, built and tested a volume-constrained liquid hydrogen and oxygen tank system for reactant delivery to fuel cells on unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). Herein past history of Ball technology is described. Testing has been completed on the UUV specific design, which will be described.

  6. Soviet applications for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Reuben F.

    Consistent with Soviet historical practice in the fields of space vehicle design and aircraft procurement, a hypersonic-cruise aerospacecraft will be used only for specialized missions. Most Soviet surveillance of seas and landmasses will be conducted via satellite, while military missions will be carried out by conventional aircraft and ASAT missions will be performed by unmanned systems. An aerospace vehicle will fill the gaps that have ineluctably emerged between these established systems' capabilities due to their comparatively modest technological sophistication. It can be confidently expected that the aerospaceplane's design will involve the synergistic integration of existing technologies.

  7. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  8. The psychiatrist's role in aerospace operations.

    PubMed

    Sledge, W H; Boydstun, J A

    1980-08-01

    This paper presents two unique aspects of aerospace psychiatry: the influence of the specialized stressors and occupational requirements of an aviation career and the ambiguous role of the aerospace psychiatrist. Aerospace psychiatrists have multiple, sometimes conflicting, responsibilities to the organization and society (the social control task) and to the individual aviator (the humanistic and medical tasks). In the two case reports below the authors describe airmen who had vasovagal syncope and how the psychiatrist intervened and resolved these conflicting tasks.

  9. Longitudinal long-period dynamics of aerospace craft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Donald T.

    1988-01-01

    Linear analyses are performed to examine the generic aspects of aerospace vehicle longitudinal long-period or trajectory modes of motion. The influence of Mach number, dynamic pressure, thrust-to-drag ratio, and propulsion system thrust laws on the longitudinal trajectory modes is presented in terms of phugoid frequency and damping and height mode stability. The results of these analyses are compared to flying qualities requirements where possible, and potential deficiencies in both the vehicle and the criteria are noted. A preliminary look at possible augmentation schemes to improve potential deficiencies is also presented. Interpretation of the practical consequences of the results is aided by typical time histories. Results indicate that propulsion system characteristics are the dominant influence on the longitudinal long-period flight dynamics of hypersonic aerospace craft. However, straightforward augmentation systems demonstrated the potential to accommodate these influences if the effects are included in the design process. These efforts may be hampered by a lack of design criteria for hypersonic aircraft.

  10. Application of Smart Solid State Sensor Technology in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Dungan, L.K.; Makel, D.; Ward, B.; Androjna, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace applications require a range of chemical sensing technologies to monitor conditions in both space vehicles and aircraft operations. One example is the monitoring of oxygen. For example, monitoring of ambient oxygen (O2) levels is critical to ensuring the health, safety, and performance of humans living and working in space. Oxygen sensors can also be incorporated in detection systems to determine if hazardous leaks are occurring in space propulsion systems and storage facilities. In aeronautic applications, O2 detection has been investigated for fuel tank monitoring. However, as noted elsewhere, O2 is not the only species of interest in aerospace applications with a wide range of species of interest being relevant to understand an environmental or vehicle condition. These include combustion products such as CO, HF, HCN, and HCl, which are related to both the presence of a fire and monitoring of post-fire clean-up operations. This paper discusses the development of an electrochemical cell platform based on a polymer electrolyte, NAFION, and a three-electrode configuration. The approach has been to mature this basic platform for a range of applications and to test this system, combined with "Lick and Stick" electronics, for its viability to monitor an environment related to astronaut crew health and safety applications with an understanding that a broad range of applications can be addressed with a core technology.

  11. Aerospace Activities in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert M.; Wiggins, Kenneth E.

    1974-01-01

    Describes 17 activities which are aerospace oriented and yet provide an interdisciplinary approach to learning. Some of the activities described involve paper airplanes, parachutes, model rockets, etc. (BR)

  12. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  13. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  14. Unification - An international aerospace information issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific and Technical Information (STI) represents the results of large investments in research and development (R&D) and the expertise of a nation and is a valuable resource. For more than four decades, NASA and its predecessor organizations have developed and managed the preeminent aerospace information system. NASA obtains foreign materials through its international exchange relationships, continually increasing the comprehensiveness of the NASA Aerospace Database (NAD). The NAD is de facto the international aerospace database. This paper reviews current NASA goals and activities with a view toward maintaining compatibility among international aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  15. Polymeric Materials for Advanced Aircraft and Aerospace Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    polymeric material (films and fibers ) and the molecular composites (cast and precipitated films) are presented. 19. Key Words (Cont.) cross linked...PBT 46 Fiber 77 34 SAXS Photograph of PBT 46 Fiber Using the 29 cm Setting in a Statton Camera 77 35 Schematic Showing the Geometrical Polefigure...Specimen 82 37 A Measured Polefigure of a PBO Heat-Treated Fiber (Celanese 26085-25-1) 84 38 Photograph of the Dynamic Imaging of X-ray Diffraction

  16. ODIN - Optimal Design Integration system for synthesis of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rau, T. R.; Decker, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ODIN system is a new design synthesis procedure for solving multiple discipline design problems. In ODIN an unlimited number of independent technology codes can be linked together in the computer in any desired sequence. This paper describes the ODIN system, the executive program DIALOG, the data management technique, and the program library. The use of ODIN is illustrated with an application drawn from space system studies.

