Science.gov

Sample records for aerospatiale matra lanceurs

  1. Training at Aerospatiale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabod, Rene

    A training plan for Aerospatiale is outlined which incorporates goals for both the organization and the individual. Emphasis is placed on the training of staff in multiple skills such as mechanics/electronics. Other areas considered include the development of information tools, the development of commercial approaches, and the learning of new industrial techniques and foreign languages.

  2. Dynamics of large reflectors - Aerospatiale concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flechais, A.; Picard, P.; Dauviau, C.; Truchi, C.

    1992-08-01

    An overview is presented of studies performed under an ESTEC contract and aimed at the identification of critical development areas of unfurlable reflectors and at the analysis of the dynamic interactions between reflectors and hosting spacecraft, in particular with respect to the design of the AOCS and antenna pointing mechanism (APM). Research and development performed by Aerospatiale since 1983 in the field of unfurlable mesh reflectors and supported by CNES are summarized. An analysis covering both the deployment phase and the deployed configuration is presented. The capabilities of classical AOCS and APM control laws for large reflectors are evaluated via simulations. It is shown that the baseline reflector under consideration is compatible with the PSDE mission and classical AOCS and APM control law designs.

  3. An Overview on Aerospatiale Magnetic Bearing Products for Spacecraft Attitude Control and for Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, Alain; Lechable, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    Aerospatiale magnetic bearings are based on the use of permanent magnets and on the control of the rotor around a zero force equilibrium point. The present developments of magnetic bearing wheels for space applications focus on the versatility of a basic design which leads to a family of reaction and momentum wheels with tailored torque and kinetic momentum, leading to competitive mass and cost. The present industrial applications concern kinetic energy accumulators, medical x-ray rotating devices, avionics equipment, cryotechnic compressors and vacuum pumps.

  4. Effect of shatapushpa taila matra basti and pathadi kwatha on poly cystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krupa D; Dei, Laxmipriya; Donga, Shilpa B; Anand, Nalini

    2012-04-01

    Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) is a complex disorder affecting 5-15% women in their reproductive age and related to ovarian dysfunction, characterized by menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogonism, obesity, and infertility. In Ayurveda, these symptoms are found under various conditions, caused by vitiated Vata and Kapha. Pathadi Kwatha and Shatapushpa Taila Matra Basti were studied in the current attempt to evaluate their comparative efficacy in cases of PCOD. Total 34 patients of PCOD were registered among which, 32 had completed the treatment of 2 months. They were randomly divided in to three groups. In group A Pathadi Kwatha (10 g, bid) and Shatapushpa Taila Matra Basti (60 ml for 7 days after cessation of menses for 2 consecutive cycles) were administered. In group B only Basti, whereas in group C capsules of roosted wheat flour were administered. Better results were obtained in group A especially in menstrual irregularities, achieving follicular growth and in weight reduction. PMID:23559797

  5. Efficacy of Kanchanara Guggulu and Matra Basti of Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita in Mootraghata (benign prostatic hyperplasia)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Joyal Kumar K.; Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Mahanta, Vyasadeva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a senile disorder affects male of and above 40 years characterized by retention, incomplete voiding, dribbling, hesitancy, and incontinence of urine. This condition is comparable with Mootraghata in Ayurveda. Surgical intervention has been accepted as standard management, but has acute cystitis, acute epididymitis, erectile dysfunction, retrograde ejaculation, etc. as complications. Conservative treatment with modern medicine is also associated with side effects. Hence, to avoid such complications and improve the quality of life in senile age, conservative management with Ayurveda is attempted. Aim: To evaluate clinical efficacy of Kanchanara Guggulu and Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti in Mootraghata. Materials and Methods: Total 30 patients having signs and symptoms of BPH were selected from OPD and IPD of Shalya Tantra and enrolled equally into three groups (n = 10). Patients of Group A were administered with Kanchanara Guggulu (500 mg, 3 times a day orally), Group B were with Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti, while patients of Group C were administered both the drugs for 21 days. International prostate symptom score (IPSS) was used to assess the efficacy. paired and unpaired “t” test, Chi-square test were applied for significance. Results: In IPSS, Group B had shown the better results (84.27%) than the Group A (72.68%) and Group C (82.10%). In all objective parameters, Group C had shown better effect (23.60%) than Group A (15.70%) and Group B (18.24%). Symptomatic relief was better in Group B than Groups A and C. Comparison between three groups on objective parameters was better in Group C than in Group A and B. Conclusion: Kanchanara Guggulu orally and Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti is effective conservative management for symptomatic relief in BPH of senile age. PMID:27011713

  6. A clinical study of Nirgundi Ghana Vati and Matra Basti in the management of Gridhrasi with special reference to sciatica.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mumtaz; Shukla, V D; Dave, A R; Bhatt, N N

    2010-10-01

    Gridhrasi can be equated with sciatica, where pain, weakness, numbness, and other discomforts along the path of the sciatic nerve often accompanies low back pain. It is a common affliction of adults, costing billions of dollars in healthcare and resulting in more lost days of work than any other illness but the common cold. A herniated disc, spinal stenosis, piriformis syndrome, etc., can all cause sciatica. The treatment available for sciatica in modern medicine is not very satisfactory.The role of research in Ayurveda is to elucidate the underlying principles and to explain them in modern parameters. The present study was aimed at establishing clinically the effect of Nirgundi (Vitex negundo) Ghan Vati (dried water extract) alone as well as in combination with Matra Basti in the management of Gridhrasi. A total of 119 patients were registered for the study, out of which 102 patients completed the treatment: 52 patients in group A (Nirgundi Ghan Vati) and 50 in group B (Nirgundi Ghan Vati + Matra Basti). The results show that both treatments had an effect on Gridhrasi, but there was better relief of the signs and symptoms in group B. Matra Basti and Nirgundi Ghan Vati might both contribute to different extents in the recovery of the patient. PMID:22048539

  7. Gokshuradi Vati and Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti in the management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bhalodia, Shreyas G; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuj; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Dudhamal, Tukaram S

    2012-10-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a burning senile problem of elderly men and no definitive conservative cure is available. The present available surgical and minimal invasive methods have their own limitations. Hence, to find out a suitable Ayurvedic approach, an effort has been made towards the management of BPH, In this study, 32 selected patients of Mootraghata at par to BPH were divided into three groups randomly and treated accordingly. In group A, Gokshuradi compound (GC) Vati (GV) 500 mg was given three times a day with luke-warm water after food; while in group B, Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita (DGG) as Matra Basti (MB) of 60 ml, once in a day, just after lunch and combined therapy of both formulations in group C was administered. Out of 32 patients, total 30 patients (10 in each group) were completed the treatment course of 21 days. In results, 54.09% improvement was seen in group C, 45.67% in group A and 47.99% in group B. The size of prostate gland was found reduced highly significant in group C. Hence, it is concluded that combined therapy of GV and DGG MB is beneficial without developing any adverse drug reactions and can be prescribed safely for Mootraghata (BPH). PMID:23723674

  8. Gokshuradi Vati and Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti in the management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodia, Shreyas G.; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuj; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Dudhamal, Tukaram S.

    2012-01-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a burning senile problem of elderly men and no definitive conservative cure is available. The present available surgical and minimal invasive methods have their own limitations. Hence, to find out a suitable Ayurvedic approach, an effort has been made towards the management of BPH, In this study, 32 selected patients of Mootraghata at par to BPH were divided into three groups randomly and treated accordingly. In group A, Gokshuradi compound (GC) Vati (GV) 500 mg was given three times a day with luke-warm water after food; while in group B, Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita (DGG) as Matra Basti (MB) of 60 ml, once in a day, just after lunch and combined therapy of both formulations in group C was administered. Out of 32 patients, total 30 patients (10 in each group) were completed the treatment course of 21 days. In results, 54.09% improvement was seen in group C, 45.67% in group A and 47.99% in group B. The size of prostate gland was found reduced highly significant in group C. Hence, it is concluded that combined therapy of GV and DGG MB is beneficial without developing any adverse drug reactions and can be prescribed safely for Mootraghata (BPH). PMID:23723674

  9. Aerospatiale industrial thermal plasma activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrot, Maxime

    Details of nontransferred arc torches, plasma systems in industrial use and operational plasma applications are listed. A plasma application on a foundry cupola is detailed. The setting up of a plasma system is described. Research and development activities are summarized.

  10. Antitank missiles night firing from Aerospatiale helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewinter, G.

    A day/night firing system for HOT antitank missiles was developed and mounted on a HAC/PAH2 helicopter, equipped with a suitably adapted sight. Night fighting requirements for a helicopter that is armed with antitank missiles are recalled. The selection of a sensor is discussed. The design of a platform in order to fulfill the observation and firing mission is described. Night antitank action is analyzed. Characteristics of a thermal imager which solves the identified problems of night firing are given.

  11. Controle d'attitude d'un lanceur en phase atmospherique approche par applications gardiennes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubanchet, Vincent

    In a first phase, the modelling process underlines the presence of highly time varying parameters during the ascent, due to a fast mass variation along with propellant consumption. Linearizing the dynamical equations at six main flight instants yields linear time invariant models to be considered during control design. Each of them is to be stabilized by one control law, while respecting given specifications. The synthesis becomes even more complex when the bending modes are taken into account. Moreover, scheduling appears necessary to deal with the time variations. Indeed it is shown that no single gain setting is able to respect all the specifications along the trajectory. Furthermore, increasing complexity when modelling a whole launch vehicle pushes one to consider the model's errors and uncertainties. They represent a major issue in this study since it is asked to ensure the nominal performances in a robust fashion. Owing to their properties, guardian maps appear to be the most suitable tool to deal with such a problem of scheduling with robust performances. In light of this, the development of synthesis methods based on guardian maps is the main contribution of the project. It appears that actual state of the art in this field is focused on theoretical issues, whereas practical ones could be improved. Two approches are presented in the memoire. The first one is based on a graphical approach consisting in drawing the vanishing locus of guardian maps. A program using image analysis techniques is devised to check automatically which gain settings satisfy the constraints. The second one is based on an optimisation procedure involving guardian maps. Starting with the open loop system, the iterative process proposed ends up with a satisfactory gain setting for the closed-loop. These methods are tried and tested for the launch vehicle, with specifications from ASTRIUM-ST. Their practical application is motivated by the system complexity, the different kinds of constraints and the essential need for robustness. Many restrictions that finally bring about the interest and the efficiency of guardian maps for such a problem.

  12. La Recherche Aerospatiale, Bimonthly Bulletin, no. 1982-6, 211/November-Decemter 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevestre, C.

    1983-04-01

    A modular method for centrifugal compressor performance prediction is presented. Cyclic hardening of stainless steel under complex loading is described. Fatigue failure microinitiation, micropropagation and damage is considered. The stability of a tilting rotor aircraft model is studied. The thermal stability of titanium alloys is investigated. A compensator for thermal effects on quartz oscillators is described.

  13. La gestion des gestionnaires de projets: Le cas de l'industrie aerospatiale au Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Marie-Claude

    This research focuses on the management of project managers (PMs) working in high technology organizations. In particular, it examines how these professionals are taken charge of from a human resources management (HRM) standpoint in firms within the aerospace industry in Quebec. The literature in the field of project management generally depicts PMs as entrepreneurs and resource managers, managing human resources (e.g. project team members) among other things. It also defines them as single-handedly responsible for managing their own career, stress and motivation. This profile suggests that once selected and assigned to projects, PMs receive little attention in terms of HRM from the organization. It is hardly conceivable, however, that PMs would move about completely on their own within the organization, let alone that they wouldn't represent any special challenge in terms of HRM, as the ones the literature so clearly underlines for project team members. The review of the literature also reveals that the subject of HRM as applied to PMs is poorly documented empirically, especially on the topic of what particular challenges the project context might bring up for the HRM of PMs. There is also little told about the actors involved in supporting and contributing to meet the challenges that arise out of managing PMs. This study sought to discern those challenges and the means put forth to address them. Also, it wanted to identify the actors of the HRM of PMs, their roles, their skills, and their relationships, among themselves and with the PMs, in order to efficiently take charge of them. This study also wanted to demonstrate the logic that ties the means put forth by the identified actors with the objectives PM-employing organizations want to reach. Finally, the study wanted to identify the impact of the HRM of PMs as it is occurring in organizations. The Quebec aerospace sector was chosen as the field of research primarily because the success of projects in organizations of that sector, alongside regular manufacturing operations, seems to contribute to their performance. In fact, most of these organizations currently are industry leaders worldwide. The data that form the basis of this research were obtained through 65 semi-structured interviews with representatives of project management, HRM and upper management in eight organizations in the aerospace industry in Quebec. First, the collected data was treated case by case using the qualitative data analysis software application Atlas.ti. Subsequently, the description and interpretation of the data were developed in a transversal way to achieve a sector-wide portrait of the HRM of PMs. The results reveal that PMs, like other human resources, do present particular HRM challenges and are actually managed as such in the organizations. PMs benefit both from traditional HRM practices (collective HRM) and from the relationship established and maintained with their immediate manager (individualized HRM). A network of actors is also involved in the HRM of PMs. Among these, the immediate manager of PMs stands out as the key HRM actor. In addition to applying HRM policies and practices to PMs, the manager of PMs, in his position of proximity with PMs, is destined to play different roles such as coach, motivator and talent agent. This hybrid HRM of PMs provides a sense of well-being among PMs and allows organizations to retain these creators of value, it secures faithful customers (repeat business) as a consequence of the success of projects managed by those PMs, and contributes to build a pool for their future managerial elite. Keywords: project management, human resource management, project manager, proximity management, high technology, aerospace industry, Quebec.

