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Sample records for aerospike experiment configuration

  1. Wind-tunnel development of an SR-71 aerospike rocket flight test configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen C.; Shirakata, Norm; Moes, Timothy R.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Conners, Timothy H.

    1996-01-01

    A flight experiment has been proposed to investigate the performance of an aerospike rocket motor installed in a lifting body configuration. An SR-71 airplane would be used to carry the aerospike configuration to the desired flight test conditions. Wind-tunnel tests were completed on a 4-percent scale SR-71 airplane with the aerospike pod mounted in various locations on the upper fuselage. Testing was accomplished using sting and blade mounts from Mach 0.6 to Mach 3.2. Initial test objectives included assessing transonic drag and supersonic lateral-directional stability and control. During these tests, flight simulations were run with wind-tunnel data to assess the acceptability of the configurations. Early testing demonstrated that the initial configuration with the aerospike pod near the SR-71 center of gravity was unsuitable because of large nosedown pitching moments at transonic speeds. The excessive trim drag resulting from accommodating this pitching moment far exceeded the excess thrust capability of the airplane. Wind-tunnel testing continued in an attempt to find a configuration suitable for flight test. Multiple configurations were tested. Results indicate that an aft-mounted model configuration possessed acceptable performance, stability, and control characteristics.

  2. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) first flight takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 takes off Oct. 31, making its first flight as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust

  3. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) first flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 successfully completed its first flight 31 October 1997 as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with

  4. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) first flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 made its successful first flight Oct. 31 as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/ Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust

  5. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) refueling during first flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 refuels with an Edwards Air Force Base KC-135 during the first flight of the NASA/Rocketdyne/ Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE). The flight took place Oct. 31 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It

  6. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) ground cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph shows a ground cold flow test of the linear aerospike rocket engine mounted on the rear fuselage of an SR-71. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; design refinements looked at minimizing this

  7. Flight Testing the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Neal, Bradford A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Cox, Timothy H.; Monaghan, Richard C.; Voelker, Leonard S.; Corpening, Griffin P.; Larson, Richard R.; Powers, Bruce G.

    1998-01-01

    The design of the next generation of space access vehicles has led to a unique flight test that blends the space and flight research worlds. The new space vehicle designs, such as the X-33 vehicle and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), are powered by linear aerospike rocket engines. Conceived of in the 1960's, these aerospike engines have yet to be flown, and many questions remain regarding aerospike engine performance and efficiency in flight. To provide some of these data before flying on the X-33 vehicle and the RLV, a spacecraft rocket engine has been flight-tested atop the NASA SR-71 aircraft as the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE). A 20 percent-scale, semispan model of the X-33 vehicle, the aerospike engine, and all the required fuel and oxidizer tanks and propellant feed systems have been mounted atop the SR-71 airplane for this experiment. A major technical objective of the LASRE flight test is to obtain installed-engine performance flight data for comparison to wind-tunnel results and for the development of computational fluid dynamics-based design methodologies. The ultimate goal of firing the aerospike rocket engine in flight is still forthcoming. An extensive design and development phase of the experiment hardware has been completed, including approximately 40 ground tests. Five flights of the LASRE and firing the rocket engine using inert liquid nitrogen and helium in place of liquid oxygen and hydrogen have been successfully completed.

  8. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) first flight view from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 made its successful first flight Oct. 31 as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust

  9. Flight Stability and Control and Performance Results from the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Cox, Timothy H.; Conners, Timothy R.; Iliff, Kenneth W.; Powers, Bruce G.

    1998-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) is presently being conducted to test a 20-percent-scale version of the Linear Aerospike rocket engine. This rocket engine has been chosen to power the X-33 Single Stage to Orbit Technology Demonstrator Vehicle. The rocket engine was integrated into a lifting body configuration and mounted to the upper surface of an SR-71 aircraft. This paper presents stability and control results and performance results from the envelope expansion flight tests of the LASRE configuration up to Mach 1.8 and compares the results with wind tunnel predictions. Longitudinal stability and elevator control effectiveness were well-predicted from wind tunnel tests. Zero-lift pitching moment was mispredicted transonically. Directional stability, dihedral stability, and rudder effectiveness were overpredicted. The SR-71 handling qualities were never significantly impacted as a result of the missed predictions. Performance results confirmed the large amount of wind-tunnel-predicted transonic drag for the LASRE configuration. This drag increase made the performance of the vehicle so poor that acceleration through transonic Mach numbers could not be achieved on a hot day without depleting the available fuel.

  10. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) dumps water after first in-flight cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The NASA SR-71A successfully completed its first cold flow flight as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California on March 4, 1998. During a cold flow flight, gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen are cycled through the linear aerospike engine to check the engine's plumbing system for leaks and to check the engine operating characterisitics. Cold-flow tests must be accomplished successfully before firing the rocket engine experiment in flight. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards at 12:13 p.m. PST. 'I think all in all we had a good mission today,' Dryden LASRE Project Manager Dave Lux said. Flight crew member Bob Meyer agreed, saying the crew 'thought it was a really good flight.' Dryden Research Pilot Ed Schneider piloted the SR-71 during the mission. Lockheed Martin LASRE Project Manager Carl Meade added, 'We are extremely pleased with today's results. This will help pave the way for the first in-flight engine data-collection flight of the LASRE.' The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous

  11. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) first flight view from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the SR-71 with the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment on the rear fuselage as seen from above. The photo was taken on the first flight of the aircraft with the experiment aboard, which took place on 31 October 1997. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the

  12. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) during first in-flight cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph shows the LASRE pod on the upper rear fuselage of an SR-71 aircraft during take-off of the first flight to experience an in-flight cold flow test. The flight occurred on 4 March 1998. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume

  13. Evaluation of the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Oxygen Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.; Corpening, Griffin P.; Jarvis, Michele; Chiles, Harry R.

    1999-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) was a propulsion flight experiment for advanced space vehicles such as the X-33 and reusable launch vehicle. A linear aerospike rocket engine was integrated into a semi-span of an X-33-like lifting body shape (model), and carried on top of an SR-71 aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Because no flight data existed for aerospike nozzles, the primary objective of the LASRE flight experiment was to evaluate flight effects on the engine performance over a range of altitudes and Mach numbers. Because it contained a large quantity of energy in the form of fuel, oxidizer, hypergolics, and gases at very high pressures, the LASRE propulsion system posed a major hazard for fire or explosion. Therefore, a propulsion-hazard mitigation system was created for LASRE that included a nitrogen purge system. Oxygen sensors were a critical part of the nitrogen purge system because they measured purge operation and effectiveness. Because the available oxygen sensors were not designed for flight testing, a laboratory study investigated oxygen-sensor characteristics and accuracy over a range of altitudes and oxygen concentrations. Laboratory test data made it possible to properly calibrate the sensors for flight. Such data also provided a more accurate error prediction than the manufacturer's specification. This predictive accuracy increased confidence in the sensor output during critical phases of the flight. This paper presents the findings of this laboratory test.

  14. Test Report for NASA MSFC Support of the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) was performed in support of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program to help develop a linear aerospike engine. The objective of this program was to operate a small aerospike engine at various speeds and altitudes to determine how slipstreams affect the engine's performance. The joint program between government and industry included NASA!s Dryden Flight Research Center, The Air Force's Phillips Laboratory, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, Lockheed-Martin Astronautics, and Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American. Ground testing of the LASRE engine produced two successful hot-fire tests, along with numerous cold flows to verify sequencing and operation before mounting the assembly on the SR-71. Once installed on the aircraft, flight testing performed several cold flows on the engine system at altitudes ranging from 30,000 to 50,000 feet and Mach numbers ranging from 0.9 to 1.5. The program was terminated before conducting hot-fires in flight because excessive leaks in the propellant supply systems could not be fixed to meet required safety levels without significant program cost and schedule impacts.

  15. Propellant Feed System Leak Detection: Lessons Learned From the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, Neal; Mizukami, Masashi; Neal, Bradford A.; St. John, Clinton; Beil, Robert J.; Griffin, Timothy P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents pertinent results and assessment of propellant feed system leak detection as applied to the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) program flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The LASRE was a flight test of an aerospike rocket engine using liquid oxygen and high-pressure gaseous hydrogen as propellants. The flight safety of the crew and the experiment demanded proven technologies and techniques that could detect leaks and assess the integrity of hazardous propellant feed systems. Point source detection and systematic detection were used. Point source detection was adequate for catching gross leakage from components of the propellant feed systems, but insufficient for clearing LASRE to levels of acceptability. Systematic detection, which used high-resolution instrumentation to evaluate the health of the system within a closed volume, provided a better means for assessing leak hazards. Oxygen sensors detected a leak rate of approximately 0.04 cubic inches per second of liquid oxygen. Pressure sensor data revealed speculated cryogenic boiloff through the fittings of the oxygen system, but location of the source(s) was indeterminable. Ultimately, LASRE was cancelled because leak detection techniques were unable to verify that oxygen levels could be maintained below flammability limits.

  16. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE): Aerospace Propulsion Hazard Mitigation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Corpening, Griffin P.; Ray, Ronald J.; Hass, Neal; Ennix, Kimberly A.; Lazaroff, Scott M.

    1998-01-01

    A major hazard posed by the propulsion system of hypersonic and space vehicles is the possibility of fire or explosion in the vehicle environment. The hazard is mitigated by minimizing or detecting, in the vehicle environment, the three ingredients essential to producing fire: fuel, oxidizer, and an ignition source. The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) consisted of a linear aerospike rocket engine integrated into one-half of an X-33-like lifting body shape, carried on top of an SR-71 aircraft. Gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen were used as propellants. Although LASRE is a one-of-a-kind experimental system, it must be rated for piloted flight, so this test presented a unique challenge. To help meet safety requirements, the following propulsion hazard mitigation systems were incorporated into the experiment: pod inert purge, oxygen sensors, a hydrogen leak detection algorithm, hydrogen sensors, fire detection and pod temperature thermocouples, water misting, and control room displays. These systems are described, and their development discussed. Analyses, ground test, and flight test results are presented, as are findings and lessons learned.

  17. Experimental Results for an Annular Aerospike with Differential Throttling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center funded an internal study on Altitude Compensating Nozzles (ACN) for aerospike engines. The experimental hardware for the engine test is described in this viewgraph presentation, as well as the results of the experiment. The results include spike wall pressures, nozzle efficiency, and side force for four nozzle configurations.

  18. Automated Testing Experience of the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Richard R.

    1999-01-01

    System controllers must be fail-safe, low cost, flexible to software changes, able to output health and status words, and permit rapid retest qualification. The system controller designed and tested for the aerospike engine program was an attempt to meet these requirements. This paper describes (1) the aerospike controller design, (2) the automated simulation testing techniques, and (3) the real time monitoring data visualization structure. Controller cost was minimized by design of a single-string system that used an off-the-shelf 486 central processing unit (CPU). A linked-list architecture, with states (nodes) defined in a user-friendly state table, accomplished software changes to the controller. Proven to be fail-safe, this system reported the abort cause and automatically reverted to a safe condition for any first failure. A real time simulation and test system automated the software checkout and retest requirements. A program requirement to decode all abort causes in real time during all ground and flight tests assured the safety of flight decisions and the proper execution of mission rules. The design also included health and status words, and provided a real time analysis interpretation for all health and status data.

  19. A Base Drag Reduction Experiment on the X-33 Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    Drag reduction tests were conducted on the LASRE/X-33 flight experiment. The LASRE experiment is a flight test of a roughly 20% scale model of an X-33 forebody with a single aerospike engine at the rear. The experiment apparatus is mounted on top of an SR-71 aircraft. This paper suggests a method for reducing base drag by adding surface roughness along the forebody. Calculations show a potential for base drag reductions of 8-14%. Flight results corroborate the base drag reduction, with actual reductions of 15% in the high-subsonic flight regime. An unexpected result of this experiment is that drag benefits were shown to persist well into the supersonic flight regime. Flight results show no overall net drag reduction. Applied surface roughness causes forebody pressures to rise and offset base drag reductions. Apparently the grit displaced streamlines outward, causing forebody compression. Results of the LASRE drag experiments are inconclusive and more work is needed. Clearly, however, the forebody grit application works as a viable drag reduction tool.

  20. X-33 Linear Aerospike Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinson, John

    1998-01-01

    In July of 1999 two linear aerospike rocket engines will power the first flight of NASA's X-33 advanced technology demonstrator. A successful X-33 flight test program will validate the aerospike nozzle concept, a key technical feature of Lockheed Martin's VentureStar(trademark) reusable launch vehicle. The aerospike received serious consideration for NASA's current space shuttle, but was eventually rejected in 1969 in favor of high chamber pressure bell engines, in part because of perceived technical risk. The aerospike engine (discussed below) has several performance advantages over conventional bell engines. However, these performance advantages are difficult to validate by ground test. The space shuttle, a multibillion dollar program intended to provide all of NASA's future space lift could not afford the gamble of choosing a potentially superior though unproven aerospike engine over a conventional bell engine. The X-33 demonstrator provides an opportunity to prove the aerospike's performance advantage in flight before commiting to an operational vehicle.

  1. A Modular Aerospike Engine Design Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John; Garcia, Chance; Burkhardt, Wendel

    2014-01-01

    A modular aerospike engine concept has been developed with the objective of demonstrating the viability of the aerospike design using additive manufacturing techniques. The aerospike system is a self-compensating design that allows for optimal performance over the entire flight regime and allows for the lowest possible mass vehicle designs. At low altitudes, improvements in Isp can be traded against chamber pressure, staging, and payload. In upper stage applications, expansion ratio and engine envelope can be traded against nozzle efficiency. These features provide flexibility to the System Designer optimizing a complete vehicle stage. The aerospike concept is a good example of a component that has demonstrated improved performance capability, but traditionally has manufacturing requirements that are too expensive and complex to use in a production vehicle. In recent years, additive manufacturing has emerged as a potential method for improving the speed and cost of building geometrically complex components in rocket engines. It offers a reduction in tooling overhead and significant improvements in the integration of the designer and manufacturing method. In addition, the modularity of the engine design provides the ability to perform full scale testing on the combustion devices outside of the full engine configuration. The proposed design uses a hydrocarbon based gas-generator cycle, with plans to take advantage of existing powerhead hardware while focusing DDT&E resources on manufacturing and sub-system testing of the combustion devices. The major risks for the modular aerospike concept lie in the performance of the propellant feed system, the structural integrity of the additive manufactured components, and the aerodynamic efficiency of the exhaust flow.

  2. Optimized Dual Expander Aerospike Rocket

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Martin chose to use Valve04 elements in the DEAN model instead of the pipe elements since the pipe elements either are for water flow, require a user...Specific Heat Diameter of Combustion Chamber or Cooling Channel Coolant Channel Hydraulic Diameter Pipe Inner Diameter Pipe Outer Diameter dr...Thermal Conductivity K Pressure Loss Coefficient or K-Factor Aerospike Length L* Characteristic Length l Total Piping Length xv M Mach

  3. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum re-oriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  4. Parametric Model of an Aerospike Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    A suite of computer codes was assembled to simulate the performance of an aerospike engine and to generate the engine input for the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories. First an engine simulator module was developed that predicts the aerospike engine performance for a given mixture ratio, power level, thrust vectoring level, and altitude. This module was then used to rapidly generate the aerospike engine performance tables for axial thrust, normal thrust, pitching moment, and specific thrust. Parametric engine geometry was defined for use with the engine simulator module. The parametric model was also integrated into the iSIGHTI multidisciplinary framework so that alternate designs could be determined. The computer codes were used to support in-house conceptual studies of reusable launch vehicle designs.

  5. Parametric Model of an Aerospike Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    A suite of computer codes was assembled to simulate the performance of an aerospike engine and to generate the engine input for the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories. First an engine simulator module was developed that predicts the aerospike engine performance for a given mixture ratio, power level, thrust vectoring level, and altitude. This module was then used to rapidly generate the aerospike engine performance tables for axial thrust, normal thrust, pitching moment, and specific thrust. Parametric engine geometry was defined for use with the engine simulator module. The parametric model was also integrated into the iSIGHT multidisciplinary framework so that alternate designs could be determined. The computer codes were used to support in-house conceptual studies of reusable launch vehicle designs.

  6. Aerothermodynamics of generic re-entry vehicle with a series of aerospikes at nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rajesh; Velidi, Gurunadh; Guven, Ugur

    2014-03-01

    Re-entry of a blunt nosed vehicle is one of the most intriguing problems in any space programme. Especially in light of various space tourism possibilities, there are many works concerning re-entry of commercial blunt nosed space vehicles. In this paper, a generic blunt body re-entry model represented by a hemisphere-cylinder, fitted axisymmetrically with an aerodisk aerospike at the nose is investigated numerically with commercially available control volume based axisymmetric flow solver. The scaled down re-entry model has a base diameter of 40 mm and an overall length of 100 mm. A 6 mm diameter aerospike fitted axisymmetrically at the nose has a hemispherical cap from which another aerospike of 4 mm diameter protrudes which again has a hemispherical cap. Two dimensional compressible, axisymmetric Navier Stokes Equations are solved for a turbulent hypersonic flow of a 5 species, chemically reacting air in thermal equilibrium with free stream conditions of Mach no., static pressure and temperature of 10.1, 16,066 Pa and 216.65 K, respectively. The results are compared with that of re-entry model without any aerospike. Among the cases investigated, the spiked blunt body having two aerospikes in series with lengths l1 and l2 equal to 30 and 20 respectively and overall length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 showed a favourable reduction in the peak reattachment heat flux along with high reduction in aerodynamic drag and thus stands as a prospective case for blunt body nose configuration for hypersonic flight.

  7. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Telescopic Aerospikes with Multiple-Row-Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Maru, Yusuke; Sato, Tetsuya

    This paper reports experimental studies on telescopic aerospikes with multiple disks. The telescopic aerospike is useful as an aerodynamic control device; however, changing its length causes a buzz phenomenon, which many researchers have reported. The occurrence of buzzing might be critical to the vehicle because it brings about severe pressure oscillations on the surface. Disks on the shaft produce stable recirculation regions by dividing the single separation flow into several conical cavity flows. The telescopic aerospikes with stabilizer disks are useful without any length constraints. Aerodynamic characteristics of the telescopic aerospikes were investigated through a series of wind tunnel tests. Transition of recirculation/reattachment flow modes of a plain spike causes a large change in the drag coefficient. Because of this hysteresis phenomenon and the buzzing, the plain spike is unsuitable for fine aerodynamic control devices. Adding stabilizer disks is effective for the improved control of aerospikes.

  8. Aerospike thrust chamber program. [cumulative damage and maintenance of structural members in hydrogen oxygen engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J., Jr.; Cobb, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    An existing, but damaged, 25,000-pound thrust, flightweight, oxygen/hydrogen aerospike rocket thrust chamber was disassembled and partially repaired. A description is presented of the aerospike chamber configuration and of the damage it had suffered. Techniques for aerospike thrust chamber repair were developed, and are described, covering repair procedures for lightweight tubular nozzles, titanium thrust structures, and copper channel combustors. Effort was terminated prior to completion of the repairs and conduct of a planned hot fire test program when it was found that the copper alloy walls of many of the thrust chamber's 24 combustors had been degraded in strength and ductility during the initial fabrication of the thrust chamber. The degradation is discussed and traced to a reaction between oxygen and/or oxides diffused into the copper alloy during fabrication processes and the hydrogen utilized as a brazing furnace atmosphere during the initial assembly operation on many of the combustors. The effects of the H2/O2 reaction within the copper alloy are described.

  9. C-2-Upgrade Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Artem

    2016-10-01

    In the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment, tangential neutral beam injection (20 - 40 keV hydrogen, 4 MW total), coupled with electrically-biased plasma guns at the plasma ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning, led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved plasma stability. Under such conditions, highly reproducible FRCs with a significant fast-ion population and total plasma temperature of about 1 keV were achieved. The FRC's were macroscopically stable and decayed on characteristic transport time scales of a few milliseconds. In order to sustain an FRC configuration, the C-2 device was upgraded with a new neutral beam injection (NBI) system, which can deliver a total of 10 + MW of hydrogen beam power, by far the largest ever used in a compact toroid plasma experiment. Compared to C-2, the beam energy was lowered to 15 keV and angled injection geometry was adopted to provide better beam coupling to the FRC. The upgraded neutral beams produce a dominant fast ion population that makes a dramatic beneficial impact on the overall plasma performance. Specifically: (1) high-performance, advanced beam-driven FRCs were produced and sustained for times significantly longer (5 + ms) than all characteristic plasma decay times without the beams, (2) the sustainment is fully correlated with neutral beam injection, (3) confinement of fast ions is close to the classical limit, and (4) new, benign collective fast ion effects were observed. Collectively, these accomplishments represent a dramatic advance towards the scientific validation of the FRC-based approach to fusion. This talk will provide a comprehensive overview of the C-2U device and recent experimental advances.

  10. Experimental Results for an Annular Aerospike with Differential Throttling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A) MSFC funded an internal study on Altitude Compensating Nozzles: 1) Develop an ACN design and performance prediction tool. 2) Design, build and test cold flow ACN nozzles. 3) An annular aerospike nozzle was designed and tested. 4) Incorporated differential throttling to assess Thrust Vector Control. B) Objective of the test hardware: 1) Provide design tool verification. 2) Provide benchmark data for CFD calculations. 3) Experimentally measure side force, or TVC, for a differentially throttled annular aerospike.

  11. Ground-based firing of a linear aerospike rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In this 23-second clip the Rocketdyne linear aerospike rocket engine is fired in a test stand at the Santa Susana facility of Rocketdyne in Chatsworth, California. Unlike conventional rocket engines the linear aerospike has no bell nozzle to contain and direct the expanding gases. Instead, the gases are aimed down a V-shaped ramp, which makes up one side of the 'nozzle,' with the side open to the atmosphere allowing optimum expansion at all altitudes while providing thrust.

  12. Multidisciplinary Approach to Linear Aerospike Nozzle Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Salas, A. O.; Dunn, H. J.; Alexandrov, N. M.; Follett, W. W.; Orient, G. E.; Hadid, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    A model of a linear aerospike rocket nozzle that consists of coupled aerodynamic and structural analyses has been developed. A nonlinear computational fluid dynamics code is used to calculate the aerodynamic thrust, and a three-dimensional fink-element model is used to determine the structural response and weight. The model will be used to demonstrate multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) capabilities for relevant engine concepts, assess performance of various MDO approaches, and provide a guide for future application development. In this study, the MDO problem is formulated using the multidisciplinary feasible (MDF) strategy. The results for the MDF formulation are presented with comparisons against sequential aerodynamic and structural optimized designs. Significant improvements are demonstrated by using a multidisciplinary approach in comparison with the single- discipline design strategy.

  13. Multidisciplinary Approach to Aerospike Nozzle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Salas, A. O.; Dunn, H. J.; Alexandrov, N. M.; Follett, W. W.; Orient, G. E.; Hadid, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    A model of a linear aerospike rocket nozzle that consists of coupled aerodynamic and structural analyses has been developed. A nonlinear computational fluid dynamics code is used to calculate the aerodynamic thrust, and a three-dimensional finite-element model is used to determine the structural response and weight. The model will be used to demonstrate multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) capabilities for relevant engine concepts, assess performance of various MDO approaches, and provide a guide for future application development. In this study, the MDO problem is formulated using the multidisciplinary feasible (MDF) strategy. The results for the MDF formulation are presented with comparisons against separate aerodynamic and structural optimized designs. Significant improvements are demonstrated by using a multidisciplinary approach in comparison with the single-discipline design strategy.

  14. Results From the USML-2 Interface Configuration Experiment. Experiment 30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. For studying such shifts, container shapes are described that were flown on board the Space Shuttle USML-2 mission as part of the Glovebox Interface Configuration Experiment. These containers are in the form of a circular cylinder with two diametrically opposed "canonical proboscis" protrusions. The containers were designed with the goal of having two desirable properties -that sufficient liquid would participate in the shift to permit easy observation, and that the change would be abrupt enough to allow accurate determination of critical contact angle. The observed behavior for these vessels is depicted, along with behavior for a movable wedge vessel, which also formed part of the experiment. The experimental results support the validity of the concept of macroscopic contact angle, basic to the theory, and thereby its use in predicting fluid behavior under reduced gravity. The results indicate, as well, the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation to equilibrium.

  15. COLD-SAT orbital experiment configured for Atlas launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, J. R.; Bennett, F. O.; Wachter, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The design and requirements for the proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite experiment, which is to be launched by Atlas I, are examined. The COLD-SAT experiments are categorized as class I and II; class I involves technology related to space transportation missions and class II represents alternative fluid management operations and data. The hardware for the COLD-SAT experiments consists of three hydrogen tanks contained in the experimental module; the experimental module is connected to a three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus, and thrusters are positioned on the forward and aft ends of the spacecraft and on the cylindrical portion of the experimental module. The components and systems of the experiment module and the types of experiments that can be conducted in each tank are described. Diagrams of the spacecraft configuration are provided.

  16. Comparison of Response Surface and Kriging Models in the Multidisciplinary Design of an Aerospike Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Timothy W.

    1998-01-01

    The use of response surface models and kriging models are compared for approximating non-random, deterministic computer analyses. After discussing the traditional response surface approach for constructing polynomial models for approximation, kriging is presented as an alternative statistical-based approximation method for the design and analysis of computer experiments. Both approximation methods are applied to the multidisciplinary design and analysis of an aerospike nozzle which consists of a computational fluid dynamics model and a finite element analysis model. Error analysis of the response surface and kriging models is performed along with a graphical comparison of the approximations. Four optimization problems are formulated and solved using both approximation models. While neither approximation technique consistently outperforms the other in this example, the kriging models using only a constant for the underlying global model and a Gaussian correlation function perform as well as the second order polynomial response surface models.

