Science.gov

Sample records for aerospace vehicles uavs

  1. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sowle, D.

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  2. Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Environmental effects on composite airframes: A study conducted for the ARM UAV Program (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Composite materials are affected by environments differently than conventional airframe structural materials are. This study identifies the environmental conditions which the composite-airframe ARM UAV may encounter, and discusses the potential degradation processes composite materials may undergo when subjected to those environments. This information is intended to be useful in a follow-on program to develop equipment and procedures to prevent, detect, or otherwise mitigate significant degradation with the ultimate goal of preventing catastrophic aircraft failure.

  4. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  5. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  6. Autonomous unmanned air vehicles (UAV) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Kai; Lee, Ting N.

    2007-04-01

    The UAVs (Unmanned Air Vehicles) have great potentials in different civilian applications, such as oil pipeline surveillance, precision farming, forest fire fighting (yearly), search and rescue, boarder patrol, etc. The related industries of UAVs can create billions of dollars for each year. However, the road block of adopting UAVs is that it is against FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and ATC (Air Traffic Control) regulations. In this paper, we have reviewed the latest technologies and researches on UAV navigation and obstacle avoidance. We have purposed a system design of Jittering Mosaic Image Processing (JMIP) with stereo vision and optical flow to fulfill the functionalities of autonomous UAVs.

  7. Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides lightning protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of lightning. Generic descriptions of the lightning environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for lightning protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.

  8. Computational analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudarag, Sakhr; Yagoub, Rashid; Elfatih, Hassan; Filipovic, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    A computational analysis has been performed to verify the aerodynamics properties of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV-SUST has been designed and fabricated at the Department of Aeronautical Engineering at Sudan University of Science and Technology in order to meet the specifications required for surveillance and reconnaissance mission. It is classified as a medium range and medium endurance UAV. A commercial CFD solver is used to simulate steady and unsteady aerodynamics characteristics of the entire UAV. In addition to Lift Coefficient (CL), Drag Coefficient (CD), Pitching Moment Coefficient (CM) and Yawing Moment Coefficient (CN), the pressure and velocity contours are illustrated. The aerodynamics parameters are represented a very good agreement with the design consideration at angle of attack ranging from zero to 26 degrees. Moreover, the visualization of the velocity field and static pressure contours is indicated a satisfactory agreement with the proposed design. The turbulence is predicted by enhancing K-ω SST turbulence model within the computational fluid dynamics code.

  9. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  10. Atmospheric statistics for aerospace vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical analysis of atmospheric variables was performed for the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) design trade studies and the establishment of launch commit criteria. Atmospheric constraint statistics have been developed for the NASP test flight, the Advanced Launch System, and the National Launch System. The concepts and analysis techniques discussed in the paper are applicable to the design and operations of any future aerospace vehicle.

  11. Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

  12. A Discussion of Aerodynamic Control Effectors (ACEs) for Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A Reynolds number based, unmanned air vehicle classification structure has been developed which identifies four classes of unmanned air vehicle concepts. The four unmanned air vehicle (UAV) classes are; Micro UAV, Meso UAV, Macro UAV, and Mega UAV. In a similar fashion a labeling scheme for aerodynamic control effectors (ACE) was developed and eleven types of ACE concepts were identified. These eleven types of ACEs were laid out in a five (5) layer scheme. The final section of the paper correlated the various ACE concepts to the four UAV classes and ACE recommendations are offered for future design activities.

  13. Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

  14. Program For Simulating Dynamics Of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berning, M. J.; Sagis, K. D.

    1995-01-01

    SORT (Simulation and Optimization of Rocket Trajectories) is general-purpose three-degree-of-freedom with three axis static moment balance simulation of flight dynamics of arbitrary aerospace vehicle. Modular structure facilitates application to variety of trajectory-analysis problems. Contains math model of aerodynamics completely generalized. Computes both longitudinal and lateral forces and moments. In addition to fore-body coefficients, computes longitudinal base effect aerodynamic forces and moments. Simplified ballistic-coefficient model also available for analysis of ballistic entry. Written using ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  15. Analytical prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Piersol, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given recently to the formulation and validation of analytical models for the prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration response to acoustic and fluctuating pressures. This paper summarizes the development of such analytical models for two applications, (1) structural vibrations of the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle due to broadband rocket noise and aerodynamic boundary layer turbulence, and (2) structural vibrations of general aviation aircraft due to discrete frequency propeller and reciprocating engine exhaust noise. In both cases, the spatial exterior excitations are convected pressure fields which are described on the basis of measured cross spectra (coherence and phase) information. Structural modal data are obtained from analytical predictions, and structural responses to appropriate excitation fields are calculated. The results are compared with test data, and the strengths and weaknesses of the analytical models are assessed.

  16. Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

  17. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in atmospheric research and satellite validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Efremov, Denis; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Popovicheva, Olga

    The perspectives of the development of methods and facilities based on UAV for atmospheric investigations are considered. Some aspects of these methods applications are discussed. Developments of the experimental samples of UAV onboard equipment for measurements of atmospheric parameters carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Hardware system for the UAV is developed. The results of measurements of the spatial distributions of the thermodynamic parameters and the concentrations of some gas species onboard of remotely piloted and unmanned aerial vehicles obtained in field tests are presented. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes , etc.

  18. Autonomous Navigation of Small Uavs Based on Vehicle Dynamic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaghani, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to autonomous navigation for small UAVs, in which the vehicle dynamic model (VDM) serves as the main process model within the navigation filter. The proposed method significantly increases the accuracy and reliability of autonomous navigation, especially for small UAVs with low-cost IMUs on-board. This is achieved with no extra sensor added to the conventional INS/GNSS setup. This improvement is of special interest in case of GNSS outages, where inertial coasting drifts very quickly. In the proposed architecture, the solution to VDM equations provides the estimate of position, velocity, and attitude, which is updated within the navigation filter based on available observations, such as IMU data or GNSS measurements. The VDM is also fed with the control input to the UAV, which is available within the control/autopilot system. The filter is capable of estimating wind velocity and dynamic model parameters, in addition to navigation states and IMU sensor errors. Monte Carlo simulations reveal major improvements in navigation accuracy compared to conventional INS/GNSS navigation system during the autonomous phase, when satellite signals are not available due to physical obstruction or electromagnetic interference for example. In case of GNSS outages of a few minutes, position and attitude accuracy experiences improvements of orders of magnitude compared to inertial coasting. It means that during such scenario, the position-velocity-attitude (PVA) determination is sufficiently accurate to navigate the UAV to a home position without any signal that depends on vehicle environment.

  19. Structural Health Management for Future Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Allison, S. G.; Woodard, S. E.; Wincheski, R. A.; Cooper, E. G.; Price, D. C.; Hedley, M.; Prokopenko, M.; Scott, D. A.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    Structural Health Management (SHM) will be of critical importance to provide the safety, reliability and affordability necessary for the future long duration space missions described in America's Vision for Space Exploration. Long duration missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond cannot be accomplished with the current paradigm of periodic, ground based structural integrity inspections. As evidenced by the Columbia tragedy, this approach is also inadequate for the current Shuttle fleet, thus leading to its initial implementation of on-board SHM sensing for impact detection as part of the return to flight effort. However, future space systems, to include both vehicles as well as structures such as habitation modules, will require an integrated array of onboard in-situ sensing systems. In addition, advanced data systems architectures will be necessary to communicate, store and process massive amounts of SHM data from large numbers of diverse sensors. Further, improved structural analysis and design algorithms will be necessary to incorporate SHM sensing into the design and construction of aerospace structures, as well as to fully utilize these sensing systems to provide both diagnosis and prognosis of structural integrity. Ultimately, structural integrity information will feed into an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system that will provide real-time knowledge of structural, propulsion, thermal protection and other critical systems for optimal vehicle management and mission control. This paper will provide an overview of NASA research and development in the area of SHM as well as to highlight areas of technology improvement necessary to meet these future mission requirements.

  20. Aerothermodynamic Flight Simulation Capabilities for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles G.

    1998-01-01

    Aerothermodynamics, encompassing aerodynamics, aeroheating, and fluid dynamics and physical processes, is the genesis for the design and development of advanced space transportation vehicles and provides crucial information to other disciplines such as structures, materials, propulsion, avionics, and guidance, navigation and control. Sources of aerothermodynamic information are ground-based facilities, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and engineering computer codes, and flight experiments. Utilization of this aerothermodynamic triad provides the optimum aerothermodynamic design to safely satisfy mission requirements while reducing design conservatism, risk and cost. The iterative aerothermodynamic process for initial screening/assessment of aerospace vehicle concepts, optimization of aerolines to achieve/exceed mission requirements, and benchmark studies for final design and establishment of the flight data book are reviewed. Aerothermodynamic methodology centered on synergism between ground-based testing and CFD predictions is discussed for various flow regimes encountered by a vehicle entering the Earth s atmosphere from low Earth orbit. An overview of the resources/infrastructure required to provide accurate/creditable aerothermodynamic information in a timely manner is presented. Impacts on Langley s aerothermodynamic capabilities due to recent programmatic changes such as Center reorganization, downsizing, outsourcing, industry (as opposed to NASA) led programs, and so forth are discussed. Sample applications of these capabilities to high Agency priority, fast-paced programs such as Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)/X-33 Phases I and 11, X-34, Hyper-X and X-38 are presented and lessons learned discussed. Lastly, enhancements in ground-based testing/CFD capabilities necessary to partially/fully satisfy future requirements are addressed.

  1. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    SciTech Connect

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): a new tool in counterterrorism operations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörtbudak, Mehmet F.

    2015-05-01

    Terrorism is not a new phenomenon to the world, yet it remains difficult to define and counter. Countering terrorism requires several measures that must be taken simultaneously; however, counterterrorism strategies of many countries mostly depend on military measures. In the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the United States (U.S.) has started and led the campaign of Global War on Terrorism. They have invaded Afghanistan and Iraq and have encountered insurgencies run by terrorist organizations, such as al-Qaeda and its affiliates. The U.S. made the utilization of Air and Space Power very intensively during these operations. In order to implement operations; Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets were used to collect the necessary information. Before the successful insertion of a small number of U.S. Special Operation Force (SOF) teams into Afghanistan, the U.S. Air Force attacked al-Qaeda and Taliban's targets such as infrastructure, airfields, ground forces, command-control facilities etc. As soon as the U.S. troops got on the ground and started to marshal to Kabul, the Air Force supported them by attacking jointly determined targets. The Air Force continued to carry out the missions and played a significant role to achieve the objective of operation during all the time. This is not the only example of utilization of Air and Space Power in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. All around the world, many countries have also made the utilization of Air Power in different missions ranging from ISR to attacking. Thinking that terrorism has a psychological dimension and losing a pilot during operations may result in decreasing the population support to operations, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) started to be used by practitioners and took priority over other assets. Although UAVs have been on the theatre for a long time used for ISR mission in conventional conflicts, with the advent

  3. Wetland Assessment Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav) Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, M. A.; Greenfield, R.; Tesfamichael, S.

    2016-06-01

    The use of Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry is a valuable tool to enhance our understanding of wetlands. Accurate planning derived from this technological advancement allows for more effective management and conservation of wetland areas. This paper presents results of a study that aimed at investigating the use of UAV photogrammetry as a tool to enhance the assessment of wetland ecosystems. The UAV images were collected during a single flight within 2½ hours over a 100 ha area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. An AKS Y-6 MKII multi-rotor UAV and a digital camera on a motion compensated gimbal mount were utilised for the survey. Twenty ground control points (GCPs) were surveyed using a Trimble GPS to achieve geometrical precision and georeferencing accuracy. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) computer vision techniques were used to derive ultra-high resolution point clouds, orthophotos and 3D models from the multi-view photos. The geometric accuracy of the data based on the 20 GCP's were 0.018 m for the overall, 0.0025 m for the vertical root mean squared error (RMSE) and an over all root mean square reprojection error of 0.18 pixel. The UAV products were then edited and subsequently analysed, interpreted and key attributes extracted using a selection of tools/ software applications to enhance the wetland assessment. The results exceeded our expectations and provided a valuable and accurate enhancement to the wetland delineation, classification and health assessment which even with detailed field studies would have been difficult to achieve.

  4. Vapor cycle compressors for aerospace vehicle thermal management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexter, Peter F.; Watts, Roland J.; Haskin, William L.

    1990-10-01

    An overview is given of approaches to achieving high reliability and long life in vapor cycle compressor design for aerospace vehicles. The requirements peculiar to aircraft and spacecraft cooling systems are described. Piston, rotary vane, rolling piston, helical screw, scroll, and centrifugal compressors being developed for aerospace applications are discussed.

  5. Earthbound Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVS) As Planetary Science Testbeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Diaz, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the technology of unmanned vehicles have greatly expanded the range of contemplated terrestrial operational environments for their use, including aerial, surface, and submarine. The advances have been most pronounced in the areas of autonomy, miniaturization, durability, standardization, and ease of operation, most notably (especially in the popular press) for airborne vehicles. Of course, for a wide range of planetary venues, autonomy at high cost of both money and risk, has always been a requirement. Most recently, missions to Mars have also featured an unprecedented degree of mobility. Combining the traditional planetary surface deployment operational and science imperatives with emerging, very accessible, and relatively economical small UAV platforms on Earth can provide flexible, rugged, self-directed, test-bed platforms for landed instruments and strategies that will ultimately be directed elsewhere, and, in the process, provide valuable earth science data. While the most direct transfer of technology from terrestrial to planetary venues is perhaps for bodies with atmospheres (and oceans), with appropriate technology and strategy accommodations, single and networked UAVs can be designed to operate on even airless bodies, under a variety of gravities. In this presentation, we present and use results and lessons learned from our recent earth-bound UAV volcano deployments, as well as our future plans for such, to conceptualize a range of planetary and small-body missions. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of students and colleagues at our home institutions, and the government of Costa Rica, without which our UAV deployments would not have been possible. This work was carried out, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.

  6. Iraq: Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Capable Missiles and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-03

    Missiles and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Andrew Feickert Analyst in National Defense Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division Summary This...Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Capable Missiles and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  7. Atmospheric electricity criteria guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    Lightning has always been of concern for aerospace vehicle ground activities. The unexpected triggering of lightning discharges by the Apollo 12 space vehicle shortly after launch and the more recent repeated lightning strikes to the launch umbilical tower while the Apollo 15 space vehicle was being readied for launch have renewed interest in studies of atmospheric electricity as it relates to space vehicle missions. The material presented reflects some of the results of these studies with regard to updating the current criteria guidelines.

  8. Development of environmental criteria guidelines for aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    The types of guideline data on natural environmental conditions for the various major geographic locations that are applicable to the design of aerospace vehicles and associated equipment are discussed. Since relationships between aerospace vehicle parameters and atmospheric variables cannot always be clearly defined, there should be a close working relationship and team philosophy between the design/operational engineer and the respective organizations' aerospace meteorologists. Consideration should be given to protecting aerospace vehicles from some extremes by using support equipment and specialized monitoring personnel to advise on the expected occurrence of critical environmental conditions. It is pointed out that the services of these specialized personnel may be very economical in comparison with the more expensive designing that would be necessary to cope with all environmental possibilities. The environment considered here includes wind, atmospheric electricity, upper atmospheric density, and solar wind.

  9. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) hold significant promise for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are being employed for various reconnaissance purposes (“eyes in the sky”), but not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Luck La...

  10. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  11. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  12. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-09-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  13. Aerospace Meteorology Lessons Learned Relative to Aerospace Vehicle Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Aerospace Meteorology came into being in the 1950s as the development of rockets for military and civilian usage grew in the United States. The term was coined to identify those involved in the development of natural environment models, design/operational requirements, and environment measurement systems to support the needs of aerospace vehicles, both launch vehicles and spacecraft. It encompassed the atmospheric environment of the Earth, including Earth orbit environments. Several groups within the United States were active in this area, including the Department of Defense, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and a few of the aerospace industry groups. Some aerospace meteorology efforts were similar to those being undertaken relative to aviation interests. As part of the aerospace meteorology activities a number of lessons learned resulted that produced follow on efforts which benefited from these experiences, thus leading to the rather efficient and technologically current descriptions of terrestrial environment design requirements, prelaunch monitoring systems, and forecast capabilities available to support the development and operations of aerospace vehicles.

  14. Fault detection and multiclassifier fusion for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Weizhong

    2001-03-01

    UAVs demand more accurate fault accommodation for their mission manager and vehicle control system in order to achieve a reliability level that is comparable to that of a pilot aircraft. This paper attempts to apply multi-classifier fusion techniques to achieve the necessary performance of the fault detection function for the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works (LMSW) UAV Mission Manager. Three different classifiers that meet the design requirements of the fault detection of the UAAV are employed. The binary decision outputs from the classifiers are then aggregated using three different classifier fusion schemes, namely, majority vote, weighted majority vote, and Naieve Bayes combination. All of the three schemes are simple and need no retraining. The three fusion schemes (except the majority vote that gives an average performance of the three classifiers) show the classification performance that is better than or equal to that of the best individual. The unavoidable correlation between the classifiers with binary outputs is observed in this study. We conclude that it is the correlation between the classifiers that limits the fusion schemes to achieve an even better performance.

  15. HASA: Hypersonic Aerospace Sizing Analysis for the Preliminary Design of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, Gary J.; Berkowitz, Brian M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the hypersonic literature indicated that a general weight and sizing analysis was not available for hypersonic orbital, transport, and fighter vehicles. The objective here is to develop such a method for the preliminary design of aerospace vehicles. This report describes the developed methodology and provides examples to illustrate the model, entitled the Hypersonic Aerospace Sizing Analysis (HASA). It can be used to predict the size and weight of hypersonic single-stage and two-stage-to-orbit vehicles and transports, and is also relevant for supersonic transports. HASA is a sizing analysis that determines vehicle length and volume, consistent with body, fuel, structural, and payload weights. The vehicle component weights are obtained from statistical equations for the body, wing, tail, thermal protection system, landing gear, thrust structure, engine, fuel tank, hydraulic system, avionics, electral system, equipment payload, and propellant. Sample size and weight predictions are given for the Space Shuttle orbiter and other proposed vehicles, including four hypersonic transports, a Mach 6 fighter, a supersonic transport (SST), a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle, a two-stage Space Shuttle with a booster and an orbiter, and two methane-fueled vehicles.

  16. Incorporation of Nanosensors into Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional sensors are too big and heavy for installation in space vehicles, including the Space Shuttle Orbiter as well as future manned and unmanned vehicles currently in the early design phase. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the availability of smaller and more accurate sensors. Multiple and redundant nanosensors can be used to conduct more accurate and comprehensive measurements in a space vehicle. Early planning can lead to the relatively easy incorporation of miniature sensors sharing power and communication lines, thus reducing the requirement for large amount of electrical and/or optical cabling.

  17. Cost and effectiveness analysis on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) use at border security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Bahadır.

    2013-06-01

    Drones and Remotely Piloted Vehicles are types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. UAVs began to be used with the war of Vietnam, they had a great interest when Israel used them in Bekaa Valley Operations of 1982. UAVs have been used by different countries with different aims with the help of emerging technology and investments. In this article, in the context of areas of UAV usage in national security, benefits and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward. Particularly, it has been evaluated on the basis of cost-effectiveness by focusing the use of UAV in the border security. UAVs have been studied by taking cost analysis, procurement and operational costs into consideration. Analysis of effectiveness has been done with illegal passages of people and drugs from flight times of UAVs. Although the procurement cost of the medium-level UAVs is low, its operational costs are high. For this reason, the idea of less costly alternative systems have been revealed for the border security. As the costs are reduced to acceptable level involving national security and border security in future with high-technology products in their structure, it will continue to be used in an increasing proportion.

  18. Measuring orthometric water heights from lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandini, Filippo; Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Reyna-Gutierrez, Jose Antonio; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A better quantitative understanding of hydrologic processes requires better observations of hydrological variables, such as surface water area, water surface level, its slope and its temporal change. However, ground-based measurements of water heights are restricted to the in-situ measuring stations. Hence, the objective of remote sensing hydrology is to retrieve these hydraulic variables from spaceborne and airborne platforms. The forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will be able to acquire water heights with an expected accuracy of 10 centimeters for rivers that are at least 100 m wide. Nevertheless, spaceborne missions will always face the limitations of: i) a low spatial resolution which makes it difficult to separate water from interfering surrounding areas and a tracking of the terrestrial water bodies not able to detect water heights in small rivers or lakes; ii) a limited temporal resolution which limits the ability to determine rapid temporal changes, especially during extremes. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are one technology able to fill the gap between spaceborne and ground-based observations, ensuring 1) high spatial resolution; 2) tracking of the water bodies better than any satellite technology; 3) timing of the sampling which only depends on the operator 4) flexibility of the payload. Hence, this study focused on categorizing and testing sensors capable of measuring the range between the UAV and the water surface. The orthometric height of the water surface is then retrieved by subtracting the height above water measured by the sensors from the altitude above sea level retrieved by the onboard GPS. The following sensors were tested: a) a radar, b) a sonar c) a laser digital-camera based prototype developed at Technical University of Denmark. The tested sensors comply with the weight constraint of small UAVs (around 1.5 kg). The sensors were evaluated in terms of accuracy, maximum ranging distance and beam

  19. Extensions to the Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brian, Geoffrey J.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) is a syntactical language for exchanging flight vehicle dynamic model data. It provides a framework for encoding entire flight vehicle dynamic model data packages for exchange and/or long-term archiving. Version 2.0.1 of DAVE-ML provides much of the functionality envisioned for exchanging aerospace vehicle data; however, it is limited in only supporting scalar time-independent data. Additional functionality is required to support vector and matrix data, abstracting sub-system models, detailing dynamics system models (both discrete and continuous), and defining a dynamic data format (such as time sequenced data) for validation of dynamics system models and vehicle simulation packages. Extensions to DAVE-ML have been proposed to manage data as vectors and n-dimensional matrices, and record dynamic data in a compatible form. These capabilities will improve the clarity of data being exchanged, simplify the naming of parameters, and permit static and dynamic data to be stored using a common syntax within a single file; thereby enhancing the framework provided by DAVE-ML for exchanging entire flight vehicle dynamic simulation models.

  20. Aerospace Vehicle Design, Spacecraft Section. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Research results are presented for the following groups: Project Mars Airplane Vehicle and Reconnaissance Instrument Carrier (MAVRIC), ACME, ARES, Project ACRONYM, Mars Aircraft Recepticle with Technical Instruments, Aerobraking, and Navigation (MARTIAN), and NOMADS. Each project is described by the following areas of focus: mission planning and costs; aerobraking systems; structures and thermal control systems; attitude and articulation control systems; comman and data control systems; science instrumentation; and power and propulsion systems.

  1. IPAD: Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Early work was performed to apply data base technology in support of the management of engineering data in the design and manufacturing environments. The principal objective of the IPAD project is to develop a computer software system for use in the design of aerospace vehicles. Two prototype systems are created for this purpose. Relational Information Manager (RIM) is a successful commercial product. The IPAD Information Processor (IPIP), a much more sophisticated system, is still under development.

  2. Advanced Materials and Multifunctional Structures for Aerospace Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    through covalent integration of functional nanotubes ”, Advanced Functional Materials, 14(7) (2004) 643-648. 185 R.Z. Ma, J. Wu, B.Q. Wei, J. Liang, and...on Advanced Materials for Multi Functional Structures in Aerospace Vehicles. The advanced synthesis, processing and the characterization techniques...when more than one primary function is performed either simultaneously or sequentially in time. These systems are based on metallic, ceramic and

  3. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Calvery, A. L.; Davis, D. A.; Dickmann, L.; Folger, D. H.; Jochem, E. N.; Kitto, C. M.; Vonlimbach, G.

    1977-01-01

    Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) system design requirements are given. The information is based on the IPAD User Requirements Document (D6-IPAD-70013-D) and the Integrated Information Processing Requirements Document (D6-IPAD-70012-D). General information about IPAD and a list of the system design requirements that are to be satisfied by the IPAD system are given. The system design requirements definition is to be considered as a baseline definition of the IPAD system design requirements.

  4. Textile mechanical elements in aerospace vehicle parachute systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, M. J.; French, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, design considerations, and design details for textile mechanical elements used in aerospace vehicle parachute systems are briefly reviewed. Friction burns are noted as a major cause of parachute system failures. The friction burn hazard can be minimized by designing for predeployment and deployment sequence control with textile mechanical restraints. Two basic restraint designs (restraint loops and line ties) are discussed and various applications of the designs shown.

  5. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-08-19

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  6. Guidance and Control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, J. L.; Naidu, D. S.; Charalambous, C. D.

    1989-01-01

    A neighboring optimal guidance scheme was devised for a nonlinear dynamic system with stochastic inputs and perfect measurements as applicable to fuel optimal control of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle. For the deterministic nonlinear dynamic system describing the atmospheric maneuver, a nominal trajectory was determined. Then, a neighboring, optimal guidance scheme was obtained for open loop and closed loop control configurations. Taking modelling uncertainties into account, a linear, stochastic, neighboring optimal guidance scheme was devised. Finally, the optimal trajectory was approximated as the sum of the deterministic nominal trajectory and the stochastic neighboring optimal solution. Numerical results are presented for a typical vehicle. A fuel-optimal control problem in aeroassisted noncoplanar orbital transfer is also addressed. The equations of motion for the atmospheric maneuver are nonlinear and the optimal (nominal) trajectory and control are obtained. In order to follow the nominal trajectory under actual conditions, a neighboring optimum guidance scheme is designed using linear quadratic regulator theory for onboard real-time implementation. One of the state variables is used as the independent variable in reference to the time. The weighting matrices in the performance index are chosen by a combination of a heuristic method and an optimal modal approach. The necessary feedback control law is obtained in order to minimize the deviations from the nominal conditions.

  7. Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented.

  8. Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented. PMID:22400008

  9. Aerospace vehicle design, spacecraft section. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to create a manned Martian aircraft which can perform: scientific surveys of particular sites distant from the base; a deployment of scientific instrument packages by air drop that land rovers cannot accomplish; and rescue operations. Designing the airfoil requires a wing which can operate within the low Reynolds numbers apparent on Mars. The airfoil, NASA NLF(1)-1015 was chosen. The design of the aircraft is comparable to a P-38 military aircraft. The aircraft uses fuel cells to power the two propellers. A rocket-assisted takeoff is necessary to enable Romulus to liftoff. Although the design and creation of Romulus would be an expensive adventure, such a vehicle could be most useful in evaluating the Mars surface and in creating a habitat for mankind.

  10. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-01-01

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles’ in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians. PMID:27548179

  11. Development of Structural Health Management Technology for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, NASA has focused considerable resources on the development of technologies for Structural Health Management (SHM). The motivations for these efforts are to increase the safety and reliability of aerospace structural systems, while at the same time decreasing operating and maintenance costs. Research and development of SHM technologies has been supported under a variety of programs for both aircraft and spacecraft including the Space Launch Initiative, X-33, Next Generation Launch Technology, and Aviation Safety Program. The major focus of much of the research to date has been on the development and testing of sensor technologies. A wide range of sensor technologies are under consideration including fiber-optic sensors, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, most notably being extremely light weight, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and have received considerable attention.

  12. Balancing search and target response in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) teams.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Liao, Yan; Minai, Ali A; Polycarpou, Marios M

    2006-06-01

    This paper considers a heterogeneous team of cooperating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drawn from several distinct classes and engaged in a search and action mission over a spatially extended battlefield with targets of several types. During the mission, the UAVs seek to confirm and verifiably destroy suspected targets and discover, confirm, and verifiably destroy unknown targets. The locations of some (or all) targets are unknown a priori, requiring them to be located using cooperative search. In addition, the tasks to be performed at each target location by the team of cooperative UAVs need to be coordinated. The tasks must, therefore, be allocated to UAVs in real time as they arise, while ensuring that appropriate vehicles are assigned to each task. Each class of UAVs has its own sensing and attack capabilities, so the need for appropriate assignment is paramount. In this paper, an extensive dynamic model that captures the stochastic nature of the cooperative search and task assignment problems is developed, and algorithms for achieving a high level of performance are designed. The paper focuses on investigating the value of predictive task assignment as a function of the number of unknown targets and number of UAVs. In particular, it is shown that there is a tradeoff between search and task response in the context of prediction. Based on the results, a hybrid algorithm for switching the use of prediction is proposed, which balances the search and task response. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Aerial surveys and tagging of free-drifting icebergs using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, P. R.; Reisenbichler, K. R.; Etchemendy, S. A.; Dawe, T. C.; Hobson, B. W.

    2011-06-01

    Ship-based observations of free-drifting icebergs are hindered by the dangers of calving ice. To improve the efficacy and safety of these studies, new unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were developed and then deployed in the Southern Ocean. These inexpensive UAVs were launched and recovered from a ship by scientific personal with a few weeks of flight training. The UAVs sent real-time video back to the ship, allowing researchers to observe conditions in regions of the icebergs not visible from the ship. In addition, the UAVs dropped newly developed global positioning system (GPS) tracking tags, permitting researchers to record the precise position of the icebergs over time. The position reports received from the tags show that the motion of free-drifting icebergs changes rapidly and is a complex combination of both translation and rotation.

  14. A meta-analysis of human-system interfaces in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm management.

    PubMed

    Hocraffer, Amy; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the current state of research on human-system interfaces for users controlling semi-autonomous swarms composed of groups of drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV swarms pose several human factors challenges, such as high cognitive demands, non-intuitive behavior, and serious consequences for errors. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 27 UAV swarm management papers focused on the human-system interface and human factors concerns, providing an overview of the advantages, challenges, and limitations of current UAV management interfaces, as well as information on how these interfaces are currently evaluated. In general allowing user and mission-specific customization to user interfaces and raising the swarm's level of autonomy to reduce operator cognitive workload are beneficial and improve situation awareness (SA). It is clear more research is needed in this rapidly evolving field.

  15. Survey on the novel hybrid aquatic-aerial amphibious aircraft: Aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Liang, Jianhong; Yao, Guocai; Liu, Miao

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV), a kind of vehicle that can operate both in the air and the water, has been regarded as a new breakthrough to broaden the application scenario of UAV. Wide application prospects in military and civil field are more than bright, therefore many institutions have focused on the development of such a vehicle. However, due to the significant difference of the physical properties between the air and the water, it is rather difficult to design a fully-featured AquaUAV. Until now, majority of partially-featured AquaUAVs have been developed and used to verify the feasibility of an aquatic-aerial vehicle. In the present work, we classify the current partially-featured AquaUAV into three categories from the scope of the whole UAV field, i.e., the seaplane UAV, the submarine-launched UAV, and the submersible UAV. Then the recent advancements and common characteristics of the three kinds of AquaUAVs are reviewed in detail respectively. Then the applications of bionics in the design of AquaUAV, the transition mode between the air and the water, the morphing wing structure for air-water adaptation, and the power source and the propulsion type are summarized and discussed. The tradeoff analyses for different transition methods between the air and the water are presented. Furthermore, it indicates that applying the bionics into the design and development of the AquaUAV will be essential and significant. Finally, the significant technical challenges for the AquaUAV to change from a conception to a practical prototype are indicated.

  16. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on the Future Tactical Battlefield - Are UAVs and Essential Joint Force Multiplier?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-12

    MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Major Roald L. MOgoniale Title of Monograph: Untanned Aerial Vj!ji.UAVs) on the Future Tactical Battlefield - Are UAVa an Essential...New York: Hill and Wang , 1984. Lambeth, Benjamin S. Moscow’s Lessons Learned from the 1982 Lebanon Air War. Santa Monica, CA.: Rand Corporation, 1984

  18. Emerging Needs for Pervasive Passive Wireless Sensor Networks on Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating passive wireless sensor technology to reduce instrumentation mass and volume in ground testing, air flight, and space exploration applications. Vehicle health monitoring systems (VHMS) are desired on all aerospace programs to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Pervasive passive wireless sensor networks facilitate VHMS on aerospace vehicles. Future wireless sensor networks on board aerospace vehicles will be heterogeneous and will require active and passive network systems. Since much has been published on active wireless sensor networks, this work will focus on the need for passive wireless sensor networks on aerospace vehicles. Several passive wireless technologies such as microelectromechanical systems MEMS, SAW, backscatter, and chipless RFID techniques, have all shown potential to meet the pervasive sensing needs for aerospace VHMS applications. A SAW VHMS application will be presented. In addition, application areas including ground testing, hypersonic aircraft and spacecraft will be explored along with some of the harsh environments found in aerospace applications.

  19. Overview of integrated programs for aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of a joint industry/government project, denoted Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD), which focuses on development of technology and associated software for integrated company-wide management of engineering information is presented. Results to date are summarized and include an in-depth documentation of a representative design process for a large engineering project, the definition and design of computer-aided design software needed to support that process, and the release of prototype software to integrated selected design functions.

  20. Aerospace Sensor Systems: From Sensor Development To Vehicle Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of years of sensor system development and application for aerospace systems. The emphasis of this work is on developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion and crew vehicle systems as well as monitoring the safety of those systems. Specific areas of work include chemical species sensors, thin film thermocouples and strain gages, heat flux gages, fuel gages, SiC based electronic devices and sensors, space qualified electronics, and MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as integrated and multifunctional sensor systems. Each sensor type has its own technical challenges related to integration and reliability in a given application. The general approach has been to develop base sensor technology using microfabrication techniques, integrate sensors with "smart" hardware and software, and demonstrate those systems in a range of aerospace applications. Descriptions of the sensor elements, their integration into sensors systems, and examples of sensor system applications will be discussed. Finally, suggestions related to the future of sensor technology will be given. It is concluded that smart micro/nano sensor technology can revolutionize aerospace applications, but significant challenges exist in maturing the technology and demonstrating its value in real-life applications.

  1. Development of tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV): material selection and structural analysis on wing design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saharudin, M. F.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a tilting rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), evaluation of flight loads based on the standard requirement, structural analysis to determine stress and sizing of the wing, and flight test of the UAV. The main objective is to perform structural analysis to size the UAV's wing section. The analysis shows that the structure design of the wing is safe to be used.

  2. Electric power processing, distribution and control for advanced aerospace vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krausz, A.; Felch, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a current study program to develop a rational basis for selection of power processing, distribution, and control configurations for future aerospace vehicles including the Space Station, Space Shuttle, and high-performance aircraft are presented. Within the constraints imposed by the characteristics of power generation subsystems and the load utilization equipment requirements, the power processing, distribution and control subsystem can be optimized by selection of the proper distribution voltage, frequency, and overload/fault protection method. It is shown that, for large space vehicles which rely on static energy conversion to provide electric power, high-voltage dc distribution (above 100 V dc) is preferable to conventional 28 V dc and 115 V ac distribution per MIL-STD-704A. High-voltage dc also has advantages over conventional constant frequency ac systems in many aircraft applications due to the elimination of speed control, wave shaping, and synchronization equipment.

  3. NASA R and T aerospace plane vehicles: Progress and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Progress made in key technologies such as materials, structures, aerothermodynamics, hypersonic aerodynamics, and hypersonic airbreathing propulsion are reported. Advances were made in more generic, areas such as active controls, flight computer hardware and software, and interdisciplinary analytical design methodology. These technology advances coupled with the development of and experiences with the Space Shuttle make feasible aerospace plane-type vehicles that meet the more demanding requirements of various DOD missions and/or an all-weather Shuttle II with reduced launch costs. Technology needs and high payoff technologies, and the technology advancements in propulsion, control-configured-vehicles, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, aerothermal loads, and materials and structures were studied. The highest payoff technologies of materials and structures including thermal-structural analysis and high temperature test techniques are emphasized. The high priority technology of propulsion, and plans, of what remains to be done rather than firm program commitments, are briefly discussed.

  4. Multiplexing Technology for Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William; Percy, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of damage mechanisms such as cracks and delaminations generate acoustic waves, which propagate through a structure. These waves can be detected and analyzed to provide the location and severity of damage as part of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. This methodology of damage detection is commonly known as acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, and is widely used on a variety of applications on civil structures. AE has been widely considered for SHM of aerospace vehicles. Numerous successful ground and flight test demonstrations have been performed, which show the viability of the technology for damage monitoring in aerospace structures. However, one significant current limitation for application of AE techniques on aerospace vehicles is the large size, mass, and power requirements for the necessary monitoring instrumentation. To address this issue, a prototype multiplexing approach has been developed and demonstrated in this study, which reduces the amount of AE monitoring instrumentation required. Typical time division multiplexing techniques that are commonly used to monitor strain, pressure and temperature sensors are not applicable to AE monitoring because of the asynchronous and widely varying rates of AE signal occurrence. Thus, an event based multiplexing technique was developed. In the initial prototype circuit, inputs from eight sensors in a linear array were multiplexed into two data acquisition channels. The multiplexer rapidly switches, in less than one microsecond, allowing the signals from two sensors to be acquired by a digitizer. The two acquired signals are from the sensors on either side of the trigger sensor. This enables the capture of the first arrival of the waves, which cannot be accomplished with the signal from the trigger sensor. The propagation delay to the slightly more distant neighboring sensors makes this possible. The arrival time from this first arrival provides a more accurate source location

  5. Texture and scale in object-based analysis of subdecimeter resolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imagery acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great potential for incorporation into natural resource monitoring protocols due to their ability to be deployed quickly and repeatedly and to fly at low altitudes. While the imagery may have high spatial resolution, the spectral resolution i...

  6. Acquisition, orthorectification, and object-based classification of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery for rangeland monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we examine the potential of using a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for rangeland inventory, assessment and monitoring. Imagery with 8-cm resolution was acquired over 290 ha in southwestern Idaho. We developed a semi-automated orthorectification procedure suitable for handling lar...

  7. First results for an image processing workflow for hyperspatial imagery acquired with a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very high-resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for use in rangeland monitoring and assessment, because the imagery fills the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial or satellite sensors. However, because UAV imagery is ofte...

  8. Supervisory controlled operations of UAVs for tracking and surveillance of vehicle targets (SCOUTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Amber; Denny, Nathan

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we present SCOUTS, an autonomous system for the allocation of multiple small UAVs equipped with video sensors specifically geared to tracking and reacquisition of vehicle targets in urban environments. To demonstrate SCOUTS performance, we test our system in a simulation incorporating the key challenges encountered by real-time UAV tracking scenarios, including unreliable reports from poor image quality, disruption latency in communication, and temporary gaps in persistent surveillance requiring target re-acquisition strategies. The results provided in this paper establish SCOUTS as a robust approach to this challenging problem.

  9. Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  10. Moments of Inertia: Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  11. Moving Target Indicator (MTI) Applications For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-14

    nicknamed STINGRAY for the mari- time MTI applications, was successfully completed in two phases. Phase I consisted of a risk mitigation phase where...3. Fig. 3 STINGRAY Situational Awareness Display bjectives and Results s mentioned above, the overall objectives associated this initiative...roviding wide field of view cues to the Predator’s R sensor was clearly demonstrated in both the RS – UAV Cross cueing and STINGRAY initia- . hile

  12. Data Acquisition (DAQ) system dedicated for remote sensing applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keleshis, C.; Ioannou, S.; Vrekoussis, M.; Levin, Z.; Lange, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the increased complexity of their applications raise the demand for improved data acquisition systems (DAQ). These improvements may comprise low power consumption, low volume and weight, robustness, modularity and capability to interface with various sensors and peripherals while maintaining the high sampling rates and processing speeds. Such a system has been designed and developed and is currently integrated on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO/NEA-YΠOΔOMH/NEKΠ/0308/09) however, it can be easily adapted to any UAV or any other mobile vehicle. The system consists of a single-board computer with a dual-core processor, rugged surface-mount memory and storage device, analog and digital input-output ports and many other peripherals that enhance its connectivity with various sensors, imagers and on-board devices. The system is powered by a high efficiency power supply board. Additional boards such as frame-grabbers, differential global positioning system (DGPS) satellite receivers, general packet radio service (3G-4G-GPRS) modems for communication redundancy have been interfaced to the core system and are used whenever there is a mission need. The onboard DAQ system can be preprogrammed for automatic data acquisition or it can be remotely operated during the flight from the ground control station (GCS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) which has been developed and will also be presented in this paper. The unique design of the GUI and the DAQ system enables the synchronized acquisition of a variety of scientific and UAV flight data in a single core location. The new DAQ system and the GUI have been successfully utilized in several scientific UAV missions. In conclusion, the novel DAQ system provides the UAV and the remote-sensing community with a new tool capable of reliably acquiring, processing, storing and transmitting data from any sensor integrated

  13. Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroth, Edmund C.; Pallix, Joan

    2006-01-01

    To achieve NASA's ambitious Integrated Space Transportation Program objectives, aerospace systems will implement a variety of new concept in health management. System level integration of IVHM technologies for real-time control and system maintenance will have significant impact on system safety and lifecycle costs. IVHM technologies will enhance the safety and success of complex missions despite component failures, degraded performance, operator errors, and environment uncertainty. IVHM also has the potential to reduce, or even eliminate many of the costly inspections and operations activities required by current and future aerospace systems. This presentation will describe the array of NASA programs participating in the development of IVHM technologies for NASA missions. Future vehicle systems will use models of the system, its environment, and other intelligent agents with which they may interact. IVHM will be incorporated into future mission planners, reasoning engines, and adaptive control systems that can recommend or execute commands enabling the system to respond intelligently in real time. In the past, software errors and/or faulty sensors have been identified as significant contributors to mission failures. This presentation will also address the development and utilization of highly dependable sohare and sensor technologies, which are key components to ensure the reliability of IVHM systems.

  14. Loft: An Automated Mesh Generator for Stiffened Shell Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2011-01-01

    Loft is an automated mesh generation code that is designed for aerospace vehicle structures. From user input, Loft generates meshes for wings, noses, tanks, fuselage sections, thrust structures, and so on. As a mesh is generated, each element is assigned properties to mark the part of the vehicle with which it is associated. This property assignment is an extremely powerful feature that enables detailed analysis tasks, such as load application and structural sizing. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is an overview of the code and its applications. The modeling approach that was used to create the finite element meshes is described. Several applications of the code are demonstrated, including a Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) wing-sizing study, a lunar lander stage study, a launch vehicle shroud shape study, and a two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) orbiter. Part two of the report is the program user manual. The manual includes in-depth tutorials and a complete command reference.

  15. On computer-aided design of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J. E.; Voigt, S. J.; Fulton, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Digital computers are being used in many engineering activities to support design work. This paper provides an overview of some of this work as it relates to the design of aerospace vehicles. Discussions are given of some of the complexities of the design process which lead to large design costs and time. A number of important but disjointed computer capabilities have evolved over the years in analysis, optimization, and graphics, and such capabilities aid in addressing the problem of design complexity. Examples of existing computer-aided design (CAD) systems are given and trends for future CAD systems are indicated, as well as their relationship to pertinent data management technology. It is suggested that major gains in design capability will occur through continued development of CAD methodology and that these gains may be accelerated through a large focused effort.

  16. Rapid Model Fabrication and Testing for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced methods for rapid fabrication and instrumentation of hypersonic wind tunnel models are being developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center. Rapid aeroheating model fabrication and measurement techniques using investment casting of ceramic test models and thermographic phosphors are reviewed. More accurate model casting techniques for fabrication of benchmark metal and ceramic test models are being developed using a combination of rapid prototype patterns and investment casting. White light optical scanning is used for coordinate measurements to evaluate the fabrication process and verify model accuracy to +/- 0.002 inches. Higher-temperature (<210C) luminescent coatings are also being developed for simultaneous pressure and temperature mapping, providing global pressure as well as global aeroheating measurements. Together these techniques will provide a more rapid and complete experimental aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic database for future aerospace vehicles.