  14. Noise measurement flight test: Data-analyses aerospatiale AS-355F TwinStar helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Rickley, E. J.; Beattie, K. R.; Bland, T. L.

    1984-08-01

    This report documents the results of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise measurement flight test program with the TwinStar twin-jet helicopter. The report contains documentary sections describing the acoustical characteristics of the subject helicopter and provides analyses and discussions addressing topics ranging from acoustical propagation to environmental impact of helicopter noise. This test program was designed to address a series of objectives including: (1) acquisition of acoustical data for use in assessing heliport environmental impact, (2) documentation of directivity characteristics for static operation of helicopters, (3) establishment of ground-to-ground and air-to-ground acoustical propagation relationships for helicopters, (4) determination of noise event duration influences on energy dose acoustical metrics, (5) examination of the differences between noise measured by a surface mounted microphone and a microphone mounted at a height of four feet (1.2 meters), and (6) documentation of noise levels acquired using international helicopter noise certification test procedures.

  15. Noise measurement flight test: Data-analyses Aerospatiale SA-365N Dauphin 2 helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Rickely, E. J.; Daboin, S. A.; Beattie, K. R.

    1984-04-01

    This report documents the results of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise measurement flight test program with the Dauphin twin-jet helicopter. The report contains documentary sections describing the acoustical characteristics of the subject helicopter and provides analyses and discussions addressing topics ranging from acoustical propagation to environmental impact of helicopter noise. This report is the second in a series of seven documenting the FAA helicopter noise measurement program conducted at Dulles International Airport during the summer of 1983. The Dauphin test program involved the acquisition of detailed acoustical, position and meteorological data. This test program was designed to address a series of objectives including: (1) acquisition of acoustical data for use in assessing heliport environment impact, (2) documentation of directivity characteristics for static operation of helicopters, (3) establishment of ground-to-ground and air-to-ground acoustical propagation relationships for helicopters, (4) determination of noise event duration influences on energy dose acoustical metrics, (5) examination of the differences between noise measured by a surface mounted microphone and a microphone mounted at a height of four feet (1.2 meters), and (6) documentation of noise levels acquired using international helicopter noise certification test procedures.

  16. Noise measurement flight test: Data-analyses Aerospatiale AS 350D AStar helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Rickley, E. J.; Beattie, K. R.; Bland, T. L.

    1984-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) noise measurement flight test program with the AStar helicopter. The report contains documentary sections describing the acoustical characteristics of the subject helicopter and provides analyses and discussions addressing topics ranging from acoustical propagation to environmental impact of helicopter noise. This program was designed to address a series of objectives including: (1) acquisition of acoustical data for use in assessing heliport environmental impact, (2) documentation of directivity characteristics for static operation of helicopters, (3) establishment of ground-to-ground and air-to-ground acoustical propagation relationships for helicopters, (4) determination of noise event duration influences on energy dose acoustical metrics, (5) examination of the differences between noise measured by a surface mounted microphone and a microphone mounted at a height of four feet (1.2 meters), and (6) documentation of noise levels acquired using international helicopter noise certification test procedures.

  17. Generation de chemins de couverture pour des operations automatisees de controle non destructif appliquees dans l'industrie aerospatiale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, Pierre

    Non destructive testing (NDT) plays an important role in the aerospace industry during the fabrication and maintenance of the structures built and is used, among other useful applications, to detect flaws such as cracks at an early stage. However, NDT techniques are still mainly done manually, especially on complex aeronautical structures, which then results in several drawbacks. In addition to be difficult and time-consuming, reliability and repeatability of inspection results are likely to be affected, since they rely on each operator's experience and dexterity. The present thesis is part of a larger project (MANU-418) of the Consortium for Research and Innovation in Aerospace in Quebec (CRIAQ). In this project, it has been proposed to develop a system using a 6-DOF manipulator arm to automate three particular NDT techniques often needed in the aerospace industry: eddy current testing (ECT), fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI), and infrared thermography (IRT). The main objective of the MANU-418 project is to demonstrate the efficiency of the developed system and provide inspection results of surface and near surface flaws (cracks usually) at least as reliably and repeatably as inspection results from a human operator. One specific objective stemming from the main objective of the project is to develop a methodology and a software tool to generate covering paths adapted for the three aforementioned NDT techniques to inspect the complex surfaces of aerospace structures. The present thesis aims at reaching this specific objective. At first, geometrical and topological properties of the surfaces considered in this project are defined (flat surfaces, round and straight edges, cylindrical or near cylindrical surfaces, holes). It is also assumed that the 3D model of the surface to inspect is known in advance. Moreover, it has been decided within the framework of the MANU-418 project to give priority to the automation of ECT compared with the other techniques (FPI and IRT). As a result, the methodology developed to generate inspection paths is more closely focused on path constraints relative to the manual operations of ECT using a differential eddy current probe (named here EC probe), but it is developed to be flexible enough to be used with the other techniques as well. Common inspection paths for ECT are usually defined by a sweeping motion using a zigzag pattern with the EC probe in mild contact with the inspected surface. Moreover, the main axis of the probe must keep a normal orientation with the surface, and the alignment of its two coils must always be oriented along the direction of its motion. A first methodology is then proposed to generate covering paths on the whole surface of interest while meeting all EC probe motion constraints. First, the surface is meshed with triangular facets, and then it is subdivided into several patches such that their geometry and topology are simpler than the whole surface. Paths are then generated on each patch by intersecting their facets with offset section planes defined along a sweeping direction. Furthermore, another methodology is developed to generate paths around an indication (namely a small area where the presence of a flaw is suspected) whose position and orientation are assumed to be known a priori.. Then, a software tool with a graphical user interface has been developed in the MATLAB environment to generate inspection paths based on these methodologies. A set of path parameters can be changed by the user to get desired paths (distance between passes, sweep direction, etc.). Once paths are computed, an ordered list of coordinates (positions and orientations) of the tool is exported in an EXCEL spreadsheet so that it could be used with a real robot. In this research, these data are then used to perform simulations of trajectories (path described as a function of the time) with a MotoMan robot (model SV3XL) using the MotoSim software. After validation of these trajectories in this software (absence of collisions, positions are all reachable, etc.), they are finally converted into instructions for the real MotoMan robot to proceed with experimental tests. These first simulations and experimentations on a MotoMan robot of the generated paths have given results close to the expected inspection trajectories used manually in the NDT techniques considered, especially for the ECT technique. Nevertheless, it is strongly recommended to validate this path generation method with more experimental tests. For instance, a "test" tool could be manufactured to measure errors of position and orientation of this tool with respect to expected trajectories on a typical complex aeronautical structure. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  18. Mobilization and attenuation of metals downstream from a base-metal mining site in the Matra Mountains, northeastern Hungary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odor, L.; Wanty, R.B.; Horvath, I.; Fugedi, U.; ,

    1999-01-01

    Regional geochemical baseline values have been established for Hungary by the use of low-density stream-sediment surveys of flood-plain deposits of large drainage basins and of the fine fraction of stream sediments. The baseline values and anomaly thresholds thus produced helped to evaluate the importance of high toxic element concentrations found in soils in a valley downstream of a polymetallic vein-type base-metal mine. Erosion of the mine dumps and flotation dump, losses of metals during filtering, storage and transportation, human neglects, and operational breakdowns, have all contributed to the contamination of a small catchment basin in a procession of releases of solid waste. The sulfide-rich waste material weathers to a yellow color; this layer of 'yellow sand' blankets a narrow strip of the floodplain of Toka Creek in the valley near the town of Gyongyosoroszi. Contamination was spread out in the valley by floods. Metals present in the yellow sand include Pb, As, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Sb. Exposure of the local population to these metals may occur through inhalation of airborne particulates or by ingestion of these metals that are taken up by crops grown in the valley. To evaluate the areal extent and depth of the contamination, active stream sediment, flood-plain deposits, lake or reservoir sediments, soils, and surface water were sampled along the erosion pathways downstream of the mine and dumps. The flood-plain profile was sampled in detail to see the vertical distribution of elements and to relate the metal concentrations to the sedimentation and contamination histories of the flood plain. Downward migration of mobile Zn and Cd from the contaminated upper layers under supergene conditions is observed, while vertical migration of Pb, As, Hg and Sb appears to be insignificant. Soil profiles of 137Cs which originated from above-ground atomic bomb tests and the Chernobyl accident, provide good evidence that the upper 30-40 cm of the flood-plain sections, which includes the yellow sand contamination, were deposited in the last 30-40 years.The regional geochemical baseline values are established for Hungary using low-density stream-sediment surveys of flood-plain deposits of large drainage basins and of the fine fraction of stream sediments. The baseline values and anomaly thresholds allowed the evaluation of the importance of high toxic element concentrations in soils in a valley, downstream of a polymetallic vein-type base-metal mine. The metals present in the yellow sand include Pb, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Sb. To evaluate the areal extent and depth of the contamination, active stream sediment, flood-plain deposits, lake or reservoir sediments, the soils and surface water were sampled along the erosion pathways downstream of the mine and dumps.

  19. Round robin of painted targets BRDF measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Yannick; Deumie, Carole; Amra, Claude; Pinard, Laurent; Mackowski, Jean-Marie; Mainguy, Stephane; Hespel, Laurent; Perelgritz, Jean-Francois

    2000-07-01

    Several French research laboratories set up goniometers allowing BRDF measurements at different laser wavelengths in the infrared. On the effor of the Delegation Generale de l'Armement (DGA/STTC), a round robin set of painted targets BRDF measurements was undertaken, under the ONERA expertise. The laboratories participating in this round robin were the Aerospatiale Matra CCR Suresnes, The IPN SMA-Virgo Lyon, the Institut Fresnel Marseille, and the CEA DAM CESTA Le Barp. The goniometers of the four laboratories are firstly described. The targets studied are seven 5cm diameter painted disks of aluminum or steel, a spectralon reference sample, and a sandpaper sample. We have first demonstrated that the pollution of painted targets with dust has a very weak influence on the BRDF. Before and after each measurement series, the directional-hemispherical reflectance of the samples was measured at ONERA. The measurements have been achieved according to a protocol specifying the sample position and laser probe size. Chosen wavelengths for the inter-comparison are 1.064 micrometers . For both wavelengths, the characteristics of the different goniometers are compared in term of noise and repeatability. The difference between the painted targets BRDF measured with the various devices are relatively limited at 1.06 micrometers , and mainly induced by speckle. More important differences are obtained at 10.6 micrometers , particularly for a BRDF measurement device using an absolute calibration method. In order to explain these differences, few hypotheses are advanced. Information on the absolute accuracy is obtained by the comparison of the measured directional-hemispherical reflectance and the one computed from BRDF measurements.

  20. Ariane 5 and Ariane 5 Evolution GN&C Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignié, G.

    The objective of the paper is to give an overview of the Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) principles used for the Ariane 5 Launchers Family, developed for the European Space Agency. The development of the GN&C system, for the Ariane 5 Launcher, within EADS Launch Vehicle Company (formerly "Aérospatiale Space and Strategic Systems Division", and "Aérospatiale - Matra lanceurs"), and under supervision of CNES (French National Space Agency, acting as the prime contractor for Ariane Family) took a wide benefit from the existing, and flight validated methods used for the Ariane 4 Launcher, but a significant amount of new features were added, concerning the control loop, the guidance loop - where a fully adaptive guidance algorithm for exo- atmospheric flight was chosen - and the Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FIR) management for the sensors. In the paper, we shall describe first the Ariane 5 original version GN&C (for the so-called Ariane 5 Generic launcher), but the improvements designed for the upgraded Ariane 5 Evolution, with a cryogenic third stage, will be also addressed. The first part shall be dedicated to a review of the main constraints and requirements on the GN&C system. In the second part of the paper we shall present the main features of the architecture of the GN&C system, starting from the navigation and control sensors, through the on board computer and software, and going finally to the stages Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC) subsystems, used to control the launcher during the propelled phase, as well as to the attitude control subsystem (ACS), used to control the post boost manoeuvres, and payload injection and jettisoning conditions . The main principles of the subsystems and equipment's redundancy will be also briefly addressed. In the third part, an overall description of the different algorithms, implemented for Navigation, Guidance, Control, and sensors Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FIR), for atmospheric flight

  1. History of infrared optronics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilloy, J. P.; Siriex, Michel B.

    1995-09-01

    In France, the real start of work on the applications of infrared radiations occurred around 1947 - 1948. During many years, technological research was performed in the field of detectors, optical material, modulation techniques, and a lot of measurements were made in order to acquire a better knowledge of the propagation medium and radiation of IR sources, namely those of jet engines. The birth of industrial infrared activities in France started with the Franco-German missile guidance programs: Milan, HOT, Roland and the French air to air missile seeker programs: R530, MAGIC. At these early stages of IR technologies development, it was a great technical adventure for both the governmental agencies and industry to develop: detector technology with PbS and InSb, detector cooling for 3 - 5 micrometer wavelength range, optical material transparent in the infrared, opto mechanical design, signal processing and related electronic technologies. Etablissement Jean Turck and SAT were the pioneers associated with Aerospatiale, Matra and under contracts from the French Ministry of Defence (DGA). In the 60s, the need arose to enhance night vision capability of equipment in service with the French Army. TRT was chosen by DGA to develop the first thermal imagers: LUTHER 1, 2, and 3 with an increasing number of detectors and image frequency rate. This period was also the era in which the SAT detector made rapid advance. After basic work done in the CNRS and with the support of DGA, SAT became the world leader of MCT photovoltaic detector working in the 8 to 12 micron waveband. From 1979, TRT and SAT were given the responsibility for the joint development and production of the first generation French thermal imaging modular system so-called SMT. Now, THOMSON TTD Optronique takes over the opto-electronics activities of TRT. Laser based systems were also studied for military application using YAG type laser and CO2 laser: Laboratoire de Marcousis, CILAS, THOMSON CSF and SAT have

  2. 14 CFR 382.65 - What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-board wheelchairs? 382.65 Section 382.65 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Accessibility of Aircraft § 382.65 What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs? (a...-board wheelchair. The Aerospatiale/Aeritalia ATR-72 and the British Aerospace Advanced Turboprop...