  17. X-33/RLV Program Aerospike Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Substantial progress was made during the past year in support of the X-33/RLV program. X-33 activity was directed towards completing the remaining design work and building hardware to support test activities. RLV work focused on the nozzle ramp and powerpack technology tasks and on supporting vehicle configuration studies. On X-33, the design activity was completed to the detail level and the remainder of the drawings were released. Component fabrication and engine assembly activity was initiated, and the first two powerpacks and the GSE and STE needed to support powerpack testing were completed. Components fabrication is on track to support the first engine assembly schedule. Testing activity included powerpack testing and component development tests consisting of thrust cell single cell testing, CWI system spider testing, and EMA valve flow and vibration testing. Work performed for RLV was divided between engine system and technology development tasks. Engine system activity focused on developing the engine system configuration and supporting vehicle configuration studies. Also, engine requirements were developed, and engine performance analyses were conducted. In addition, processes were developed for implementing reliability, mass properties, and cost controls during design. Technology development efforts were divided between powerpack and nozzle ramp technology tasks. Powerpack technology activities were directed towards the development of a prototype powerpack and a ceramic turbine technology demonstrator (CTTD) test article which will allow testing of ceramic turbines and a close-coupled gas generator design. Nozzle technology efforts were focused on the selection of a composite nozzle supplier and on the fabrication and test of composite nozzle coupons.

  18. Experimental Results on the Feasibility of an Aerospike for Hypersonic Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Mitchell, Anthony M.; Boudreaux, Ellis J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests have been performed on an aerospike-protected missile dome at a Mach number of 6 to obtain quantitative surface pressure and temperature-rise data, as well as qualitative flow visualization data. These data were used to determine aerospike concept feasibility and will also provide a database to be used for calibration of computational fluid dynamics codes. Data were obtained on the hemispherical missile dome with and without an aerospike that protrudes ahead of the dome along the axisymmetric center line. Data were obtained on two models (one pressure, one temperature) in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel at a freestream Reynolds number of 8.0 x 10(exp 6) per feet and angles of attack from 0 to 40 degrees. Surface pressure and temperature-rise results indicate that the aerospike is effective for very low angles of attack (less than 5 degrees) at Mach 6. Above 5 degrees, impingement of the aerospike bow shock and the flow separation shock from the recirculation region created by the aerospike causes pressure and temperature increases on the windward side of the dome which exceed values observed in the same region with the aerospike removed. Flow characterization obtained via oil-flow and schlieren photographs provides some insight into the quantitative surface data results, including vortical flow and shock-wave impingement.

  19. High-Speed Observer: Automated Streak Detection for the Aerospike Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieckhoff, T. J.; Covan, M. A.; OFarrell, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    A high-frame-rate digital video camera, installed on test stands at Stennis Space Center (SSC), has been used to capture images of the aerospike engine plume during test. These plume images are processed in real time to detect and differentiate anomalous plume events. Results indicate that the High-Speed Observer (HSO) system can detect anomalous plume streaking events that are indicative of aerospike engine malfunction.

  20. Analysis of Aerospike Plume Induced Base-Heating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    1998-01-01

    Computational analysis is conducted to study the effect of an aerospike engine plume on X-33 base-heating environment during ascent flight. To properly account for the effect of forebody and aftbody flowfield such as shocks and to allow for potential plume-induced flow-separation, thermo-flowfield of trajectory points is computed. The computational methodology is based on a three-dimensional finite-difference, viscous flow, chemically reacting, pressure-base computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a three-dimensional, finite-volume, spectral-line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases radiation absorption model computational heat transfer formulation. The predicted convective and radiative base-heat fluxes are presented.

  1. Focused RBCC Experiments: Two-Rocket Configuration Experiments and Hydrocarbon/Oxygen Rocket Ejector Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

    2003-01-01

    This addendum report documents the results of two additional efforts for the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) rocket-ejector mode research work carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA s technology development efforts for enabling 3 d generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The tasks reported here build on an earlier NASA MSFC funded research program on rocket ejector investigations. The first task investigated the improvements of a gaseous hydrogen/oxygen twin thruster RBCC rocket ejector system over a single rocket system. The second task investigated the performance of a hydrocarbon (liquid JP-7)/gaseous oxygen single thruster rocket-ejector system. To gain a systematic understanding of the rocket-ejector s internal fluid mechanic/combustion phenomena, experiments were conducted with both direct-connect and sea-level static diffusion and afterburning (DAB) configurations for a range of rocket operating conditions. For all experimental conditions, overall system performance was obtained through global measurements of wall static pressure profiles, heat flux profiles and engine thrust. Detailed mixing and combustion information was obtained through Raman spectroscopy measurements of major species (gaseous oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and water vapor) for the gaseous hydrogen/oxygen rocket ejector experiments.

  2. Development Unit Configuration Status of the MIP/MAAC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlmann, P. B.; Johnson, K. R.; Rapp, D.; Wu, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) Precursor (MIP) experiment package is planned for inclusion on the Mars 2001 Lander. This experiment package consists of five experiments whose purpose is to demonstrate the performance of various ISPP processes in-situ on Mars. The demonstrated ability to produce propellant for Mars Return Vehicles (MRV) is considered to be a necessary precursor to any future manned mission to Mars. The Mars Atmosphere Acquisition and Compression (MAAC) experiment is part of the MIP package and is intended to demonstrate that, by using a sorption compressor, CO2 can be preferentially adsorbed at about 6 torr from the Mars atmosphere during the night when the bed is cold then subsequently compressed to about 800 torr by heating the bed and desorbing C02 during the day. The compressed CO2 produced by MAAC is to be fed to the Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) where pure oxygen is to be produced. Pure oxygen is considered to be one of the primary constituents of a future manned MRV propellant system. A MAAC Development Unit (DU) has been fabricated and tested at JPL. The MAAC DU consists of: (1) a sorption bed filled with a CO2 selective sorbent material; (2) a purge system to be used to periodically backflush non-CO2 gases from the sorbent bed during adsorption; (3) a JPL-developed gas-gap heat switch that allows heat transfer to a radiator for heat removal from the bed during the night time adsorption period and that impedes heat transfer during the day time desorption period; (4) a radiator to radiate heat to the night sky during the adsorption period; (5) a set of three isolation valves and connecting tubing; (6) two pressure transducers and several thermocouples for monitoring the MAAC operating conditions, and command and data handling electronics. This paper will describe the operational theory and the configuration of the MAAC DU and will discuss the current status of the MAAC experiment development including some selected results

  3. Test bed experiments for various telerobotic system characteristics and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffie, Neil A.; Wiker, Steven F.; Zik, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation and grasping in telerobotic systems depends on the integration of high-performance sensors, displays, actuators and controls into systems in which careful consideration has been given to human perception and tolerance. Research underway at the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) has the objective of enhancing the performance of these systems and their components, and quantifying the effects of the many electrical, mechanical, control, and human factors that affect their performance. This will lead to a fundamental understanding of performance issues which will in turn allow designers to evaluate sensor, actuator, display, and control technologies with respect to generic measures of dexterous performance. As part of this effort, an experimental test bed was developed which has telerobotic components with exceptionally high fidelity in master/slave operation. A Telerobotic Performance Analysis System has also been developed which allows performance to be determined for various system configurations and electro-mechanical characteristics. Both this performance analysis system and test bed experiments are described.

  4. Demystifying Introductory Chemistry. Part 1: Electron Configurations from Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Ronald J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents suggestions for alternative presentations of some of the material that usually forms part of the introductory chemistry course. Emphasizes development of concepts from experimental results. Discusses electronic configurations and quantum numbers, experimental evidence for electron configurations, deducing the shell model from the periodic…

  5. Configuring the National Ignition Facility for direct-drive experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D.

    1995-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a project whose primary mission is to provide an above-ground experimental capability for maintaining nuclear competence and weapons effects simulation, and to pursue the achievement of fusion ignition utilizing solid state lasers as the energy driver. In this facility a large number of laser beams are focused onto a small target located at the center of a spherical target chamber. The laser energy is delivered in a few billionths of a second, raising the temperature and density of the nuclear materials in the target to levels where significant thermonuclear energy is released. The thermonuclear reaction proceeds very rapidly, so that the target materials remain confined by their own inertia during the thermonuclear reaction. This type of approach is called inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The proposed project is described in a conceptual design report (CDR) that was released in May 1994. Early in FY95, a collaboration between the University of Rochester and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was established to study reconfiguring the NIF to accommodate direct-drive experiments. The present paper is a report to the scientific community, primarily the scientists and engineers working on the design of the NIF. It represents results from work in progress, specifically work completed by the end of the second quarter FY95. This report has two main sections. The first describes the target requirements on the laser drive, and the second part describes how the NIF laser can be configured to accommodate both indirect and direct drive. The report includes a description of the scientific basis for these conclusions. Though a complete picture does not exist, the present understanding is sufficient to conclude that the primary target requirements and laser functional requirements for indirect and direct drive are quite compatible. It is evidently straightforward to reconfigure the NIF to accommodate direct and indirect drive.

  6. Coolant Design System for Liquid Propellant Aerospike Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Miranda; Branam, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engines burn at incredibly high temperatures making it difficult to design an effective coolant system. These particular engines prove to be extremely useful by powering the rocket with a variable thrust that is ideal for space travel. When combined with aerospike engine nozzles, which provide maximum thrust efficiency, this class of rockets offers a promising future for rocketry. In order to troubleshoot the problems that high combustion chamber temperatures pose, this research took a computational approach to heat analysis. Chambers milled into the combustion chamber walls, lined by a copper cover, were tested for their efficiency in cooling the hot copper wall. Various aspect ratios and coolants were explored for the maximum wall temperature by developing our own MATLAB code. The code uses a nodal temperature analysis with conduction and convection equations and assumes no internal heat generation. This heat transfer research will show oxygen is a better coolant than water, and higher aspect ratios are less efficient at cooling. This project funded by NSF REU Grant 1358991.

  7. Linear test bed. Volume 1: Test bed no. 1. [aerospike test bed with segmented combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Linear Test Bed program was to design, fabricate, and evaluation test an advanced aerospike test bed which employed the segmented combustor concept. The system is designated as a linear aerospike system and consists of a thrust chamber assembly, a power package, and a thrust frame. It was designed as an experimental system to demonstrate the feasibility of the linear aerospike-segmented combustor concept. The overall dimensions are 120 inches long by 120 inches wide by 96 inches in height. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure, at a mixture ratio of 5.5. At the design conditions, the sea level thrust is 200,000 pounds. The complete program including concept selection, design, fabrication, component test, system test, supporting analysis and posttest hardware inspection is described.

  8. Peak Heat Fluxe Reduction Using Aerospikes Installed On Multimodule Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinov, A.; Yurchenko, I.; Karakotin, I.; Vaganov, A.; Drozdov, S.; Skuratov, A.

    2011-05-01

    Based on the experimental data in the supersonic wind tunnels the flow patterns, which cause peak pressure and peak heat fluxes on the heavy space rocket surfaces, were researched. Physical interpretations for each flow pattern are presented. Peak areas dimensions were specified. Influence of aerospike attached to on lateral rocket module to the heat fluxes was investigated

  9. Computational Design of Upperstage Chamber Aerospike and Cooling Jacket for Dual-Expander Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    heat transfer is Incropera et.al. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 19 The two major mechanisms in which the heat is transferred are...of the Base Bleed Effect on the Aerospike Nozzles”, AIAA Paper 2002-0512, 2002. 19 Incropera , DeWitt, Bergman, & Lavine, Fundamentals of Heat and

  10. Fractional Factorial Experiment Designs to Minimize Configuration Changes in Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard; Cler, Daniel L.; Graham, Albert B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper serves as a tutorial to introduce the wind tunnel research community to configuration experiment designs that can satisfy resource constraints in a configuration study involving several variables, without arbitrarily eliminating any of them from the experiment initially. The special case of a configuration study featuring variables at two levels is examined in detail. This is the type of study in which each configuration variable has two natural states - 'on or off', 'deployed or not deployed', 'low or high', and so forth. The basic principles are illustrated by results obtained in configuration studies conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility and in the ViGYAN Low Speed Tunnel in Hampton, Virginia. The crucial role of interactions among configuration variables is highlighted with an illustration of difficulties that can be encountered when they are not properly taken into account.

  11. Acoustic and Oceanographic Observations and Configuration Information for the WHOI Moorings from the SW06 Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    application ............................................................................................................... 43 6.0 Shark HLA VVLA...Oceanographic Observations and Configuration Information for the WHOI moorings from the SW06 Experiment 2 6.1 Shark m ooring configuration...46 6.2 Shark 48 Channel HLA/VLA data acquisition system and data

  12. COLD-SAT orbital experiment configured for Altas launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.; Bennett, F. O.; Wachter, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    A study was done of the feasibility of conducting liquid hydrogen orbital storage, acquisition, and transfer experiments aboard a spacecraft launched by a commercial Atlas launch vehicle. Three hydrogen tanks are mated to a spacecraft bus that is similar to that used for three-axis-controlled satellites. The bus provides power, communications, and attitude control along with acceleration levels ranging from 10 exp -6 to 10 exp -4 g. At launch, all the liquid hydrogen is contained in the largest tank, which has an insulation system designed for both space operation and the short-term launch pad and ascent environment. This tank is much lighter and lower in cost than a vacuum-jacketed design, and is made possible by the experiment tanking options available due to the hydrogen-fueled Centaur upper stage of the Atlas I.

  13. Implementation of Configurable Fault Tolerant Processor (CFTP) Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    X2, the Experiment FPGA , as well as to perform periodic scrubbing and reconfiguration of X2 [4]. The VHDL code for the Controller is separated into...for the code (schematics and/or VHDL ) to run on an FPGA . 2. Compiling within Linux (“make” files) Note: Skip this part and go to part 3, “The NCD...mitigate the radiation hazards posed to FPGAs . A significant challenge faced by the CFTP team has been the integration and subsequent software

  14. Recent magneto-inertial fusion experiments on the field reversed configuration heating experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, J. H.; Amdahl, D. J.; Domonkos, M.; Lehr, F. M.; Grabowski, C.; Robinson, P. R.; Ruden, E. L.; White, W. M.; Wurden, G. A.; Intrator, T. P.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Waganaar, W. J.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Makhin, V.; Roderick, N. F.; Gale, D. G.; Kostora, M.; Lerma, A.; McCullough, J. L.; Sommars, W.; Kiuttu, G. F.; Bauer, B.; Fuelling, S. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Lynn, A. G.; Turchi, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) approaches take advantage of an embedded magnetic field to improve plasma energy confinement by reducing thermal conduction relative to conventional inertial confinement fusion (ICF). MIF reduces required precision in the implosion and the convergence ratio. Since 2008 (Wurden et al 2008 IAEA 2008 Fusion Energy Conf. (Geneva, Switzerland, 13-18 October) IC/P4-13 LA-UR-08-0796) and since our prior refereed publication on this topic (Degnan et al 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 80), AFRL and LANL have developed further one version of MIF. We have (1) reliably formed, translated, and captured field reversed configurations (FRCs) in magnetic mirrors inside metal shells or liners in preparation for subsequent compression by liner implosion; (2) imploded a liner with interior magnetic mirror field, obtaining evidence for compression of a 1.36 T field to 540 T (3) performed a full system experiment of FRC formation, translation, capture, and imploding liner compression operation; (4) identified by comparison of 2D-MHD simulation and experiments factors limiting the closed-field lifetime of FRCs to about half that required for good liner compression of FRCs to multi-keV, 1019 ion cm-3, high energy density plasma (HEDP) conditions; and (5) designed and prepared hardware to increase that closed-field FRC lifetime to the required amount. Those lifetime experiments are now underway, with the goal of at least doubling closed-field FRC lifetimes and performing FRC implosions to HEDP conditions this year. These experiments have obtained imaging evidence of FRC rotation, and of initial rotation control measures slowing and stopping such rotation. Important improvements in fidelity of simulation to experiment have been achieved, enabling improved guidance and understanding of experiment design and performance.

  15. Optimized Minimal Inductance Transmission Line Configuration for Z-Pinch Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O

    2003-10-16

    Successful dynamic Z-pinch experiments generally require good current delivery to the target load. Power flow losses through highly inductive transmission line configurations reduce the current available to the load. In this Brief Report, a variational calculus technique is used to determine the transmission line configuration that produces the least possible inductance and therefore the best possible current delivery for Z-pinch experiments.

  16. Snowflake divertor configuration studies in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; McLean, A. G.; Rognlien, T. D.; Ryutov, D. D.; Umansky, M. V.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaye, S.; Kolemen, E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Menard, J. E.; Paul, S. F.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Scotti, F.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, M. G.; Gates, D. A.; Kaita, R.; and others

    2012-08-15

    Experimental results from NSTX indicate that the snowflake divertor (D. Ryutov, Phys. Plasmas 14, 064502 (2007)) may be a viable solution for outstanding tokamak plasma-material interface issues. Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux and divertor plate erosion remains to be critical issues for ITER and future concept devices based on conventional and spherical tokamak geometry with high power density divertors. Experiments conducted in 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas in NSTX demonstrated that the snowflake divertor is compatible with high-confinement core plasma operation, while being very effective in steady-state divertor heat flux mitigation and impurity reduction. A steady-state snowflake divertor was obtained in recent NSTX experiments for up to 600 ms using three divertor magnetic coils. The high magnetic flux expansion region of the scrape-off layer (SOL) spanning up to 50% of the SOL width {lambda}{sub q} was partially detached in the snowflake divertor. In the detached zone, the heat flux profile flattened and decreased to 0.5-1 MW/m{sup 2} (from 4-7 MW/m{sup 2} in the standard divertor) indicative of radiative heating. An up to 50% increase in divertor, P{sub rad} in the snowflake divertor was accompanied by broadening of the intrinsic C III and C IV radiation zones, and a nearly order of magnitude increase in divertor high-n Balmer line emission indicative of volumetric recombination onset. Magnetic reconstructions showed that the x-point connection length, divertor plasma-wetted area and divertor volume, all critical parameters for geometric reduction of deposited heat flux, and increased volumetric divertor losses were significantly increased in the snowflake divertor, as expected from theory.

  17. Euler and Potential Experiment/CFD Correlations for a Transport and Two Delta-Wing Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, R. M.; Cliff, S. E.; Melton, J. E.; Langhi, R. G.; Goodsell, A. M.; Robertson, D. D.; Moyer, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    A selection of successes and failures of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is discussed. Experiment/CFD correlations involving full potential and Euler computations of the aerodynamic characteristics of four commercial transport wings and two low aspect ratio, delta wing configurations are shown. The examples consist of experiment/CFD comparisons for aerodynamic forces, moments, and pressures. Navier-Stokes equations are not considered.

  18. Experience influences elemental and configural perception of certain binary odour mixtures in newborn rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sinding, Charlotte; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Crepeaux, Guillemette; Schaal, Benoist; Coureaud, Gérard

    2011-12-15

    Elemental and configural olfactory perception allows interaction with the environment from very early in life. To evaluate how newborn rabbits can extract and respond to information from the highly complex chemical surroundings, and how experience acts on this sensory, cognitive and behavioural capability, we ran a study in four steps including a total of eight experiments. We mainly used a binary AB mixture comprising ethyl isobutyrate (component A) and ethyl maltol (component B), previously shown as a bearer of blending properties; in rabbit pups (as in human adults), the mixture elicits a weak configural perception, i.e. the perception of a configural odour different from the odours of the components. First, a repeated exposure to one component of AB led to a more elemental perception of this mixture; conversely, a repeated exposure to AB facilitated its configural processing. Second, similar impact of experience did not appear with a non-blending AC mixture (ethyl isobutyrate-guaïacol). Third, repeated exposure to AB impacted not only the perception of AB, but also and in the same way the perception of the AC mixture sharing one component, and reciprocally. However, facilitation to perceive one mixture in one mode (configural/elemental) was not generalized to a mixture sharing no components with the experienced mixture [AB versus DE (damascenone and vanillin)]. Thus, experience contributes to the neonatal perception of odour mixtures and adds plasticity to the perceptual system. However, this impact remains dependent on the chemical composition of the mixtures.

  19. The Modern Design of Experiments for Configuration Aerodynamics: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The effects of slowly varying and persisting covariate effects on the accuracy and precision of experimental result is reviewed, as is the rationale for run-order randomization as a quality assurance tactic employed in the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) to defend against such effects. Considerable analytical complexity is introduced by restrictions on randomization in configuration aerodynamics tests because they involve hard-to-change configuration variables that cannot be randomized conveniently. Tradeoffs are examined between quality and productivity associated with varying degrees of rigor in accounting for such randomization restrictions. Certain characteristics of a configuration aerodynamics test are considered that may justify a relaxed accounting for randomization restrictions to achieve a significant reduction in analytical complexity with a comparably negligible adverse impact on the validity of the experimental results.

  20. Measured and predicted aerodynamic coefficients and shock shapes for Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Two scaled models of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle were tested in two air wind tunnels and one CF4 tunnel. The tests were to determine the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics, and shock shapes for the configuration in hypersonic continuum flow. The tests were conducted with a range of angle of attack to evaluate the effects of Mach number, Reynolds numbers, and normal shock density ratio.

  1. Managing Hardware Configurations and Data Products for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincks, A. D.; Shaw, J. R.; Chime Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is an ambitious new radio telescope project for measuring cosmic expansion and investigating dark energy. Keeping good records of both physical configuration of its 1280 antennas and their analogue signal chains as well as the ˜100 TB of data produced daily from its correlator will be essential to the success of CHIME. In these proceedings we describe the database-driven software we have developed to manage this complexity.

  2. Asymmetric Base-Bleed Effect on Aerospike Plume-Induced Base-Heating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Droege, Alan; DAgostino, Mark; Lee, Young-Ching; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    A computational heat transfer design methodology was developed to study the dual-engine linear aerospike plume-induced base-heating environment during one power-pack out, in ascent flight. It includes a three-dimensional, finite volume, viscous, chemically reacting, and pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, a special base-bleed boundary condition, and a three-dimensional, finite volume, and spectral-line-based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption computational radiation heat transfer formulation. A separate radiation model was used for diagnostic purposes. The computational methodology was systematically benchmarked. In this study, near-base radiative heat fluxes were computed, and they compared well with those measured during static linear aerospike engine tests. The base-heating environment of 18 trajectory points selected from three power-pack out scenarios was computed. The computed asymmetric base-heating physics were analyzed. The power-pack out condition has the most impact on convective base heating when it happens early in flight. The source of its impact comes from the asymmetric and reduced base bleed.

  3. Effects of landscape composition and configuration on pollination in a native herb: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Ekroos, Johan; Jakobsson, Anna; Wideen, Joel; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-10-01

    Bumble bee abundance in agricultural landscapes is known to decrease with increasing distance from seminatural grasslands, but whether the pollination of bumble-bee-pollinated wild plants shows a similar pattern is less well known. In addition, the relative effects of landscape composition (landscape heterogeneity) and landscape configuration (distance from seminatural grassland) on wild plant pollination, and the interaction between these landscape effects, have not been studied using landscape-level replication. We performed a field experiment to disentangle these landscape effects on the pollination of a native herb, the sticky catchfly (Lychnis viscaria), while accounting for the proportion of oilseed rape across landscapes and the local abundance of bee forage flowers. We measured pollen limitation (the degree to which seed set is pollen-limited), seed set, and seed set stability using potted plants placed in landscapes that differed in heterogeneity (composition) and distance from seminatural grassland (configuration). Pollen limitation and seed set in individual plants did not respond to landscape composition, landscape configuration, or proportion of oilseed rape. Instead, seed set increased with increasing local bee forage flower cover. However, we found within-plant variability in pollen limitation and seed set to increase with increasing distance from seminatural pasture. Our results suggest that average within-plant levels of pollen limitation and seed set respond less swiftly than the within-plant variability in pollen limitation and seed set to changes in landscape configuration. Although landscape effects on pollination were less important than predicted, we conclude that landscape configuration and local habitat characteristics play larger roles than landscape composition in the pollination of L. viscaria.

  4. Experiment/facility requirements document for the Space Station Furnace Facility. Section 1: Integrated configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The function of the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is to support materials research into the crystal growth and solidification processes of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will employ a variety of furnace modules which will be operated, regulated, and supported by a core of common subsystems. Furnace modules may be reconfigured or specifically developed to provide unique solidification conditions for each set of experiments. The SSFF modular approach permits the addition of new or scaled-up furnace modules to support the evolution of the facility as new science requirements are identified. The SSFF Core is of modular design to permit augmentation for enhanced capabilities. The fully integrated configuration of the SSFF will consist of three racks with the capability of supporting up to two furnace modules per rack. The initial configuration of the SSFF will consist of two of the three racks and one furnace module. This Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD) describes the integrated facility requirements for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Integrated Configuration-1 (IC1) mission. The IC1 SSFF will consist of two racks: the Core Rack, with the centralized subsystem equipment; and the Experiment Rack-1, with Furnace Module-1 and the distributed subsystem equipment to support the furnace. The SSFF support functions are provided by the following Core subsystems: power conditioning and distribution subsystem (SSFF PCDS); data management subsystem (SSFF DMS); thermal control Subsystem (SSFF TCS); gas distribution subsystem (SSFF GDS); and mechanical structures subsystem (SSFF MSS).

  5. Supersonic pressure measurements and comparison of theory to experiment for an arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manro, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an arrow-wing-body configuration consisting of flat and twisted wings, as well as leading- and trailing-edge control surface deflections, was conducted at Mach numbers from 1.54 to 2.50 to provide an experimental pressure data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory-to-experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using a state-of-the-art inviscid flow, constant-pressure-panel method. Emphasis was on conditions under which this theory is valid for both flat and twisted wings.

  6. Transonic pressure measurements and comparison of theory to experiment for three arrow-wing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manro, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of arrow-wing body configurations consisting of flat, twisted, and cambered twisted wings, as well as a variety of leading and trailing edge control surface deflections, were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.05 to provide an experimental pressure data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory to experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using state of the art attached flow methods. Conditions under which these theories are valid for these wings are presented.

  7. Critical experiments supporting underwater storage of tightly packed configurations of spent fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoovler, G. S.; Baldwin, M. N.; Maceda, E. L.; Welfare, F. G.

    1981-11-01

    Critical experiments were performed with low enriched UO2 arrays simulating underwater pin storage of spent pressurized water reactor fuel. Pin storage refers to a storage concept in which fuel assemblies are dismantled and the individual fuel pins from several assemblies are tightly packed into specially designed cannisters. Each critical configuration is sufficiently described and documented to permit the use of these data for validating critically calculational methods according to ANSI Standard N16.9-1975. The reactivity of each benchmark core was calculated using the AMPX-KENO IV package. The results of these analyses are also presented.