  17. Complex multidisciplinary system composition for aerospace vehicle conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Lex

    Although, there exists a vast amount of work concerning the analysis, design, integration of aerospace vehicle systems, there is no standard for how this data and knowledge should be combined in order to create a synthesis system. Each institution creating a synthesis system has in house vehicle and hardware components they are attempting to model and proprietary methods with which to model them. This leads to the fact that synthesis systems begin as one-off creations meant to answer a specific problem. As the scope of the synthesis system grows to encompass more and more problems, so does its size and complexity; in order for a single synthesis system to answer multiple questions the number of methods and method interface must increase. As a means to curtail the requirement that the increase of an aircraft synthesis systems capability leads to an increase in its size and complexity, this research effort focuses on the idea that each problem in aerospace requires its own analysis framework. By focusing on the creation of a methodology which centers on the matching of an analysis framework towards the problem being solved, the complexity of the analysis framework is decoupled from the complexity of the system that creates it. The derived methodology allows for the composition of complex multi-disciplinary systems (CMDS) through the automatic creation and implementation of system and disciplinary method interfaces. The CMDS Composition process follows a four step methodology meant to take a problem definition and progress towards the creation of an analysis framework meant to answer said problem. The unique implementation of the CMDS Composition process take user selected disciplinary analysis methods and automatically integrates them, together in order to create a syntactically composable analysis framework. As a means of assessing the validity of the CMDS Composition process a prototype system (AVDDBMS) has been developed. AVD DBMS has been used to model the

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: assessing detection probability.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Amanda; Peel, David; Kelly, Natalie

    2017-02-08

    Aerial surveys are conducted for various fauna to assess abundance, distribution, and habitat use over large spatial scales. They are traditionally conducted using light-aircraft with observers recording sightings in real time. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer an alternative with many potential advantages, including eliminating human-risk. To be effective, this emerging platform needs to provide detection rates of animals comparable to traditional methods. UAVs can also acquire new types of information, and this new data requires a re-evaluation of traditional analyses used in aerial surveys; including estimating the probability of detecting animals. We conducted 17 replicate UAV surveys of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) while simultaneously obtaining a 'census' of the population from land-based observations, to assess UAV detection probability. The ScanEagle UAV, carrying a digital SLR camera, continuously captured images (with 75% overlap) along transects covering the visual range of land-based observers. We also used ScanEagle to conduct focal follows of whale pods (n = 12, mean duration = 40 min), to assess a new method of estimating availability. A comparison of the whale detections from the UAV to the land-based census provided an estimated UAV detection probability of 0.33 (CV = 0.25) (incorporating both availability and perception biases), which was not affected by environmental covariates (Beaufort sea state, glare and cloud cover). According to our focal follows, the mean availability was 0.63 (CV = 0.37), with pods including mother/calf pairs having a higher availability (0.86, CV = 0.20) than those without (0.59, CV = 0.38). The follows also revealed (and provided a potential correction for) a downward bias in group size estimates from the UAV surveys, which resulted from asynchronous diving within whale pods, and a relatively short observation window of 9 s. We have shown that UAVs are an effective alternative to traditional methods

  19. Challenges in collecting hyperspectral imagery of coastal waters using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, D. C.; Herwitz, S.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Ramsewak, D.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne multi-band remote sensing is an important tool for many aquatic applications; and the increased spectral information from hyperspectral sensors may increase the utility of coastal surveys. Recent technological advances allow Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be used as alternatives or complements to manned aircraft or in situ observing platforms, and promise significant advantages for field studies. These include the ability to conduct programmed flight plans, prolonged and coordinated surveys, and agile flight operations under difficult conditions such as measurements made at low altitudes. Hyperspectral imagery collected from UAVs should allow the increased differentiation of water column or shallow benthic communities at relatively small spatial scales. However, the analysis of hyperspectral imagery from airborne platforms over shallow coastal waters differs from that used for terrestrial or oligotrophic ocean color imagery, and the operational constraints and considerations for the collection of such imagery from autonomous platforms also differ from terrestrial surveys using manned aircraft. Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery of shallow seagrass and coral environments in the Florida Keys were collected with various sensor systems mounted on manned and unmanned aircrafts in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. The imaging systems deployed on UAVs included NovaSol's Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK), a Tetracam multispectral imaging system, and the Sunflower hyperspectal imager from Galileo Group, Inc. The UAVs carrying these systems were Xtreme Aerial Concepts' Vision-II Rotorcraft UAV, MLB Company's Bat-4 UAV, and NASA's SIERRA UAV, respectively. Additionally, the Galileo Group's manned aircraft also surveyed the areas with their AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system. For both manned and autonomous flights, cloud cover and sun glint (solar and viewing angles) were dominant constraints on retrieval of quantitatively

  20. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operated megapixel spectral camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkynen, Jussi; Holmlund, Christer; Saari, Heikki; Ojala, Kai; Antila, Tapani

    2011-11-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a lightweight Fabry-Perot interferometer based hyperspectral imager weighting only 400 g which makes it compatible with various small UAV platforms. The concept of the hyperspectral imager has been published in SPIE Proc. 74741 and 76682. This UAV spectral imager is capable of recording 5 Mpix multispectral data in the wavelength range of 500 - 900 nm at resolutions of 10-40 nm, Full-Width-Half-Maximum (FWHM). An internal memory buffer allows 16 Mpix of image data to be stored during one image burst. The user can configure the system to take either three 5 Mpix images or up to 54 VGA resolution images with each triggering. Each image contains data from one, two or three wavelength bands which can be separated during post processing. This allows a maximum of 9 spectral bands to be stored in high spatial resolution mode or up to 162 spectral bands in VGA-mode during each image burst. Image data is stored in a compact flash memory card which provides the mass storage for the imager. The field of view of the system is 26° × 36° and the ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 40 mm in high-resolution mode. The design, calibration and test flight results will be presented.

  1. An operating system for future aerospace vehicle computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.; Berman, W. J.; Will, R. W.; Bynum, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for future aerospace vehicle computer operating systems are examined in this paper. The computer architecture is assumed to be distributed with a local area network connecting the nodes. Each node is assumed to provide a specific functionality. The network provides for communication so that the overall tasks of the vehicle are accomplished. The O/S structure is based upon the concept of objects. The mechanisms for integrating node unique objects with node common objects in order to implement both the autonomy and the cooperation between nodes is developed. The requirements for time critical performance and reliability and recovery are discussed. Time critical performance impacts all parts of the distributed operating system; e.g., its structure, the functional design of its objects, the language structure, etc. Throughout the paper the tradeoffs - concurrency, language structure, object recovery, binding, file structure, communication protocol, programmer freedom, etc. - are considered to arrive at a feasible, maximum performance design. Reliability of the network system is considered. A parallel multipath bus structure is proposed for the control of delivery time for time critical messages. The architecture also supports immediate recovery for the time critical message system after a communication failure.

  2. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys.

  3. Configuration and specifications of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for early site specific weed management.

    PubMed

    Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; López-Granados, Francisca; De Castro, Ana Isabel; Peña-Barragán, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    A new aerial platform has risen recently for image acquisition, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This article describes the technical specifications and configuration of a UAV used to capture remote images for early season site- specific weed management (ESSWM). Image spatial and spectral properties required for weed seedling discrimination were also evaluated. Two different sensors, a still visible camera and a six-band multispectral camera, and three flight altitudes (30, 60 and 100 m) were tested over a naturally infested sunflower field. The main phases of the UAV workflow were the following: 1) mission planning, 2) UAV flight and image acquisition, and 3) image pre-processing. Three different aspects were needed to plan the route: flight area, camera specifications and UAV tasks. The pre-processing phase included the correct alignment of the six bands of the multispectral imagery and the orthorectification and mosaicking of the individual images captured in each flight. The image pixel size, area covered by each image and flight timing were very sensitive to flight altitude. At a lower altitude, the UAV captured images of finer spatial resolution, although the number of images needed to cover the whole field may be a limiting factor due to the energy required for a greater flight length and computational requirements for the further mosaicking process. Spectral differences between weeds, crop and bare soil were significant in the vegetation indices studied (Excess Green Index, Normalised Green-Red Difference Index and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index), mainly at a 30 m altitude. However, greater spectral separability was obtained between vegetation and bare soil with the index NDVI. These results suggest that an agreement among spectral and spatial resolutions is needed to optimise the flight mission according to every agronomical objective as affected by the size of the smaller object to be discriminated (weed plants or weed patches).

  4. Configuration and Specifications of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Early Site Specific Weed Management

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; López-Granados, Francisca; De Castro, Ana Isabel; Peña-Barragán, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    A new aerial platform has risen recently for image acquisition, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This article describes the technical specifications and configuration of a UAV used to capture remote images for early season site- specific weed management (ESSWM). Image spatial and spectral properties required for weed seedling discrimination were also evaluated. Two different sensors, a still visible camera and a six-band multispectral camera, and three flight altitudes (30, 60 and 100 m) were tested over a naturally infested sunflower field. The main phases of the UAV workflow were the following: 1) mission planning, 2) UAV flight and image acquisition, and 3) image pre-processing. Three different aspects were needed to plan the route: flight area, camera specifications and UAV tasks. The pre-processing phase included the correct alignment of the six bands of the multispectral imagery and the orthorectification and mosaicking of the individual images captured in each flight. The image pixel size, area covered by each image and flight timing were very sensitive to flight altitude. At a lower altitude, the UAV captured images of finer spatial resolution, although the number of images needed to cover the whole field may be a limiting factor due to the energy required for a greater flight length and computational requirements for the further mosaicking process. Spectral differences between weeds, crop and bare soil were significant in the vegetation indices studied (Excess Green Index, Normalised Green-Red Difference Index and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index), mainly at a 30 m altitude. However, greater spectral separability was obtained between vegetation and bare soil with the index NDVI. These results suggest that an agreement among spectral and spatial resolutions is needed to optimise the flight mission according to every agronomical objective as affected by the size of the smaller object to be discriminated (weed plants or weed patches). PMID:23483997

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Surveying Marine Fauna: A Dugong Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species’ habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as ‘certain’ (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  6. An Analysis of Human Causal Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Accidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    PC 306 • Fatigue ( sleep deprivation ) PC 307 • Circadian rhythm de-synchronization (e.g., jet lag or shift work) PC 308 • Motion sickness PC...AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) ACCIDENTS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Mehmet Oncu and Suleyman Yildiz 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  7. Small UAV Research and Evolution in Long Endurance Electric Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Chu, Julio; Motter, Mark A.; Carter, Dennis L.; Ol, Michael; Zeune, Cale

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes recent research into the advancement of small, electric powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capabilities. Specifically, topics include the improvements made in battery technology, design methodologies, avionics architectures and algorithms, materials and structural concepts, propulsion system performance prediction, and others. The results of prototype vehicle designs and flight tests are discussed in the context of their usefulness in defining and validating progress in the various technology areas. Further areas of research need are also identified. These include the need for more robust operating regimes (wind, gust, etc.), and continued improvement in payload fraction vs. endurance.

  8. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) associated DTM quality evaluation and hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mei-Jen; Chen, Shao-Der; Chao, Yu-Jui; Chiang, Yi-Lin; Chang, Kuo-Jen

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan, due to the high seismicity and high annual rainfall, numerous landslides triggered every year and severe impacts affect the island. Concerning to the catastrophic landslides, the key information of landslide, including range of landslide, volume estimation and the subsequent evolution are important when analyzing the triggering mechanism, hazard assessment and mitigation. Thus, the morphological analysis gives a general overview for the landslides and been considered as one of the most fundamental information. We try to integrate several technologies, especially by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and multi-spectral camera, to decipher the consequence and the potential hazard, and the social impact. In recent years, the remote sensing technology improves rapidly, providing a wide range of image, essential and precious information. Benefited of the advancing of informatics, remote-sensing and electric technologies, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry mas been improve significantly. The study tries to integrate several methods, including, 1) Remote-sensing images gathered by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and by aerial photos taken in different periods; 2) field in-situ geologic investigation; 3) Differential GPS, RTK GPS and Ground LiDAR field in-site geoinfomatics measurements; 4) Construct the DTMs before and after landslide, as well as the subsequent periods using UAV and aerial photos; 5) Discrete element method should be applied to understand the geomaterial composing the slope failure, for predicting earthquake-induced and rainfall-induced landslides displacement. First at all, we evaluate the Microdrones MD4-1000 UAV airphotos derived Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The ground resolution of the DSM point cloud of could be as high as 10 cm. By integrated 4 ground control point within an area of 56 hectares, compared with LiDAR DSM and filed RTK-GPS surveying, the mean error is as low as 6cm with a standard deviation of 17cm. The quality of the

  9. Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation

    SciTech Connect

    McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

    2005-03-18

    The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring.

  10. Estimating Basic Preliminary Design Performances of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.; Alexander, Reginald

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamics and Performance Estimation Toolset is a collection of four software programs for rapidly estimating the preliminary design performance of aerospace vehicles represented by doing simplified calculations based on ballistic trajectories, the ideal rocket equation, and supersonic wedges through standard atmosphere. The program consists of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheet subprograms. The input and output data are presented in a user-friendly format, and calculations are performed rapidly enough that the user can iterate among different trajectories and/or shapes to perform "what-if" studies. Estimates that can be computed by these programs include: 1. Ballistic trajectories as a function of departure angles, initial velocities, initial positions, and target altitudes; assuming point masses and no atmosphere. The program plots the trajectory in two-dimensions and outputs the position, pitch, and velocity along the trajectory. 2. The "Rocket Equation" program calculates and plots the trade space for a vehicle s propellant mass fraction over a range of specific impulse and mission velocity values, propellant mass fractions as functions of specific impulses and velocities. 3. "Standard Atmosphere" will estimate the temperature, speed of sound, pressure, and air density as a function of altitude in a standard atmosphere, properties of a standard atmosphere as functions of altitude. 4. "Supersonic Wedges" will calculate the free-stream, normal-shock, oblique-shock, and isentropic flow properties for a wedge-shaped body flying supersonically through a standard atmosphere. It will also calculate the maximum angle for which a shock remains attached, and the minimum Mach number for which a shock becomes attached, all as functions of the wedge angle, altitude, and Mach number.

  11. ENSAERO - A multidisciplinary program for fluid/structural interaction studies of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure is developed that uses a moving zonal grid concept to model complex flexible aerospace vehicles. The Euler/Navier-Stokes equations are used to model the flow, and computations are made using efficient methods based on both central and upwind schemes. The structure is represented by a finite element method which can model general aerospace vehicles. Provisions are made to accommodate other disciplines such as controls and thermal loads. The code is capable of computing unsteady flows on flexible wings with vortical flows. Adaptation of this procedure for parallel processing and validation for complete aerospace configurations is in progress.

  12. A new stratospheric sounding platform based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) droppable from meteorological balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Denis; Khaykin, Sergey; Lykov, Alexey; Berezhko, Yaroslav; Lunin, Aleksey

    High-resolution measurements of climate-relevant trace gases and aerosols in the upper troposphere and stratosphere (UTS) have been and remain technically challenging. The high cost of measurements onboard airborne platforms or heavy stratospheric balloons results in a lack of accurate information on vertical distribution of atmospheric constituents. Whereas light-weight instruments carried by meteorological balloons are becoming progressively available, their usage is constrained by the cost of the equipment or the recovery operations. The evolving need in cost-efficient observations for UTS process studies has led to development of small airborne platforms - unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), capable of carrying small sensors for in-situ measurements. We present a new UAV-based stratospheric sounding platform capable of carrying scientific payload of up to 2 kg. The airborne platform comprises of a latex meteorological balloon and detachable flying wing type UAV with internal measurement controller. The UAV is launched on a balloon to stratospheric altitudes up to 20 km, where it can be automatically released by autopilot or by a remote command sent from the ground control. Having been released from the balloon the UAV glides down and returns to the launch position. Autopilot using 3-axis gyro, accelerometer, barometer, compas and GPS navigation provides flight stabilization and optimal way back trajectory. Backup manual control is provided for emergencies. During the flight the onboard measurement controller stores the data into internal memory and transmits current flight parameters to the ground station via telemetry. Precise operation of the flight control systems ensures safe landing at the launch point. A series of field tests of the detachable stratospheric UAV has been conducted. The scientific payload included the following instruments involved in different flights: a) stratospheric Lyman-alpha hygrometer (FLASH); b) backscatter sonde; c) electrochemical

  13. Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring key technology in coastal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    The coastal wetland, a transitional zone between terrestrial ecosystems and marine ecosystems, is the type of great value to ecosystem services. For the recent 3 decades, area of the coastal wetland is decreasing and the ecological function is gradually degraded with the rapid development of economy, which restricts the sustainable development of economy and society in the coastal areas of China in turn. It is a major demand of the national reality to carry out the monitoring of coastal wetlands, to master the distribution and dynamic change. UAV, namely unmanned aerial vehicle, is a new platform for remote sensing. Compared with the traditional satellite and manned aerial remote sensing, it has the advantage of flexible implementation, no cloud cover, strong initiative and low cost. Image-spectrum merging is one character of high spectral remote sensing. At the same time of imaging, the spectral curve of each pixel is obtained, which is suitable for quantitative remote sensing, fine classification and target detection. Aimed at the frontier and hotspot of remote sensing monitoring technology, and faced the demand of the coastal wetland monitoring, this paper used UAV and the new remote sensor of high spectral imaging instrument to carry out the analysis of the key technologies of monitoring coastal wetlands by UAV on the basis of the current situation in overseas and domestic and the analysis of developing trend. According to the characteristic of airborne hyperspectral data on UAV, that is "three high and one many", the key technology research that should develop are promoted as follows: 1) the atmosphere correction of the UAV hyperspectral in coastal wetlands under the circumstance of complex underlying surface and variable geometry, 2) the best observation scale and scale transformation method of the UAV platform while monitoring the coastal wetland features, 3) the classification and detection method of typical features with high precision from multi scale

  14. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  15. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  16. Status on Updated NASA Standard: "Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the updating of NASA's Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development. This handbook covers the primary terrestrial environment factors with which the design and operation of an aerospace vehicle is concerned. It is intended as a source document for the development of terrestrial environment design requirements and, in this regard, provides consistent and coordinated information for this purpose. The handbook and its predecessors have been used in the design, development, and operation of many NASA flight vehicles, payloads and related activities.

  17. Lightning Characteristics and Lightning Strike Peak Current Probabilities as Related to Aerospace Vehicle Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    1998-01-01

    A summary is presented of basic lightning characteristics/criteria for current and future NASA aerospace vehicles. The paper estimates the probability of occurrence of a 200 kA peak lightning return current, should lightning strike an aerospace vehicle in various operational phases, i.e., roll-out, on-pad, launch, reenter/land, and return-to-launch site. A literature search was conducted for previous work concerning occurrence and measurement of peak lighting currents, modeling, and estimating probabilities of launch vehicles/objects being struck by lightning. This paper presents these results.

  18. National meeting to review IPAD status and goals. [Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    A joint NASA/industry project called Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD) is described, which has the goal of raising aerospace-industry productivity through the application of computers to integrate company-wide management of engineering data. Basically a general-purpose interactive computing system developed to support engineering design processes, the IPAD design is composed of three major software components: the executive, data management, and geometry and graphics software. Results of IPAD activities include a comprehensive description of a future representative aerospace vehicle design process and its interface to manufacturing, and requirements and preliminary design of a future IPAD software system to integrate engineering activities of an aerospace company having several products under simultaneous development.

  19. Dynamic Data Driven Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-08

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Dynamic data driven application systems (DDDAS); surrogate modeling; reduced order modeling; multifidelity methods; self-aware UAV...title and subtitle with volume number and part number, if applicable . On classified documents, enter the title classification in parentheses. 5a...for problems in which the Gaussian kernel has a variable bandwidth. To the best of our knowledge, all of these experiments are impossible or

  20. SAE Mil-1394 For Military and Aerospace Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunga, Larry; Wroble, Mike; Kreska, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Unique opportunity to utilize new technology while increasing vehicle and crew member safety. Demonstration of new technology that can be utilized for Crew Exploration Vehicle and other future manned vehicles. Future work for other cameras in the vehicle that can be IEEE1394 based without major vehicle modifications. Demonstrates that LM can share information and knowledge between internal groups and NASA to assist in providing a product in support of the NASA Return to Flight Activities. This upgrade will provide a flight active data bus that is 100 times faster than any similar bus on the vehicle.

  1. Technology and methodology of separating two similar size aerospace vehicles within the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, J. P.; Wilhite, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the parallel separation, within the atmosphere, of two similar size aerospace vehicles has been investigated in technical areas such as static and dynamic stability, rocket exhaust plume interference, aerodynamic control, loads, and dynamic simulation. Advanced experimental and analysis techniques have been developed to analyze this problem. Results are presented which summarize some of this work. The effects of various parameters on the separation maneuver are illustrated using results from early and current space shuttle configurations. The technology and methodology that have been developed have helped verify the feasibility of separating similar size aerospace vehicles.

  2. Terrestrial environment (climatic) criteria guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler); Hill, C. K. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines on terrestrial environment data specifically applicable for NASA aerospace vehicles and associated equipment development are provided. The general distribution of natural environmental extremes in the conterminous United States that may be needed to specify design criteria in the transportation of space vehicle subsystems and components is considered. Atmospheric attenuation was included, since certain Earth orbital experiment missions are influenced by the Earth's atmosphere. Climatic extremes for worldwide operational needs is also included. Atmospheric chemistry, seismic criteria, and a mathematical model to predict atmospheric dispersion of aerospace engine exhaust cloud rise and growth are discussed. Atmospheric cloud phenomena are considered.

  3. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor/Systems for In-Flight Wing Shape Monitoring of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Allen; Richards, Lance; Ko, William; Piazza, Anthony; Tran, Van

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing an in-flight wing shape measurement system based on fiber bragg grating sensors for use in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is shown. The topics include: 1) MOtivation; 2) Objective; 3) Background; 4) System Design; 5) Ground Testing; 6) Future Work; and 7) Conclusions

  4. A procedure for orthorectification of sub-decimeter resolution imagery obtained with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital aerial photography acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great value for resource management due to the flexibility and relatively low cost for image acquisition, and very high resolution imagery (5 cm) which allows for mapping bare soil and vegetation types, structure and patter...

  5. IPAD applications to the design, analysis, and/or machining of aerospace structures. [Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, C. L.; Dovi, A. R.; Kurtze, W. L.; Storaasli, O. O.

    1981-01-01

    A computer software system for the processing and integration of engineering data and programs, called IPAD (Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design), is described. The ability of the system to relieve the engineer of the mundane task of input data preparation is demonstrated by the application of a prototype system to the design, analysis, and/or machining of three simple structures. Future work to further enhance the system's automated data handling and ability to handle larger and more varied design problems are also presented.

  6. Aerospace Vehicle Design, Spacecraft Section. Final Project Reports. Volume 2; Project Groups 6-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Three groups of student engineers in an aerospace vehicle design course present their designs for a vehicle that can be used to resupply the Space Station Freedam and provide emergency crew return to earth capability. The vehicle's requirements include a lifetime that exceeds six years, low cost, the capability for withstanding pressurization, launch, orbit, and reentry hazards, and reliability. The vehicle's subsystems are structures, communication and command data systems, attitude and articulation control, life support and crew systems, power and propulsion, reentry and recovery systems, and mission management, planning, and costing. Special attention is given to spacecraft communications.

  7. Aerospace Vehicle Design, Spacecraft Section. Volume 1: Project Groups 3-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Three groups of student engineers in an aerospace vehicle design course present their designs for a vehicle that can be used to resupply the Space Station Freedom and provide an emergency crew return to earth capability. The vehicle's requirements include a lifetime that exceeds six years, low cost, the capability for withstanding pressurization, launch, orbit, and reentry hazards, and reliability. The vehicle's subsystems are analyzed. These subsystems are structures, communication and command data systems, attitude and articulation control, life support and crew systems, power and propulsion, reentry and recovery systems, and mission management, planning, and costing.

  8. IPAD: Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The conference was organized to promote wider awareness of the IPAD program and its coming impact on American industry. The program focuses on technology issues that are critical to computer aided design manufacturing. Included is a description of a representative aerospace design process and its interface with manufacturing, the design of a future IPAD integrated computer aided design system, results to date in developing IPAD products and associated technology, and industry experiences and plans to exploit these products.

  9. Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    2004-01-01

    Aerospace Meteorology provides the identification of that aspect of meteorology that is concerned with the definition and modeling of atmospheric parameters for use in aerospace vehicle development, mission planning and operational capability assessments. One of the principal sources of this information is the NASA-HDBK-1001 "Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development'. This handbook was approved by the NASA Chief Engineer in 2000 as a NASA Preferred Technical Standard . Its technical contents were based on natural environment statistics/models and criteria developed mostly in the early 1990's. A task was approved to completely update the handbook to reflect the current state-of-the-art in the various terrestrial environment climatic areas.

  10. Cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) search in dynamic environments using stochastic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Matthew D.

    Within this dissertation, the problem of the control of the decentralized path planning decision processes of multiple cooperating autonomous aerial vehicles engaged in search of an uncertain environment is considered. The environment is modeled in a probabilistic fashion, such that both a priori and dynamic information about it can be incorporated. The components of the environment include both target information and threat information. Using the information about the environment, a computationally feasible decision process is formulated that can decide; in a near optimal fashion, which path a searching vehicle should take, using a dynamic programming algorithm with a limited look ahead horizon, with the possibility to extend the horizon using Approximate Dynamic Programming. A planning vehicle trust take into account the effects of its (local) actions on meeting global goals. This is accomplished using a passive and predictive cooperation scheme among the vehicles. Lastly, a flexible simulator has been developed, using sound simulation analysis methods, to simulate a UAV search team, which can be used to create statistically valid results demonstrating the effectiveness of the model and solution methods.

  11. Grid Generation for Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization of an Aerospace Vehicle: Issues and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss grid generation issues and to challenge the grid generation community to develop tools suitable for automated multidisciplinary analysis and design optimization of aerospace vehicles. Special attention is given to the grid generation issues of computational fluid dynamics and computational structural mechanics disciplines.

  12. Requirements for multidisciplinary design of aerospace vehicles on high performance computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Robert G.

    1989-01-01

    The design of aerospace vehicles is becoming increasingly complex as the various contributing disciplines and physical components become more tightly coupled. This coupling leads to computational problems that will be tractable only if significant advances in high performance computing systems are made. Some of the modeling, algorithmic and software requirements generated by the design problem are discussed.

  13. VAMP: A computer program for calculating volume, area, and mass properties of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, P. J.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized procedure developed for analyzing aerospace vehicles evaluates the properties of elemental surface areas with specified thickness by accumulating and combining them with arbitrarily specified mass elements to form a complete evaluation. Picture-like images of the geometric description are capable of being generated.

  14. Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles. Aerospace Education III. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles." It provides guidelines for each chapter. The guide includes objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for…

  15. "Fly-by-Wireless": A Revolution in Aerospace Vehicle Architecture for Instrumentation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace vehicle programs have always counted on the cables and connectors to provide power, grounding, data and time synchronization throughout a vehicle's life-cycle. Even with numerous improvements, wiring and connector problems and sensors continue to be key failure points, causing many hours of troubleshooting and replacement. Costly flight delays have been precipitated by the need to troubleshoot cables/connections, and/or repair a sensor. Wiring continues to be too expensive to remove once it is installed, even with the weight penalties. Miles of test instrumentation and low flight sensor wires still plague the aerospace industry. New technology options for data connectivity, processing and micro/nano manufacturing are making it possible to retrofit existing vehicles, like the Space Shuttle. New vehicles can now develop architectures that provide for and take advantage of alternatives to wired connectivity. This project motivates the aerospace industry and technology providers to establish: (1) A new emphasis for system engineering approaches to reduce cables and connectors. (2) Provisions for modularity and accessibility in the vehicle architecture. (3) A set of technologies that support alternatives to wired connectivity.

  16. Decomposition-Based Decision Making for Aerospace Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Mavris, DImitri N.

    2005-01-01

    Most practical engineering systems design problems have multiple and conflicting objectives. Furthermore, the satisfactory attainment level for each objective ( requirement ) is likely uncertain early in the design process. Systems with long design cycle times will exhibit more of this uncertainty throughout the design process. This is further complicated if the system is expected to perform for a relatively long period of time, as now it will need to grow as new requirements are identified and new technologies are introduced. These points identify a need for a systems design technique that enables decision making amongst multiple objectives in the presence of uncertainty. Traditional design techniques deal with a single objective or a small number of objectives that are often aggregates of the overarching goals sought through the generation of a new system. Other requirements, although uncertain, are viewed as static constraints to this single or multiple objective optimization problem. With either of these formulations, enabling tradeoffs between the requirements, objectives, or combinations thereof is a slow, serial process that becomes increasingly complex as more criteria are added. This research proposal outlines a technique that attempts to address these and other idiosyncrasies associated with modern aerospace systems design. The proposed formulation first recasts systems design into a multiple criteria decision making problem. The now multiple objectives are decomposed to discover the critical characteristics of the objective space. Tradeoffs between the objectives are considered amongst these critical characteristics by comparison to a probabilistic ideal tradeoff solution. The proposed formulation represents a radical departure from traditional methods. A pitfall of this technique is in the validation of the solution: in a multi-objective sense, how can a decision maker justify a choice between non-dominated alternatives? A series of examples help the

  17. Development of methodologies for the estimation of thermal properties associated with aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal stress analyses are an important aspect in the development of aerospace vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at NASA-LaRC. These analyses require knowledge of the temperature within the structures which consequently necessitates the need for thermal property data. The initial goal of this research effort was to develop a methodology for the estimation of thermal properties of aerospace structural materials at room temperature and to develop a procedure to optimize the estimation process. The estimation procedure was implemented utilizing a general purpose finite element code. In addition, an optimization procedure was developed and implemented to determine critical experimental parameters to optimize the estimation procedure. Finally, preliminary experiments were conducted at the Aircraft Structures Branch (ASB) laboratory.

  18. PCSYS: The optimal design integration system picture drawing system with hidden line algorithm capability for aerospace vehicle configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Vanderburg, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    A vehicle geometric definition based upon quadrilateral surface elements to produce realistic pictures of an aerospace vehicle. The PCSYS programs can be used to visually check geometric data input, monitor geometric perturbations, and to visualize the complex spatial inter-relationships between the internal and external vehicle components. PCSYS has two major component programs. The between program, IMAGE, draws a complex aerospace vehicle pictorial representation based on either an approximate but rapid hidden line algorithm or without any hidden line algorithm. The second program, HIDDEN, draws a vehicle representation using an accurate but time consuming hidden line algorithm.

  19. Terrestrial environment (climatic) criteria guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development, 1993 revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1993-08-01

    Guidelines on terrestrial environment data specifically applicable in the development of design requirements/specifications for NASA aerospace vehicles and associated equipment development are provided. The primary geographic areas encompassed are the John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Vandenberg AFB, CA; Edwards AFB, CA; Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans, LA; John C. Stennis Space Center, MS; Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX; and the White Sands Missile Range, NM. In addition, a section was included to provide information on the general distribution of natural environmental extremes in the conterminous United States that may be needed to specify design criteria in the transportation of space vehicle subsystems and components. A summary of climatic extremes for worldwide operational needs is also included. Although not considered as a specific vehicle design criterion, a section on atmospheric attenuation was added since sensors on certain Earth orbital experiment missions are influenced by the Earth's atmosphere. The latest available information on probable climatic extremes is presented and supersedes information presented in TM X-64589, TM X-64757, TM X-78118, and TM-82473. Information is included on atmospheric chemistry, seismic criteria, and on a mathematical model to predict atmospheric dispersion of aerospace engine exhaust cloud rise and growth. There is also a section on atmospheric cloud phenomena. The information is recommended for use in the development of aerospace vehicle and associated equipment design and operational criteria, unless otherwise stated in contract work specifications. The environmental data are primarily limited to information below 90 km.

  20. Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Guidelines for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development, 1993 Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Guidelines on terrestrial environment data specifically applicable in the development of design requirements/specifications for NASA aerospace vehicles and associated equipment development are provided. The primary geographic areas encompassed are the John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Vandenberg AFB, CA; Edwards AFB, CA; Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans, LA; John C. Stennis Space Center, MS; Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX; and the White Sands Missile Range, NM. In addition, a section was included to provide information on the general distribution of natural environmental extremes in the conterminous United States that may be needed to specify design criteria in the transportation of space vehicle subsystems and components. A summary of climatic extremes for worldwide operational needs is also included. Although not considered as a specific vehicle design criterion, a section on atmospheric attenuation was added since sensors on certain Earth orbital experiment missions are influenced by the Earth's atmosphere. The latest available information on probable climatic extremes is presented and supersedes information presented in TM X-64589, TM X-64757, TM X-78118, and TM-82473. Information is included on atmospheric chemistry, seismic criteria, and on a mathematical model to predict atmospheric dispersion of aerospace engine exhaust cloud rise and growth. There is also a section on atmospheric cloud phenomena. The information is recommended for use in the development of aerospace vehicle and associated equipment design and operational criteria, unless otherwise stated in contract work specifications. The environmental data are primarily limited to information below 90 km.

  1. Technology development program for twenty-first century aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, William T.; Price, Douglas B.

    1987-01-01

    A program to meet the avionics technology needs for the design of future space transportation systems is presented. The program is designed to meet as many technology goals as possible by 1996 so decisions can be made as to which vehicles are feasible and which should be constructed.

  2. Multidisciplinary Design Techniques Applied to Conceptual Aerospace Vehicle Design. Ph.D. Thesis Final Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John Robert; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an emerging discipline within aerospace engineering. Its goal is to bring structure and efficiency to the complex design process associated with advanced aerospace launch vehicles. Aerospace vehicles generally require input from a variety of traditional aerospace disciplines - aerodynamics, structures, performance, etc. As such, traditional optimization methods cannot always be applied. Several multidisciplinary techniques and methods were proposed as potentially applicable to this class of design problem. Among the candidate options are calculus-based (or gradient-based) optimization schemes and parametric schemes based on design of experiments theory. A brief overview of several applicable multidisciplinary design optimization methods is included. Methods from the calculus-based class and the parametric class are reviewed, but the research application reported focuses on methods from the parametric class. A vehicle of current interest was chosen as a test application for this research. The rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle combines elements of rocket and airbreathing propulsion in an attempt to produce an attractive option for launching medium sized payloads into low earth orbit. The RBCC SSTO presents a particularly difficult problem for traditional one-variable-at-a-time optimization methods because of the lack of an adequate experience base and the highly coupled nature of the design variables. MDO, however, with it's structured approach to design, is well suited to this problem. The result of the application of Taguchi methods, central composite designs, and response surface methods to the design optimization of the RBCC SSTO are presented. Attention is given to the aspect of Taguchi methods that attempts to locate a 'robust' design - that is, a design that is least sensitive to uncontrollable influences on the design. Near-optimum minimum dry weight solutions are

  3. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Integrated information processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The engineering-specified requirements for integrated information processing by means of the Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system are presented. A data model is described and is based on the design process of a typical aerospace vehicle. General data management requirements are specified for data storage, retrieval, generation, communication, and maintenance. Information management requirements are specified for a two-component data model. In the general portion, data sets are managed as entities, and in the specific portion, data elements and the relationships between elements are managed by the system, allowing user access to individual elements for the purpose of query. Computer program management requirements are specified for support of a computer program library, control of computer programs, and installation of computer programs into IPAD.

  4. Terrestrial environment (Climatic) criteria guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development, 1977 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines are provided on terrestrial environment data specifically applicable for NASA aerospace vehicles and associated equipment development. Information is included on the general distribution of natural environment extremes in the conterminous United States that may be needed to specify design criteria in the transportation of space vehicle subsystems and components. Atmospheric attenuation was investigated since certain earth orbital experiment missions are influenced by the earth's atmosphere. A summary of climatic extremes for worldwide operational needs is also included. The latest available information on probable climatic extremes is presented with information on atmospheric chemistry, seismic criteria, and on a mathematical model to predict atmospheric dispersion of aerospace engine exhaust cloud rise and growth. Cloud phenomena are also considered.

  5. A technique for simulating turbulence for aerospace vehicle flight simulation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    An atmospheric turbulence model which accommodates variability of turbulence properties along an aerospace vehicle trajectory was developed. The technique involves the use of Dryden spectral forms in which the defining parameters are the standard deviations (sigma) and integral scales (L) of turbulence. These spectra are expressed as nondimensional functions of the nondimensional frequency Omega = omega L/V where omega is dimensional radian frequency and V is the true air speed of the aerospace vehicle. The nondimensional spectra are factored by standard techniques to obtain nondimensional linear recursive filters in the time domain whereby band-limited white-like noise can be operated upon to obtain nondimensional longitudinal, lateral, and vertical turbulence velocities, as functions of nondimensional time, tV/L, where t is time. Application of the technique to the simulation of the space shuttle orbiter entry flight phase is discussed.

  6. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for spatio-temporal monitoring of soil erosion and roughness in Chania, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios; Seiradakis, Kostas; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    This article presents a remote sensing approach for spatio-temporal monitoring of both soil erosion and roughness using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Soil erosion by water is commonly known as one of the main reasons for land degradation. Gully erosion causes considerable soil loss and soil degradation. Furthermore, quantification of soil roughness (irregularities of the soil surface due to soil texture) is important and affects surface storage and infiltration. Soil roughness is one of the most susceptible to variation in time and space characteristics and depends on different parameters such as cultivation practices and soil aggregation. A UAV equipped with a digital camera was employed to monitor soil in terms of erosion and roughness in two different study areas in Chania, Crete, Greece. The UAV followed predicted flight paths computed by the relevant flight planning software. The photogrammetric image processing enabled the development of sophisticated Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) and ortho-image mosaics with very high resolution on a sub-decimeter level. The DTMs were developed using photogrammetric processing of more than 500 images acquired with the UAV from different heights above the ground level. As the geomorphic formations can be observed from above using UAVs, shadowing effects do not generally occur and the generated point clouds have very homogeneous and high point densities. The DTMs generated from UAV were compared in terms of vertical absolute accuracies with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) survey. The developed data products were used for quantifying gully erosion and soil roughness in 3D as well as for the analysis of the surrounding areas. The significant elevation changes from multi-temporal UAV elevation data were used for estimating diachronically soil loss and sediment delivery without installing sediment traps. Concerning roughness, statistical indicators of surface elevation point measurements were estimated and various

  7. Development of integrated programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product program management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, J. M.; Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) is a computing system to support company-wide design information processing. This document presents a brief description of the management system used to direct and control a product-oriented program. This document, together with the reference design process (CR 2981) and the manufacture interactions with the design process (CR 2982), comprises the reference information that forms the basis for specifying IPAD system requirements.

  8. Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Guidelines for use in Aerospace Vehicle Development. 2008 Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the terrestrial environment that are specifically applicable in the development of design requirements/specifications for NASA aerospace vehicles, payloads, and associated ground support equipment. The primary geographic areas encompassed are the John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Vandenberg AFB, CA; Edwards AFB, CA; Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans, LA; John C. Stennis Space Center, MS; Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX; George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; and the White Sands Missile Range, NM. This document presents the latest available information on the terrestrial environment applicable to the design and operations of aerospace vehicles and supersedes information presented in NASA-HDBK-1001 and TM X-64589, TM X-64757, TM-78118, TM-82473, and TM-4511. Information is included on winds, atmospheric thermodynamic models, radiation, humidity, precipitation, severe weather, sea state, lightning, atmospheric chemistry, seismic criteria, and a model to predict atmospheric dispersion of aerospace engine exhaust cloud rise and growth. In addition, a section has been included to provide information on the general distribution of natural environmental extremes in the conterminous United States, and world-wide, that may be needed to specify design criteria in the transportation of space vehicle subsystems and components. A section on atmospheric attenuation has been added since measurements by sensors on certain Earth orbital experiment missions are influenced by the Earth s atmosphere. There is also a section on mission analysis, prelaunch monitoring, and flight evaluation as related to the terrestrial environment inputs. The information in these guidelines is recommended for use in the development of aerospace vehicle and related equipment design and associated operational criteria, unless otherwise stated in contract work specifications. The terrestrial environmental data in these guidelines are

  9. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) - IPAD user requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a requirements analysis task for Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) are presented. User requirements which, in part, will shape the IPAD system design are given. Requirements considered were: generation, modification, storage, retrieval, communication, reporting, and protection of information. Data manipulation and controls on the system and the information were also considered. Specific needs relative to the product design process are also discussed.

  10. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

  11. The Application of Cognitive Radio to Coordinated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    iii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 GNU Radio /USRP-Based UAV Downlink Simulator... radios based on the GNU Radio /Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) open-source platform to meet the needs of the UAVs of interest. Our tests...indicated that the GNU Radio /USRP combination can support data rates of at least 1 Mbps for small UAV platforms using DBPSK, DQPSK, and GMSK modulations

  12. Sensitivity analyses for the DTMs derived from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in gully erosion mapping: Nallihan badland area (Ankara, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdan, Ugur; Gorum, Tolga; Comert, Resul; Nefeslioglu, Hakan

    2015-04-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the spatial resolutions for the Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in gully erosion mapping. For the purpose, Nallihan badland area (Ankara, Turkey) was selected to be the experimental site. The investigations were carried out in 3 stages; (i) production of the DTMs having 3 cm and 9 cm spatial resolutions by using the orthophoto imagery acquired from the UAV at 97.5 m and 292.4 m altitudes, respectively, (ii) Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) of the experimental site and production of the DTMs derived from the TLS data resampled at 3 cm and 9 cm spatial resolutions, and (iii) spatial and profile comparisons of the derived data. The average altitude differences were obtained on the intervals (-0.1, 0.1) m and (-0.2, 0.2) m for the comparisons between TLS-3cm and UAV-3cm, and TLS-9cm and UAV-9cm data, respectively. Additionally, considering the profile comparisons, it is revealed that depending on the decreasing of spatial resolution, the erosion rates calculated from the DTMs increase artificially.

  13. Application of Vehicle Dynamic Modeling in Uavs for Precise Determination of Exterior Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaghani, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    Advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and especially micro aerial vehicle (MAV) technology together with increasing quality and decreasing price of imaging devices have resulted in growing use of MAVs in photogrammetry. The practicality of MAV mapping is seriously enhanced with the ability to determine parameters of exterior orientation (EO) with sufficient accuracy, in both absolute and relative senses (change of attitude between successive images). While differential carrier phase GNSS satisfies cm-level positioning accuracy, precise attitude determination is essential for both direct sensor orientation (DiSO) and integrated sensor orientation (ISO) in corridor mapping or in block configuration imaging over surfaces with low texture. Limited cost, size, and weight of MAVs represent limitations on quality of onboard navigation sensors and puts emphasis on exploiting full capacity of available resources. Typically short flying times (10-30 minutes) also limit the possibility of estimating and/or correcting factors such as sensor misalignment and poor attitude initialization of inertial navigation system (INS). This research aims at increasing the accuracy of attitude determination in both absolute and relative senses with no extra sensors onboard. In comparison to classical INS/GNSS setup, novel approach is presented here to integrated state estimation, in which vehicle dynamic model (VDM) is used as the main process model. Such system benefits from available information from autopilot and physical properties of the platform in enhancing performance of determination of trajectory and parameters of exterior orientation consequently. The navigation system employs a differential carrier phase GNSS receiver and a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) grade inertial measurement unit (IMU), together with MAV control input from autopilot. Monte-Carlo simulation has been performed on trajectories for typical corridor mapping and block imaging. Results reveal

  14. Dynamic Gas Flow Effects on the ESD of Aerospace Vehicle Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Kapat, Jayanta; Ahmed, Kareem; Cox, Rachel E.; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Calle, Luz M.; Mulligan, Jaysen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a dynamic version of Paschen's Law that takes into account the flow of ambient gas past aerospace vehicle surfaces. However, the classic Paschen's Law does not take into account the flow of gas of an aerospace vehicle, whose surfaces may be triboelectrically charged by dust or ice crystal impingement, traversing the atmosphere. The basic hypothesis of this work is that the number of electron-ion pairs created per unit distance by the electric field between the electrodes is mitigated by the electron-ion pairs removed per unit distance by the flow of gas. The revised Paschen equation must be a function of the mean velocity, v(sub xm), of the ambient gas and reduces to the classical version of Paschen's law when the gas mean velocity, v(sub xm) = 0. New formulations of Paschen's Law, taking into account Mach number and dynamic pressure, derived by the authors, will be discussed. These equations will be evaluated by wind tunnel experimentation later this year. Based on the results of this work, it is hoped that the safety of aerospace vehicles will be enhanced with a redefinition of electrostatic launch commit criteria. It is also possible that new products, such as new anti-static coatings, may be formulated from this data.

  15. AVID - A design system for technology studies of advanced transportation concepts. [Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Rehder, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic AVID (Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design) is a general system for conceptual and preliminary design currently being applied to a broad range of future space transportation and spacecraft vehicle concepts. AVID hardware includes a minicomputer allowing rapid designer interaction. AVID software includes (1) an executive program and communication data base which provide the automated capability to couple individual programs, either individually in an interactive mode or chained together in an automatic sequence mode; and (2) the individual technology and utility programs which provide analysis capability in areas such as graphics, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, weights, sizing, and costs.

  16. A telescopic cinema sound camera for observing high altitude aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2014-09-01

    Rockets and other high altitude aerospace vehicles produce interesting visual and aural phenomena that can be remotely observed from long distances. This paper describes a compact, passive and covert remote sensing system that can produce high resolution sound movies at >100 km viewing distances. The telescopic high resolution camera is capable of resolving and quantifying space launch vehicle dynamics including plume formation, staging events and payload fairing jettison. Flight vehicles produce sounds and vibrations that modulate the local electromagnetic environment. These audio frequency modulations can be remotely sensed by passive optical and radio wave detectors. Acousto-optic sensing methods were primarily used but an experimental radioacoustic sensor using passive micro-Doppler radar techniques was also tested. The synchronized combination of high resolution flight vehicle imagery with the associated vehicle sounds produces a cinema like experience that that is useful in both an aerospace engineering and a Hollywood film production context. Examples of visual, aural and radar observations of the first SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket launch are shown and discussed.