  17. Natural Orbital Environment Guidelines for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    orbital debris , magnetic field, physical and thermal constants, and gravitational field. Communications and other unmanned satellites operate in...ambient natural enviroment; i.e., orbital debris and radio frequency (RF) noise generated on Earth, because they are not caused by the presence of

  18. Thermal conductivity of rigid foam insulations for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, M.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2013-05-01

    The present work describes measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of NCFI 24-124 foam, a spray-on foam insulation used formerly on the Space Shuttle external fuel tank. A novel apparatus to measure the effective thermal conductivity of rigid foam at temperatures ranging from 20 K to 300 K was developed and used to study three samples of NCFI 24-124 foam insulation. In preparation for measurement, the foam samples were either treated with a uniquely designed moisture absorption apparatus or different residual gases to study their impact on the effective thermal conductivity of the foam. The resulting data are compared to other measurements and mathematical models reported in the literature.

  19. Control system estimation and design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefani, R. T.; Williams, T. L.; Yakowitz, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    The selection of an estimator which is unbiased when applied to structural parameter estimation is discussed. The mathematical relationships for structural parameter estimation are defined. It is shown that a conventional weighted least squares (CWLS) estimate is biased when applied to structural parameter estimation. Two approaches to bias removal are suggested: (1) change the CWLS estimator or (2) change the objective function. The advantages of each approach are analyzed.

  20. Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aerospace Vehicles: Fractional Order Fit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An improved model for simulating atmospheric disturbances is disclosed. A scale Kolmogorov spectral may be scaled to convert the Kolmogorov spectral into a finite energy von Karman spectral and a fractional order pole-zero transfer function (TF) may be derived from the von Karman spectral. Fractional order atmospheric turbulence may be approximated with an integer order pole-zero TF fit, and the approximation may be stored in memory.

  1. Composite multilayer insulations for thermal protection of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Pitts, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI), consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim cloth or insulation quilted together using ceramic thread, were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with a silica fibrous (baseline) insulation system. The systems studied included: (1) alternating layers of aluminoborosilicate (ABS) scrim cloth and stainless steel foil, with silica, ABS, or alumina insulation; (2) alternating layers of scrim cloth and aluminum foil, with silica or ABS insulation; (3) alternating layers of aluminum foil and silica or ABS insulation; and (4) alternating layers of aluminum-coated polyimide placed on the bottom of the silica insulation. The MLIs containing aluminum were the most efficient, measuring as little as half the backface temperature increase of the baseline system.

  2. 29 CFR 4.117 - Work subject to requirements of Walsh-Healey Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reassembled so as to furnish a totally rebuilt item or piece of equipment; and (iv) Manufacturing processes... automobile, truck, or other vehicle, construction equipment, tractor, crane, aerospace, air conditioning...

  3. 29 CFR 4.117 - Work subject to requirements of Walsh-Healey Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reassembled so as to furnish a totally rebuilt item or piece of equipment; and (iv) Manufacturing processes... automobile, truck, or other vehicle, construction equipment, tractor, crane, aerospace, air conditioning...

  4. 29 CFR 4.117 - Work subject to requirements of Walsh-Healey Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reassembled so as to furnish a totally rebuilt item or piece of equipment; and (iv) Manufacturing processes... automobile, truck, or other vehicle, construction equipment, tractor, crane, aerospace, air conditioning...

  5. 29 CFR 4.117 - Work subject to requirements of Walsh-Healey Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reassembled so as to furnish a totally rebuilt item or piece of equipment; and (iv) Manufacturing processes... automobile, truck, or other vehicle, construction equipment, tractor, crane, aerospace, air conditioning...

  6. Probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Keating, Jerome P.; Lovelace, Thomas B.; Bast, Callie C.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a second year effort of a research program are presented. The research included development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic phenomenological constitutive relationship, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects of primitive variables. These primitive variables often originate in the environment and may include stress from loading, temperature, chemical, or radiation attack. This multifactor interaction constitutive equation is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with the multiple linear regression of that data.