  8. Advanced Biasing Experiments on the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Matthew; Korepanov, Sergey; Garate, Eusebio; Yang, Xiaokang; Gota, Hiroshi; Douglass, Jon; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Uchizono, Nolan; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    The C-2 experiment seeks to study the evolution, heating and sustainment effects of neutral beam injection on field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. Recently, substantial improvements in plasma performance were achieved through the application of edge biasing with coaxial plasma guns located in the divertors. Edge biasing provides rotation control that reduces instabilities and E × B shear that improves confinement. Typically, the plasma gun arcs are run at ~ 10 MW for the entire shot duration (~ 5 ms), which will become unsustainable as the plasma duration increases. We have conducted several advanced biasing experiments with reduced-average-power plasma gun operating modes and alternative biasing cathodes in an effort to develop an effective biasing scenario applicable to steady state FRC plasmas. Early results show that several techniques can potentially provide effective, long-duration edge biasing.

  9. X-33 XRS-2200 Linear Aerospike Engine Sea Level Plume Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAgostino, Mark G.; Lee, Young C.; Wang, Ten-See; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Wide band plume radiation data were collected during ten sea level tests of a single XRS-2200 engine at the NASA Stennis Space Center in 1999 and 2000. The XRS-2200 is a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fueled, gas generator cycle linear aerospike engine which develops 204,420 lbf thrust at sea level. Instrumentation consisted of six hemispherical radiometers and one narrow view radiometer. Test conditions varied from 100% to 57% power level (PL) and 6.0 to 4.5 oxidizer to fuel (O/F) ratio. Measured radiation rates generally increased with engine chamber pressure and mixture ratio. One hundred percent power level radiation data were compared to predictions made with the FDNS and GASRAD codes. Predicted levels ranged from 42% over to 7% under average test values.

  10. Development Unit Configuration and Current Status of the MIP/MTERC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juanero, K. J.; Johnson, K. R.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) Precursor (MIP) experiment package is planned for inclusion on the Mars 2001 Lander. This experiment package consists of five experiments whose purpose is to demonstrate the performance of various ISPP processes in-situ on Mars. The demonstrated ability to produce propellant for Mars Return Vehicles (MRV) is considered to be a necessary precursor to any future manned mission to Mars. The Mars Thermal Environment/Radiator Characterization (MTERC) experiment is part of the MIP package and is intended to determine the Mars night sky temperature as well as to characterize the performance degradation of radiators caused by environmental exposure on Mars over time. Radiators are needed as part of the ISPP process to remove heat from the Mars Atmosphere Acquisition and Compression (MAAC) C02 sorption compressor. MTERC will provide the data needed to optimize the design of radiators for ISPP and other processes. A MTERC Development Unit (DU) has been fabricated and tested at JPL. The MTERC DU consists of: (1) a radiator subassembly, (2) a motor/cover subassembly, (3) a differential temperature control circuit and motor control electronics circuit board, and (4) a command and data handling electronics circuit board. This paper will describe the operational theory and the configuration of the MTERC DU and will discuss the current status of the MTERC experiment development including some selected results of performance testing that has been completed prior to the ISRU III meeting.

  11. Development Unit Configuration and Current Status of the MIP/MTERC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juanero, K. J.; Johnson, K. R.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) Precursor (MIP) experiment package is planned for inclusion on the Mars 2001 Lander. This experiment package consists of five experiments whose purpose is to demonstrate the performance of various ISPP processes in-situ on Mars. The demonstrated ability to produce propellant for Mars Return Vehicles (MRV) is considered to be a necessary precursor to any future manned mission to Mars. The Mars Thermal Environment/Radiator Characterization (MTERC) experiment is part of the MIP package and is intended to determine the Mars night sky temperature as well as to characterize the performance degradation of radiators caused by environmental exposure on Mars over time. Radiators are needed as part of the ISPP process to remove heat from the Mars Atmosphere Acquisition and Compression (MAAC) CO2 sorption compressor. MTERC will provide the data needed to optimize the design of radiators for ISPP and other processes. A MTERC Development Unit (DU) has been fabricated and tested at JPL. The MTERC DU consists of 1) a radiator subassembly, 2) a motor/cover subassembly, 3) a differential temperature control circuit and motor control electronics circuit board, and 4) a command and data handling electronics circuit board. This paper will describe the operational theory and the configuration of the MTERC DU and will discuss the current status of the MTERC experiment development including some selected results of performance testing that has been completed prior to the ISRU III meeting.

  12. Interface Configuration Experiments (ICE) Explore the Effects of Microgravity on Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) is actually a series of experiments that explore the striking behavior of liquid-vapor interfaces (i.e., fluid surfaces) in a low gravity environment under which major shifts in liquid position can arise from small changes in container shape or contact angle. Although these experiments are designed to test current mathematical theory, there are numerous practical applications that could result from these studies. When designing fluid management systems for space-based operations, it is important to be able to predict the locations and configurations that fluids will assume in containers under low-gravity conditions. The increased ability to predict, and hence control, fluid interfaces is vital to systems and/or processes where capillary forces play a significant role both in space and on the Earth. Some of these applications are in general coating processes (paints, pesticides, printing, etc.), fluid transport in porous media (ground water flows, oil recovery, etc.), liquid propellant systems in space (liquid fuel and oxygen), capillary-pumped loops and heat pipes, and space-based life-support systems. In space, almost every fluid system is affected, if not dominated, by capillarity. Knowledge of the liquid-vapor interface behavior, and in particular the interface shape from which any analysis must begin, is required as a foundation to predict how these fluids will react in microgravity and on Earth. With such knowledge, system designs can be optimized, thereby decreasing costs and complexity, while increasing performance and reliability. ICE has increased, and will continue to increase this knowledge, as it probes the specific peculiarities of current theory upon which our current understanding of these effects is based. Several versions of ICE were conducted in NASA Lewis Research Center's drop towers and on the space shuttle during the first and second United States Microgravity Laboratory missions (USML-1 and USML-2

  13. OH PLIF Visualization of the UVa Supersonic Combustion Experiment: Configuration C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRae, Colin D.; Johansen, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Rockwell, Robert D., Jr.; Goyne, Christopher P.; McDnaiel, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Non-intrusive hydroxyl radical (OH) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were obtained in configuration C of the University of Virginia supersonic combustion experiment. The combustion of hydrogen fuel injected through an unswept compression ramp into a supersonic cross-flow was imaged over a range of streamwise positions. Images were corrected for optical distortion, variations in the laser sheet profile, and different camera views. Results indicate an effect of fuel equivalence ratio on combustion zone shape and local turbulence length scale. The streamwise location of the reaction zone relative to the fuel injector was also found to be sensitive to the fuel equivalence ratio. The flow boundary conditions in the combustor section, which are sensitive to the fuel flow rate, are believed to have caused this effect. A combination of laser absorption and radiative trapping effects are proposed to have caused asymmetry observed in the images. The results complement previously published OH PLIF data obtained for configuration A along with other non-intrusive measurements to form a database for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model validation.

  14. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experiments to Design Sweeping Jets for High Reynolds Number Cruise Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II; Fell, Jared S.; Webb, Sandy R.; Cagle, C. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The application of a sweeping jet actuator to a circulation control system was initiated by a risk reduction series of experiments to optimize the authority of a single sweeping jet actuator. The sweeping jet design was integrated into the existing Fundamental Aerodynamic Subsonic Transonic- Modular Active Control (FAST-MAC) model by replacing the steady blowing system with an array of thirty-nine sweeping jet cartridges. A constant slot height to wing chord ratio was similar to the steady blowing configuration resulting in each actuator having a unique in size for the sweeping jet configuration. While this paper will describe the scaling and optimization of the actuators for future high Reynolds number applications, the major focus of this effort was to target the transonic flight regime by increasing the amplitude authority of the actuator. This was accomplished by modifying the diffuser of the sweeping jet actuator, and this paper highlights twelve different diffuser designs. The experimental portion of this work was completed in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility.

  15. Isentropic Compression with a Rectangular Configuration for Tungstene and Tantalum, Computations and Comparison with Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, A.; Reisman, D. B.; Bastea, M.; L'Eplattenier, P.; Burger, M.

    2006-02-13

    Isentropic compression experiments and numerical simulations on metals are performed at Z accelerator facility from Sandia National Laboratory and at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in order to study the isentrope, associated Hugoniot and phase changes of these metals. 3D configurations have been calculated here to benchmark the new beta version of the electromagnetism package coupled with the dynamics in Ls-Dyna and compared with the ICE Z shots 1511 and 1555. The electromagnetism module is being developed in the general-purpose explicit and implicit finite element program LS-DYNA{reg_sign} in order to perform coupled mechanical/thermal/electromagnetism simulations. The Maxwell equations are solved using a Finite Element Method (FEM) for the solid conductors coupled with a Boundary Element Method (BEM) for the surrounding air (or vacuum). More details can be read in the references.

  16. Improved Search for a Light Sterile Neutrino with the Full Configuration of the Daya Bay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Cen, W. R.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.-H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cheng, Z. K.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Chukanov, A.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, X. F.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dolgareva, M.; Dove, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, L.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, X. H.; Guo, Z.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Huo, W.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. H. C.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, S.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Loh, C. W.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, K. B.; Lv, Z.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malyshkin, Y.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McDonald, K. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Mitchell, I.; Mooney, M.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Park, J.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tang, W.; Taychenachev, D.; Treskov, K.; Tsang, K. V.; Tull, C. E.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, C.-H.; Wu, Q.; Wu, W. J.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, M.; Young, B. L.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    This Letter reports an improved search for light sterile neutrino mixing in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel with the full configuration of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. With an additional 404 days of data collected in eight antineutrino detectors, this search benefits from 3.6 times the statistics available to the previous publication, as well as from improvements in energy calibration and background reduction. A relative comparison of the rate and energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos in the three experimental halls yields no evidence of sterile neutrino mixing in the 2 ×10-4≲|Δ m412|≲0.3 eV2 mass range. The resulting limits on sin22 θ14 are improved by approx imately a factor of 2 over previous results and constitute the most stringent constraints to date in the |Δ m412|≲0.2 eV2 region.

  17. Crystal Growth Furnace System Configuration and Planned Experiments on the Second United States Microgravity Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, R.; Hambright, G.; Ainsworth, M.; Fiske, M.; Schaefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) is currently undergoing modifications and refurbishment and is currently undergoing modifications and refurbishment and is manifested to refly on the Second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) mission scheduled for launch in September 1995. The CGF was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) programs at NASA Headquarters. The refurbishment and reflight program is being managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Funding and program support for the CGF project is provided to MSFC by the office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications at NASA Headquarters. This paper presents an overview of the CGF system configuration for the USML-2 mission, and provides a brief description of the planned on-orbit experiment operation.

  18. OH PLIF Visualization of the UVa Supersonic Combustion Experiment: Configuration A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Craig T.; McRae, Colin D.; Danehy, Paul M.; Gallo, Emanuela; Cantu, Luca Maria Luigi; Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were performed in the University of Virginia s dual-mode scramjet experiment. The test section was set up in configuration A, which includes a Mach 2 nozzle, combustor, and extender section. Hydrogen fuel was injected through an unswept compression ramp at two different equivalence ratios. Through the translation of the optical system and the use of two separate camera views, the entire optical range of the combustor was accessed. Single-shot, average, and standard deviation images of the OH PLIF signal are presented at several streamwise locations. The results show the development of a highly turbulent flame structure and provide an experimental database to be used for numerical model assessment.

  19. OH PLIF Visualization of the UVa Supersonic Combustion Experiment: Configuration A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Craig T.; McRae, Colin D.; Danehy, Paul M.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Rockwell, Robert D., Jr.; Goyne, Chris P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were performed in the University of Virginia supersonic combustion experiment. The test section was set up in configuration A, which includes a Mach 2 nozzle, combustor, and extender section. Hydrogen fuel was injected through an unswept compression ramp at two different equivalence ratios. Through the translation of the optical system and the use of two separate camera views, the entire optically accessible range of the combustor was imaged. Single-shot, average, and standard deviation images of the OH PLIF signal are presented at several streamwise locations. The results show the development of a highly turbulent flame structure and provide an experimental database to be used for numerical model assessment.

  20. Preshot Calculations for a Small-Scale HE Experiment. Overview and Results for Symmetric Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Richard L.

    2015-05-27

    Explosively-driven magnetic flux compression generators create substantial currents (10’s of mega-amps) by compressing magnetic fields initially created by injected seed currents. In a Ranchero generator it is the field between two cylinders of aluminum that is compressed when the inner cylinder (armature) is driven across the magnetized gap toward the second cylinder (stator) [1]. All Rancheros to date have used the explosive PBXN-110, but future devices are expected to use PBX-9501 because of several advantages of the latter over the former. For Ranchero applications, though, a potentially important disadvantage stems from the requirement that the large PBX-9501 charges (15 to 50 kg) must built up from smaller machined pieces rather than cast into the appropriate shape as with PBXN-110. Calculations [2] and related experiments [3] raise the possibility that jetting may occur at gaps between machined pieces of PBX-9501 and lead to localized failure of the soft aluminum armature causing premature contact of the armature with the stator or, in the most extreme case, a severing of the armature into separate pieces and a subsequent loss of current. A set of small-scale experiments has been designed to provide Ranchero designers and users insight into the effects of gaps and also to provide useful data for the validation of Ranchero calculations. These experiments should be executed in early May 2015. The code Rage [4] was used to model the small-scale experiment and this paper presents the results. The emphasis here is on the calculations and the experimental details are limited, so the interested reader is referred to reference 5 for a fuller description of the experimental configuration and diagnostics. Less-interested readers may be interested in only a summary of results and are directed to the “Summary of key results” section later in this paper.

  1. An object-oriented approach to deploying highly configurable Web interfaces for the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Bruno; Maidantchik, Carmen; Pommes, Kathy; Pavani, Varlen; Arosa, Breno; Abreu, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Technical Coordination disposes of 17 Web systems to support its operation. These applications, whilst ranging from managing the process of publishing scientific papers to monitoring radiation levels in the equipment in the experimental cavern, are constantly prone to changes in requirements due to the collaborative nature of the experiment and its management. In this context, a Web framework is proposed to unify the generation of the supporting interfaces. FENCE assembles classes to build applications by making extensive use of JSON configuration files. It relies heavily on Glance, a technology that was set forth in 2003 to create an abstraction layer on top of the heterogeneous sources that store the technical coordination data. Once Glance maps out the database modeling, records can be referenced in the configuration files by wrapping unique identifiers around double enclosing brackets. The deployed content can be individually secured by attaching clearance attributes to their description thus ensuring that view/edit privileges are granted to eligible users only. The framework also provides tools for securely writing into a database. Fully HTML5-compliant multi-step forms can be generated from their JSON description to assure that the submitted data comply with a series of constraints. Input validation is carried out primarily on the server- side but, following progressive enhancement guidelines, verification might also be performed on the client-side by enabling specific markup data attributes which are then handed over to the jQuery validation plug-in. User monitoring is accomplished by thoroughly logging user requests along with any POST data. Documentation is built from the source code using the phpDocumentor tool and made readily available for developers online. Fence, therefore, speeds up the implementation of Web interfaces and reduces the response time to requirement changes by minimizing maintenance overhead.

  2. Development Unit Configuration and Current Status of the MIP/MAAC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlmann, P. B.; Johnson, K. R.; Rapp, D.; Wu, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) Precursor (MIP) experiment package is planned for inclusion on the Mars 2001 Lander. This experiment package consists of five experiments whose purpose is to demonstrate the performance of various ISPP processes in-situ on Mars. The demonstrated ability to produce propellant for Mars Return Vehicles (MRV) is considered to be a necessary precursor to any future manned mission to Mars. The Mars Atmosphere Acquisition and Compression (MAAC) experiment is part of the MIP package and is intended to demonstrate that, by using a sorption compressor, CO2 can be preferentially adsorbed at about 6 torr from the Mars atmosphere during the night when the bed is cold then subsequently compressed to about 800 torr by heating the bed and desorbing CO2 during the day. The compressed CO2 produced by MAAC is to be fed to the Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) where pure oxygen is to be produced. Pure oxygen is considered to be one of the primary constituents of a future manned MRV propellant system. A MAAC Development Unit (DU) has been fabricated and tested at JPL. The MAAC DU consists of 1) a sorption bed filled with a CO2 selective sorbent material, 2) a purge system to be used to periodically backflush non-CO2 gases from the sorbent bed during adsorption, 3) a JPL-developed gas-gap heat switch that allows heat transfer to a radiator for heat removal from the bed during the night time adsorption period and that impedes heat transfer during the day time desorption period, 4) a radiator to radiate heat to the night sky during the adsorption period, 5) a set of three isolation valves and connecting tubing. 6) two pressure transducers and several thermocouples for monitoring the MAAC operating conditions, and command and data handling electronics. This paper will describe the operational theory and the configuration of the MAAC DU and will discuss the current status of the MAAC experiment development including some selected results of

  3. Improved Search for a Light Sterile Neutrino with the Full Configuration of the Daya Bay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Cen, W. R.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J. -H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cheng, Z. K.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Chukanov, A.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, X. F.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dolgareva, M.; Dove, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, L.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, X. H.; Guo, Z.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Huo, W.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Joshi, J.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. H. C.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, S.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y. -C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Loh, C. W.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, K. B.; Lv, Z.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malyshkin, Y.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McDonald, K. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Mitchell, I.; Mooney, M.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pan, H. -R.; Park, J.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tang, W.; Taychenachev, D.; Treskov, K.; Tsang, K. V.; Tull, C. E.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, C. -H.; Wu, Q.; Wu, W. J.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, M.; Young, B. L.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-10-07

    Here this Letter reports an improved search for light sterile neutrino mixing in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel with the full configuration of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. With an additional 404 days of data collected in eight antineutrino detectors, this search benefits from 3.6 times the statistics available to the previous publication, as well as from improvements in energy calibration and background reduction. A relative comparison of the rate and energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos in the three experimental halls yields no evidence of sterile neutrino mixing in the 2 x 10-4 $\\lesssim$| Δ$2\\atop{41}$| $\\lesssim$ 0.3 eV2 . The resulting limits on sin2 $2\\theta$14 are improved by approximately a factor of two over previous results and constitute the most stringent constraints to date in the |Δm$2\\atop{41}$| $\\lesssim$ 0.2 eV2 region.

  4. Neutral Beam Injection System for the C-2W Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaevsky, Alexander; Ivanov, Alexander; Kolmogorov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Artem; Korepanov, Sergey; Binderbauer, Michl; TAE Team; BINP Team

    2016-10-01

    C-2U Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) experiment proved substantial reduction in turbulence-driven losses via tangential neutral beam injection (NBI) coupled with electrically biased plasma guns at the plasma ends. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, advanced beam-driven FRCs were produced and sustained for times significantly longer (more than 5 ms) than all characteristic plasma decay times without beams. To further improve FRC sustainment and demonstrate the FRC ramp-up, the C-2U experimental device is undergoing a major upgrade. The upgrade, C-2W, will have a new NBI system producing a record total hydrogen beam power of 20 + MW in a 30ms pulse. The NBI system consists of eight positive-ion based injectors featuring flexible, modular design. Four out of eight NBI injectors have a capability to switch the beam energy during a shot from the initial 15 keV to 40 keV at a constant beam current. This feature allows to increase the beam energy and thereby optimize the beam-plasma coupling during the magnetic field ramp up. This presentation provides an overview of the C-2W NBI system, including the design of the switchable energy injectors, layout of the power supply system, and results of the prototype testing.

  5. Improved Search for a Light Sterile Neutrino with the Full Configuration of the Daya Bay Experiment.

    PubMed

    An, F P; Balantekin, A B; Band, H R; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Cao, D; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Cen, W R; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chen, H S; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, J-H; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y P; Cheng, Z K; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Chukanov, A; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, X F; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dolgareva, M; Dove, J; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, L; Guo, R P; Guo, X H; Guo, Z; Hackenburg, R W; Han, R; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Higuera, A; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H X; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Huo, W; Hussain, G; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Joshi, J; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kohn, S; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Langford, T J; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lee, J H C; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, J K C; Li, C; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, S; Li, S C; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, S; Lin, S K; Lin, Y-C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Loh, C W; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Lu, J S; Luk, K B; Lv, Z; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; Malyshkin, Y; Martinez Caicedo, D A; McDonald, K T; McKeown, R D; Mitchell, I; Mooney, M; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevskiy, A; Pan, H-R; Park, J; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tang, W; Taychenachev, D; Treskov, K; Tsang, K V; Tull, C E; Viaux, N; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Wei, H Y; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, C-H; Wu, Q; Wu, W J; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yang, C G; Yang, H; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Ye, Z; Yeh, M; Young, B L; Yu, Z Y; Zeng, S; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, H H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, X T; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y B; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2016-10-07

    This Letter reports an improved search for light sterile neutrino mixing in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel with the full configuration of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. With an additional 404 days of data collected in eight antineutrino detectors, this search benefits from 3.6 times the statistics available to the previous publication, as well as from improvements in energy calibration and background reduction. A relative comparison of the rate and energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos in the three experimental halls yields no evidence of sterile neutrino mixing in the 2×10^{-4}≲|Δm_{41}^{2}|≲0.3  eV^{2} mass range. The resulting limits on sin^{2}2θ_{14} are improved by approx imately a factor of 2 over previous results and constitute the most stringent constraints to date in the |Δm_{41}^{2}|≲0.2  eV^{2} region.

  6. Improved Search for a Light Sterile Neutrino with the Full Configuration of the Daya Bay Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; ...

    2016-10-07

    Here this Letter reports an improved search for light sterile neutrino mixing in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel with the full configuration of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. With an additional 404 days of data collected in eight antineutrino detectors, this search benefits from 3.6 times the statistics available to the previous publication, as well as from improvements in energy calibration and background reduction. A relative comparison of the rate and energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos in the three experimental halls yields no evidence of sterile neutrino mixing in the 2 x 10-4more » $$\\lesssim$$| Δ$$2\\atop{41}$$| $$\\lesssim$$ 0.3 eV2 . The resulting limits on sin2 $$2\\theta$$14 are improved by approximately a factor of two over previous results and constitute the most stringent constraints to date in the |Δm$$2\\atop{41}$$| $$\\lesssim$$ 0.2 eV2 region.« less

  7. Crystal Growth Furnace - An overview of the system configuration and planned experiments on the First United States Microgravity Laboratory mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, R.; Schaefer, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) system configuration for the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) mission is reviewed, and the planned on-orbit experiments are briefly described. The CGF is configured to accommodate four scientific experiments involving crystal growth which are based on the classical Bridgman method and CVT method, including vapor transport crystal growth of mercury cadmium telluride; crystal growth of mercury zinc telluride by directional solidification; seeded Bridgman growth of zinc-doped cadmium telluride; and Bridgman growth of selenium-doped gallium arsenide.

  8. Analysis of Linear Aerospike Plume Induced X-33 Base Heating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    1998-01-01

    Computational analysis is conducted to study the effect of an linear aerospike engine plume on the X-33 base-heating environment during ascent flight. To properly account for the freestream-body interaction and to allow for potential plume-induced flow-separation, the thermo-flowfield of the entire vehicle at several trajectory points is computed. A sequential grid-refinement technique is used in conjunction with solution-adaptive, patched, and embedded grid methods to limit the model to a manageable size. The computational methodology is based on a three-dimensional, finite-difference, viscous flow, chemically reacting, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a three-dimensional, finite-volume, spectral-line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption, computational radiation heat transfer formulation. The computed forebody and afterbody surface pressure coefficients and base pressure characteristic curves are compared with those of a cold-flow test. The predicted convective and radiative base-heat fluxes, the effect of base-bleed, and the potential of plume-induced flow separation are presented.

  9. Apollo experience report: Flight-control data needs, terminal display devices, and ground system configuration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development of flight-control facilities for the Apollo program is reviewed from the viewpoint of the user organization. These facilities are treated in three categories: data systems, ground-based display and control systems, and configuration management. The effects of certain Apollo program factors on the selection, sizing, and configuration management of these systems are discussed. Recommendations are made regarding improvement of the systems and the reduction of system sensitivity to the program factors.

  10. Robust Low Cost Aerospike/RLV Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; Ellis, David; McKechnie

    1999-01-01

    Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines will require materials that can withstand high temperatures while retaining high thermal conductivity. At the same time, fabrication techniques must be cost efficient so that engine components can be manufactured within the constraints of a shrinking NASA budget. In recent years, combustion chambers of equivalent size to the Aerospike chamber have been fabricated at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using innovative, relatively low-cost, vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) techniques. Typically, such combustion chambers are made of the copper alloy NARloy-Z. However, current research and development conducted by NASA-Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has identified a Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy which possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability. In fact, researchers at NASA-LeRC have demonstrated that powder metallurgy (P/M) Cu-8Cr-4Nb exhibits better mechanical properties at 1,200 F than NARloy-Z does at 1,000 F. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology to fabricate high-performance, robust, inexpensive combustion chambers for advanced propulsion systems (such as Lockheed-Martin's VentureStar and NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) using the low-cost, VPS process to deposit Cu-8Cr-4Nb with mechanical properties that match or exceed those of P/M Cu-8Cr-4Nb. In addition, oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings can be incorporated as an integral part of the hot wall of the liner during the VPS process. Tensile properties of Cu-8Cr-4Nb material produced by VPS are reviewed and compared to material produced previously by extrusion. VPS formed combustion chamber liners have also been prepared and will be reported on following scheduled hot firing tests at NASA-Lewis.

  11. Expediting Experiments across Testbeds with AnyBed: A Testbed-Independent Topology Configuration System and Its Tool Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mio; Hazeyama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Miwa, Shinsuke; Kadobayashi, Youki

    Building an experimental network within a testbed has been a tiresome process for experimenters, due to the complexity of the physical resource assignment and the configuration overhead. Also, the process could not be expedited across testbeds, because the syntax of a configuration file varies depending on specific hardware and software. Re-configuration of an experimental topology for each testbed wastes time, an experimenter could not carry out his/her experiments during the limited lease time of a testbed at worst. In this paper, we propose the AnyBed: the experimental network-building system. The conceptual idea of AnyBed is “If experimental network topologies can be portable across any kinds of testbed, then, it would expedite building an experimental network on a testbed while manipulating experiments by each testbed support tool”. To achieve this concept, AnyBed divide an experimental network configuration into the logical and physical network topologies. Mapping these two topologies, AnyBed can build intended logical network topology on any PC clusters. We have evaluated the AnyBed implementation using two distinct clusters. The evaluation result shows a BGP topology with 150 nodes can be constructed on a large scale testbed in less than 113 seconds.