  17. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs, drones) in plant ecology1

    PubMed Central

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.; Weinstein, Ben G.; Grasty, Monica R.; Kohrn, Brendan F.; Hendrickson, Elizabeth C.; Arredondo, Tina M.; Thompson, Pamela G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Low-elevation surveys with small aerial drones (micro–unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) may be used for a wide variety of applications in plant ecology, including mapping vegetation over small- to medium-sized regions. We provide an overview of methods and procedures for conducting surveys and illustrate some of these applications. Methods: Aerial images were obtained by flying a small drone along transects over the area of interest. Images were used to create a composite image (orthomosaic) and a digital surface model (DSM). Vegetation classification was conducted manually and using an automated routine. Coverage of an individual species was estimated from aerial images. Results: We created a vegetation map for the entire region from the orthomosaic and DSM, and mapped the density of one species. Comparison of our manual and automated habitat classification confirmed that our mapping methods were accurate. A species with high contrast to the background matrix allowed adequate estimate of its coverage. Discussion: The example surveys demonstrate that small aerial drones are capable of gathering large amounts of information on the distribution of vegetation and individual species with minimal impact to sensitive habitats. Low-elevation aerial surveys have potential for a wide range of applications in plant ecology. PMID:27672518

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Artificial Intelligence Revolutionizing Wildlife Monitoring and Conservation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Luis F; Montes, Glen A; Puig, Eduard; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-14

    Surveying threatened and invasive species to obtain accurate population estimates is an important but challenging task that requires a considerable investment in time and resources. Estimates using existing ground-based monitoring techniques, such as camera traps and surveys performed on foot, are known to be resource intensive, potentially inaccurate and imprecise, and difficult to validate. Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), artificial intelligence and miniaturized thermal imaging systems represent a new opportunity for wildlife experts to inexpensively survey relatively large areas. The system presented in this paper includes thermal image acquisition as well as a video processing pipeline to perform object detection, classification and tracking of wildlife in forest or open areas. The system is tested on thermal video data from ground based and test flight footage, and is found to be able to detect all the target wildlife located in the surveyed area. The system is flexible in that the user can readily define the types of objects to classify and the object characteristics that should be considered during classification.

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Artificial Intelligence Revolutionizing Wildlife Monitoring and Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Luis F.; Montes, Glen A.; Puig, Eduard; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Surveying threatened and invasive species to obtain accurate population estimates is an important but challenging task that requires a considerable investment in time and resources. Estimates using existing ground-based monitoring techniques, such as camera traps and surveys performed on foot, are known to be resource intensive, potentially inaccurate and imprecise, and difficult to validate. Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), artificial intelligence and miniaturized thermal imaging systems represent a new opportunity for wildlife experts to inexpensively survey relatively large areas. The system presented in this paper includes thermal image acquisition as well as a video processing pipeline to perform object detection, classification and tracking of wildlife in forest or open areas. The system is tested on thermal video data from ground based and test flight footage, and is found to be able to detect all the target wildlife located in the surveyed area. The system is flexible in that the user can readily define the types of objects to classify and the object characteristics that should be considered during classification. PMID:26784196

  20. Development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based high altitude balloon (HAB) platform for active aerosol sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lateran, S.; Sedan, M. F.; Harithuddin, A. S. M.; Azrad, S.

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge on the abundance and diversity of the minute particles or aerosols in the earth's stratosphere is still in its infancy as aerosol sampling at high-altitude still possess a lot of challenges. Thus far, high-altitude aerosol sampling has been conducted mostly using manned flights, which requires enormous financial and logistical resources. There had been researches for the utilisation of high altitude balloon (HAB) for active and passive aerosol samplings within the stratosphere. However, the gathered samples in the payload were either brought down by controlling the balloon air pressure or were just dropped with a parachute to slow the descend speed in order to reduce the impact upon landing. In most cases, the drop location of the sample are unfavorable such as in the middle of the sea, dense foliage, etc. Hence a system that can actively sample aerosols at high-altitude and improve the delivery method in terms of quality and reliability using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is designed and tested in this study.

  1. Telesurgery via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a field deployable surgical robot.

    PubMed

    Lum, Mitchell J H; Rosen, Jacob; King, Hawkeye; Friedman, Diana C W; Donlin, Gina; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Harnett, Brett; Huffman, Lynn; Doarn, Charles; Broderick, Timothy; Hannaford, Blake

    2007-01-01

    Robotically assisted surgery stands to further revolutionize the medical field and provide patients with more effective healthcare. Most robotically assisted surgeries are teleoperated from the surgeon console to the patient where both ends of the system are located in the operating room. The challenge of surgical teleoperation across a long distance was already demonstrated through a wired communication network in 2001. New development has shifted towards deploying a surgical robot system in mobile settings and/or extreme environments such as the battlefield or natural disaster areas with surgeons operating wirelessly. As a collaborator in the HAPs/MRT (High Altitude Platform/Mobile Robotic Telesurgery) project, The University of Washington surgical robot was deployed in the desert of Simi Valley, CA for telesurgery experiments on an inanimate model via wireless communication through an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The surgical tasks were performed telerobotically with a maximum time delay between the surgeon's console (master) and the surgical robot (slave) of 20 ms for the robotic control signals and 200 ms for the video stream. This was our first experiment in the area of Mobile Robotic Telesurgery (MRT). The creation and initial testing of a deployable surgical robot system will facilitate growth in this area eventually leading to future systems saving human lives in disaster areas, on the battlefield or in other remote environments.

  2. A Conceptual Aerospace Vehicle Structural System Modeling, Analysis and Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    A process for aerospace structural concept analysis and design is presented, with examples of a blended-wing-body fuselage, a multi-bubble fuselage concept, a notional crew exploration vehicle, and a high altitude long endurance aircraft. Aerospace vehicle structures must withstand all anticipated mission loads, yet must be designed to have optimal structural weight with the required safety margins. For a viable systems study of advanced concepts, these conflicting requirements must be imposed and analyzed early in the conceptual design cycle, preferably with a high degree of fidelity. In this design process, integrated multidisciplinary analysis tools are used in a collaborative engineering environment. First, parametric solid and surface models including the internal structural layout are developed for detailed finite element analyses. Multiple design scenarios are generated for analyzing several structural configurations and material alternatives. The structural stress, deflection, strain, and margins of safety distributions are visualized and the design is improved. Over several design cycles, the refined vehicle parts and assembly models are generated. The accumulated design data is used for the structural mass comparison and concept ranking. The present application focus on the blended-wing-body vehicle structure and advanced composite material are also discussed.

  3. Combined Loads Test Fixture for Thermal-Structural Testing Aerospace Vehicle Panel Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Roger A.; Richards, W. Lance; DeAngelis, Michael V.

    2004-01-01

    A structural test requirement of the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program has resulted in the design, fabrication, and implementation of a combined loads test fixture. Principal requirements for the fixture are testing a 4- by 4-ft hat-stiffened panel with combined axial (either tension or compression) and shear load at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 915 F, keeping the test panel stresses caused by the mechanical loads uniform, and thermal stresses caused by non-uniform panel temperatures minimized. The panel represents the side fuselage skin of an experimental aerospace vehicle, and was produced for the NASP program. A comprehensive mechanical loads test program using the new test fixture has been conducted on this panel from room temperature to 500 F. Measured data have been compared with finite-element analyses predictions, verifying that uniform load distributions were achieved by the fixture. The overall correlation of test data with analysis is excellent. The panel stress distributions and temperature distributions are very uniform and fulfill program requirements. This report provides details of an analytical and experimental validation of the combined loads test fixture. Because of its simple design, this unique test fixture can accommodate panels from a variety of aerospace vehicle designs.

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  5. The payload bay in the nose of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) will be able to carry up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The payload bay in the nose of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), shown here during final construction at General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., (GA-ASI) facility at Adelanto, Calif., will be able to carry up to 700 lbs. of sensors, imaging equipment and other instruments for Earth science missions. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator to validate a variety of command and control technologies for UAVs, as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Eleven-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 86 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

  6. The left wing of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) rests in a jig during construction at G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The left wing of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) rests in a jig during construction at General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., (GA-ASI) facility at Adelanto, Calif. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator to validate a variety of command and control technologies for UAVs, as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Eleven-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 86 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

  7. Wildlife Multispecies Remote Sensing Using Visible and Thermal Infrared Imagery Acquired from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrétien, L.-P.; Théau, J.; Ménard, P.

    2015-08-01

    Wildlife aerial surveys require time and significant resources. Multispecies detection could reduce costs to a single census for species that coexist spatially. Traditional methods are demanding for observers in terms of concentration and are not adapted to multispecies censuses. The processing of multispectral aerial imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) represents a potential solution for multispecies detection. The method used in this study is based on a multicriteria object-based image analysis applied on visible and thermal infrared imagery acquired from a UAV. This project aimed to detect American bison, fallow deer, gray wolves, and elks located in separate enclosures with a known number of individuals. Results showed that all bison and elks were detected without errors, while for deer and wolves, 0-2 individuals per flight line were mistaken with ground elements or undetected. This approach also detected simultaneously and separately the four targeted species even in the presence of other untargeted ones. These results confirm the potential of multispectral imagery acquired from UAV for wildlife census. Its operational application remains limited to small areas related to the current regulations and available technology. Standardization of the workflow will help to reduce time and expertise requirements for such technology.

  8. Technical Note: Advances in flash flood monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perks, Matthew T.; Russell, Andrew J.; Large, Andrew R. G.

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have the potential to capture information about the earth's surface in dangerous and previously inaccessible locations. Through image acquisition of flash flood events and subsequent object-based analysis, highly dynamic and oft-immeasurable hydraulic phenomena may be quantified at previously unattainable spatial and temporal resolutions. The potential for this approach to provide valuable information about the hydraulic conditions present during dynamic, high-energy flash floods has until now not been explored. In this paper we adopt a novel approach, utilizing the Kande-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) algorithm to track features present on the water surface which are related to the free-surface velocity. Following the successful tracking of features, a method analogous to the vector correction method has enabled accurate geometric rectification of velocity vectors. Uncertainties associated with the rectification process induced by unsteady camera movements are subsequently explored. Geo-registration errors are relatively stable and occur as a result of persistent residual distortion effects following image correction. The apparent ground movement of immobile control points between measurement intervals ranges from 0.05 to 0.13 m. The application of this approach to assess the hydraulic conditions present in the Alyth Burn, Scotland, during a 1 : 200 year flash flood resulted in the generation of an average 4.2 at a rate of 508 measurements s-1. Analysis of these vectors provides a rare insight into the complexity of channel-overbank interactions during flash floods. The uncertainty attached to the calculated velocities is relatively low, with a spatial average across the area of ±0.15 m s-1. Little difference is observed in the uncertainty attached to out-of-bank velocities (±0.15 m s-1), and within-channel velocities (±0.16 m s-1), illustrating the consistency of the approach.

  9. Needs and Opportunities for Uncertainty-Based Multidisciplinary Design Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Kenny, Sean P; Luckring, James M.; Maghami, Peiman; Padula, Sharon L.; Stroud, W. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    This report consists of a survey of the state of the art in uncertainty-based design together with recommendations for a Base research activity in this area for the NASA Langley Research Center. This report identifies the needs and opportunities for computational and experimental methods that provide accurate, efficient solutions to nondeterministic multidisciplinary aerospace vehicle design problems. Barriers to the adoption of uncertainty-based design methods are identified. and the benefits of the use of such methods are explained. Particular research needs are listed.

  10. Modeling aerosol losses and clothing effects in fires. [for aerospace vehicle environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The described modification of a physiochemical fire model predicts physical effects in clothed humans exposed to elevated temperatures as well as gas and aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere of an aerospace vehicle. The modifications involve the reduction in aerosol concentrations caused by settling and some improvements in dealing with mass and heat transfer effects. Predicted skin temperatures are found to be within 2 C of experimental values for the cases studied, and model predictions of total body enthalpy seem to correlate with symptomology observed experimentally.

  11. NDE of Fiber Reinforced Foam Composite Structures for Future Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, james; Roth, Don; Hopkins, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the complexities of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber reinforced foam composite structures to be used for aerospace vehicles in the future.Various views of fiber reinforced foam materials are shown and described. Conventional methods of NDE for composites are reviewed such as Micro-computed X-Ray Tomography, Thermography, Shearography, and Phased Array Ultrasonics (PAUT). These meth0ods appear to work well on the face sheet and face sheet ot core bond, they do not provide adequate coverage for the webs. There is a need for additional methods that will examine the webs and web to foam core bond.

  12. Thermographic testing used on the X-33 space launch vehicle program by BFGoodrich Aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, Douglas D.

    1999-03-01

    The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStarTM, an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite- epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor (1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain view, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, (2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at Nasa Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and (3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.

  13. Thermographic Testing Using on the X-33 Space Launch Vehicle Program by BFGoodrich Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA, under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStar(Trademark), an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite-epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor 1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountainview, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, 2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at NASA Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and 3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.

  14. Design of Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, D. W.; Ravikumar, R.

    1997-01-01

    In this report, thin film deposition of one of the model candidate materials for use as water repellent coating on the thermal protection systems (TPS) of an aerospace vehicle was investigated. The material tested was boron nitride (BN), the water-repellent properties of which was detailed in our other investigation. Two different methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD), were used to prepare the BN films on a fused quartz substrate (one of the components of thermal protection systems on aerospace vehicles). The deposited films were characterized by a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The BN films were observed to be amorphous in nature, and a CVD-deposited film yielded a contact angle of 60 degrees with water, similar to the pellet BN samples investigated previously. This demonstrates that it is possible to use the bulk sample wetting properties as a guideline to determine the candidate waterproofing material for the TPS.

  15. Development of Methodologies for the Estimation of Thermal Properties Associated with Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal stress analysis is an important aspect in the design of aerospace structures and vehicles such as the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC). These structures are complex and are often composed of numerous components fabricated from a variety of different materials. The thermal loads on these structures induce temperature variations within the structure, which in turn result in the development of thermal stresses. Therefore, a thermal stress analysis requires knowledge of the temperature distributions within the structures which consequently necessitates the need for accurate knowledge of the thermal properties, boundary conditions and thermal interface conditions associated with the structural materials. The goal of this proposed multi-year research effort was to develop estimation methodologies for the determination of the thermal properties and interface conditions associated with aerospace vehicles. Specific objectives focused on the development and implementation of optimal experimental design strategies and methodologies for the estimation of thermal properties associated with simple composite and honeycomb structures. The strategy used in this multi-year research effort was to first develop methodologies for relatively simple systems and then systematically modify these methodologies to analyze complex structures. This can be thought of as a building block approach. This strategy was intended to promote maximum usability of the resulting estimation procedure by NASA-LARC researchers through the design of in-house experimentation procedures and through the use of an existing general purpose finite element software.

  16. Remote Sensing of Arctic Environmental Conditions and Critical Infrastructure using Infra-Red (IR) Cameras and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Webley, P.; Saiet, E., II

    2014-12-01

    Remote Sensing of Arctic Environmental Conditions and Critical Infrastructure using Infra-Red (IR) Cameras and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) Numerous scientific and logistical applications exist in Alaska and other arctic regions requiring analysis of expansive, remote areas in the near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands. These include characterization of wild land fire plumes and volcanic ejecta, detailed mapping of lava flows, and inspection of lengthy segments of critical infrastructure, such as the Alaska pipeline and railroad system. Obtaining timely, repeatable, calibrated measurements of these extensive features and infrastructure networks requires localized, taskable assets such as UAVs. The Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) provides practical solutions to these problem sets by pairing various IR sensors with a combination of fixed-wing and multi-rotor air vehicles. Fixed-wing assets, such as the Insitu ScanEagle, offer long reach and extended duration capabilities to quickly access remote locations and provide enduring surveillance of the target of interest. Rotary-wing assets, such as the Aeryon Scout or the ACUASI-built Ptarmigan hexcopter, provide a precision capability for detailed horizontal mapping or vertical stratification of atmospheric phenomena. When included with other ground capabilities, we will show how they can assist in decision support and hazard assessment as well as giving those in emergency management a new ability to increase knowledge of the event at hand while reducing the risk to all involved. Here, in this presentation, we illustrate how UAV's can provide the ideal tool to map and analyze the hazardous events and critical infrastructure under extreme environmental conditions.

  17. Looking Inward to the Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Rice Production Assessment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komaladara, A. A. S. P.; Ambarawati, I. G. A. A.; Wijaya, I. M. A. S.; Hongo, C.; Mirah Adi, A. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Rice is the main source of carbohydrate for most Indonesians. Rice production has been very dynamic due to improved infrastructure, research and development, and better farm management. However, rice production is susceptible to loss caused by drought, pest and disease attack and climate change. With the growing concern on sustainable and self-reliance food production in the country, there is an urgency to encourage research and efforts to increase rice productivity. Attempts to provide spatial distribution of rice fields on high resolution optical remote sensing data have been employed to some extent, however this technology could be costly. The use of UAV has been introduced to estimate damage ratio in rice crop recently in Indonesia. This technology is one of the ways to estimate rice production quicker, cost-saving and before harvesting time. This study aims to analyze spatio temporal and damage ratio of rice crop using UAV in Indonesia. The study empirically presents the use of UAV (Phantom 2 Vision +) on rice fields to the soil condition and development of management zone map in Bali as an example. The study concludes that the use of UAV allows researchers to pin point characteristics of crop and land in a specific area of a farm. This will then allow researchers to assist farmers in implementing specific and appropriate solutions to production issues. Key words: UAV, rice production, damage ratio

  18. MaNIAC-UAV - a methodology for automatic pavement defects detection using images obtained by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Castelo Branco, Luiz; César Lima Segantine, Paulo

    2015-09-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems - ITS is a set of integrated technologies (Remote Sensing, Image Processing, Communications Systems and others) that aim to offer services and advanced traffic management for the several transportation modes (road, air and rail). Collect data on the characteristics and conditions of the road surface and keep them update is an important and difficult task that needs to be currently managed in order to reduce accidents and vehicle maintenance costs. Nowadays several roads and highways are paved, but usually there is insufficient updated data about current condition and status. There are different types of pavement defects on the roads and to keep them in good condition they should be constantly monitored and maintained according to pavement management strategy. This paper presents a methodology to obtain, automatically, information about the conditions of the highway asphalt pavement. Data collection was done through remote sensing using an UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and the image processing and pattern recognition techniques through Geographic Information System.

  19. Spatial distribution of water stress and evapotranspiration estimates using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauneker, P.; Lischeid, G.

    2012-04-01

    The estimation of spatial distribution of evapotranspiration poses a particular challenge in quantitative hydrology. Conventional methods provide punctual measurements of evapotranspiration rates which may be transformed into aggregated mean values by extrapolation or the application of empirical models. The influence of spatial structures (heterogeneity of the landscape) in relevant small spatial scales is captured insufficiently by these methods. Modern optical remote sensors aboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) provide the basis for the generation of high spatial resolution data. Spectral data in the optical, near infrared and thermal infrared domain will be used as input into a surface energy balance (SEB) model to produce evapotranspiration maps. The spectral properties of vegetation are of particular importance for the calculation, since plants are the link between soil and atmosphere and thus have major impact on evapotranspiration rates of land surfaces. First estimates of plant status and indicators of transpiration behavior will be obtained by applying and combining water stress parameters of different wavelengths. As opposed to satellite data, time-series of self-determined spatial and temporal resolution may be created by varying flight altitude and turnaround times. Thus it is possible to analyze the influence of landscape structures, as well as the chronological development of the observed parameters. Located at the interface between hydrology and remote sensing this work utilizes an innovative remote sensing platform to gain distributed spectral information. This information will be used to visualize evapotranspiration patterns in hydrological heterogeneous areas. Particular attention will be paid to the analysis of transition zones of varying water supply and under the influence of selected environmental parameters (e.g. soil moisture, depth of GW-table). To reach that goal it is essential to generate a robust processing chain, involving all

  20. Observing changes at Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Aulock, Felix W.; Lavallée, Yan; Hornby, Adrian J.; Lamb, Oliver D.; Andrews, Benjamin J.; Kendrick, Jackie E.

    2016-04-01

    Santiaguito Volcano (Guatemala) is one of the most active volcanoes in Central America, producing several ash venting explosions per day for almost 100 years. Lahars, lava flows and dome and flank collapses that produce major pyroclastic density currents also present a major hazard to nearby farms and communities. Optical observations of both the vent as well as the lava flow fronts can provide scientists and local monitoring staff with important information on the current state of volcanic activity and hazard. Due to the strong activity, and difficult terrain, unmanned aerial vehicles can help to provide valuable data on the activities of the volcano at a safe distance. We collected a series of images and video footage of A.) The active vent of Caliente and B.) The flow front of the active lava flow and its associated lahar channels, both in May 2015 and in December 2015- January 2016. Images of the crater and the lava flows were used for the reconstruction of 3D terrain models using structure-from-motion. These were supported by still frames from the video recording. Video footage of the summit crater (during two separate ash venting episodes) and the lava flow fronts indicate the following differences in activity during those two field campaigns: A.) - A new breach opened on the east side of the crater rim, possibly during the collapse in November 2015. - The active lava dome is now almost completely covered with ash, only leaving the largest blocks and faults exposed in times without gas venting - A recorded explosive event in December 2015 initiates at subparallel linear faults near the centre of the dome, rather than arcuate or ring faults, with a later, separate, and more ash-laden burst occurring from an off-centre fracture, however, other explosions during the observation period were seen to persist along the ring fault system observed on the lava dome since at least 2007 - suggesting a diversification of explosive activity. B.) - The lava flow fronts did

  1. Development of a Rotary Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Simulation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Raptor 90 UAV platform. Simulink was used to execute the core simulation update loop, with externally linked modules providing functionality for...autopilot code module written in MATLAB . Additionally, a MATLAB interface for an inertial motion unit was developed to aid in future autopilot research.

  2. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery to model vegetation heights in Hulun Buir grassland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Xin, X.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in grassland ecosystem is needed to assess grassland health and monitor available forage for livestock and wildlife habitat. Traditional ground-based field methods for measuring vegetation heights are time consuming. Most emerging airborne remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LIDAR) are too expensive to apply at broad scales. Aerial or spaceborne stereo imagery has the cost advantage for mapping height of tall vegetation, such as forest. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of using stereo imagery for modeling heights of short vegetation, such as grass (generally lower than 50cm) needs to be investigated. In this study, 2.5-cm resolution UAV stereo imagery are used to model vegetation heights in Hulun Buir grassland ecosystem. Strong correlations were observed (r > 0.9) between vegetation heights derived from UAV stereo imagery and those field-measured ones at individual and plot level. However, vegetation heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery especially for those areas with high vegetation coverage. The strong correlations between field-collected vegetation heights and metrics derived from UAV stereo imagery suggest that UAV stereo imagery can be used to estimate short vegetation heights such as those in grassland ecosystem. Future work will be needed to verify the extensibility of the methods to other sites and vegetation types.

  3. Long-term monitoring of a large landslide by using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Gerald; Schraml, Klaus; Mansberger, Reinfried; Hübl, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Currently UAVs become more and more important in various scientific areas, including forestry, precision farming, archaeology and hydrology. Using these drones in natural hazards research enables a completely new level of data acquisition being flexible of site, invariant in time, cost-efficient and enabling arbitrary spatial resolution. In this study, a rotary-wing Mini-UAV carrying a DSLR camera was used to acquire time series of overlapping aerial images. These photographs were taken as input to extract Digital Surface Models (DSM) as well as orthophotos in the area of interest. The "Pechgraben" area in Upper Austria has a catchment area of approximately 2 km². Geology is mainly dominated by limestone and sandstone. Caused by heavy rainfalls in the late spring of 2013, an area of about 70 ha began to move towards the village in the valley. In addition to the urgent measures, the slow-moving landslide was monitored approximately every month over a time period of more than 18 months. A detailed documentation of the change process was the result. Moving velocities and height differences were quantified and validated using a dense network of Ground Control Points (GCP). For further analysis, 14 image flights with a total amount of 10.000 photographs were performed to create multi-temporal geodata in in sub-decimeter-resolution for two depicted areas of the landslide. Using a UAV for this application proved to be an excellent choice, as it allows short repetition times, low flying heights and high spatial resolution. Furthermore, the UAV acts almost weather independently as well as highly autonomously. High-quality results can be expected within a few hours after the photo flight. The UAV system performs very well in an alpine environment. Time series of the assessed geodata detect changes in topography and provide a long-term documentation of the measures taken in order to stop the landslide and to prevent infrastructure from damage.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Sensor Concepts for Ageless Aerospace Vehicles: Report 4 - Phase 1 Implementation of the Concept Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, David; Batten, Adam; Carpenter, David; Dunlop, John; Edwards, Graeme; Farmer, Tony; Gaffney, Bruce; Hedley, Mark; Hoschke, Nigel; Isaacs, Peter; Johnson, Mark; Lewis, Chris; Murdoch, Alex; Poulton, Geoff; Price, Don; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Rees, David; Scott, Andrew; Seneviratne, Sarath; Valencia, Philip; Wang, Peter; Whitnall, Denis

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the first phase of the implementation of the Concept Demonstrator. The Concept Demonstrator system is a powerful and flexible experimental test-bed platform for developing sensors, communications systems, and multi-agent based algorithms for an intelligent vehicle health monitoring system for deployment in aerospace vehicles. The Concept Demonstrator contains sensors and processing hardware distributed throughout the structure, and uses multi-agent algorithms to characterize impacts and determine an appropriate response to these impacts.

  5. Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-03

    AND SUBTITLE Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle...Center program to be able to expose Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) space-inspired science centers for DC Metro beltway schools

  6. Review of improved Monte Carlo methods in uncertainty-based design optimization for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xingzhi; Chen, Xiaoqian; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Yao, Wen

    2016-10-01

    Ever-increasing demands of uncertainty-based design, analysis, and optimization in aerospace vehicles motivate the development of Monte Carlo methods with wide adaptability and high accuracy. This paper presents a comprehensive review of typical improved Monte Carlo methods and summarizes their characteristics to aid the uncertainty-based multidisciplinary design optimization (UMDO). Among them, Bayesian inference aims to tackle the problems with the availability of prior information like measurement data. Importance sampling (IS) settles the inconvenient sampling and difficult propagation through the incorporation of an intermediate importance distribution or sequential distributions. Optimized Latin hypercube sampling (OLHS) is a stratified sampling approach to achieving better space-filling and non-collapsing characteristics. Meta-modeling approximation based on Monte Carlo saves the computational cost by using cheap meta-models for the output response. All the reviewed methods are illustrated by corresponding aerospace applications, which are compared to show their techniques and usefulness in UMDO, thus providing a beneficial reference for future theoretical and applied research.

  7. Complex multidisciplinary systems decomposition for aerospace vehicle conceptual design and technology acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omoragbon, Amen

    Although, the Aerospace and Defense (A&D) industry is a significant contributor to the United States' economy, national prestige and national security, it experiences significant cost and schedule overruns. This problem is related to the differences between technology acquisition assessments and aerospace vehicle conceptual design. Acquisition assessments evaluate broad sets of alternatives with mostly qualitative techniques, while conceptual design tools evaluate narrow set of alternatives with multidisciplinary tools. In order for these two fields to communicate effectively, a common platform for both concerns is desired. This research is an original contribution to a three-part solution to this problem. It discusses the decomposition step of an innovation technology and sizing tool generation framework. It identifies complex multidisciplinary system definitions as a bridge between acquisition and conceptual design. It establishes complex multidisciplinary building blocks that can be used to build synthesis systems as well as technology portfolios. It also describes a Graphical User Interface Designed to aid in decomposition process. Finally, it demonstrates an application of the methodology to a relevant acquisition and conceptual design problem posed by the US Air Force.

  8. Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook For Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale; Vaughan, William W.

    2004-01-01

    An update of the NASA 'Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Handbook for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development' (NASA-HDBK-1001) is currently in the final process of completion for release in late-2004 or early 2005. The current version of the Handbook was approved by the NASA Chief Engineer in 2000 as a NASA Preferred Technical Standard. However, it was based on natural environment criteria developed mostly in the early 1990's. Therefore, a task was approved to completely update the Handbook in order to reflect the current state-of-the-art in the various terrestrial environmental climatic criteria areas. The technical areas include: Winds, atmospheric constituents, thermodynamic parameters/models/extremes, humidity, electricity, precipitation/fog/icing, cloud phenomena/cover, diffusion/toxic release, severe weather/tornado/hurricane, solar/thermal radiation, geologic hazards, and sea state. A summary of this extensive update will be presented along with some key examples of the new contents. Earlier versions of this publication have been extensively used by the aerospace community, especially program managers and design engineers for required natural terrestrial environment inputs to use in mission planning, development studies and trades, plus by those concerned with terrestrial environment descriptions for the major test ranges within the United States.

  9. Simulink-Based Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David m.; Bacon, Barton J.

    2006-01-01

    The Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV) is a Simulink-based approach to providing an engineering quality desktop simulation capability for finding trim solutions, extracting linear models for vehicle analysis and control law development, and generating open-loop and closed-loop time history responses for control system evaluation. It represents a useful level of maturity rather than a finished product. The layout is hierarchical and supports concurrent component development and validation, with support from the Concurrent Versions System (CVS) software management tool. Real Time Workshop (RTW) is used to generate pre-compiled code for substantial component modules, and templates permit switching seamlessly between original Simulink and code compiled for various platforms. Two previous limitations are addressed. Turn around time for incorporating tabular model components was improved through auto-generation of required Simulink diagrams based on data received in XML format. The layout was modified to exploit a Simulink "compile once, evaluate multiple times" capability for zero elapsed time for use in trimming and linearizing. Trim is achieved through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with a narrow, script definable interface to the vehicle model which facilitates incorporating new models.

  10. Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Aerospace Vehicle During a Subsonic Pitch-Over Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.

    1996-01-01

    Time-dependent CFD has been used to predict aerospace vehicle aerodynamics during a subsonic rotation maneuver. The inviscid 3D3U code is employed to solve the 3-D unsteady flow field using an unstructured grid of tetrahedra. As this application represents a challenge to time-dependent CFD, observations concerning spatial and temporal resolution are included. It is shown that even for a benign rotation rate, unsteady aerodynamic effects are significant during the maneuver. Possibly more significant, however, the rotation maneuver creates ow asymmetries leading to yawing moment, rolling moment, and side force which are not present in the quasi-steady case. A series of steady solutions at discrete points in the maneuver are also computed for comparison with wind tunnel measurements and as a means of quantifying unsteady effects.

  11. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 2; Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Weston, R. P.; Samareh, J. A.; Mason, B. H.; Green, L. L.; Biedron, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a high-speed civil transport configuration. The paper describes both the preliminary results from implementing and validating the multidisciplinary analysis and the results from an aerodynamic optimization. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture compliant software product. A companion paper describes the formulation of the multidisciplinary analysis and optimization system.

  12. Some aspects of algorithm performance and modeling in transient thermal analysis of structures. [aerospace vehicle structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Robinson, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The status of an effort to increase the efficiency of calculating transient temperature fields in complex aerospace vehicle structures is described. The advantages and disadvantages of explicit and implicit algorithms are discussed. A promising set of implicit algorithms with variable time steps, known as the GEAR package is described. Four test problems, used for evaluating and comparing various algorithms, were selected and finite element models of the configurations are described. These problems include a space shuttle frame component, an insulated cylinder, a metallic panel for a thermal protection system, and a model of the space shuttle orbiter wing. Results generally indicate a preference for implicit oer explicit algorithms for solution of transient structural heat transfer problems when the governing equations are stiff.

  13. Overview of the Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venneri, S. L.

    1983-01-01

    To respond to national needs for improved productivity in engineering design and manufacturing, a NASA supported joint industry/government project is underway denoted Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD). The objective is to improve engineering productivity through better use of computer technology. It focuses on development of data base management technology and associated software for integrated company wide management of engineering and manufacturing information. Results to date on the IPAD project include an in depth documentation of a representative design process for a large engineering project, the definition and design of computer aided design software needed to support that process, and the release of prototype software to manage engineering information. This paper provides an overview of the IPAD project and summarizes progress to date and future plans.

  14. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 1; Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Townsend, J. C.; Salas, A. O.; Samareh, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, V.; Barthelemy, J.-F.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity, finite element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a highspeed civil transport configuration. The paper describes the engineering aspects of formulating the optimization by integrating these analysis codes and associated interface codes into the system. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) compliant software product. A companion paper presents currently available results.

  15. Energy harvesting by means of flow-induced vibrations on aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daochun; Wu, Yining; Da Ronch, Andrea; Xiang, Jinwu

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviews the design, implementation, and demonstration of energy harvesting devices that exploit flow-induced vibrations as the main source of energy. Starting with a presentation of various concepts of energy harvesters that are designed to benefit from a general class of flow-induced vibrations, specific attention is then given at those technologies that may offer, today or in the near future, a potential benefit to extend the operational capabilities and to monitor critical parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles. Various phenomena characterized by flow-induced vibrations are discussed, including limit cycle oscillations of plates and wing sections, vortex-induced and galloping oscillations of bluff bodies, vortex-induced vibrations of downstream structures, and atmospheric turbulence and gusts. It was found that linear or linearized modeling approaches are commonly employed to support the design phase of energy harvesters. As a result, highly nonlinear and coupled phenomena that characterize flow-induced vibrations are neglected in the design process. The Authors encourage a shift in the current design paradigm: considering coupled nonlinear phenomena, and adequate modeling tools to support their analysis, from a design limitation to a design opportunity. Special emphasis is placed on identifying designs and implementations applicable to aircraft configurations. Application fields of flow-induced vibrations-based energy harvesters are discussed including power supply for wireless sensor networks and simultaneous energy harvest and control. A large body of work on energy harvesters is included in this review journal. Whereas most of the references claim direct applications to unmanned aerial vehicles, it is apparent that, in most of the cases presented, the working principles and characteristics of the energy harvesters are incompatible with any aerospace applications. Finally, the challenges that hold back the integration of energy harvesting

  16. Quantifying Efficacy and Limits of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Technology for Weed Seedling Detection as Affected by Sensor Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José M.; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Serrano-Pérez, Angélica; de Castro, Ana I.; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the application of herbicides in weed-crop systems, accurate and timely weed maps of the crop-field are required. In this context, this investigation quantified the efficacy and limitations of remote images collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for early detection of weed seedlings. The ability to discriminate weeds was significantly affected by the imagery spectral (type of camera), spatial (flight altitude) and temporal (the date of the study) resolutions. The colour-infrared images captured at 40 m and 50 days after sowing (date 2), when plants had 5–6 true leaves, had the highest weed detection accuracy (up to 91%). At this flight altitude, the images captured before date 2 had slightly better results than the images captured later. However, this trend changed in the visible-light images captured at 60 m and higher, which had notably better results on date 3 (57 days after sowing) because of the larger size of the weed plants. Our results showed the requirements on spectral and spatial resolutions needed to generate a suitable weed map early in the growing season, as well as the best moment for the UAV image acquisition, with the ultimate objective of applying site-specific weed management operations. PMID:25756867

  17. High-Throughput 3-D Monitoring of Agricultural-Tree Plantations with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Technology

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; López-Granados, Francisca; Serrano, Nicolás; Arquero, Octavio; Peña, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The geometric features of agricultural trees such as canopy area, tree height and crown volume provide useful information about plantation status and crop production. However, these variables are mostly estimated after a time-consuming and hard field work and applying equations that treat the trees as geometric solids, which produce inconsistent results. As an alternative, this work presents an innovative procedure for computing the 3-dimensional geometric features of individual trees and tree-rows by applying two consecutive phases: 1) generation of Digital Surface Models with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology and 2) use of object-based image analysis techniques. Our UAV-based procedure produced successful results both in single-tree and in tree-row plantations, reporting up to 97% accuracy on area quantification and minimal deviations compared to in-field estimations of tree heights and crown volumes. The maps generated could be used to understand the linkages between tree grown and field-related factors or to optimize crop management operations in the context of precision agriculture with relevant agro-environmental implications. PMID:26107174

  18. High-Throughput 3-D Monitoring of Agricultural-Tree Plantations with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Technology.

    PubMed

    Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; López-Granados, Francisca; Serrano, Nicolás; Arquero, Octavio; Peña, José M

    2015-01-01

    The geometric features of agricultural trees such as canopy area, tree height and crown volume provide useful information about plantation status and crop production. However, these variables are mostly estimated after a time-consuming and hard field work and applying equations that treat the trees as geometric solids, which produce inconsistent results. As an alternative, this work presents an innovative procedure for computing the 3-dimensional geometric features of individual trees and tree-rows by applying two consecutive phases: 1) generation of Digital Surface Models with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology and 2) use of object-based image analysis techniques. Our UAV-based procedure produced successful results both in single-tree and in tree-row plantations, reporting up to 97% accuracy on area quantification and minimal deviations compared to in-field estimations of tree heights and crown volumes. The maps generated could be used to understand the linkages between tree grown and field-related factors or to optimize crop management operations in the context of precision agriculture with relevant agro-environmental implications.

  19. Quantifying efficacy and limits of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology for weed seedling detection as affected by sensor resolution.

    PubMed

    Peña, José M; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Serrano-Pérez, Angélica; de Castro, Ana I; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-03-06

    In order to optimize the application of herbicides in weed-crop systems, accurate and timely weed maps of the crop-field are required. In this context, this investigation quantified the efficacy and limitations of remote images collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for early detection of weed seedlings. The ability to discriminate weeds was significantly affected by the imagery spectral (type of camera), spatial (flight altitude) and temporal (the date of the study) resolutions. The colour-infrared images captured at 40 m and 50 days after sowing (date 2), when plants had 5-6 true leaves, had the highest weed detection accuracy (up to 91%). At this flight altitude, the images captured before date 2 had slightly better results than the images captured later. However, this trend changed in the visible-light images captured at 60 m and higher, which had notably better results on date 3 (57 days after sowing) because of the larger size of the weed plants. Our results showed the requirements on spectral and spatial resolutions needed to generate a suitable weed map early in the growing season, as well as the best moment for the UAV image acquisition, with the ultimate objective of applying site-specific weed management operations.

  20. Comparisons between high-resolution profiles of squared refractive index gradient M2 measured by the Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) during the Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment 2015 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, Hubert; Kantha, Lakshmi; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Lawrence, Dale; Yabuki, Masanori; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Mixa, Tyler

    2017-03-01

    New comparisons between the square of the generalized potential refractive index gradient M2, estimated from the very high-frequency (VHF) Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) Radar, located at Shigaraki, Japan, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) measurements are presented. These comparisons were performed at unprecedented temporal and range resolutions (1-4 min and ˜ 20 m, respectively) in the altitude range ˜ 1.27-4.5 km from simultaneous and nearly collocated measurements made during the ShUREX (Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment) 2015 campaign. Seven consecutive UAV flights made during daytime on 7 June 2015 were used for this purpose. The MU Radar was operated in range imaging mode for improving the range resolution at vertical incidence (typically a few tens of meters). The proportionality of the radar echo power to M2 is reported for the first time at such high time and range resolutions for stratified conditions for which Fresnel scatter or a reflection mechanism is expected. In more complex features obtained for a range of turbulent layers generated by shear instabilities or associated with convective cloud cells, M2 estimated from UAV data does not reproduce observed radar echo power profiles. Proposed interpretations of this discrepancy are presented.

  1. Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    and High-Middle-Low ratings. In custom mode, user-defined HPD parameters were imported into the program. Once a UAS sound file was loaded, the...high-definition camcorder. Videos of the UAV were exported to a computer and were converted to a stereo waveform audio (WAV) file format with a...preinstalled audio file converter. Nine HPDs were tested from 3 hearing protector types: preformed earplugs, hand- formed earplugs, and noise muffs. To

  2. Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV): Results from the 2014 AROMAT campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Tack, Frederik; Constantin, Daniel; Fayt, Caroline; Maes, Jeroen; Mingireanu, Florin; Mocanu, Ionut; Georgescu, Lucian; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) is an instrument dedicated to atmospheric trace gas retrieval from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The payload is based on a compact visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror to collect scattered sunlight. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27x12x12 cm3, and 6 W. The custom-built 2.5 m flying wing UAV is electrically powered, has a typical airspeed of 100 km/h, and can operate at a maximum altitude of 3 km. Both the payload and the UAV were developed in the framework of a collaboration between the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) and the Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Romania. We present here SWING-UAV test flights dedicated to NO2 measurements and performed in Romania on 10 and 11 September 2014, during the Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign. The UAV performed 5 flights in the vicinity of the large thermal power station of Turceni (44.67° N, 23.4° E). The UAV was operated in visual range during the campaign, up to 900 m AGL , downwind of the plant and crossing its exhaust plume. The spectra recorded on flight are analyzed with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. The retrieved NO2 Differential Slant Column Densities (DSCDs) are up to 1.5e17 molec/cm2 and reveal the horizontal gradients around the plant. The DSCDs are converted to vertical columns and compared with coincident car-based DOAS measurements. We also present the near-future perspective of the SWING-UAV observation system, which includes flights in 2015 above the Black Sea to quantify ship emissions, the addition of SO2 as a target species, and autopilot flights at higher altitudes to cover a typical satellite pixel extent (10x10 km2).

  3. Techniques for inferring terrain parameters related to ground vehicle mobility using UAV born IFSAR and lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Phillip J.; Baylot, Alex; McKinley, Burney

    2011-05-01

    Predicting ground vehicle performance requires in-depth knowledge, captured as numeric parameters, of the terrain on which the vehicles will be operating. For off-road performance, predictions are based on rough terrain ride comfort, which is described using a parameter entitled root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness. Likewise, on-road vehicle performance depends heavily on the slopes of the individual road segments. Traditional methods of computing RMS and road slope values call for high-resolution (inch-scale) surface elevation data. At this scale, surface elevation data is both difficult and time consuming to collect. Nevertheless, a current need exists to attribute large geographic areas with RMS and road slope values in order to better support vehicle mobility predictions, and high-resolution surface data is neither available nor collectible for many of these regions. On the other hand, meter scale data can be quickly and easily collected for these areas using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based IFSAR and LIDAR sensors. A statistical technique for inferring RMS values for large areas using a combination of fractal dimension and spectral analysis of five-meter elevation data is presented. Validation of the RMS prediction technique was based on 43 vehicle ride courses with 30-centimeter surface elevation data. Also presented is a model for classifying road slopes for long road sections using five-meter elevation data. The road slope model was validated against one-meter LIDAR surface elevation profiles. These inference algorithms have been successfully implemented for regions of northern Afghanistan, and some initial results are presented.

  4. The suitability of selected multidisciplinary design and optimization techniques to conceptual aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Four methods for preliminary aerospace vehicle design are reviewed. The first three methods (classical optimization, system decomposition, and system sensitivity analysis (SSA)) employ numerical optimization techniques and numerical gradients to feed back changes in the design variables. The optimum solution is determined by stepping through a series of designs toward a final solution. Of these three, SSA is argued to be the most applicable to a large-scale highly coupled vehicle design where an accurate minimum of an objective function is required. With SSA, several tasks can be performed in parallel. The techniques of classical optimization and decomposition can be included in SSA, resulting in a very powerful design method. The Taguchi method is more of a 'smart' parametric design method that analyzes variable trends and interactions over designer specified ranges with a minimum of experimental analysis runs. Its advantages are its relative ease of use, ability to handle discrete variables, and ability to characterize the entire design space with a minimum of analysis runs.

  5. A Survey of Emerging Materials for Revolutionary Aerospace Vehicle Structures and Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Shuart, Mark J.; Gray, Hugh R.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan identifies the long-term goal of providing safe and affordable space access, orbital transfer, and interplanetary transportation capabilities to enable scientific research, human, and robotic exploration, and the commercial development of space. Numerous scientific and engineering breakthroughs will be required to develop the technology required to achieve this goal. Critical technologies include advanced vehicle primary and secondary structure, radiation protection, propulsion and power systems, fuel storage, electronics and devices, sensors and science instruments, and medical diagnostics and treatment. Advanced materials with revolutionary new capabilities are an essential element of each of these technologies. A survey of emerging materials with applications to aerospace vehicle structures and propulsion systems was conducted to assist in long-term Agency mission planning. The comprehensive survey identified materials already under development that could be available in 5 to 10 years and those that are still in the early research phase and may not be available for another 20 to 30 years. The survey includes typical properties, a description of the material and processing methods, the current development status, and the critical issues that must be overcome to achieve commercial viability.

  6. Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature

  7. Fault-Tolerant and Reconfigurable Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-29

    01- I 0 5 10t 15 2 3 35 40 45 go Figure 23 - Weights profile of the funneling NN Project Publications 1. Bin Li, Zhao Sun, X. H. Liao, Liguo Weng...Southeast Symposium on Systems Theory, Cookeville, TN, pp. 406-410, March, 2006. 6. Liguo Weng, Wenchuan Cai, M. J. Zhang; X. H. Liao and David Song, "Neural...7. Yao Li, Zhao Sun, Ran Zhang, Liguo Weng, and David Y. Song, "Close Formation Flight Control of Multi-UAVs via Fuzzy Logic Technique," Advanced

  8. Weed mapping in early-season maize fields using object-based analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images.