  7. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  8. Smart Sensor Systems for Aerospace Applications: From Sensor Development to Application Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Dungan, L. K.; Ward, B. J.; Rowe, S.; Williams, J.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Chang, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    The application of Smart Sensor Systems for aerospace applications is a multidisciplinary process consisting of sensor element development, element integration into Smart Sensor hardware, and testing of the resulting sensor systems in application environments. This paper provides a cross-section of these activities for multiple aerospace applications illustrating the technology challenges involved. The development and application testing topics discussed are: 1) The broadening of sensitivity and operational range of silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky gas sensor elements; 2) Integration of fire detection sensor technology into a "Lick and Stick" Smart Sensor hardware platform for Crew Exploration Vehicle applications; 3) Extended testing for zirconia based oxygen sensors in the basic "Lick and Stick" platform for environmental monitoring applications. It is concluded that that both core sensor platform technology and a basic hardware platform can enhance the viability of implementing smart sensor systems in aerospace applications.

  9. A preliminary investigation of the potential applicability of the IPAD system to non-aerospace industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbert, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the applicability of the planned Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system to the design activities of non-aerospace industries was carried out. It was determined that IPAD could be of significant benefit to a number of industries, with the most likely users being the heavy construction and automotive industries. Two additional short studies were initiated to investigate the possible impact of IPAD on a national energy program and on urban and regional planning activities of local and state governments. These initial studies indicated the possibility of significant payoff in these areas and the need for further investigations. It was also determined that utilization of IPAD by non-aerospace industries will probably involve a long stepwise process, since these industries maintain a policy of gradual introduction of new technology.

  10. Adaptive control with aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadient, Ross

    Robust and adaptive control techniques have a rich history of theoretical development with successful application. Despite the accomplishments made, attempts to combine the best elements of each approach into robust adaptive systems has proven challenging, particularly in the area of application to real world aerospace systems. In this research, we investigate design methods for general classes of systems that may be applied to representative aerospace dynamics. By combining robust baseline control design with augmentation designs, our work aims to leverage the advantages of each approach. This research contributes the development of robust model-based control design for two classes of dynamics: 2nd order cascaded systems, and a more general MIMO framework. We present a theoretically justified method for state limiting via augmentation of a robust baseline control design. Through the development of adaptive augmentation designs, we are able to retain system performance in the presence of uncertainties. We include an extension that combines robust baseline design with both state limiting and adaptive augmentations. In addition we develop an adaptive augmentation design approach for a class of dynamic input uncertainties. We present formal stability proofs and analyses for all proposed designs in the research. Throughout the work, we present real world aerospace applications using relevant flight dynamics and flight test results. We derive robust baseline control designs with application to both piloted and unpiloted aerospace system. Using our developed methods, we add a flight envelope protecting state limiting augmentation for piloted aircraft applications and demonstrate the efficacy of our approach via both simulation and flight test. We illustrate our adaptive augmentation designs via application to relevant fixed-wing aircraft dynamics. Both a piloted example combining the state limiting and adaptive augmentation approaches, and an unpiloted example with

  11. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  12. Aerospace materials for nonaerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Dawn, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Many of the flame-resistant nonmetallic materials that were developed for the Apollo and Skylab programs are discussed for commercial and military applications. Interchanges of information are taking place with the government agencies, industries, and educational institutions, which are interested in applications of fire-safe nonmetallic materials. These materials are particularly applicable to the design of aircraft, mass transit interiors, residential and public building constructions, nursing homes and hospitals, and to other fields of fire safety applications. Figures 22, 23 and 24 show the potential nonaerospace applications of flame-resistant aerospace materials are shown.

  13. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  14. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  15. Cognitive engineering in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress that was made with respect to the objectives and goals of the research that is being carried out in the Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory (CSEL) under a Cooperative Agreement with NASA Ames Research Center is described. The major objective of this project is to expand the research base in Cognitive Engineering to be able to support the development and human-centered design of automated systems for aerospace applications. This research project is in support of the Aviation Safety/Automation Research plan and related NASA research goals in space applications.

  16. Formal Safety Certification of Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    In principle, formal methods offer many advantages for aerospace software development: they can help to achieve ultra-high reliability, and they can be used to provide evidence of the reliability claims which can then be subjected to external scrutiny. However, despite years of research and many advances in the underlying formalisms of specification, semantics, and logic, formal methods are not much used in practice. In our opinion this is related to three major shortcomings. First, the application of formal methods is still expensive because they are labor- and knowledge-intensive. Second, they are difficult to scale up to complex systems because they are based on deep mathematical insights about the behavior of the systems (t.e., they rely on the "heroic proof"). Third, the proofs can be difficult to interpret, and typically stand in isolation from the original code. In this paper, we describe a tool for formally demonstrating safety-relevant aspects of aerospace software, which largely circumvents these problems. We focus on safely properties because it has been observed that safety violations such as out-of-bounds memory accesses or use of uninitialized variables constitute the majority of the errors found in the aerospace domain. In our approach, safety means that the program will not violate a set of rules that can range for the simple memory access rules to high-level flight rules. These different safety properties are formalized as different safety policies in Hoare logic, which are then used by a verification condition generator along with the code and logical annotations in order to derive formal safety conditions; these are then proven using an automated theorem prover. Our certification system is currently integrated into a model-based code generation toolset that generates the annotations together with the code. However, this automated formal certification technology is not exclusively constrained to our code generator and could, in principle, also be