  12. Transonic pressure measurements and comparison of theory to experiment for an arrow-wing configuration. Volume 1: Experimental data report, base configuration and effects of wing twist and leading-edge configuration. [wind tunnel tests, aircraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manro, M. E.; Manning, K. J. R.; Hallstaff, T. H.; Rogers, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an arrow-wing-body configuration consisting of flat and twisted wings, as well as a variety of leading- and trailing-edge control surface deflections, was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.1 to provide an experimental pressure data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory-to-experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using current state-of-the-art attached and separated flow methods. The purpose of these comparisons was to delineate conditions under which these theories are valid for both flat and twisted wings and to explore the use of empirical methods to correct the theoretical methods where theory is deficient.

  13. Base-Bleed Effect on X-33 Aerospike Plume Induced Base-Heating Environment During Power-Pack Out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Tee-See; Droege, Alan; D'Agostino, Mark; Lee, Young-Ching; Williams, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A computational heat transfer methodology was developed to study the dual-engine linear aerospike plume induced base-heating environment during one power-pack out, in ascent flight. One power-pack out results in reduction of power levels for both engines. That, in turn, reduces the amount of base-bleed and changes the distribution of base-bleed on the two pillows. Hence, the concern of increased base-heating during power-pack out. The thermo-flowfield of the entire vehicle was computed. The computational methodology for the convective heating is based on a three-dimensional, finite-volume, viscous, chemically reacting, and pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation. The computational methodology for the radiative heating is based on a three-dimensional, finite-volume, and spectral-line-based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption computational radiation heat transfer formulation. A separate radiation model was used for diagnostic purposes. The computational methodology was systematically benchmarked. In this study, near-base radiative heat fluxes were computed and they compared well with those measured from an installed linear aerospike engine tests. The base-heating environment of 18 trajectory points selected from three power-pack out ascent scenarios was computed and is presented here. The power-pack out condition has the most impact on convective base-heating when it happens early in flight. The some of its impact comes from the asymmetric and reduced base-bleed.

  14. Asymmetric Base-Bleed Effect on Aerospike Plume-Induced Base-Heating Environment During Power-Pack Out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Droege, Alan; D'Agostino, Mark; Lee, Young-Ching; Williams, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A computational heat transfer design methodology was developed to study tbe dual-engine linear aerospike plume-induced base-heating environment during one power-pack out, in ascent flight. It includes a three-dimensional, finite volume, viscous, chemically reacting, and pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, a special base-bleed boundary condition, and a three-dimensional, finite volume, and spectral-line-based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption computational radiation heat transfer formulation. A separate radiation model was used for diagnostic purposes. The computational methodology was systematically benchmarked. in this study, near-base radiative heat fluxes were computed, and they compared well with those measured during static linear aerospike engine tests. The base-heating environment of 18 trajectory points secected from three power-pack out scenarios was computed. The computed asymmetric base-heating physics were analyzed. The power-pack out condition has the most impact on convective base heating when it happens early in flight. The soume of its impact comes from the asymmetric and reduced base bleed.

  15. Numerical Experiments of Counterflowiing Jet Effects on Supersonic Slender-Body Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Mullane, Michael; Cheng, Gary C.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the use of counterflowing jets can greatly reduce the drag and heat loads on blunt-body geometries, especially when the long penetration mode jet condition can be established. Previously, the authors had done some preliminary numerical studies to determine the ability to establish long penetration mode jets on a typical Mach 1.6 slender configuration, and study its impact on the boom signature. The results indicated that a jet with a longer penetration length was required to achieve any impact on the boom signature of a typical Mach 1.6 slender configuration. This paper focuses on an in-depth parametric study, done using the space-time conservation element solution element Navier-Stokes flow solver, for investigating the effect of various counterflowing jet conditions/configurations on two supersonic slender-body models (cone-cylinder and quartic body of revolution). The study is aimed at gaining a better understanding of the relationship between the shock penetration length and reduction of drag and boom signature for these two supersonic slender-body configurations. Different jet flow rates, Mach numbers, nozzle jet exit diameters and jet-to-base diameter ratios were examined. The results show the characteristics of a short-to-long-to-short penetration-mode pattern with the increase of jet mass flow rates, observed across various counterflowing jet nozzle configurations. Though the optimal shock penetration length for potential boom-signature mitigation is tied to the long penetration mode, it often results in a very unsteady flow and leads to large oscillations of surface pressure and drag. Furthermore, depending on the geometry of the slender body, longer jet penetration did not always result in maximum drag reduction. For the quartic geometry, the maximum drag reduction corresponds well to the longest shock penetration length, while this was not the case for the cone-cylinder-as the geometry was already optimized for

  16. Finite-element analysis and in vitro experiments of placement configurations using triple antennas in microwave hepatic ablation.

    PubMed

    Phasukkit, Pattarapong; Tungjitkusolmun, Supan; Sangworasil, Manas

    2009-11-01

    This study presents analyses of triple-antenna configurations and designs for microwave (MW) hepatic ablation using 3-D finite-element (FE) analyses verified by in vitro experiments. Treatment of hepatic cancer often requires removal or destruction of large volume lesions. Using multiple antennas offers a potential solution for creating ablation zones with larger dimensions, as well as varied geometrical shapes. We performed both 3-D FE analyses and in vitro experiments using three identical open-tip MW antennas simultaneously, placing them in three types of configurations-"linear array," "triangular," and "T-shaped" arrangements. We compared coagulation volumes created, as well as temperature distribution characteristics, from the three-antenna arrangements after power delivery of 50 W for 60 s. We also performed additional tests using nonidentical antennas (open tip, slot, and slot with insulating jacket) for the three configurations. The results illustrate that arranging antennas in the "T-shaped" pattern destroyed more unwanted tissues than those found when using "linear array" and "triangular" arrangements, with maximum coagulation width and depth of 46 and 81 mm, respectively, and coagulation volume of 30.7 cm(3) . In addition, using nonidentical triple antennas caused variations in coagulation zone characteristics, and thus, the technique could be applied to treatment situations where nonsymmetric coagulation zones are required.

  17. Overview of C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gota, H. Thompson, M. C.; Tuszewski, M.; Binderbauer, M. W.

    2014-11-15

    A comprehensive diagnostic suite for field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas has been developed and installed on the C-2 device at Tri Alpha Energy to investigate the dynamics of FRC formation as well as to understand key FRC physics properties, e.g., confinement and stability, throughout a discharge. C-2 is a unique, large compact-toroid merging device that produces FRC plasmas partially sustained for up to ∼5 ms by neutral-beam (NB) injection and end-on plasma-guns for stability control. Fundamental C-2 FRC properties are diagnosed by magnetics, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, and NB-related fast-ion/neutral diagnostics. These diagnostics (totaling >50 systems) are essential to support the primary goal of developing a deep understanding of NB-driven FRCs.

  18. Overview of C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment plasma diagnosticsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gota, H.; Thompson, M. C.; Tuszewski, M.; Binderbauer, M. W.

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive diagnostic suite for field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas has been developed and installed on the C-2 device at Tri Alpha Energy to investigate the dynamics of FRC formation as well as to understand key FRC physics properties, e.g., confinement and stability, throughout a discharge. C-2 is a unique, large compact-toroid merging device that produces FRC plasmas partially sustained for up to ˜5 ms by neutral-beam (NB) injection and end-on plasma-guns for stability control. Fundamental C-2 FRC properties are diagnosed by magnetics, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, and NB-related fast-ion/neutral diagnostics. These diagnostics (totaling >50 systems) are essential to support the primary goal of developing a deep understanding of NB-driven FRCs.

  19. Overview of C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment plasma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Gota, H; Thompson, M C; Tuszewski, M; Binderbauer, M W

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive diagnostic suite for field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas has been developed and installed on the C-2 device at Tri Alpha Energy to investigate the dynamics of FRC formation as well as to understand key FRC physics properties, e.g., confinement and stability, throughout a discharge. C-2 is a unique, large compact-toroid merging device that produces FRC plasmas partially sustained for up to ∼5 ms by neutral-beam (NB) injection and end-on plasma-guns for stability control. Fundamental C-2 FRC properties are diagnosed by magnetics, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, and NB-related fast-ion/neutral diagnostics. These diagnostics (totaling >50 systems) are essential to support the primary goal of developing a deep understanding of NB-driven FRCs.

  20. Magnetic diagnostic suite of the C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment confinement vessela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. C.; Douglass, J. D.; Feng, P.; Knapp, K.; Luo, Y.; Mendoza, R.; Patel, V.; Tuszewski, M.; Van Drie, A. D.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic measurements are a fundamental part of determining the size and shape of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas in the C-2 device. The magnetic probe suite consists of 44 in-vessel and ex-vessel probes constructed using various technologies: ultra-high vacuum compatible mineral-insulated cable, nested triple axis coils hand-wound on ceramic bobbins, and commercial chip inductors mounted on printed circuit boards. Together, these probes measure the three-dimensional excluded flux profile of the FRC, which approximates the shape of the separatrix between the confined plasma volume and the scrape-off layer. High accuracy is achieved by using the extensive probe measurements to compensate for non-ideal effects such as flux leakage through the vacuum vessel and bulk motion of the FRC towards the wall. A subset of the probes is also used as a set of Mirnov arrays that provide sensitive detection of perturbations and oscillations of the FRC.

  1. Benchmark Evaluation of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment Program Critical Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2013-02-01

    A series of small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were performed in 1962-1965 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for the Medium-Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) program. The MPRE was a stainless-steel clad, highly enriched uranium (HEU)-O2 fuelled, BeO reflected reactor design to provide electrical power to space vehicles. Cooling and heat transfer were to be achieved by boiling potassium in the reactor core and passing vapor directly through a turbine. Graphite- and beryllium-reflected assemblies were constructed at ORCEF to verify the critical mass, power distribution, and other reactor physics measurements needed to validate reactor calculations and reactor physics methods. The experimental series was broken into three parts, with the third portion of the experiments representing the beryllium-reflected measurements. The latter experiments are of interest for validating current reactor design efforts for a fission surface power reactor. The entire series has been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments and submitted for publication in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  2. STS-107 crew look over experiments in a flight configured module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- At SPACEHAB, Cape Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-107 crew look over experiments for their mission. Pilot William 'Willie' McCool (left) displays a glove box experiment for the trainers (right). STS-107 has two payload elements, the Double Module in its first flight into space and a Hitchhiker payload. The experiments range from material sciences to life sciences (many rats). The Hitchhiker carrier system is modular and expandable in accordance with payload requirements. Hitchhiker experiments are housed in canisters or attached to mounting plates. The Hitchhiker canister comes in two varieties--the Hitchhiker Motorized Door Canister and the Sealed Canisters. STS-107 is scheduled to launch in June 2002

  3. Efficient ECH-assisted plasma start-up using trapped particle configuration in the versatile experiment spherical torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, YoungHwa; Lee, Jeongwon; Jo, JongGab; Jung, Bong-Ki; Lee, HyunYeong; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Na, Yong-Su; Hahm, T. S.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2017-01-01

    An efficient and robust ECH (electron cyclotron heating)-assisted plasma start-up scheme with a low loop voltage and low volt-second consumption utilizing the trapped particle configuration (TPC) has been developed in the versatile experiment spherical torus (VEST). The TPC is a mirror-like magnetic field configuration providing a vertical magnetic field in the same direction as the equilibrium field. It significantly enhances ECH pre-ionization with enhanced particle confinement due to its mirror effect, and intrinsically provides an equilibrium field with a stable decay index enabling prompt plasma current initiation. Consequently, the formation of TPC before the onset of the loop voltage allows the plasma to start up with a lower loop voltage and lower volt-second consumption as well as a wider operation range in terms of ECH pre-ionization power and H2 filling pressure. The TPC can improve the widely-used field null configuration significantly for more efficient start-up when ECH pre-ionization is used. This can then be utilized in superconducting tokamaks requiring a low loop voltage start-up, such as ITER, or in spherical tori with limited volt-seconds. The TPC can be particularly useful in superconducting tokamaks with a limited current slew-rate of superconducting PF coils, as it can save volt-second consumption before plasma current initiation by providing prompt initiation with an intrinsic stable equilibrium field.

  4. Interpreting tracer breakthrough tailing from different forced-gradient tracer experiment configurations in fractured bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, M.W.; Shapiro, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual and mathematical models are presented that explain tracer breakthrough tailing in the absence of significant matrix diffusion. Model predictions are compared to field results from radially convergent, weak-dipole, and push-pull tracer experiments conducted in a saturated crystalline bedrock. The models are based upon the assumption that flow is highly channelized, that the mass of tracer in a channel is proportional to the cube of the mean channel aperture, and the mean transport time in the channel is related to the square of the mean channel aperture. These models predict the consistent -2 straight line power law slope observed in breakthrough from radially convergent and weak-dipole tracer experiments and the variable straight line power law slope observed in push-pull tracer experiments with varying injection volumes. The power law breakthrough slope is predicted in the absence of matrix diffusion. A comparison of tracer experiments in which the flow field was reversed to those in which it was not indicates that the apparent dispersion in the breakthrough curve is partially reversible. We hypothesize that the observed breakthrough tailing is due to a combination of local hydrodynamic dispersion, which always increases in the direction of fluid velocity, and heterogeneous advection, which is partially reversed when the flow field is reversed. In spite of our attempt to account for heterogeneous advection using a multipath approach, a much smaller estimate of hydrodynamic dispersivity was obtained from push-pull experiments than from radially convergent or weak dipole experiments. These results suggest that although we can explain breakthrough tailing as an advective phenomenon, we cannot ignore the relationship between hydrodynamic dispersion and flow field geometry at this site. The design of the tracer experiment can severely impact the estimation of hydrodynamic dispersion and matrix diffusion in highly heterogeneous geologic media.

  5. Equivalent magnetic noise in multi- push-pull configuration magnetoelectric composites: model and experiment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaojin; Hasanyan, Davresh; Li, Menghui; Gao, Junqi; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical model for the multi-push-pull configuration of magnetoelectric (ME) laminated composites comprising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers with interdigitated electrodes encapsulated in polyimide film is presented. Analytical solutions for the ME voltage coefficient αE, ME charge coefficient αQ, noise charge density and equivalent magnetic noise were derived. Parametric studies are presented to evaluate the influence of material properties and polyimide film geometries. The results show that the value of αE was determined by the parameters of the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases, and that the values of αQ and noise charge density were determined not only by the component parameters, but also by the volume fraction of the piezoelectric phase and polyimide film geometry. The equivalent magnetic noise had no dependence on the polyimide film geometry, but rather was determined by the component parameters and the volume fraction of the piezoelectric phase. Theoretical and experimental results are compared and shown to have good agreement with each other.

  6. Hypersonic lateral and directional stability characteristics of aeroassist flight experiment configuration in air and CF4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.; Wells, William L.

    1993-01-01

    Hypersonic lateral and directional stability characteristics measured on a 60 deg half-angle elliptical cone, which was raked at an angle of 73 deg from the cone centerline and with an ellipsoid nose (ellipticity equal to 2.0 in the symmetry plane), are presented for angles of attack from -10 to 10 deg. The high normal-shock density ratio of a real gas was simulated by tests at a Mach number of 6 in air and CF4 (density ratio equal to 5.25 and 12.0, respectively). Tests were conducted in air at Mach 6 and 10 and in CF4 at Mach 6 to examine the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and normal-shock density ratio. Changes in Mach number from 6 to 10 in air or in Reynolds number by a factor of 4 at Mach 6 had a negligible effect on lateral and directional stability characteristics. Variations in normal-shock density ratio had a measurable effect on lateral and directional aerodynamic coefficients, but no significant effect on lateral and directional stability characteristics. Tests in air and CF4 indicated that the configuration was laterally and directionally stable through the test range of angle of attack.

  7. Linear Test Bed. Volume 2: Test Bed No. 2. [linear aerospike test bed for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Test bed No. 2 consists of 10 combustors welded in banks of 5 to 2 symmetrical tubular nozzle assemblies, an upper stationary thrust frame, a lower thrust frame which can be hinged, a power package, a triaxial combustion wave ignition system, a pneumatic control system, pneumatically actuated propellant valves, a purge and drain system, and an electrical control system. The power package consists of the Mark 29-F fuel turbopump, the Mark 29-0 oxidizer turbopump, a gas generator assembly, and propellant ducting. The system, designated as a linear aerospike system, was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to explore technology related to thrust vector control, thrust vector optimization, improved sequencing and control, and advanced ignition systems. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure at an engine mixture ratio of 5.5. With 10 combustors, the sea level thrust is 95,000 pounds.

  8. Equilibrium liquid free-surface configurations: Mathematical theory and space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1996-01-01

    Small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. We describe some of our mathematical results that predict such behavior and that form the basis for physical experiments in space. The results include cases of discontinuous dependence on data and symmetry-breaking type of behavior.

  9. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS OF WAVE-LIKE PHENOMENA CAUSED BY THE DISRUPTION OF AN UNSTABLE MAGNETIC CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hongjuan; Shen Chengcai; Lin Jun

    2009-08-01

    The origin of the Moreton wave observed in the chromosphere and the EIT wave observed in the corona during the eruption remains an active research subject. We investigate numerically in this work the evolutionary features of the magnetic configuration that includes a current-carrying flux rope, which is used to model the filament, after the loss of equilibrium in the system takes place in a catastrophic fashion. Rapid motions of the flux rope following the catastrophe invoke the velocity vortices behind the rope, and may also invoke slow- and fast-mode shocks in front of the rope. The velocity vortices at each side of the flux rope propagate roughly horizontally away from the area where they are produced, and both shocks expand toward the flank of the flux rope. The fast shock may eventually reach the bottom boundary and produce two echoes moving back into the corona, but the slow one and the vortices totally decay somewhere in the lower corona before arriving of the bottom boundary. The interaction of the fast shock with the boundary leads to disturbance that accounts for the Moreton wave observed in H{alpha}, and the disturbance in the corona caused by the slow shock and the velocity vortices should account for the EIT wave whose speed is about 40% that of the Moreton wave. The implication of these results to the observed correlation of the type II radio burst to the fast- and the slow-mode shocks and that of EIT waves to coronal mass ejections and flares has also been discussed.

  10. Diagnostic Overview of the C-2U Advanced Beam-Driven Field-Reversed Configuration Plasma Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Matthew; Gota, Hiroshi; Putvinski, Sergei; Tuszewski, Michel; Binderbauer, Michl; The TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    The C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy seeks to study the evolution of advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas sustained by neutral beam (NB) injection for 5 + ms. Data on the FRC plasma performance is provided by a comprehensive suite of diagnostics including magnetic sensors, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, and NB-related fast-ion/neutral diagnostics. While many of these diagnostic systems were inherited from the preceding experiment C-2, C-2U has a variety of new and upgraded diagnostic systems: multi-chord far-infrared polarimetry, multiple fast imaging cameras with selectable atomic line filters, proton detector arrays, and 100 channel bolometer units capable of observing multiple regions of the spectrum simultaneously. In addition, extensive ongoing work focuses on advanced methods of measuring separatrix shape that will both improve accuracy and facilitate active control of the FRC plasma.

  11. Diagnostic suite of the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. C.; Gota, H.; Putvinski, S.; Tuszewski, M.; Binderbauer, M.

    2016-11-01

    The C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy studies the evolution of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas sustained by neutral beam injection. Data on the FRC plasma performance are provided by a comprehensive suite of diagnostics that includes magnetic sensors, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, neutral particle analyzers, and fusion product detectors. While many of these diagnostic systems were inherited from the preceding experiment C-2, C-2U has a variety of new and upgraded diagnostic systems: multi-chord far-infrared polarimetry, multiple fast imaging cameras with selectable atomic line filters, proton detector arrays, and 100 channel bolometer units capable of observing multiple regions of the spectrum simultaneously. In addition, extensive ongoing work focuses on advanced methods of measuring separatrix shape and plasma current profile that will facilitate equilibrium reconstruction and active control of the FRC plasma.

  12. Diagnostic suite of the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M C; Gota, H; Putvinski, S; Tuszewski, M; Binderbauer, M

    2016-11-01

    The C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy studies the evolution of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas sustained by neutral beam injection. Data on the FRC plasma performance are provided by a comprehensive suite of diagnostics that includes magnetic sensors, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, neutral particle analyzers, and fusion product detectors. While many of these diagnostic systems were inherited from the preceding experiment C-2, C-2U has a variety of new and upgraded diagnostic systems: multi-chord far-infrared polarimetry, multiple fast imaging cameras with selectable atomic line filters, proton detector arrays, and 100 channel bolometer units capable of observing multiple regions of the spectrum simultaneously. In addition, extensive ongoing work focuses on advanced methods of measuring separatrix shape and plasma current profile that will facilitate equilibrium reconstruction and active control of the FRC plasma.

  13. The effect of tracking network configuration on GPS baseline estimates for the CASA Uno experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. Kornreich; Dixon, T. H.; Freymueller, J. T.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the tracking network on long (greater than 100 km) GPS baseline estimates was estimated using various subsets of the global tracking network initiated by the first Central and South America (CASA Uno) experiment. It was found that best results could be obtained with a global tacking network consisting of three U.S. stations, two sites in the southwestern Pacific, and two sites in Europe. In comparison with smaller subsets, this global network improved the baseline repeatability, the resolution of carrier phase cycle ambiguities, and formal errors of the orbit estimates.

  14. Comparative thermal analysis of alternate Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Oneill, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) was analyzed to assess the feasibility and advisability of deleting the vapor cooled shield (VCS) from the baseline CFME insulation and pressure control system. Two alternate concepts of CFME insulation and pressure control, neither of which incorporated the VCS, were investigated. The first concept employed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to throttle the flow through an internal wall mounted heat exchanger (HX) within the pressure vessel to decrease boiloff and pressure rise rate, while the second concept utilized a TVS without an internal heat exchanger. Only the first concept was viable. Its performance was assessed for a seven day mission and found to be satisfactory. It was also concluded that VCS development costs would be greater than for an internal HX installation. Based upon the above comparisons, the HX was recommended as a replacement for the VCS.

  15. Bighorns Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE): Amplitude Response to Different Seismic Charge Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, S. H., Killer, K. C., Worthington, L. L., Snelson, C. M.

    2010-09-02

    Contrary to popular belief, charge weight is not the most important engineering parameter determining the seismic amplitudes generated by a shot. The scientific literature has long claimed that the relationship, A ~R2L1/2, where A is the seismic amplitude generated by a shot, R is the radius of the seismic charge and L is the length of that charge, holds. Assuming the coupling to the formation and the pressure generated by the explosive are constants, this relationship implies that the one should be able to increase the charge radius while decreasing the charge length and obtain more seismic amplitude with less charge weight. This has significant implications for the economics of lithospheric seismic shots, because shallower holes and small charge sizes decrease cost. During the Bighorns Array Seismic Experiment (BASE) conducted in the summer of 2010, 24 shots with charge sizes ranging from 110 to 900 kg and drill hole diameters of 300 and 450 mm were detonated and recorded by an array of up to 2000 single-channel Texan seismographs. Maximum source-receiver offset of 300 km. Five of these shots were located within a one-acre square in an effort to eliminate coupling effects due to differing geological formations. We present a quantitative comparison of the data from these five shots to experimentally test the equation above.

  16. Design, performance, and analysis of an aquifer thermal-energy-storage experiment using the doublet-well configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Molz, F.J.; Melville, J.G.; Gueven, O.; Parr, A.D.

    1983-09-01

    In March 1980 Auburn University began series of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) experiments using the doublet well configuration. The test site was in Mobile, Alabama. The objectives of the three experimental cycles were to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the ATES concept, to identify and resolve operational problems, and to acquire a data base for developing and testing mathematical models. Pre-injection tests were performed and analyses of hydraulic, geochemical, and thermodynamic data were completed. Three injection-storage-recovery cycles had injection volumes of 25,402 m/sup 3/, 58,010 m/sup 3/, and 58,680 m/sup 3/ and average injection temperatures of 58.5/sup 0/C, 81.0/sup 0/C, and 79.0/sup 0/C, respectively. The first cycle injection began in February 1981 and the third cycle recovery was completed in November 1982. Attributable to the doublet well configuration no clogging of injection wells occurred. Energy recovery percentages based on recovery volumes equal to the injection volumes were 56, 45, and 42%. Thermal convection effects were observed. Aquifer nonhomogeneity, not detectable using standard aquifer testing procedures, was shown to reduce recovery efficiency.

  17. Ice-sheet configuration in the CMIP5/PMIP3 Last Glacial Maximum experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; Kageyama, M.; Braconnot, P.; Harrison, S. P.; Lambeck, K.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Peltier, W. R.; Tarasov, L.; Peterschmitt, J.-Y.; Takahashi, K.

    2015-06-01

    We describe the creation of boundary conditions related to the presence of ice sheets, including ice sheet extent and height, ice shelf extent, and the distribution and altitude of ice-free land, at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) for use in LGM experiments conducted as part of the fifth phase of the Coupled Modelling Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and the third phase of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The CMIP5/PMIP3 data sets were created from reconstructions made by three different groups, which were all obtained using a model-inversion approach but differ in the assumptions used in the modelling and in the type of data used as constraints. The ice sheet extent, and thus the albedo mask, for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) does not vary substantially between the three individual data sources. The difference in the topography of the NH ice sheets is also moderate, and smaller than the differences between these reconstructions (and the resultant composite reconstruction) and ice-sheet reconstructions used in previous generations of PMIP. Only two of the individual reconstructions provide information for Antarctica. The discrepancy between these two reconstructions is larger than the difference for the NH ice sheets although still less than the difference between the composite reconstruction and previous PMIP ice-sheet reconstructions. Differences in the climate response to the individual LGM reconstructions, and between these reconstructions and the CMIP5/PMIP3 composite, are largely confined to the ice-covered regions, but also extend over North Atlantic Ocean and Northern Hemisphere continents through atmospheric stationary waves. There are much larger differences in the climate response to the latest reconstructions (or the derived composite) and ice-sheet reconstructions used in previous phases of PMIP.