    PubMed

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r(2)=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance.

  9. Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r2=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance. PMID:24146963

  10. Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies in infrastructure construction project management and delay and disruption analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacanas, Yiannis; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2015-06-01

    Time in infrastructure construction projects has always been a fundamental issue as early as from the inception of a project, during the construction process and often after the completion and delivery. In a typical construction contract time related matters such as the completion date and possible delays are among the most important issues that are dealt with by the contract provisions. In the event of delay there are usually provisions for extension of time award to the contractor with possible reimbursement for the extra cost and expenses caused by this extension of time to the contract duration. In the case the contractor is not entitled to extension of time, the owner will be possibly entitled to amounts as compensation for the time prohibited from using his development. Even in the event of completion within the time agreed, under certain circumstances a contractor may have claims for reimbursement for extra costs incurred due to induced acceleration measures he had to take in order to mitigate disruption effects caused to the progress of the works by the owner or his representatives. Depending on the size of the project and the agreement amount, these reimbursement sums may be extremely high. Therefore innovative methods with the exploitation of new technologies for effective project management for the avoidance of delays, delay analysis and mitigation measures are essential; moreover, methods for collecting efficiently information during the construction process so that disputes regarding time are avoided or resolved in a quick and fair manner are required. This paper explores the state of art for existing use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technologies in the construction industry in general. Moreover the paper considers the prospect of using BIM technology in conjunction with the use of UAV technology for efficient and accurate as-built data collection and illustration of the works progress during an

  11. Robust/optimal temperature profile control of a high-speed aerospace vehicle using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vivek; Padhi, Radhakant; Balakrishnan, S N

    2007-07-01

    An approximate dynamic programming (ADP)-based suboptimal neurocontroller to obtain desired temperature for a high-speed aerospace vehicle is synthesized in this paper. A 1-D distributed parameter model of a fin is developed from basic thermal physics principles. "Snapshot" solutions of the dynamics are generated with a simple dynamic inversion-based feedback controller. Empirical basis functions are designed using the "proper orthogonal decomposition" (POD) technique and the snapshot solutions. A low-order nonlinear lumped parameter system to characterize the infinite dimensional system is obtained by carrying out a Galerkin projection. An ADP-based neurocontroller with a dual heuristic programming (DHP) formulation is obtained with a single-network-adaptive-critic (SNAC) controller for this approximate nonlinear model. Actual control in the original domain is calculated with the same POD basis functions through a reverse mapping. Further contribution of this paper includes development of an online robust neurocontroller to account for unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainties inherent in such a complex dynamic system. A neural network (NN) weight update rule that guarantees boundedness of the weights and relaxes the need for persistence of excitation (PE) condition is presented. Simulation studies show that in a fairly extensive but compact domain, any desired temperature profile can be achieved starting from any initial temperature profile. Therefore, the ADP and NN-based controllers appear to have the potential to become controller synthesis tools for nonlinear distributed parameter systems.

  12. Creating a Simple Single Computational Approach to Modeling Rarefied and Continuum Flow About Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.

    1997-01-01

    We proposed to create a single computational code incorporating methods that can model both rarefied and continuum flow to enable the efficient simulation of flow about space craft and high altitude hypersonic aerospace vehicles. The code was to use a single grid structure that permits a smooth transition between the continuum and rarefied portions of the flow. Developing an appropriate computational boundary between the two regions represented a major challenge. The primary approach chosen involves coupling a four-speed Lattice Boltzmann model for the continuum flow with the DSMC method in the rarefied regime. We also explored the possibility of using a standard finite difference Navier Stokes solver for the continuum flow. With the resulting code we will ultimately investigate three-dimensional plume impingement effects, a subject of critical importance to NASA and related to the work of Drs. Forrest Lumpkin, Steve Fitzgerald and Jay Le Beau at Johnson Space Center. Below is a brief background on the project and a summary of the results as of the end of the grant.

  13. Thermal Performance of Composite Flexible Blanket Insulations for Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal performance of a Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation (C.F.B.I.) considered for potential use as a thermal protection system or thermal insulation for future hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aerospace Plane (N.A.S.P.). Thermophysical properties for these insulations were also measured including the thermal conductivity at various temperatures and pressures and the emissivity of the fabrics used in the flexible insulations. The thermal response of these materials subjected to aeroconvective heating from a plasma arc is also described. Materials tested included two surface variations of the insulations, and similar insulations coated with a Protective Ceramic Coating (P.C.C.). Surface and backface temperatures were measured in the flexible insulations and on Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (F.R.C.I.) used as a calibration model. The uncoated flexible insulations exhibited good thermal performance up to 35 W/sq cm. The use of a P.C.C. to protect these insulations at higher heating rates is described. The results from a computerized thermal analysis model describing thermal response of those materials subjected to the plasma arc conditions are included. Thermal and optical properties were determined including thermal conductivity for the rigid and flexible insulations and emissivity for the insulation fabrics. These properties were utilized to calculate the thermal performance of the rigid and flexible insulations at the maximum heating rate.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems /IPAD/ An executive summary. II. [for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.; Hansen, S. D.; Redhed, D. D.; Southall, J. W.; Kawaguchi, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems with particular attention to Integrated Program for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) project. An analysis of all the ingredients of IPAD indicates the feasibility of a significant cost and flowtime reduction in the product design process involved. It is also concluded that an IPAD-supported design process will provide a framework for configuration control, whereby the engineering costs for design, analysis and testing can be controlled during the air vehicle development cycle.

  15. Reproducibility of crop surface maps extracted from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) derived digital surface maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Stephen D.; McCabe, Matthew F.; Al-Mashhawari, Samir K.; Rosas, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Crop height measured from UAVs fitted with commercially available RGB cameras provide an affordable alternative to retrieve field scale high resolution estimates. The study presents an assessment of between flight reproducibility of Crop Surface Maps (CSM) extracted from Digital Surface Maps (DSM) generated by Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms. Flights were conducted over a centre pivot irrigation system covered with an alfalfa crop. An important step in calculating the absolute crop height from the UAV derived DSM is determining the height of the underlying terrain. Here we use automatic thresholding techniques applied to RGB vegetation index maps to classify vegetated and soil pixels. From interpolation of classified soil pixels, a terrain map is calculated and subtracted from the DSM. The influence of three different thresholding techniques on CSMs are investigated. Median Alfalfa crop heights determined with the different thresholding methods varied from 18cm for K means thresholding to 13cm for Otsu thresholding methods. Otsu thresholding also gave the smallest range of crop heights and K means thresholding the largest. Reproducibility of median crop heights between flight surveys was 4-6cm for all thresholding techniques. For the flight conducted later in the afternoon shadowing caused soil pixels to be classified as vegetation in key locations around the domain, leading to lower crop height estimates. The range of crop heights was similar for both flights using K means thresholding (35-36cm), local minimum thresholding depended on whether raw or normalised RGB intensities were used to calculate vegetation indices (30-35cm), while Otsu thresholding had a smaller range of heights and varied most between flights (26-30cm). This study showed that crop heights from multiple survey flights are comparable, however, they were dependent on the thresholding method applied to classify soil pixels and the time of day the flight was conducted.

  16. Water level observations from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for improving probabilistic estimations of interaction between rivers and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandini, Filippo; Butts, Michael; Vammen Jacobsen, Torsten; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Integrated hydrological models are generally calibrated against observations of river discharge and piezometric head in groundwater aquifers. Integrated hydrological models are rarely calibrated against spatially distributed water level observations measured by either in-situ stations or spaceborne platforms. Indeed in-situ observations derived from ground-based stations are generally spaced too far apart to capture spatial patterns in the water surface. On the other hand spaceborne observations have limited spatial resolution. Additionally satellite observations have a temporal resolution which is not ideal for observing the temporal patterns of the hydrological variables during extreme events. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) offer several advantages: i) high spatial resolution; ii) tracking of the water body better than any satellite technology; iii) timing of the sampling merely depending on the operators. In this case study the Mølleåen river (Denmark) and its catchment have been simulated through an integrated hydrological model (MIKE 11-MIKE SHE). This model was initially calibrated against observations of river discharge retrieved by in-situ stations and against piezometric head of the aquifers. Subsequently the hydrological model has been calibrated against dense spatially distributed water level observations, which could potentially be retrieved by UAVs. Error characteristics of synthetic UAV water level observations were taken from a recent proof-of-concept study. Since the technology for ranging water level is under development, UAV synthetic water level observations were extracted from another model of the river with higher spatial resolution (cross sections located every 10 m). This model with high resolution is assumed to be absolute truth for the purpose of this work. The river model with the coarser resolution has been calibrated against the synthetic water level observations through Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, an

  17. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the

  18. UAV Cooperation Architectures for Persistent Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D

    2003-03-20

    With the number of small, inexpensive Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) increasing, it is feasible to build multi-UAV sensing networks. In particular, by using UAVs in conjunction with unattended ground sensors, a degree of persistent sensing can be achieved. With proper UAV cooperation algorithms, sensing is maintained even though exceptional events, e.g., the loss of a UAV, have occurred. In this paper a cooperation technique that allows multiple UAVs to perform coordinated, persistent sensing with unattended ground sensors over a wide area is described. The technique automatically adapts the UAV paths so that on the average, the amount of time that any sensor has to wait for a UAV revisit is minimized. We also describe the Simulation, Tactical Operations and Mission Planning (STOMP) software architecture. This architecture is designed to help simulate and operate distributed sensor networks where multiple UAVs are used to collect data.

  19. New techniques for laser beam atmospheric extinction measurements from manned and unmanned aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Novel techniques for laser beam atmospheric extinction measurements, suitable for several air and space platform applications, are presented in this paper. Extinction measurements are essential to support the engineering development and the operational employment of a variety of aerospace electro-optical sensor systems, allowing calculation of the range performance attainable with such systems in current and likely future applications. Such applications include ranging, weaponry, Earth remote sensing and possible planetary exploration missions performed by satellites and unmanned flight vehicles. Unlike traditional LIDAR methods, the proposed techniques are based on measurements of the laser energy (intensity and spatial distribution) incident on target surfaces of known geometric and reflective characteristics, by means of infrared detectors and/or infrared cameras calibrated for radiance. Various laser sources can be employed with wavelengths from the visible to the far infrared portions of the spectrum, allowing for data correlation and extended sensitivity. Errors affecting measurements performed using the proposed methods are discussed in the paper and algorithms are proposed that allow a direct determination of the atmospheric transmittance and spatial characteristics of the laser spot. These algorithms take into account a variety of linear and non-linear propagation effects. Finally, results are presented relative to some experimental activities performed to validate the proposed techniques. Particularly, data are presented relative to both ground and flight trials performed with laser systems operating in the near infrared (NIR) at λ= 1064 nm and λ= 1550 nm. This includes ground tests performed with 10 Hz and 20 KHz PRF NIR laser systems in a large variety of atmospheric conditions, and flight trials performed with a 10 Hz airborne NIR laser system installed on a TORNADO aircraft, flying up to altitudes of 22,000 ft.

  20. Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV): status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Tack, Frederik; Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Fayt, Caroline; Maes, Jeroen; Mingireanu, Florin; Mocanu, Ionut; Georgescu, Lucian; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2014-05-01

    The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) is a recently developed instrument dedicated to trace gas measurements from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The payload is based on a compact ultra-violet visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27x12x12 cm3, and 6 W. The custom-built UAV is an electrically powered flying wing and can reach an altitude of 3 km at a mean airspeed of 100 km/h. The whole flight can be preprogrammed and controlled by an autopilot. The spectra are analyzed using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). One major objective is the mapping of NO2 columns at high spatial resolution allowing to subsample satellite measurements within the extent of a typical ground pixel. We present the preliminary results of two test flights of the SWING-UAV observation system in the vicinity of Galati, Romania (45.45°N, 28.05°E), performed on 11 May 2013 and 20 September 2013. Several atmospheric species are identified in the spectral range covered by the spectrometer (300-600 nm): NO2, water vapor, O4, and O3. From the measurements, the detection limit for NO2 is estimated to lie around 2 ppb. We investigate: (1) the georeferencing issues and the effective spatial resolution achievable with SWING-UAV from the instantaneous field of view and the plane dynamics (2) the main parameters influencing the air mass factors, and (3) the reproducibility of NO2 measurements over the same area during the second flight which included repeated transects. We also present the near-future (2014-2015) campaigns planned for the SWING-UAV observation system.

  1. Associated with aerospace vehicles development of methodologies for the estimation of thermal properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal stress analyses are an important aspect in the development of aerospace vehicles at NASA-LaRC. These analyses require knowledge of the temperature distributions within the vehicle structures which consequently necessitates the need for accurate thermal property data. The overall goal of this ongoing research effort is to develop methodologies for the estimation of the thermal property data needed to describe the temperature responses of these complex structures. The research strategy undertaken utilizes a building block approach. The idea here is to first focus on the development of property estimation methodologies for relatively simple conditions, such as isotropic materials at constant temperatures, and then systematically modify the technique for the analysis of more and more complex systems, such as anisotropic multi-component systems. The estimation methodology utilized is a statistically based method which incorporates experimental data and a mathematical model of the system. Several aspects of this overall research effort were investigated during the time of the ASEE summer program. One important aspect involved the calibration of the estimation procedure for the estimation of the thermal properties through the thickness of a standard material. Transient experiments were conducted using a Pyrex standard at various temperatures, and then the thermal properties (thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity) were estimated at each temperature. Confidence regions for the estimated values were also determined. These results were then compared to documented values. Another set of experimental tests were conducted on carbon composite samples at different temperatures. Again, the thermal properties were estimated for each temperature, and the results were compared with values obtained using another technique. In both sets of experiments, a 10-15 percent off-set between the estimated values and the previously determined values was found. Another effort

  2. Research for new UAV capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Leadabrand, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses research for new Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) capabilities. Findings indicate that UAV performance could be greatly enhanced by modest research. Improved sensors and communications enhance near term cost effectiveness. Improved engines, platforms, and stealth improve long term effectiveness.

  3. The combined use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies for the 3D illustration of the progress of works in infrastructure construction projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacanas, Yiannis; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2016-08-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology is already part of the construction industry and is considered by professionals as a very useful tool for all phases of a construction project. BIM technology, with the particularly useful 3D illustrations which it provides, can be used to illustrate and monitor the progress of works effectively through the entire lifetime of the project. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have undergone significant advances in equipment capabilities and now have the capacity to acquire high resolution imagery from different angles in a cost effective and efficient manner. By using photogrammetry, characteristics such as distances, areas, volumes, elevations, object sizes, and object shape can be determined within overlapping areas. This paper explores the combined use of BIM and UAV technologies in order to achieve efficient and accurate as-built data collection and 3D illustrations of the works progress during an infrastructure construction project.

  4. Adaptive control of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguen, V. F.; Putov, A. V.; Nguen, T. T.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with design and comparison of adaptive control systems based on plant state vector and output for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with nonlinearity and uncertainty of parameters of the aircraft incomplete measurability of its state and presence of wind disturbances. The results of computer simulations of flight stabilization processes on the example of the experimental model UAV-70V (Aerospace Academy, Hanoi) with presence of periodic and non-periodic vertical wind disturbances with designed adaptive control systems based on plant state vector with state observer and plant output.

  5. Aerospace Toolbox---a flight vehicle design, analysis, simulation ,and software development environment: I. An introduction and tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Paul M.; Wells, Randy

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents a demonstrated approach to significantly reduce the cost and schedule of non real-time modeling and simulation, real-time HWIL simulation, and embedded code development. The tool and the methodology presented capitalize on a paradigm that has become a standard operating procedure in the automotive industry. The tool described is known as the Aerospace Toolbox, and it is based on the MathWorks Matlab/Simulink framework, which is a COTS application. Extrapolation of automotive industry data and initial applications in the aerospace industry show that the use of the Aerospace Toolbox can make significant contributions in the quest by NASA and other government agencies to meet aggressive cost reduction goals in development programs. The part I of this paper provides a detailed description of the GUI based Aerospace Toolbox and how it is used in every step of a development program; from quick prototyping of concept developments that leverage built-in point of departure simulations through to detailed design, analysis, and testing. Some of the attributes addressed include its versatility in modeling 3 to 6 degrees of freedom, its library of flight test validated library of models (including physics, environments, hardware, and error sources), and its built-in Monte Carlo capability. Other topics to be covered in this part include flight vehicle models and algorithms, and the covariance analysis package, Navigation System Covariance Analysis Tools (NavSCAT). Part II of this paper, to be published at a later date, will conclude with a description of how the Aerospace Toolbox is an integral part of developing embedded code directly from the simulation models by using the Mathworks Real Time Workshop and optimization tools. It will also address how the Toolbox can be used as a design hub for Internet based collaborative engineering tools such as NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) and Lockheed Martin's Interactive Missile Design Environment

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated spectral camera system for forest and agriculture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Heikki; Pellikka, Ismo; Pesonen, Liisa; Tuominen, Sakari; Heikkilä, Jan; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Ojala, Kai; Antila, Tapani

    2011-11-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with the light weight UAV platforms. The concept of the hyperspectral imager has been published in the SPIE Proc. 7474 and 7668. In forest and agriculture applications the recording of multispectral images at a few wavelength bands is in most cases adequate. The possibility to calculate a digital elevation model of the forest area and crop fields provides means to estimate the biomass and perform forest inventory. The full UAS multispectral imaging system will consist of a high resolution false color imager and a FPI based hyperspectral imager which can be used at resolutions from VGA (480 x 640 pixels) up to 5 Mpix at wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at user selectable spectral resolutions in the range 10...40 nm @ FWHM. The resolution is determined by the order at which the Fabry- Perot interferometer is used. The overlap between successive images of the false color camera is 70...80% which makes it possible to calculate the digital elevation model of the target area. The field of view of the false color camera is typically 80 degrees and the ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 5 cm. The field of view of the hyperspectral imager is presently is 26 x 36 degrees and ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 3.5 cm. The UAS system has been tried in summer 2011 in Southern Finland for the forest and agricultural areas. During the first test campaigns the false color camera and hyperspectral imager were flown over the target areas at separate flights. The design and calibration of the hyperspectral imager will be shortly explained. The test flight campaigns on forest and crop fields and their preliminary results are also presented in this paper.

  7. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

  8. Advanced information processing system - Status report. [for fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, L. D.; Lala, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is designed to provide a fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing architecture for a broad range of aerospace vehicles. The AIPS architecture also has attributes to enhance system effectiveness such as graceful degradation, growth and change tolerance, integrability, etc. Two key building blocks being developed by the AIPS program are a fault and damage tolerant processor and communication network. A proof-of-concept system is now being built and will be tested to demonstrate the validity and performance of the AIPS concepts.

  9. An Analysis of the Influence of Flight Parameters in the Generation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Orthomosaicks to Survey Archaeological Areas

    PubMed Central

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco-Javier; Notario García, María Dolores; Meroño de Larriva, Jose Emilio; García-Ferrer, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the configuration and technical specifications of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a red–green–blue (RGB) sensor for the acquisition of images needed for the production of orthomosaics to be used in archaeological applications. Several flight missions were programmed as follows: flight altitudes at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 m above ground level; two forward and side overlap settings (80%–50% and 70%–40%); and the use, or lack thereof, of ground control points. These settings were chosen to analyze their influence on the spatial quality of orthomosaicked images processed by Inpho UASMaster (Trimble, CA, USA). Changes in illumination over the study area, its impact on flight duration, and how it relates to these settings is also considered. The combined effect of these parameters on spatial quality is presented as well, defining a ratio between ground sample distance of UAV images and expected root mean square of a UAV orthomosaick. The results indicate that a balance between all the proposed parameters is useful for optimizing mission planning and image processing, altitude above ground level (AGL) being main parameter because of its influence on root mean square error (RMSE). PMID:27809293

  10. An Analysis of the Influence of Flight Parameters in the Generation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Orthomosaicks to Survey Archaeological Areas.

    PubMed

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco-Javier; Notario García, María Dolores; Meroño de Larriva, Jose Emilio; García-Ferrer, Alfonso

    2016-11-01

    This article describes the configuration and technical specifications of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a red-green-blue (RGB) sensor for the acquisition of images needed for the production of orthomosaics to be used in archaeological applications. Several flight missions were programmed as follows: flight altitudes at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 m above ground level; two forward and side overlap settings (80%-50% and 70%-40%); and the use, or lack thereof, of ground control points. These settings were chosen to analyze their influence on the spatial quality of orthomosaicked images processed by Inpho UASMaster (Trimble, CA, USA). Changes in illumination over the study area, its impact on flight duration, and how it relates to these settings is also considered. The combined effect of these parameters on spatial quality is presented as well, defining a ratio between ground sample distance of UAV images and expected root mean square of a UAV orthomosaick. The results indicate that a balance between all the proposed parameters is useful for optimizing mission planning and image processing, altitude above ground level (AGL) being main parameter because of its influence on root mean square error (RMSE).

  11. Unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV): Flight testing and evaluation of two-channel E-field very low frequency (VLF) instrument

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Using VLF frequencies, transmitted by the Navy`s network, for airborne remote sensing of the earth`s electrical, magnetic characteristics was first considered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) around the mid 1970s. The first VLF system was designed and developed by the USGS for installation and operation on a single engine, fixed wing aircraft used by the Branch of Geophysics for geophysical surveying. The system consisted of five channels. Two E-field channels with sensors consisting of a fixed vertical loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on top of the fuselage and a gyro stabilized horizontal loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on a tail boom. The three channel magnetic sensor consisted of three orthogonal coils mounted on the same gyro stabilized platform as the horizontal E-field antenna. The main features of the VLF receiver were: narrow band-width frequency selection using crystal filters, phase shifters for zeroing out system phase variances, phase-lock loops for generating real and quadrature gates, and synchronous detectors for generating real and quadrature outputs. In the mid 1990s the Branch of Geophysics designed and developed a two-channel E-field ground portable VLF system. The system was built using state-of-the-art circuit components and new concepts in circuit architecture. Small size, light weight, low power, durability, and reliability were key considerations in the design of the instrument. The primary purpose of the instrument was for collecting VLF data during ground surveys over small grid areas. Later the system was modified for installation on a Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV). A series of three field trips were made to Easton, Maryland for testing and evaluating the system performance.

  12. An evaluation of a constrained test method for obtaining free body responses. [with application to aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A.; Giansante, N.; Bartlett, F. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A method for obtaining free body responses from dynamic tests on a constrained structure is investigated for practical feasibility. The method is based on the principle that a constrained structure can be considered to be a free body acted upon by multiple forces which include the forces of constraint. By measuring these forces and by exciting the structure so as to develop linearly independent sets of forces, the response of the free body to one force at a time can be computed. Techniques for producing these independent forces are discussed. The development of the theory, computer simulations of tests of representative aerospace vehicles (including experimental error), and a description and listing of the computer programs developed are included. The procedure appears to be a practical method for obtaining in-flight characteristics of such vehicles.

  13. Aerospace Toolbox--a flight vehicle design, analysis, simulation, and software development environment II: an in-depth overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Paul M.

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a demonstrated approach to significantly reduce the cost and schedule of non real-time modeling and simulation, real-time HWIL simulation, and embedded code development. The tool and the methodology presented capitalize on a paradigm that has become a standard operating procedure in the automotive industry. The tool described is known as the Aerospace Toolbox, and it is based on the MathWorks Matlab/Simulink framework, which is a COTS application. Extrapolation of automotive industry data and initial applications in the aerospace industry show that the use of the Aerospace Toolbox can make significant contributions in the quest by NASA and other government agencies to meet aggressive cost reduction goals in development programs. The part I of this paper provided a detailed description of the GUI based Aerospace Toolbox and how it is used in every step of a development program; from quick prototyping of concept developments that leverage built-in point of departure simulations through to detailed design, analysis, and testing. Some of the attributes addressed included its versatility in modeling 3 to 6 degrees of freedom, its library of flight test validated library of models (including physics, environments, hardware, and error sources), and its built-in Monte Carlo capability. Other topics that were covered in part I included flight vehicle models and algorithms, and the covariance analysis package, Navigation System Covariance Analysis Tools (NavSCAT). Part II of this series will cover a more in-depth look at the analysis and simulation capability and provide an update on the toolbox enhancements. It will also address how the Toolbox can be used as a design hub for Internet based collaborative engineering tools such as NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) and Lockheed Martin's Interactive Missile Design Environment (IMD).

  14. An Inverse Interpolation Method Utilizing In-Flight Strain Measurements for Determining Loads and Structural Response of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkarayev, S.; Krashantisa, R.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    An important and challenging technology aimed at the next generation of aerospace vehicles is that of structural health monitoring. The key problem is to determine accurately, reliably, and in real time the applied loads, stresses, and displacements experienced in flight, with such data establishing an information database for structural health monitoring. The present effort is aimed at developing a finite element-based methodology involving an inverse formulation that employs measured surface strains to recover the applied loads, stresses, and displacements in an aerospace vehicle in real time. The computational procedure uses a standard finite element model (i.e., "direct analysis") of a given airframe, with the subsequent application of the inverse interpolation approach. The inverse interpolation formulation is based on a parametric approximation of the loading and is further constructed through a least-squares minimization of calculated and measured strains. This procedure results in the governing system of linear algebraic equations, providing the unknown coefficients that accurately define the load approximation. Numerical simulations are carried out for problems involving various levels of structural approximation. These include plate-loading examples and an aircraft wing box. Accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are discussed in detail. The experimental validation of the methodology by way of structural testing of an aircraft wing is also discussed.

  15. Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Mackin, T. E.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, includes a discussion of the essentials of propulsion, control, and guidance and the conditions of space travel. Chapter 1 provides a brief account of basic laws of celestial mechanics. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 are devoted to the chemical principles of propulsion. Included are the basics of…

  16. Development of Multidisciplinary, Multifidelity Analysis, Integration, and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-27

    Optimization," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics Systems, Vol. 34, 817-823. Singh, G. and Grandhi, R. V., "Mixed-Variable Optimization...containing the design space S. AS3. The objective function (the augmented Lagrangian function), , satisfies a Lipschitz condition. In words, the

  17. Military handbook: Metallic materials and elements for aerospace vehicle structures, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-11-01

    Since many aerospace companies manufacture both commercial and military products, the standardization of metallic materials design data, which are acceptable to government procuring or certification agencies, is very beneficial to those manufacturers as well as governmental agencies. Although the design requirements for military and commercial products may differ greatly, the required design values for the strength of materials and elements and other needed material characteristics are often identical. Therefore this publication is to provide standardized design values and related design information for metallic materials and structural elements used in aerospace structures. The data contained herein or from approved items in the minutes of MIL-RDBK-5 coordination meetings are acceptable to the Air Force, the Navy, the Army, and the Federal Aviation Administration. Approval by the procuring or certificating agency must be obtained for the use of design values for products not contained herein.

  18. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  19. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 6: IPAD system development and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redhed, D. D.; Tripp, L. L.; Kawaguchi, A. S.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The strategy of the IPAD implementation plan presented, proposes a three phase development of the IPAD system and technical modules, and the transfer of this capability from the development environment to the aerospace vehicle design environment. The system and technical module capabilities for each phase of development are described. The system and technical module programming languages are recommended as well as the initial host computer system hardware and operating system. The cost of developing the IPAD technology is estimated. A schedule displaying the flowtime required for each development task is given. A PERT chart gives the developmental relationships of each of the tasks and an estimate of the operational cost of the IPAD system is offered.

  20. Architecting Human Operator Trust in Automation to Improve System Effectiveness in Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    like to extend our appreciation to our research sponsor Dr. Janet Miller from the Air Force Research Labs, and her colleague Dr. Cheryl Batchelor, for...for single-operator control of multiple UAVs. Drs. Brian Tsou, Lamar Warfield , Justin Estepp and Benjamin Knott , meanwhile, contributed to our

  1. A Compendium of Wind Statistics and Models for the NASA Space Shuttle and Other Aerospace Vehicle Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Adelfang, S. I.

    1998-01-01

    The wind profile with all of its variations with respect to altitude has been, is now, and will continue to be important for aerospace vehicle design and operations. Wind profile databases and models are used for the vehicle ascent flight design for structural wind loading, flight control systems, performance analysis, and launch operations. This report presents the evolution of wind statistics and wind models from the empirical scalar wind profile model established for the Saturn Program through the development of the vector wind profile model used for the Space Shuttle design to the variations of this wind modeling concept for the X-33 program. Because wind is a vector quantity, the vector wind models use the rigorous mathematical probability properties of the multivariate normal probability distribution. When the vehicle ascent steering commands (ascent guidance) are wind biased to the wind profile measured on the day-of-launch, ascent structural wind loads are reduced and launch probability is increased. This wind load alleviation technique is recommended in the initial phase of vehicle development. The vehicle must fly through the largest load allowable versus altitude to achieve its mission. The Gumbel extreme value probability distribution is used to obtain the probability of exceeding (or not exceeding) the load allowable. The time conditional probability function is derived from the Gumbel bivariate extreme value distribution. This time conditional function is used for calculation of wind loads persistence increments using 3.5-hour Jimsphere wind pairs. These increments are used to protect the commit-to-launch decision. Other topics presented include the Shuttle Shuttle load-response to smoothed wind profiles, a new gust model, and advancements in wind profile measuring systems. From the lessons learned and knowledge gained from past vehicle programs, the development of future launch vehicles can be accelerated. However, new vehicle programs by their very

  2. UAV Mothership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    9 Figure 8: UAV Storage Racks on Third and Fourth Deck................................................ 10...the ship. UAVs such as the Integrator shown in Figure 7 are stored in the forward end of the ship below the launchers in secure racks . Two...automated forklift similar to existing automated pallet loading systems removes a UAV from the rack and deposits it on a conveyer ramp on the third deck

  3. Atmospheric/Space Environment Support Lessons Learned Regarding Aerospace Vehicle Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    In modern government and aerospace industry institutions the necessity of controlling current year costs often leads to high mobility in the technical workforce, "one-deep" technical capabilities, and minimal mentoring for young engineers. Thus, formal recording, use, and teaching of lessons learned are especially important in the maintenance and improvement of current knowledge and development of new technologies, regardless of the discipline area. Within the NASA Technical Standards Program Website http://standards.nasa.gov there is a menu item entitled "Lessons Learned/Best Practices". It contains links to a large number of engineering and technical disciplines related data sets that contain a wealth of lessons learned information based on past experiences. This paper has provided a small sample of lessons learned relative to the atmospheric and space environment. There are many more whose subsequent applications have improved our knowledge of the atmosphere and space environment, and the application of this knowledge to the engineering and operations for a variety of aerospace programs.

  4. Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Guidelines for Use in Aerospace Vehicle Development, 1973 Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, G. E. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Guidelines are provided on probable climatic extremes and terrestrial environment data applicable to space vehicle and associated equipment design and development. Operational criteria for ground support sites are emphasized.

  5. Natural orbital environment definition guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. Jeffrey (Editor); Smith, Robert E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document provides definitions of the natural near-Earth space environment suitable for use in the initial development/design phase of any space vehicle. The natural environment includes the neutral atmosphere, plasma, charged particle radiation, electromagnetic radiation (EMR), meteoroids, orbital debris, magnetic field, physical and thermal constants, and gravitational field. Communications and other unmanned satellites operate in geosynchronous-Earth orbit (GEO); therefore, some data are given for GEO, but emphasis is on altitudes from 200 km to 1000 km (low-Earth orbit (LEO)). This document does not cover the induced environment of other effects resulting from presence of the space vehicle. Manmade factors are included as part of the ambient natural environment; i.e., orbital debris and radio frequency (RF) noise generated on Earth, because they are not caused by the presence of the space vehicle but form part of the ambient environment that the space vehicle experiences.

  6. [Retrieval of crown closure of moso bamboo forest using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remotely sensed imagery based on geometric-optical model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Du, Hua-qiang; Zhou, Guo-mo; Xu, Xiao-jun; Sun, Shao-bo; Gao, Guo-long

    2015-05-01

    This research focused on the application of remotely sensed imagery from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with high spatial resolution for the estimation of crown closure of moso bamboo forest based on the geometric-optical model, and analyzed the influence of unconstrained and fully constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA) on the accuracy of the estimated results. The results demonstrated that the combination of UAV remotely sensed imagery and geometric-optical model could, to some degrees, achieve the estimation of crown closure. However, the different SMA methods led to significant differentiation in the estimation accuracy. Compared with unconstrained SMA, the fully constrained linear SMA method resulted in higher accuracy of the estimated values, with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.63 at 0.01 level, against the measured values acquired during the field survey. Root mean square error (RMSE) of approximate 0.04 was low, indicating that the usage of fully constrained linear SMA could bring about better results in crown closure estimation, which was closer to the actual condition in moso bamboo forest.

  7. Design and fabrication of metallic thermal protection systems for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varisco, A.; Bell, P.; Wolter, W.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop a lightweight, efficient metallic thermal protection system (TPS) for application to future shuttle-type reentry vehicles, advanced space transports, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Technical requirements were generally derived from the space shuttle. A corrugation-stiffened beaded-skin TPS design was used as a baseline. The system was updated and modified to incorporate the latest technology developments and design criteria. The primary objective was to minimize mass for the total system.

  8. Potential and prospective implementation of carbon nanotubes on next generation aircraft and space vehicles: A review of current and expected applications in aerospace sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Omid; Elola, Maialen Chapartegui; Elizetxea, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes have instigated the interest of many different scientific fields since their authenticated introduction, more than two decades ago. Particularly in aerospace applications, the potential implementations of these advanced materials have been predicted to have a large impact on future aircraft and space vehicles, mainly due to their distinct features, which include superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. This article provides the very first consolidated review of the imminent prospects of utilizing carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles in aerospace sciences, based on their recent implementations and predicted future applications. Explicitly, expected carbon nanotube employment in aeronautics and astronautics are identified for commercial aircraft, military aircraft, rotorcraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, satellites, and space launch vehicles. Attention is devoted to future utilization of carbon nanotubes, which may comprise hydrogen storage encapsulation, composite material implementation, lightning protection for aircraft, aircraft icing mitigation, reduced weight of airframes/satellites, and alleviation of challenges related to future space launch. This study further sheds light onto recent actualized implementations of carbon nanotubes in aerospace applications, as well as current and prospective challenges related to their usage in aerospace sciences, encompassing health and safety hazards, large scale manufacturing, achievement of optimum properties, recycling, and environmental impacts.

  9. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1998-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. Three Principal Investigators; Drs. Renaud, Brockman and Batill directed this effort. During the four and a half year grant period, six Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student received full or partial support, while four Computer Science and Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student were supported. During each of the summers up to four undergraduate students were involved in related research activities. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (N4DO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to

  10. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 4: IPAD system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, W.; Carpenter, L. C.; Redhed, D. D.; Hansen, S. D.; Anderson, L. O.; Kawaguchi, A. S.

    1973-01-01

    The computing system design of IPAD is described and the requirements which form the basis for the system design are discussed. The system is presented in terms of a functional design description and technical design specifications. The functional design specifications give the detailed description of the system design using top-down structured programming methodology. Human behavioral characteristics, which specify the system design at the user interface, security considerations, and standards for system design, implementation, and maintenance are also part of the technical design specifications. Detailed specifications of the two most common computing system types in use by the major aerospace companies which could support the IPAD system design are presented. The report of a study to investigate migration of IPAD software between the two candidate 3rd generation host computing systems and from these systems to a 4th generation system is included.

  11. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: A Multidisciplinary Design System for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John K.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze ma or propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of design process and to provide the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), a multidisciplinary system of analysis tools that is focussed on extending the simulation capability from components to the full system. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.

  12. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1999-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to a sensitivity based Concurrent Subspace Optimization (CSSO) NMO algorithm; the development of a neural network response surface based CSSO-MDO algorithm; and the integration of distributed computing and process scheduling into the MDO environment. This report overviews research efforts in each of these focus. A complete bibliography of research produced with support of this grant is attached.

  13. Experimental design of an interlaboratory study for trace metal analysis of liquid fluids. [for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenbauer-Seng, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    The accurate determination of trace metals and fuels is an important requirement in much of the research into and development of alternative fuels for aerospace applications. Recognizing the detrimental effects of certain metals on fuel performance and fuel systems at the part per million and in some cases part per billion levels requires improved accuracy in determining these low concentration elements. Accurate analyses are also required to ensure interchangeability of analysis results between vendor, researcher, and end use for purposes of quality control. Previous interlaboratory studies have demonstrated the inability of different laboratories to agree on the results of metal analysis, particularly at low concentration levels, yet typically good precisions are reported within a laboratory. An interlaboratory study was designed to gain statistical information about the sources of variation in the reported concentrations. Five participant laboratories were used on a fee basis and were not informed of the purpose of the analyses. The effects of laboratory, analytical technique, concentration level, and ashing additive were studied in four fuel types for 20 elements of interest. The prescribed sample preparation schemes (variations of dry ashing) were used by all of the laboratories. The analytical data were statistically evaluated using a computer program for the analysis of variance technique.

  14. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-29

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  15. Aerospace planes and trans-atmospheric vehicles - Recent US studies revive dormant technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, B.

    1986-03-01

    A technology-readiness and performance prospects evaluation is made for next-generation large aircraft capable of reaching and sustaining hypersonic (Mach 5 and above) speeds with air breathing powerplants as well as of leaving the earth's atmosphere for Space Shuttle-like operations employing nonairbreathing propulsion. Both DARPA and NASA are currently sponsoring research in the materials, configuration design, propulsion and fuel systems, and control and navigation methods, that are entailed by such vehicles. Attention is given to cryogenically fueled 'air turboramjet' engine technology, which encompasses turbojet (low speed), ramjet (high speed), and rocket (exoatmospheric) propulsion cycles.

  16. Hypersonic aerospace vehicle leading-edge cooling using heat-pipe, transpiration and film-cooling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Modlin, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of cooling hypersonic-vehicle leading-edge structures exposed to severe aerodynamic surface heat fluxes was studied, using a combination of liquid-metal heat pipes and surface-mass-transfer cooling techniques. A generalized, transient, finite-difference-based hypersonic leading-edge cooling model was developed that incorporated these effects and was demonstrated on an assumed aerospace plane-type wing leading edge section and a SCRAMJET engine inlet leading-edge section. The hypersonic leading-edge cooling model was developed using an existing, experimentally verified heat-pipe model. Then the existing heat-pipe model was modified by adding both transpiration and film-cooling options as new surface boundary conditions. The models used to predict the leading-edge surface heat-transfer reduction effects of the transpiration and film cooling were modifications of more-generalized, empirically based models obtained from the literature. It is concluded that cooling leading-edge structures exposed to severe hypersonic-flight environments using a combination of liquid-metal heat pipe, surface transpiration, and film cooling methods appears feasible.

  17. Analysis of material entrainment with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and simulation of the debris-flow event at the Sattelbach torrent - Austria, 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidl, Christian; Schraml, Klaus; Moser, Markus; Hübl, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    In summer 2013, a disastrous debris-flow destroyed several houses and infrastructure facilities on the fan of the Sattelbach catchment located in the district of St. Johann im Pongau, Salzburg (Austria). Fortunately, no damage to persons could be registered. The debris flow was triggered by shallow landslides within the upper catchment, mobilizing in total approximately 4,000 m3 of debris. However, the volume of the debris-flow event at the fan was documented with 12,000 m3, whereas a maximum discharge of 380 m3/s was estimated near the fan apex. Witnesses reported only one big wave passing the fan area, which seems to be out of character for a typical Alpine debris-flow event showing such high discharge. For the later, one would suppose multiple smaller waves. Due to the fact of evolving material entrainment resulted in one big wave, the debris-flow event at the Sattelbach catchment was chosen as case study to analyze mass bulking. For this reason, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to establish a digital terrain model (DTM) of the whole reach after the event. This terrain model was then compared to a LiDAR DTM, showing the topographical situation before the event. Based on the analyzed mass bulking along the whole reach, numerical simulations were performed using the DAN3D (Dynamic Analysis of Landslides in Three Dimensions) code. The DAN3D model allows selection between different rheologies as well as the implementation of entrainment. The study will show the applicability of UAV's in small and steep catchments and will test DAN 3D a debris-flow simulation tool with an implemented mass-bulking model.

  18. Analysis and measurements of low frequency lightning component penetration through aerospace vehicle metal and graphite skins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robb, J. D.; Chen, T.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the shielding properties of mixed metal and graphite composite structures has illustrated some important aspects of electromagnetic field penetration into the interior. These include: (1) that graphite access doors on metallic structures will attenuate lightning magnetic fields very little; conversely, metal doors on a graphite structure will also attenuate fields from lightning strike currents very little, i.e., homogeneity of the shield is a critical factor in shielding and (2) that continuous conductors between two points inside a graphite skin such as an air data probe metallic tubing connection to an air data computer can allow large current penetrations into a vehicle interior. The true weight savings resulting from the use of composite materials can only be evaluated after the resulting electromagnetic problems such as current penetrations have been solved, and this generally requires weight addition in the form of cable shields, conductor bonding or external metallization.

  19. Structural Analysis Methods for Structural Health Management of Future Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Two finite element based computational methods, Smoothing Element Analysis (SEA) and the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM), are reviewed, and examples of their use for structural health monitoring are discussed. Due to their versatility, robustness, and computational efficiency, the methods are well suited for real-time structural health monitoring of future space vehicles, large space structures, and habitats. The methods may be effectively employed to enable real-time processing of sensing information, specifically for identifying three-dimensional deformed structural shapes as well as the internal loads. In addition, they may be used in conjunction with evolutionary algorithms to design optimally distributed sensors. These computational tools have demonstrated substantial promise for utilization in future Structural Health Management (SHM) systems.

  20. Analysis of internal ablation for the thermal control of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camberos, Jose A.; Roberts, Leonard

    1989-01-01

    A new method of thermal protection for transatmospheric vehicles is introduced. The method involves the combination of radiation, ablation and transpiration cooling. By placing an ablating material behind a fixed-shape, porous outer shield, the effectiveness of transpiration cooling is made possible while retaining the simplicity of a passive mechanism. A simplified one-dimensional approach is used to derive the governing equations. Reduction of these equations to non-dimensional form yields two parameters which characterize the thermal protection effectiveness of the shield and ablator combination for a given trajectory. The non-dimensional equations are solved numerically for a sample trajectory corresponding to glide re-entry. Four typical ablators are tested and compared with results obtained by using the thermal properties of water. For the present level of analysis, the numerical computations adequately support the analytical model.

  1. Mass Efficiency Considerations for Thermally Insulated Structural Skin of an Aerospace Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2012-01-01

    An approximate equation was derived to predict the mass of insulation required to limit the maximum temperature reached by an insulated structure subjected to a transient heating pulse. In the course of the derivation two figures of merit were identified. One figure of merit correlates to the effectiveness of the heat capacity of the underlying structural material in reducing the amount of required insulation. The second figure of merit provides an indicator of the mass efficiency of the insulator material. An iterative, one dimensional finite element analysis was used to size the external insulation required to protect the structure at a single location on the Space Shuttle Orbiter and a reusable launch vehicle. Required insulation masses were calculated for a range of different materials for both structure and insulator. The required insulation masses calculated using the approximate equation were shown to typically agree with finite element results within 10 to 20 percent over the range of parameters studied. Finite element results closely followed the trends indicated by both figures of merit.

  2. An Overview of Brazilian Developments in Beamed Energy Aerospace Propulsion and Vehicle Performance Control

    SciTech Connect

    Minucci, M. A. S.

    2008-04-28

    Beamed energy propulsion and beamed energy vehicle performance control concepts are equally promising and challenging. In Brazil, the two concepts are being currently investigated at the Prof Henry T Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, of the Institute for Advanced Studies--IEAv, in collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute--RPI, Troy, NY, and the United States Air force Research Laboratory-AFRL. Until recently, only laser energy addition for hypersonic flow control was being investigated at the Laboratory using a 0.3 m nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T2, and two 7 joule CO{sub 2} TEA lasers. Flow visualization, model pressure and heat flux measurements of the laser energy addition perturbed flow around a model were produced as a result of this joint IEAv-RPI investigation. Presently, with the participation of AFRL and the newly commissioned 0.6 m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T3, a more ambitious project is underway. Two 400 Joule Lumonics 620 CO{sub 2} TEA lasers will deliver a 20 cm X 25 cm propulsive laser beam to a complete laser propelled air breather/rocket hypersonic engine, located inside T3 test section. Schlieren photographs of the flow inside de engine as well as surface and heat flux measurements will be performed for free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25. The present paper discusses past, present and future Brazilian activities on beamed energy propulsion and related technologies.

  3. An Overview of Brazilian Developments in Beamed Energy Aerospace Propulsion and Vehicle Performance Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minucci, M. A. S.