  17. Method for Estimating Operational Loads on Aerospace Structures Using Span-Wisely Distributed Surface Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a new method for estimating operational loads (bending moments, shear loads, and torques) acting on slender aerospace structures using distributed surface strains (unidirectional strains). The surface strain-sensing stations are to be evenly distributed along each span-wise strain-sensing line. A depth-wise cross section of the structure along each strain-sensing line can then be considered as an imaginary embedded beam. The embedded beam was first evenly divided into multiple small domains with domain junctures matching the strain-sensing stations. The new method is comprised of two steps. The first step is to determine the structure stiffness (bending or torsion) using surface strains obtained from a simple bending (or torsion) loading case, for which the applied bending moment (or torque) is known. The second step is to use the strain-determined structural stiffness (bending or torsion), and a new set of surface strains induced by any other loading case to calculate the associated operational loads (bending moments, shear loads, or torques). Performance of the new method for estimating operational loads was studied in light of finite-element analyses of several example structures subjected to different loading conditions. The new method for estimating operational loads was found to be fairly accurate, and is very promising for applications to the flight load monitoring of flying vehicles with slender wings.

  18. Prediction of three sigma maximum dispersed density for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Terri L.; Nitschke, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    Free molecular heating (FMH) is caused by the transfer of energy during collisions between the upper atmosphere molecules and a space vehicle. The dispersed free molecular heating on a surface is an important constraint for space vehicle thermal analyses since it can be a significant source of heating. To reduce FMH to a spacecraft, the parking orbit is often designed to a higher altitude at the expense of payload capability. Dispersed FMH is a function of both space vehicle velocity and atmospheric density, however, the space vehicle velocity variations are insignificant when compared to the atmospheric density variations. The density of the upper atmosphere molecules is a function of altitude, but also varies with other environmental factors, such as solar activity, geomagnetic activity, location, and time. A method has been developed to predict three sigma maximum dispersed density for up to 15 years into the future. This method uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric density code, MSIS 86, along with 50 years of solar data, NASA and NOAA solar activity predictions for the next 15 years, and an Aerospace Corporation correlation to account for density code inaccuracies to generate dispersed maximum density ratios denoted as 'K-factors'. The calculated K-factors can be used on a mission unique basis to calculate dispersed density, and hence dispersed free molecular heating rates. These more accurate K-factors can allow lower parking orbit altitudes, resulting in increased payload capability.

  19. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  20. Aerospace Power Technology for Potential Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace technology that is being developed for space and aeronautical applications has great potential for providing technical advances for terrestrial power systems. Some recent accomplishments arising from activities being pursued at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centers is described in this paper. Possible terrestrial applications of the new aerospace technology are also discussed.

  1. The 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings of the 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held at the Cleveland Marriott Society Center on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  2. iSTEM: The Aerospace Engineering Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed The Paper Plane Challenge as one of a three-part response to The Aerospace Engineering Challenge. The Aerospace Engineering Challenge was the second of three multi-part activities that they had developed with the teachers during the year. Their aim was to introduce students to the exciting world of engineering, where they…

  3. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stermer, R. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Current research in optical processing, and determination of its role in future aerospace systems was reviewed. It is shown that optical processing offers significant potential for aircraft and spacecraft control, pattern recognition, and robotics. It is demonstrated that the development of optical devices and components can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  4. The 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, Ron (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at ARC, Moffett Field, California, on 12-14 May 1993, are reported. Technological areas covered include the following: actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  5. Aerospace Resources for Science and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald, Ed.; Smith, Kenneth L., Ed.

    This publication on Aerospace Programs is a special edition of "Technology Education" featuring descriptions of 15 select aerospace education programs from diverse localities spanning the full range of instructional levels. Following introductory material, the monograph contains the following largely unedited program descriptions: (1)…

  6. The 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by NASA Johnson Space Center and held at the South Shore Harbour Conference Facility on May 17-19, 1995, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  7. NASA Elementary Aerospace Activities Free to Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes the contents of Elementary School Aerospace Activities: A Resource for Teachers. Activities examine a variety of topics in aerospace education and are intended to be used with children ages 5-11. The book is available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) for $3.00. (CP)

  8. The 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center on May 13, 14, and 15, 1992 are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  9. The 42nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor); Hakun, Claef (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development, and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  10. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  11. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography With Indexes. Supplement 497

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This supplemental issue of Aerospace Medicine and Biology, A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes (NASA/SP#2000-7011) lists reports, articles, and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. In its subject coverage, Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention.