  3. 14 CFR 382.65 - What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-board wheelchairs? 382.65 Section 382.65 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... TRAVEL Accessibility of Aircraft § 382.65 What are the requirements concerning on-board wheelchairs? (a...-board wheelchair. The Aerospatiale/Aeritalia ATR-72 and the British Aerospace Advanced Turboprop...

  4. JPRS report: Science and Technology. Europe and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-01-01

    Articles from the popular and trade press are included on the following subjects: advanced materials, aerospace industry, automotive industry, biotechnology, computers, factory automation and robotics, microelectronics, and science and technology policy. The aerospace articles discuss briefly and in a nontechnical way the SAGEM bubble memories for space applications, Ariane V new testing facilities, innovative technologies of TDF-1 satellite, and the restructuring of the Aviation Division at France's Aerospatiale.

  5. The Typology and Dialectology of Romani.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matras, Yaron, Ed.; Bakker, Peter, Ed.; Kyuchukov, Hristo, Ed.

    Papers on typology and dialects of the Romani language include: "Athematic Morphology in Romani: The Borrowing of a Borrowing Pattern" (Peter Bakker); "Towards a Morphology-Based Typology of Romani" (Viktor Elsik); "The Typology of Case Relations and Case Layer Distribution in Romani" (Yaron Matras); "Object Doubling in Romani and the Balkan…

  6. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  7. Benefits of advanced software techniques for mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern spacecraft, and the stringent requirement for maximizing their mission return, call for a new generation of Mission Planning Systems (MPS). In this paper, we discuss the requirements for the Space Mission Planning and the benefits which can be expected from Artificial Intelligence techniques through examples of applications developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  8. Towards a new generation of mission planning systems: Flexibility and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some new approaches which are required for a better adequacy of Mission Planning Systems. In particular, the performance flexibility and genericity issues are discussed based on experience acquired through various Mission Planning systems developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  9. EADS Roadmap for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  10. Tracks for Eastern/Western European Future Launch Vehicles Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymar, Patrick; Bertschi, Markus

    2002-01-01

    exclusively upon Western European elements indigenously produced. Yet some private initiatives took place successfully in the second half of the nineties (Eurockot and Starsem) bringing together companies from Western and Eastern Europe. Evolution of these JV's are already envisioned. But these ventures relied mostly on already existing vehicles. broadening the bases in order to enlarge the reachable world market appears attractive, even if structural difficulties are complicating the process. had recently started to analyze, with KSRC counterparts how mixing Russian and Western European based elements would provide potential competitive edges. and RKA in the frame of the new ESA's Future Launch Preparatory Programme (FLPP). main technical which have been considered as the most promising (reusable LOx/Hydrocarbon engine, experimental reentry vehicles or demonstrators and reusable launch vehicle first stage or booster. international approach. 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  11. High-stability optical components for semiconductor laser intersatellite link experiment (SILEX) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepretre, Francois

    1994-09-01

    Within the framework of a MATRA MARCONI SPACE FRANC contract for the European Space Agency, MATRA DEFENSE - DOD/UAO have developed, produced and tested 9 laser diode collimators, 52 optical components (anamorphoser, mirrors, dichroic splitters, redundancy module) and 9 interferential filters. All these space equipments must be integrated into the optical head of the SILEX (Semi-conductor Laser Intersatellite Link Experiment) bench. The SILEX experiment consists in transferring data from a low altitude satellite (SPOT 4) to a satellite in geostationary orbit (ARTEMIS) via beam generated by a laser diode (60 mW Cw). Very low emitted flux and long distance between the two satellites gives rise to the following technical difficulties: high angular (1 (mu) rad) and transverse stability requirements, requirement for high transmission and high rejection narrow band filters, in order to differentiate the transmit and receive channels, necessity of a very good optical wavefront, wavelength range 815-825 nm, 843-853 nm.

  12. Multipurpose Communication Satellite solar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastard, J. L.; Guyot, Ph.

    Through research and development studies, Aerospatiale has developed with the French National Space Agency (CNES) a new concept of a rigid Solar Array (GSR) which covers a range of power between 1 kW and 10 kW EOL 7 yr. This technology is used by Aerospatiale on the currently running programs:—TELECOM 1, Telecommunication satellite, spinned in transfer; —ARABSAT, Telecommunication satellite, 3-axis stabilized in transfer; —TELE-X and TV-SAT/TDF1, Direct Broadcasting satellites, 3-axis stabilized in transfer. This paper deals with the description and the electrical and mechanical performance of the Multipurpose Communication Satellite Solar Array (M.C.S.). For this satellite, which is expected to be launched in 1984, Aerospatiale has selected the following concept: primary power (1.4 kW EOL 7 yr) will be provided by two separate sun-oriented solar array wings equipped with AEG Telefunken BSR (Back Surface Reflector) solar cells. This solar generator is directly derived from the GSR technology. Owing to the three-axis stabilization of the satellite and the partial deployment of the solar array during the transfer phase it has been necessary to use a primary and a secondary hold-down devices. In the same way the position of the shunt on the solar generator induced an increase of the mass, because of the supplementary hold-down point and of the support structure. Now scribing Laser System leads to the optimization of the solar cells dimensions and allows a better fill factor of the panels and so an increase of the power performance. Beside the M.C.S concept which is fully adapted as regards its mission specifications, it was interesting to present different concepts of solar generators optimized not only as regards mass budget but also power budget. These concepts covering a large range of powers are fully adapted to telecommunication missions.

  13. Short range and proximity sensor for autonomous rendez-vous and docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamenbaum, S.; Bomer, T.; Jamet, J.; Turon, P.; Krebs, J. P.

    1986-10-01

    Rendezvous and docking (RVD) sensors have currently been the subject of investigation on the part of MATRA and SODERN. The paper presents the 'future flight sensor' together with estimates of accuracy, mass, power, and reliability. The imager sensor for the short range and proximity phases of RVD appears to be the most suitable and promising in terms of performance capability. Moreover, this concept conforms to the present-day Columbus and Hermes specifications.

  14. Avionics system design for requirements for the United States Coast Guard HH-65A Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Aerospatiale Helicopter Corporation (AHC) was awarded a contract by the United States Coast Guard for a new Short Range Recovery (SRR) Helicopter on 14 June 1979. The award was based upon an overall evaluation of performance, cost, and technical suitability. In this last respect, the SRR helicopter was required to meet a wide variety of mission needs for which the integrated avionics system has a high importance. This paper illustrates the rationale for the avionics system requirements, the system architecture, its capabilities and reliability and its adaptability to a wide variety of military and commercial purposes.

  15. Facility for testing infrared imaging seekers in a countermeasures environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidery, Colin J.; Pyle, Andrew

    2001-08-01

    A new Imaging Infrared Countermeasure Hardware-in-the-Loop facility has been designed and built by Matra BAe Dynamics to test imaging sensors in a complex infrared environment. Drawing upon currently available leading edge technologies and UK expertise, the test bed has ben completed in a twelve-month program. The facility comprises a Thermal Picture Synthesizer with up to four further independent channels, each capable of representing a countermeasure (jammer, flare or laser) within the scene. A six stage broadband reflective collimator relays the complex scene to the sensor.

  16. Airbus windshear warning and guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonafe, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    From its first designed airplane, Airbus considered mandatory a help in the crew's decision-making process to initiate an escape maneuver and help to successfully realize it. All the Airbus airplanes designed since 1975 included an alpha-floor function and a speed reference control law imbedded in the speed reference system (SRS) box for A 300 and FAC and FCC for A 310, A300/600 and the A 320. Alpha-Floor function takes into account the airplane energy situation considering angle of attack and observed longitudinal situation in order to apply immediately the full power without any pilot action. Speed reference managers control airspeed and/or ground speed in order to survive a maximum in shear situation. In order to comply with the new FAA regulation: Aerospatiale and Airbus developed more efficient systems. A comparison between 1975 and a newly developed system is given. It is explained how the new system improves the situation.

  17. Human factor implications of the Eurocopter AS332L-1 Super Puma cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padfield, R. Randall

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe some of the human factor problems which can occur in the cockpit of a modern civilian helicopter. After examining specific hardware and software problems in the cockpit design of the Eurocopter (Aerospatiale) AS332L-1 Super Puma, the author proposes several principles that can be used to avoid similar human factors problems in the design of future cockpits. These principles relate to the use and function of warning lights, the design of autopilots in two-pilot aircraft, and the labeling of switches and warning lights, specifically with respect to abbreviations and translations from languages other than English. In the final section of the paper, the author describes current trends in society which he suggests should be taken into consideration when designing future aircraft cockpits.

  18. CIRCE: a new approach to performance management of optical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philoreau, Sandrine; Simeoni, Denis; Miras, Didier; Papegay, Y.; De Sousa, J.

    1996-10-01

    This paper introduces the 'complex instruments ranking with a new computational environment' or CIRCE software tool for aiding elaboration and exploitation of analytic models for performance management of optical instruments. CIRCE is currently developed by the optical instrument preliminary design team at the Aerospatiale Company's Cannes, France, Center, in cooperation with the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique' or INRIA at the nearby Science Park of Sophia Antipolis. As a multiprogram tool, CIRCE incorporates the requirements at all stages of optical instrument development, from conception through manufacturing. It affords an original approach to creation and operation of performance models that facilitates know- how conservation through introduction of the notions of concepts (relations bases) and models (computation tree). It eases out the everyday tasks of engineers owing to generating capabilities for performance budgets or parametric analyses and to automatic numeric code generation.

  19. The Huygens probe arrives in a cargo plane at the Skid Strip, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Huygens probe, which will study the clouds, atmosphere and surface of Saturn's moon, Titan, as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn, arrives in a cargo plane at the Skid Strip, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The probe was designed and developed for the European Space Agency (ESA) by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale as prime contractor. Over the past year, it was integrated and tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Germany. The probe will be mated to the Cassini orbiter, which was designed and assembled at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. The Cassini launch is targeted for October 6 from CCAS aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. After arrival at Saturn in 2004, the probe will be released from the Cassini orbiter to enter the Titan atmosphere.

  20. Use of robots for aircraft dry stripping via plastic media blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillard, E.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet constant financial and reliability concerns, European manufacturers have introduced more and more composite materials on their aircraft. In addition to fairings for which the use of composites has become absolutely necessary, composites are used on each new program for structures which are more and more highly loaded and sophisticated. Similarly to metallic structures, an external paint scheme is applied to these composite structures to protect them from ultraviolet rays, provide general corrosion resistance and allow the airlines to customize their aircraft. Conventional stripping methods using chemical strippers cannot be used as many impregnation resins do not resist chemical strippers. Aerospatiale has endeavored to find new efficient methods that are easy to implement, cause no damage and are applicable both to metallic and composite structures. Dry stripping via plastic media blasting has formed the subject of many tests. These tests proved that such stripping was compatible with the objectives but required automation of the process for large airframe stripping.

  1. Separation of conductivity and distance measurements for eddy current nondestructive inspection of graphite composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Isabelle; Placko, Dominique

    1993-06-01

    This article deals with the study of a process based on the principle of eddy current sensors for the nondestructive evaluation of graphite composite plates. This research has been carried out in the Laboratoire d'Electricitd Signaux et Robotique by the team working on datacollecting sensors for robotics in collaboration with Aerospatiale. Eddy current sensors are characterized by their impedance, which varies when a conducting material is approached in their sensitive area. For a given sensor, the output signal depends directly on the electrical and geometrical properties of the object. In the case discussed here, the interesting data are the distance between the sensor and the object, and its local conductivity. In order to invert the relationships between the sensor signal and the properties of the material, an external parametrical model has been developed. A scanning of the surface with a sensor designed for good spatial resolution measurements gives two accurate maps of the useful data.

  2. French research program on the physiological problems caused by weightlessness. Use of the primate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesquies, P. C.; Milhaud, C.; Nogues, C.; Klein, M.; Cailler, B.; Bost, R.

    The need to acquire a better knowledge of the main biological problems induced by microgravity implies—in addition to human experimentation—the use of animal models, and primates seem to be particularly well adapted to this type of research. The major areas of investigation to be considered are the phospho-calcium metabolism and the metabolism of supporting tissues, the hydroelectrolytic metabolism, the cardiovascular function, awakeness, sleep-awakeness cycles, the physiology of equilibrium and the pathophysiology of space sickness. Considering this program, the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches de Medecine Aerospatiale, under the sponsorship of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, developed both a program of research on restrained primates for the French-U.S. space cooperation (Spacelab program) and for the French-Soviet space cooperation (Bio-cosmos program), and simulation of the effects of microgravity by head-down bedrest. Its major characteristics are discussed in the study.

  3. The common case study: Lockheed design of a supersonic cruise vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, J. S., Jr.; Hays, A. P.; Wilson, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The objective was to compare the characteristics of SSTs designed for the same mission by Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas, British Aerospace (U.K.), Aerospatiale (France), and the USSR. This comparison was to be used to calibrate parametric design studies of the tradeoff between SST direct operating cost (DOC) and noise levels at the FAR 36 certification points. The guidelines for this common case study were to design an aircraft with the following mission: payload 23 247 kg (51 250 lbm), range - 7000 km (3780 n. mi.), and cruise Mach number - 2.2. Field length was constrained to 3505 m (11 500 ft). Other airfield constraints and fuel reserves were also specified, but no noise constraints were applied.