  18. System Configuration and Operation Plan of Hayabusa2 DCAM3-D Camera System for Scientific Observation During SCI Impact Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Kazunori; Shirai, Kei; Sawada, Hirotaka; Arakawa, Masahiko; Honda, Rie; Wada, Koji; Ishibashi, Ko; Iijima, Yu-ichi; Sakatani, Naoya; Nakazawa, Satoru; Hayakawa, Hajime

    2017-03-01

    An artificial impact experiment is scheduled for 2018-2019 in which an impactor will collide with asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3) during the asteroid rendezvous phase of the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) will shoot a 2-kg projectile at 2 km/s to create a crater 1-10 m in diameter with an expected subsequent ejecta curtain of a 100-m scale on an ideal sandy surface. A miniaturized deployable camera (DCAM3) unit will separate from the spacecraft at about 1 km from impact, and simultaneously conduct optical observations of the experiment. We designed and developed a camera system (DCAM3-D) in the DCAM3, specialized for scientific observations of impact phenomenon, in order to clarify the subsurface structure, construct theories of impact applicable in a microgravity environment, and identify the impact point on the asteroid. The DCAM3-D system consists of a miniaturized camera with a wide-angle and high-focusing performance, high-speed radio communication devices, and control units with large data storage on both the DCAM3 unit and the spacecraft. These components were successfully developed under severe constraints of size, mass and power, and the whole DCAM3-D system has passed all tests verifying functions, performance, and environmental tolerance. Results indicated sufficient potential to conduct the scientific observations during the SCI impact experiment. An operation plan was carefully considered along with the configuration and a time schedule of the impact experiment, and pre-programed into the control unit before the launch. In this paper, we describe details of the system design concept, specifications, and the operating plan of the DCAM3-D system, focusing on the feasibility of scientific observations.

  19. Replacing the Singlet Spinor of the EPR-B Experiment in the Configuration Space with Two Single-Particle Spinors in Physical Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondran, Michel; Gondran, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Recently, for spinless non-relativistic particles, Norsen (Found Phys 40:1858-1884, 2010) and Norsen et al. (Synthese 192:3125-3151, 2015) show that in the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation it is possible to replace the wave function in the configuration space by single-particle wave functions in physical space. In this paper, we show that this replacment of the wave function in the configuration space by single-particle functions in the 3D-space is also possible for particles with spin, in particular for the particles of the EPR-B experiment, the Bohm version of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment.

  20. Development of the multi-mode horn-lens configuration for the LSPE-SWIPE B-mode experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, Stephen; Lamagna, Luca; Coppi, Gabriele; de Bernardis, Paolo; Giuliani, Grazia; Gualtieri, Riccardo; Marchetti, Tommaso; Masi, Silvia; Pisano, Giampaolo; Maffei, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    The Large Scale Polarisation Explorer (LSPE) is a balloon-borne experiment aiming to measure the B-mode component of the CMB polarisation at large angular scales. Onboard LSPE, the Short Wavelength Instrument for the Polarisation Explorer (SWIPE) is a bolometric polarimeter observing in three bands centred at 140, 220 and 240 GHz. The telescope is a single large-diameter plano-convex lens with a cold aperture stop. A small number of multi-mode feed horns feeding bolometric detectors are used within the focal plane, achieving a sensitivity equivalent to that of 100's of single-mode horns. Simulations have been performed to predict the multi-mode optical response of the horn-lens configuration for centre and off-axis pixels pertaining to each frequency band. The horn has been simulated to a high accuracy using the Method of Moments. Using the horn simulation result as a source, the optical response of the lens has been examined using the more approximate simulation technique; Ray-Launching Geometrical Optics (RL-GO). Solution accuracy and simulation time depend heavily on the choice of RL-GO simulation parameters including: mesh size; the number of launched rays; and how densely the horn source beam is sampled. Individual convergence studies have been performed for each of these parameters and a final model has been obtained as a compromise between simulation time and accuracy. The instrumental polarisation of the lens is predicted to be at the -50 dB level. Finally, the optimal location of where to place the telescope focus in relation to the horn to maximise on-axis gain has been investigated. Several techniques agreed that the `phase centre' is around 20 mm behind the horn aperture at 140 GHz, increasing to 30 mm at 220 and 240 GHz. Taking into account beam truncation effects caused by the finite size of the telescope was found to reduce the overall variation in on-axis gain.

  1. Coherent reflection of light from a turbid suspension of particles in an internal-reflection configuration: Theory versus experiment.

    PubMed

    García-Valenzuela, Augusto; Barrera, Rubén; Sánchez-Pérez, Celia; Reyes-Coronado, Alejandro; Méndez, Eugenio

    2005-09-05

    We compare a recently developed coherent-scattering model for the reflectance of light from a turbid colloidal suspension of particles with experimental measurements. The experimental data were obtained in an internal reflection configuration around the critical angle using a glass prism in contact with a monodisperse colloidal suspension of latex particles, and a polydisperse suspension of TiO2 particles. First, we review the coherent scattering model and extend it to the case of polydisperse suspensions in an internal reflection configuration. The experimental data is then compared with results of the coherent scattering model and results obtained assuming that the colloidal system can be treated as a homogeneous medium with an effective index of refraction. We find that the experimental results are not compatible with the effective medium model. On the other hand, good fits to the experimental curves can be obtained with the coherent scattering model.

  2. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  3. Generation of non-classical correlated photon pairs via a ladder-type atomic configuration: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

    2012-05-07

    We experimentally generate a non-classical correlated two-color photon pair at 780 and 1529.4 nm in a ladder-type configuration using a hot 85Rb atomic vapor with the production rate of ~10(7)/s. The non-classical correlation between these two photons is demonstrated by strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by the factor R = 48 ± 12. Besides, we experimentally investigate the relations between the correlation and some important experimental parameters such as the single-photon detuning, the powers of pumps. We also make a theoretical analysis in detail and the theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with our experimental results.

  4. Detached Eddy Simulation Results for a Space Launch System Configuration at Liftoff Conditions and Comparison with Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, Steven E.; Ghaffari, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations for a Space Launch System configuration at liftoff conditions for incidence angles from 0 to 90 degrees were conducted in order to generate integrated force and moment data and longitudinal lineloads. While the integrated force and moment coefficients can be obtained from wind tunnel testing, computational analyses are indispensable in obtaining the extensive amount of surface information required to generate proper lineloads. However, beyond an incidence angle of about 15 degrees, the effects of massive flow separation on the leeward pressure field is not well captured with state of the art Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes methods, necessitating the employment of a Detached Eddy Simulation method. Results from these simulations are compared to the liftoff force and moment database and surface pressure data derived from a test in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel.

  5. Surface flow and heating distributions on a cylinder in near wake of Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) configuration at incidence in Mach 10 Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, William L.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental heat transfer distributions and surface streamline directions are presented for a cylinder in the near wake of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment forebody configuration. Tests were conducted in air at a nominal free stream Mach number of 10, with post shock Reynolds numbers based on model base height of 6,450 to 50,770, and angles of attack of 5, 0, -5, and -10 degrees. Heat transfer data were obtained with thin film resistance gage and surface streamline directions by the oil flow technique. Comparisons between measured values and predicted values were made by using a Navier-Stokes computer code.

  6. Numerical experiments on the evolution in coronal magnetic configurations including a filament in response to the change in the photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Juan; Liu, Si-Qing; Gong, Jian-Cun; Lin, Jun

    2015-03-01

    We investigate equilibrium height of a flux rope, and its internal equilibrium in a realistic plasma environment by carrying out numerical simulations of the evolution of systems including a current-carrying flux rope. We find that the equilibrium height of a flux rope is approximately described by a power-law function of the relative strength of the background field. Our simulations indicate that the flux rope can escape more easily from a weaker background field. This further confirms that a catastrophe in the magnetic configuration of interest can be triggered by a decrease in strength of the background field. Our results show that it takes some time to reach internal equilibrium depending on the initial state of the flux rope. The plasma flow inside the flux rope due to the adjustment for the internal equilibrium of the flux rope remains small and does not last very long when the initial state of the flux rope commences from the stable branch of the theoretical equilibrium curve. This work also confirms the influence of the initial radius of the flux rope in its evolution; the results indicate that a flux rope with a larger initial radius erupts more easily. In addition, by using a realistic plasma environment and a much higher resolution in our simulations, we notice some different characteristics compared to previous studies in Forbes. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  7. Aerodynamic characteristics of a distinct wing-body configuration at Mach 6: Experiment, theory, and the hypersonic isolation principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, J. A.; Pittman, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of wing leading edge sweep and wing translation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing body configuration at a free stream Mach number of about 6 and Reynolds number (based on body length) of 17.9 x 10 to the 6th power. Seven wings with leading edge sweep angles from -20 deg to 60 deg were tested on a common body over an angle of attack range from -12 deg to 10 deg. All wings had a common span, aspect ratio, taper ratio, planform area, and thickness ratio. Wings were translated longitudinally on the body to make tests possible with the total and exposed mean aerodynamic chords located at a fixed body station. Aerodynamic forces were found to be independent of wing sweep and translation, and pitching moments were constant when the exposed wing mean aerodynamic chord was located at a fixed body station. Thus, the Hypersonic Isolation Principle was verified. Theory applied with tangent wedge pressures on the wing and tangent cone pressures on the body provided excellent predictions of aerodynamic force coefficients but poor estimates of moment coefficients.

  8. The NASA Langley laminar-flow-control experiment on a swept, supercritical airfoil: Evaluation of initial perforated configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles D.; Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Clukey, Patricia G.; Stack, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The initial evaluation of a large-chord, swept, supercritical airfoil incorporating an active laminar-flow-control (LFC) suction system with a perforated upper surface is documented in a chronological manner, and the deficiencies in the suction capability of the perforated panels as designed are described. The experiment was conducted in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. Also included is an evaluation of the influence of the proximity of the tunnel liner to the upper surface of the airfoil pressure distribution.

  9. The NASA Langley Laminar-Flow-Control Experiment on a Swept Supercritical Airfoil: Basic Results for Slotted Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles D.; Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Clukey, Patricia G.; Stack, John P.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of Mach number and Reynolds number on the experimental surface pressure distributions and transition patterns for a large chord, swept supercritical airfoil incorporating an active Laminar Flow Control suction system with spanwise slots are presented. The experiment was conducted in the Langley 8 foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. Also included is a discussion of the influence of model/tunnel liner interactions on the airfoil pressure distribution. Mach number was varied from 0.40 to 0.82 at two chord Reynolds numbers, 10 and 20 x 1,000,000, and Reynolds number was varied from 10 to 20 x 1,000,000 at the design Mach number.

  10. Performance of the SLC polarized electron source and injector with the SLAC 3 km linac configured for fixed target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremian, A.D.; Alley, R.K.; Clendenin, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The SLC polarized electron source (PES) can be modified to produce {mu}sec-long pulses for injection into the un-SLEDed SLAC 3 km linac, with a duty factor considerably higher than for SLC. Such beams are desirable for fixed target experiments at SLAC requiring polarized electron beams of up to 50 mA within an energy spread of 0.5%, at energies of up to 26 GeV. During the fall of 1992, the SLAC linac was operated continuously for two months unSLEDed with the PES dye laser (715 nm) modified to produce a 1{mu}ec pulse at 120Hz. An AlGaAs photocathode was installed in the electron gun to achieve 40% polarization, and a prebuncher was added to the SLC injector to improve capture for long pulse beams. We discuss the performance eo the polarized electron beam for long pulse operation.

  11. Unexpected Formation of Low Amounts of (R)-Configurated anteiso-Fatty Acids in Rumen Fluid Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Abdurahman, Halima; Ruoff, Tanja; Kaffarnik, Stefanie; Steingass, Herbert; Vetter, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Anteiso-fatty acids (aFA) with odd carbon number are a class of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) mainly produced by bacteria. Bacterial sources are also made responsible for their occurrence in the low percent-range in lipids of ruminants (meat and milk) and fish. aFAs are chiral molecules and typically occur predominantly in form of (S)-enantiomers, and their primary precursor has been noted to be isoleucine. Yet, low proportions of (R)-aFAs were also detected in fish and cheese samples. Here we investigated the potential formation of (R)-aFAs by means of incubation experiments with rumen fluid from fistulated cows. Supplementation of rumen fluid with both L- and DL-isoleucine, resulted in a significant (α <0.05) increase of the aFA concentrations but in both cases enantiopure (S)-aFAs were observed. By contrast, incubations without addition of any isoleucine lead to a significant (α <0.05) formation of small proportions of (R)-aFAs similarly to those previously observed in fish and cheese. These results were consistently reproduced in three different years with rumen fluid from different cows fed different diets. All findings point to the existence of a further biosynthesis pathway of aFAs with different stereospecificity than the classic one using isoleucine as primer. PMID:28129363

  12. Experiments and Numerical Simulation on a New Hohlraum Configuration with Planar Wire Array Sources at the 1.7 MA Zebra Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Osborne, G. C.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Keim, S. F.; Stafford, A.; Jones, B.; Vesey, R. A.

    2012-10-01

    In new hohlraum configuration, multiple mm-size planar wire array (PWA) sources surround a central cavity [B. Jones et al., PRL, v.104 (2010)]. This might provide a hotter hohlraum for ICF than the prior double-ended scheme with cylindrical arrays. The current redistribution in two magnetically decoupled compact Z-pinches (0.75-0.82 MA each) was demonstrated at 1.7 MA UNR Zebra generator. Yield measurements from two cages with PWA sources show that such plasma dissipates the magnetic energy at stagnation as a resistor. For the first time, strong EUV radiation, that time-correlated with sub-keV source bursts, was registered from central cavity. The experimental cavity radiation temperature of 37-45 eV correlates well with 39 eV from VisRaD code (PRISM Co.) simulation. First results of new configuration optimization are reported. The possible applications for 30-60 MA ICF experiments are discussed. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Coop. Agr. DE-FC52-06NA27586, 06NA27588, and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Flexible heliac configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.H.; Cantrell, J.L.; Hender, T.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Morris, R.N.

    1985-04-01

    The addition of an l = 1 helical winding to the heliac central conductor adds a significant degree of flexibility to the configuration by making it possible to control the rotational transform and shear. Such control is essential for an experiment because the presence of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile can cause breakup of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. The use of the additional winding also permits reduction of the total central conductor current and can deepen the magnetic well.

  14. Data assimilative twin-experiment in a high-resolution Bay of Biscay configuration: 4DEnOI based on stochastic modeling of the wind forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervatis, V.; Testut, C. E.; De Mey, P.; Ayoub, N.; Chanut, J.; Quattrocchi, G.

    2016-04-01

    A twin-experiment is carried out introducing elements of an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), to assess and correct ocean uncertainties in a high-resolution Bay of Biscay configuration. Initially, an ensemble of 102 members is performed by applying stochastic modeling of the wind forcing. The target of this step is to simulate the envelope of possible realizations and to explore the robustness of the method at building ensemble covariances. Our second step includes the integration of the ensemble-based error estimates into a data assimilative system adopting a 4D Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (4DEnOI) approach. In the twin-experiment context, synthetic observations are simulated from a perturbed member not used in the subsequent analyses, satisfying the condition of an unbiased probability distribution function against the ensemble by performing a rank histogram. We evaluate the assimilation performance on short-term predictability focusing on the ensemble size, the observational network, and the enrichment of the ensemble by inexpensive time-lagged techniques. The results show that variations in performance are linked to intrinsic oceanic processes, such as the spring shoaling of the thermocline, in combination with external forcing modulated by river runoffs and time-variable wind patterns, constantly reshaping the error regimes. Ensemble covariances are able to capture high-frequency processes associated with coastal density fronts, slope currents and upwelling events near the Armorican and Galician shelf break. Further improvement is gained when enriching model covariances by including pattern phase errors, with the help of time-neighbor states augmenting the ensemble spread.

  15. The Use of the Rolled-up Vortex Concept for Predicting Wing-tail Interference and Comparison with Experiment at Mach Number of 1.62 for a Series of Missile Configurations Having Tandem Cruciform Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Carl E

    1952-01-01

    The method for predicting wing- tail interference whereby the trailing vortex system behind lifting wings is replaced by fully rolled-up vortices has been applied to the calculation of tail efficiency parameters, lift characteristics, and center -of-pressure locations for a series of generalized missile configurations. The calculations have been carried out with assumed and experimental vortex locations, and comparisons made with experimental data. The measured spanwise locations of the vortices for the inline case were found to be in good agreement with the asymptotic values computed from the center of gravity of the vorticity using the method of Lagerstrom and Graham. For the interdigitated configurations the measured spanwise locations were in only fair agreement with the asymptotic locations computed for the inline case. The vertical displacement of the vortices with angle of attack for both inline and interdigitated configurations was small. The method utilizing the rolled -up vortex concept was shown to give good results in the prediction of tail efficiency variations with angle of attack for inline configurations. Not as good correlation with experiment was shown for the interdigitated configurations. Complete configuration lift -curve slopes and center -of-pressure locations, obtained using t ail efficiency calculations together with the characteristics of the components obtained from available theoretical methods, showed excellent correlation with experimental results.

  16. Jet outflow and open field line measurements on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheftman, D.; Gupta, D.; Roche, T.; Thompson, M. C.; Giammanco, F.; Conti, F.; Marsili, P.; Moreno, C. D.

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge and control of the axial outflow of plasma particles and energy along open-magnetic-field lines are of crucial importance to the stability and longevity of the advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma. An overview of the diagnostic methods used to perform measurements on the open field line plasma on C-2U is presented, including passive Doppler impurity spectroscopy, microwave interferometry, and triple Langmuir probe measurements. Results of these measurements provide the jet ion temperature and axial velocity, electron density, and high frequency density fluctuations.

  17. Configuration Management Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Policy establishes an Agency-wide Configuration Management Program and to provide responsibilities, compliance requirements, and overall principles for Configuration and Change Management processes to support information technology management.

  18. Operational Dynamic Configuration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Chok Fung; Zelinski, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Sectors may combine or split within areas of specialization in response to changing traffic patterns. This method of managing capacity and controller workload could be made more flexible by dynamically modifying sector boundaries. Much work has been done on methods for dynamically creating new sector boundaries [1-5]. Many assessments of dynamic configuration methods assume the current day baseline configuration remains fixed [6-7]. A challenging question is how to select a dynamic configuration baseline to assess potential benefits of proposed dynamic configuration concepts. Bloem used operational sector reconfigurations as a baseline [8]. The main difficulty is that operational reconfiguration data is noisy. Reconfigurations often occur frequently to accommodate staff training or breaks, or to complete a more complicated reconfiguration through a rapid sequence of simpler reconfigurations. Gupta quantified a few aspects of airspace boundary changes from this data [9]. Most of these metrics are unique to sector combining operations and not applicable to more flexible dynamic configuration concepts. To better understand what sort of reconfigurations are acceptable or beneficial, more configuration change metrics should be developed and their distribution in current practice should be computed. This paper proposes a method to select a simple sequence of configurations among operational configurations to serve as a dynamic configuration baseline for future dynamic configuration concept assessments. New configuration change metrics are applied to the operational data to establish current day thresholds for these metrics. These thresholds are then corroborated, refined, or dismissed based on airspace practitioner feedback. The dynamic configuration baseline selection method uses a k-means clustering algorithm to select the sequence of configurations and trigger times from a given day of operational sector combination data. The clustering algorithm selects a simplified

  19. Configuration Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT), is information storage and report generation system for aid of configuration management activities. Configuration management is discipline composed of many techniques selected to track and direct evolution of complex systems. CAT is interactive program that accepts, organizes and stores information pertinent to specific phases of project.

  20. Electronic Configuration of Yb Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Temmerman, W.M.; Szotek, Z.; Svane, A.; Strange, P.; Winter, H.; Delin, A.; Johansson, B.; Eriksson, O.; Fast, L.; Wills, J.M.

    1999-11-01

    The total energy differences between divalent and trivalent configurations of Yb ions in a number of Yb compounds are studied. Two different band theoretical methods, which differ in the treatment of the localized f electrons, are used. The results show that in all Yb compounds the valence energy differences are equal to the energy needed to localize an f electron. These valence energy differences correlate with the number of f electrons hybridizing with the conduction bands in the trivalent configuration. For divalent YbS, the pressure induced f -electron delocalization implies an intermediate valency, as also indicated by experiment. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

  1. Kinetic parameters of the GUINEVERE reference configuration in VENUS-F reactor obtained from a pile noise experiment using Rossi and Feynman methods

    SciTech Connect

    Geslot, Benoit; Pepino, Alexandra; Blaise, Patrick; Mellier, Frederic; Kochetkov, Anatoly; Vittiglio, Guido; Billebaud, Annick

    2015-07-01

    A pile noise measurement campaign has been conducted by the CEA in the VENUS-F reactor (SCK-CEN, Mol Belgium) in April 2011 in the reference critical configuration of the GUINEVERE experimental program. The experimental setup made it possible to estimate the core kinetic parameters: the prompt neutron decay constant, the delayed neutron fraction and the generation time. A precise assessment of these constants is of prime importance. In particular, the effective delayed neutron fraction is used to normalize and compare calculated reactivities of different subcritical configurations, obtained by modifying either the core layout or the control rods position, with experimental ones deduced from the analysis of measurements. This paper presents results obtained with a CEA-developed time stamping acquisition system. Data were analyzed using Rossi-α and Feynman-α methods. Results were normalized to reactor power using a calibrated fission chamber with a deposit of Np-237. Calculated factors were necessary to the analysis: the Diven factor was computed by the ENEA (Italy) and the power calibration factor by the CNRS/IN2P3/LPC Caen. Results deduced with both methods are consistent with respect to calculated quantities. Recommended values are given by the Rossi-α estimator, that was found to be the most robust. The neutron generation time was found equal to 0.438 ± 0.009 μs and the effective delayed neutron fraction is 765 ± 8 pcm. Discrepancies with the calculated value (722 pcm, calculation from ENEA) are satisfactory: -5.6% for the Rossi-α estimate and -2.7% for the Feynman-α estimate. (authors)

  2. An Inviscid Computational Study of an X-33 Configuration at Hypersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study conducted to compute the inviscid longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified X-33 configuration. The major components of the X-33 vehicle, namely the body, the canted fin, the vertical fin, and the body-flap, were simulated in the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) model. The rear-ward facing surfaces at the base including the aerospike engine surfaces were not simulated. The FELISA software package consisting of an unstructured surface and volume grid generator and two inviscid flow solvers was used for this study. Computations were made for Mach 4.96, 6.0, and 10.0 with perfect gas air option, and for Mach 10 with equilibrium air option with flow condition of a typical point on the X-33 flight trajectory. Computations were also made with CF4 gas option at Mach 6.0 to simulate the CF4 tunnel flow condition. An angle of attack range of 12 to 48 deg was covered. The CFD results were compared with available wind tunnel data. Comparison was good at low angles of attack; at higher angles of attack (beyond 25 deg) some differences were found in the pitching moment. These differences progressively increased with increase in angle of attack, and are attributed to the viscous effects. However, the computed results showed the trends exhibited by the wind tunnel data.

  3. Studying the Effect of the Air-Cap Configuration in Twin-Wire Arc-Spraying Process on the Obtained Flow Characteristics Using Design of Experiment Oriented Fluid Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Abdulgader, M.; Anjami, N.; Hagen, L.

    2015-01-01

    The computational fluid dynamics approach is adopted in this work using the design of experiments to reveal the effect of the air-cap configurations on the obtained gas velocity, the shear stresses, the high velocity zone, and the convergence of the obtained spraying plume in the twin-wire arc-spraying process. The parameters, which are revealed to optimize the air-cap configuration, are the throat diameter, the convergence angle of the throat inlet, the throat length, and the distance between the throat outlet and the intersection point of the approaching wires. The throat length is dependent upon the other configuration parameters. Outlet gas velocity, the turbulence in the flow, and the exerted shear stresses at wire tips are directly affected by the dominating flow regimes near the intersection point of the approaching wires. The presence of wires and the contact tips in the gas flow has enormous impact on the obtained flow characteristics. Air-cap throat diameter and the distance between throat outlet and intersection point determine the shape and length of the obtained high velocity zone in the spraying plum.

  4. Computer Lab Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the layout and elements of an effective school computer lab. Includes configuration, storage spaces, cabling and electrical requirements, lighting, furniture, and computer hardware and peripherals. (PKP)

  5. A configural dominant account of contextual cueing: Configural cues are stronger than colour cues.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Melina A; John, Rebecca; Sweetman, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that reaction times to find a target in displays that have been repeated are faster than those for displays that have never been seen before. This learning effect, termed "contextual cueing" (CC), has been shown using contexts such as the configuration of the distractors in the display and the background colour. However, it is not clear how these two contexts interact to facilitate search. We investigated this here by comparing the strengths of these two cues when they appeared together. In Experiment 1, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configural cues, compared with when the target was only predicted by configural information. The results showed that the addition of a colour cue did not increase contextual cueing. In Experiment 2, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configuration compared with when the target was only cued by colour. The results showed that adding a predictive configural cue led to a stronger CC benefit. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the disruptive effects of removing either a learned colour cue or a learned configural cue and whether there was cue competition when colour and configural cues were presented together. Removing the configural cue was more disruptive to CC than removing colour, and configural learning was shown to overshadow the learning of colour cues. The data support a configural dominant account of CC, where configural cues act as the stronger cue in comparison to colour when they are presented together.

  6. Enhanced magnetic field probe array for improved excluded flux calculations on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, T.; Thompson, M. C.; Mendoza, R.; Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Romero, J.; Douglass, J.

    2016-11-01

    External flux conserving coils were installed onto the exterior of the C-2U [M. W. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)] confinement vessel to increase the flux confinement time of the system. The 0.5 in. stainless steel vessel wall has a skin time of ˜5 ms. The addition of the external copper coils effectively increases this time to ˜7 ms. This led to better-confined/longer-lived field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The fringing fields generated by the external coils have the side effect of rendering external field measurements invalid. Such measurements were key to the previous method of excluded flux calculation [M. C. Thompson et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D709 (2012)]. A new array of B-dot probes and Rogowski coils were installed to better determine the amount of flux leaked out of the system and ultimately provide a more robust measurement of plasma parameters related to pressure balance including the excluded flux radius. The B-dot probes are surface mountable chip inductors with inductance of 33 μH capable of measuring the DC magnetic field and transient field, due to resistive current decay in the wall/coils, when coupled with active integrators. The Rogowski coils measure the total change in current in each external coil (150 A/2 ms). Currents were also actively driven in the external coils. This renders the assumption of total flux conservation invalid which further complicates the analysis process. The ultimate solution to these issues and the record breaking resultant FRC lifetimes will be presented.