    2008-04-01

    Beamed energy propulsion and beamed energy vehicle performance control concepts are equally promising and challenging. In Brazil, the two concepts are being currently investigated at the Prof Henry T Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, of the Institute for Advanced Studies—IEAv, in collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute—RPI, Troy, NY, and the United States Air force Research Laboratory-AFRL. Until recently, only laser energy addition for hypersonic flow control was being investigated at the Laboratory using a 0.3 m nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T2, and two 7 joule CO2 TEA lasers. Flow visualization, model pressure and heat flux measurements of the laser energy addition perturbed flow around a model were produced as a result of this joint IEAv-RPI investigation. Presently, with the participation of AFRL and the newly commissioned 0.6 m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T3, a more ambitious project is underway. Two 400 Joule Lumonics 620 CO2 TEA lasers will deliver a 20 cm X 25 cm propulsive laser beam to a complete laser propelled air breather/rocket hypersonic engine, located inside T3 test section. Schlieren photographs of the flow inside de engine as well as surface and heat flux measurements will be performed for free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25. The present paper discusses past, present and future Brazilian activities on beamed energy propulsion and related technologies.

  4. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System.

    PubMed

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-11-15

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  5. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    PubMed Central

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation. PMID:27854267

  6. Thrust sensing for small UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchman, Christopher Scott

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become prevalent in both military and civilian applications. UAVs have many size categories from large-scale aircraft to micro air vehicles. The performance, health, and efficiency for UAVs of smaller sizes can be difficult to assess and few associated instrumentation systems have been developed. Thrust measurements on the ground can characterize systems especially when combined with simultaneous motor power measurements. This thesis demonstrates the use of strain measurements to measure the thrust produced by motor/propeller combinations for such small UAVs. A full-bridge Wheatstone circuit and electrical resistance strain gauges were used in conjunction with constant-stress cantilever beams for static tests and dynamic wind tunnel tests. An associated instrumentation module monitored power from the electric motor. Monitoring the thrust data over time can provide insights into optimal propeller and motor selection and early detection of problems such as component failure. The approach provides a system for laboratory or field measurements that can be scaled for a wide range of small UAVs.

  7. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  8. Towards FAA Certification of UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    As of June 30, 2003, all Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), no matter how small, must adhere to the same FAA regulations as human-piloted aircraft. These regulations include certification for flying in controlled airspace and certification of flight software based on RTCA DO-178B. This paper provides an overview of the steps necessary to obtain certification, as well as a discussion about the challenges UAV's face when trying to meet these requirements. It is divided into two parts: 1) Certifications for Flying in Controlled Airspace; 2) Certification of Flight Software per RTCA DO-178B.

  9. Towards a Biosynthetic UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; Nelakanti, Raman; Ruffner, Lydia; Shumate, Alaina; Sorayya, Aryo; Ugwu, Kyla

    2014-01-01

    We are currently working on a series of projects towards the construction of a fully biological unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for use in scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities - for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight - these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material's systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an "amberless" system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment.

  10. Diverse Planning for UAV Control and Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Tožička, Jan; Komenda, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are suited to various remote sensing missions, such as measuring air quality. The conventional method of UAV control is by human operators. Such an approach is limited by the ability of cooperation among the operators controlling larger fleets of UAVs in a shared area. The remedy for this is to increase autonomy of the UAVs in planning their trajectories by considering other UAVs and their plans. To provide such improvement in autonomy, we need better algorithms for generating alternative trajectory variants that the UAV coordination algorithms can utilize. In this article, we define a novel family of multi-UAV sensing problems, solving task allocation of huge number of tasks (tens of thousands) to a group of configurable UAVs with non-zero weight of equipped sensors (comprising the air quality measurement as well) together with two base-line solvers. To solve the problem efficiently, we use an algorithm for diverse trajectory generation and integrate it with a solver for the multi-UAV coordination problem. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the multi-UAV sensing problem solver. The evaluation is done on synthetic and real-world-inspired benchmarks in a multi-UAV simulator. Results show that diverse planning is a valuable method for remote sensing applications containing multiple UAVs. PMID:28009831

  11. Diverse Planning for UAV Control and Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Tožička, Jan; Komenda, Antonín

    2016-12-21

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are suited to various remote sensing missions, such as measuring air quality. The conventional method of UAV control is by human operators. Such an approach is limited by the ability of cooperation among the operators controlling larger fleets of UAVs in a shared area. The remedy for this is to increase autonomy of the UAVs in planning their trajectories by considering other UAVs and their plans. To provide such improvement in autonomy, we need better algorithms for generating alternative trajectory variants that the UAV coordination algorithms can utilize. In this article, we define a novel family of multi-UAV sensing problems, solving task allocation of huge number of tasks (tens of thousands) to a group of configurable UAVs with non-zero weight of equipped sensors (comprising the air quality measurement as well) together with two base-line solvers. To solve the problem efficiently, we use an algorithm for diverse trajectory generation and integrate it with a solver for the multi-UAV coordination problem. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the multi-UAV sensing problem solver. The evaluation is done on synthetic and real-world-inspired benchmarks in a multi-UAV simulator. Results show that diverse planning is a valuable method for remote sensing applications containing multiple UAVs.

  12. Civil Air Patrol and Aerospace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, John V.

    1972-01-01

    Aerospace education is a branch of general education concerned with communicating knowledge, imparting skills, and developing attitudes necessary to interpret aerospace activities and the total impact of air and space vehicles upon society. (Author)

  13. Confidence metrics analysis of a fixed-wing UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polgar, Janos

    Uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming popular in the development process of full scale aircrafts and as research platforms. Due to their complexity they provide development and test environments for a wide range of applications. Supporting research projects in safety critical systems, classes, the University of Minnesota Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics have been developing a low-cost UAV research facility. This facility includes models of a family of fixed wing airframes, controllers, a diverse set of guidance algorithms. A flight software is written which implements an autopilot system, including the aforementioned algorithms, and provides datalogging. The software package is equipped with tools to evaluate flight test results. The model of any plant is never 100% accurate. There are always differences between the real system and the dynamical model of it. Uncertainties can be introduced into the model, which are trying to capture uncertainty in model parameters and unmodeled dynamics. Even though the aircraft model in the package is fairly accurate, it is interesting to investigate 'how good' the model is, i.e. how robust the model in the closed loop is against uncertainties. Earlier work in this project mainly focused on plant modeling and controller design. Extensive controller analysis, however, has not performed yet, what motivates the work behind this thesis.

  14. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for detection of cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unmanned aerial vehicle was used to capture videos of cattle in pastures to determine the efficiency of this technology for use by Mounted Inspectors in the Permanent Quarantine zone (PQZ) of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program in south Texas along the U.S.-Mexico Border. These videos were ...

  15. Development of Micro UAV Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürkle, Axel; Leuchter, Sandro

    Some complex application scenarios for micro UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) call for the formation of swarms of multiple drones. In this paper a platform for the creation of such swarms is presented. It consists of modified commercial quadrocopters and a self-made ground control station software architecture. Autonomy of individual drones is generated through a micro controller equipped video camera. Currently it is possible to fly basic maneuvers autonomously, such as take-off, fly to position, and landing. In the future the camera's image processing capabilities will be used to generate additional control information. Different co-operation strategies for teams of UAVs are currently evaluated with an agent based simulation tool. Finally complex application scenarios for multiple micro UAVs are presented.

  16. Integrating Uav Into Geomatics Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Tahir, R.

    2015-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have gained tremendous interest as a platform for surveying and mapping over the last few years, and have opened up a new realm of opportunities for surveying, orthophoto production, 3D modelling and feature extraction. UAVs provide a viable and affordable alternative for the airborne and space borne sensors for the medium/large scale mapping. This paper argues that universities should expand their education and training programs to include UAV-based geomatics operations and application development. Based on the author's own experience as well other cases, details are developed and presented in this paper with respect to the likely syllabi and practical assignments. Alternatives for hardware and software support will be briefly discussed.

  17. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs.

  18. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  19. Change Detection Experiments Using Low Cost UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the progress in the development of a low-cost change-detection system. This system is being developed to provide users with the ability to use a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and image processing system that can detect changes in specific fixed ground locations using video provided by an autonomous UAV. The results of field experiments conducted with the US Army at Ft. A.P.Hill are presented.

  20. Concepts and Development of Bio-Inspired Distributed Embedded Wired/Wireless Sensor Array Architectures for Acoustic Wave Sensing in Integrated Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghoshal, Anindya; Prosser, William H.; Kirikera, Goutham; Schulz, Mark J.; Hughes, Derke J.; Orisamolu, Wally

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of acoustic emissions in plate structures and their sensing by embedded or surface bonded piezoelectric sensor arrays. Three different modeling efforts for acoustic emission (AE) wave generation and propagation are discussed briefly along with their advantages and disadvantages. Continuous sensors placed at right angles on a plate are being discussed as a new approach to measure and locate the source of acoustic waves. Evolutionary novel signal processing algorithms and bio-inspired distributed sensor array systems are used on large structures and integrated aerospace vehicles for AE source localization and preliminary results are presented. These systems allow for a great reduction in the amount of data that needs to be processed and also reduce the chances of false alarms from ambient noises. It is envisioned that these biomimetic sensor arrays and signal processing techniques will be useful for both wireless and wired sensor arrays for real time health monitoring of large integrated aerospace vehicles and earth fixed civil structures. The sensor array architectures can also be used with other types of sensors and for other applications.

  1. Radical advancement in multi-spectral imaging for autonomous vehicles (UAVs, UGVs, and UUVs) using active compensation.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Brian F.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to demonstrate a compact, multi-spectral, refractive imaging systems using active optical compensation. Compared to a comparable, conventional lens system, our system has an increased operational bandwidth, provides for spectral selectivity and, non-mechanically corrects aberrations induced by the wavelength dependent properties of a passive refractive optical element (i.e. lens). The compact nature and low power requirements of the system lends itself to small platforms such as autonomous vehicles. In addition, the broad spectral bandwidth of our system would allow optimized performance for both day/night use, and the multi-spectral capability allows for spectral discrimination and signature identification.

  2. Aerospace Community. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, V. V.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, emphasizes the two sides of aerospace--military aerospace and civilian aerospace. Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion on the organization of Air Force bases and missile sites in relation to their missions. Chapter 2 examines the community services provided by Air Force bases. The topics…

  3. UAV Research, Operations, and Flight Test at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the projects that have extended NASA Dryden's capabilities in designing, testing, and using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's). Some of the UAV's have been for Science and experimental applications, some have been for flight research and demonstration purposes, and some have been small UAV's for other customers.

  4. Research on UAV Intelligent Obstacle Avoidance Technology During Inspection of Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chuanhu; Zhang, Fei; Yin, Chaoyuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Liang; Li, Zongyu; Wang, Wanguo

    Autonomous obstacle avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle (hereinafter referred to as UAV) in electric power line inspection process has important significance for operation safety and economy for UAV intelligent inspection system of transmission line as main content of UAV intelligent inspection system on transmission line. In the paper, principles of UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology of transmission line are introduced. UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology based on particle swarm global optimization algorithm is proposed after common obstacle avoidance technologies are studied. Stimulation comparison is implemented with traditional UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology which adopts artificial potential field method. Results show that UAV inspection strategy of particle swarm optimization algorithm, adopted in the paper, is prominently better than UAV inspection strategy of artificial potential field method in the aspects of obstacle avoidance effect and the ability of returning to preset inspection track after passing through the obstacle. An effective method is provided for UAV inspection obstacle avoidance of transmission line.

  5. Development of a UAV rangeland remote sensing capability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting in 2000, experiments have been conducted at the Jornada Experimental Range near Las Cruces, NM to evaluate the utility of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for applications on arid rangelands. When compared to all types of remote sensing research ongoing at Jornada and other locations, UAVs h...

  6. UAV Mission Planning under Uncertainty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    and outputs of our problem, and explains any assumptions that we make in it. Chapter 4 -Problem Formulation. In this chapter we develop the mathemat...anid Sim [12]. We then present our formulation for the UAV mission planner, and explain any assumptions we make in it. Chapter 5 -Tests and Analysis...is the first application of the Bertsimas- Sim method to a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW), to our knowledge. The research makes a

  7. Enabling America's Next Generation of Aviation Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs o America's Next Generation of Aviation Vehicles are presented. The topics include: 1) UAV's- Unlimited Applications; 2) Global Challenges; 3) UAV/CNS Overview; 4) Communications; 5) Navigation; and 6) Surveillance.

  8. A predication model for combustion modes of the scramjet-powered aerospace vehicle based on the nonlinear features of the isolator flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Hongxin; Chetehouna, Khaled; Gascoin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engine remains the most promising airbreathing engine cycle for hypersonic flight, particularly the high-performance dual-mode scramjet in the range of flight Mach number from 4 to 7, because it can operates under different combustion modes. Isolator is a very key component of the dual-mode scramjet engine. In this paper, nonlinear characteristics of combustion mode transition is theoretically analyzed. The discontinuous sudden changes of static pressure and Mach number are obtained as the mode transition occurs, which emphasizing the importance of predication and control of combustion modes. In this paper, a predication model of different combustion modes is developed based on these these nonlinear features in the isolator flow field. it can provide a valuable reference for control system design of the scramjet-powered aerospace vehicle.

  9. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  10. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  11. Adaptive information interactive mechanism for multi-UAV visual navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Dai, Qionghai

    2012-06-01

    Multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) cooperative communication for visual navigation has recently generated significant concern. It has large amounts of visual information to be transmitted and processed among UAVs with realtime requirements. And the UAV clusters have self-organized, time-varying and high dynamic characteristics. Considering the above conditions, we propose an adaptive information interactive mechanism (AIIM) for multi-UAV visual navigation. In the mechanism, the function modules for UAV inter-communication interface are designed, the mobility-based link lifetime is established and the information interactive protocol is presented. Thus we combine the mobility of UAVs with the corresponding communication requirements to make effective information interaction for UAVs. Task-oriented distributed control is adopted to improve the collaboration flexibility in the multi-UAV visual navigation system. In order to timely obtain the necessary visual information, each UAV can cooperate with other relevant UAVs which meet some certain terms such as situation, task or environmental conditions. Simulation results are presented to show the validity of the proposed mechanism in terms of end-to-end delay and links stability.

  12. Spurious RF signals emitted by mini-UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleijpen, Ric (H. M. A.); Voogt, Vincent; Zwamborn, Peter; van den Oever, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the detection of spurious RF emissions of mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (mini-UAV). Many recent events have shown that mini-UAVs can be considered as a potential threat for civil security. For this reason the detection of mini-UAVs has become of interest to the sensor community. The detection, classification and identification chain can take advantage of different sensor technologies. Apart from the signatures used by radar and electro-optical sensor systems, the UAV also emits RF signals. These RF signatures can be split in intentional signals for communication with the operator and un-intentional RF signals emitted by the UAV. These unintentional or spurious RF emissions are very weak but could be used to discriminate potential UAV detections from false alarms. The goal of this research was to assess the potential of exploiting spurious emissions in the classification and identification chain of mini-UAVs. It was already known that spurious signals are very weak, but the focus was on the question whether the emission pattern could be correlated to the behaviour of the UAV. In this paper experimental examples of spurious RF emission for different types of mini-UAVs and their correlation with the electronic circuits in the UAVs will be shown

  13. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD) Volume 7: IPAD benefits and impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, S. D.; Southall, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The potential benefits, impact and spinoff of IPAD technology are described. The benefits are projected from a flowtime and labor cost analysis of the design process and a study of the flowtime and labor cost savings being experienced with existing integrated systems. Benefits in terms of designer productivity, company effectiveness, and IPAD as a national resource are developed. A description is given of the potential impact of information handling as an IPAD technology, upon task and organization structure and people who use IPAD. Spinoff of IPAD technology to nonaerospace industries is discussed. The results of a personal survey made of aerospace, nonaerospace, government and university sources are given.

  14. Land cover/use mapping using multi-band imageries captured by Cropcam Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Autopilot (UAV) over Penang Island, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuyi, Tan; Boon Chun, Beh; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Hwee San, Lim; Abdullah, Khiruddin; Mohammad Tahrin, Norhaslinda

    2012-11-01

    The problem of difficulty in obtaining cloud-free scene at the Equatorial region from satellite platforms can be overcome by using airborne imagery. Airborne digital imagery has proved to be an effective tool for land cover studies. Airborne digital camera imageries were selected in this present study because of the airborne digital image provides higher spatial resolution data for mapping a small study area. The main objective of this study is to classify the RGB bands imageries taken from a low-altitude Cropcam UAV for land cover/use mapping over USM campus, penang Island, Malaysia. A conventional digital camera was used to capture images from an elevation of 320 meter on board on an UAV autopilot. This technique was cheaper and economical compared with other airborne studies. The artificial neural network (NN) and maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) were used to classify the digital imageries captured by using Cropcam UAV over USM campus, Penang Islands, Malaysia. The supervised classifier was chosen based on the highest overall accuracy (<80%) and Kappa statistic (<0.8). The classified land cover map was geometrically corrected to provide a geocoded map. The results produced by this study indicated that land cover features could be clearly identified and classified into a land cover map. This study indicates the use of a conventional digital camera as a sensor on board on an UAV autopilot can provide useful information for planning and development of a small area of coverage.

  15. Application of a Very-Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Consumer Grade Camera for the Collection of Research Grade Data: Preliminary Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, P.; Davis, J. D.; Blesius, L.

    2013-12-01

    The use of UAV technology in the field of geoscience research has grown almost exponentially in the last decade. UAVs have been utilized as a sensor platform in many fields including geology, biology, climatology, geomorphology and archaeology. A UAV's ability to fly frequently, at very low altitude, and at relatively little cost makes them a perfect compromise between free, low temporal and spatial resolution satellite data and terrestrial based survey when there are insufficient funds to purchase custom satellite or manned aircraft data. Unfortunately, many available UAVs for research are still relatively expensive and often have predetermined imaging systems. However, the proliferation of hobbyist grade UAVs and consumer point and shoot cameras may provide many research projects with an alternative that is both cost-effective and efficient in data collection. This study therefore seeks to answer the question, can these very low cost, hobby-grade UAVs be used to produce research grade data. To achieve this end, in December of 2012 a small grant was obtained (<$6500) to set up a complete UAV system and to employ it in a diverse range of research. The system is comprised of a 3D Robotics hexacopter, Ardupilot automated flight hardware and software, spare parts and tool kit, two Canon point-and-shoot cameras including one modified for near infrared imagery, and a field laptop. To date, successful research flights have been flown for geomorphic research in degraded and restored montane meadows to study stream channel formation using both visible and near infrared imagery as well as for the creation of digital elevation models of large hillslope gullies using structure from motion (SFM). Other applications for the hexacopter, in progress or planned, include landslide monitoring, vegetation monitoring and mapping using the normalized difference vegetation index, archaeological survey, and bird nest identification on small rock islands. An analysis of the results

  16. Final Report: Global Change Research with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles UAV Applications for Studying the Radiation and Optical Properties of Upper Tropospheric Clouds, February 1, 1995 - March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    1998-01-31

    This paper describes the design and characteristics of a scanning spectral polarimeter which is capable of measuring spectral radiances and fluxes in the range between 0.4 rm to 4.0 pm. The instrument characteristics are described and a discussion of the procedures to calibrate the unpolarized radiances and fluxes are prescribed along the detailed error analyses of this calibration.

  17. Preservation potential of subtle glacial landforms based on detailed mapping of recently exposed proglacial areas: application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and structure-from-motion (SfM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Evans, David; Roberts, David; Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing glacier retreat results in the continuous exposure of proglacial areas. Such areas contain invaluable information about glacial process-form relationships manifest in specific landform assemblages. However, preservation potential of freshly exposed glacial landforms is very low, as proglacial terrains are one of the most dynamic parts of the landscape. Therefore, rapid mapping and geomorphological characterisation of such areas is important from a glaciological and geomorphological point of view for proper understanding and reconstruction of glacier-landform dynamics and chronology of glacial events. Annual patterns of recession and relatively small areas exposed every year, mean that the performing of regular aerial or satellite survey is expensive and therefore impractical. Recent advances in technology enables the development of low-cost alternatives for traditional aerial surveys. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be used to acquire high-resolution (several cm) low-altitude photographs. The UAV-based photographs can be subsequently processed through the structure-from-motion process to generate detailed orthophotomaps and digital elevation models. In this study we present case studies from the forelands of various glaciers on Iceland and Svalbard representing different types of proglacial landscapes: Fláajökull (annual push moraines); Hofellsjökul (bedrock bedforms and push moraines); Fjallsjökull (marginal drainage network); Rieperbreen (crevasse squeeze ridges and longitudinal debris stripes); Ayerbreen (transverse debris ridges); Foxfonna (longitudinal debris stripes);Hørbyebreen (geometric ridge network); Nordenskiöldbreen (fluted till surface); Ebbabreen (controlled moraine complex). UAV campaigns were conducted using a low-cost quadcopter platform. Resultant orthophotos and DEMs enabled mapping and assessment of recent glacial landscape development in different types of glacial landsystems. Results of our study indicate that

  18. UAV formation control design with obstacle avoidance in dynamic three-dimensional environment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai; Xia, Yuanqing; Huang, Kaoli

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the artificial potential field method combined with rotational vectors for a general problem of multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems tracking a moving target in dynamic three-dimensional environment. An attractive potential field is generated between the leader and the target. It drives the leader to track the target based on the relative position of them. The other UAVs in the formation are controlled to follow the leader by the attractive control force. The repulsive force affects among the UAVs to avoid collisions and distribute the UAVs evenly on the spherical surface whose center is the leader-UAV. Specific orders or positions of the UAVs are not required. The trajectories of avoidance obstacle can be obtained through two kinds of potential field with rotation vectors. Every UAV can choose the optimal trajectory to avoid the obstacle and reconfigure the formation after passing the obstacle. Simulations study on UAV are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  19. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts’ change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  20. Insights and recommendations of use of UAV platforms in precision agriculture in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, Lúcio A. C.; Brandão, Ziany N.; Inamasu, Ricardo Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Interest in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has grown around the world and several efforts are underway to integrate UAV operations routinely and safely into remote sensing applications, specially applied in precision agriculture. Reviewing the use of UAV in agriculture it shows limitations and opportunities. So the challenges of UAV platforms for remote sensing and precision agriculture were identified during a real case studied at a citrus area to monitor the HLB (Huanglongbing) infestation. Recommended actions for moving forward were identified and showed that is possible to use UAVs for detection of crop diseases with high precision.

  1. Structurally Integrated Antenna Concepts for HALE UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravey, Robin L.; Vedeler, Erik; Goins, Larry; Young, W. Robert; Lawrence, Roland W.

    2006-01-01

    This technical memorandum describes work done in support of the Multifunctional Structures and Materials Team under the Vehicle Systems Program's ITAS (Integrated Tailored Aero Structures) Project during FY 2005. The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch (ESB) developed three ultra lightweight antenna concepts compatible with HALE UAVs (High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). ESB also developed antenna elements that minimize the interaction between elements and the vehicle to minimize the impact of wing flexure on the EM (electromagnetic) performance of the integrated array. In addition, computer models were developed to perform phase correction for antenna arrays whose elements are moving relative to each other due to wing deformations expected in HALE vehicle concepts. Development of lightweight, conformal or structurally integrated antenna elements and compensating for the impact of a lightweight, flexible structure on a large antenna array are important steps in the realization of HALE UAVs for microwave applications such as passive remote sensing and communications.

  2. Robust Hurwitz Stability and Performance Analysis of H-Infinity Controlled Forward-Velocity Dynamics of UAVs in Close Formation Flight Using Bounded Phase Conditions in a Kharitonov Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Y.; Dasgupta, S.

    2014-07-01

    Multiple unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control in formation flight is comparatively a new research area in the field of aerospace engineering. In the proposed work, robust control techniques are implemented to maintain a fixed relative distance in horizontal and vertical direction with uniform pitch orientation in an uncertain leader-follower pattern of close formation flight platform. The forward velocity dynamics is of focal interest in this paper. H-infinity controllers are designed for leader control and its tracking. The robustness of the H-infinity controller is validated with Kharitonov related bounded phase conditions by forming interval polynomials.

  3. UAVs Being Used for Environmental Surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    e Arcturus unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs, are much more sophisticated than your typical remote-controlled plane. INL robotics and remote sensing experts have added state-of-the-art imaging and wireless technology to the UAVs to create intelligent remote surveillance craft that can rapidly survey a wide area for damage and track down security threats. But these robot planes aren't just for security anymore. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. Common Operating Picture: UAV Security Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This initial communication security study is a top-level assessment of basic security issues related to the operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Security considerations will include information relating to the use of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) protocols and applications identifying their maturity, as well as the use of IPV4 and a version of mobile IPV6. The purpose of this assessment is to provide an initial analysis of the security implications of introducing UAVs into the NAS.

  5. UAVs Being Used for Environmental Surveying

    ScienceCinema

    Chung, Sandra

    2016-07-12

    e Arcturus unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs, are much more sophisticated than your typical remote-controlled plane. INL robotics and remote sensing experts have added state-of-the-art imaging and wireless technology to the UAVs to create intelligent remote surveillance craft that can rapidly survey a wide area for damage and track down security threats. But these robot planes aren't just for security anymore. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Master Plan, 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN To DTIC-FDAC DTIC 70A DOCUMENT PROCESSMING I~ SlEW -, mmllamm LOAN DOCUMENT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV...11 B. Program Executive Officer for Cruise Missiles 3 and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PEO[CU...69 I ! I I ivI -- UAV 1993 MASTER PLAN U I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 A. OVERVIEW Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)* can make significant

  7. A discrete time model of a power conditioner fed permanent magnet brushless dc motor system for aerospace and electric vehicle applications for design purpose using finite elements for machine parameter determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehl, T. W.

    1980-12-01

    A discrete state space model of a power conditioner fed permanent magnet brushless dc motor for aerospace and electric vehicle applications is developed. The parameters which describe that machine portion of this model are derived from a two dimensional nonlinear magnetic field analysis using the finite element method. The model predicts the instantaneous mechanical and electrical behavior of a prototype electromechanical actuator for possible use on board the shuttle orbiter. The model is also used to simulate the instantaneous performance of an advanced electric vehicle propulsion unit. The results of the computer simulations are compared with experimental test data and excellent agreement between the two is found in all cases.

  8. National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Artists concept of the X-30 aerospace plane flying through Earth's atmosphere on its way to low-Earth orbit. the experimental concept is part of the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The X-30 is planned to demonstrate the technology for airbreathing space launch and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 117), by James Schultz.

  9. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  10. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  11. UAVs for Glacier Mapping: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, T.; McKinnon, K. A.; Anderson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Using two different unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) mounted with cameras, we created a digital elevation model (DEM) of the lower 12 km^2 of Tasman Glacier, South Island, New Zealand in March 2014. The project served primarily as a proof-of-concept, and here we discuss the lessons learned, emphasizing the practical, logistical, and flight issues. We tested two different fixed-wing airframes -- a twin-boom tradition and flying wing; two different camera types, both consumer-grade RGB; and various combinations of RC and telemetry radios. We used both commercial and open-source photogrammetry software to create the mosaic and DEM imagery. Some of the most critical UAV-specific issues are: access to a launch/landing site, adequate landing zones, range, airspace contention with manned aircraft, and hardware reliability. While UAVs provide a lower-cost method for photogrammetry access, it also comes with a unique set of challenges.

  12. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing.

    PubMed

    Park, Chulwoo; Cho, Namhoon; Lee, Kyunghyun; Kim, Youdan

    2015-07-17

    To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF) telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  13. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chulwoo; Cho, Namhoon; Lee, Kyunghyun; Kim, Youdan

    2015-01-01

    To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF) telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system. PMID:26193281

  14. UAV Photogrammetry Implementation to Enhance Land Surveying, Comparisons and Possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Meouche, R.; Hijazi, I.; Poncet, P. A.; Abunemeh, M.; Rezoug, M.

    2016-10-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for surveying is now widespread and operational for several applications - quarry monitoring, archeological site surveys, forest management and 3D modeling for buildings, for instance. UAV is increasingly used by land surveyors especially for those kinds of projects. It is still ambiguous whether UAV can be applicable for smaller sites and property division. Therefore, the objective of this research is to extract a vectorized plan utilizing a UAV for a small site and investigate the possibility of an official land surveyor exploiting and certificating it. To do that, two plans were created, one using a UAV and another utilizing classical land surveyor instruments (Total Station). A comparison was conducted between the two plans to evaluate the accuracy of the UAV technique compared to the classical one. Moreover, other parameters were also considered such as execution time and the surface covered. The main problems associated with using a UAV are the level of precision and the visualization of the whole area. The results indicated that the precision is quite satisfactory with a maximum error of 1.0 cm on ground control points, and 4 cm for the rest of the model. On the other hand, the results showed that it is not possible to represent the whole area of interest utilizing a UAV, due to vegetation.

  15. Characteristic analysis on UAV-MIMO channel based on normalized correlation matrix.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xi jun; Chen, Zi li; Hu, Yong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication.

  16. Lessons Learned from NASA UAV Science Demonstration Program Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steven S.; Schoenung, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, two airborne missions were flown as part of a NASA Earth Science Enterprise program to demonstrate the use of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) to perform earth science. One mission, the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES), successfully measured lightning storms in the vicinity of Key West, Florida, during storm season using a high-altitude Altus(TM) UAV. In the other, a solar-powered UAV, the Pathfinder Plus, flew a high-resolution imaging mission over coffee fields in Kauai, Hawaii, to help guide the harvest.

  17. Current development of UAV sense and avoid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhahir, A.; Razali, A.; Mohd Ajir, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are now gaining high interests from civil and commercialised market, the automatic sense and avoid (SAA) system is currently one of the essential features in research spotlight of UAV. Several sensor types employed in current SAA research and technology of sensor fusion that offers a great opportunity in improving detection and tracking system are presented here. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of SAA system development in general, as well as the current challenges facing UAV researchers and designers.

  18. Aerospace Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Jean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Sauk Rapids (Minnesota) High School aviation and aerospace curriculum that was developed by Curtis Olson and the space program developed by Gerald Mayall at Philadelphia's Northeast High School. Both were developed in conjunction with NASA. (JOW)

  19. Human-Automation Collaborative RRT for UAV Mission Path Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Human-Automation Collaborative RRT for UAV Mission Path Planning by Americo De Jesus Caves S.B. in Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology...Collaborative RRT for UAV Mission Path Planning 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...critical to understand how individual operators will be able to supervise a team of vehicles performing semi-autonomous path planning while avoiding no- y

  20. Toward a General Nonlinear Model of Reduced Scale UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chriette, A.; Cheviron, T.; Plestan, F.

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes, through a survey of models of several UAV-Structures, a generic nonlinear model for reduced scale aerial robotic vehicles (6 DOF)*. Dynamics of an aircraft and some VTOL UAV (quadricopter, ducted fan and classical helicopter) are illustrated. This generic model focuses only on the key physical efforts acting on the dynamics in order to be sufficiently simple to design a controller. The Small Body Forces expression which can introduce a zero dynamics is then discussed.

  1. Closing the Gap Between Research and Field Applications for Multi-UAV Cooperative Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    BETWEEN RESEARCH AND FIELD APPLICATIONS FOR MULTI-UAV COOPERATIVE MISSIONS by Harn Chin Teo September 2013 Thesis Co-Advisors: Oleg...APPLICATIONS FOR MULTI-UAV COOPERATIVE MISSIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Harn Chin Teo 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...MISSIONS Harn Chin Teo Systems Engineer, ST Aerospace Ltd. B.E., Nanyang Technological University (Singapore), 2008 Submitted in partial

  2. Development of Targeting UAVs Using Electric Helicopters and Yamaha RMAX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-17

    C as well as advanced multi-agent coordination. A. Vehicle Platform The testbed used in this research is based on an electrically powered radio...Development of Targeting UAVs Using Electric Helicopters and Yamaha RMAX Final Report May 2007 David Hyunchul...7 A. Vehicle Platform

  3. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  4. An UAV scheduling and planning method for post-disaster survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. Q.; Zhou, X. G.; Yin, J.; Xiao, Q. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Annually, the extreme climate and special geological environments lead to frequent natural disasters, e.g., earthquakes, floods, etc. The disasters often bring serious casualties and enormous economic losses. Post-disaster surveying is very important for disaster relief and assessment. As the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with the advantage of high efficiency, high precision, high flexibility, and low cost, it is widely used in emergency surveying in recent years. As the UAVs used in emergency surveying cannot stop and wait for the happening of the disaster, when the disaster happens the UAVs usually are working at everywhere. In order to improve the emergency surveying efficiency, it is needed to track the UAVs and assign the emergency surveying task for each selected UAV. Therefore, a UAV tracking and scheduling method for post-disaster survey is presented in this paper. In this method, Global Positioning System (GPS), and GSM network are used to track the UAVs; an emergency tracking UAV information database is built in advance by registration, the database at least includes the following information, e.g., the ID of the UAVs, the communication number of the UAVs; when catastrophe happens, the real time location of all UAVs in the database will be gotten using emergency tracking method at first, then the traffic cost time for all UAVs to the disaster region will be calculated based on the UAVs' the real time location and the road network using the nearest services analysis algorithm; the disaster region is subdivided to several emergency surveying regions based on DEM, area, and the population distribution map; the emergency surveying regions are assigned to the appropriated UAV according to shortest cost time rule. The UAVs tracking and scheduling prototype is implemented using SQLServer2008, ArcEnginge 10.1 SDK, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  5. Intelligent Control Approaches for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrisnaKumar, Kalmanje

    2003-01-01

    This talk will present overviews of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied at the NASA Ames Research Center as applicable to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mars flyers, and to the next generation of flight controllers for manned aircraft. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller, (b) adaptive critic-based optimal trajectory generator; (c) optimal allocation technique based on linear programming; (4) immunized maneuvering using autopilot building blocks. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted and unmanned simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) match flying qualities of modem fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) achieve intelligent maneuvering capabilities for unmanned vehicles. Results obtained so far will be presented and discussed.

  6. Demonstration of UAV deployment and control of mobile wireless sensing networks for modal analysis of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Hirose, Mitsuhito; Greenwood, William; Xiao, Yong; Lynch, Jerome; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Kamat, Vineet

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can serve as a powerful mobile sensing platform for assessing the health of civil infrastructure systems. To date, the majority of their uses have been dedicated to vision and laser-based spatial imaging using on-board cameras and LiDAR units, respectively. Comparatively less work has focused on integration of other sensing modalities relevant to structural monitoring applications. The overarching goal of this study is to explore the ability for UAVs to deploy a network of wireless sensors on structures for controlled vibration testing. The study develops a UAV platform with an integrated robotic gripper that can be used to install wireless sensors in structures, drop a heavy weight for the introduction of impact loads, and to uninstall wireless sensors for reinstallation elsewhere. A pose estimation algorithm is embedded in the UAV to estimate the location of the UAV during sensor placement and impact load introduction. The Martlet wireless sensor network architecture is integrated with the UAV to provide the UAV a mobile sensing capability. The UAV is programmed to command field deployed Martlets, aggregate and temporarily store data from the wireless sensor network, and to communicate data to a fixed base station on site. This study demonstrates the integrated UAV system using a simply supported beam in the lab with Martlet wireless sensors placed by the UAV and impact load testing performed. The study verifies the feasibility of the integrated UAV-wireless monitoring system architecture with accurate modal characteristics of the beam estimated by modal analysis.

  7. Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10521 TITLE: Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous ...Optimisation of Flight Vehicles in a Concurrent Multi-Disciplinary Environment [la Conception et l’optimisation aerodynamiques des vehicules eriens dans un...ADP010499 thru AI W3SSIFIED 25-1 Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents Abhijit Deshmukh, Timothy Middelkoop University of

  8. Orthorectification, mosaicking, and analysis of sub-decimeter resolution UAV imagery for rangeland monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer an attractive platform for acquiring imagery for rangeland monitoring. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, and they can obtain sub-decimeter resolution imagery at lower image acquisition costs than with piloted aircraft. Low flying heights result in ima...

  9. Development of an operational UAV / remote sensing capability for rangeland management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland comprises approximately 70% of the Earth’s land surface area. Much of this vast space is in very remote areas with difficult access. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications. UAVs have several advantages over satellites and piloted aircr...

  10. Supporting Flight Control for UAV-Assisted Wilderness Search and Rescue Through Human Centered Interface Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    component of the display logic is the virtual camera , which determines the perspective and frame of reference used to graphically communicate 3D...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Inexpensive, rapidly deployable, camera -equipped Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV...assisted search a reality. Our experiments show that the traditional method for controlling a camera -enabled UAV is significantly more difficult than

  11. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  12. Coordinating UAV information for executing national security-oriented collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenor, Anthony W.; Allard, Yannick; Lapinski, Anna-Liesa S.; Demers, Hugues; Radulescu, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being used by numerous nations for defence-related missions. In some cases, the UAV is considered a cost-effective means to acquire data such as imagery over a location or object. Considering Canada's geographic expanse, UAVs are also being suggested as a potential platform for use in surveillance of remote areas, such as northern Canada. However, such activities are typically associated with security as opposed to defence. The use of a defence platform for security activities introduces the issue of information exchange between the defence and security communities and their software applications. This paper explores the flow of information from the system used by the UAVs employed by the Royal Canadian Navy. Multiple computers are setup, each with the information system used by the UAVs, including appropriate communication between the systems. Simulated data that may be expected from a typical maritime UAV mission is then fed into the information system. The information structures common to the Canadian security community are then used to store and transfer the simulated data. The resulting data flow from the defence-oriented UAV system to the security-oriented information structure is then displayed using an open source geospatial application. Use of the information structures and applications relevant to the security community avoids the distribution restrictions often associated with defence-specific applications.

  13. Output feedback control of a quadrotor UAV using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new nonlinear controller for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed using neural networks (NNs) and output feedback. The assumption on the availability of UAV dynamics is not always practical, especially in an outdoor environment. Therefore, in this work, an NN is introduced to learn the complete dynamics of the UAV online, including uncertain nonlinear terms like aerodynamic friction and blade flapping. Although a quadrotor UAV is underactuated, a novel NN virtual control input scheme is proposed which allows all six degrees of freedom (DOF) of the UAV to be controlled using only four control inputs. Furthermore, an NN observer is introduced to estimate the translational and angular velocities of the UAV, and an output feedback control law is developed in which only the position and the attitude of the UAV are considered measurable. It is shown using Lyapunov theory that the position, orientation, and velocity tracking errors, the virtual control and observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are all semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) in the presence of bounded disturbances and NN functional reconstruction errors while simultaneously relaxing the separation principle. The effectiveness of proposed output feedback control scheme is then demonstrated in the presence of unknown nonlinear dynamics and disturbances, and simulation results are included to demonstrate the theoretical conjecture.

  14. The development of a UGV-mounted automated refueling system for VTOL UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Mike; Burmeister, Aaron; Nelson, Travis; Denewiler, Thomas; Mullens, Kathy

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the latest efforts to develop an Automated UAV Mission System (AUMS) for small vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). In certain applications such as force protection, perimeter security, and urban surveillance a VTOL UAV can provide far greater utility than fixed-wing UAVs or ground-based sensors. The VTOL UAV can operate much closer to an object of interest and can provide a hover-and-stare capability to keep its sensors trained on an object, while the fixed wing UAV would be forced into a higher altitude loitering pattern where its sensors would be subject to intermittent blockage by obstacles and terrain. The most significant disadvantage of a VTOL UAV when compared to a fixed-wing UAV is its reduced flight endurance. AUMS addresses this disadvantage by providing forward staging, refueling, and recovery capabilities for the VTOL UAV through a host unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), which serves as a launch/recovery platform and service station. The UGV has sufficient payload capacity to carry UAV fuel for multiple launch, recovery, and refuel iterations. The UGV also provides a highly mobile means of forward deploying a small UAV into hazardous areas unsafe for personnel, such as chemically or biologically contaminated areas. Teaming small UAVs with large UGVs can decrease risk to personnel and expand mission capabilities and effectiveness. There are numerous technical challenges being addressed by these development efforts. Among the challenges is the development and integration of a precision landing system compact and light enough to allow it to be mounted on a small VTOL UAV while providing repeatable landing accuracy to safely land on the AUMS. Another challenge is the design of a UGV-transportable, expandable, self-centering landing pad that contains hardware and safety devices for automatically refueling the UAV. A third challenge is making the design flexible enough to accommodate different types of VTOL UAVs

  15. Using Botnets to provide security for safety critical embedded systems - a case study focused on UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Muzzi, Fernando Augusto; Rogério de Mello Cardoso, Paulo; Pigatto, Daniel Fernando; Jaquie Castelo Branco, Kalinka Regina Lucas

    2015-09-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV s) has been growing not only in military applications, but also in civilian. UAVs have enormous potential for use, which mostly still are unexplored. For the use of UAV s in the airspace, not only Brazilian new studies on methods of analysis and technologies should be incorporated into navigation systems, control among others, promoting security mechanisms for these aircraft. Implement security mechanisms using a platform with operating systems and botnet to simulate such attack Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) in UAVs is an important task when it is aimed at containment and mitigation of attacks on this type of platform.

  16. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  17. Performance Evaluation of 3d Modeling Software for Uav Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2016-06-01

    UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using 3D coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.

  18. Lidar-equipped uav for building information modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, D.; Armesto, J.; Lagüela, S.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.

    2014-06-01

    The trend to minimize electronic devices in the last decades accounts for Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAVs) as well as for sensor technologies and imaging devices, resulting in a strong revolution in the surveying and mapping industries. However, only within the last few years the LIDAR sensor technology has achieved sufficiently reduction in terms of size and weight to be considered for UAV platforms. This paper presents an innovative solution to capture point cloud data from a Lidar-equipped UAV and further perform the 3D modelling of the whole envelope of buildings in BIM format. A mini-UAV platform is used (weigh less than 5 kg and up to 1.5 kg of sensor payload), and data from two different acquisition methodologies is processed and compared with the aim at finding the optimal configuration for the generation of 3D models of buildings for energy studies

  19. Energy-Efficient Systems Eliminate Icing Danger for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ames Research Center engineer Leonard Haslim invented an anti-icing t echnology called an electroexpulsive separation system, which uses m echanical force to shatter potentially dangerous ice buildup on an ai rcraft surface. Temecula, California-based Ice Management Systems (no w known as IMS-ESS) licensed the technology from Ames and has discov ered a niche market for the lightweight, energy-efficient technology: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). IMS-ESS systems now prevent damagi ng ice accumulation on military UAVs, allowing the vehicles to carry out crucial missions year round.

  20. Challenges of Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In Civil Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, B. M.; Chebil, J.; Albatsh, F.; Faris, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. There have been an increased number of studies aiming at improving UAV and in its use for different civil applications. This paper highlights the fundamentals of UAV system and examines the challenges related with the major components such as motors, drives, power systems, communication systems and image processing tools and equipment.

  1. Critical infrastructure monitoring using UAV imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltezos, Evangelos; Skitsas, Michael; Charalambous, Elisavet; Koutras, Nikolaos; Bliziotis, Dimitris; Themistocleous, Kyriacos

    2016-08-01

    The constant technological evolution in Computer Vision enabled the development of new techniques which in conjunction with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) may extract high quality photogrammetric products for several applications. Dense Image Matching (DIM) is a Computer Vision technique that can generate a dense 3D point cloud of an area or object. The use of UAV systems and DIM techniques is not only a flexible and attractive solution to produce accurate and high qualitative photogrammetric results but also is a major contribution to cost effectiveness. In this context, this study aims to highlight the benefits of the use of the UAVs in critical infrastructure monitoring applying DIM. A Multi-View Stereo (MVS) approach using multiple images (RGB digital aerial and oblique images), to fully cover the area of interest, is implemented. The application area is an Olympic venue in Attica, Greece, at an area of 400 acres. The results of our study indicate that the UAV+DIM approach respond very well to the increasingly greater demands for accurate and cost effective applications when provided with, a 3D point cloud and orthomosaic.

  2. UAV for landslide mapping and deformation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Beiqi; Liu, Chun

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be a flexible, cost-effective, and accurate method to monitor landslides with high resolution aerial images. Images acquired on 05 May 2013 and 13 December 2014 of the Xishan landslide, China, have been used to produce a high-resolution ortho-mosaic of the entire landslide and digital elevation model (DEM). The UAV capability for imaging detection and displacements on the landslide surface has been evaluated, and the subsequent image processing approaches for suitably georectifying the data have been assessed. Objects derived from the segmentation of a multispectral image were used as classifying units for landslide object-oriented analysis. Spectral information together with various morphometric characteristics was applied for recognizing landslides from false positives. Digital image correlation technique was evaluated to quantify and map terrain displacements. The magnitude and direction of the displacement vectors derived from correlating two temporal UAV images corresponded to a visual interpretation of landslide change. Therefore, the UAV can demonstrate its capability for producing valuable landslide mapping data and deformation information.