  12. Vehicle Rustproofing,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion Areas - G.M.) 11. Vehicle Rustproofing Guide for Vehicle Maintenance Managers 12. Chart - Vehicle Buy Program FY 83-87 13. Vehicle ...on the Vehicle Buy Program. k. The impact of a total fleet rustproofing policy on industry. I. Potential problems in Quality Control and Warranty...FY83-87, the Air Force intends to buy $2.5 billion worth of vehicles (Atch 12); thus, a total fleet treatment program for that period could cost as

  13. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vechicle Design (IPAD). IPAD user requirements: Implementation (first-level IPAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The requirements implementation strategy for first level development of the Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) computing system is presented. The capabilities of first level IPAD are sufficient to demonstrated management of engineering data on two computers (CDC CYBER 170/720 and DEC VAX 11/780 computers) using the IPAD system in a distributed network environment.

  14. A New Handbook for the Development of Space Vehicle Terrestrial Environment Design Requirements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    2008-01-01

    A new NASA document entitled "Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development (NASA-HDBK-1001A) has been developed. The Handbook provides terrestrial environment information, data bases, models, recommendations, etc. for use in the design, development, trade studies, testing, and mission analyses for space (or launch) .vehicles. This document is organized into fourteen specific natural environment disciplines of which some are winds, atmospheric models, thermal radiation, precipitation-for-icing, cloud cover, atmospheric electricity, geologic hazards, toxic chemical release by propulsion systems, and sea state. Atmospheric phenomena play a significant role in the design and flight of aerospace vehicles and in the integrity of the associated aerospace systems and structures. Environmental design criteria guidelines in this document are based on measurements and observations of atmospheric and climatic phenomena relative to various aerospace development, operational, and vehicle launch locations. The natural environment criteria guidelines data presented in this Handbook were formulated based on discussions with and requests from engineers involved in aerospace vehicle development and operations. Therefore, they represent responses to actual engineering problems and are not just a general compilation of environmental data. The Handbook addresses the basis for the information presented, the interpretations of the terrestrial environment guideline given in the Handbook, and its application to the development of aerospace vehicle design requirements. Specific examples of the Handbook content and associated "lessons lenmed" are given in this paper.

  15. A New Handbook for the Development of Space Vehicle Terrestrial Environment Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    2008-01-01

    A new NASA document entitled "Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development (NASA-HDBK-IOO1A) has been developed. The Handbook provides terrestrial environment information, data bases, models, recommendations, etc. for use in the design, development, trade studies, testing, and mission analyses for space (or launch) vehicles. This document is organized into fourteen specific natural environment disciplines of which some are winds, atmospheric models, thermal radiation, precipitation-for-icing, cloud cover, atmospheric electricity, geologic hazards, toxic chemical release by propulsion systems, and sea state. Atmospheric phenomena play a significant role in the design and flight of aerospace vehicles and in the integrity of the associated aerospace systems and structures. Environmental design criteria guidelines in this document are based on measurements and observations of atmospheric and climatic phenomena relative to various aerospace development, operational, and vehicle launch locations. The natural environment criteria guidelines data presented in this Handbook were formulated based on discussions with and requests from engineers involved in aerospace vehicle development and operations. Therefore, they represent responses to actual engineering problems and are not just a general compilation of environmental data. The Handbook addresses the basis for the information presented, the interpretations of the terrestrial environment guideline given in the Handbook, and its application to the development of aerospace vehicle design requirements. Specific examples of the Handbook content and associated "lessons lenmed" are given in this paper.

  16. Entrapment of adult fingers between window glass and seal entry of a motor vehicle side door: an experimental study for investigation of the force at the subjective pain threshold.

    PubMed

    Hohendorff, B; Weidermann, C; Pollinger, P; Burkhart, K J; Konerding, M A; Prommersberger, K J; Rommens, P M

    2011-07-28

    In modern motor vehicles with automatic power windows, a potential hazard exists for jam events of fingers between the window glass and seal entry. This study determined entrapment forces acting on adult fingers at the subjective maximum pain threshold during entrapment in such windows. The length and the girth of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of the triphalangeal fingers of the right hands of 109 participants (60 men, 49 women) were measured; the diameter was calculated from girth, which was assumed to be circular. The automatic power window system of a motor vehicle side door was changed to a mechanical system. During entrapment the force distributed across the four proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPs), and separately on the proximal interphalangeal (iPIP) and then the distal interphalangeal (iDIP) joints of the index finger was measured using a customized force sensor. The maximum bearable entrapment force was 97.2 ± 51.8 N for the PIPs, 43.4 ± 19.9 N for the iPIP, and 36.9 ± 17.8 N for the iDIP. The positive correlation between finger diameter and maximum entrapment force was significant. Particularly with regard to the risk to children's fingers, the 100 N statutory boundary value for closing force of electronic power windows should be reduced.