  7. PIV Logon Configuration Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Glen Alan

    2016-03-04

    This document details the configurations and enhancements implemented to support the usage of federal Personal Identity Verification (PIV) Card for logon on unclassified networks. The guidance is a reference implementation of the configurations and enhancements deployed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Network and Infrastructure Engineering – Core Services (NIE-CS).

  8. Configuration Effects on Liner Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.; Jones, Michael G.; Howerton, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic performance of a duct liner depends not only on the intrinsic properties of the liner but also on the configuration of the duct in which it is used. A series of experiments is performed in the NASA Langley Research Center Curved Duct Test Rig (at Mach 0.275) to evaluate the effect of duct configuration on the acoustic performance of single degree of freedom perforate-over-honeycomb liners. The liners form the sidewalls of the duct's test section. Variations of duct configuration include: asymmetric (liner on one side and hard wall opposite) and symmetric (liner on both sides) wall treatment; inlet and exhaust orientation, in which the sound propagates either against or with the flow; and straight and curved flow path. The effect that duct configuration has on the overall acoustic performance, particularly the shift in frequency and magnitude of peak attenuation, is quantified. The redistribution of incident mode content is shown. The liners constitute the side walls of the liner test section and the scatter of incident horizontal order 1 mode by the asymmetric treatment and order 2 mode by the symmetric treatment into order 0 mode is shown. Scatter of order 0 incident modes into higher order modes is also shown. This redistribution of mode content is significant because it indicates that the liner design can be manipulated such that energy is scattered into more highly attenuated modes, thus enhancing liner performance.

  9. PDSS configuration control plan and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The payload development support system (PDSS) configuration control plan and procedures are presented. These plans and procedures establish the process for maintaining configuration control of the PDSS system, especially the Spacelab experiment interface device's (SEID) RAU, HRM, and PDI interface simulations and the PDSS ECOS DEP Services simulation. The plans and procedures as specified are designed to provide a simplified but complete configuration control process. The intent is to require a minimum amount of paperwork but provide total traceability of PDSS during experiment test activities.

  10. Compact Torsatron configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Carreras, B. A.; Dominguez, N.; Garcia, L.; Lynch, V. E.; Lyon, J. F.; Cary, J. R.; Hanson, J. D.; Navarro, A. P.

    1987-09-01

    Low-aspect-ratio stellarator configurations can be realized by using torsatron winding. Plasmas with aspect ratios in the range of 3.5 to 5 can be confined by these Compact Torsatron configurations. Stable operation at high BETA should be possible in these devices, if a vertical field coil system is adequately designed to avoid breaking of the magnetic surfaces at finite BETA. 17 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  11. ION Configuration Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgen, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    The configuration of ION (Inter - planetary Overlay Network) network nodes is a manual task that is complex, time-consuming, and error-prone. This program seeks to accelerate this job and produce reliable configurations. The ION Configuration Editor is a model-based smart editor based on Eclipse Modeling Framework technology. An ION network designer uses this Eclipse-based GUI to construct a data model of the complete target network and then generate configurations. The data model is captured in an XML file. Intrinsic editor features aid in achieving model correctness, such as field fill-in, type-checking, lists of valid values, and suitable default values. Additionally, an explicit "validation" feature executes custom rules to catch more subtle model errors. A "survey" feature provides a set of reports providing an overview of the entire network, enabling a quick assessment of the model s completeness and correctness. The "configuration" feature produces the main final result, a complete set of ION configuration files (eight distinct file types) for each ION node in the network.

  12. Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and FTIR component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockwell, C. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; DeMott, P. J.; Sullivan, R. C.; Reardon, J.; Ryan, K. C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Stevens, L.

    2014-04-01

    During the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4, October-November~2012) a~large variety of regionally and globally significant biomass fuels was burned at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particle emissions were characterized by an extensive suite of instrumentation that measured aerosol chemistry, size distribution, optical properties, and cloud-nucleating properties. The trace gas measurements included high resolution mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography, and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy. This paper summarizes the overall experimental design for FLAME-4 including the fuel properties, the nature of the burn simulations, the instrumentation employed, and then focuses on the OP-FTIR results. The OP-FTIR was used to measure the initial emissions of 20 trace gases: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, glycolaldehyde, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. These species include most of the major trace gases emitted by biomass burning and for several of these compounds it is the first time their emissions are reported for important fuel types. The main fuel types included: African grasses, Asian rice straw, cooking fires (open (3-stone), rocket, and gasifier stoves), Indonesian and extratropical peat, temperate and boreal coniferous canopy fuels, US crop residue, shredded tires, and trash. Comparisons of the OP-FTIR emission factors (EF) and emission ratios (ER) to field measurements of biomass burning verify that the large body of FLAME-4 results can be used to enhance the understanding of global biomass burning and its representation in atmospheric chemistry models.

  13. Evolution of the Configuration Database Design

    SciTech Connect

    Salnikov, A

    2006-04-19

    The BABAR experiment at SLAC successfully collects physics data since 1999. One of the major parts of its on-line system is the configuration database which provides other parts of the system with the configuration data necessary for data taking. Originally the configuration database was implemented in the Objectivity/DB ODBMS. Recently BABAR performed a successful migration of its event store from Objectivity/DB to ROOT and this prompted a complete phase-out of the Objectivity/DB in all other BABAR databases. It required the complete redesign of the configuration database to hide any implementation details and to support multiple storage technologies. In this paper we describe the process of the migration of the configuration database, its new design, implementation strategy and details.

  14. Restructured Freedom configuration characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    In Jan. 1991, the LaRc SSFO performed an assessment of the configuration characteristics of the proposed pre-integrated Space Station Freedom (SSF) concept. Of particular concern was the relationship of solar array operation and orientation with respect to spacecraft controllability. For the man-tended configuration (MTC), it was determined that torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) seeking Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) control laws could not always maintain attitude. The control problems occurred when the solar arrays were tracking the sun to produce full power while flying in an arrow or gravity gradient flight mode. The large solar array articulations that sometimes result from having the functions of the alpha and beta joints reversed on MTC induced large product of inertia changes that can invalidate the control system gains during an orbit. Several modified sun tracking techniques were evaluated with respect to producing a controllable configuration requiring no modifications to the CMG control algorithms. Another assessment involved the permanently manned configuration (PMC) which has a third asymmetric PV unit on one side of the transverse boom. Recommendations include constraining alpha rotations for MTC in the arrow and gravity gradient flight modes and perhaps developing new non-TEA seeking control laws. Recommendations for PMC include raising the operational altitude and moving to a symmetric configuration as soon as possible.

  15. Configural information in gender categorisation.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2006-01-01

    The role of configural information in gender categorisation was studied by aligning the top half of one face with the bottom half of another. The two faces had the same or different genders. Experiment 1 shows that participants were slower and made more errors in categorising the gender in either half of these composite faces when the two faces had a different gender, relative to control conditions where the two faces were nonaligned or had the same gender. This result parallels the composite effect for face recognition (Young et al, 1987 Perception 16 747-759) and facial-expression recognition (Calder et al, 2000 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 26 527-551). Similarly to responses to face identity and expression, the composite effect on gender discrimination was disrupted by inverting the faces (experiment 2). Both experiments also show that the composite paradigm is sensitive to general contextual interference in gender categorisation.

  16. Software Configuration Management Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The growth in cost and importance of software to NASA has caused NASA to address the improvement of software development across the agency. One of the products of this program is a series of guidebooks that define a NASA concept of the assurance processes which are used in software development. The Software Assurance Guidebook, SMAP-GB-A201, issued in September, 1989, provides an overall picture of the concepts and practices of NASA in software assurance. Lower level guidebooks focus on specific activities that fall within the software assurance discipline, and provide more detailed information for the manager and/or practitioner. This is the Software Configuration Management Guidebook which describes software configuration management in a way that is compatible with practices in industry and at NASA Centers. Software configuration management is a key software development process, and is essential for doing software assurance.

  17. Predictive Modeling of Tokamak Configurations*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, T. A.; Lodestro, L. L.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Bulmer, R. H.; Jong, R. A.; Kaiser, T. B.; Moller, J. M.

    2001-10-01

    The Corsica code provides comprehensive toroidal plasma simulation and design capabilities with current applications [1] to tokamak, reversed field pinch (RFP) and spheromak configurations. It calculates fixed and free boundary equilibria coupled to Ohm's law, sources, transport models and MHD stability modules. We are exploring operations scenarios for both the DIII-D and KSTAR tokamaks. We will present simulations of the effects of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) relevant to the Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) regime on DIII-D exploring long pulse operation issues. KSTAR simulations using ECH/ECCD in negative central shear configurations explore evolution to steady state while shape evolution studies during current ramp up using a hyper-resistivity model investigate startup scenarios and limitations. Studies of high bootstrap fraction operation stimulated by recent ECH/ECCD experiments on DIIID will also be presented. [1] Pearlstein, L.D., et al, Predictive Modeling of Axisymmetric Toroidal Configurations, 28th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Madeira, Portugal, June 18-22, 2001. * Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  18. Electronically configured battery pack

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  19. SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes Artwork. Concepts: Based on 18 Years of Experience of Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) Operation, Characteristics, Operations and Science

  20. Saturn IB Vehicle Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This 1968 chart depicts the various mission configurations for the Saturn IB launch vehicle. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the marned lunar missions.

  1. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  2. Nuclear Shuttle Logistics Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  3. Modular tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is concerned with the modular tokamak configuration, and presents information on the following topics: modularity; external vacuum boundary; vertical maintenance; combined reactor building/biological shield with totally remote maintenance; independent TF coils; minimum TF coil bore; saddle PF coils; and heat transport system in bore.

  4. Configural processing in face recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Barbara L.; Marvel, Cherie L.; Drapalski, Amy; Rosse, Richard B.; Deutsch, Stephen I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. There is currently substantial literature to suggest that patients with schizophrenia are impaired on many face-processing tasks. This study investigated the specific effects of configural changes on face recognition in groups of schizophrenia patients. Methods. In Experiment 1, participants identified facial expressions in upright faces and in faces inverted from their upright orientation. Experiments 2 and 3 examined recognition memory for faces and other non-face objects presented in upright and inverted orientations. Experiment 4 explored recognition of facial identity in composite images where the top half of one face was fused to the bottom half of another face to form a new face configuration. Results. In each experiment, the configural change had the same effect on face recognition for the schizophenia patients as it did for control participants. Recognising inverted faces was more difficult than recognising upright faces, with a disproportionate effect of inversion on faces relative to other objects. Recognition of facial identity in face-halves was interfered with by the formation of a new face configuration. Conclusion. Collectively, these results suggest that people with schizophrenia rely on configural information to recognise photographs of faces. PMID:16528403

  5. Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In air traffic management systems, airspace is partitioned into regions in part to distribute the tasks associated with managing air traffic among different systems and people. These regions, as well as the systems and people allocated to each, are changed dynamically so that air traffic can be safely and efficiently managed. It is expected that new air traffic control systems will enable greater flexibility in how airspace is partitioned and how resources are allocated to airspace regions. In this talk, I will begin by providing an overview of some previous work and open questions in Dynamic Airspace Configuration research, which is concerned with how to partition airspace and assign resources to regions of airspace. For example, I will introduce airspace partitioning algorithms based on clustering, integer programming optimization, and computational geometry. I will conclude by discussing the development of a tablet-based tool that is intended to help air traffic controller supervisors configure airspace and controllers in current operations.

  6. Versatile composite amplifier configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gift, Stephan J. G.; Maundy, Brent

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a versatile composite amplifier in which a current feedback amplifier (CFA) drives an operational amplifier (OPA). In the conventional OPA-CFA composite amplifier, an OPA drives a CFA resulting in a composite structure that combines the DC input stability of the OPA and the high speed capability of the CFA. The proposed composite configuration combines different features of the CFA and OPA, specifically the constant bandwidth property of the CFA and the high power and high current output capacity of the OPA. The new circuit is easily implemented in the standard inverting and non-inverting configurations using commercially available devices, and the accuracy and constant bandwidth features were experimentally verified. Local feedback around the associated CFA ensures that the proposed composite amplifier possesses a higher level of bandwidth constancy than a single CFA.

  7. Modular small hydro configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  8. Fuel cell system configurations

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Cyphers, Joseph A.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel cell stack configurations having elongated polygonal cross-sectional shapes and gaskets at the peripheral faces to which flow manifolds are sealingly affixed. Process channels convey a fuel and an oxidant through longer channels, and a cooling fluid is conveyed through relatively shorter cooling passages. The polygonal structure preferably includes at least two right angles, and the faces of the stack are arranged in opposite parallel pairs.

  9. Aquarius Main Structure Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eremenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory is a joint US-Argentine mission to map the salinity at the ocean surface. This information is critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system - the water cycle and ocean circulation. By measuring ocean salinity from space, the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will provide new insights into how the massive natural exchange of freshwater between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice influences ocean circulation, weather and climate. Aquarius is the primary instrument on the SAC-D spacecraft. It consists of a Passive Microwave Radiometer to detect the surface emission that is used to obtain salinity and an Active Scatterometer to measure the ocean waves that affect the precision of the salinity measurement. The Aquarius Primary Structure houses instrument electronics, feed assemblies, and supports a deployable boom with a 2.5 m Reflector, and provides the structural interface to the SAC-D Spacecraft. The key challenge for the Aquarius main structure configuration is to satisfy the needs of component accommodations, ensuring that the instrument can meet all operational, pointing, environmental, and launch vehicle requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the Aquarius main structure configuration, the challenges of balancing the conflicting requirements, and the major configuration driving decisions and compromises.

  10. Multidisciplinary Optimization Branch Experience Using iSIGHT Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Korte, J. J.; Dunn, H. J.; Salas, A. O.

    1999-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) Branch at NASA Langley Research Center is investigating frameworks for supporting multidisciplinary analysis and optimization research. An optimization framework call improve the design process while reducing time and costs. A framework provides software and system services to integrate computational tasks and allows the researcher to concentrate more on the application and less on the programming details. A framework also provides a common working environment and a full range of optimization tools, and so increases the productivity of multidisciplinary research teams. Finally, a framework enables staff members to develop applications for use by disciplinary experts in other organizations. Since the release of version 4.0, the MDO Branch has gained experience with the iSIGHT framework developed by Engineous Software, Inc. This paper describes experiences with four aerospace applications: (1) reusable launch vehicle sizing, (2) aerospike nozzle design, (3) low-noise rotorcraft trajectories, and (4) acoustic liner design. All applications have been successfully tested using the iSIGHT framework, except for the aerospike nozzle problem, which is in progress. Brief overviews of each problem are provided. The problem descriptions include the number and type of disciplinary codes, as well as all estimate of the multidisciplinary analysis execution time. In addition, the optimization methods, objective functions, design variables, and design constraints are described for each problem. Discussions on the experience gained and lessons learned are provided for each problem. These discussions include the advantages and disadvantages of using the iSIGHT framework for each case as well as the ease of use of various advanced features. Potential areas of improvement are identified.

  11. Computational methods for stellerator configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Betancourt, O.

    1992-01-01

    This project had two main objectives. The first one was to continue to develop computational methods for the study of three dimensional magnetic confinement configurations. The second one was to collaborate and interact with researchers in the field who can use these techniques to study and design fusion experiments. The first objective has been achieved with the development of the spectral code BETAS and the formulation of a new variational approach for the study of magnetic island formation in a self consistent fashion. The code can compute the correct island width corresponding to the saturated island, a result shown by comparing the computed island with the results of unstable tearing modes in Tokamaks and with experimental results in the IMS Stellarator. In addition to studying three dimensional nonlinear effects in Tokamaks configurations, these self consistent computed island equilibria will be used to study transport effects due to magnetic island formation and to nonlinearly bifurcated equilibria. The second objective was achieved through direct collaboration with Steve Hirshman at Oak Ridge, D. Anderson and R. Talmage at Wisconsin as well as through participation in the Sherwood and APS meetings.

  12. GSC configuration management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withers, B. Edward

    1990-01-01

    The tools and methods used for the configuration management of the artifacts (including software and documentation) associated with the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project are described. The GCS project is part of a software error studies research program. Three implementations of GCS are being produced in order to study the fundamental characteristics of the software failure process. The Code Management System (CMS) is used to track and retrieve versions of the documentation and software. Application of the CMS for this project is described and the numbering scheme is delineated for the versions of the project artifacts.

  13. Hippocampal theta wave activity during configural and non-configural tasks in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakimoto, Yuya; Hattori, Minoru; Takeda, Kozue; Okada, Kana; Sakata, Shogo

    2013-03-01

    This study examined hippocampal theta power during configural and non-configural tasks in rats. Experiment 1 compared hippocampal theta power during a negative patterning task (A+, B+, AB-) to a configural task and a simple discrimination task (A+, B-) as a non-configural task. The results showed that hippocampal theta power during the non-reinforcement trial (non-RFT) of the negative patterning task was higher than that during the simple discrimination task. However, this hippocampal power may reflect sensory processing for compound stimuli that have cross-modality features (the non-RFT of the negative patterning task was presented together with visual and auditory stimuli, but the non-RFT of the simple discrimination task was presented with visual or auditory stimulus alone). Thus, in experiment 2, we examined whether the experiment 1 results were attributable to sensory processing of a compound stimulus by comparing hippocampal theta power during negative patterning (A+, B+, AB-), simultaneous feature-negative (A+, AB-), and simple discrimination tasks (A+, B-). Experiment 2 showed that hippocampal theta activity during the non-RFT in the negative patterning task was higher than that in the simultaneous feature-negative and simple discrimination tasks. Thus, we showed that hippocampal theta activity increased during configural tasks but not during non-configural tasks.

  14. SIM Configuration Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aaron, Kim M.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based 10 m baseline Michelson interferometer. Planned for launch in 2005 aboard a Delta III launch vehicle, or equivalent, its primary objective is to measure the positions of stars and other celestial objects with an unprecedented accuracy of 4 micro arc seconds. With such an instrument, tremendous advancement can be expected in our understanding of stellar and galactic dynamics. Using triangulation from opposite sides of the orbit around the sun (i.e. by using parallax) one can measure the distance to any observable object in our galaxy. By directly measuring the orbital wobble of nearby stars, the mass and orbit of planets can be determined over a wide range of parameters. The distribution of velocity within nearby galaxies will be measurable. Observations of these and other objects will improve the calibration of distance estimators by more than an order of magnitude. This will permit a much better determination of the Hubble Constant as well as improving our overall understanding of the evolution of the universe. SIM has undergone several transformations, especially over the past year and a half since the start of Phase A. During this phase of a project, it is desirable to perform system-level trade studies, so the substantial evolution of the design that has occurred is quite appropriate. Part of the trade-off process has addressed two major underlying architectures: SIM Classic; and Son of SIM. The difference between these two architectures is related to the overall arrangement of the optical elements and the associated metrology system. Several different configurations have been developed for each architecture. Each configuration is the result of design choices that are influenced by many competing considerations. Some of the more important aspects will be discussed. The Space Interferometry Mission has some extremely challenging goals: millikelvin thermal stability, nanometer stabilization of optics

  15. Ames Optimized TCA Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Reuther, James J.; Hicks, Raymond M.

    1999-01-01

    Configuration design at Ames was carried out with the SYN87-SB (single block) Euler code using a 193 x 49 x 65 C-H grid. The Euler solver is coupled to the constrained (NPSOL) and the unconstrained (QNMDIF) optimization packages. Since the single block grid is able to model only wing-body configurations, the nacelle/diverter effects were included in the optimization process by SYN87's option to superimpose the nacelle/diverter interference pressures on the wing. These interference pressures were calculated using the AIRPLANE code. AIRPLANE is an Euler solver that uses a unstructured tetrahedral mesh and is capable of computations about arbitrary complete configurations. In addition, the buoyancy effects of the nacelle/diverters were also included in the design process by imposing the pressure field obtained during the design process onto the triangulated surfaces of the nacelle/diverter mesh generated by AIRPLANE. The interference pressures and nacelle buoyancy effects are added to the final forces after each flow field calculation. Full details of the (recently enhanced) ghost nacelle capability are given in a related talk. The pseudo nacelle corrections were greatly improved during this design cycle. During the Ref H and Cycle 1 design activities, the nacelles were only translated and pitched. In the cycle 2 design effort the nacelles can translate vertically, and pitch to accommodate the changes in the lower surface geometry. The diverter heights (between their leading and trailing edges) were modified during design as the shape of the lower wing changed, with the drag of the diverter changing accordingly. Both adjoint and finite difference gradients were used during optimization. The adjoint-based gradients were found to give good direction in the design space for configurations near the starting point, but as the design approached a minimum, the finite difference gradients were found to be more accurate. Use of finite difference gradients was limited by the

  16. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Vassigh, Kenny; Bendek, Selman; Young, Zion W; Lynch, Dana H.

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide strawman mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible andor UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST.

  17. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  18. Software Configurable Multichannel Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Cornelius, Harold; Hickling, Ron; Brooks, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Emerging test instrumentation and test scenarios increasingly require network communication to manage complexity. Adapting wireless communication infrastructure to accommodate challenging testing needs can benefit from reconfigurable radio technology. A fundamental requirement for a software-definable radio system is independence from carrier frequencies, one of the radio components that to date has seen only limited progress toward programmability. This paper overviews an ongoing project to validate the viability of a promising chipset that performs conversion of radio frequency (RF) signals directly into digital data for the wireless receiver and, for the transmitter, converts digital data into RF signals. The Software Configurable Multichannel Transceiver (SCMT) enables four transmitters and four receivers in a single unit the size of a commodity disk drive, programmable for any frequency band between 1 MHz and 6 GHz.

  19. Inductrack magnet configuration

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2003-10-14

    A magnet configuration comprising a pair of Halbach arrays magnetically and structurally connected together are positioned with respect to each other so that a first component of their fields substantially cancels at a first plane between them, and a second component of their fields substantially adds at this first plane. A track of windings is located between the pair of Halbach arrays and a propulsion mechanism is provided for moving the pair of Halbach arrays along the track. When the pair of Halbach arrays move along the track and the track is not located at the first plane, a current is induced in the windings and a restoring force is exerted on the pair of Halbach arrays.

  20. Inductrack magnet configuration

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2003-12-16

    A magnet configuration comprising a pair of Halbach arrays magnetically and structurally connected together are positioned with respect to each other so that a first component of their fields substantially cancels at a first plane between them, and a second component of their fields substantially adds at this first plane. A track of windings is located between the pair of Halbach arrays and a propulsion mechanism is provided for moving the pair of Halbach arrays along the track. When the pair of Halbach arrays move along the track and the track is not located at the first plane, a current is induced in the windings and a restoring force is exerted on the pair of Halbach arrays.

  1. Power converter connection configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Gettelfinger, Lee A.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Phillips, Mark G.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.

    2008-11-11

    EMI shielding is provided for power electronics circuits and the like via a direct-mount reference plane support and shielding structure. The thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support forms a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  2. Improved Interference configuration for structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houkai; Wei, Shibiao; Wu, Xiaojing; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Yuquan; Du, Luping; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Siwei; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2017-02-01

    We present an improved structured illumination configuration for structured illumination microscopy (SIM) based on spatial light modulator. Precise phase shifts and rotation of illumination fringes can be dynamically controlled using a spatial light modulator. The method is different from the conventional illumination configuration that are based on interference of ±1 diffractive order light. The experimental setup requires less optical elements making it compact, reliable, and suitable for integration. The method has been applied in the standing-wave total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy. High lateral resolution of sub-100 nm was achieved in single directional resolution enhancement experiments.

  3. Incremental full configuration interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Paul M.

    2017-03-01

    The incremental expansion provides a polynomial scaling method for computing electronic correlation energies. This article details a new algorithm and implementation for the incremental expansion of full configuration interaction (FCI), called iFCI. By dividing the problem into n-body interaction terms, accurate correlation energies can be recovered at low n in a highly parallel computation. Additionally, relatively low-cost approximations are possible in iFCI by solving for each incremental energy to within a specified threshold. Herein, systematic tests show that FCI-quality energies can be asymptotically reached for cases where dynamic correlation is dominant as well as where static correlation is vital. To further reduce computational costs and allow iFCI to reach larger systems, a select-CI approach (heat-bath CI) requiring two parameters is incorporated. Finally, iFCI provides the first estimate of FCI energies for hexatriene with a polarized double zeta basis set, which has 32 electrons correlated in 118 orbitals, corresponding to a FCI dimension of over 1038.

  4. Holistic processing does not require configural variability

    PubMed Central

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Using the Garner speeded classification task, Amishav and Kimchi (2010) found that participants could selectively attend to face features: Classifying faces based on the shape of the eyes was not influenced by task-irrelevant variation in the shape of the mouth, and vice versa. This result contrasts with a large body of work using another selective attention task, the composite task, in which participants are unable to selectively attend to face parts: Same/different judgments for one half of a composite face are influenced by the same/different status of the task-irrelevant half of that composite face. In Amishav and Kimchi, faces all shared a common configuration of face features. By contrast, configuration is typically never controlled in the composite task. We asked whether failures of selective attention observed in the composite task are caused by faces varying in both features and configuration. In two experiments, we found that participants exhibited failures of selective attention to face parts in the composite task even when configuration was held constant, which is inconsistent with Amishav and Kimchi’s conclusion that face features can be processed independently unless configuration varies. Although both measure failures of selective attention, the Garner task and composite task appear to measure different mechanisms involved in holistic face perception. PMID:25367141

  5. Configural response learning: the acquisition of a nonpredictive motor skill.

    PubMed

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Aparicio, Paul; Weinstein, Andrea; Ivry, Richard B

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the representational nature of configural response learning using a task that required simultaneous keypresses with 2 or 3 fingers, similar to the production of chords on the piano. If the benefits of learning are related to the retrieval of individual stimulus-response mappings, performance should depend on the frequencies of the individual responses forming each chord. Alternatively, learning may involve the encoding of configural information concerning the relationship between the chord elements. In Experiment 1, training was restricted to a subset of the 120 possible 3-element chords. Probe blocks included the practiced chords, chords composed of novel configurations of practiced elements (reconfigured), and chords that contained a new element (new). Practiced chords were performed faster than reconfigured chords, indicating learning involves the encoding of configural information. Experiment 2 showed that learning was not restricted to configurations within each hand. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that learning was largely response based.