  3. Stochastic control of light UAV at landing with the aid of bearing-only observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris

    2015-12-01

    This work considers the tracking of the UAV (unmanned aviation vehicle) at landing on unprepared field. Despite the advantages in UAV guidance the autonomous landing remains to be one of most serious problems. The principal difficulties are the absence of the precise UAV position measurements with respect to the landing field and the action of external atmospheric perturbations (turbulence and wind). So the control problem for UAV landing is the nonlinear stochastic one with incomplete information. The aim of the article is the development of stochastic control algorithms based on pseudomeasurement Kalman filter in the problem of the UAV autonomous landing with the aid of ground-based optical/radio radars in the case of strong wind and large initial error of the UAV entrance into the area covered by radars. The novelty of the article is the joint control-observation algorithm based on unbiased pseudomeasurement Kalman filter which provides the quadratic characteristics of the estimation errors. The later property is highly important for the UAV control based on the data fusion from INS (inertial navigation system) and the bearing observations obtained from external terrain based locators. The principal difficulty in the UAV landing control is the absence of the direct control tools at the terrain end, so the possible control can be based on the angular-range data obtained by terrain locators which must be transmitted from terrain location station to the UAV control unit. Thus the stochastic approach looks very effective in this challenging problem of the UAV landing.

  4. Illumination-invariant image matching for autonomous UAV localisation based on optical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xue; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Hongshi; Morgan, Gareth L. K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) localisation algorithm for its autonomous navigation based on matching between on-board UAV image sequences to a pre-installed reference satellite image. As the UAV images and the reference image are not necessarily taken under the same illumination condition, illumination-invariant image matching is essential. Based on the investigation of illumination-invariant property of Phase Correlation (PC) via mathematical derivation and experiments, we propose a PC based fast and robust illumination-invariant localisation algorithm for UAV navigation. The algorithm accurately determines the current UAV position as well as the next UAV position even the illumination condition of UAV on-board images is different from the reference satellite image. A Dirac delta function based registration quality assessment together with a risk alarming criterion is introduced to enable the UAV to perform self-correction in case the UAV deviates from the planned route. UAV navigation experiments using simulated terrain shading images and remote sensing images have demonstrated a robust high performance of the proposed PC based localisation algorithm under very different illumination conditions resulted from solar motion. The superiority of the algorithm, in comparison with two other widely used image matching algorithms, MI (Mutual Information) and NCC (Normalised Correlation Coefficient), is significant for its high matching accuracy and fast processing speed.

  5. Flight validated high-order models of UAV helicopter dynamics in hover and forward flight using analytical and parameter identification techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Subodh

    There has been a significant growth in the use of UAV helicopters for a multitude of military and civilian applications over the last few years. Due to these numerous applications, from crop dusting to remote sensing, UAV helicopters are now a major topic of interest within the aerospace community. The main research focus is on the development of automatic flight control systems (AFCS). The design of AFCS for these vehicles requires a mathematical model representing the dynamics of the vehicle. The mathematical model is developed either from first-principles, using the equations of motion of the vehicle, or from the flight data, using parameter identification techniques. The traditional six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DoF) dynamics model is not suitable for high-bandwidth control system design. Such models are valid only within the low- to mid-frequency range. The agility and high maneuverability of small-scale helicopters require a high-bandwidth control system for full authority autonomous performance. The design of a high-bandwidth control system in turn requires a high-fidelity simulation model that is able to capture the key dynamics of the helicopter. These dynamics include the rotor dynamics. This dissertation presents the development of a 14-degrees-of-freedom (14-DoF) state-space linear model for the KU Thunder Tiger Raptor 50 UAV helicopter from first-principles and from flight test data using a parameter identification technique for the hovering and forward flight conditions. The model includes rigid body, rotor regressive, rotor inflow, stabilizer bar, and rotor coning dynamics. The model is implemented within The MathWork's MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that the high-order model is able to predict the helicopter's dynamics up to the frequency of 30 rad/sec. The main contributions of this dissertation are the development of a high-order simulation model for a small UAV helicopter from first-principles and the identification of a

  6. Experiences of Uav Surveys Applied to Environmental Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Mazzone, F.; Scarano, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the results of some surveys carried out in an area of Apulian territory affected by serious environmental hazard are presented. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are emerging as a key engineering tool for future environmental survey tasks. UAVs are increasingly seen as an attractive low-cost alternative or supplement to aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry due to their low cost, flexibility, availability and readiness for duty. In addition, UAVs can be operated in hazardous or temporarily inaccessible locations, that makes them very suitable for the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions. In order to verify the reliability of these technologies an UAV survey and A LIDAR survey have been carried outalong about 1 km of coast in the Salento peninsula, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dellOrso and SantAndrea( Lecce, Southern Italy). This area is affected by serious environmental risks due to the presence of dangerous rocky cliffs named falesie. The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (AgisoftPhotoscan). The point clouds obtained from both the UAV and LIDAR surveys have been processed using Cloud Compare software, with the aim of testing the UAV results with respect to the LIDAR ones. The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-25

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been referred to in many ways: RPV (remotely piloted vehicle), drone, robot plane, and pilotless aircraft. Most...the DoD for UAVs, investments in unmanned aerial vehicles have been increasing every year. Congressional considerations include the proper pace, scope

  8. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  9. Multi-UAV Routing for Area Coverage and Remote Sensing with Minimum Time.

    PubMed

    Avellar, Gustavo S C; Pereira, Guilherme A S; Pimenta, Luciano C A; Iscold, Paulo

    2015-11-02

    This paper presents a solution for the problem of minimum time coverage of ground areas using a group of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) equipped with image sensors. The solution is divided into two parts: (i) the task modeling as a graph whose vertices are geographic coordinates determined in such a way that a single UAV would cover the area in minimum time; and (ii) the solution of a mixed integer linear programming problem, formulated according to the graph variables defined in the first part, to route the team of UAVs over the area. The main contribution of the proposed methodology, when compared with the traditional vehicle routing problem's (VRP) solutions, is the fact that our method solves some practical problems only encountered during the execution of the task with actual UAVs. In this line, one of the main contributions of the paper is that the number of UAVs used to cover the area is automatically selected by solving the optimization problem. The number of UAVs is influenced by the vehicles' maximum flight time and by the setup time, which is the time needed to prepare and launch a UAV. To illustrate the methodology, the paper presents experimental results obtained with two hand-launched, fixed-wing UAVs.

  10. UAV field demonstration of social media enabled tactical data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Christopher C.; Xu, Da; Martin, Sean R.; Castelli, Jonathan C.; Newman, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of enabling Command and Control (C2) and data exfiltration functions for missions using small, unmanned, airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of using existing commercial wireless networks as the data transmission infrastructure to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomy functions such as transmission of commands, imagery, metadata, and multi-vehicle coordination messages. The authors developed and integrated a C2 Android application for ground users with a common smart phone, a C2 and data exfiltration Android application deployed on-board the UAVs, and a web server with database to disseminate the collected data to distributed users using standard web browsers. The authors performed a mission-relevant field test and demonstration in which operators commanded a UAV from an Android device to search and loiter; and remote users viewed imagery, video, and metadata via web server to identify and track a vehicle on the ground. Social media served as the tactical data link for all command messages, images, videos, and metadata during the field demonstration. Imagery, video, and metadata were transmitted from the UAV to the web server via multiple Twitter, Flickr, Facebook, YouTube, and similar media accounts. The web server reassembled images and video with corresponding metadata for distributed users. The UAV autopilot communicated with the on-board Android device via on-board Bluetooth network.

  11. Leak Detection and Location Technology Assessment for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Coffey, Neil C.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2008-01-01

    Micro Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) and other impacts can cause leaks in the International Space Station and other aerospace vehicles. The early detection and location of leaks is paramount to astronaut safety. Therefore this document surveys the state of the art in leak detection and location technology for aerospace vehicles.

  12. Using crowd sourcing to combat potentially illegal or dangerous UAV operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapsall, Brooke T.

    2016-10-01

    The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) industry is growing exponentially at a pace that policy makers, individual countries and law enforcement agencies are finding difficult to keep up. The UAV market is large, as such the amount of UAVs being operated in potentially dangerous situations is prevalent and rapidly increasing. Media is continually reporting `near-miss' incidents between UAVs and commercial aircraft, UAV breaching security in sensitive areas or invading public privacy. One major challenge for law enforcement agencies is gaining tangible evidence against potentially dangerous or illegal UAV operators due to the rapidity with which UAV operators are able to enter, fly and exit a scene before authorities can arrive or before they can be located. DroneALERT, an application available via the Airport-UAV.com website, allows users to capture potentially dangerous or illegal UAV activity using their mobile device as it the incident is occurring. A short online DroneALERT Incident Report (DIR) is produced, emailed to the user and the Airport-UAV.com custodians. The DIR can be used to aid authorities in their investigations. The DIR contains details such as images and videos, location, time, date of the incident, drone model, its distance and height. By analysing information from the DIR, photos or video, there is a high potential for law enforcement authorities to use this evidence to identify the type of UAV used, triangulate the location of the potential dangerous UAV and operator, create a timeline of events, potential areas of operator exit and to determine the legalities breached. All provides crucial evidence for identifying and prosecuting a UAV operator.

  13. Aerospace Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry.

  14. Aerospace Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry. PMID:28216729

  15. International Conference on Aerospace Trends...2001 - From Aeroplane to Aerospace Plane, Thiruvananthapuram, India, June 27, 28, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-08-01

    Consideration is given to operational characteristics of future launch vehicles, trends in propulsion technology, technology challenges in the development of cryogenic propulsion systems for future reusable space-launch vehicles, estimation of the overall drag coefficient of an aerospace plane, and self-reliance in aerospace structures. Attention is also given to basic design concepts for smart actuators for aerospace plane control, a software package for the preliminary design of a helicopter, and multiconstraint wing optimization.

  16. Uav Borne Low Altitude Photogrammetry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.; Su, G.; Xie, F.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper,the aforementioned three major aspects related to the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry, i.e., flying platform, imaging sensor system and data processing software, are discussed. First of all, according to the technical requirements about the least cruising speed, the shortest taxiing distance, the level of the flight control and the performance of turbulence flying, the performance and suitability of the available UAV platforms (e.g., fixed wing UAVs, the unmanned helicopters and the unmanned airships) are compared and analyzed. Secondly, considering the restrictions on the load weight of a platform and the resolution pertaining to a sensor, together with the exposure equation and the theory of optical information, the principles of designing self-calibration and self-stabilizing combined wide-angle digital cameras (e.g., double-combined camera and four-combined camera) are placed more emphasis on. Finally, a software named MAP-AT, considering the specialty of UAV platforms and sensors, is developed and introduced. Apart from the common functions of aerial image processing, MAP-AT puts more effort on automatic extraction, automatic checking and artificial aided adding of the tie points for images with big tilt angles. Based on the recommended process for low altitude photogrammetry with UAVs in this paper, more than ten aerial photogrammetry missions have been accomplished, the accuracies of Aerial Triangulation, Digital orthophotos(DOM)and Digital Line Graphs(DLG) of which meet the standard requirement of 1:2000, 1:1000 and 1:500 mapping.

  17. UAV visual signature suppression via adaptive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Ron; Melkert, Joris

    2005-05-01

    Visual signature suppression (VSS) methods for several classes of aircraft from WWII on are examined and historically summarized. This study shows that for some classes of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs), primary mission threats do not stem from infrared or radar signatures, but from the amount that an aircraft visually stands out against the sky. The paper shows that such visual mismatch can often jeopardize mission success and/or induce the destruction of the entire aircraft. A psycho-physioptical study was conducted to establish the definition and benchmarks of a Visual Cross Section (VCS) for airborne objects. This study was centered on combining the effects of size, shape, color and luminosity or effective illumance (EI) of a given aircraft to arrive at a VCS. A series of tests were conducted with a 6.6ft (2m) UAV which was fitted with optically adaptive electroluminescent sheets at altitudes of up to 1000 ft (300m). It was shown that with proper tailoring of the color and luminosity, the VCS of the aircraft dropped from more than 4,200cm2 to less than 1.8cm2 at 100m (the observed lower limit of the 20-20 human eye in this study). In laypersons terms this indicated that the UAV essentially "disappeared". This study concludes with an assessment of the weight and volume impact of such a Visual Suppression System (VSS) on the UAV, showing that VCS levels on this class UAV can be suppressed to below 1.8cm2 for aircraft gross weight penalties of only 9.8%.

  18. Technologies Advance UAVs for Science, Military

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A Space Act Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center and West Virginia University enabled Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, of Manassas, Virginia, to develop cost-effective composite manufacturing capabilities and open a facility in West Virginia. The company now employs 160 workers at the plant, tasked with crafting airframe components for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) program. While one third of the company's workforce focuses on Global Hawk production, the rest of the company develops advanced UAV technologies that are redefining traditional approaches to unmanned aviation. Since the company's founding, Aurora s cutting-edge work has been supported with funding from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs.

  19. A proposed UAV for indoor patient care.

    PubMed

    Todd, Catherine; Watfa, Mohamed; El Mouden, Yassine; Sahir, Sana; Ali, Afrah; Niavarani, Ali; Lutfi, Aoun; Copiaco, Abigail; Agarwal, Vaibhavi; Afsari, Kiyan; Johnathon, Chris; Okafor, Onyeka; Ayad, Marina

    2015-09-10

    Indoor flight, obstacle avoidance and client-server communication of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) raises several unique research challenges. This paper examines current methods and associated technologies adapted within the literature toward autonomous UAV flight, for consideration in a proposed system for indoor healthcare administration with a quadcopter. We introduce Healthbuddy, a unique research initiative towards overcoming challenges associated with indoor navigation, collision detection and avoidance, stability, wireless drone-server communications and automated decision support for patient care in a GPS-denied environment. To address the identified research deficits, a drone-based solution is presented. The solution is preliminary as we develop and refine the suggested algorithms and hardware system to achieve the research objectives.

  20. UAV based distributed ATR under realistic simulated environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohan; Gong, Shanshan; Schmid, Natalia A.; Valenti, Matthew C.

    2007-04-01

    Over the past several years, the military has grown increasingly reliant upon the use of unattended aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveillance missions. There is an increasing trend towards fielding swarms of UAVs operating as large-scale sensor networks in the air. Such systems tend to be used primarily for the purpose of acquiring sensory data with the goal of automatic detection, identification, and tracking objects of interest. These trends have been paralleled by advances in both distributed detection, image/signal processing and data fusion techniques. Furthermore, swarmed UAV systems must operate under severe constraints on environmental conditions and sensor limitations. In this work, we investigate the effects of environmental conditions on target detection and recognition performance in a UAV network. We assume that each UAV is equipped with an optical camera, and use a realistic computer simulation to generate synthetic images. The detection algorithm relies on Haar-based features while the automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm relies on Bessel K features. The performance of both algorithms is evaluated using simulated images that closely mimic data acquired in a UAV network under realistic environmental conditions. We design several fusion techniques and analyze both the case of a single observation and the case of multiple observations of the same target.

  1. A Natural Interaction Interface for UAVs Using Intuitive Gesture Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandarana, Meghan; Trujillo, Anna; Shimada, Kenji; Allen, Danette

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing as technological advancements boost their favorability for a broad range of applications. One application is science data collection. In fields like Earth and atmospheric science, researchers are seeking to use UAVs to augment their current portfolio of platforms and increase their accessibility to geographic areas of interest. By increasing the number of data collection platforms UAVs will significantly improve system robustness and allow for more sophisticated studies. Scientists would like be able to deploy an available fleet of UAVs to fly a desired flight path and collect sensor data without needing to understand the complex low-level controls required to describe and coordinate such a mission. A natural interaction interface for a Ground Control System (GCS) using gesture recognition is developed to allow non-expert users (e.g., scientists) to define a complex flight path for a UAV using intuitive hand gesture inputs from the constructed gesture library. The GCS calculates the combined trajectory on-line, verifies the trajectory with the user, and sends it to the UAV controller to be flown.

  2. Two-Step Camera Calibration Method Developed for Micro UAV'S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašparović, M.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    The development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and continuous price reduction of unmanned systems attracted us to this research. Professional measuring systems are dozens of times more expensive and often heavier than "amateur", non-metric UAVs. For this reason, we tested the DJI Phantom 2 Vision Plus UAV. Phantom's smaller mass and velocity can develop less kinetic energy in relation to the professional measurement platforms, which makes it potentially less dangerous for use in populated areas. In this research, we wanted to investigate the ability of such non-metric UAV and find the procedures under which this kind of UAV may be used for the photogrammetric survey. It is important to emphasize that UAV is equipped with an ultra wide-angle camera with 14MP sensor. Calibration of such cameras is a complex process. In the research, a new two-step process is presented and developed, and the results are compared with standard one-step camera calibration procedure. Two-step process involves initially removed distortion on all images, and then uses these images in the phototriangulation with self-calibration. The paper presents statistical indicators which proved that the proposed two-step process is better and more accurate procedure for calibrating those types of cameras than standard one-step calibration. Also, we suggest two-step calibration process as the standard for ultra-wideangle cameras for unmanned aircraft.

  3. Camera Calibration Accuracy at Different Uav Flying Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, A. R.; Ariff, M. F. M.; Idris, K. M.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used to acquire highly accurate data in deformation survey, whereby low-cost digital cameras are commonly used in the UAV mapping. Thus, camera calibration is considered important in obtaining high-accuracy UAV mapping using low-cost digital cameras. The main focus of this study was to calibrate the UAV camera at different camera distances and check the measurement accuracy. The scope of this study included camera calibration in the laboratory and on the field, and the UAV image mapping accuracy assessment used calibration parameters of different camera distances. The camera distances used for the image calibration acquisition and mapping accuracy assessment were 1.5 metres in the laboratory, and 15 and 25 metres on the field using a Sony NEX6 digital camera. A large calibration field and a portable calibration frame were used as the tools for the camera calibration and for checking the accuracy of the measurement at different camera distances. Bundle adjustment concept was applied in Australis software to perform the camera calibration and accuracy assessment. The results showed that the camera distance at 25 metres is the optimum object distance as this is the best accuracy obtained from the laboratory as well as outdoor mapping. In conclusion, the camera calibration at several camera distances should be applied to acquire better accuracy in mapping and the best camera parameter for the UAV image mapping should be selected for highly accurate mapping measurement.

  4. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-03-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  5. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  6. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  7. Aerospace Education - An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the surge of interest throughout the country in aerospace education and discusses what aerospace education is, the implications in career education and the relevance of aerospace education in the curriculum. (BR)

  8. Basic Aerospace Education Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Lists the most significant resource items on aerospace education which are presently available. Includes source books, bibliographies, directories, encyclopedias, dictionaries, audiovisuals, curriculum/planning guides, aerospace statistics, aerospace education statistics and newsletters. (BR)

  9. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  10. Aerospace gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  11. Path planning and Ground Control Station simulator for UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, A.; Balmat, J.; Gauthier, J.-P.; Maillot, T.

    In this paper we present a Universal and Interoperable Ground Control Station (UIGCS) simulator for fixed and rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and all types of payloads. One of the major constraints is to operate and manage multiple legacy and future UAVs, taking into account the compliance with NATO Combined/Joint Services Operational Environment (STANAG 4586). Another purpose of the station is to assign the UAV a certain degree of autonomy, via autonomous planification/replanification strategies. The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we describe the non-linear models of the fixed and rotary wing UAVs that we use in the simulator. In Section 3, we describe the simulator architecture, which is based upon interacting modules programmed independently. This simulator is linked with an open source flight simulator, to simulate the video flow and the moving target in 3D. To conclude this part, we tackle briefly the problem of the Matlab/Simulink software connection (used to model the UAV's dynamic) with the simulation of the virtual environment. Section 5 deals with the control module of a flight path of the UAV. The control system is divided into four distinct hierarchical layers: flight path, navigation controller, autopilot and flight control surfaces controller. In the Section 6, we focus on the trajectory planification/replanification question for fixed wing UAV. Indeed, one of the goals of this work is to increase the autonomy of the UAV. We propose two types of algorithms, based upon 1) the methods of the tangent and 2) an original Lyapunov-type method. These algorithms allow either to join a fixed pattern or to track a moving target. Finally, Section 7 presents simulation results obtained on our simulator, concerning a rather complicated scenario of mission.

  12. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. W.; Jeong, H. H.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF) modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments's LTE (long-term evolution), Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area's that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision), RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  13. Multi-UAV Routing for Area Coverage and Remote Sensing with Minimum Time

    PubMed Central

    Avellar, Gustavo S. C.; Pereira, Guilherme A. S.; Pimenta, Luciano C. A.; Iscold, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a solution for the problem of minimum time coverage of ground areas using a group of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) equipped with image sensors. The solution is divided into two parts: (i) the task modeling as a graph whose vertices are geographic coordinates determined in such a way that a single UAV would cover the area in minimum time; and (ii) the solution of a mixed integer linear programming problem, formulated according to the graph variables defined in the first part, to route the team of UAVs over the area. The main contribution of the proposed methodology, when compared with the traditional vehicle routing problem’s (VRP) solutions, is the fact that our method solves some practical problems only encountered during the execution of the task with actual UAVs. In this line, one of the main contributions of the paper is that the number of UAVs used to cover the area is automatically selected by solving the optimization problem. The number of UAVs is influenced by the vehicles’ maximum flight time and by the setup time, which is the time needed to prepare and launch a UAV. To illustrate the methodology, the paper presents experimental results obtained with two hand-launched, fixed-wing UAVs. PMID:26540055

  14. Project Stork UAV/UGV collaborative initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulteis, Timothy M.; Price, John G.

    2004-09-01

    One of the key issues in military urban operations is the ability to obtain timely situational awareness of the target area. One solution utilizes Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) to provide this information but challenges remain as to how to accurately emplace and control these vehicles from extended ranges. This research and development project, Stork, demonstrated the capability to aerially insert a UGV from a UAV into an area of operations and then use a communications relay pod on the UAV to extend the range of control of UGVs. The UGV insertion was done using a parachute delivery system from after an altitude of 400 feet. The communications relay pod effectively increased the tele-operated control range of the UGV from typical 1-2 km line-of-sight limitation. Tele-operated control was demonstrated out to a distance of 26 km. Transparent to the physical elements of the demonstration was the integration of the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS) on the UGVs which allows a single operator control unit (OCU) to control multiple disparate UGVs simply by selecting a particular UGV from a drop-down menu. The ability to control multiple vehicles on the ground at the extended range and switch control from one vehicle to the next and back was also successfully demonstrated.

  15. 'Fly Like This': Natural Language Interface for UAV Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandarana, Meghan; Meszaros, Erica L.; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing presence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in everyday environments, the user base of these powerful and potentially intelligent machines is expanding beyond exclusively highly trained vehicle operators to include non-expert system users. Scientists seeking to augment costly and often inflexible methods of data collection historically used are turning towards lower cost and reconfigurable UAVs. These new users require more intuitive and natural methods for UAV mission planning. This paper explores two natural language interfaces - gesture and speech - for UAV flight path generation through individual user studies. Subjects who participated in the user studies also used a mouse-based interface for a baseline comparison. Each interface allowed the user to build flight paths from a library of twelve individual trajectory segments. Individual user studies evaluated performance, efficacy, and ease-of-use of each interface using background surveys, subjective questionnaires, and observations on time and correctness. Analysis indicates that natural language interfaces are promising alternatives to traditional interfaces. The user study data collected on the efficacy and potential of each interface will be used to inform future intuitive UAV interface design for non-expert users.

  16. UAV Systems in C4ISTAR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    UAV ( STANAG 7023, etc) FUTURE UAV ( STANAG 7023, etc) UCAV ( STANAG 7023, etc) DATA LINK ( STANAG 7085 ) UCS ( STANAG 4586) NATO/C2 LINKS USERSUSERS...Surveillance Operation 11 Standards Are Important NATO UAV Control System Architecture FIXED WING UAV ( STANAG 7023, etc) VTOL UAV ( STANAG 7023, etc) MALE

  17. Authenticity and privacy of a team of mini-UAVs by means of nonlinear recursive shuffling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Baier, Patrick; Lee, Ting N.; Buss, James R.; Madan, Rabinder N.

    2006-04-01

    We have developed a real-time EOIR video counter-jittering sub-pixel image correction algorithm for a single mini- Unmanned Air Vehicle (m-UAV) for surveillance and communication (Szu et al. SPIE Proc. V 5439 5439, pp.183-197, April 12, 2004). In this paper, we wish to plan and execute the next challenge---- a team of m-UAVs. The minimum unit for a robust chain saw communication must have the connectivity of five second-nearest-neighbor members with a sliding, arbitrary center. The team members require an authenticity check (AC) among a unit of five, in order to carry out a jittering mosaic image processing (JMIP) on-board for every m-UAV without gimbals. The JMIP does not use any NSA security protocol ("cardinal rule: no-man, no-NSA codec"). Besides team flight dynamics (Szu et al "Nanotech applied to aerospace and aeronautics: swarming,' AIAA 2005-6933 Sept 26-29 2005), several new modules: AOA, AAM, DSK, AC, FPGA are designed, and the JMIP must develop their own control, command and communication system, safeguarded by the authenticity and privacy checks presented in this paper. We propose a Nonlinear Invertible (deck of card) Shuffler (NIS) algorithm, which has a Feistel structure similar to the Data Encryption Standard (DES) developed by Feistel et. al. at IBM in the 1970's; but DES is modified here by a set of chaotic dynamical shuffler Key (DSK), as re-computable lookup tables generated by every on-board Chaotic Neural Network (CNN). The initializations of CNN are periodically provided by the private version of RSA from the ground control to team members to avoid any inadvertent failure of broken chain among m-UAVs. Efficient utilization of communication bandwidth is necessary for a constantly moving and jittering m-UAV platform, e.g. the wireless LAN protocol wastes the bandwidth due to a constant need of hand-shaking procedures (as demonstrated by NRL; though sensible for PCs and 3 rd gen. mobile phones). Thus, the chaotic DSK must be embedded in a fault

  18. Development and Verification of an Aerodynamic Model for the NPS Frog UAV Using the CMARC Panel Code Software Suite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    The CMARC panel-code is evaluated for the development of an aerodynamic model of the Naval Postgraduate School FROG Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV). CMARC...model of the NPS FROG UAV is developed to obtain stability derivative data at the cruise flight condition. Emphasis is placed on comparing the CMARC data

  19. The Aerospace Age. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is written for use only in the Air Force ROTC program and cannot be purchased on the open market. The book describes the historical development of aerospace industry. The first chapter contains a brief review of the aerospace environment and the nature of technological changes brought by the aerospace revolution. The following chapter…

  20. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  1. Laser Scanner and Camera-Equipped Uav Architectural Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiellaro, N.; Zonno, M.; Lavalle, P.

    2015-02-01

    The paper reports the workflow of 3D modelling and photorealistic texture mapping based on close range imagery acquired through a terrestrial laser scan and a camera mounted on a mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The 3D models of the same architectural object - a watchtower named "Torre Pelosa" (Bari, Italy) - were compared in order to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the used instruments and methods. The evaluated parameters where geo-referencing capability, manageability, manoeuvrability, operational constraint, survey completeness and costs. Despite a lower accuracy of the results, the use of a UAV mounted camera is essential to obtain a whole representation of the tower.

  2. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bognar, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  3. UAV observations of the wintertime boundary layer over the Terra Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, John; Knuth, Shelley

    2010-05-01

    Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were used during September 2009 to observe the atmosphere and ocean / sea ice surface state in the vicinity of the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica. These flights were the first wintertime UAV flights ever made in the Antarctic, and were also the longest duration UAV flights made to date in the Antarctic, with a maximum flight time of over 17 hours. A total of 130 flight hours were flown during September 2009, with a total of 8 science flights to Terra Nova Bay. The flights took place at the end of the Antarctic winter, in an environment characterized by strong katabatic winds and strong air-sea fluxes. Observations of the boundary layer evolution of the katabatic winds propagating over the Terra Nova Bay polynya will be presented. The advantages of using UAVs for boundary layer observations in remote locations as well as the logistical challenges of operating UAVs in the Antarctic winter will also be presented.

  4. GPS Remote Sensing Measurements Using Aerosonde UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael S.; Katzberg, Stephen J.; Lawrence, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    In February 2004, a NASA-Langley GPS Remote Sensor (GPSRS) unit was flown on an Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. Using direct and surface-reflected 1.575 GHz coarse acquisition (C/A) coded GPS signals, remote sensing measurements were obtained over land and portions of open water. The strength of the surface-reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, and is also influenced by surface roughness. Amplitude and other characteristics of the reflected signal allow an estimate of wind speed over open water. In this paper we provide a synopsis of the instrument accommodation requirements, installation procedures, and preliminary results from what is likely the first-ever flight of a GPS remote sensing instrument on a UAV. The correct operation of the GPSRS unit on this flight indicates that Aerosonde-like UAV's can serve as platforms for future GPS remote sensing science missions.

  5. Prognostics Applied to Electric Propulsion UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai; Saha, Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Health management plays an important role in operations of UAV. If there is equipment malfunction on critical components, safe operation of the UAV might possibly be compromised. A technology with particular promise in this arena is equipment prognostics. This technology provides a state assessment of the health of components of interest and, if a degraded state has been found, it estimates how long it will take before the equipment will reach a failure threshold, conditional on assumptions about future operating conditions and future environmental conditions. This chapter explores the technical underpinnings of how to perform prognostics and shows an implementation on the propulsion of an electric UAV. A particle filter is shown as the method of choice in performing state assessment and predicting future degradation. The method is then applied to the batteries that provide power to the propeller motors. An accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm is of critical importance to ensure the safe operation of the vehicle if one wants to maximize in-air time. Current reliability based techniques turn out to be insufficient to manage the use of such batteries where loads vary frequently in uncertain environments.

  6. Tls Models Generation Assisted by Uav Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiabrando, F.; Di Pietra, V.; Lingua, A.; Maschio, P.; Noardo, F.; Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2016-06-01

    (TLS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning), and large scale mapping derived by UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) survey. This paper refers an example of 3D survey and reality based modelling applied on landscape and architectural assets. The choice of methods for documentation, in terms of survey techniques, depends primarily on issues and features of the area. The achieved experience, allow to consider that the easy handling of TLS has enabled the use in limited spaces among buildings and collapsed roofs, but the topographic measure of GCPs (Ground Control Points), neither by total station nor by GPS/RTK technique, was easily feasible. Even more than proving the ability of the integration of TLS and UAV photogrammetry to achieve a multi-source and multi-scale whole model of a village, the experience has been a test to experiment the registration of terrestrial clouds with the support of control points derived by UAV survey and finally, a comparison among different strategies of clouds registration is reported. Analysing for each approach a number of parameters (number of clouds registration, number of needed points, processing time, overall accuracy) the further comparisons have been achieved. The test revealed that it is possible to decrease the large number of terrestrial control points when their determination by topographical measures is difficult, and it is possible to combine the techniques not only for the integration of the final 3Dmodel, but also to solve and make the initial stage of the drafting process more effective.

  7. Flight route Designing and mission planning Of power line inspecting system Based On multi-sensor UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaowei, Xie; Zhengjun, Liu; Zhiquan, Zuo

    2014-03-01

    In order to obtain various information of power facilities such as spatial location, geometry, images data and video information in the infrared and ultraviolet band and so on, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) power line inspecting system needs to integrate a variety of sensors for data collection. Low altitude and side-looking imaging are required for UAV flight to ensure sensors to acquire high-quality data and device security. In this paper, UAV power line inspecting system is deferent from existing ones that used in Surveying and Mapping. According to characteristics of UAV for example equipped multiple sensor, side-looking imaging, working at low altitude, complex terrain conditions and corridor type flight, this paper puts forward a UAV power line inspecting scheme which comprehensively considered of the UAV performance, sensor parameters and task requirements. The scheme is finally tested in a region of Guangdong province, and the preliminary results show that the scheme is feasible.

  8. Swarms of UAVs and fighter aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Stantz, K.M.; Gray, P.C.; Robinett, R.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes a method of modeling swarms of UAVs and/or fighter aircraft using particle simulation concepts. Recent investigations into the use of genetic algorithms to design neural networks for the control of autonomous vehicles (i.e., robots) led to the examination of methods of simulating large collections of robots. This paper describes the successful implementation of a model of swarm dynamics using particle simulation concepts. Several examples of the complex behaviors achieved in a target/interceptor scenario are presented.

  9. Establishing a disruptive new capability for NASA to fly UAV's into hazardous conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Jay; Nguyen, Truong; Wilson, Jennifer; Brown, Robert; Laughter, Sean; Teets, Ed; Parker, Allen; Chan, Hon M.; Richards, Lance

    2015-05-01

    A 2015 NASA Aeronautics Mission "Seedling" Proposal is described for a Severe-Environment UAV (SE-UAV) that can perform in-situ measurements in hazardous atmospheric conditions like lightning, volcanic ash and radiation. Specifically, this paper describes the design of a proof-of-concept vehicle and measurement system that can survive lightning attachment during flight operations into thunderstorms. Elements from three NASA centers draw together for the SE-UAV concept. 1) The NASA KSC Genesis UAV was developed in collaboration with the DARPA Nimbus program to measure electric field and X-rays present within thunderstorms. 2) A novel NASA LaRC fiber-optic sensor uses Faraday-effect polarization rotation to measure total lightning electric current on an air vehicle fuselage. 3) NASA AFRC's state-of-the-art Fiber Optics and Systems Integration Laboratory is envisioned to transition the Faraday system to a compact, light-weight, all-fiber design. The SE-UAV will provide in-flight lightning electric-current return stroke and recoil leader data, and serve as a platform for development of emerging sensors and new missions into hazardous environments. NASA's Aeronautics and Science Missions are interested in a capability to perform in-situ volcanic plume measurements and long-endurance UAV operations in various weather conditions. (Figure 1 shows an artist concept of a SE-UAV flying near a volcano.) This paper concludes with an overview of the NASA Aeronautics Strategic Vision, Programs, and how a SE-UAV is envisioned to impact them. The SE-UAV concept leverages high-value legacy research products into a new capability for NASA to fly a pathfinder UAV into hazardous conditions, and is presented in the SPIE DSS venue to explore teaming, collaboration and advocacy opportunities outside NASA.

  10. Establishing a Disruptive New Capability for NASA to Fly UAV's into Hazardous Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay; Nguyen, Truong; Wilson, Jennifer; Brown, Robert; Laughter, Sean; Teets, Ed; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Richards, Lance

    2015-01-01

    A 2015 NASA Aeronautics Mission "Seedling" Proposal is described for a Severe-Environment UAV (SE-UAV) that can perform in-situ measurements in hazardous atmospheric conditions like lightning, volcanic ash and radiation. Specifically, this paper describes the design of a proof-of-concept vehicle and measurement system that can survive lightning attachment during flight operations into thunderstorms. Elements from three NASA centers draw together for the SE-UAV concept. 1) The NASA KSC Genesis UAV was developed in collaboration with the DARPA Nimbus program to measure electric field and X-rays present within thunderstorms. 2) A novel NASA LaRC fiber-optic sensor uses Faraday-effect polarization rotation to measure total lightning electric current on an air vehicle fuselage. 3) NASA AFRC's state-of-the-art Fiber Optics and Systems Integration Laboratory is envisioned to transition the Faraday system to a compact, light-weight, all-fiber design. The SE-UAV will provide in-flight lightning electric-current return stroke and recoil leader data, and serve as a platform for development of emerging sensors and new missions into hazardous environments. NASA's Aeronautics and Science Missions are interested in a capability to perform in-situ volcanic plume measurements and long-endurance UAV operations in various weather conditions. (Figure 1 shows an artist concept of a SE-UAV flying near a volcano.) This paper concludes with an overview of the NASA Aeronautics Strategic Vision, Programs, and how a SE-UAV is envisioned to impact them. The SE-UAV concept leverages high-value legacy research products into a new capability for NASA to fly a pathfinder UAV into hazardous conditions, and is presented in the SPIE DSS venue to explore teaming, collaboration and advocacy opportunities outside NASA.

  11. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  12. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  13. UAV Observations of an Antarctic Polynya During Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, J.; Maslanik, J. A.; Knuth, S.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be used during September 2009 to observe the atmosphere and ocean / sea ice surface state in the vicinity of the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica. The flights will take place at the end of the Antarctic winter, in an environment characterized by strong katabatic winds and strong air-sea fluxes. Flights of up to 20 hours duration are planned. This mission will be the second deployment of UAVs in the Antarctic, and the first deployment funded by the United States National Science Foundation. Results from this UAV deployment and lessons learned during the deployment will be presented. Visible satellite image of Terra Nova Bay polynya (6 Oct 2007).

  14. Electric Power System for High Altitude UAV Technology Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Electric powertrain technologies with application to high altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are assessed. One hundred twenty five solar electric UAV configurations and missions were simulated. Synergistic design opportunities were investigated with the premise that specific benefits may be realized, for example, if a single component can serve multiple functions, such as a battery being used for energy storage as well as for a structural component of the aircraft. For each UAV mission simulation, the airframe structure, powertrain configuration (type of solar cells, energy storage options) and performance baseline (1997 or 2001) were specified. It has been found that the use of the high efficiency (multijunction) solar cells or the use of the synergistic amorphous silicon solar cell configuration yields aircraft that can accomplish the majority of the missions of interest for any latitude between 0 deg and 55 deg, hence, a single versatile aircraft can be constructed and implemented to accomplish these missions.

  15. Uav Photogrammetry: a Practical Solution for Challenging Mapping Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatseresht, M.; Hashempour, A. H.; Hasanlou, M.

    2015-12-01

    We have observed huge attentions to application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in aerial mapping since a decade ago. Though, it has several advantages for handling time/cost/quality issues, there are a dozen of challenges in working with UAVs. In this paper, we; as the Robotic Photogrammetry Research Group (RPRG), will firstly review these challenges then show its advantages in three special practical projects. For each project, we will share our experiences through description of the UAV specifications, flight settings and processing steps. At the end, we will illustrate final result of each project and show how this technology could make unbelievable benefits to clients including 3D city realistic model in decimetre level, ultra high quality map production in several centimetre level, and accessing to a high risk and rough relief area for mapping aims.

  16. Applications of UAVs for Remote Sensing of Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steve; Brass, James; Schoenung, Susan

    2003-01-01

    The surveillance of critical facilities and national infrastructure such as waterways, roadways, pipelines and utilities requires advanced technological tools to provide timely, up to date information on structure status and integrity. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are uniquely suited for these tasks, having large payload and long duration capabilities. UAVs also have the capability to fly dangerous and dull missions, orbiting for 24 hours over a particular area or facility providing around the clock surveillance with no personnel onboard. New UAV platforms and systems are becoming available for commercial use. High altitude platforms are being tested for use in communications, remote sensing, agriculture, forestry and disaster management. New payloads are being built and demonstrated onboard the UAVs in support of these applications. Smaller, lighter, lower power consumption imaging systems are currently being tested over coffee fields to determine yield and over fires to detect fire fronts and hotspots. Communication systems that relay video, meteorological and chemical data via satellite to users on the ground in real-time have also been demonstrated. Interest in this technology for infrastructure characterization and mapping has increased dramatically in the past year. Many of the UAV technological developments required for resource and disaster monitoring are being used for the infrastructure and facility mapping activity. This paper documents the unique contributions from NASA;s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program to these applications. ERAST is a UAV technology development effort by a consortium of private aeronautical companies and NASA. Details of demonstrations of UAV capabilities currently underway are also presented.

  17. Closely supervised control of a target-steered UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spenny, Curtis H.; Glassco, Roy G.; Green, Randall

    1999-11-01

    Orientation of a camera onboard an uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) that is used for reconnaissance is performed manually by an operator using a two degree-of-freedom joystick that commands camera azimuth and elevation. The flight path of the UAV is accomplished autonomously by an autopilot that transforms camera orientation into guidance commands that cause the UAV to fly to a destination, loiter or track a target as instructed by the operator. This control mode permits single-person operation of the UAV mission. In a manual mode, the aircraft circles the target at a fixed standoff distance from the UAV that is determined by instantaneous camera orientation and if available, ranging information to the target. The operator must continually track the target in this mode. In a shared control mode, the target location in an earth-fixed frame is determined from the camera orientation at a single point in time, in conjunction with the concurrent UAV position, the latter assumed to be available from GPS or an onboard inertial guidance system. This leaves the operator free to pan for other targets or perform other tasks. He can update target location or switch between the manual and shared modes at any time. This method also provides the added benefit that if the feed from the remote operator is lost, the aircraft will continue on its current heading or loiter smaller to current UAV operation. This teleoperation concept is being validated in Wright State University's CAVE automated virtual environment located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base.

  18. Rangeland resource assessment, monitoring, and management using unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have rapidly been expanding recently. Thanks to military development many civil UAVs come via the defense sector. Although numerous UAVs can perform civilian tasks, the regulations imposed by FAA in the national airspace system and military e...

  19. An Application of UAV Attitude Estimation Using a Low-Cost Inertial Navigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eure, Kenneth W.; Quach, Cuong Chi; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hogge, Edward F.; Hill, Boyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are playing an increasing role in aviation. Various methods exist for the computation of UAV attitude based on low cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. There has been a recent increase in UAV autonomy as sensors are becoming more compact and onboard processing power has increased significantly. Correct UAV attitude estimation will play a critical role in navigation and separation assurance as UAVs share airspace with civil air traffic. This paper describes attitude estimation derived by post-processing data from a small low cost Inertial Navigation System (INS) recorded during the flight of a subscale commercial off the shelf (COTS) UAV. Two discrete time attitude estimation schemes are presented here in detail. The first is an adaptation of the Kalman Filter to accommodate nonlinear systems, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF returns quaternion estimates of the UAV attitude based on MEMS gyro, magnetometer, accelerometer, and pitot tube inputs. The second scheme is the complementary filter which is a simpler algorithm that splits the sensor frequency spectrum based on noise characteristics. The necessity to correct both filters for gravity measurement errors during turning maneuvers is demonstrated. It is shown that the proposed algorithms may be used to estimate UAV attitude. The effects of vibration on sensor measurements are discussed. Heuristic tuning comments pertaining to sensor filtering and gain selection to achieve acceptable performance during flight are given. Comparisons of attitude estimation performance are made between the EKF and the complementary filter.

  20. Structures Technology for Future Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Venneri, Samuel L.; Paul, Donald B.; Hopkins, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of structures technology for future aerospace systems is given. Discussion focuses on developments in component technologies that will improve the vehicle performance, advance the technology exploitation process, and reduce system life-cycle costs. The component technologies described are smart materials and structures, multifunctional materials and structures, affordable composite structures, extreme environment structures, flexible load bearing structures, and computational methods and simulation-based design. The trends in each of the component technologies are discussed and the applicability of these technologies to future aerospace vehicles is described.

  1. A Behavior Based Control System for Surveillance UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekan, John; Lu, Bowen; Li, Bo; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is required to carry out duties such as surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue and security patrol missions. Autonomous operation of UAVs is a key to the success of these missions. In this chapter, we propose to use a behavior based control architecture to implement autonomous operation for UAV surveillance missions. This control architecture consists of two layers: a low level control layer and a behavior layer. The low level control layer decomposes 3D motion of UAVs into several atomic actions, such as yaw, roll, pitch, altitude, and 2D position control. These atomic actions together serve as a basis for the behavior layer. The behavior layer consists of a number of necessary behaviors used for surveillance missions, including take-off, object tracking, hovering, landing, trajectory following, obstacle avoidance amongst other behaviors. These behaviors can be instantiated individually or collectively to fulfill the required missions issued by human operators. To evaluate the proposed control architecture, the commercially available DraganFlyer QuadRotor was used as the UAV platform. With the aid of an indoor positioning system, several atomic actions and a group of behaviors were developed for the DraganFlyer. Real testing experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system.

  2. Power supply topology for lidar system onboard UAV platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Yang, Jiazhi; Yu, Xinchen; Zhu, Wei

    2011-10-01

    Laser diode adopted in LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) onboard a small low-cost UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - UAV) platform usually requires its carried components to be light in weight, small in volume, and specially efficient in energy supply. A DC-DC converter and a fast switch are often applied for the traditional power supply to drive the LiDAR system. This traditional method is not proper for application in a UAV platform. This paper provides a novel power supply topology, which consists of two coupled coils, pulse generator circuit, and a fast switch. The power supply topology has been designed, assembled, tested, and confirmed to generate pulse voltage of 100-300 V, up to 120 A pulse current, 50-200 μs pulse width, and 50 Hz maximum pulse frequency. The driver circuit is very simple, but could restrain current surge efficiently. This ensures that the laser diode does not be disturbed. It is demonstrated that it is sufficient to drive a laser diode used in LiDAR onboard UAV, and meets the requirement of weight and volume. Now the driver has been manufactured for application in UAV-based airborne lidar sample system.