  17. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  18. ASAP Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the First Quarterly Report for the newly reconstituted Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP). The NASA Administrator rechartered the Panel on November 18,2003, to provide an independent, vigilant, and long-term oversight of NASA's safety policies and programs well beyond Return to Flight of the Space Shuttle. The charter was revised to be consistent with the original intent of Congress in enacting the statute establishing ASAP in 1967 to focus on NASA's safety and quality systems, including industrial and systems safety, risk-management and trend analysis, and the management of these activities.The charter also was revised to provide more timely feedback to NASA by requiring quarterly rather than annual reports, and by requiring ASAP to perform special assessments with immediate feedback to NASA. ASAP was positioned to help institutionalize the safety culture of NASA in the post- Stafford-Covey Return to Flight environment.

  19. Large stable aluminum optics for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Schaefer, John P.

    2011-09-01

    Aluminum mirrors offer the advantages of lower cost, shorter fabrication time, more rugged mounting, and same material athermalization when compared to classical glass mirrors. In the past these advantages were offset by controversial dimensional stability and high surface scatter, limiting applications to IR systems. Raytheon developed processes to improve long term stability, and reduce surface scatter. Six 380 mm aperture aluminum mirrors made using these processes showed excellent stability, with figure changes of less than 0.01 wave RMS(1 wave = 633 nm) when cycled 10 times between -51 and +71 deg. C. The VQ process developed at ELCAN reduces surface scatter in bare aluminum mirrors to below 20 angstroms RMS, and has been used in thousands of production mirrors up to 300 mm aperture. These processes were employed in the fabrication of two lightweight single arch 600 mm aluminum mirrors. The two mirrors were produced in four months, with a mounted surface figure of 0.22 waves RMS and surface roughness of 20 angstroms. Mounted fundamental frequency was 218 Hz, and no figure distortion was observed at preload levels four times higher than design. Subsequently the mirrors performed well when subjected to severe environmental loadings in a Raytheon test system. This technology is being extended to ultra-lightweight sandwich mirrors, which are competitive with other material technologies used in advanced aerospace applications such as high-altitude UAV surveillance systems and satellite optics.

  20. Compressive strength of delaminated aerospace composites.

    PubMed

    Butler, Richard; Rhead, Andrew T; Liu, Wenli; Kontis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-28

    An efficient analytical model is described which predicts the value of compressive strain below which buckle-driven propagation of delaminations in aerospace composites will not occur. An extension of this efficient strip model which accounts for propagation transverse to the direction of applied compression is derived. In order to provide validation for the strip model a number of laminates were artificially delaminated producing a range of thin anisotropic sub-laminates made up of 0°, ±45° and 90° plies that displayed varied buckling and delamination propagation phenomena. These laminates were subsequently subject to experimental compression testing and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) using cohesive elements. Comparison of strip model results with those from experiments indicates that the model can conservatively predict the strain at which propagation occurs to within 10 per cent of experimental values provided (i) the thin-film assumption made in the modelling methodology holds and (ii) full elastic coupling effects do not play a significant role in the post-buckling of the sub-laminate. With such provision, the model was more accurate and produced fewer non-conservative results than FEA. The accuracy and efficiency of the model make it well suited to application in optimum ply-stacking algorithms to maximize laminate strength.

  1. Novel Nanolaminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Martin; Mazuruk, consty

    2006-01-01

    Nanolaminate manufacturing (NLM) is a new way of developing materials whose properties can far exceed those of homogeneous materials. Traditional alloys, composites and bulk laminates tend to average the properties of the materials from which they were made. With nanostructured materials, the high density of interfaces between dissimilar materials results in novel material properties. For example, materials made -from alternating nanoscale layers of metals and oxides have exhibited thermal conductivities far below those of the oxides themselves. Also, metallic nanolaminates can have peak strengths 100 times lager than the bulk constituent metals. Recent work at MSFC has focused on the development of nickel/aluminum oxide (Ni/Al2O3)) nanolaminates. Ni/Al2O3 nanolaminates are expected to have better strength, creep and fatigue resistance, oxygen compatibility, and corrosion resistance than the traditional metal-matrix composites of this material, which has been used in a variety of aerospace applications. A chemical vapor deposition (CW) system has been developed and optimized for the deposition of nanolaminates. Nanolaminates with layer thicknesses between 10 and 300 nm have been successfully grown and characterization has included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) Nanolaminates have a large variety of potential applications. They can be tailored to have both very small and anisotropic thermal conductivities and are promising as thermal coatings for both rock$ engine components and aerobraking structures. They also have the potential to be used in aerospace applications where strength at high temperatures, corrosion resistance or resistance to hydrogen embrittlement is important. Both CVD and magnetron sputtering facilities are available for the deposition of nanolayered materials. Characterization equipment includes SEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and mechanical tensile pull