  6. Three Studies on Configural Face Processing by Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew; Akamagwuna, Unoma

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of chimpanzees to facial configurations. Three studies further these findings by showing this sensitivity to be specific to second-order relational properties. In humans, this type of configural processing requires prolonged experience and enables subordinate-level discriminations of many…

  7. Configurational entropy of glueball states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, Alex E.; Braga, Nelson R. F.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2017-02-01

    The configurational entropy of glueball states is calculated using a holographic description. Glueball states are represented by a supergravity dual picture, consisting of a 5-dimensional graviton-dilaton action of a dynamical holographic AdS/QCD model. The configurational entropy is studied as a function of the glueball spin and of the mass, providing information about the stability of the glueball states.

  8. An experimental study of several wind tunnel wall configurations using two V/STOL model configurations. [low speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binion, T. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the low speed wind tunnel using two V/STOL models, a jet-flap and a jet-in-fuselage configuration, to search for a wind tunnel wall configuration to minimize wall interference on V/STOL models. Data were also obtained on the jet-flap model with a uniform slotted wall configuration to provide comparisons between theoretical and experimental wall interference. A test section configuration was found which provided some data in reasonable agreement with interference-free results over a wide range of momentum coefficients.

  9. Radiant-interchange Configuration Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D C :; Morgan, W R

    1952-01-01

    A study is presented of the geometric configuration factors required for computing radiant heat transfer between opaque surfaces separated by a nonabsorbing medium and various methods of determining the configuration factors are discussed. Configuration-factor solutions available in the literature have been checked and the more complicated equations are presented as families of curves. Cases for point, line, and finite-area sources are worked out over a wide range of geometric proportions. These cases include several new configurations involving rectangles, triangles, and cylinders of finite length which are integrated and tabulated. An analysis is presented, in which configuration factors are employed of the radiant heat transfer to the rotor blades of a typical gas turbine under different conditions of temperature and pressure. (author)

  10. Aeropropulsion facilities configuration control: Procedures manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, James J.

    1990-01-01

    Lewis Research Center senior management directed that the aeropropulsion facilities be put under configuration control. A Configuration Management (CM) program was established by the Facilities Management Branch of the Aeropropulsion Facilities and Experiments Division. Under the CM program, a support service contractor was engaged to staff and implement the program. The Aeronautics Directorate has over 30 facilities at Lewis of various sizes and complexities. Under the program, a Facility Baseline List (FBL) was established for each facility, listing which systems and their documents were to be placed under configuration control. A Change Control System (CCS) was established requiring that any proposed changes to FBL systems or their documents were to be processed as per the CCS. Limited access control of the FBL master drawings was implemented and an audit system established to ensure all facility changes are properly processed. This procedures manual sets forth the policy and responsibilities to ensure all key documents constituting a facilities configuration are kept current, modified as needed, and verified to reflect any proposed change. This is the essence of the CM program.

  11. Methane Dual Expander Aerospike Nozzle Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    v Acknowledgments I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Lt. Col Hartsfield, who has put great effort in discussing, teaching , and...42 NPSS Thermochemistry ................................................................................................44 Methane FPT Generation...Next is a more focused description of how NPSS uses thermochemistry and an explanation on the development of the different fluid property tables

  12. Context based configuration management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor); Gurram, Mohana M. (Inventor); Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Mederos, Luis A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A computer-based system for configuring and displaying information on changes in, and present status of, a collection of events associated with a project. Classes of icons for decision events, configurations and feedback mechanisms, and time lines (sequential and/or simultaneous) for related events are displayed. Metadata for each icon in each class is displayed by choosing and activating the corresponding icon. Access control (viewing, reading, writing, editing, deleting, etc.) is optionally imposed for metadata and other displayed information.

  13. Space Station reference configuration description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  14. Pitfall or scaffolding? Starting-point pull in configuration tasks.

    PubMed

    Halali, Eliran; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Leiser, David

    2013-03-01

    In configuration problems, such as the construction of a weekly study schedule, decision makers must assemble a combination of parts under a set of constraints. Interactions may be present between the parts, and more than a single objective function may exist, such as minimizing the number of days on campus and maximizing the interest level of the courses. Little is known about the decision-making processes involved in configuration tasks. Building on problem-solving and resource-allocation literature, the current study examines the effect of the starting points on performance in these tasks. We predicted that task constraints serve as starting points for the construction process that pull the entire configuration toward them. In 2 experiments, we asked participants to construct a weekly course schedule. We manipulated the course-offering sets so that starting the configuration with one of the task constraints (mandatory courses or a requirement to be on campus on specific days) and myopically building the configuration around it would either help or hinder the effort to reach a good schedule. By several convergent measures, participants succeeded more with the "Asset" course-offering sets than with the "Obstacle" sets. Think-aloud protocol analysis also supported this starting-point pull effect. The results of Experiment 3 show that for a starting point to pull the configuration, it has to be a constraint on the task. All 3 experiments show how building the configuration myopically around the starting points unduly affects the end result.

  15. Observation-Driven Configuration of Complex Software Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Aled

    2010-06-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of software systems makes them hard to comprehend, predict and tune due to emergent properties and non-deterministic behaviour. Complexity arises from the size of software systems and the wide variety of possible operating environments: the increasing choice of platforms and communication policies leads to ever more complex performance characteristics. In addition, software systems exhibit different behaviour under different workloads. Many software systems are designed to be configurable so that policies can be chosen to meet the needs of various stakeholders. For complex software systems it can be difficult to accurately predict the effects of a change and to know which configuration is most appropriate. This thesis demonstrates that it is useful to run automated experiments that measure a selection of system configurations. Experiments can find configurations that meet the stakeholders' needs, find interesting behavioural characteristics, and help produce predictive models of the system's behaviour. The design and use of ACT (Automated Configuration Tool) for running such experiments is described, in combination a number of search strategies for deciding on the configurations to measure. Design Of Experiments (DOE) is discussed, with emphasis on Taguchi Methods. These statistical methods have been used extensively in manufacturing, but have not previously been used for configuring software systems. The novel contribution here is an industrial case study, applying the combination of ACT and Taguchi Methods to DC-Directory, a product from Data Connection Ltd (DCL). The case study investigated the applicability of Taguchi Methods for configuring complex software systems. Taguchi Methods were found to be useful for modelling and configuring DC- Directory, making them a valuable addition to the techniques available to system administrators and developers.

  16. Optimized configurations of autostable superconducting magnetic bearings for practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schoechlin, A.; Ritter, T.; Bornemann, H.J.

    1995-11-01

    In order to establish an optimized bearing design for a flywheel for energy storage, the authors have studied model bearing configurations involving bulk YBCO pellets and double-dipole magnet configurations. They were interested to see what is the correlation between the maximum attainable levitation force, measured for a typical bearing gap of 3 mm, and the separation between the magnetic poles. Equal polarity (north-north) and alternate polarity (north-south) configurations were investigated. The maximum levitation force was obtained with the alternate polarity arrangement for a separation between the magnetic poles of 6 mm. It represents an increase of 19% compared to a non-optimized configuration. The experiments demonstrate that configurations of superconducting magnetic bearings can be optimized to obtain better levitation properties.

  17. Turbulent optimization of toroidal configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynick, H.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Faber, B.; Lucia, M.; Rorvig, M.; Talmadge, J. N.

    2014-09-01

    Recent progress in ‘turbulent optimization’ of toroidal configurations is described, using a method recently developed for evolving such configurations to ones having reduced turbulent transport. The method uses the GENE gyrokinetic code to compute the radial heat flux Qgk, and the STELLOPT optimization code with a theory-based ‘proxy’ figure of merit Qpr to stand in for Qgk for computational speed. Improved expressions for Qpr have been developed, involving further geometric quantities beyond those in the original proxy, which can also be used as ‘control knobs’ to reduce Qgk. Use of a global search algorithm has led to the discovery of turbulent-optimized configurations not found by the standard, local algorithm usually employed, as has use of a mapping capability which STELLOPT has been extended to provide, of figures of merit over the search space.

  18. Configurational asymmetry in vernier offset detection.

    PubMed

    Karim, A K M Rezaul; Kojima, Haruyuki

    2010-10-06

    Two psychophysical experiments were conducted at the horizontal and vertical orientations respectively, demonstrating substantial main effect of configuration, but no effect of offset direction on vernier acuity. In Experiment 1, a pair of horizontal bars were arranged side by side with a large gap between them. The observers were, on average, significantly better at discriminating a vertical offset if the right-hand bar was below the left-hand bar than vice versa, regardless of which bar they experienced as displaced and which as constant. A similar asymmetry was evident in Experiment 2 where observers judged horizontal offset for a pair of vertically oriented bars, where one was placed above the other. In this case average performance was better if the upper bar was on the right of the lower bar rather than on its left. There were large individual variations in the asymmetrical trend, but the effect could not be explained by subjective response bias. Furthermore, vernier acuity improved significantly and the asymmetry decreased more or less as a function of training. The average asymmetrical trend was consistent across training days and across two orientations, which indicates that the processing of line vernier stimuli is possibly configuration-specific in the cardinal orientation.

  19. Configurational asymmetry in vernier offset detection

    PubMed Central

    Karim, A. K. M. Rezaul; Kojima, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    Two psychophysical experiments were conducted at the horizontal and vertical orientations respectively, demonstrating substantial main effect of configuration, but no effect of offset direction on vernier acuity. In Experiment 1, a pair of horizontal bars were arranged side by side with a large gap between them. The observers were, on average, significantly better at discriminating a vertical offset if the right-hand bar was below the left-hand bar than vice versa, regardless of which bar they experienced as displaced and which as constant. A similar asymmetry was evident in Experiment 2 where observers judged horizontal offset for a pair of vertically oriented bars, where one was placed above the other. In this case average performance was better if the upper bar was on the right of the lower bar rather than on its left. There were large individual variations in the asymmetrical trend, but the effect could not be explained by subjective response bias. Furthermore, vernier acuity improved significantly and the asymmetry decreased more or less as a function of training. The average asymmetrical trend was consistent across training days and across two orientations, which indicates that the processing of line vernier stimuli is possibly configuration-specific in the cardinal orientation. PMID:20930953

  20. Redundant Array Configurations for 21 cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2016-08-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays—in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs—for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA’s can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both instantaneously (to address instrumental and ionospheric effects) and with rotation synthesis (for foreground removal). We also examine the effects that configuration has on calibratability using instantaneous redundancy. We find that improved imaging with sub-aperture sampling via “off-grid” antennas and increased angular resolution via far-flung “outrigger” antennas is possible with a redundantly calibratable array configuration.

  1. CMS Configuration Editor: GUI based application for user analysis job

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cosa, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present the user interface and the software architecture of the Configuration Editor for the CMS experiment. The analysis workflow is organized in a modular way integrated within the CMS framework that organizes in a flexible way user analysis code. The Python scripting language is adopted to define the job configuration that drives the analysis workflow. It could be a challenging task for users, especially for newcomers, to develop analysis jobs managing the configuration of many required modules. For this reason a graphical tool has been conceived in order to edit and inspect configuration files. A set of common analysis tools defined in the CMS Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT) can be steered and configured using the Config Editor. A user-defined analysis workflow can be produced starting from a standard configuration file, applying and configuring PAT tools according to the specific user requirements. CMS users can adopt this tool, the Config Editor, to create their analysis visualizing in real time which are the effects of their actions. They can visualize the structure of their configuration, look at the modules included in the workflow, inspect the dependences existing among the modules and check the data flow. They can visualize at which values parameters are set and change them according to what is required by their analysis task. The integration of common tools in the GUI needed to adopt an object-oriented structure in the Python definition of the PAT tools and the definition of a layer of abstraction from which all PAT tools inherit.

  2. Configurable silicon photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prorok, Stefan; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate that the mode cut off of a photonic crystal waveguide can be trimmed with high accuracy by electron beam bleaching of a chromophore doped polymer cladding. Using this method, configurable waveguides are realized, which allow for spatially resolved changes of the photonic crystal's effective lattice constant as small as 7.6 pm. We show three different examples how to take advantage of configurable photonic crystal waveguides: Shifting of the complete transmission spectrum, definition of cavities with high quality factor, and tuning of existing cavities.

  3. Configurable silicon photonic crystal waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Prorok, Stefan; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2013-12-23

    In this Letter, we demonstrate that the mode cut off of a photonic crystal waveguide can be trimmed with high accuracy by electron beam bleaching of a chromophore doped polymer cladding. Using this method, configurable waveguides are realized, which allow for spatially resolved changes of the photonic crystal's effective lattice constant as small as 7.6 pm. We show three different examples how to take advantage of configurable photonic crystal waveguides: Shifting of the complete transmission spectrum, definition of cavities with high quality factor, and tuning of existing cavities.

  4. Elementary polarization properties in the backscattering configuration.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Oriol; Garcia-Caurel, Enric; Ossikovski, Razvigor

    2014-10-15

    In the normal incidence backscattering configuration, a polarimetric measurement always preserves the reciprocal symmetry. For a reciprocal Jones matrix, the number of elementary polarization properties is reduced from six to four. In this work, the physical interpretation of these properties is examined and they are compared with the equivalent polarization properties in transmission. It is found that, with the exception of natural optical activity, a polarimetric backreflection experiment can essentially provide the same type of information about the anisotropy of a medium as a transmission analysis, although transmission and backreflection information comes in a completely different form. Experimental examples are provided to illustrate the discussion.

  5. One to one imagery using single hololens configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    The present study proposes a novel technique for one to one imagery using a single hololens imaging configuration for the first time to the best of our information. Detailed theoretical analysis and experimental realization of a single hololens imaging configuration has been presented. In order to substantiate the one to one imaging capacity of the system, experiments have been performed in both transmissions as well as reflection mode.

  6. NCCDS configuration management process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    By concentrating on defining and improving specific Configuration Management (CM) functions, processes, procedures, personnel selection/development, and tools, internal and external customers received improved CM services. Job performance within the section increased in both satisfaction and output. Participation in achieving major improvements has led to the delivery of consistent quality CM products as well as significant decreases in every measured CM metrics category.

  7. Safe Configuration of TLS Connections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-16

    Lobster [7] is a DSL for security policy configuration that allows modeling of network flows between security domains. While Lobster provides means...scap.nist.gov/ [7] J. Hurd, et al, “ Lobster : A domain specific language for selinux policies”, Galois internal report, 2008. [8] E. Al-Shaeret, et al, “Network

  8. Configuration Aerodynamics: Past - Present - Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Bencze, Daniel P.; Kulfan, Robert M.; Wilson, Douglas L.

    1999-01-01

    The Configuration Aerodynamics (CA) element of the High Speed Research (HSR) program is managed by a joint NASA and Industry team, referred to as the Technology Integration Development (ITD) team. This team is responsible for the development of a broad range of technologies for improved aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics at subsonic to supersonic flight conditions. These objectives are pursued through the aggressive use of advanced experimental test techniques and state of the art computational methods. As the HSR program matures and transitions into the next phase the objectives of the Configuration Aerodynamics ITD are being refined to address the drag reduction needs and stability and control requirements of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft. In addition, the experimental and computational tools are being refined and improved to meet these challenges. The presentation will review the work performed within the Configuration Aerodynamics element in 1994 and 1995 and then discuss the plans for the 1996-1998 time period. The final portion of the presentation will review several observations of the HSR program and the design activity within Configuration Aerodynamics.

  9. A Communication Configuration of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Jim D.

    A study focused on the way that image, knowledge, behavioral intent, and communicative responsiveness are configured for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The classic model of the adoption process expects that knowledge about a subject will lead to a favorable evaluation of it, which in turn will lead to a decision to act. But the…

  10. Terminal configured vehicle program: Test facilities guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The terminal configured vehicle (TCV) program was established to conduct research and to develop and evaluate aircraft and flight management system technology concepts that will benefit conventional take off and landing operations in the terminal area. Emphasis is placed on the development of operating methods for the highly automated environment anticipated in the future. The program involves analyses, simulation, and flight experiments. Flight experiments are conducted using a modified Boeing 737 airplane equipped with highly flexible display and control equipment and an aft flight deck for research purposes. The experimental systems of the Boeing 737 are described including the flight control computer systems, the navigation/guidance system, the control and command panel, and the electronic display system. The ground based facilities used in the program are described including the visual motion simulator, the fixed base simulator, the verification and validation laboratory, and the radio frequency anechoic facility.

  11. Solar disk sextant optical configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y.; Maier, E.; Schatten, K. H.; Sofia, S.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the performance of a plausible configuration for the solar disk sextant, an instrument to be used to monitor the solar diameter, is evaluated. Overall system requirements are evaluated, and tolerable uncertainties are obtained. It is concluded that by using a beam splitting wedge, a folded optics design can be used to measure the solar diameter to an accuracy of 10 to the -6th, despite the greater aberrations present in such optical systems.

  12. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z. E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  13. Configuration Management Process Assessment Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a strategy for assessing the development and effectiveness of configuration management systems within Programs, Projects, and Design Activities performed by technical organizations and their supporting development contractors. Scope: Various entities CM Systems will be assessed dependent on Project Scope (DDT&E), Support Services and Acquisition Agreements. Approach: Model based structured against assessing organizations CM requirements including best practices maturity criteria. The model is tailored to the entity being assessed dependent on their CM system. The assessment approach provides objective feedback to Engineering and Project Management of the observed CM system maturity state versus the ideal state of the configuration management processes and outcomes(system). center dot Identifies strengths and risks versus audit gotcha's (findings/observations). center dot Used "recursively and iteratively" throughout program lifecycle at select points of need. (Typical assessments timing is Post PDR/Post CDR) center dot Ideal state criteria and maturity targets are reviewed with the assessed entity prior to an assessment (Tailoring) and is dependent on the assessed phase of the CM system. center dot Supports exit success criteria for Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews. center dot Gives a comprehensive CM system assessment which ultimately supports configuration verification activities.*

  14. Analysis of Advanced Rotorcraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Advanced rotorcraft configurations are being investigated with the objectives of identifying vehicles that are larger, quieter, and faster than current-generation rotorcraft. A large rotorcraft, carrying perhaps 150 passengers, could do much to alleviate airport capacity limitations, and a quiet rotorcraft is essential for community acceptance of the benefits of VTOL operations. A fast, long-range, long-endurance rotorcraft, notably the tilt-rotor configuration, will improve rotorcraft economics through productivity increases. A major part of the investigation of advanced rotorcraft configurations consists of conducting comprehensive analyses of vehicle behavior for the purpose of assessing vehicle potential and feasibility, as well as to establish the analytical models required to support the vehicle development. The analytical work of FY99 included applications to tilt-rotor aircraft. Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) wind tunnel measurements are being compared with calculations performed by using the comprehensive analysis tool (Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD 11)). The objective is to establish the wing and wake aerodynamic models that are required for tilt-rotor analysis and design. The TRAM test in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) produced extensive measurements. This is the first test to encompass air loads, performance, and structural load measurements on tilt rotors, as well as acoustic and flow visualization data. The correlation of measurements and calculations includes helicopter-mode operation (performance, air loads, and blade structural loads), hover (performance and air loads), and airplane-mode operation (performance).

  15. Launch site payload test configurations for Space Shuttle scientific payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuiling, Roelof L.; Mayer, Maynette S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the test configurations which are utilized in prelaunch testing at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for those scientific payloads which are flown in the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle. A generalized view of the payload prelaunch processing is provided and the major types of payload configurations are described. The majority of the prelaunch test activity involves the verification of experiment functions, compatibility of experiment-to-carrier interfaces and payload-to-orbiter interfaces. The Shuttle's avionics system is presented as it relates to payloads. The testing of Spacelab experiments and the experiment-to-Spacelab compatibility verification is described as is the test activity for partial payloads and their experiments. Test operations which involve simulated orbiter interface verification and actual payload-to-orbiter testing are discussed. An overview of the Space Station payload processing concept is presented.

  16. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    SciTech Connect

    Bollini, C.G. |; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in {nu} dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, the Bochner theorem is used; no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov and Shirkov, are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in {ital x} space have {nu}-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant analytic functions of {nu}. Several examples are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. SSF growth concepts and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.

    1991-01-01

    There are three primary objectives for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Growth concepts and configuration study task. The first objective is the development of evolutionary SSF concept consistent with user requirements and program constraints. The second primary objective is to ensure the feasibility of the proposed SSF evolution concepts as the systems level. This includes an assessment of SSF evolution flight control analysis, logistics assessment, maintainability, and operational considerations. The final objective is to ensure compatibility of the baseline SSF design with the derived evolution requirements at both the system and element (habitat modules, power generation equipment, etc.) levels.

  18. Electromagnetic configurations of rail guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Ostashev, V. E.; Lopyrev, A. N.; Ul'Yanov, A. V.

    1993-06-01

    Some problems associated with the electromagnetic acceleration of macrobodies in a rail gun are examined. An approach to the design of rail gun configurations is proposed, and some basic rail gun schemes are synthesized. The alternative rail gun schemes are compared in terms of electrode potential and stability of the electrode gap with respect to parasitic current shunting. The effect of the ohmic resistance of the electrodes and of the additional magnetization field on the spatial structure of the discharge in the rail gun channel is discussed. A classification of rail gun modifications is presented.

  19. Multiple forearm robotic elbow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A dual forearmed robotic elbow configuration comprises a main arm having a double elbow from which two coplanar forearms depend, two actuators carried in the double elbow for moving the forearms, and separate, independent end effectors, operated by a cable carried from the main arm through the elbow, is attached to the distal end of each forearm. Coiling the cables around the actuators prevents bending or kinking when the forearms are rotated 360 degrees. The end effectors can have similar or different capabilities. Actuator cannisters within the dual elbow are modular for rapid replacement or maintenance. Coarse and fine resolver transducers within the actuators provide accurate position referencing information.

  20. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 3nd QUARTER 2009 MILESTONE REPORT: Upgrade plasma source configuration and carry out initial experiments. Characterize improvements in focal spot beam intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Dorf, M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.; Greenway, W.; Grote, D.; Jung, J.Y.; Katayanagi, T.; Logan, B.G.; Lee, C.W.; Leitner, M.; Ni, P.; Pekedis, A.; Regis, M. J.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W.

    2009-06-30

    Simulations suggest that the plasma density must exceed the beam density throughout the drift compression and focusing section in order to inhibit the space charge forces that would limit the spot size and beam intensity on the target. WDM experiments will therefore require plasma densities up to 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 3}, with the highest density in the last few centimeters before the target. This work was guided by the simulations performed for the FY09 Q1 milestone. This milestone has been met and we report results of modifications made to the NDCX beamline to improve the longitudinal and radial distribution of the neutralizing plasma in the region near the target plane. In Section 2, we review pertinent simulation results from the FY09 Q1 milestone. Section 3 describes the design, and beam measurements following installation, of a biased, self-supporting metal grid that produces neutralizing electrons from glancing interception of beam ions. Section 4 describes the design and initial testing of a compact Ferro-Electric Plasma Source (FEPS) that will remove the remaining 'exclusion zone' in the neutralizing plasma close to the target plane. Section 5 describes the modification of the beamline to decrease the gap between the FEPS section exit and the final focus solenoid (FFS). Section 6 presents a summary and conclusions.

  1. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.; Kim, S.; Hwang, D.; Chen, C.C.; Chiou, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research was to obtain fundamental information regarding the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient of coal molecules on the ratio of molecule to pore diameter. That is, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of molecule size and configuration on hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules through as porous medium. To best accomplish this task, we circumvented the complexities of an actual porous catalyst by using a well defined porous matrix with uniform capillaric pores, i.e., a track-etched membrane. In this way, useful information was obtained regarding the relationship of molecular size and configuration on the diffusion rate of coal derived macromolecules through a pore structure with known geometry. Similar studies were performed using a pellet formed of porous alumina, to provide a link between the idealized membranes and the actual complex pore structure of real catalyst extrudates. The fundamental information from our study will be useful toward the tailoring of catalysts to minimize diffusional influences and thereby increase coal conversion and selectivity for desirable products. (VC)

  2. Entropies for severely contracted configuration space.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, G Cigdem; Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that dual entropy expressions of the Tsallis type apply naturally to statistical-mechanical systems that experience an exceptional contraction of their configuration space. The entropic index [Formula: see text] describes the contraction process, while the dual index [Formula: see text] defines the contraction dimension at which extensivity is restored. We study this circumstance along the three routes to chaos in low-dimensional nonlinear maps where the attractors at the transitions, between regular and chaotic behavior, drive phase-space contraction for ensembles of trajectories. We illustrate this circumstance for properties of systems that find descriptions in terms of nonlinear maps. These are size-rank functions, urbanization and similar processes, and settings where frequency locking takes place.

  3. Postural control and perceptive configuration: influence of expertise in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Geoffroy; Thouvarecq, Régis; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate how postural adaptations to the perceptive configuration are modified by specific gymnastics experience. Two groups, one expert in gymnastics and the other non-expert, had to maintain the erected posture while optical flow was imposed as follows: 20s motionless, 30s approaching motion, and 20s motionless. The centre of pressure and head displacements were analysed. The postural adaptations were characterised by the variability of movements for the flow conditions and by the postural latencies for the flow transitions. The results showed that the gymnasts tended to minimise their body movements and were more stationary (head) but not more stable (COP) than the non-gymnasts. These results suggest that gymnastics experience develops a specific postural adaptability relative to the perceptive configuration. We conclude that a specific postural experience could be considered as an intrinsic constraint, which leads to modification in the patterns of functional adaptation in the perceptive motor space.

  4. Configuration Control Studies in Heliotron J

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuuchi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Okada, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Hanatani, K.; Sano, F.; Yamamoto, S.; Motojima, G.; Watanabe, S.; Arimoto, H.; Murai, K.; Hamagami, F.; Katayama, D.; Matsuoka, H.; Nakajima, A.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuda, H.; Mukai, K.; Matsuyama, A.; Kowada, Y.