  4. Taos: A low cost satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, P.

    Aerospatiale, under contract to CNES, has studied a new satellite based system with the double mission of mobile tracking and paging. This is called Taos. A constellation of five Taos satellites will allow positioning with an accuracy of 1 km, as well as small message transmission with a maximum time delay of 2 hours. Using a low earth orbit, Taos will have a small power budget, with the attendant gains in dimensions, mass, and eventually cost. The emergence of such class of lightsats has been fostered by the progress of electronics, as well as the new small launchers now being offered. Furthermore, the market is clearly hungry for ever more worldwide data collection. This paper describes the Taos system of satellite and ground segment, for which a primary goal will be a significant reduction of the recurring price. Weighing 152 kg, each satellite will have a power of 270 W.

  5. The Huygens probe is prepared for transport from the Skid Strip, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Huygens probe, which will study the clouds, atmosphere and surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn, is prepared for transport from the Skid Strip, Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), after being off-loaded from a plane. The probe was designed and developed for the European Space Agency (ESA) by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale as prime contractor. Over the past year, it was integrated and tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Germany. The probe will be mated to the Cassini orbiter, which was designed and assembled at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. The Cassini launch is targeted for October 6 from CCAS aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur expendable launch vehicle. After arrival at Saturn in 2004, the probe will be released from the Cassini orbiter to slowly descend through the Titan atmosphere to the moon's surface.

  6. Influence of a new generation of operations support systems on current spacecraft operations philosophy: The users feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darroy, Jean Michel

    1993-01-01

    Current trends in the spacecraft mission operations area (spacecraft & mission complexity, project duration, required flexibility are requiring a breakthrough for what concerns philosophy, organization, and support tools. A major evolution is related to space operations 'informationalization', i.e adding to existing operations support & data processing systems a new generation of tools based on advanced information technologies (object-oriented programming, artificial intelligence, data bases, hypertext) that automate, at least partially, operations tasks that used be performed manually (mission & project planning/scheduling, operations procedures elaboration & execution, data analysis & failure diagnosis). All the major facets of this 'informationalization' are addressed at MATRA MARCONI SPACE, operational applications were fielded and generic products are becoming available. These various applications have generated a significant feedback from the users (at ESA, CNES, ARIANESPACE, MATRA MARCONI SPACE), which is now allowing us to precisely measure how the deployment of this new generation of tools, that we called OPSWARE, can 'reengineer' current spacecraft mission operations philosophy, how it can make space operations faster, better, and cheaper. This paper can be considered as an update of the keynote address 'Knowledge-Based Systems for Spacecraft Control' presented during the first 'Ground Data Systems for Spacecraft Control' conference in Darmstadt, June 1990, with a special emphasis on these last two years users feedback.

  7. White Light Stray Light Test of the SOHO UVCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, L. N.; Gardner, L. N.; Fineschi, S.

    1998-01-01

    During the late stages of the integration phase of the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) instrument for the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) at MATRA-Marconi in Toulouse, France, SOHO Project management at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) became concerned that the elaborate stray light rejection system for the instrument had not been tested and might possibly be misaligned such that the instrument could not deliver promised scientific returns. A white light stray light test, which would place an upper bound on the value of UVCS's stray light rejection capability, was commissioned, conceived, and carried out. This upper bound value would be indicative of the weakest coronal features the spectrometer would be capable of discerning. The test was rapidly developed at GSFC in coordination with science team members from Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CFA) and was carried out at MATRA in late February 1995. The outcome of this test helped to justify similar, much desired tests with visible and far ultraviolet light at CFA in a facility specifically designed to perform such testing.

  8. Fbis report. Science and technology: Economic review, September 19, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-19

    ;Partial Contents: Germany: Braunschweig University Tests Organic Semiconductors; France: Ariane-5 Tests Suspended; First Tests in Euro-Russian RECORD Rocket Engine Program; France: Renault`s Multi-Model Assembly Line Presented; Germany: New High Speed Trains Under Development; France: Matra Test Drone, Missile Systems; France: Experimental Project for Automobile Recycling; Germany: Survey of Flexible Manufacturing Developments; Germany: Heinrich Hertz Institute Produces Polymer-Based Circuit; French Firms Introduce Computerized Control Room for Nuclear Plants; German Machine Tool Industry Calls for Information Technology Projects; Germany: R&D Achievements in Digital HDTV Reported; Hungary: Secondary Telecommunications Networks Described; EU: Mergers in Pharmaceutical Industry Reported; SGS-Thomson Business Performance Analyzed; Germany`s Siemens Invest Heavily in UK Semiconductor Plant.

  9. ORION: A Supersynchronous Transfer Orbit mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, I. M.; Baker, J. F.; Shurmer, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    ORION F1 was launched on 29th November 1994 on an Atlas IIA launch vehicle. It was designed, built and delivered in-orbit by Matra Marconi Space Systems Plc and was handed over to ORION Satellite Corporation on 20th January 1995 at its on-station longitude of 37.5 deg W. The mission differed significantly from that of any other geostationary communications satellite in that the Transfer Orbit apogee altitude of 123,507 km was over three times geosynchronous (GEO) altitude and one third of the way to the moon. The SuperSynchronous Transfer Orbit (SSTO) mission is significantly different from the standard Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO)mission in a number of ways. This paper discusses the essential features of the mission design through its evolution since 1987 and the details of the highly successful mission itself including a detailed account of the attitude determination achieved using the Galileo Earth and Sun Sensor (ESS).

  10. A Study on the Conceptual Design of a 1,500 MWe Passive PWR with Annular Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kwi Lim Lee; Soon Heung Chang

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the preliminary conceptual design of a 1500 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) with annular fuel has been performed. This design is derived from the AP1000 which is a 1000 MWe PWR with two-loop. However, the present design is a 1500 MWe PWR with three-loop, passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications to enhance the construction, operation, and maintenance. The preliminary design parameters of this reactor have been determined through simple relation to those of AP1000 for reactor, reactor coolant system, and passive safety injection system. Using the MATRA code, we analyze the core designs for two alternatives on fuel assembly types: solid fuel and annular fuel. The performance of reactor cooling systems is evaluated through the accident of the cold leg break in the core makeup tank loop by using MARS2.1 code. This study presents the developmental strategy, preliminary design parameters and safety analysis results. (authors)

  11. The In-Orbit Battery Reconditioning Experience On Board the Orion 1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, S. A.; Daughtridge, S.; Johnson, P. J.; King, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    The Orion 1 spacecraft is a three-axis stabilized geostationary earth orbiting commercial communications satellite which was launched on November 29, 1994 aboard an Atlas II launch vehicle. The power subsystem is a dual bus, dual battery semi-regulated system with one 78 Ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen battery per bus. The batteries were built and tested by Eagle Picher Industries, Inc., of Joplin, MO and were integrated into the spacecraft by its manufacturer, Matra Marconi Space UK Ltd. This paper presents the results obtained during the first four in-orbit reconditioning cycles and compares the battery performance to ground test data. In addition, the on-station battery management strategy and implementation constraints are described. Battery performance has been nominal throughout each reconditioning cycle and subsequent eclipse season.

  12. GPS-based navigation for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champetier, C.; Duhamel, T.; Frezet, M.

    1995-03-01

    We present in this paper a survey of the applications of the GPS (global positioning system) system for spacecraft navigation. The use of the GPS techniques for space missions is a striking example of dual-use of military technology; it can bring vast improvements in performances and, in some cases, for a reduced cost. We only deal in this paper with the functional aspects and performances of GPS uses without addressing the issues of hardware implementation where current developments are leading to an increased miniaturization of the GPS receiver hardware. We start this paper with a general overview of the GPS system and its various uses for space missions. We then focus on four areas where MATRA MARCONI Space has conducted detailed analyses of performances: autonomous navigation for geostationary spacecraft, relative navigation for space rendezvous, differential navigation for landing vehicles, absolute navigation for launchers and reentry vehicles.

  13. The first crystal structure of an archaeal helical repeat protein

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Kazunari; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Tsuge, Hideaki; Katunuma, Nobuhiko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Kawabata, Takeshi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structure of ST1625p, a protein encoded by a hypothetical open reading frame ST1625 in the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii, was determined at 2.2 Å resolution. The only sequence similarity exhibited by the amino-acid sequence of ST1625p was a 33% identity with the sequence of SSO0983p from S. solfataricus. The 19 kDa monomeric protein was observed to consist of a right-handed superhelix assembled from a tandem repeat of ten α-­helices. A structural homology search using the DALI and MATRAS algorithms indicates that this protein can be classified as a helical repeat protein. PMID:16511116

  14. Improving the management of operational information for safer and more efficient spacecraft operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecouat, F.; de Saint Vincent, A.; Brenot, J. M.; Darroy, J. M.; Gaullier, F.; Pham, P.; Pessah, P.

    Spacecraft control centers are getting more and more sophisticated over time. A lot of advanced software is installed to improve operations safety and efficiency. The data bases required by the control center software tools together with the technical documentation used by operators, is called the Operational Information in this paper. The effectiveness of operations not only depends on the functions of the control center but also on the quality and completeness of the Operational Information. It is thus necessary to develop new methods and tools so that the information generated during spacecraft development is adapted to new operations requirements. In the same time these tools can also improve the spacecraft development process itself by facilitating information assets and validation. This is illustrated by Matra Marconi Space (MMS) experience on recent spacecraft development projects where OPSWARE tools are used both for operations preparation and operations execution.

  15. Development of a kinetic warhead hardware-in-the-loop simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Duane T.; Garcia, James C.; Neighoff, Todd M.; Hipp, Terry L.

    2001-08-01

    The Guidance System Evaluation Laboratory (GSEL) at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has developed a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) Kinetic Warhead (KW) test capability to support the STANDARD Missile-3 (SM-3) program. The capability is designed to assess KW functionality in the laboratory using complex IR scene stimulus for pre-flight testing and modeling validation. Key components are a 6-DOF body dynamics simulation computer, a Matra BAe IR scene rendering computer, and a BAe Systems resistive heater IR display. This paper examines some of the unique issues encountered in testing a strapdown IR seeker interceptor using a resistive heater display and their resulting impact on the design of 6-DOF simulation software and supporting test computer architecture. We discuss architecture and software implementation issues along with the complimentary use of high-fidelity all-digital and HWIL simulations to provide a broad test capability.

  16. Model of the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein family of deposits - Applications in Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tectonic model useful in estimating the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper and polymetallic vein systems has been developed. This model is based on the manner in which magmatic and hydrothermal fluids flow and are trapped in fault systems as far-field stress is released in tectonic strain features above subducting plates (e.g. strike-slip fault systems). The structural traps include preferred locations for stock emplacement and tensional-shear fault meshes within the step-overs that localize porphyry- and vein-style deposits. The application of the model is illustrated for the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Central Slovakian Volcanic Field, Slovakia; the Ma??tra Mountains, Hungary; and the Apuseni Mountains, Romania.

  17. Delivering spacecraft control centers with embedded knowledge-based systems: The methodology issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayache, S.; Haziza, M.; Cayrac, D.

    1994-01-01

    Matra Marconi Space (MMS) occupies a leading place in Europe in the domain of satellite and space data processing systems. The maturity of the knowledge-based systems (KBS) technology, the theoretical and practical experience acquired in the development of prototype, pre-operational and operational applications, make it possible today to consider the wide operational deployment of KBS's in space applications. In this perspective, MMS has to prepare the introduction of the new methods and support tools that will form the basis of the development of such systems. This paper introduces elements of the MMS methodology initiatives in the domain and the main rationale that motivated the approach. These initiatives develop along two main axes: knowledge engineering methods and tools, and a hybrid method approach for coexisting knowledge-based and conventional developments.

  18. Rise time and response measurements on a LiSOCl2 cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastien, Caroline; Lecomte, Eric J.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic impedance tests were performed on a 180 Ah LiSOCl2 cell in the frame of a short term work contract awarded by Aerospatiale as part of the Hermes Space Plane development work. These tests consisted of rise time and response measurements. The rise time test was performed to show the ability to deliver 4 KW, in the nominal voltage range (75-115 V), within less than 100 microseconds, and after a period at rest of 13 days. The response measurements test consisted of step response and frequency response tests. The frequency response test was performed to characterize the response of the LiSOCl2 cell to a positive or negative load step of 10 A starting from various currents. The test was performed for various depths of discharge and various temperatures. The test results were used to build a mathematical, electrical model of the LiSOCl2 cell which are also presented. The test description, test results, electrical modelization description, and conclusions are presented.

  19. Numerical modelling of microdroplet self-propelled jumping on micro-textured surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attarzadeh, S. M. Reza; Dolatabadi, Ali; Chun Kim, Kyung

    2015-11-01

    Understanding various stages of single and multiple droplet impact on a super-hydrophobic surface is of interest for many industrial applications such as aerospace industry. In this study, the phenomenon of coalescence induced droplets self-propelled jumping on a micro-textured super-hydrophobic surface is numerically simulated using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. This model mimics the scenario of coalescing cloud-sized particles over the surface structure of an aircraft. The VOF coupled with a dynamic contact angle model is used to simulate the coalescence of two equal size droplets, that are initially placed very closed to each other with their interface overlapping with each other's which triggers the incipience of their coalescence. The textured surface is modeled as a series of equally spaced squared pillars, with 111° as the intrinsic contact angle all over the solid contact area. It is shown that the radial velocity of coalescing liquid bridge is reverted to upward direction due to the counter action of the surface to the basal area of droplet in contact. The presence of air beneath the droplet inside micro grooves which aimed at repelling water droplet is also captured in this model. The simulated results are found in good agreement with experimental observations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Consortium de Recherche et d'innovation en Aerospatiale au Quebec (CRIAQ), Bombardier Aerospace, Pratt Whitney Canada.