  2. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Flight-vehicle structures education in the US: Assessment and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1987-01-01

    An assessment is made of the technical contents of flight-vehicle structures curricula at 41 U.S. universities with accredited aerospace engineering programs. The assessment is based on the technical needs for new and projected aeronautical and space systems as well as on the likely characteristics of the aerospace engineering work environment. A number of deficiencies and areas of concern are identified and recommendations are presented for enhancing the effectiveness of flight-vehicle structures education. A number of government supported programs that can help aerospace engineering education are listed in the appendix.

  4. Flight-vehicle structures education in the United States Assessment and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Dixon, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    An assessment is made of the technical contents of flight-vehicle structures curricula at 41 U.S. universities with accredited aerospace engineering programs. The assessment is based on the technical needs for the new and projected aeronautical and space systems as well as on the likely characteristics of the aerospace engineering work environment. A number of deficiencies and areas of concern are identified and recommendations are presented for enhancing the effectiveness of flight-vehicle structures education. A number of government supported programs that can help aerospace engineering education are listed in the appendix.

  5. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  6. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  7. A brief overview of the development of aerospace medicine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kirby, D J

    2001-10-01

    Aerospace medicine has evolved into a legitimate specialty through a long process of historical observation and technical achievement. However, most public literature on the topic has only covered information written through the late 1960s. This paper seeks to give a brief overview of the development of aerospace medicine and includes information about early advances in the field as well as more recent data. A MEDLINE search using "history," "aerospace medicine," and several other search terms as subject headings was the first step in gathering data. Also, personnel from the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine library at Brooks AFB, TX, were consulted for current literature on the subject. From the earliest descriptions of mountain sickness, to the first manned balloon flight, and on to the invention of the airplane with man's forays into space, aerospace medicine has had a rich history. A great part of this rich history was contributed by pioneers, both past and present, of the U.S. Air Force.

  8. The National Aero-Space Plane, the guidance and control engineer's dream or nightmare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Felix

    Major technical challenges associated with the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) Program are discussed, including the ones viewed from a controls perspective. Design and engineering challenges encountered in the propulsion system, the structural material selection, and the computational fluid dynamic mechanisms to predict Mach 8+ regimes, are briefly discussed. Emphasis is put on those significant challenges in the guidance and control fields relating to vehicle management systems, integrated propulsion/flight control, optimal vehicle trajectory control, and challenges in the associated fields on instrumentation and information systems. An insight into the complexity of the problem is provided, and the importance of guidance and control in future NASP achievements is highlighted.

  9. Nonlinear analyses of composite aerospace structures in sonic fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the semiannual research progress, accomplishments, and future plans performed under the NASA Langley Research Center Grant No. NAG-1-1358. The primary research effort of this project is the development of analytical methods for the prediction of nonlinear random response of composite aerospace structures subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads. The progress, accomplishments, and future plates on four sonic fatigue research topics are described. The sonic fatigue design and passive control of random response of shape memory alloy hybrid composites presented in section 4, which is suited especially for HSCT, is a new initiative.

  10. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 483

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aerospace Medicine and Biology concentrates on the biological, physiological, psychological, and environmental effects to which humans are subjected during and following simulated or actual flight in the Earth's atmosphere or in interplanetary space. References describing similar effects on biological organisms of lower order are also included. Such related topics as sanitary problems, pharmacology, toxicology, safety and survival, life support systems, exobiology, and personnel factors receive appropriate attention. Applied research receives the most emphasis, but references to fundamental studies and theoretical principles related to experimental development also qualify for inclusion.

  11. Nonlinear analyses of composite aerospace structures in sonic fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh

    1992-01-01

    The primary research effort of this project is the development of analytical methods for the prediction of nonlinear random response of composite aerospace structures subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads. The progress, accomplishments, and future plans of three random response research topics are discussed, namely acoustics-structure interactions using boundary/finite element methods, nonlinear vibrations of beams and composite plates under harmonic and random excitations, and numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of composite plates under combined thermal and acoustic loading.