  3. Application of agricultural subsidy inspection using UAV image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Das, Amrita; Park, Jong-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    The most important parameters, should be considered during application of remote sensing techniques in agricultural sector, is to acquire image data in appropriate moment in accordance with the growth of the crop. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have several advantages over conventional remote sensing techniques. They can acquire high-resolution images quickly and repeatedly with a comparatively lower flight altitude i.e. 80 400m nullifying the effect of extreme weather and cloud. This study discussed the use of low cost-effective UAV based remote sensing application in inspection of agricultural subsidy. The study area includes 129.1km2 of Miwon town. UAV images acquired 41 times from July 17 to August 10, 2015 for 7 days. The UAV images identify a significant amount of incorrect applications for agricultural subsidy, almost 29.6% (559 of 1,889). Surveying with UAV for agricultural payment instead of field stuff can reduce the time as much as 76.7 % and increase the effectiveness of inspection methods.

  4. Reproducibility of UAV-based photogrammetric surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Niels; Smith, Mike; Cammeraat, Erik; Keesstra, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion, rapid geomorphological change and vegetation degradation are major threats to the human and natural environment in many regions. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry are invaluable tools for the collection of highly detailed aerial imagery and subsequent low cost production of 3D landscapes for an assessment of landscape change. Despite the widespread use of UAVs for image acquisition in monitoring applications, the reproducibility of UAV data products has not been explored in detail. This paper investigates this reproducibility by comparing the surface models and orthophotos derived from different UAV flights that vary in flight direction and altitude. The study area is located near Lorca, Murcia, SE Spain, which is a semi-arid medium-relief locale. The area is comprised of terraced agricultural fields that have been abandoned for about 40 years and have suffered subsequent damage through piping and gully erosion. In this work we focused upon variation in cell size, vertical and horizontal accuracy, and horizontal positioning of recognizable landscape features. The results suggest that flight altitude has a significant impact on reconstructed point density and related cell size, whilst flight direction affects the spatial distribution of vertical accuracy. The horizontal positioning of landscape features is relatively consistent between the different flights. We conclude that UAV data products are suitable for monitoring campaigns for land cover purposes or geomorphological mapping, but special care is required when used for monitoring changes in elevation.

  5. UAV-guided navigation for ground robot tele-operation in a military reconnaissance environment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jessie Y C

    2010-08-01

    A military reconnaissance environment was simulated to examine the performance of ground robotics operators who were instructed to utilise streaming video from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to navigate his/her ground robot to the locations of the targets. The effects of participants' spatial ability on their performance and workload were also investigated. Results showed that participants' overall performance (speed and accuracy) was better when she/he had access to images from larger UAVs with fixed orientations, compared with other UAV conditions (baseline- no UAV, micro air vehicle and UAV with orbiting views). Participants experienced the highest workload when the UAV was orbiting. Those individuals with higher spatial ability performed significantly better and reported less workload than those with lower spatial ability. The results of the current study will further understanding of ground robot operators' target search performance based on streaming video from UAVs. The results will also facilitate the implementation of ground/air robots in military environments and will be useful to the future military system design and training community.

  6. Positional quality assessment of orthophotos obtained from sensors onboard multi-rotor UAV platforms.

    PubMed

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Rumbao, Inmaculada Clavero; Berrocal, Juan Alberto Barrera; Porras, Alfonso García-Ferrer

    2014-11-26

    In this study we explored the positional quality of orthophotos obtained by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A multi-rotor UAV was used to obtain images using a vertically mounted digital camera. The flight was processed taking into account the photogrammetry workflow: perform the aerial triangulation, generate a digital surface model, orthorectify individual images and finally obtain a mosaic image or final orthophoto. The UAV orthophotos were assessed with various spatial quality tests used by national mapping agencies (NMAs). Results showed that the orthophotos satisfactorily passed the spatial quality tests and are therefore a useful tool for NMAs in their production flowchart.

  7. Using Uav to Detect Shoreline Changes: Case Study - Pohranov Pond, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermáková, I.; Komárková, J.; Sedlák, P.

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes utilization of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for detection of changes of shorelines. UAV is used as a cheep and on-demand available possibility how to collect remotely sensed data. Its utilization is limited by legal regulations and weather conditions. Paper deals with utilization of UAV for monitoring small water area and particularly study of changes of shorelines. Study contains other methods of classification. After classification will be data processed for next calculations. Indices regarding shoreline changes are in the study also. In conclusion, study contains obtainment findings and encouragement for the future.

  8. Positional Quality Assessment of Orthophotos Obtained from Sensors Onboard Multi-Rotor UAV Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Rumbao, Inmaculada Clavero; Berrocal, Juan Alberto Barrera; Porras, Alfonso García-Ferrer

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explored the positional quality of orthophotos obtained by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A multi-rotor UAV was used to obtain images using a vertically mounted digital camera. The flight was processed taking into account the photogrammetry workflow: perform the aerial triangulation, generate a digital surface model, orthorectify individual images and finally obtain a mosaic image or final orthophoto. The UAV orthophotos were assessed with various spatial quality tests used by national mapping agencies (NMAs). Results showed that the orthophotos satisfactorily passed the spatial quality tests and are therefore a useful tool for NMAs in their production flowchart. PMID:25587877

  9. Wind Noise Measurements of Microphones Embedded in the Airfoil of an UAV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Embedded in the Airfoil of an UAV October 2012 Wayne E. Prather and William G. Frazier National Center for Physical Acoustics...platforms has been increasing in recent years. Embedding microphones in the skin of an airfoil is one option for how acoustic sensors might be...employed on a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The analysis of wind noise measurements made by an array of microphones embedded in the airfoil of a

  10. An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in the Design and Manufacturing of Large Composite Structures for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Shuart, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    The results of an assessment of the state-of-the-art in the design and manufacturing of large composite structures are described. The focus of the assessment is on the use of polymeric matrix composite materials for large airframe structural components. such as those in commercial and military aircraft and space transportation vehicles. Applications of composite materials for large commercial transport aircraft, general aviation aircraft, rotorcraft, military aircraft. and unmanned rocket launch vehicles are reviewed. The results of the assessment of the state-of-the-art include a summary of lessons learned, examples of current practice, and an assessment of advanced technologies under development. The results of the assessment conclude with an evaluation of the future technology challenges associated with applications of composite materials to the primary structures of commercial transport aircraft and advanced space transportation vehicles.

  11. An L-band SAR for repeat pass deformation measurements on a UAV platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling

    2004-01-01

    We are proposing to develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for repeatpass differential interferometric measurements of deformation for rapidly deforming surfaces of geophysical interest such as volcanoes or earthquakes that is to be flown on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV or minimally piloted vehicle (MPV).

  12. UAV Flight Control using Distributed Actuation and Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, William G.; Heinzen, Stearns N.; Hall, Charles E., Jr.; Chokani, Ndaona; Raney, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An array of effectors and sensors has been designed, tested and implemented on a Blended Wing Body Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This UAV is modified to serve as a flying, controls research, testbed. This effectorhensor array provides for the dynamic vehicle testing of controller designs and the study of decentralized control techniques. Each wing of the UAV is equipped with 12 distributed effectors that comprise a segmented array of independently actuated, contoured control surfaces. A single pressure sensor is installed near the base of each effector to provide a measure of deflections of the effectors. The UAV wings were tested in the North Carolina State University Subsonic Wind Tunnel and the pressure distribution that result from the deflections of the effectors are characterized. The results of the experiments are used to develop a simple, but accurate, prediction method, such that for any arrangement of the effector array the corresponding pressure distribution can be determined. Numerical analysis using the panel code CMARC verifies this prediction method.

  13. Development of aerospace nursing.

    PubMed

    Barron, N J

    1975-04-01

    In the initial development, the primary purpose of the USAF aerospace nursing program was to prepare the nurse to function as an integral member of the aerospace medical team in support of bioastronautics, occupational health and aerospace medical research programs. The absence of an expanded manned space program has required the aerospace nurse to redirect her energies toward the immediate needs of the aerospace medicine program. Many of the aerospace nurse's more specific functions are dependent upon the mission objectives of the command and military base to which she is assigned. Aerospace nursing reflects a concern for the total health needs of the Air Force community and the application of a holistic approach. It includes all aspects of health and all environmental hazards which alter health. The development of aerospace nursing paves the way for this expanded view of nursing practice.

  14. An Aerospace Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill

    1972-01-01

    Describes the 16-day, 10,000 mile national tour of the nation's major aerospace research and development centers by 65 students enrolled in Central Washington State College's Summer Aerospace Workshop. (Author/MB)

  15. Aerospace Industry and Research. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, T. E.

    This book, to be used in the Air Force ROTC program only, discusses various aspects of the aerospace industry and its importance to the society. Not only does a modern and strong aerospace technology help in national defense, but it is a major economic industry as well. The vast number of people employed could shake the roots of economic…

  16. Aerospace applications of advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.; Langenbeck, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced metallic materials within the Al-base family are being developed for applications on current and future aerospace vehicles. These advanced materials offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved vehicle performance. Aerospace applications of advanced metallic materials include space structures, fighters, military and commercial transport aircraft, and missiles. Structural design requirements, including not only static and durability/damage tolerance criteria but also environmental considerations, drive material selections. Often trade-offs must be made regarding strength, fracture resistance, cost, reliability, and maintainability in order to select the optimum material for a specific application. These trade studies not only include various metallic materials but also many times include advanced composite materials. Details of material comparisons, aerospace applications, and material trades will be presented.

  17. Hydrology with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrologic remote sensing currently depends on expensive and infrequent aircraft observations for validation of operational satellite products, typically conducted during field campaigns that also include ground-based measurements. With the advent of new, hydrologically-relevant satellite missions, ...

  18. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report is based on the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in calendar year 2000. During this year, the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) moved into high gear. The launch of the Russian Service Module was followed by three Space Shuttle construction and logistics flights and the deployment of the Expedition One crew. Continuous habitation of the ISS has begun. To date, both the ISS and Space Shuttle programs have met or exceeded most of their flight objectives. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, it is clear that safety was always placed ahead of cost and schedule. This safety consciousness permitted the Panel to devote more of its efforts to examining the long-term picture. With ISS construction accelerating, demands on the Space Shuttle will increase. While Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft will make some flights, the Space Shuttle remains the primary vehicle to sustain the ISS and all other U.S. activities that require humans in space. Development of a next generation, human-rated vehicle has slowed due to a variety of technological problems and the absence of an approach that can accomplish the task significantly better than the Space Shuttle. Moreover, even if a viable design were currently available, the realities of funding and development cycles suggest that it would take many years to bring it to fruition. Thus, it is inescapable that for the foreseeable future the Space Shuttle will be the only human-rated vehicle available to the U.S. space program for support of the ISS and other missions requiring humans. Use of the Space Shuttle will extend well beyond current planning, and is likely to continue for the life of the ISS.

  19. Development of an unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing system for site-specific management in precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can be remotely controlled or fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automation systems. In agriculture, UAVs have been used for pest control and remote sensing. The objective of this research was to develop a UAV system to en...

  20. The 15th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technological areas covered include: aerospace propulsion; aerodynamic devices; crew safety; space vehicle control; spacecraft deployment, positioning, and pointing; deployable antennas/reflectors; and large space structures. Devices for payload deployment, payload retention, and crew extravehicular activities on the space shuttle orbiter are also described.

  1. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanyu; Wu, Linfeng; Li, Yingjie; Li, Chunwen; Li, Hangyu

    2016-12-02

    Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  2. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanyu; Wu, Linfeng; Li, Yingjie; Li, Chunwen; Li, Hangyu

    2016-01-01

    Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy. PMID:27918422

  3. Autonomous target tracking of UAVs based on low-power neural network hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Jin, Zhanpeng; Thiem, Clare; Wysocki, Bryant; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe

    2014-05-01

    Detecting and identifying targets in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images and videos have been challenging problems due to various types of image distortion. Moreover, the significantly high processing overhead of existing image/video processing techniques and the limited computing resources available on UAVs force most of the processing tasks to be performed by the ground control station (GCS) in an off-line manner. In order to achieve fast and autonomous target identification on UAVs, it is thus imperative to investigate novel processing paradigms that can fulfill the real-time processing requirements, while fitting the size, weight, and power (SWaP) constrained environment. In this paper, we present a new autonomous target identification approach on UAVs, leveraging the emerging neuromorphic hardware which is capable of massively parallel pattern recognition processing and demands only a limited level of power consumption. A proof-of-concept prototype was developed based on a micro-UAV platform (Parrot AR Drone) and the CogniMemTMneural network chip, for processing the video data acquired from a UAV camera on the y. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of incorporating emerging neuromorphic hardware into next-generation UAVs and their superior performance and power advantages towards the real-time, autonomous target tracking.

  4. Visual navigation of the UAVs on the basis of 3D natural landmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Simon; Konovalenko, Ivan; Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    This work considers the tracking of the UAV (unmanned aviation vehicle) on the basis of onboard observations of natural landmarks including azimuth and elevation angles. It is assumed that UAV's cameras are able to capture the angular position of reference points and to measure the angles of the sight line. Such measurements involve the real position of UAV in implicit form, and therefore some of nonlinear filters such as Extended Kalman filter (EKF) or others must be used in order to implement these measurements for UAV control. Recently it was shown that modified pseudomeasurement method may be used to control UAV on the basis of the observation of reference points assigned along the UAV path in advance. However, the use of such set of points needs the cumbersome recognition procedure with the huge volume of on-board memory. The natural landmarks serving as such reference points which may be determined on-line can significantly reduce the on-board memory and the computational difficulties. The principal difference of this work is the usage of the 3D reference points coordinates which permits to determine the position of the UAV more precisely and thereby to guide along the path with higher accuracy which is extremely important for successful performance of the autonomous missions. The article suggests the new RANSAC for ISOMETRY algorithm and the use of recently developed estimation and control algorithms for tracking of given reference path under external perturbation and noised angular measurements.

  5. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, S. M.; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-02-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps.

  6. Development of a bio-inspired UAV perching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Pu

    Although technologies of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including micro air vehicles (MAVs) have been greatly advanced in the recent years, it is still very difficult for a UAV to perform some very challenging tasks such as perching to any desired spot reliably and agilely like a bird. Unlike the UAVs, the biological control mechanism of birds has been optimized through millions of year evolution and hence, they can perform many extremely maneuverability tasks, such as perching or grasping accurately and robustly. Therefore, we have good reason to learn from the nature in order to significantly improve the capabilities of UAVs. The development of a UAV perching system is becoming feasible, especially after a lot of research contributions in ornithology which involve the analysis of the bird's functionalities. Meanwhile, as technology advances in many engineering fields, such as airframes, propulsion, sensors, batteries, micro-electromechanical-system (MEMS), and UAV technology is also advancing rapidly. All of these research efforts in ornithology and the fast growing development technologies in UAV applications are motivating further interests and development in the area of UAV perching and grasping research. During the last decade, the research contributions about UAV perching and grasping were mainly based on fixed-wing, flapping-wing, and rotorcraft UAVs. However, most of the current researches in UAV systems with perching and grasping capability are focusing on either active (powered) grasping and perching or passive (unpowered) perching. Although birds do have both active and passive perching capabilities depending on their needs, there is no UAV perching system with both capabilities. In this project, we focused on filling this gap. Inspired by the anatomy analysis of bird legs and feet, a novel perching system has been developed to implement the bionics action for both active grasping and passive perching. In addition, for developing a robust and

  7. Design and Construction of a Composite Airframe for UAV Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    sparboxes were covered in 1/ 8th inch thick balsa wood . It was necessary to glue balsa cover plates to the foam. Balsa provided a solid base for the access...structure was assembled using cyanoacrylate glue (Figure 13) . All joints were reinforced with fiberglass cloth and resin. With the primary structure...H. Lin y, cond Reader Prof. E. Roberts Wood , Chairman Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics ii S ABSTRACT A half-scale Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV

  8. Uav Data Processing for Rapid Mapping Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2015-08-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, geospatial data plays an important role to serve as a framework for decision support system. As one component of basic geospatial data, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable geospatial analysis within quite a number of societal challenges. The increasing role of geo-information in disaster management nowadays consequently needs to include geospatial aspects on its analysis. Therefore different geospatial datasets can be combined in order to produce reliable geospatial analysis especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. A very well-known issue in this context is the fast delivery of geospatial relevant data which is expressed by the term "Rapid Mapping". Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is the rising geospatial data platform nowadays that can be attractive for modelling and monitoring the disaster area with a low cost and timely acquisition in such critical period of time. Disaster-related object extraction is of special interest for many applications. In this paper, UAV-borne data has been used for supporting rapid mapping activities in combination with high resolution airborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) data. A real disaster instance from 2013 in conjunction with Mount Sinabung eruption, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, is used as the benchmark test for the rapid mapping activities presented in this paper. On this context, the reliable IFSAR dataset from airborne data acquisition in 2011 has been used as a comparable dataset for accuracy investigation and assessment purpose in 3 D reconstructions. After all, this paper presents a proper geo-referencing and feature extraction method of UAV data to support rapid mapping activities.

  9. Advances of Flash LIDAR Development Onboard Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.; Yang, J.; Li, X.; Yang, X.

    2012-07-01

    A small cost-low civilian UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - UAV) platform usually requests that all carried components should be light in weight, small in volume, and efficient in energy. This paper presents the advance of a pre-mature of flash LiDAR system including laser emitting system, associate with the pulsed voltage technology. A complete laser emitting system, including laser diode, conic lens, alignment, divergence angle, etc., has been designed and implemented. The laser emitting system is first simulated and tested using 3D-Tool software, and then manufactured by an industrial company. In addition, a novel power supply topology based on two coupled coils, pulse generator circuit, and a fast switch, is proposed since several 100 V in voltage, 10-100 A in current, several hundred millisecond in pulse width is needed for flash LiDAR system onboard a small low-cost civilian UAV platform, and the traditional power supply had problems in efficiency and bulk. Finally, laser emitting and the power supply are assembled and tested. The size of laser footprint is 4398.031 mm x 4398.031 mm in x and y axes, respectively, when shitting from a flight height of 300 m, which is close to the theoretic size of 4.5 m x 4.5 m. The difference of 102 mm can meet the requirement of flash LiDAR data collection at a flight height of 300 m. Future work on extensive and on-going investigation and investments for a prototype of flash LiDAR system is drawn up as well.

  10. Roadside IED detection using subsurface imaging radar and rotary UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yexian; Twumasi, Jones O.; Le, Viet Q.; Ren, Yu-Jiun; Lai, C. P.; Yu, Tzuyang

    2016-05-01

    Modern improvised explosive device (IED) and mine detection sensors using microwave technology are based on ground penetrating radar operated by a ground vehicle. Vehicle size, road conditions, and obstacles along the troop marching direction limit operation of such sensors. This paper presents a new conceptual design using a rotary unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to carry subsurface imaging radar for roadside IED detection. We have built a UAV flight simulator with the subsurface imaging radar running in a laboratory environment and tested it with non-metallic and metallic IED-like targets. From the initial lab results, we can detect the IED-like target 10-cm below road surface while carried by a UAV platform. One of the challenges is to design the radar and antenna system for a very small payload (less than 3 lb). The motion compensation algorithm is also critical to the imaging quality. In this paper, we also demonstrated the algorithm simulation and experimental imaging results with different IED target materials, sizes, and clutters.

  11. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  12. Simulation study of unmanned aerial vehicle communication networks addressing bandwidth disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sixiao; Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Lu, Chao

    2014-06-01

    To date, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been widely used for numerous applications. UAVs can directly connect to ground stations or satellites to transfer data. Multiple UAVs can communicate and cooperate with each other and then construct an ad-hoc network. Multi-UAV systems have the potential to provide reliable and timely services for end users in addition to satellite networks. In this paper, we conduct a simulation study for evaluating the network performance of multi-UAV systems and satellite networks using the ns-2 networking simulation tool. Our simulation results show that UAV communication networks can achieve better network performance than satellite networks and with a lower cost and increased timeliness. We also investigate security resiliency of UAV networks. As a case study, we simulate false data injection attacks against UAV communication networks in ns-2 and demonstrate the impact of false data injection attacks on network performance.

  13. It's about time; Repeated field sampling and flexible UAV platforms for a changing globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutsinger, G.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are quickly being adopted across the field sciences and will revolutionizing the speed and spatial scale of data collection. As a result, UAVs will alleviate much of the burden placed on boots-on-the-ground researchers as they seek to address fundamental scientific questionsa ssociated with global change. Concurrently, UAVs will initiate a rapid rise in time-series data, whether from monitoring weather patterns, measuring shifts in phenology due to a warming temperatures, or tracking range expansion and contraction of species. The challenges within the scientific community will be in the standardization of data collection, protocol sharing, and data management. The emergence of flexible aerial platforms within the commercial UAV space with multiple sensor configurations, open software application development, and cloud-based services should do much to address these challenges, but only if there is close collaboration between the industry and academic research partners.

  14. Numerical RCS and micro-Doppler investigations of a consumer UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Arne; Aulenbacher, Uwe; Renker, Matthias; Böniger, Urs; Oechslin, Roland; Murk, Axel; Wellig, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This contribution gives an overview of recent investigations regarding the detection of a consumer market unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The steadily increasing number of such drones gives rise to the threat of UAVs interfering civil air traffic. Technologies for monitoring UAVs which are flying in restricted air space, i. e. close to airports or even over airports, are desperately needed. One promising way for tracking drones is to employ radar systems. For the detection and classification of UAVs, the knowledge about their radar cross section (RCS) and micro-Doppler signature is of particular importance. We have carried out numerical and experimental studies of the RCS and the micro-Doppler of an example commercial drone in order to study its detectability with radar systems.

  15. Wavelength-adaptive dehazing using histogram merging-based classification for UAV images.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Inhye; Jeong, Seokhwa; Jeong, Jaeheon; Seo, Doochun; Paik, Joonki

    2015-03-19

    Since incoming light to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform can be scattered by haze and dust in the atmosphere, the acquired image loses the original color and brightness of the subject. Enhancement of hazy images is an important task in improving the visibility of various UAV images. This paper presents a spatially-adaptive dehazing algorithm that merges color histograms with consideration of the wavelength-dependent atmospheric turbidity. Based on the wavelength-adaptive hazy image acquisition model, the proposed dehazing algorithm consists of three steps: (i) image segmentation based on geometric classes; (ii) generation of the context-adaptive transmission map; and (iii) intensity transformation for enhancing a hazy UAV image. The major contribution of the research is a novel hazy UAV image degradation model by considering the wavelength of light sources. In addition, the proposed transmission map provides a theoretical basis to differentiate visually important regions from others based on the turbidity and merged classification results.

  16. Optimization of a Turboprop UAV for Maximum Loiter and Specific Power Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinc, Ali

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a genuine code was developed for optimization of selected parameters of a turboprop engine for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) by employing elitist genetic algorithm. First, preliminary sizing of a UAV and its turboprop engine was done, by the code in a given mission profile. Secondly, single and multi-objective optimization were done for selected engine parameters to maximize loiter duration of UAV or specific power of engine or both. In single objective optimization, as first case, UAV loiter time was improved with an increase of 17.5% from baseline in given boundaries or constraints of compressor pressure ratio and burner exit temperature. In second case, specific power was enhanced by 12.3% from baseline. In multi-objective optimization case, where previous two objectives are considered together, loiter time and specific power were increased by 14.2% and 9.7% from baseline respectively, for the same constraints.

  17. Compact hyperspectral camera in the mid-infrared for small UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pola Fossi, Armande; Ferrec, Yann; Coudrain, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Kling, Emmanuel; Guérineau, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging from small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) arouses a growing interest, as well for military applications as for civilian applications like agriculture management, pollution monitoring or mining. This paper establishes a quick state of the art of cameras of which the capabilities in small-UAVs embedded campaigns have been demonstrated. We also introduce a novel compact hyperspectral camera operating in mid-infrared spectral range embeddable on small UAVs. This camera combines birefringent interferometer for size reduction and cooled imaging optics for a better signal noise ratio. The design of a first prototype and first results from a ground-based measurement campaign, of which the goal was an optical concept validation, is also discussed. Finally, we present the design modifications for the small-UAVs-embeddable version.

  18. Autonomous and cooperative multi-UAV guidance in adversarial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengin, Ugur

    of the UAVs to search for better trajectories in terms of obstacle/restricted-area avoidance and threat exposure minimization, and improving the estimation by providing additional sources of measurement. Finally, the performances of the algorithms are evaluated in a MATLAB/Simulink (c) based simulation environment, which includes the dynamics of each vehicle involved, the models of sensor measurement and data communication with different sampling rates, and the discrete execution of the algorithms. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms successfully generates the trajectories that satisfy the given mission objectives and requirements.

  19. Closed form solutions of constrained trajectories - Application in optimal ascent of aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping; Samsundar, John

    1992-01-01

    The present consideration of the flight trajectory of hypersonic aerospace vehicles subject to a class of path constraints notes the constrained dynamics to constitute a natural two-timescale system, so that problems of trajectory optimization and guidance can be dramatically simplified by means of the asymptotic analytical solutions thus obtained. An illustrative application in ascent trajectory optimization for an aerospace vehicle is presented.

  20. Uav for Geodata Acquisition in Agricultureal and Forestal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidelstürz, P.; Schrenk, L.; Littmann, W.

    2011-09-01

    In the field of precision-farming research, solutions are worked out to combine ecological and economical requirements in a harmonic way. Integrating hightech in agricultural machinery, natural differences in the fields (biodiversity) can be detected and considered to economize agricultural resources and to give respect to natural ecological variability at the same time. Using precision farming resources, machining - and labour time can be economized, productivness can be improved, environmental burden can be discharged and documentation of production processes can be improved. To realize precision farming it is essential to make contemporary large scale data of the biodiversity in the field available. In the last years effectual traktor based equipment for real time precision farming applications was developed. Using remote sensing, biomass diversity of the field can be considered while applicating operating ressources economicly. Because these large scale data aquisition depends on expensive tractor based inspections, capable Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could complement or in special situations even replace such tractor based data aquisition needed for the realization of precision farming strategies. The specific advantages and application slots of UAVs seems to be ideal for the usage in the field of precision farming. For example the size of even large agricultural fields in germany can be managed even by smaller UAVs. Data can be captured spontaneously, promptly, in large scale, with less respect of weather conditions. In agricultural regions UAV flights can be arranged in visual range as actually the legislator requires in germany, especially because the use of autopilotsystems in fact is nessecary to assure regular area-wide data without gaps but not to fly in non-visible regions. Also a minimized risk of hazard is given, flying UAVs over deserted agricultural areas. In a first stage CIS GmbH cooperated with "Institute For Flightsystems" of the University

  1. Optical and acoustical UAV detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christnacher, Frank; Hengy, Sébastien; Laurenzis, Martin; Matwyschuk, Alexis; Naz, Pierre; Schertzer, Stéphane; Schmitt, Gwenael

    2016-10-01

    Recent world events have highlighted that the proliferation of UAVs is bringing with it a new and rapidly increasing threat for national defense and security agencies. Whilst many of the reported UAV incidents seem to indicate that there was no terrorist intent behind them, it is not unreasonable to assume that it may not be long before UAV platforms are regularly employed by terrorists or other criminal organizations. The flight characteristics of many of these mini- and micro-platforms present challenges for current systems which have been optimized over time to defend against the traditional air-breathing airborne platforms. A lot of programs to identify cost-effective measures for the detection, classification, tracking and neutralization have begun in the recent past. In this paper, lSL shows how the performance of a UAV detection and tracking concept based on acousto-optical technology can be powerfully increased through active imaging.

  2. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation.

    PubMed

    Nitti, Davide O; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo

    2015-07-28

    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM). A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  3. The future of structural fieldwork - UAV assisted aerial photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollgger, Stefan; Cruden, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly referred to as drones, are opening new and low cost possibilities to acquire high-resolution aerial images and digital surface models (DSM) for applications in structural geology. UAVs can be programmed to fly autonomously along a user defined grid to systematically capture high-resolution photographs, even in difficult to access areas. The photographs are subsequently processed using software that employ SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) and SFM (structure from motion) algorithms. These photogrammetric routines allow the extraction of spatial information (3D point clouds, digital elevation models, 3D meshes, orthophotos) from 2D images. Depending on flight altitude and camera setup, sub-centimeter spatial resolutions can be achieved. By "digitally mapping" georeferenced 3D models and images, orientation data can be extracted directly and used to analyse the structural framework of the mapped object or area. We present UAV assisted aerial mapping results from a coastal platform near Cape Liptrap (Victoria, Australia), where deformed metasediments of the Palaeozoic Lachlan Fold Belt are exposed. We also show how orientation and spatial information of brittle and ductile structures extracted from the photogrammetric model can be linked to the progressive development of folds and faults in the region. Even though there are both technical and legislative limitations, which might prohibit the use of UAVs without prior commercial licensing and training, the benefits that arise from the resulting high-resolution, photorealistic models can substantially contribute to the collection of new data and insights for applications in structural geology.

  4. Hierarchical scheduling method of UAV resources for emergency surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junxiao; Zhu, Qing; Shen, Fuqiang; Miao, Shuangxi; Cao, Zhenyu; Weng, Qiqiang

    2015-12-01

    Traditional mission scheduling methods are unable to meet the timeliness requirements of emergency surveying. Different size and overlaps of different missions lead to inefficient scheduling and poor mission returns. Especially for UAVs, based on their agile and flexible ability, the scheduling result becomes diversiform; as affected by environment and unmanned aerial vehicle performance, different scheduling will lead to different time costs and mission payoffs. An effective scheduling solution is to arrange the UAVs reasonably to complete as many as missions possible with better quality and satisfaction of different demands. This paper proposes a method for mission decomposition or aggregation to generate a mission unit for specific UAVs based on the spatio-temporal constraints of different missions and UAV observation ability demands. In this way, the problems of lack or redundancy of resource scheduling, which can be caused by mission overload, various information demands and spatial overlapping will be effectively reduced. Furthermore, the global efficiency evaluation function is built by considering typical scheduling objectives, such as mission returns, priority and load balancing of resources. Then, an improved ant colony algorithm is designed to acquire an optimal scheduling scheme and the dynamic adjustment strategy is employed. Finally, the correctness and validity are demonstrated by the simulation experiment.

  5. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  6. a Light-Weight Laser Scanner for Uav Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Torres, F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have been recognized as a tool for geospatial data acquisition due to their flexibility and favourable cost benefit ratio. The practical use of laser scanning devices on-board UAVs is also developing with new experimental and commercial systems. This paper describes a light-weight laser scanning system composed of an IbeoLux scanner, an Inertial Navigation System Span-IGM-S1, from Novatel, a Raspberry PI portable computer, which records data from both systems and an octopter UAV. The performance of this light-weight system was assessed both for accuracy and with respect to point density, using Ground Control Points (GCP) as reference. Two flights were performed with the UAV octopter carrying the equipment. In the first trial, the flight height was 100 m with six strips over a parking area. The second trial was carried out over an urban park with some buildings and artificial targets serving as reference Ground Control Points. In this experiment a flight height of 70 m was chosen to improve target response. Accuracy was assessed based on control points the coordinates of which were measured in the field. Results showed that vertical accuracy with this prototype is around 30 cm, which is acceptable for forest applications but this accuracy can be improved using further refinements in direct georeferencing and in the system calibration.

  7. Autonomous UAV persistent surveillance using bio-inspired strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2012-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.

  8. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T.; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM). A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimate UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system. PMID:26225977

  9. UAV Monitoring for Enviromental Management in Galapagos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballari, D.; Orellana, D.; Acosta, E.; Espinoza, A.; Morocho, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands' institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador). Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB) and Infrarred Red Green (NIR). First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  10. Comprehensive UAV agricultural remote-sensing research at Texas A M University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Valasek, John; Murray, Seth C.; Bishop, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have advantages over manned vehicles for agricultural remote sensing. Flying UAVs is less expensive, is more flexible in scheduling, enables lower altitudes, uses lower speeds, and provides better spatial resolution for imaging. The main disadvantage is that, at lower altitudes and speeds, only small areas can be imaged. However, on large farms with contiguous fields, high-quality images can be collected regularly by using UAVs with appropriate sensing technologies that enable high-quality image mosaics to be created with sufficient metadata and ground-control points. In the United States, rules governing the use of aircraft are promulgated and enforced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and rules governing UAVs are currently in flux. Operators must apply for appropriate permissions to fly UAVs. In the summer of 2015 Texas A&M University's agricultural research agency, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, embarked on a comprehensive program of remote sensing with UAVs at its 568-ha Brazos Bottom Research Farm. This farm is made up of numerous fields where various crops are grown in plots or complete fields. The crops include cotton, corn, sorghum, and wheat. After gaining FAA permission to fly at the farm, the research team used multiple fixed-wing and rotary-wing UAVs along with various sensors to collect images over all parts of the farm at least once per week. This article reports on details of flight operations and sensing and analysis protocols, and it includes some lessons learned in the process of developing a UAV remote-sensing effort of this sort.

  11. Applications for mini VTOL UAV for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Douglas W.; Cycon, James

    1999-01-01

    Remotely operated vehicle systems, ground and air, have great potential for supporting law enforcement operations. These systems with their onboard sensors, can assist in collecting evidence, performing long-term surveillance or in assessing hazardous situations prior to committing personnel. Remote ground vehicles are presently used by many police departments for ordnance clearing missions. Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) typically offer long endurance, and are intuitive to operate, but can be severely limited in where they can go by terrain and obstacles. Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) have 3-D mobility, but have landing and takeoff restrictions, mission time limitations, and typically are demanding to operate. A new capability has been demonstrated for the U.S. military that shows great promise for aiding police agencies. This concept uses a shrouded rotor, vertical take off and landing (VTOL), an unmanned air vehicle to provide mobility to sensors and other payloads. This system can either perform surveillance from the air or travel to a remote location and land to position onboard sensors to perform long-term surveillance from the ground. This mobility platform concept can also be used to position packages (e.g., communications repeaters) or deliver and deploy non-lethal agents. This paper presents the concept of a small, UAV, VTOL, sensor mobility system for support of law enforcement operations. It then discusses operational feasibility and briefly reviews demonstrations of surveillance and sensor placement operations in military urban terrain scenarios performed by the Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center San Diego (SSCSD) and Sikorsky Aircraft with their full-size Cypher UAV. We then discuss the practicality of reducing the size of this capability to a system small enough to be transported in standard police vehicles and which can be easily operated by law enforcement personnel.

  12. Geometric calibration and accuracy assessment of a multispectral imager on UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fengjie; Yu, Tao; Chen, Xingfeng; Chen, Jiping; Yuan, Guoti

    2012-11-01

    The increasing developments in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) platforms and associated sensing technologies have widely promoted UAVs remote sensing application. UAVs, especially low-cost UAVs, limit the sensor payload in weight and dimension. Mostly, cameras on UAVs are panoramic, fisheye lens, small-format CCD planar array camera, unknown intrinsic parameters and lens optical distortion will cause serious image aberrations, even leading a few meters or tens of meters errors in ground per pixel. However, the characteristic of high spatial resolution make accurate geolocation more critical to UAV quantitative remote sensing research. A method for MCC4-12F Multispectral Imager designed to load on UAVs has been developed and implemented. Using multi-image space resection algorithm to assess geometric calibration parameters of random position and different photogrammetric altitudes in 3D test field, which is suitable for multispectral cameras. Both theoretical and practical accuracy assessments were selected. The results of theoretical strategy, resolving object space and image point coordinate differences by space intersection, showed that object space RMSE were 0.2 and 0.14 pixels in X direction and in Y direction, image space RMSE were superior to 0.5 pixels. In order to verify the accuracy and reliability of the calibration parameters,practical study was carried out in Tianjin UAV flight experiments, the corrected accuracy validated by ground checkpoints was less than 0.3m. Typical surface reflectance retrieved on the basis of geo-rectified data was compared with ground ASD measurement resulting 4% discrepancy. Hence, the approach presented here was suitable for UAV multispectral imager.

  13. Upwind dynamic soaring of albatrosses and UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    Albatrosses have been observed to soar in an upwind direction using what is called here an upwind mode of dynamic soaring. The upwind mode was modeled using the dynamics of a two-layer Rayleigh cycle in which the lower layer has zero velocity and the upper layer has a uniform wind speed of W. The upwind mode consists of a climb across the wind-shear layer headed upwind, a 90° turn and descent across the wind-shear layer perpendicular to the wind, followed by a 90° turn into the wind. The increase of airspeed gained from crossing the wind-shear layer headed upwind was balanced by the decrease of airspeed caused by drag. Results show that a wandering albatross can soar over the ocean in an upwind direction at a mean speed of 8.4 m/s in a 3.6 m/s wind, which is the minimum wind speed necessary for sustained dynamic soaring. A main result is that albatrosses can soar upwind much faster than the wind speed. Furthermore, albatrosses were found to be able to increase upwind speeds in winds greater than 3.6 m/s, reaching an upwind speed of 12.1 m/s in a wind speed of 7 m/s (for example). The upwind dynamic soaring mode of a possible robotic albatross UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) was modeled using a Rayleigh cycle and characteristics of a high-performance glider. Maximum possible airspeeds are equal to approximately 9.5 times the wind speed of the upper layer. In a wind of 10 m/s, the maximum possible upwind (56 m/s) and across-wind (61 m/s) components of UAV velocity over the ocean result in a diagonal upwind velocity of 83 m/s. In sufficient wind, a UAV could, in principle, use fast diagonal speeds to rapidly survey large areas of the ocean surface and the marine boundary layer. In practice, the maximum speeds of a UAV soaring over the ocean could be significantly less than these predictions. Some limitations to achieving fast travel velocities over the ocean are discussed and suggestions are made for further studies to test the concept of a robotic albatross.

  14. A system-of-systems perspective for simultaneous UAV sizing and allocation using design of experiments and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bociaga, Michael L.

    Traditional approaches to aircraft sizing focus on maximizing the performance of the individual airframe as a standalone system. Customers, such as the Department of Defense, have recently looked more towards all-encompassing solutions to large problems by using a System-of-Systems approach instead of maximizing capability from a single aircraft or similar monolithic system. Shrinking budgets call for making the most efficient use of existing assets and addressing capability gaps in broad frameworks. The result is that optimizing the aircraft alone may not provide the customer with needed capabilities. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) performing Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions provide an example of systems designed to operate with other independent systems as part of a system-of-systems. In this research, a fleet of UAVs will provide wildfire detection in high terrain. The research investigates how to allocate existing systems along with a number of yet-to-be-defined UAVs. In this manner, the new UAVs may not be optimal for individual aircraft-based performance metrics, but they will enhance the capabilities of the fleet. Such a large, complex problem requires decomposition into a resource allocation problem using a Design of Experiments (DoE) to select configurations of UAV fleets to test by simulation using STK's Aircraft Mission Modeler software package at the System-of-Systems level, and an aircraft sizing sub-problem using an SQP algorithm and the Breguet endurance equation to size the new UAV. The STK output is modeled using main effects and a response surface that shows the tradeoff between cost and coverage, enabling the customer to select the optimal allocation of existing and new UAVs and determine the key characteristics of the new UAVs that fit into this fleet. The new UAV sized for this specific mission, but from a System-of-Systems perspective, complements the UAV fleet, enhancing the capabilities of the System

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  16. Automated design of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Mccomb, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in structural analysis of aerospace vehicles is characterized, automated design technology is discussed, and an indication is given of the future direction of research in analysis and automated design. Representative computer programs for analysis typical of those in routine use in vehicle design activities are described, and results are shown for some selected analysis problems. Recent and planned advances in analysis capability are indicated. Techniques used to automate the more routine aspects of structural design are discussed, and some recently developed automated design computer programs are described. Finally, discussion is presented of early accomplishments in interdisciplinary automated design systems, and some indication of the future thrust of research in this field is given.

  17. New distributed radar technology based on UAV or UGV application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-05-01

    Regular micro and nano radars cannot provide reliable tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets in urban and mountain areas because of reflection and re-reflections from buildings and terrain. They become visible and vulnerable to guided missiles if positioned on a tower or blimp. Doppler radar cannot distinguish moving cars and small low altitude aerial targets in an urban area. A new concept of pocket size distributed radar technology based on the application of UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicles), UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicles) is proposed for tracking of low altitude low profile aerial targets at short and medium distances for protection of stadium, camp, military facility in urban or mountain areas.

  18. Design and development of a robust ATP subsystem for the Altair UAV-to-Ground lasercomm 2.5 Gbps demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, G. G.; Lee, S.; Monacos, S.; Wright, M.; Biswas, A.

    2003-01-01

    A robust acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) subsystem is being developed for the 2.5 Gigabit per second (Gbps) Unmanned-Aerial-Vehicle (UAV) to ground free-space optical communications link project.

  19. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  20. Use of the RoboFlag synthetic task environment to investigate workload and stress responses in UAV operation.

    PubMed

    Guznov, Svyatoslav; Matthews, Gerald; Funke, Gregory; Dukes, Allen

    2011-09-01

    Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is an increasingly important element of military missions. However, controlling UAVs may impose high stress and workload on the operator. This study evaluated the use of the RoboFlag simulated environment as a means for profiling multiple dimensions of stress and workload response to a task requiring control of multiple vehicles (robots). It tested the effects of two workload manipulations, environmental uncertainty (i.e., UAV's visual view area) and maneuverability, in 64 participants. The findings confirmed that the task produced substantial workload and elevated distress. Dissociations between the stress and performance effects of the manipulations confirmed the utility of a multivariate approach to assessment. Contrary to expectations, distress and some aspects of workload were highest in the low-uncertainty condition, suggesting that overload of information may be an issue for UAV interface designers. The strengths and limitations of RoboFlag as a methodology for investigating stress and workload responses are discussed.

  1. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  2. Supercomputing in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Yee, Helen

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: numerical aerodynamic simulation; computational mechanics; supercomputers; aerospace propulsion systems; computational modeling in ballistics; turbulence modeling; computational chemistry; computational fluid dynamics; and computational astrophysics.

  3. Volcanic Plume Measurements with UAV (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, H.; Kaneko, T.; Ohminato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Volatiles in magmas are the driving force of volcanic eruptions and quantification of volcanic gas flux and composition is important for the volcano monitoring. Recently we developed a portable gas sensor system (Multi-GAS) to quantify the volcanic gas composition by measuring volcanic plumes and obtained volcanic gas compositions of actively degassing volcanoes. As the Multi-GAS measures variation of volcanic gas component concentrations in the pumped air (volcanic plume), we need to bring the apparatus into the volcanic plume. Commonly the observer brings the apparatus to the summit crater by himself but such measurements are not possible under conditions of high risk of volcanic eruption or difficulty to approach the summit due to topography etc. In order to overcome these difficulties, volcanic plume measurements were performed by using manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. The volcanic plume measurements by manned aerial vehicles, however, are also not possible under high risk of eruption. The strict regulation against the modification of the aircraft, such as installing sampling pipes, also causes difficulty due to the high cost. Application of the UAVs for the volcanic plume measurements has a big advantage to avoid these problems. The Multi-GAS consists of IR-CO2 and H2O gas analyzer, SO2-H2O chemical sensors and H2 semiconductor sensor and the total weight ranges 3-6 kg including batteries. The necessary conditions of the UAV for the volcanic plumes measurements with the Multi-GAS are the payloads larger than 3 kg, maximum altitude larger than the plume height and installation of the sampling pipe without contamination of the exhaust gases, as the exhaust gases contain high concentrations of H2, SO2 and CO2. Up to now, three different types of UAVs were applied for the measurements; Kite-plane (Sky Remote) at Miyakejima operated by JMA, Unmanned airplane (Air Photo Service) at Shinomoedake, Kirishima volcano, and Unmanned helicopter (Yamaha) at Sakurajima

  4. Next Generation Spacecraft, Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes research on reusable launch vehicles, aerospace planes, shuttle replacement, crew/cargo transfer vehicle, related X-craft, orbital space plane, and next generation launch technology.

  5. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) activities during 2002. The format of the report has been modified to capture a long-term perspective. Section II is new and highlights the Panel's view of NASA's safety progress during the year. Section III contains the pivotal safety issues facing NASA in the coming year. Section IV includes the program area findings and recommendations. The Panel has been asked by the Administrator to perform several special studies this year, and the resulting white papers appear in Appendix C. The year has been filled with significant achievements for NASA in both successful Space Shuttle operations and International Space Station (ISS) construction. Throughout the year, safety has been first and foremost in spite of many changes throughout the Agency. The relocation of the Orbiter Major Modifications (OMMs) from California to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) appears very successful. The transition of responsibilities for program management of the Space Shuttle and ISS programs from Johnson Space Center (JSC) to NASA Headquarters went smoothly. The decision to extend the life of the Space Shuttle as the primary NASA vehicle for access to space is viewed by the Panel as a prudent one. With the appropriate investments in safety improvements, in maintenance, in preserving appropriate inventories of spare parts, and in infrastructure, the Space Shuttle can provide safe and reliable support for the ISS for the foreseeable future. Indications of an aging Space Shuttle fleet occurred on more than one occasion this year. Several flaws went undetected in the early prelaunch tests and inspections. In all but one case, the problems were found prior to launch. These incidents were all handled properly and with safety as the guiding principle. Indeed, launches were postponed until the problems were fully understood and mitigating action could be taken. These incidents do, however, indicate the need to analyze the

  6. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter.