  20. MARSNET: A European network of stations on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    Following an ESA preliminary study on the possible areas of European participation in the future international exploration of Mars and an ESA call for ideas of new missions, MARSNET, a network of small surface stations, was selected for further in-depth scientific and technical assessment studies as a potential European contribution to such exploration. Subsequently, the MARSNET phase A studies started in the autumn of 1991. The industrial kickoff took place in early January 1992, following the tender evaluation and the decision to select the Aerospatiale-led consortium including Dornier, Alcatel, Laben, and Etca to perform the industrial studies. The phase A studies ended in early 1993. However, critical items such as an instrument deployment device continue to be studied in the framework of ESA's Technology Research Program. The MARSNET mission consists of a network of three semihard landers to be placed on the Martian surface, several thousand kilometers apart, thus defining a regional/global seismological and meteorological network in the Tharsis region. The small stations would be targeted for landing at scientifically interesting sites in this region of Mars, which is the most likely area to still show tectonic activity; this would allow the seismometers to acquire data for the determination of the internal structure of the planet. Landing site geology and geochemistry will also be studied.

  1. ALADIN: an atmosphere laser doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Rodolphe; Ghibaudo, Jean-Bernard; Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Willetts, David V.; Vaughan, M.; Pearson, G.; Harris, M. R.; Flamant, Pierre H.; Salamitou, P.; Dabas, Alain; Charasse, R.; Midavaine, Thierri; Royer, Michel; Heimel, H.

    1995-12-01

    AEROSPATIALE, leading a European team, has just conducted a successful study, under ESA contract, to demonstrate the feasibility of a spaceborne Doppler wind lidar instrument meeting the scientific requirements of wind velocity measurements from space with high spatial resolution. A first parametric investigation, based upon the initial set of mission requirements, and supported by dedicated models and detailed trade-off studies, took account of capabilities of the most promising signal processing algorithms and calibration/validation constrains: it yielded a large conically scanned instrument deemed technologically risky. A risk analysis was then carried out to propose a less challenging instrument meeting most key mission requirements. The fixed line-of-sight concept with return signal accumulation appeared as most attractive. A second set of requirements agreed upon by scientific users was therefore issued, with relaxed constraints mainly on horizontal resolution, keeping roughly the same level of wind velocity measurement accuracy. A second instrument and subsystem trade- off was then performed to eventually produce an attractive instrument concept based upon a pair of small diameter telescopes each one associated to one scanning mirror rotating stepwise around the telescope axis, which drastically reduces the detection bandwidth. Following the main contract, studies of accommodation on the International Space Station have been performed, confirming the interest of such an instrument for wind measurements from space.

  2. ALADIN: an atmospheric laser Doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Rodolphe; Ghibaudo, Jean-Bernard; Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Willetts, David V.; Vaughan, M.; Pearson, G.; Harris, M. R.; Flamant, Pierre H.; Salamitou, P.; Dabas, Alain; Lieutaud, F.; Charasse, R.; Midavaine, Thierri; Royer, Michel; Heimel, H.

    1996-10-01

    AEROSPATIALE, leading a European team, has just conducted a successful study, under ESA contract, to demonstrate the feasibility of a spaceborne Doppler wind lidar instrument meeting the scientific requirements of wind velocity measurements from space with high spatial resolution. A first parametric investigation, based upon the initial set of mission requirements, and supported by dedicated models and detailed trade-off studies, took account of capabilities of most promising signal processing algorithms and calibration/validation constraints: it yielded a large conically scanned instrument deemed technologically risky. A risk analysis was then carried out to propose a less challenging instrument meeting most key mission requirements. The fixed line-of-sight concept with return signal accumulation appeared as most attractive. A second set of requirements agreed upon by scientific users was therefore issued, with relaxed constraints mainly on horizontal resolution, keeping roughly the same level of wind velocity measurement accuracy. A second instrument and subsystem trade-off was then performed to eventually produce an attractive instrument concept based upon a pair of small diameter telescopes each one associated to one scanning mirror rotating stepwise around the telescope axis, which drastically reduces the detection bandwidth. Following the main contract, studies of accommodation on the International Space Station have been performed, confirming the interest of such an instrument for wind measurements from space.

  3. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  4. Active learning in the space engineering education at Technical University of Madrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Jacobo; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Lapuerta, Victoria; Ezquerro Navarro, Jose Miguel; Cordero-Gracia, Marta

    This work describes the innovative activities performed in the field of space education at the Technical University of Madrid (UPM), in collaboration with the center engaged by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Spain to support the operations for scientific experiments on board the International Space Station (E-USOC). These activities have been integrated along the last academic year of the Aerospatiale Engineering degree. A laboratory has been created, where the students have to validate and integrate the subsystems of a microsatellite by using demonstrator satellites. With the acquired skills, the students participate in a training process centered on Project Based Learning, where the students work in groups to perform the conceptual design of a space mission, being each student responsible for the design of a subsystem of the satellite and another one responsible of the mission design. In parallel, the students perform a training using a ground station, installed at the E-USOC building, which allow them to learn how to communicate with satellites, how to download telemetry and how to process the data. This also allows students to learn how the E-USOC works. Two surveys have been conducted to evaluate the impact of these techniques in the student engineering skills and to know the degree of satisfaction of students with respect to the use of these learning methodologies.

  5. Medium-resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezy, Jean-Loup; Delwart, Steven; Gourmelon, Georges; Baudin, Gilles; Bessudo, Richard; Sontag, Heinz

    1997-01-01

    The medium imaging spectrometer (MERIS), developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the ENVISAT-1 polar orbit Earth mission, belongs to a new generation of ocean color sensors which will yield a major improvement in the knowledge of such a crucial processes as the ocean contribution to the carbon cycle. MERIS measures the radiance reflected from the Earth's surface in the visible and near infrared part of the spectrum. Data are transmitted in fifteen spectral bands of programmable width and location. The instrument features tow spatial resolution and several observation and calibration modes selectable by ground command. The instrument development is currently carried out by an international team led by AEROSPATIALE under ENVISAT prime contractor ship of DORNIER. The development of the instrument has now reached a status where the instrument has been proven to be compliant with the scientific requirements. This paper gives an overview of the instrument, its design with emphasis given to the acquisition and on-board processing chains. A summary of the major performance sand interface budgets is also provided.

  6. Canadian aeronautical mobile data trials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, Allister; Pearson, Andrea

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a series of aeronautical mobile data trials conducted on small aircraft (helicopters and fixed wing) utilizing a low-speed store-and-forward mobile data service. The paper outlines the user requirements for aeronautical mobile satellite communications. 'Flight following' and improved wide-area dispatch communications were identified as high priority requirements. A 'proof-of-concept' trial in a Cessna Skymaster aircraft is described. This trial identified certain development work as essential to the introduction of commercial service including antenna development, power supply modifications and doppler software modifications. Other improvements were also proposed. The initial aeronautical mobile data service available for pre-operational (Beta) trials is outlined. Pre-operational field trials commenced in October 1992 and consisted of installations on a Gralen Communications Inc. Cessna 177 and an Aerospatiale Astar 350 series light single engine helicopter. The paper concludes with a discussion of desirable near term mobile data service developments, commercial benefits, current safety benefits and potential future applications for improved safety.

  7. Spectralon diffuser calibration for MERIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olij, Carina; Schaarsberg, Jos G.; Werij, Henri G.; Zoutman, Erik; Baudin, Gilles; Chommeloux, Beatrice; Bezy, Jean-Loup; Gourmelon, Georges

    1997-12-01

    One of the key payload instruments of ESA's ENVISAT polar platform is the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS), aiming at improved knowledge of our planet in the fields of bio-optical oceanography, and atmospheric and land surface processes. MERIS, which is built under responsibility of Aerospatiale, will monitor the solar irradiation scattered by the Earth by employing five cameras which simultaneously record data in 15 visible and near-infrared programmable spectral bands with very low degree of polarization sensitivity. The combined field-of-view of the five cameras spans a range of 68.5 degrees. Crucial for obtaining the desired high accuracy during a four-years lifetime, is the on- board calibration unit. This calibration unit contains a set of Spectralon diffusers, which were manufactured having in mind excellent in-flight stability as well as spectral and spatial uniformity. Preflight calibration of the Spectralon diffusers was carried out at TNO-TPD. This calibration includes the measurement of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for applicable angles and wavelengths, i.e., while varying angle of incidence, angle of observation, observation area on the elongated diffusers, wavelength and polarization. The diffuser calibration was performed in a class 100 cleanroom. For these measurements the TPD calibration facility, which is described in detail, has been adapted, so that it now has five geometrical degrees of freedom. Detectors have been optimized to minimize stray light. Due to extensive commissioning of the calibration setup the absolute error (1 sigma) of these measurements amounts to less than 0.5%; relative errors are in the 0.3 - 0.4% range.

  8. Radiation processing of carbon fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit

    2001-12-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced advanced composites are being used for a variety of structural applications, because of their useful mechanical properties, including high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Thermal curing of composite products results in internal stresses, due to the mismatch of the coefficients of expansion of the tools and the composite products. Because radiation curing can be done at ambient temperatures, the possibility that the residual stresses might be absent, or much lower in the radiation-cured products, originally led to the start of work on radiation curing of advanced composites at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories in Pinawa, Canada, in 1985. Research work during the last two decades has shown that advanced composites can be radiation-cured with electron beams or γ radiation. Many of the advantages of radiation curing, as compared to thermal curing, which include curing at ambient temperature, reduced curing time, improved resin stability and reduced volatile emissions, have now been demonstrated. The initial work focussed on electron curing of acrylated epoxy matrices. Since then, procedures have been developed to radiation cure conventional aerospace epoxies, as well. Electron beam cured advanced composites are now being developed for use in the aircraft and aerospace industry. Repair of advanced composite structures is also possible using radiation curing technology. Radiation curing work is continuing at Pinawa and has also been done by Aerospatiale, who have facilities for electron curing composite rocket motor casings and by Chappas and co-workers who have electron cured part of a boat hull. In this paper, the work done on this emerging new technology by the various groups is briefly reviewed.

  9. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    Over the past year, the Huygens probe has been integrated and extensively tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn near Munich. It was designed and developed for ESA by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale (F) as prime contractor. The European activities have been successfully completed and this is to be formalised by the Flight Acceptance Review which will release the probe for shipment to the USA. To mark this important milestone a press briefing is scheduled for Wednesday, 26 March at 10.00 hours at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn. The detailed programme of the press briefing is attached. If you wish to attend the press briefing, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it, preferably by fax, to : Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme Mr. Mathias Pikelj, Fax. + 49 7545 8 5589, Tel. + 49 7545 8 9123 NOTE FOR THE EDITORS: Background facts about the Cassini Huygens mission Huygens is a medium-sized mission of ESA's Horizons 2000 programme for space science, and a contribution to the joint NASA ESA Cassini mission. Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn s moon Titan in 1655, and the mission named after him aims to land a 343 kilogram probe on Titan carrying a package of scientific instruments through the atmosphere. Six sets of instruments will analyse the chemical composition of the atmosphere, observe the weather and topography of Titan, and examine the nature of its surface. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and its unique atmosphere, rich in nitrogen and hydrocarbons, may resemble the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, before life began. Nominal dates for the Huygens mission are as follows: * launch, 6 October 1997 * arrival at Saturn, 1 July 2004 * release of Huygens, 6 November 2004 * entry into Titan's atmosphere, 27 November 2004. The Saturn Orbiter, the other element in the Cassini mission, will relay the signals from Huygens to

  10. A cross-disciplinary response to improve test activities: The corporate memory capitalization in Ariane4 test domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vo, Dinh Phuoc; Soler, Christian; Aussenac, N.; Macchion, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Assembly, Integration, Test, and Validation (AIT/AIV) of the Ariane4 Vehicle Equipment Bay was held at Matra Marconi Space (MMS) site of Toulouse for several years. For this activity, incident interpretation necessitates a great deal of different knowledge. When complex faults occur, particularly those appearing during overall control tests, experts of various domains (EGSE, software, on-board equipment) have to join for investigation sessions. Thus, an assistance tool for the identification of faulty equipment will improve the efficiency of diagnosis and the overall productivity of test activities. As a solution, the Aramiihs laboratory proposed considering the opportunity of a knowledge based system intended to assist the tester in diagnosis. This knowledge based system is, in fact, a short-term achievement of a long-term goal which is the capitalization of corporate memory in the Ariane4 test domain. Aramiihs is a research unit where engineers from MMS and researchers from the IRIT-CNRS cooperate on problems concerning new types of man-system interaction.

  11. Structural re-alignment in an immunologic surface region of ricin A chain

    SciTech Connect

    Zemla, A T; Zhou, C E

    2007-07-24

    We compared structure alignments generated by several protein structure comparison programs to determine whether existing methods would satisfactorily align residues at a highly conserved position within an immunogenic loop in ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Using default settings, structure alignments generated by several programs (CE, DaliLite, FATCAT, LGA, MAMMOTH, MATRAS, SHEBA, SSM) failed to align the respective conserved residues, although LGA reported correct residue-residue (R-R) correspondences when the beta-carbon (Cb) position was used as the point of reference in the alignment calculations. Further tests using variable points of reference indicated that points distal from the beta carbon along a vector connecting the alpha and beta carbons yielded rigid structural alignments in which residues known to be highly conserved in RIPs were reported as corresponding residues in structural comparisons between ricin A chain, abrin-A, and other RIPs. Results suggest that approaches to structure alignment employing alternate point representations corresponding to side chain position may yield structure alignments that are more consistent with observed conservation of functional surface residues than do standard alignment programs, which apply uniform criteria for alignment (i.e., alpha carbon (Ca) as point of reference) along the entirety of the peptide chain. We present the results of tests that suggest the utility of allowing user-specified points of reference in generating alternate structural alignments, and we present a web server for automatically generating such alignments.