  12. Scoping Aerospace: Tracking Federal Procurement and R&D Spending in the Aerospace Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    study). 2 Stanley I. Weiss and Amir R. Amir, “Aerospace Industry,” available at Encyclopedia Britannica Online , accessed 19 July 2004. 3 This general...at Encyclopedia Britannica Online , accessed 19 July 2004. 5 CHAPTER TWO State of the Aerospace Sector from 1993 to 2003 In the two years since RAND...Quadrennial Defense Review Report. Washington, D.C: 30 September 2001. Weiss, Stanley I., and Amir R. Amir. “Aerospace Industry,” Encyclopedia Britannica Online . Available

  13. Health monitoring studies on composite structures for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.

  14. Amplified piezoelectric actuators: from aerospace to underwater applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchilloux, Philippe; Claeyssen, Frank; Le Letty, Ronan

    2004-07-01

    Aerospace and underwater applications typically require actuators capable of large displacements, precise positioning, and fast response times. To meet these requirements, several classes of actuators based on low-voltage piezoelectric materials have been developed, and, in the case of the Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators (APA series), space qualified. The APA actuators offer large displacements (up to 1mm), large deformations (up to 3%), and large forces (up to 1kN) at low electrical power. These actuators can withstand large external forces and have successfully passed severe qualification tests such as centrifugal accelerations and vibration forces encountered during space launch. Aerospace applications of APAs include scientific instrumentation, such as telescopes and microscopes, microsatellite propulsion valves, and structural vibration control. Aeronautical applications include active flap control in aircraft wings and helicopter blades. Underwater applications focus on the silencing of ships, the piezodiagnostic (NDE) of structural defects in pipelines and hulls, and guidance systems of unmanned vehicles. This paper reviews the use of piezoelectric actuators, in particular APAs, in such applications. Qualification results, when available, are presented and discussed.

  15. Studies in automatic speech recognition and its application in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michael Robinson

    Human communication is characterized in terms of the spectral and temporal dimensions of speech waveforms. Electronic speech recognition strategies based on Dynamic Time Warping and Markov Model algorithms are described and typical digit recognition error rates are tabulated. The application of Direct Voice Input (DVI) as an interface between man and machine is explored within the context of civil and military aerospace programmes. Sources of physical and emotional stress affecting speech production within military high performance aircraft are identified. Experimental results are reported which quantify fundamental frequency and coarse temporal dimensions of male speech as a function of the vibration, linear acceleration and noise levels typical of aerospace environments; preliminary indications of acoustic phonetic variability reported by other researchers are summarized. Connected whole-word pattern recognition error rates are presented for digits spoken under controlled Gz sinusoidal whole-body vibration. Correlations are made between significant increases in recognition error rate and resonance of the abdomen-thorax and head subsystems of the body. The phenomenon of vibrato style speech produced under low frequency whole-body Gz vibration is also examined. Interactive DVI system architectures and avionic data bus integration concepts are outlined together with design procedures for the efficient development of pilot-vehicle command and control protocols.

  16. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    GOAL, is a test engineer oriented language designed to be used to standardize procedure terminology and as the test programming language to be used for ground checkout operations in a space vehicle launch environment. The material presented concerning GOAL includes: (1) a historical review, (2) development objectives and requirements, (3) language scope and format, and (4) language capabilities.

  17. The context. [technological spinoffs from aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The relationships among science, technology, and applications are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on public support of space exploration and aerospace sciences in general. Examples of technological spinoffs are presented.

  18. The 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Numerous topics related to aerospace mechanisms were discussed. Deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, hydraulic actuators, positioning mechanisms, electric motors, communication satellite instruments, redundancy, lubricants, bearings, space stations, rotating joints, and teleoperators are among the topics covered.

  19. Unification: An international aerospace information opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Lahr, Thomas F.; Carroll, Bonnie C.

    1992-01-01

    Science and technology projects are becoming more and more international and interdisciplinary. Other parts of the world, notably Europe, are increasingly powerful players in the aerospace industry. This change has led to the development of various aerospace information initiatives in other countries. With scarce resources in all areas of government and industry, the NASA STI Program is reviewing its current acquisition and exchange practices and policies to factor in the changing requirements and new opportunities within the international community. Current NASA goals and activities are reviewed with a new view toward developing a scenario for establishing an international aerospace database, maintaining compatibility among national aerospace information systems, eliminating duplication of effort, and sharing resources through international cooperation wherever possible.

  20. The 11th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Various mechanisms in aerospace engineering were presented at this conference. Specifications, design, and use of spacecraft and missile components are discussed, such as tail assemblies, radiometers, magnetormeters, pins, reaction wheels, ball bearings, actuators, mirrors, nutation dampers, airfoils, solar arrays, etc.