  8. Experiments and analysis concerning the use of external burning to reduce aerospace vehicle transonic drag. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    The external combustion of hydrogen to reduce transonic drag was investigated. A control volume analysis is developed and indicates that the specific impulse performance of external burning is competitive with other forms of airbreathing propulsion and depends on the fuel-air ratio, freestream Mach number, and the severity of the base drag. A method is presented for sizing fuel injectors for a desired fuel-air ratio in the unconfined stream. A two-dimensional Euler analysis is also presented which indicates that the total axial force generated by external burning depends on the total amount of energy input and is independent of the transverse and streamwise distribution of heat addition. Good agreement between the Euler and control volume analysis is demonstrated. Features of the inviscid external burning flowfield are discussed. Most notably, a strong compression forms at the sonic line within the burning stream which may induce separation of the plume and prevent realization of the full performance potential. An experimental program was conducted in a Mach 1.26 free-jet to demonstrate drag reduction on a simple expansion ramp geometry, and verify hydrogen-air stability limits at external burning conditions. Stable combustion appears feasible to Mach number of between 1.4 and 2 depending on the vehicle flight trajectory. Drag reduction is demonstrated on the expansion ramp at Mach 1.26; however, force levels showed little dependence on fuel pressure or altitude in contrast to control volume analysis predictions. Various facility interference mechanisms and scaling issues were studied and are discussed.

  9. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  10. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  11. Evaluating the accuracy of orthophotos and 3D models from UAV photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julge, Kalev; Ellmann, Artu

    2015-04-01

    Rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in recent years has made their use for various applications more feasible. This contribution evaluates the accuracy and quality of different UAV remote sensing products (i.e. orthorectified image, point cloud and 3D model). Two different autonomous fixed wing UAV systems were used to collect the aerial photographs. One is a mass-produced commercial UAV system, the other is a similar state-of-the-art UAV system. Three different study areas with varying sizes and characteristics (including urban areas, forests, fields, etc.) were surveyed. The UAV point clouds, 3D models and orthophotos were generated with three different commercial and free-ware software. The performance of each of these was evaluated. The effect of flying height on the accuracy of the results was explored, as well as the optimum number and placement of ground control points. Also the achieved results, when the only georeferencing data originates from the UAV system's on-board GNSS and inertial measurement unit, are investigated. Problems regarding the alignment of certain types of aerial photos (e.g. captured over forested areas) are discussed. The quality and accuracy of UAV photogrammetry products are evaluated by comparing them with control measurements made with GNSS-measurements on the ground, as well as high-resolution airborne laser scanning data and other available orthophotos (e.g. those acquired for large scale national mapping). Vertical comparisons are made on surfaces that have remained unchanged in all campaigns, e.g. paved roads. Planar comparisons are performed by control surveys of objects that are clearly identifiable on orthophotos. The statistics of these differences are used to evaluate the accuracy of UAV remote sensing. Some recommendations are given on how to conduct UAV mapping campaigns cost-effectively and with minimal time-consumption while still ensuring the quality and accuracy of the UAV data products. Also the

  12. Accuracy evaluation of 3D lidar data from small UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulldahl, H. M.; Bissmarck, Fredrik; Larsson, Hâkan; Grönwall, Christina; Tolt, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    A UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) with an integrated lidar can be an efficient system for collection of high-resolution and accurate three-dimensional (3D) data. In this paper we evaluate the accuracy of a system consisting of a lidar sensor on a small UAV. High geometric accuracy in the produced point cloud is a fundamental qualification for detection and recognition of objects in a single-flight dataset as well as for change detection using two or several data collections over the same scene. Our work presented here has two purposes: first to relate the point cloud accuracy to data processing parameters and second, to examine the influence on accuracy from the UAV platform parameters. In our work, the accuracy is numerically quantified as local surface smoothness on planar surfaces, and as distance and relative height accuracy using data from a terrestrial laser scanner as reference. The UAV lidar system used is the Velodyne HDL-32E lidar on a multirotor UAV with a total weight of 7 kg. For processing of data into a geographically referenced point cloud, positioning and orientation of the lidar sensor is based on inertial navigation system (INS) data combined with lidar data. The combination of INS and lidar data is achieved in a dynamic calibration process that minimizes the navigation errors in six degrees of freedom, namely the errors of the absolute position (x, y, z) and the orientation (pitch, roll, yaw) measured by GPS/INS. Our results show that low-cost and light-weight MEMS based (microelectromechanical systems) INS equipment with a dynamic calibration process can obtain significantly improved accuracy compared to processing based solely on INS data.

  13. A UAV System for Observing Volcanoes and Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggiani, G.; Persiani, F.; Ceruti, A.; Tortora, P.; Troiani, E.; Giuletti, F.; Amici, S.; Buongiorno, M.; Distefano, G.; Bentini, G.; Bianconi, M.; Cerutti, A.; Nubile, A.; Sugliani, S.; Chiarini, M.; Pennestri, G.; Petrini, S.; Pieri, D.

    2007-12-01

    Fixed or rotary wing manned aircraft are currently the most commonly used platforms for airborne reconnaissance in response to natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, oil spills, wild fires, earthquakes. Such flights are very often undertaken in hazardous flying conditions (e.g., turbulence, downdrafts, reduced visibility, close proximity to dangerous terrain) and can be expensive. To mitigate these two fundamental issues-- safety and cost--we are exploring the use of small (less than 100kg), relatively inexpensive, but effective, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for this purpose. As an operational test, in 2004 we flew a small autonomous UAV in the airspace above and around Stromboli Volcano. Based in part on this experience, we are adapting the RAVEN UAV system for such natural hazard surveillance missions. RAVEN has a 50km range, with a 3.5m wingspan, main fuselage length of 4.60m, and maximum weight of 56kg. It has autonomous flight capability and a ground control Station for the mission planning and control. It will carry a variety of imaging devices, including a visible camera, and an IR camera. It will also carry an experimental Fourier micro-interferometer based on MOEMS technology, (developed by IMM Institute of CNR), to detect atmospheric trace gases. Such flexible, capable, and easy-to-deploy UAV systems may significantly shorten the time necessary to characterize the nature and scale of the natural hazard threats if used from the outset of, and systematically during, natural hazard events. When appropriately utilized, such UAVs can provide a powerful new hazard mitigation and documentation tool for civil protection hazard responders. This research was carried out under the auspices of the Italian government, and, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. Earth Observations and the Role of UAVs: A Capabilities Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    This three-volume document, based on the draft document located on the website given on page 6, presents the findings of a NASA-led capabilities assessment of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for civil (defined as non-DoD) use in Earth observations. Volume 1 is the report that presents the overall assessment and summarizes the data. The second volume contains the appendices and references to address the technologies and capabilities required for viable UAV missions. The third volume is the living portion of this effort and contains the outputs from each of the Technology Working Groups (TWGs) along with the reviews conducted by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA). The focus of this report, intended to complement the Office of the Secretary of Defense UAV Roadmap, is four-fold: 1) To determine and document desired future Earth observation missions for all UAVs based on user-defined needs; 2) To determine and document the technologies necessary to support those missions; 3) To discuss the present state of the art platform capabilities and required technologies, including identifying those in progress, those planned, and those for which no current plans exist; 4) Provide the foundations for development of a comprehensive civil UAV roadmap. It is expected that the content of this report will be updated periodically and used to assess the feasibility of future missions. In addition, this report will provide the foundation to help influence funding decisions to develop those technologies that are considered enabling or necessary but are not contained within approved funding plans. This document is written such that each section will be supported by an Appendix that will give the reader a more detailed discussion of that section's topical materials.

  15. Developing a fixed-wing UAV aeromagnetic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziqi, G.

    2013-12-01

    This invention relates to a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) aeromagnetic system which is suitable for geophysical prospecting using earth magnetic fields and to develop a low cost, easy operation, reliable performance of aerial magnetic detection system. This system depends mainly upon the measurement of the magnetic properties of the underlying ground. This big project contained unmanned aerial vehicle system, battery system for power source, navigation and flight control system, magnetometer, the magnetic compensation and data processing system and compare with the ground demonstration area. Each of them is a complex engineer system. We made two kind of fixed-wing UAV which designed for different magnetometers such as Helium airborne optical pumping magnetometer and SQUID magnetometer. The battery designed to endure large range temperature varied from -30 to 60 Celsius degree with a dual-redundancy system. A primary object of the invention to provide a fixed-wing UAV for deep exploration using natural magneto-telluric fields as an energy source and operating in a frequency of 20Hz, the System integrated precision of 2nT ranged from 19000 nT to 74000 nT, Meeting the demand of global resources exploration. Another object is it can operate at much higher terrain to 5000km. Yet another object of the invention is providing a system that can explore for mineral deposits with mountain and some other terrain. This paper Sponsored by the project of Chinese deep explorations (SinoProbe09-03)

  16. Using Natural Language to Enable Mission Managers to Control Multiple Heterogeneous UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, S. Bilal; Mcquarry, A. Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The availability of highly capable, yet relatively cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is opening up new areas of use for hobbyists and for commercial activities. This research is developing methods beyond classical control-stick pilot inputs, to allow operators to manage complex missions without in-depth vehicle expertise. These missions may entail several heterogeneous UAVs flying coordinated patterns or flying multiple trajectories deconflicted in time or space to predefined locations. This paper describes the functionality and preliminary usability measures of an interface that allows an operator to define a mission using speech inputs. With a defined and simple vocabulary, operators can input the vast majority of mission parameters using simple, intuitive voice commands. Although the operator interface is simple, it is based upon autonomous algorithms that allow the mission to proceed with minimal input from the operator. This paper also describes these underlying algorithms that allow an operator to manage several UAVs.

  17. Aerodynamic study on wing and tail small UAV without runways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetanto, Maria F.; R., Randy; Alfan M., R.; Dzaldi

    2016-06-01

    This paper consists of the design and analysis of the aerodynamics of the profiles of wing and tail of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). UAV is a remote-controlled aircraft that can carry cameras, sensors and even weapons on an area that needed aerial photography or aerial video [1]. The aim of this small UAV is for used in situations where manned flight is considered too risky or difficult, such as fire fighting or surveillance, while the term 'small means the design of this UAV has to be relatively small and portable so that peoples are able to carry it during their operations [CASR Part 101.240: it is a UAV which is has a launch mass greater than 100 grams but less than 100 kilograms] [2]. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) method was used to analyze the fluid flow characteristics around the aerofoil's profiles, such as the lift generation for each angle of attack and longitudinal stability caused by vortex generation on trailing edge. Based on the analysis and calculation process, Clark-Y MOD with aspect ratio, AR = 4.28 and taper ratio, λ = 0.65 was chosen as the wing aerofoil and SD 8020 with AR = 4.8 and λ = 0.5 was chosen as the horizontal tail, while SD 8020 with AR = 1.58 and λ = 0.5 was chosen as the vertical tail. The lift and drag forces generated for wing and tail surfaces can be determined from the Fluent 6.3 simulation. Results showed that until angle of attack of 6 degrees, the formation of flow separation is still going on behind the trailing edge, and the stall condition occurs at 14 degrees angle of attack which is characterized by the occurrence of flow separation at leading edge, with a maximum lift coefficient (Cl) obtained = 1.56. The results of flight tests show that this small UAV has successfully maneuvered to fly, such as take off, some acrobatics when cruising and landing smoothly, which means that the calculation and analysis of aerodynamic aerofoil's profile used on the wing and tail of the Small UAV were able to be validated.

  18. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  19. Simulation to Flight Test for a UAV Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.; Logan, Michael J.; French, Michael L.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis, Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights, including a fully autonomous demonstration at the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) UAV Demo 2005. Simulations based on wind tunnel data are being used to further develop advanced controllers for implementation and flight test.

  20. Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods.

  1. Multiplatform information-based sensor management: an inverted UAV demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreucher, Chris; Wegrzyn, John; Beauvais, Michel; Conti, Ralph

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes an experimental demonstration of a distributed, decentralized, low communication sensor management algorithm. We first review the mathematics surrounding the method, which includes a novel combination of particle filtering for predictive density estimation and information theory for maximizing information flow. Earlier work has shown the utility via Monte Carlo simulations. Here we present a laboratory demonstration to illustrate the utility and to provide a stepping stone toward full-up implementation. To that end, we describe an inverted Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) test-bed developed by The General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems (GDAIS) Michigan Research and Development Center (MRDC) to facilitate and promote the maturation of the research algorithm into an operational, field-able system. Using a modular design with wheeled robots as surrogates to UAVs, we illustrate how the method is able to detect and track moving targets over a large surveillance region by tasking a collection of limited field of view sensors.

  2. Demonstrating tactical information services from coordinated UAV operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay, John S.

    2006-05-01

    As the component technologies for unmanned aerial vehicles mature, increased attention is being paid to the problem of command and control. Many UAVs, even small lightweight versions, are seeing significant operational time as a result of the Iraq war, and consequently, users are becoming increasingly proficient with the platform technologies and are considering new and more elaborate tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), as well as concepts of operations (CONOPS), for their use, both individually and in teams. This paper presents one such concept and summarizes the progress made toward that goal in a recent research program. In particularly, the means by which a team of UAVs can be considered a tactical information resource is investigated, and initial experimental results are summarized.

  3. Uav Onboard Photogrammetry and GPS Positionning for Earthworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daakir, M.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.; Bosser, P.; Pichard, F.; Thom, C.

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade, Unmanned Airbone Vehicles (UAVs) have been largely used for civil applications. Airborne photogrammetry has found place in these applications not only for 3D modeling but also as a measurement tool. Vinci-Construction-Terrassement is a private company specialized in public works sector and uses airborn photogrammetry as a mapping solution and metrology investigation tool on its sites. This technology is very efficient for the calculation of stock volumes for instance, or for time tracking of specific areas with risk of landslides. The aim of the present work is to perform a direct georeferencing of images acquired by the camera leaning on an embedded GPS receiver. UAV, GPS receiver and camera used are low-cost models and therefore data processing is adapted to this particular constraint.

  4. Adaptive support vector regression for UAV flight control.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jongho; Jin Kim, H; Kim, Youdan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores an application of support vector regression for adaptive control of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Unlike neural networks, support vector regression (SVR) generates global solutions, because SVR basically solves quadratic programming (QP) problems. With this advantage, the input-output feedback-linearized inverse dynamic model and the compensation term for the inversion error are identified off-line, which we call I-SVR (inversion SVR) and C-SVR (compensation SVR), respectively. In order to compensate for the inversion error and the unexpected uncertainty, an online adaptation algorithm for the C-SVR is proposed. Then, the stability of the overall error dynamics is analyzed by the uniformly ultimately bounded property in the nonlinear system theory. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controller, numerical simulations are performed on the UAV model.

  5. Study on High Accuracy Topographic Mapping via UAV-based Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yun-Yao; Lee, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Shang-En

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) provides a promising tool for the acquisition of such multi-temporal aerial stereo photos and high-resolution digital surface models. Recently, the flight of UAVs operates with high degrees of autonomy by the global position system and onboard digit camera and computer. The UAV-based mapping can be obtained faster and cheaper, but its accuracy is anxious. This paper aims to identify the integration ability of high accuracy topographic map via the image of quad-rotors UAV and ground control points (GCPs). The living survey data is collected in the Errn river basins area in Tainan, Taiwan. The high accuracy UAV-based topographic in the study area is calibrated by the local coordinate of GCPs using the total station with the accuracy less than 1/2000. The comparison results show the accuracy of UAV-based topographic is accepted by overlapping. The results can be a reference for the practice works of mapping survey in earth.

  6. A Safe Flight Approach of the UAV in the Electrical Line Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hua; Dong, Ruifang

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) inspection for the electrical line has received increasing attentions due to the advantages of low costs, easiness to control and flexibility. The UAV can inspect the electrical tower independently and automatically by planning the flight path. But during the inspection along the path, the UAV is easily impacted by gust wind due to its light weight and small size, which always leads to the crash into the electrical tower. Thus, in this paper, a safe flight approach (SFA) is proposed to make the flight be safer during the inspection. The main contributions include: firstly, the piecewise linear interpolation method is proposed to fit the distribution curve of the electrical towers based on the GPS coordinates of the electrical towers; secondly, the no-fly zone on the both sides of the distribution curve are created, and a security distance formula (SDF) is raised to decide the width of the no-fly zone; thirdly, a gust wind formula (GWF) is proposed to improve the artificial potential field approach, which can contribute to the path planning of the UAV; finally, a flight path of the UAV can be planned using the SFA to make the UAV avoid colliding with the electric tower. The proposed approach is tested on the experiment to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  7. Cost-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles/Unmanned Aerial Systems in Filling the Role of Logistical Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    UAVs in the U .S . Department of D efense (D OD) inv entory as w ell as the traditional aircraft ctmently used for logistical pwposes. Then, using a...14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF Cost-benefit, Cost-based, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Unmanned Aerial Systems, UAV , UAS, PAGES Logistics, Supp01t...thesis conducts a comparative cost analysis for using unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAVs )/unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for logistical resupply purposes

  8. Visual signature reduction of unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Z. W.; Ma, Z. X.; Jayawijayaningtiyas; Ngoh, J. H. H.

    2016-10-01

    With the emergence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in multiple tactical defence missions, there was a need for an efficient visual signature suppression system for a more efficient stealth operation. One of our studies experimentally investigated the visual signature reduction of UAVs achieved through an active camouflage system. A prototype was constructed with newly developed operating software, Cloak, to provide active camouflage to the UAV model. The reduction of visual signature was analysed. Tests of the devices mounted on UAVs were conducted in another study. A series of experiments involved testing of the concept as well as the prototype. The experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and under normal environmental conditions. Results showed certain degrees of blending with the sky to create a camouflage effect. A mini-UAV made mostly out of transparent plastic was also designed and fabricated. Because of the transparency of the plastic material, the visibility of this UAV in the air is very small, and therefore the UAV is difficult to be detected. After re-designs and tests, eventually a practical system to reduce the visibility of UAVs viewed by human observers from the ground was developed. The system was evaluated during various outdoor tests. The scene target-to-background lightness contrast and the scene target-to-background colour contrast of the adaptive control system prototype were smaller than 10% at a stand-off viewing distance of 20-50 m.

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  10. Development and Validation of a UAV Based System for Air Pollution Measurements.

    PubMed

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Salimi, Farhad; Morton, Kye; Morawska, Lidia; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-12-21

    Air quality data collection near pollution sources is difficult, particularly when sites are complex, have physical barriers, or are themselves moving. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer new approaches to air pollution and atmospheric studies. However, there are a number of critical design decisions which need to be made to enable representative data collection, in particular the location of the air sampler or air sensor intake. The aim of this research was to establish the best mounting point for four gas sensors and a Particle Number Concentration (PNC) monitor, onboard a hexacopter, so to develop a UAV system capable of measuring point source emissions. The research included two different tests: (1) evaluate the air flow behavior of a hexacopter, its downwash and upwash effect, by measuring air speed along three axes to determine the location where the sensors should be mounted; (2) evaluate the use of gas sensors for CO₂, CO, NO₂ and NO, and the PNC monitor (DISCmini) to assess the efficiency and performance of the UAV based system by measuring emissions from a diesel engine. The air speed behavior map produced by test 1 shows the best mounting point for the sensors to be alongside the UAV. This position is less affected by the propeller downwash effect. Test 2 results demonstrated that the UAV propellers cause a dispersion effect shown by the decrease of gas and PN concentration measured in real time. A Linear Regression model was used to estimate how the sensor position, relative to the UAV center, affects pollutant concentration measurements when the propellers are turned on. This research establishes guidelines on how to develop a UAV system to measure point source emissions. Such research should be undertaken before any UAV system is developed for real world data collection.

  11. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, Fernando; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-05-10

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV), to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios.

  12. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments

    PubMed Central

    Vanegas, Fernando; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV), to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios. PMID:27171096

  13. Development and Validation of a UAV Based System for Air Pollution Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Salimi, Farhad; Morton, Kye; Morawska, Lidia; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Air quality data collection near pollution sources is difficult, particularly when sites are complex, have physical barriers, or are themselves moving. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer new approaches to air pollution and atmospheric studies. However, there are a number of critical design decisions which need to be made to enable representative data collection, in particular the location of the air sampler or air sensor intake. The aim of this research was to establish the best mounting point for four gas sensors and a Particle Number Concentration (PNC) monitor, onboard a hexacopter, so to develop a UAV system capable of measuring point source emissions. The research included two different tests: (1) evaluate the air flow behavior of a hexacopter, its downwash and upwash effect, by measuring air speed along three axes to determine the location where the sensors should be mounted; (2) evaluate the use of gas sensors for CO2, CO, NO2 and NO, and the PNC monitor (DISCmini) to assess the efficiency and performance of the UAV based system by measuring emissions from a diesel engine. The air speed behavior map produced by test 1 shows the best mounting point for the sensors to be alongside the UAV. This position is less affected by the propeller downwash effect. Test 2 results demonstrated that the UAV propellers cause a dispersion effect shown by the decrease of gas and PN concentration measured in real time. A Linear Regression model was used to estimate how the sensor position, relative to the UAV center, affects pollutant concentration measurements when the propellers are turned on. This research establishes guidelines on how to develop a UAV system to measure point source emissions. Such research should be undertaken before any UAV system is developed for real world data collection. PMID:28009820

  14. Quality evaluation of UAV associated digital terrain model by means of ground control points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen; Huang, Mei-Jen; Lin, Chu-Fen; Hsieh, Yu-Chung

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) become a popular technology, and is very useful for natural disaster assessment and hazard mitigation study. With good UAV equipment and resources, this study is thus focus on the feasibility and adaptability analysis of the UAV techniques and its' applications. Digital terrain model (DTM) is the one of the most essential data set for hazard analysis. In this study we try to find what the data and the quality that UAV-associated equipment may produce, and the relationship related with the ground control points (GCPs), and what is the most efficient way to improve the quality, and how to achieve this goals. There are two kinds of UAVs, the fixed wing and the rotor wings, depending on different role of classification. In this study, we compare the quality evaluation of DTM from these two kinds of UAV. Different factors are also evaluated in this study, including different kinds of digital cameras, different UAVs, and different sets of GCP groups, by comparing the DTM quality that applying in the same area. The result indicates that the quality of images affects the DTM, and the quality of image relates with, and only with the mission fly high. However, different UAV platform is not important for data resolution. In this study, we analyzed how does GCP affects DTM, compared with the airborne LiDAR data, and with ground leveling. Even caused of the field situations, time costs… etc. we could not set GCP homogeneously and ideally. The result finds the distribution and the amount of the ground control points are the dominant factors affecting DTM quality. The current result shows that the precision of the DTM could be better than 20cm, compared with airborne LiDAR data. Based on the objective of this study, some suggests and results related with different platforms and equipment selection, and the mission planning is thus discussed.

  15. Use of a UAV-mounted video camera to assess feeding behavior of Raramuri Criollo cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in use of unmanned aerial vehicles in science has increased in recent years. It is predicted that they will be a preferred remote sensing platform for applications that inform sustainable rangeland management in the future. The objective of this study was to determine whether UAV video moni...

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Uav Based Mapping System for Remote Sensing and Surveying Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eling, C.; Wieland, M.; Hess, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have increasingly been used in various application areas, such as in the remote sensing or surveying. For these applications the UAV has to be equipped with a mapping sensor, which is mostly a camera. Furthermore, a georeferencing of the UAV platform and/or the acquired mapping data is required. The most efficient way to realize this georeferencing is the direct georeferencing, which is based on an onboard multi-sensor system. In recent decades, direct georeferencing systems have been researched and used extensively in airborne, ship and land vehicle applications. However, these systems cannot easily be adapted to UAV platforms, which is mainly due to weight and size limitations. In this paper a direct georeferencing system for micro- and mini-sized UAVs is presented, which consists of a dual-frequency geodetic grade OEM GPS board, a low-cost single-frequency GPS chip, a tactical grade IMU and a magnetometer. To allow for cm-level position and sub-degree attitude accuracies, RTK GPS (real-time kinematic) and GPS attitude (GPS compass) determination algorithms are running on this system, as well as a GPS/IMU integration. Beside the direct georeferencing, also the precise time synchronization of the camera, which acts as the main sensor for mobile mapping applications, and the calibration of the lever arm between the camera reference point and the direct georeferencing reference point are explained in this paper. Especially the high accurate time synchronization of the camera is very important, to still allow for high surveying accuracies, when the images are taken during the motion of the UAV. Results of flight tests demonstrate that the developed system, the camera synchronization and the lever arm calibration make directly georeferenced UAV based single point measurements possible, which have cm-level accuracies on the ground.

  17. Calibration procedures for imaging spectrometers: improving data quality from satellite missions to UAV campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachmann, Johannes F. S.; Baumgartner, Andreas; Lenhard, Karim

    2016-10-01

    The Calibration Home Base (CHB) at the Remote Sensing Technology Institute of the German Aerospace Center (DLR-IMF) is an optical laboratory designed for the calibration of imaging spectrometers for the VNIR/SWIR wavelength range. Radiometric, spectral and geometric characterization is realized in the CHB in a precise and highly automated fashion. This allows performing a wide range of time consuming measurements in an efficient way. The implementation of ISO 9001 standards ensures a traceable quality of results. DLR-IMF will support the calibration and characterization campaign of the future German spaceborne hyperspectral imager EnMAP. In the context of this activity, a procedure for the correction of imaging artifacts, such as due to stray light, is currently being developed by DLR-IMF. Goal is the correction of in-band stray light as well as ghost images down to a level of a few digital numbers in the whole wavelength range 420-2450 nm. DLR-IMF owns a Norsk Elektro Optikks HySpex airborne imaging spectrometer system that has been thoroughly characterized. This system will be used to test stray light calibration procedures for EnMAP. Hyperspectral snapshot sensors offer the possibility to simultaneously acquire hyperspectral data in two dimensions. Recently, these rather new spectrometers have arisen much interest in the remote sensing community. Different designs are currently used for local area observation such as by use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUAV). In this context the CHB's measurement capabilities are currently extended such that a standard measurement procedure for these new sensors will be implemented.

  18. Recce and UAV: mass memory an enabling technology for merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Walter J., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    In the era of Declining Defense Dollars, the cost of sophisticated aircraft and highly trained personnel has heightened interest in Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). The obvious lure is the lower vehicle cost (no crew station and crew support systems) and reduced needs for highly skilled air crews. Reconnaissance (commonly called recce) aircraft and their missions are among the commonly sighted applications for UAVs. Today's UAV recce aircraft (such as the Predator) are the genesis of much more sophisticated UAVs of the future. The evolution of the UAV will not be constrained to recce aircraft, but the recce mission will be significant for UAVs. The recce hole has historically been that of a battlefield data collector for post mission review and planning. In the electronic battlefield of the future, that role will be expanded. Envisioned mission for future recce aircraft include real-time scout, target location and fire coordination, battle damage assessment, and large area surveillance. Associated with many of these new roles is the need to store or assess much higher volumes of data. The higher volume data requirements are the result of higher resolution sensors (the Advanced Helicopter Pilotage infrared sensor has a data rate of near 1.2 Gigabits per second) and multi-sensor applications (the Multi-Sensor Aided Targeting program considered infrared, TV, and radar). The evolution of the UAV recce role, and associated increased data storage needs (from higher data rates and increased coverage requirements), requires the development of new data storage equipment. One solution to the increased storage needs is solid-state memory. As solid-state memories become faster, smaller, and cheaper they will enable the UAV recce mission capability to expand. Because of the speed of the memory, it will be possible to buffer and assess (identify the existence of targets or other points of interest) data before committing to consumption of limited storage assets. Faster memory

  19. Potential of Uav-Based Laser Scanner and Multispectral Camera Data in Building Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, D.; Blaskow, R.; Westfeld, P.; Weller, C.

    2016-06-01

    Conventional building inspection of bridges, dams or large constructions in general is rather time consuming and often cost expensive due to traffic closures and the need of special heavy vehicles such as under-bridge inspection units or other large lifting platforms. In consideration that, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) will be more reliable and efficient as well as less expensive and simpler to operate. The utilisation of UAVs as an assisting tool in building inspections is obviously. Furthermore, light-weight special sensors such as infrared and thermal cameras as well as laser scanner are available and predestined for usage on unmanned aircraft systems. Such a flexible low-cost system is realized in the ADFEX project with the goal of time-efficient object exploration, monitoring and damage detection. For this purpose, a fleet of UAVs, equipped with several sensors for navigation, obstacle avoidance and 3D object-data acquisition, has been developed and constructed. This contribution deals with the potential of UAV-based data in building inspection. Therefore, an overview of the ADFEX project, sensor specifications and requirements of building inspections in general are given. On the basis of results achieved in practical studies, the applicability and potential of the UAV system in building inspection will be presented and discussed.

  20. Swarming UAVs mission design strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuo-Chi

    2007-04-01

    This paper uses a behavioral hierarchy approach to reduce the mission solution space and make the mission design easier. A UAV behavioral hierarchy is suggested, which is derived from three levels of behaviors: basic, individual and group. The individual UAV behavior is a combination of basic, lower level swarming behaviors with priorities. Mission design can be simplified by picking the right combination of individual swarming behaviors, which will emerge the needed group behaviors. Genetic Algorithm is used in both lower-level basic behavior design and mission design.

  1. Processing of Uav Based Range Imaging Data to Generate Detailed Elevation Models of Complex Natural Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohoutek, T. K.; Eisenbeiss, H.

    2012-07-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are more and more used in civil areas like geomatics. Autonomous navigated platforms have a great flexibility in flying and manoeuvring in complex environments to collect remote sensing data. In contrast to standard technologies such as aerial manned platforms (airplanes and helicopters) UAVs are able to fly closer to the object and in small-scale areas of high-risk situations such as landslides, volcano and earthquake areas and floodplains. Thus, UAVs are sometimes the only practical alternative in areas where access is difficult and where no manned aircraft is available or even no flight permission is given. Furthermore, compared to terrestrial platforms, UAVs are not limited to specific view directions and could overcome occlusions from trees, houses and terrain structures. Equipped with image sensors and/or laser scanners they are able to provide elevation models, rectified images, textured 3D-models and maps. In this paper we will describe a UAV platform, which can carry a range imaging (RIM) camera including power supply and data storage for the detailed mapping and monitoring of complex structures, such as alpine riverbed areas. The UAV platform NEO from Swiss UAV was equipped with the RIM camera CamCube 2.0 by PMD Technologies GmbH to capture the surface structures. Its navigation system includes an autopilot. To validate the UAV-trajectory a 360° prism was installed and tracked by a total station. Within the paper a workflow for the processing of UAV-RIM data is proposed, which is based on the processing of differential GNSS data in combination with the acquired range images. Subsequently, the obtained results for the trajectory are compared and verified with a track of a UAV (Falcon 8, Ascending Technologies) carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GNSS data acquisition. The results showed that the UAV's position using differential GNSS could be determined in the centimetre to the decimetre level. The RIM

  2. UAV to UAV Target Detection and Pose Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    using real-life data sets. UAV detection, Pose estimation, Computer Vision, Obstacle Avoidance, Edge Detection, Morphological Filtering. Unclassified...22 Figure 3.3 Light Beacon Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Figure 3.4 Basic Morphological Operations...26 Figure 3.5 Advanced Morphological Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Figure 3.6 Frame Grabbing

  3. Geomorphological mapping of shallow landslides using UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Giordan, Daniele; Dutto, Furio; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    The mapping of event shallow landslides is a critical activity, due to the large number of phenomena, mostly with small dimension, affecting extensive areas. This is commonly done through aerial photo-interpretation or through field surveys. Nowadays, landslide maps can be realized exploiting other methods/technologies: (i) airborne LiDARs, (ii) stereoscopic satellite images, and (iii) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In addition to the landslide maps, these methods/technologies allow the generation of updated Digital Terrain Models (DTM). In December 2013, in the Collazzone area (Umbria, Central Italy), an intense rainfall event triggered a large number of shallow landslides. To map the landslides occurred in the area, we exploited data and images obtained through (A) an airborne LiDAR survey, (B) a remote controlled optocopter (equipped with a Canon EOS M) survey, and (C) a stereoscopic satellite WorldView II MS. To evaluate the mapping accuracy of these methods, we select two landslides and we mapped them using a GPS RTK instrumentation. We consider the GPS survey as the benchmark being the most accurate system. The results of the comparison allow to highlight pros and cons of the methods/technologies used. LiDAR can be considered the most accurate system and in addition it allows the extraction and the classification of the digital surface models from the surveyed point cloud. Conversely, LiDAR requires additional time for the flight planning, and specific data analysis user capabilities. The analysis of the satellite WorldView II MS images facilitates the landslide mapping over large areas, but at the expenses of a minor resolution to detect the smaller landslides and their boundaries. UAVs can be considered the cheapest and fastest solution for the acquisition of high resolution ortho-photographs on limited areas, and the best solution for a multi-temporal analysis of specific landslide phenomena. Limitations are due to (i) the needs of optimal climatic

  4. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  5. Aerospace bibliography, seventh edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blashfield, J. F. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Space travel, planetary probes, applications satellites, manned spaceflight, the impacts of space exploration, future space activities, astronomy, exobiology, aeronautics, energy, space and the humanities, and aerospace education are covered.

  6. A Turbine-powered UAV Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.; High, James W.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Chambers, Ryan S.; Howard, Keith D.

    2007-01-01

    The latest version of the NASA Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) integrates commercial-off-the-shelf components including airframe, autopilot, and a small turbine engine to provide a low cost experimental flight controls testbed capable of sustained speeds up to 200 mph. The series of flight tests leading up to the demonstrated performance of the vehicle in sustained, autopiloted 200 mph flight at NASA Wallops Flight Facility's UAV runway in August 2006 will be described. Earlier versions of the FLiC were based on a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate at Fort Eustis, Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. The newer turbine powered platform (J-FLiC) builds on the successes using the relatively smaller, slower and less expensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches with the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers. Tracking video was taken during the test flights at Wallops and will be available for presentation at the conference. Analysis of flight data from both remotely piloted and autopiloted flights will be presented. Candidate experimental controllers for implementation will be discussed. It is anticipated that flight testing will resume in Spring 2007 and those results will be included, if possible.

  7. Measuring Cloud Properties from UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, K.; Harrison, R. G.; Roberts, G.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of in-situ cloud properties are an essential aspect of cloud microphysics studies. UAVs readily provide a platform from which high resolution cloud measurements can be made, both in the vertical and horizontal directions. Currently, however, one limiting factor in the use of UAVs for cloud studies is the lack of availability of lightweight, low power sensors. This work describes a number of small, disposable sensors for cloud droplet detection and electrical charge measurements, which have been flown on both free balloon and UAV platforms. The cloud droplet detector utilises optical reflection, combining a low power, high brightness LED as the optical source with a semiconductor photodiode as the detector. During daylight conditions, the photodiode detector also provides a measurement of broadband solar radiation, allowing an estimate of extinction within the cloud to be derived. The current consumption of the sensor is <30mA, and it has worked reliably in both day and night time conditions. Multiple flights of these sensors onboard UAVs with wingspan <2m (including Funjet and Easystar aircraft), made from southern France through a variety of cloud types will be presented.

  8. MDO, Wind Tunnel and Flight Tests of UAVs for Titan Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Davide; Latorre Sierra, Antonio; Freixa Mallol, Jordi; de la Escalera Cutillas, Martín Federico; Bugallo Miguens, Samuel; Ángel Gonzalez, Miguel; Moreno, Ana Isabel; Andrzej Jarzabek, Artur

    2015-09-01

    This paper is framed within the PERIGEO project and is focused on the "Diseño Optimizado" (Optimum Design, DOP) subproject. The specific objective of the PERIGEO-DOP subproject is to define the process and the set of tools necessary to design an optimum Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for space exploration of celestial bodies with atmosphere (i.e. Titan) and to test it in equivalent flight conditions on Earth. This paper presents the activities performed and the results obtained covering all the phases from initial concept design to flight tests demonstrating the applicability of the process and tools defined to the specific UAV design case considered in this project.

  9. Emerging CFD technologies and aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    With the recent focus on the needs of design and applications CFD, research groups have begun to address the traditional bottlenecks of grid generation and surface modeling. Now, a host of emerging technologies promise to shortcut or dramatically simplify the simulation process. This paper discusses the current status of these emerging technologies. It will argue that some tools are already available which can have positive impact on portions of the design cycle. However, in most cases, these tools need to be integrated into specific engineering systems and process cycles to be used effectively. The rapidly maturing status of unstructured and Cartesian approaches for inviscid simulations makes suggests the possibility of highly automated Euler-boundary layer simulations with application to loads estimation and even preliminary design. Similarly, technology is available to link block structured mesh generation algorithms with topology libraries to avoid tedious re-meshing of topologically similar configurations. Work in algorithmic based auto-blocking suggests that domain decomposition and point placement operations in multi-block mesh generation may be properly posed as problems in Computational Geometry, and following this approach may lead to robust algorithmic processes for automatic mesh generation.

  10. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program continues its research on variety of main topics identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities center on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. While most of the topics are a continuation of previous works, special effort has been focused on some of the areas due to recommendations from the last annual conference. The main topics addressed in this report are: composite materials, and antenna technology. The area of composite materials continues getting special attention in this period. The research has focused on: (1) measurements of the electrical properties of low-conductivity materials; (2) modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on the scattering patterns; (3) preliminary analysis on interaction of electromagnetic fields with multi-layered graphite fiberglass plates; and (4) finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of fields penetration through composite panels of a helicopter.

  11. Advanced Electromagnetic Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis; Birtcher, Craig R.; Georgakopoulos, Stavros; Han, Dong-Ho; Ballas, Gerasimos

    1999-01-01

    The imminent destructive threats of Lightning on helicopters and other airborne systems has always been a topic of great interest to this research grant. Previously, the lightning induced currents on the surface of the fuselage and its interior were predicted using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method as well as the NEC code. The limitations of both methods, as applied to lightning, were identified and extensively discussed in the last meeting. After a thorough investigation of the capabilities of the FDTD, it was decided to incorporate into the numerical method a subcell model to accurately represent current diffusion through conducting materials of high conductivity and finite thickness. Because of the complexity of the model, its validity will be first tested for a one-dimensional FDTD problem. Although results are not available yet, the theory and formulation of the subcell model are presented and discussed here to a certain degree. Besides lightning induced currents in the interior of an aircraft, penetration of electromagnetic fields through apertures (e.g., windows and cracks) could also be devastating for the navigation equipment, electronics, and communications systems in general. The main focus of this study is understanding and quantifying field penetration through apertures. The simulation is done using the FDTD method and the predictions are compared with measurements and moment method solutions obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center. Cavity-backed slot (CBS) antennas or slot antennas in general have many applications in aircraft-satellite type of communications. These can be flushmounted on the surface of the fuselage and, therefore, they retain the aerodynamic shape of the aircraft. In the past, input impedance and radiation patterns of CBS antennas were computed using a hybrid FEM/MoM code. The analysis is now extended to coupling between two identical slot antennas mounted on the same structure. The predictions are performed using both the hybrid FEM/MoM and the FDTD NEWS code. The results are compared with each other as well as with measurements performed in the ElectroMagnetic Anechoic Chamber (EMAC) of ASU. In addition to self and mutual impedances versus frequency, the comparisons include mutual coupling S(sub 12) as a function of distance for various slot orientations.

  12. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1991-01-01

    During this period the research program addressed the following three topics: (1) composite materials; (2) precipitation static (P-Static); and (3) antenna technology. On the topic of Composite Materials our main efforts were directed toward making measurements on several new samples of composite materials made available to ASU by Stanford Research Institute (SRI) through the efforts of Mr. Frank Casler of AVRADA. These samples can be classified into three distinct materials with each material having its own distinct electrical properties. In addition, attempts were made to make predictions of the effects on antenna patterns by composite materials. This will take a greater emphasis in the next reporting period. In Precipitation Static (P-Static), the main effort was devoted toward developing a Voltage Finite-Difference Time-Domain computer code to account for the voltage variation on a conducting body as the primary source of corona discharge, instead of the electric field. Due to complexities stemming from the interactions between the potentials, the fields, and current sources, the decision was made to begin with a simple two-dimensional problem without the corona discharge and check our programs in a series of simple models, culminating in the full corona discharge problem. This report deals with the first stage of such development. During this reporting period, the main effort in Antenna Technology was toward the design, fabrication, and testing of a cavity-backed slot antenna using ferrite material. Using the ferrite material available to us during this period, the resonances of this antenna were around 5 and 8 GHz. Attempts will be made to model such an antenna and to lower its resonance down into the VHF and UHF bands.

  13. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Andrew, William V.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has fruitfully completed its fourth year. Under the support of the AHE members and the joint effort of the research team, new and significant progress has been achieved in the year. Following the recommendations by the Advisory Task Force, the research effort is placed on more practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antennas, composite materials, and antenna efficiencies. In this annual report, the main topics to be addressed include composite materials and antenna technology. The research work on each topic has been driven by the AHE consortium members' interests and needs. The remarkable achievements and progresses in each subject is reported respectively in individual sections of the report. The work in the area of composite materials includes: modeling of low conductivity composite materials by using Green's function approach; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; modeling antenna elements mounted on a composite Comanche tail stabilizer; and antenna pattern control and efficiency estimate for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  14. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  15. Aerospace vehicle design, spacecraft section. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The next major step in the evolution of the space program is the exploration of the planet Mars. In preparation for this, much research is needed on the problem of surveying the planet surface. An aircraft appears to be a viable solution because it can carry men and equipment large distances in a short period of time as compared with ground transportation. The problems and design of an aircraft which would be able to survey the planet Mars are examined.

  16. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics is centered on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. Progress was made on three major topics: composite materials; precipitation static corona discharge; and antenna technology. In composite materials, the research has focused on the measurements of their electrical properties, and the modeling of material discontinuities and their effect on the radiation pattern of antennas mounted on or near material surfaces. The electrical properties were used to model antenna performance when mounted on composite materials. Since helicopter platforms include several antenna systems at VHF and UHF bands, measuring techniques are being explored that can be used to measure the properties at these bands. The effort on corona discharge and precipitation static was directed toward the development of a new two dimensional Voltage Finite Difference Time Domain computer program. Results indicate the feasibility of using potentials for simulating electromagnetic problems in the cases where potentials become primary sources. In antenna technology the focus was on Polarization Diverse Conformal Microstrip Antennas, Cavity Backed Slot Antennas, and Varactor Tuned Circular Patch Antennas. Numerical codes were developed for the analysis of two probe fed rectangular and circular microstrip patch antennas fed by resistive and reactive power divider networks.

  17. Aerospace vehicle water-waste management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecoraro, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

  18. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Naidu, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified method of matched asymptotic expansions was developed where the common part in composite solution is generated as a polynomial in stretched variable instead of actually evaluating the same from the outer solution. This methodology was applied to the solution of the exact equations for three dimensional atmospheric entry problems. Compared to previous works, the present simplified methodology yields explicit analytical expressions for various components of the composite solution without resorting to any type of transcendental equations to be solved only by numerical methods. The optimal control problem arising in the noncoplanar orbital transfer employing aeroassist was also addressed.

  19. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Naidu, Desineni S.

    1990-01-01

    The first part of the report concerns broadly the summary of the work done in the areas of singular perturbations and time scales (SPaTS), aerobraking technology, guidance and aerocruise. The synergistic plane change problem connected with orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology, is addressed. The mission involves transfer from high Earth orbit to low Earth orbit with plane change being performed within the atmosphere. The complete mission consists of a deorbit phase, atmospheric phase, and finally reorbit phase. The atmospheric maneuver is composed of an entry mode, a cruise mode, and finally an exit mode. During the cruise mode, constant altitude and velocity are maintained by means of bank angle control with constant thrust or thrust control with constant bank angle. Comparisons between these two control strategies bring out some interesting features.

  20. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naidu, Desineni S.; Hibey, Joseph L.

    1988-01-01

    The optimal control problem arising in coplanar, orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology is addressed. The maneuver involves the transfer from high Earth orbit to low Earth orbit. A performance index is chosen the minimize the fuel consumpltion for the transfer. Simulations are carried out for establishing a corridor of entry conditions which are suitable for flying the spacecraft through the atmosphere. A highlight of the paper is the application of an efficient multiple shooting method for taming the notorious nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem resulting from optimization procedure.