  12. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  13. Solar sail on the track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Jean-Yves; Perret, Alain; Ozcariz, Ignazio

    Since the last IAF Congress in Malaga, where it has been stated by the IAF Education Committee that a Solar Sail Race to the Moon is worth to be recommended to IAF organization, the situation has evolved in a favorable way with respect to the U3P objectives to promote a race to the Moon with solar sails and be an entry. As the year 92 will be of great importance for Spain with the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona, the International Exhibition of Sevilla and the celebration of the Castela sponsored Columbus odyssey, a unique opportunity for fund raising exists. A Spanish association, named Comision Vela Solar, has recently joined U3P to design and build a solar sail, ready for a launch in 1992, together with American and Japanese entries. This agreement between French and Spanish associations has given birth to an industrial cooperation between French firms, lead by MATRA-ESPACE and Spanish firms. In our paper, we describe the mission, give an update version of the rules of the race, draw the main features of the U3P-CVS sail and highlight the technological and educational benefits of this challenging project.

  14. A randomized controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy of Nasya in reducing the signs and symptoms of cervical spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Radhika, C; Kumar, G Vinod; Mihirjan, K

    2012-01-01

    This work was designed to assess the efficacy of Nasya in reducing the signs and symptoms of cervical spondylosis. The patients attending the O. P. D of Department of Kaya Chikitsa and Panchakarma, Government Ayurveda College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram were enrolled and subjected to the treatment schedule. Total duration of treatment was 21days. The schedule for the first 14 days was similar in both the groups. It included Rooksha Sveda for 7days followed by Patra Pottali Sveda for 7days. During this period, 90 ml Gandharvahastadi Kashaya twice and Guggulu Tiktaka Kashaya once were given internally. After this, in the Nasya group Nasya was done for 7days with Dhanwantaram Tailam (21times Aavartita), MriduPaka in Madhyama Matra (8Bindu). Along with this Guggulu Tiktaka Kashaya was given thrice. In the control group, Guggulu Tiktaka kashaya alone was given thrice daily. Assessments were done with regard to pain, tenderness, radiation of pain, numbness, range of movements and hand grip strength. These were done before treatment, before nasya, after treatment and after 1month follow-up. The statistical hypothesis was tested using paired 't' test and 'Z' test for proportion. The trial proved that conventional management along with Nasya was more efficacious than conventional management alone in reducing the signs and symptoms of cervical spondylosis. PMID:23049188

  15. Radiation impact on spaceborne optics: the dose coefficients approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruit, Michel; Gusarov, Andrei I.; Doyle, Dominic B.; Ulbrich, Gerd J.

    1999-12-01

    During the past 30 years of development of Space optical instrumentation for such missions as METEOSAT, SPOT, HIPPARCOS and SILEX with ESA and CNES, Matra Marcon Space (MMS) has conducted extensive studies on the behavior of optical materials under irradiation such as quantifying transmission losses in optical glasses and measuring the dimensional stability of Zerodur as a substrate for mirror applications. Thanks to this background experience, MMS, in cooperation with SCK-CEN, is conducting a study (under ESA sponsorship) to define the approach for the gathering of a comprehensive data base to quantify these effects through the use of linear sensitivity coefficients (so-called `Dose Coefficients'). This follows recent investigations which have shown that the space radiation environment can affect not only transmission but also other characteristics of refractive optical materials in both classical and Cerium doped glasses. A number of selected examples from specific MMS studies will first be shown. Then, the actual approach being taken to this problem, on the basis of already obtained results from preliminary experiments performed by ESTEC, will be presented.

  16. The coarse pointing assembly for SILEX program or how to achieve outstanding pointing accuracy with simple hardware associated with consistent control laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buvat, Daniel; Muller, Gerard; Peyrot, Patrick

    1991-06-01

    Attention is given to the coarse pointing assembly (CPA) for the SILEX program, designed on the basis of 10 years of MATRA experience in very accurate drive mechanisms successfully conducted by the SPOT 1 and 2 flights as well as EURECA IOC. The basic key design feature of the mechanism is a 1200-step stepper motor driven in microstepping with harmonic defects compensation. This allows very low torque noise associated with a high accuracy (0.01 deg). The direct drive principle avoids backlash and permits a linear control of the output shaft of each drive. The only parts susceptible to possible wear are the ball bearings, which have a design margin of greater than 1000 for 10 yr of service life. In order to meet the dynamic performances required by SILEX, a closed loop active damping system is added to each drive unit. Two accelerometers used in a differential way sense the hinge microvibrations and an active damping loop reduces their Q factor down to a few dB. All CPA electrical parts (including motor, optical encoder, and accelerometer) are redundant to avoid single point of failure.

  17. Formalizing procedures for operations automation, operator training and spacecraft autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecouat, Francois; Desaintvincent, Arnaud

    1994-01-01

    The generation and validation of operations procedures is a key task of mission preparation that is quite complex and costly. This has motivated the development of software applications providing support for procedures preparation. Several applications have been developed at MATRA MARCONI SPACE (MMS) over the last five years. They are presented in the first section of this paper. The main idea is that if procedures are represented in a formal language, they can be managed more easily with a computer tool and some automatic verifications can be performed. One difficulty is to define a formal language that is easy to use for operators and operations engineers. From the experience of the various procedures management tools developed in the last five years (including the POM, EOA, and CSS projects), MMS has derived OPSMAKER, a generic tool for procedure elaboration and validation. It has been applied to quite different types of missions, ranging from crew procedures (PREVISE system), ground control centers management procedures (PROCSU system), and - most relevant to the present paper - satellite operation procedures (PROCSAT developed for CNES, to support the preparation and verification of SPOT 4 operation procedures, and OPSAT for MMS telecom satellites operation procedures).

  18. A tectonic model for the spatial occurrence of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits - applications to Central Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, Lawrence J.

    2006-01-01

    A structural-tectonic model, which was developed to assess the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits and associated polymetallic vein systems for the Matra Mountains, Hungary, has been expanded here and applied to other parts of central Europe. The model explains how granitoid stocks are emplaced and hydrothermal fluids flow within local strain features (duplexes) within strike-slip fault systems that develop in continental crust above subducting plates. Areas of extension that lack shear at the corners and along the edges of the fault duplexes are structural traps for the granitoid stocks associated with porphyry copper deposits. By contrast, polymetallic vein deposits are emplaced where shear and extension are prevalent in the interior of the duplexes. This model was applied to the Late Cretaceous-age porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Banat-Timok-Srednogorie region of Romania-Serbia-Bulgaria and the middle Miocene-age deposits in Romania and Slovakia. In the first area, porphyry copper deposits are most commonly located at the corners, and occasionally along the edges, of strike-slip fault duplexes, and the few polymetallic vein deposits identified are located at interior sites of the duplexes. In the second area, the model accounts for the preferred sites of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) and central Slovakian volcanic field (Slovakia).

  19. The ARA Mark 3 solar array design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanHassel, Rob H. A.

    1996-01-01

    The ARA (Advanced Rigid Array) Mark3 solar array of Fokker Space BV is currently in its final stages of qualification (wing tests to be completed in March, 1996; unit/part tests in April, 1996). With regard to its predecessor, the ARA Mark2, the design has not only been improved in terms of mechanical and electrical performance, but also with regard to production cost and throughput time. This 'state of the art' array is designed to fit the needs of a wide variety of geostationary telecommunications satellites and is qualified for launch on the complete range of medium/large size commercial launchers (Ariane IV & V, Atlas, Delta, Proton, Long March, H2). The first mission to fly the new ARA Mk3 array is Hot Bird 2 (customer: Eutelsat, prime contractor: Matra Marconi Space; launch: mid-1996). In this configuration, its end of life (EOL) power-to-mass ratio is 42 W/kg, with an operational life of more than 12 years. The main mechanisms on a solar array are typically found in the deployment system and in the hold down and release system. During the design and development phase of these mechanisms, extensive engineering and qualification tests have been performed. This paper presents the key design features of these mechanisms and the improvements that were made with regard to their predecessors. It also describes the qualification philosophy on unit/part and wing level. Finally, some of the development items that turned out to be critical, as well as the lessons learned from them, are discussed.

  20. Cadomian tectonics in northern Brittany: a contribution of 3-D crustal-scale modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, J.-P.; Guennoc, P.; Truffert, C.; Vairon, J.; Armor Working Group Of The Geofrance 3-D Program

    2001-02-01

    Both available and newly acquired geological and geophysical data processed in the framework of the ARMOR project have been used to construct a 3-D geometric and geological model of the Cadomian domain of northern Brittany. The major results of the data processing are presented and discussed relative to a composite profile transecting the studied domain and constructed from the surface geology, reflection seismics, magnetotelluric soundings and gravimetric data. They are then extrapolated at regional scale through a series of cross-sections compiled from the surface geology and gravimetric data and calibrated onto the composite profile. The 3-D crustal-scale models were computed according to two procedures. The first, using a STRIM Matra Datavision modeler, defines various interfaces through correlation between adjacent cross-sections and is well adapted to the 3-D representation of geological structures. The second, based on Voronoı̈ diagrams, leads to a volumetric model of the geological units and is a powerful tool for calculating 3-D geophysical responses of the model when the physical properties of the rock units are known. The tectonic implications of the computed 3-D crustal-scale geometry of the Cadomian domain are then discussed in terms of volcanic-arc thrusting, with special emphasis being placed on the obliquity of the shortening direction by reference to the thrust fault trend. Finally, the data are used to demonstrate the reactivation of some Cadomian faults during the deposition of Ordovician sandstones and following the emplacement of the Paleozoic dolerite dyke swarm of northern Brittany.

  1. Accretion of Grenvillian terranes to the southwestern border of the Río de la Plata craton, western Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Ricardo; Basei, Miguel A. S.; González, Pablo D.; Sato, Ana M.; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Campos Neto, Mario; Cingolani, Carlos A.; Meira, Vinicius T.

    2011-04-01

    A comprehensive review of the geological, geochronological, and isotopic features of the Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian terranes attached to the southwest of the Río de la Plata craton in Early Paleozoic times is presented in this paper. They are grouped into the northern (sierras de Umango, Maz and del Espinal and surroundings), central (Sierra de Pie de Palo, southern Precordillera and Frontal Cordillera), and southern (San Rafael and Las Matras Blocks) segments. The Mesoproterozoic basement consists mainly of arc related, intermediate to acidic and mafic-ultramafic rocks of 1,244-1,027 Ma, with juvenile, Laurentian affinity. Exception to it is the Maz Group, with a protracted history and reworked character. They are affected by 846-570 Ma, extensional magmatism in the northern and central segments, which represents the Neoproterozoic breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. Successive passive margin sedimentation is registered in Late Neoproterozoic (~640-580 Ma) and Cambro-Ordovician (~550-470 Ma) times. The southern segment is noted for the younger sedimentation alone, and for showing the exclusive primary unconformable relationship between the Mesoproterozoic basement and Early Ordovician cover. The effects of Early Paleozoic Famatinian orogeny, associated with the collisions of Cuyania and Chilenia terranes, are recorded as main phase (480-450 Ma), late phase (440-420 Ma), and Chanic phase (400-360 Ma). Among them, the tectonothermal climax is the Ordovician main phase, to which klippe and nappe structures typical of collisional orogens are related in the northern and central segments. Preliminary data allow us to suggest a set of paired metamorphic belts, with an outboard high-P/T belt, and an inboard Barrowian P/T belt.

  2. SILEX acquisition and tracking sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockshott, Robert A.; Purll, David J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the Acquisition Sensor Detection Unit (ASDU) and the Tracking Sensor Detection Unit (TSDU) developed by Sira Ltd to be flown in the European Space Agency's SILEX (Semi-conductor Inter satellite Link Experiment) terminals. These units were designed, manufactured and qualified by Sira under contract to Matra Marconi Space. Stringent vibration, thermal stability and video waveform noise and timing specifications were critical elements in the design. The ASDU consists of an optical head containing a 385 X 288 CCD and video buffer, and separate electronics box containing clock decoding electronics, CCD clock drivers and video amplifiers. The ASDU operates at a frame rate of 33 or 135 Hz and its noise performance allows the brightest pixel to be detected with an accuracy of +/- 0.5 pixel for input powers in the range 9 - 55 pW (33 Hz) or 16 - 240 pW (135 Hz) during acquisition. Using the ASDU signal, the SILEX pointing, acquisition and tracking system controls the pointing mirrors to centralize the beam, at which point it falls within the smaller TSDU field of view. The TSDU comprises a single 480 g unit containing a 43 mm focal length lens, a 14 X 14 CCD, and clock receiver and video amplifier electronics. During tracking the central 4 CCD pixels are used as a quadrant detector, and the TSDU has demonstrated a noise equivalent angle of 2.7 (mu) rad (1 (sigma) half cone, 180 pW optical input power) at a frame rate of 8 kHz.

  3. Autonomy for SOHO Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Netreba, Nick; Ginn, Don; Mandutianu, Sanda; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOLAR and HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (SOHO) project [SOHO Web Page] is being carried out by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a cooperative effort between the two agencies in the framework of the Solar Terrestrial Science Program (STSP) comprising SOHO and other missions. SOHO was launched on December 2, 1995. The SOHO spacecraft was built in Europe by an industry team led by Matra, and instruments were provided by European and American scientists. There are nine European Principal Investigators (PI's) and three American ones. Large engineering teams and more than 200 co-investigators from many institutions support the PI's in the development of the instruments and in the preparation of their operations and data analysis. NASA is responsible for the launch and mission operations. Large radio dishes around the world, which form NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), are used to track the spacecraft beyond the Earths orbit. Mission control is based at Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland. The agent group at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in collaboration with JPL, is currently involved with the design and development of an agent-based system to provide intelligent interactions with the control center personnel for SOHO. The basic approach that is being taken is to develop a sub-community of agents for each major subsystem of SOHO and to integrate these sub-communities into an overall SOHO community. Agents in all sub-communities will be capable of advanced understanding (deep reasoning) of the associated spacecraft subsystem.

  4. In-flight star tracker SED 12 performances on-board the SIGMA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouret, M.; Sebbag, I.; Vandermarcq, M. Q.; Krebs, J. P.; Le Goff, R.; Vilaire, D.; Tulet, M. M.

    The multimission SED 12 star tracker using a CCD matrix array has been designed by SODERN in cooperation with Matra-Marconi Space (F), respectively in charge of the optical head and software development for one and processing electronics and associated interfaces for the other. It has been selected for the French SIGMA experiment on board the Soviet GRANAT spacecraft which was launched on December 2, 1989. SIGMA is a French hard X-ray/medium energy gamma ray (30 keV-2 MeV) experiment aimed at imaging selected regions of the sky with a resolution of about one arc minute and has been developed and manufactured under the overall management of CNES (the French National Space Agency). The experiment package demands a pointing stability of a few arc-seconds over periods of several hours corresponding to the long exposure times required to build up images of the target gamma sources. As the GRANAT satellite is not able to maintain such high precision attitude stability, incorporated into the gamma telescope are two SED 12 sensors aligned together with the telescope. The development of this star tracker was started in 1985 under a CNES contract, the qualification was successfully performed in 1987 and the delivery of 2 flight models was completed in 1988. The expected life time of the experiment was 1.5 year and since the launch date the mission is still operating without any significant performance degradation of the star tracker. The purpose of this paper is, on the one hand to present the multimission tracker design trade-offs and the SED 12 device: description, main features, operating modes and performances, and on the other hand, to analyze the on ground and in-flight star tracker data. This analysis has been mainly led according to the following criteria: performance results in angular position and magnitude measurement, dark current evolution versus time and radiation dose, correlation between visual and instrumental magnitudes.

  5. Final Report: Deconvolution of Adaptive Optics Images of Titan, Neptune, and Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, S; Marchis, F

    2002-12-20

    This project involved images of Titan, Neptune, and Uranus obtained using the 10-meter W.M. Keck II Telescope and its adaptive optics system. An adaptive optics system corrects for turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere by sampling the wavefront and applying a correction based on the distortion measured for a known source within the same isoplanatic patch as the science target (for example, a point source such as a star). Adaptive optics can achieve a 10-fold increase in resolution over that obtained by images without adaptive optics (for example, Saturn's largest moon Titan is unresolved without adaptive optics but at least 10 resolution elements can be obtained across the disk in Keck adaptive optics images). The adaptive optics correction for atmospheric turbulence is not perfect; a point source is converted to a diffraction-limited core surrounded by a ''halo''. This halo is roughly the size and shape of the uncorrected point spread function one would observe without adaptive optics. In order to enhance the sharpness of the Keck images it is necessary to apply a deconvolution algorithm to the data. Many such deconvolution algorithms exist such as maximum likelihood and maximum entropy. These algorithms suffer to various degrees from noise amplification and creation of artifacts near sharp edges (''ringing''). In order to deconvolve the Keck images I have applied an algorithm specifically developed for observations of planetary bodies, the myopic deconvolution algorithm MISTRAL (''Myopic Iterative STep-preserving Restoration ALgorithm'') (Conan et al. 1998, 2000). MISTRAL was developed by ONERA (Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales) and has been extensively tested on simulated and real AO observations, including observations of Titan (Coustenis et al.2001), Io (Marchis et al.2002, 2001), and asteroids (Hestroffer et al.2001, Rosenberg et al.2001, Makhoul et al.2001). Compared to more classical methods, MISTRAL avoids noise amplification and

  6. Marginal notes for a centenary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, Lajos G.

    2001-10-01

    Piszkesteto of the Matra mountain NE from Budapest. In 1982 the solar physics observatory joined the national observatory again and the Astronomical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences was formed. The change of the political system in 1990 removed the embargo for products of high technology and a significant modernization was carried out in the institute. The centenary is an important occasion for thinking on the main issues of strength keeping our institute in existence.

  7. J. Preston Layton 1919-1992: A guiding light in nuclear space power and propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Yvonne C.

    New Space Transportation Systems; and chaired a projection of space activities into the 2000 to 2020 time period for the National Research Council. More recently, he designed environmental and communications satellite propulsion systems for MATRA Espace and RCA Astro-Electronics. Layton was very active in the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the International Astronautical Federation (IAF). In 1985, he served as International Program Committee Chairman of the 35th International Congress in Stockholm. Layton was a Fellow, American Astronautical Society, Associate Fellow of the AIAA, and a Member of the International Academy of Astronautics.

  8. Eco-monitoring of highly contaminated areas: historic heavy metal contamination in tree ring records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baross, Norbert; Jordán, Győző; Albert, Julianna; Abdaal, Ahmed; Anton, Attila

    2014-05-01

    This study examines and compares tree rings of trees grown in a mining area highly contaminated with heavy metals. Tree rings offers an excellent opportunity for eco-monitoring polluted areas. Contamination dispersion from the source to the receptors can be studied in time and space. The sampled area is located in the eastern part of the Matra Mts. of the Inner-Carpathian calc-alkaline Volcanic Arc (Hungary) with abundant historical ore (Pb, Zn, Cu, etc.) mining in the area. Dense forests are composed of the most typical association of the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), European black pine (Pinus nigra), oak (Quercus robur), beech (Fagus sylvatica), and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) also occurs in the landscape. Sampled trees are located within a 1km radius of the abandoned historic ore mines. Sample sites were located above the old mines and waste rock heaps, under the waste rock heaps and on the floodplain of the Ilona Creek. The sampled trees were selected by the following criteria: the tree should be healthy, showing no signs of thunderbolt or diseases and having a minimum diameter of 50 cm. Samples were taken with a tree borer at the height of 150 cm. At the same time, soil samples were also taken near the trees in a 25 cm depth. Prior to laboratory analysis, the samples measured and air dried. Every fifth years tree ring was taken from the samples under microscope, working backwards from the most recent outer ring (2012, the year of the sampling). Samples were digested with a mixture of H2SO4 and H2O2m in Teflon vessels in a microwave unit. The samples were analyzed by ICP-OES instrument. The results were evaluated with statistical method. Results revealed a consistent picture showing distinct locations and years of the contamination history in the former mining area. Some elements are built into the trees more efficiently than other elements depending on mobility in the soil solution that is influenced by soil chemical properties

  9. Mudflow Hazards in the Georgian Caucasus - Using Participatory Methods to Investigate Disaster Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George

    2014-05-01

    The Caucasus form an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia in terms of geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. These processes, especially mudflows, frequently result in considerable damage to the settlements, farmlands and infrastructure facilities. The occurrence intervals between mudflows are becoming significantly shorter, therefore the most populated areas and infrastucture need to be included in risk zones. This presentation reviews the case of the mudflow problem in Mleta village in the region of Dusheti where the mudflow risk is critical. The villages of Zemo Mleta (Higher Mleta) and Kvemo Mleta (Lower Mleta) are entirely surrounded by unstable slopes where mudslides, landslides and floods are often generated. These hazards occur at least twice per year and sometimes result in severe events. In 2006 and 2010 in Mleta village a very severe mudflow event occurred creating heavy damage. This paper focuses on the recognition of the importance of cooperating with the local communities affected by these disasters, in order to get useful information and local knowledge to apply to disaster prevention and management. In October 2010, the EU-financed MATRA Project (Institutional Capacity Building in Natural Disaster Risk Reduction) in Georgia included fieldworks in several locations. Particular attention was given to Mleta village in the Caucasus Mountains, where the activities focused on institutional capacity-building in disaster risk reduction, including modern spatial planning approaches and technologies and the development of risk communication strategies. Participatory methods of acquiring local knowledge from local communities reveal many advantages compared to traditional survey approaches for collecting data. In a participatory survey and planning approach, local authorities, experts and local communities are supposed to work together to provide useful information and eventually produce a plan for Disaster Risk Reduction

  10. Three stages in the Late Paleozoic to Triassic magmatism of southwestern Gondwana, and the relationships with the volcanogenic events in coeval basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ana María; Llambías, Eduardo J.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Castro, Carlos E.

    2015-11-01

    The intermediate to acid Choiyoi Magmatic Province is the most conspicuous feature along the Late Paleozic continental margin of southwestern Gondwana, and is generally regarded as the possible source for the widespread ash fall deposits interlayered with sedimentary sequences in the adjacent Gondwana basins. The Choiyoi magmatism is geologically constrained between the early Permian San Rafael orogenic phase and the Triassic extensional Huarpica phase in the region of Argentine Frontal Cordillera, Precordillera and San Rafael Block. In order to better assess the Choiyoi magmatism in Argentine Frontal Cordillera, we obtained 6 new LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages between 278.8 ± 3.4 Ma and 252.5 ± 1.9 Ma from plutonic rocks of the Colangüil Batholith and an associated volcanic rock. The global analysis of age data compiled from Chilean and Argentine Late Paleozoic to Triassic outcrops allows us to identify three stages of magmatism: (1) pre-Choiyoi orogenic magmatism, (2) Choiyoi magmatism (286-247 Ma), and (3) post-Choiyoi magmatism related to extensional tectonics. In the Choiyoi stage is there an eastward shift and expansion of the magmatism to the southeast, covering an extensive region that defines the Choiyoi magmatic province. On the basis of comparison with the ages from volcanogenic levels identified in the coeval Gondwana basins, we propose: (a) The pre-Choiyoi volcanism from the Paganzo basin (320-296 Ma) probably has a local source in addition to the Frontal Cordillera region. (b) The pre-Choiyoi and Choiyoi events identified in the Paraná basin (304-275 Ma) are likely to have their source in the Chilean Precordillera. (c) The early stage of the Choiyoi magmatism found in the Sauce Grande basin (284-281 Ma) may have come from the adjacent Las Matras to Chadileuvú blocks. (d) The pre-Choiyoi and Choiyoi events in the Karoo basins (302-253 Ma) include the longest Choiyoi interval, and as a whole bear the best resemblance to the age records along the Chilean and

  11. Teledetection passive et processus decisionnel a reference spatiale: Application a l'aquaculture en milieu marin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habbane, Mohamed

    parametres sont compares deux a deux par rapport a la carte preliminaire regionale d'indices du potentiel maricole pour determiner leur poids relatif. La carte finale produite avec ces parametres du niveau 2 presente un secteur ou les indices du potentiel maricole sont de 0,5 a 0,75. Ce secteur longe la cote et epouse les isobathes de 10 a 30 m de profondeur. L'effet de la profondeur d'eau semble avoir jouer un role important. Le secteur de potentiel maricole de 0,25 a 0,5 est toujours present et couvre une superficie d'environ 426 kmsp2. L'etude necessitera toujours un suivi des conditions environnementales prevalant dans la region. Ce suivi peut etre effectue a l'aide d'un outil de vision aerospatiale (capteurs de teledetection) et d'analyse spatio-temporelle (SIG-PDRS). (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  12. Recent Investigations, Development and Industrial Applications of RF-ion Thrusters in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassner, H.; Killinger, R.; Kukies, R.; Mueller, J.

    2002-01-01

    lifetime tests. First applications were planned for North- South-Stationkeeping on communication satellites, which did not realise. A first test in space was performed on the European Retrievable Carrier EURECA in 1992 using Xenon as the propellant which did demonstrate that the thruster can produce 10 mN of thrust and does not disturb the satellite operation. In parallel thrusters with 26 and 35 cm discharge chamber diameter have been manufactured and tested up to a thrust level of 200 mN for an application to interplanetary missions. For a first application to North-South-Stationkeeping of a geostationary satellite the thrust level of the RIT 10 has been increased to 15 mN. 2 RIT - thrusters are installed on the Artemis satellite next to 2 EIT thrusters, produced by Matra-Marconi-Space (now Astrium GB), which are using the "Kaufmann" ionisation principle. The satellite has been launched in July 2001 and is now, after a degraded launch performance of Ariane V, on the way to its geostationary position, propelled by ion thrusters. In parallel to this activity Astrium has started the development of the 22 cm discharge chamber diameter thruster RIT -XT, which shall be used for future application to commercial satellites and to interplanetary missions. Thrust levels up to 200 mN at a specific impulse up to 4500 s can be achieved. Competitive prices can be achieved if more than 10 systems can be produced per year.

  13. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  14. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    prime contractor was Matra Marconi Spa

  15. Prestigious award for SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    founded in 1960, in Stockholm, Sweden, to foster the development of astronautics for peaceful purposes. Its current membership includes individuals from 68 countries. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA to study the Sun, from its deep core to the outer corona, and the solar wind. Fourteen European countries, led by the European Space Agency and prime contractor Astrium (formerly Matra-Marconi), built the SOHO spacecraft. It carries twelve instruments (nine European-led and three American-led) and was launched by an NASA's Atlas II-AS rocket on 2 December 1995. Mission operations are coordinated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Centre. The spacecraft was designed for a two-year-mission but its spectacular success has led to two extensions of the mission, the first until 2003, and then again until March 2007.

  16. UK and ESA announce Beagle 2 inquiry - Investigation to learn lessons from Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    contributed to the loss of the mission. The Board, made up of people with no direct involvement in the Beagle 2 mission, is expected to begin work shortly and report by the end of March 2004. The key players in the Beagle 2 mission, including Colin Pillinger, the Open University, the University of Leicester, the National Space Science Centre, EADS-Astrium, and BNSC partners have all welcomed the setting up of the Inquiry Board. Notes to Editors The Beagle 2 project to make a lander element of the ESA Mars Express mission was headed by the Open University, providing the science lead, and EADS-Astrium, the prime contractor responsible for the main design, development and management of the lander. David Link is a former Director of Science and Radar Observation at Matra Marconi Space, now EADS-UK. Beagle 2 was designed to look for signs of life on Mars. It was to parachute down to the surface of the planet and collect soil samples, which would have been analysed for signs of past and present biological activity. The lander was also packed with a suite of instruments to take pictures, acquire geological information and study the weather, including temperature, pressure and wind. The Beagle 2 lander was funded through a partnership arrangement involving the Open University, EADS-Astrium, the DTI, the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), the Office of Science and Technology and ESA. Funding also came from the National Space Science Centre and the Wellcome Foundation. UK principal investigators for Beagle 2 came from the Open University (gas analysis package), Leicester University (environmental sensors and x-ray spectrometer) and Mullard Space Science Laboratory (imaging systems). The ESA Mars Express spacecraft, the mother ship, successfully entered orbit around Mars on Christmas Day and, following a series of orbital manoeuvres, has been performing excellently as it starts its two-year global survey of the planet. Among first results announced on 23 January

  17. SOHO hunts elusive solar prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    SOHO will carry twelve sophisticated telescopes and other instruments, developed in record time by twelve international consortia involving scientific institutes in 15 countries. Roger M. Bonnet, the Director of ESA’s Scientific Programme said: "Each one of these instruments by itself would be enough to make major breakthroughs in our understanding of the Sun. But what makes SOHO such an exciting mission is that we will operate all the instruments together and find possible links between various phenomena at different levels in the volume of the Sun and in the interplanetary medium". Four years of intense efforts by space engineering teams in ESA and across Europe, under the leadership of the prime contractor Matra Marconi Space of Toulouse, France, have fulflled the dream of scientists who wished to build a superb space observatory for examining the Sun. SOHO, together with the four-spacecraft Cluster mission - which will explore near-Earth space, forms the Solar-Terrestrial Science Programme, the first cornerstone in ESA’s long-term programme 'Horizon 2000'. No night time for SOHO Instead of being placed in orbit around the Earth, SOHO will be lofted to a position where the gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun cancel each other out exactly, at 1.5 million kilometres sunward from the Earth. This is known in astronomy as the inner Lagrangian point after the French mathematician, Joseph Louis Lagrange, who first calculated its position near the end of the eighteenth century. SOHO will fly in an elliptical, or "halo" orbit around the Lagrangian point, with an orbit radius of about 600,000 kilometres, allowing the spacecraft to experience perpetual day. It will have a continuous, uninterrupted view of the Sun for twenty four hours of the day, all three hundred and sixty five days of the year, producing an extraordinary amount of data. All previous solar observatories have either been on the Earth or in orbit around our planet. On the Earth, telescopes are

  18. Hipparcos to deliver its final results catalogue soon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    itself a time so inconceivably long that only a few revolutions of our Galaxy have been completed since its formation - dinosaurs ruling our planet less than one quarter of a revolution ago. Hipparcos has measured the details of this cosmic procession, and will allow a clear disentangling of the motions of the individual stars ; which lie relatively close to our Sun? which are massive highly-luminous stars at great distances from it ? which are moving in an orbit close to our Sun's ? and which are racing away from it hundreds of times faster than the speed of sound ? After eight years in the planning and construction stages, Matra Marconi Space, Alenia Spazio, and their 30 or so high-technology industrial partners delivered the Hipparcos satellite to ESA, on schedule and within cost. With the exception of its boost motor, the satellite and all its instruments functioned flawlessly, and indeed surpassed all expectations - in spite of he harsh environment that it was subjected to in its unintended orbit. The Matra Marconi Space Project Manager, Michel Bouffard, expressed his own satisfaction with the Hipparcos Catalogue completion, and remarked hat "the Hipparcos project is definitely one of the best examples of intense and fruitful collaboration between ESA, industry and scientist". A few more months work will be required before the Hipparcos Catalogue, and its companion Tycho Catalogue of more than a million stars, can be released by the European Space Agency. "We have to fit into the completed catalogue all of the double stars, and all of the magnitude measurements, that have been acquired", explained Dr Michael Perryman, ESA's scientist working with the European scientific teams. "But the schedule for this has now been drawn up " he added. Scientists who formulated parts of the satellite's observing programme, and who were involved in the analysis of the satellite data, will be given the first opportunity to try to understand what the data mean, from an astronomical

  19. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    prime contractor was Matra Marconi Space (France), also responsible for the payload and the on-board software development: with Alenia (Italy) responsible for the procurement of the spacecraft, as well as integration and testing of the complete satellite. A total of 35 European firms were involved in the satellite construction. The satellite was launched by Ariane 4 on 8 August 1989. Hipparcos was named after the pioneer Greek astronomer Hipparchus who compiled a detailed star map in around 120 BC and, by comparing it with observations made by his predecessors, established that the Earth's rotation axis slowly changed its direction in space. The Hipparcos satellite carried out its measurements in a highly elliptical 10-hour orbit, ranging between 500 km and 36,000 km above the Earth's surface, resulting from non-functioning of the satellite's apogee boost motor shortly after launch. A redesign of the on-board attitude control system, and the addition of two more ground stations into the control network, nevertheless allowed ESA's operations team at ESOC (Darmstadt, Germany) to operate the satellite with close to full efficiency. For the 20-strong operations team at ESOC and the ground station teams in Perth (Australia), Goldstone (USA) and Kourou (French Guiana) the mission has been highly interesting, challenging and very demanding. "After more than three years of excellent performance, underlining the remarkable quality of the satellite's design and construction, it was showing its age in several areas" said Dietmar Heger, ESOC's Spacecraft Operations Manager for Hipparcos. "The orbit was subjected to very significant levels of high energy electron and proton radiation, much higher than those expected in its intended geostationary orbit. We cannot be surprised or disappointed that the satellite has finally ceased to function" he said. The scientific activities associated with the Hipparcos mission are under the responsibility of four European scientific teams

  20. XMM-Newton detects X-ray 'solar cycle' in distant star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    the European Space Agency and prime contractor Astrium (formerly Matra-Marconi), built the SOHO spacecraft. It carries twelve instruments (nine European-led and three American-led) and was launched by an NASA's Atlas II-AS rocket on 2 December 1995. Mission operations are coordinated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Centre. The spacecraft was designed for a two-year mission but its spectacular success has led to two extensions of the mission, the first until 2003, and then again until March 2007. More information on SOHO can be found at: http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMJFH374OD_1_spk.html

  1. First 3D view of solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    loops, rather than a bubble or rope-like structure. Although this technique had been independently developed previously to study relatively static structures in the solar atmosphere during eclipses, this is the first time that it is applied to fast moving CMEs. Moran and Davila believe that their method will complement data from the upcoming NASA’s Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission, scheduled for launch in February 2006. STEREO will use two widely separated spacecraft to construct 3D views of CMEs by combining images from the different vantage points of the twin spacecraft. Commenting on this result, Bernhard Fleck, SOHO Project Scientist at ESA, said: "These are really amazing images. Once again scientists have come up with a clever idea for analysing SOHO data in ways that were not even dreamt of when the mission was designed." Movie: http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702.mpg 3 stills from the movie http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702c.tiff http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702d.tiff http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/spcs/soho/soho20040702e.tiff This movie shows a 3D rendering of the data in Figure 2. It starts out viewing the Sun from SOHO's perspective, then rotates the scene to view the data from the side, and finally from the top. Note that one distinct feature shown at about 11 o'clock in Figure 2 panel a has been left out of the movie, because it is a static structure and not a part of the CME. Notes to Editors: This new result by T. Moran and J. Davila is published in today’s issue of the magazine Science. More about SOHO SOHO is a project of international co-operation between ESA and NASA to study the Sun, from its deep core to the outer corona, and the solar wind. Fourteen European countries, led by the European Space Agency and prime contractor Astrium (formerly Matra-Marconi), built the SOHO spacecraft. It carries twelve instruments (nine European-led and three

  2. Five years of discoveries with SOHO have made the Sun transparent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    regions of the Sun. Typical wind speeds of 50 000 kilometres per hour can become ten times faster in gusts. The alien breeze. A wind of gas from the stars blows through the Solar System, and the solar wind fights it. SOHO has fixed its direction (from the Ophiuchus constellation) and its speed (21 kilometres per second) more accurately. Some facts and figures about SOHO * With scientists from 62 institutes in 15 countries, in the teams that provide and operate the instruments, and with industries in 15 countries contributing to the spacecraft’s construction, SOHO is a masterpiece of international collaboration. * Weighing 1.85 tonnes at launch, the European-built SOHO was dispatched by a NASA rocket on 2 December 1995, and transferred to the vicinity of Lagrange Point No. 1, where it now hovers, 1.5 million kilometres from the Earth. * The spacecraft was commissioned in April 1996 for a nominal operational life of two years, but this was later extended by five years until the end of March 2003. * Observations were severely interrupted twice, between 25 June and 5 November 1998, and between 21 December 1998 and 2 February 1999. The first event was due to loss of contact and control, and the second to gyroscope failure. In both cases ESA and NASA engineers, fully supported by SOHO’s constructor Matra Marconi Space, now Astrium, worked wonders to restore the spacecraft to full operations. * More than 30 eruptions called solar proton events have bombarded SOHO with energetic particles. The most severe, on 14 July and 9 November 2000, temporarily blinded SOHO’s instruments with particle ‘snow’ and slightly impaired the efficiency of the spacecraft’s power-generating solar panels. * More than 3600 coronal mass ejections from the Sun have been observed by SOHO’s LASCO instrument, making an average of two per day during SOHO’s 5 years of observations. * SOHO is by far the most prolific discoverer of new comets in the entire history of astronomy. By mid-April 2001

  3. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  4. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    the way for other space-based observatories. How the mission was named Hubble Space Telescope is named after Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953), who was one of the great pioneers of modern astronomy. Industrial Involvement The ESA contribution to HST included the Solar Panels and the Faint Object Camera (FOC). Prime contractors for the FOC were Dornier (now DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, Germany), and Matra (France); for the Solar Panels British Aerospace (UK). Launch date: April 25, 1990 Launcher: Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31) Launch mass: 11 110 kg Dimensions Length: 15.9 m, diameter: 4.2 m. In addition two solar panels each 2.4 x 12.1 m. Payload (current) A 2.4 m f/24 Ritchey-Chretien telescope with four main instruments, currently WFPC2, STIS, NICMOS and FOC. In addition the three fine-guidance sensors are used for astrometric observations (positional astronomy). WFPC2 - Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 is an electronic camera working at two magnifications. It has four CCD detectors with 800 x 800 pixels. One of these (called Planetary Camera) has a higher resolution (<0.1 arcsecond). STIS - Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph uses so-called MAMAs and CCDs to provide images and spectra. It is sensitive to a wide range of light from UV to Infrared. NICMOS - Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer provides images and spectra in the infrared. NICMOS uses cooled HgCdTe detectors. Currently NICMOS is dormant and awaits a new cooler to be provided during Servicing Mission 3B. FOC - Faint Object Camera - a very high resolution camera built by ESA. FOC is no longer in use and will be replaced by the new Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) during Servicing Mission 3B. Orbit Circular, 593 km with a 28.5 degree inclination. Operations Science operations are co-ordinated and conducted by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore. Overall management of daily on-orbit operations is carried out by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt. Ground

  5. SOHO hunts elusive solar prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    SOHO will carry twelve sophisticated telescopes and other instruments, developed in record time by twelve international consortia involving scientific institutes in 15 countries. Roger M. Bonnet, the Director of ESA’s Scientific Programme said: "Each one of these instruments by itself would be enough to make major breakthroughs in our understanding of the Sun. But what makes SOHO such an exciting mission is that we will operate all the instruments together and find possible links between various phenomena at different levels in the volume of the Sun and in the interplanetary medium". Four years of intense efforts by space engineering teams in ESA and across Europe, under the leadership of the prime contractor Matra Marconi Space of Toulouse, France, have fulflled the dream of scientists who wished to build a superb space observatory for examining the Sun. SOHO, together with the four-spacecraft Cluster mission - which will explore near-Earth space, forms the Solar-Terrestrial Science Programme, the first cornerstone in ESA’s long-term programme 'Horizon 2000'. No night time for SOHO Instead of being placed in orbit around the Earth, SOHO will be lofted to a position where the gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun cancel each other out exactly, at 1.5 million kilometres sunward from the Earth. This is known in astronomy as the inner Lagrangian point after the French mathematician, Joseph Louis Lagrange, who first calculated its position near the end of the eighteenth century. SOHO will fly in an elliptical, or "halo" orbit around the Lagrangian point, with an orbit radius of about 600,000 kilometres, allowing the spacecraft to experience perpetual day. It will have a continuous, uninterrupted view of the Sun for twenty four hours of the day, all three hundred and sixty five days of the year, producing an extraordinary amount of data. All previous solar observatories have either been on the Earth or in orbit around our planet. On the Earth, telescopes are