    2008-04-07

    Heliotron J is a flexible concept exploration facility for the helical-axis heliotron concept. One of the major objectives of the Heliotron J study is to experimentally confirm the effects of the new ideas introduced into this concept to improve the plasma performance. As a part of such experiments, the bumpiness ({epsilon}{sub b}) and rotational transform ({iota}/2{pi}) control studies have been performed. The {epsilon}{sub b}-control experiments have revealed the {epsilon}{sub b}-dependence of the fast ion confinement is qualitatively consistent with the drift optimization viewpoint. However, the bulk plasma confinement studies suggest that the low effective helical ripple configuration seems to be preferable for the confinement improvement for ECH-only plasma. The {iota}/2{pi}-control experiments for ECH-only and/or ECH+NBI plasmas have revealed the existence of windows in the vacuum {iota}(a)/2{pi} for the high quality H-mode. In NBI-only plasmas, it was found out that the transition in NBI-only plasma occurs at a certain toroidal current, which depends on the vacuum {iota}(a)/2{pi} and the bumpiness but is independent of P{sub inj}. This suggests the relation of the onset of the transition to the modification of the rotational transform caused by the plasma current.

  5. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  6. Configurable hot spot fixing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Masanari; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Mashita, Hiromitsu; Aburada, Ryota; Furuta, Nozomu; Kotani, Toshiya

    2014-03-01

    Hot spot fixing (HSF) method has been used to fix many hot spots automatically. However, conventional HSF based on a biasing based modification is difficult to fix many hot spots under a low-k1 lithography condition. In this paper we proposed a new HSF, called configurable hotspot fixing system. The HSF has two major concepts. One is a new function to utilize vacant space around a hot spot by adding new patterns or extending line end edges around the hot spot. The other is to evaluate many candidates at a time generated by the new functions. We confirmed the proposed HSF improves 73% on the number of fixing hot spots and reduces total fixing time by 50% on a device layout equivalent to 28nm-node. The result shows the proposed HSF is effective for layouts under the low-k1 lithography condition.

  7. Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, domestic biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockwell, C. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; DeMott, P. J.; Sullivan, R. C.; Reardon, J.; Ryan, K. C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Stevens, L.

    2014-09-01

    During the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4, October-November 2012) a large variety of regionally and globally significant biomass fuels was burned at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particle emissions were characterized by an extensive suite of instrumentation that measured aerosol chemistry, size distribution, optical properties, and cloud-nucleating properties. The trace gas measurements included high-resolution mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography, and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy. This paper summarizes the overall experimental design for FLAME-4 - including the fuel properties, the nature of the burn simulations, and the instrumentation employed - and then focuses on the OP-FTIR results. The OP-FTIR was used to measure the initial emissions of 20 trace gases: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, glycolaldehyde, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. These species include most of the major trace gases emitted by biomass burning, and for several of these compounds, this is the first time their emissions are reported for important fuel types. The main fire types included African grasses, Asian rice straw, cooking fires (open (three-stone), rocket, and gasifier stoves), Indonesian and extratropical peat, temperate and boreal coniferous canopy fuels, US crop residue, shredded tires, and trash. Comparisons of the OP-FTIR emission factors (EFs) and emission ratios (ERs) to field measurements of biomass burning verify that the large body of FLAME-4 results can be used to enhance the understanding of global biomass burning and its representation in atmospheric chemistry models. Crop residue fires are widespread globally and account for the most burned area in the US, but their emissions were previously poorly characterized. Extensive results are presented for burning rice and wheat straw: two major global crop residues

  8. Robust model-based controller synthesis for the SCOLE configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, E. S.; Joshi, S. M.; Stewart, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a robust compensator is considered for the SCOLE configuration using a frequency-response shaping technique based on the LQG/LTR algorithm. Results indicate that a tenth-order compensator can be used to meet stability-performance-robustness conditions for a 26th-order SCOLE model without destabilizing spillover effects. Since the SCOLE configuration is representative of many proposed spaceflight experiments, the results and design techniques employed potentially should be applicable to a wide range of large space structure control problems.

  9. LDA optical setup using holographic imaging configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes one of the possible ways for improving fringe quality at LDA measuring volume using a holographic imaging configuration consisting of a single hololens. For its comparative study with a conventional imaging configuration, a complete characterization of fringes formed at the measurement volume by both the configuration is presented. Results indicate the qualitative as well as quantitative improvement of the fringes formed at measurement volume by the holographic imaging configuration. Hence it is concluded that use of holographic imaging configuration for making LDA optical setup is a better choice than the conventional one.

  10. Encoding of configural regularity in the human visual system.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2014-08-13

    The visual system is very efficient in encoding stimulus properties by utilizing available regularities in the inputs. To explore the underlying encoding strategies during visual information processing, we presented participants with two-line configurations that varied in the amount of configural regularity (or degrees of freedom in the relative positioning of the two lines) in a fMRI experiment. Configural regularity ranged from a generic configuration to stimuli resembling an "L" (i.e., a right-angle L-junction), a "T" (i.e., a right-angle midpoint T-junction), or a "+",-the latter being the most regular stimulus. We found that the response strength in the shape-selective lateral occipital area was consistently lower for a higher degree of regularity in the stimuli. In the second experiment, using multivoxel pattern analysis, we further show that regularity is encoded in terms of the fMRI signal strength but not in the distributed pattern of responses. Finally, we found that the results of these experiments could not be accounted for by low-level stimulus properties and are distinct from norm-based encoding. Our results suggest that regularity plays an important role in stimulus encoding in the ventral visual processing stream.

  11. Recent Advances in the Design of Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarator Plasma Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Reiman, A.; Ku, L.; Monticello, D.; Hirschman, S.; Hudson, S.; Kessel, C.

    2001-01-30

    Strategies for the improvement of quasi-axisymmetric stellarator configurations are explored. Calculations of equilibrium flux surfaces for candidate configurations are also presented. One optimization strategy is found to generate configurations with improved neoclassical confinement, simpler coils with lower current density, and improved flux surface quality relative to previous designs. The flux surface calculations find significant differences in the extent of islands and stochastic regions between candidate configurations. (These calculations do not incorporate the predicted beneficial effects of perturbed bootstrap currents.) A method is demonstrated for removing low-order islands from candidate configurations by relatively small modifications of the configuration. One configuration is identified as having particularly desirable properties for a proposed experiment.

  12. Edge configurational effect on band gaps in graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepika, Kumar, T. J. Dhilip; Shukla, Alok; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we put forward a resolution to the prolonged ambiguity in energy band gaps between theory and experiments of fabricated graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Band structure calculations using density functional theory are performed on oxygen-passivated GNR supercells of customized edge configurations without disturbing the inherent s p2 hybridization of carbon atoms. Direct band gaps are observed for both zigzag and armchair GNRs, consistent with the experimental reports. In addition, we provide an explanation of the experimentally observed scattered band gap values of GNRs as a function of width in a crystallographic orientation on the basis of edge configurations. We conclude that edge configurations of GNRs significantly contribute to band gap formation in addition to its width for a given crystallographic orientation and will play a crucial role in band gap engineering of GNRs for future research on fabrication of nanoelectronic devices.

  13. Acoustic Liner Drag: A Parametric Study of Conventional Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the characterization of the aerodynamic drag performance of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in NASA Langley's Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several conventional perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations. For a fixed porosity, facesheet hole diameter and cavity depth are varied to study the effect of each. These configurations are selected to span the range of conventional liner geometries used in commercial aircraft engines. Detailed static pressure and acoustic measurements are made for grazing flows up to M=0.5 at 140 dB SPL for tones between 400 and 2800 Hz. These measurements are used to calculate a resistance factor (?) for each configuration. Analysis shows a correlation between perforate hole size and the resistance factor but cavity depth seems to have little influence. Acoustic effects on liner drag are observed to be limited to the lower Mach numbers included in this investigation.

  14. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  15. Configurational forces in solid nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhigang Suo

    2006-06-12

    The DOE grant (DE-FG02-99ER45787) to Princeton University, entitled Configurational Forces in Solid Nanostructures, was intended to cover the four-year period from September 1999 to September 2003. Effective 1 July 2003, the PI will relocate from Princeton to join the Harvard faculty. Princeton University will submit the Final Financial Report, the Final Property Report, and the Final Patent Report. The expenditures to date are $261,513 with %8,487 remaining of the awarded amount of $320,000. Harvard University will submit a request for the remaining amount. This Final Technical Report covers from the period between September 1999 to June 2003. Three Ph.D. students, Wei Lu, Yanfei Gao and Wei Hong, admitted to Princeton in the fall of 1998, 1999, 2002, respectively, have been dedicated to this project. Wei Lu earned his Ph.D. in August 2001, and is now an assistant professor at The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Yanfei Gao earned his Ph.D. in February 2003, and is now a post-doc at Brown University. The amount of funding covers one student at a time. All three students received first-year fellowships from Princeton University. In the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, to fulfill a doctoral degree requirement, every student serves as a teaching assistant for three semesters, for which the student is partially paid by the University.

  16. New Classes of Quasi-Axisymmetric Stellarator Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Ku LP, Garabedian PR

    2005-10-03

    We have identified and developed new classes of quasi-axially symmetric configurations which have attractive properties from the standpoint of both near-term physics experiments and long-term power producing reactors. These new configurations were developed as a result of surveying the aspect ratio-rotational transform space to identify regions endowed with particularly interesting features. These include configurations with very small aspect ratios ({approx}2.5) having superior quasi-symmetry and energetic particle confinement characteristics, and configurations with strongly negative global magnetic shear from externally supplied rotational transforms so that the overall rotational transform, when combined with the transform from bootstrap currents at finite plasma pressures, will yield a small but positive shear, making the avoidance of low order rational surfaces at a given operating beta possible. Additionally, we have found configurations with NCSX-like characteristics but with the biased components in the magnetic spectrum that allow us to improve the confinement of energetic particles. For each new class of configurations, we have designed coils as well to ensure that the new configurations are realizable and engineering-wise feasible. The coil designs typically have coil aspect ratios R/{Delta}{sub min}(C-P) {le} 6 and coil separation ratios R/{Delta}{sub min}(C-C) {le} 10, where R is the plasma major radius, {Delta}{sub min}(C-P) and {Delta}{sub min}(C-C) are the minimum coil to plasma and coil to coil separations, respectively. These coil properties allow power producing reactors be designed with major radii less than 9 meters for DT plasmas with a full breeding blanket. The good quasi-axisymmetry limits the energy loss of {alpha} particles to below 10%.

  17. Configuration of Education and Culture: An African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagaw, Teshome G.

    This study analyzes the dynamics of education and culture as modern schooling is introduced to Ethiopia, imposing on the existing religious education institutions. The first of 17 chapters presents an outline of Ethiopian history. Chapters II-IV present sections on indigenous and church education, renewed conceptions of education, and schooling…

  18. Configuration of the Teacher-State Relationship: The Shanghai Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenzhou, Zhao; Zhiyong, Zhu; Linyan, Ruan

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most prominent cases of high performing education systems in Asia, Shanghai has received widespread attention in recent years. The existing literature has shown that the formation of a high performing education system in Shanghai is closely associated with the high-quality teaching force. The purpose of this paper is to explore the…

  19. Configuring The REU Experience To Maximize Student Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majkowski, L.; Pullin, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The New Mexico Tech NSF-funded REU Program, Interdisciplinary Science for the Environment (ISE), hosted six cohorts of students between 2005 and 2010. The program ran for eight weeks during the first cycle and nine weeks during the second cycle, bringing in an average of twelve student participants per year. Students were provided with a stipend, food allowance, travel from home to New Mexico Tech, and free campus housing. The program sponsored weekend group field trips to scientific, environmental, and cultural sites of significance in New Mexico. For the second cycle, the ISE shared some programmatic elements with the New Mexico EPSCoR Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP). The majority of the research projects focused on the geosciences, with interdepartmental participation from researchers in earth science, hydrology, chemistry, environmental science, and biology. The ISE adopted a non-traditional approach to matching student participants with research projects and faculty mentors. Students were selected from different disciplines to work together in pairs on each project. This model provided the students with a peer collaborator in addition to the guidance of their faculty mentors and support from graduate students associated with the different projects. The focus on cohort, both within the individual research projects and each year's group, enabled and enhanced the students' critical thinking, problem-solving and teamwork skills. Students would routinely seek out the advice of their peers when they hit a roadblock in their research. This collaboration also occurred across the boundaries of the ISE and UROP cohorts. Long-term follow up has shown that a significant number of the student participants have continued on to graduate school. Students credit the program with developing their capacity to work on complex problems in an interdisciplinary group environment. Additionally, many students have continued contact with their research partners, faculty mentors and other members of their REU cohort.

  20. Does the configurational entropy of polydisperse particles exist?

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Misaki; Berthier, Ludovic

    2017-01-07

    Classical particle systems characterized by continuous size polydispersity, such as colloidal materials, are not straightforwardly described using statistical mechanics, since fundamental issues may arise from particle distinguishability. Because the mixing entropy in such systems is divergent in the thermodynamic limit, we show that the configurational entropy estimated from standard computational approaches to characterize glassy states also diverges. This reasoning would suggest that polydisperse materials cannot undergo a glass transition, in contradiction to experiments. We explain that this argument stems from the confusion between configurations in phase space and states defined by free energy minima, and propose a simple method to compute a finite and physically meaningful configurational entropy in continuously polydisperse systems. Physically, the proposed approach relies on an effective description of the system as an M(*)-component system with a finite M(*), for which finite mixing and configurational entropies are obtained. We show how to directly determine M(*) from computer simulations in a range of glass-forming models with different size polydispersities, characterized by hard and soft interparticle interactions, and by additive and non-additive interactions. Our approach provides consistent results in all cases and demonstrates that the configurational entropy of polydisperse system exists, is finite, and can be quantitatively estimated.

  1. High-Energy Electron Confinement in a Magnetic Cusp Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Krall, Nicholas A.; Sieck, Paul E.; Offermann, Dustin T.; Skillicorn, Michael; Sanchez, Andrew; Davis, Kevin; Alderson, Eric; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    We report experimental results validating the concept that plasma confinement is enhanced in a magnetic cusp configuration when β (plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure) is of order unity. This enhancement is required for a fusion power reactor based on cusp confinement to be feasible. The magnetic cusp configuration possesses a critical advantage: the plasma is stable to large scale perturbations. However, early work indicated that plasma loss rates in a reactor based on a cusp configuration were too large for net power production. Grad and others theorized that at high β a sharp boundary would form between the plasma and the magnetic field, leading to substantially smaller loss rates. While not able to confirm the details of Grad's work, the current experiment does validate, for the first time, the conjecture that confinement is substantially improved at high β . This represents critical progress toward an understanding of the plasma dynamics in a high-β cusp system. We hope that these results will stimulate a renewed interest in the cusp configuration as a fusion confinement candidate. In addition, the enhanced high-energy electron confinement resolves a key impediment to progress of the Polywell fusion concept, which combines a high-β cusp configuration with electrostatic fusion for a compact, power-producing nuclear fusion reactor.

  2. Reliability comparison of various nuclear propulsion configurations for Mars mission

    SciTech Connect

    Segna, D.R.; Dagle, J.E.; Lyon, W.F. III

    1992-01-01

    Currently, trade-offs are being made among the various propulsion systems being considered for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions. It is necessary to investigate the reliability aspects as well as the efficiency, mass savings, and experience characteristics of the various configurations. Reliability is a very important factor for the SEI missions because of the long duration and because problems will be fixed onboard. The propulsion options that were reviewed consist of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and various configurations of each system. There were four configurations developed for comparison with the NTP as baselined in the Synthesis (1991): (1) NEP, (2) hybrid NEP/NTP, (3) hybrid with power beaming, and (4) NTP upper stage on the heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV). The comparisons were based more or less on a qualitative review of complexity, stress levels and operations for each of the four configurations. Each configuration included a pressurized NEP and an NTP ascent stage propulsion system for the Mars mission.

  3. Effects of spatial configurations on visual change detection: an account of bias changes.

    PubMed

    Boduroglu, Aysecan; Shah, Priti

    2009-12-01

    In order to determine whether people encode spatial configuration information when encoding visual displays, in four experiments, we investigated whether changes in task-irrelevant spatial configuration information would influence color change detection accuracy. In a change detection task, when objects in the test display were presented in new random locations, rather than identical or different locations preserving the overall configuration, participants were more likely to report that the colors had changed. This consistent bias across four experiments suggested that people encode task-irrelevant spatial configuration along with object information. Experiment 4 also demonstrated that only a low-false-alarm group of participants effectively bound spatial configuration information to object information, suggesting that these types of binding processes are open to strategic influences.

  4. Student Planning of Town Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, John C.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Two experiments are presented on the planning of ideal towns by undergraduates. The basic approach involved a modified map-sketching technique in which subjects placed sixteen town elements into two-dimensional physical environments. Results were analyzed by information theory, cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling. (BL)

  5. Metrics for measuring distances in configuration spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, Ali Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Schaefer, Bastian; Mohr, Stephan; Goedecker, Stefan; Lill, Markus A.

    2013-11-14

    In order to characterize molecular structures we introduce configurational fingerprint vectors which are counterparts of quantities used experimentally to identify structures. The Euclidean distance between the configurational fingerprint vectors satisfies the properties of a metric and can therefore safely be used to measure dissimilarities between configurations in the high dimensional configuration space. In particular we show that these metrics are a perfect and computationally cheap replacement for the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) when one has to decide whether two noise contaminated configurations are identical or not. We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to obtain the global minimum of the RMSD between configurations, which is obtained from a global minimization over all translations, rotations, and permutations of atomic indices.

  6. Stability of a compound sessile drop at the axisymmetric configuration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chatain, Dominique; Anna, Shelley L; Garoff, Stephen

    2016-01-15

    The equilibrium configuration of compound sessile drops has been calculated previously in the absence of gravity. Using the Laplace equations, we establish seven dimensionless parameters describing the axisymmetric configuration in the presence of gravity. The equilibrium axisymmetric configuration can be either stable or unstable depending on the fluid properties. A stability criterion is established by calculating forces on a perturbed Laplacian shape. In the zero Bond number limit, the stability criterion depends on the density ratio, two ratios of interfacial tensions, the volume ratio of the two drops, and the contact angle. We use Surface Evolver to examine the stability of compound sessile drops at small and large Bond numbers and compare with the zero Bond number approximation. Experimentally, we realize a stable axisymmetric compound sessile drop in air, where the buoyancy force exerted by the air is negligible. Finally, using a pair of fluids in which the density ratio can be tuned nearly independently of the interfacial tensions, the stability transition is verified for the axisymmetric configuration. Even though the perturbations are different for the theory, simulations and experiments, both simulations and experiments agree closely with the zero Bond number approximation, exhibiting a small discrepancy at large Bond number.

  7. Body-scaled transitions in human grip configurations.

    PubMed

    Cesari, P; Newell, K M

    2000-10-01

    This article reports two experiments that were set up to examine the preferred human grip configuration used to displace cubes that varied in length (Lc), mass (Mc), and density (ML3). In particular, the authors sought to provide a more precise test of a dimensional relation between the object and the hand that had previously been shown to predict the grip configuration used to transport an object from one location to another. The experiments examined 2 grip transitions (from 3 digits to 4 digits and from 1 hand to 2 hands) within 2 sets of object conditions. In Experiment 1, cubes with a low density and a small increment in size (1 mm) were used, whereas in Experiment 2, cubes with 2 fixed sizes and small increments in mass were used. The results showed that the body-scaled equation K = logLc + (logMc/a + bMh + cLh), where Mh and Lh are the anthropometric measures of the hand mass and length and a, b, and c are empirical constants, is the body-scaled information that predicts the grip configurations used to displace objects.

  8. Effects of roadway configurations on near-road air quality and the implications on roadway designs

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of wind tunnel experiments of twelve different roadway configurations and modeling of these configurations using a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model, aiming at investigating how flow structures affect the impact of roadway features on near-road and...

  9. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  10. Peltier Current Leads with conical configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimi, I.; Nikulshin, Y.; Wolfus, S.; Yeshurun, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Current leads in cryogenic systems are a major heat source which eventually affects the entire system. It has been shown in recent years that Peltier elements are useful in reducing incoming heat into the cold system. In this article we present a new tapered cone-like configuration of the Peltier Current Leads which increases the power saving. This configuration is compared to the standard cylindrical configuration utilizing advanced ANSYS simulations. The simulations show an additional power saving of 4% when using the tapered lead configuration.

  11. Configurable Multi-Purpose Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, J. Emilio; Forney, Chirstopher; Morrison, Robert; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Advancements in technology have allowed the miniaturization of systems used in aerospace vehicles. This technology is driven by the need for next-generation systems that provide reliable, responsive, and cost-effective range operations while providing increased capabilities such as simultaneous mission support, increased launch trajectories, improved launch, and landing opportunities, etc. Leveraging the newest technologies, the command and telemetry processor (CTP) concept provides for a compact, flexible, and integrated solution for flight command and telemetry systems and range systems. The CTP is a relatively small circuit board that serves as a processing platform for high dynamic, high vibration environments. The CTP can be reconfigured and reprogrammed, allowing it to be adapted for many different applications. The design is centered around a configurable field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device that contains numerous logic cells that can be used to implement traditional integrated circuits. The FPGA contains two PowerPC processors running the Vx-Works real-time operating system and are used to execute software programs specific to each application. The CTP was designed and developed specifically to provide telemetry functions; namely, the command processing, telemetry processing, and GPS metric tracking of a flight vehicle. However, it can be used as a general-purpose processor board to perform numerous functions implemented in either hardware or software using the FPGA s processors and/or logic cells. Functionally, the CTP was designed for range safety applications where it would ultimately become part of a vehicle s flight termination system. Consequently, the major functions of the CTP are to perform the forward link command processing, GPS metric tracking, return link telemetry data processing, error detection and correction, data encryption/ decryption, and initiate flight termination action commands. Also, the CTP had to be designed to survive and

  12. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS): Configuration trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The overall Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) Phase B Study objective is to design a relatively inexpensive satellite to access space for extended periods of time, with eventual recovery of experiments on Earth. The expected principal use for such a system is research on the effects of variable gravity (0-1.5 g) and radiation on small animals, plants, lower life forms, tissue samples, and materials processes. The RRS will be capable of: (1) being launched by a variety of expendable launch vehicles; (2) operating in low earth orbit as a free flying unmanned laboratory; and (3) executing independent atmospheric reentry and soft landing. The RRS will be designed to be refurbished and reused up to three times a year for a period of 10 years. The information provided in this report describes the process involved in the evolution of the RRS overall configuration. This process considered reentry aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, internal equipment layout, and vehicle mass properties. This report delineates the baseline design decisions that were used to initiate the RRS design effort. As a result, there will be deviations between this report and the RRS Final Report. In those instances, the RRS Final Report shall be considered to be the definitive reference.

  13. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the phenomenon of hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules in idealized porous media. Tasks towards this objective include: Construct a diffusion cell with ideal pore structure for determination of diffusion coefficients, prepare and characterize ideal porous membranes, perform model compound experiments to calibrate and test diffusion apparatus and methodology, prepare and characterize coal macromolecules, and analyze data to evaluate the diffusional behavior of coal macromolecules. This report describes work on the hindered diffusion of tetraphenylporphine and asphaltene. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Start-up configuration of the NICA collider equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, O.; Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.; Trubnikov, G.

    2016-12-01

    The start-up version of the NICA/MPD project is determined in accordance with the strategy of its staging. At the initial stage, the elements required for completing the BM@N experiment using an extracted beam and the test of MPD elements at a luminosity no less than 5 × 1025 cm-2 s-1 will be put into operation. The equipment configuration and strategy of the NICA collider operation during its commissioning are presented in this article.

  15. 40 CFR 610.41 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.41 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.41 Test configurations. (a) In order to measure the effectiveness of a retrofit device at least two,...

  16. 40 CFR 610.41 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.41 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.41 Test configurations. (a) In order to measure the effectiveness of a retrofit device at least two,...

  17. 40 CFR 610.41 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.41 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.41 Test configurations. (a) In order to measure the effectiveness of a retrofit device at least two,...

  18. 40 CFR 610.41 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.41 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.41 Test configurations. (a) In order to measure the effectiveness of a retrofit device at least two,...

  19. Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Colbaugh, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Improved configuration-control scheme for robotic manipulator having redundant degrees of freedom suppresses large joint velocities near singularities, at expense of small trajectory errors. Provides means to enforce order of priority of tasks assigned to robot. Basic concept of configuration control of redundant robot described in "Increasing The Dexterity Of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801).

  20. Existence Regions of Shock Wave Triple Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Chernyshev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research is to create the classification for shock wave triple configurations and their existence regions of various types: type 1, type 2, type 3. Analytical solutions for limit Mach numbers and passing shock intensity that define existence region of every type of triple configuration have been acquired. The ratios that conjugate…

  1. 14 CFR 35.2 - Propeller configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller configuration. 35.2 Section 35.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.2 Propeller configuration. The applicant must provide a list of all...

  2. System for Configuring Modular Telemetry Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for configuring telemetry transponder cards uses a database of error checking protocol data structures, each containing data to implement at least one CCSDS protocol algorithm. Using a user interface, a user selects at least one telemetry specific error checking protocol from the database. A compiler configures an FPGA with the data from the data structures to implement the error checking protocol.

  3. Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 27, NO. 3, APRIL 2009 349 Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data...exploited by competitors and attackers. This paper describes a method for anonymizing router config- uration files by removing all information that...networking researchers. Anonymizing configuration files has unusual requirements, including preserving relationships between elements of data, anonymizing

  4. Marking up lattice QCD configurations and ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    P.Coddington; B.Joo; C.M.Maynard; D.Pleiter; T.Yoshie

    2007-10-01

    QCDml is an XML-based markup language designed for sharing QCD configurations and ensembles world-wide via the International Lattice Data Grid (ILDG). Based on the latest release, we present key ingredients of the QCDml in order to provide some starting points for colleagues in this community to markup valuable configurations and submit them to the ILDG.

  5. Resolvability and the Tetrahedral Configuration of Carbon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses evidence for the tetrahedral configuration of the carbon atom, indicating that three symmetrical configurations are theoretically possible for coordination number four. Includes table indicating that resolvability of compounds of type CR'R"R"'R"" is a necessary but not sufficient condition for proving tetrahedral…

  6. When One Configuration Is Not Enough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillin, David R.

    2008-01-01

    For most molecules molecular orbital theory predicts a ground-state electronic configuration that is useful for rationalizing relative bond lengths, magnetic properties, and so forth. However, when electron correlation is a dominant consideration, the ground-state configuration may provide a poor representation of the system. In such cases,…

  7. Nickel-hydrogen spacecraft module configurations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. B.; Mcdermott, J. K.; Smith, O. B.

    1985-01-01

    The incorporation of nickel-hydrogen technology into spacecraft power system designs for low Earth orbit vehicles offers significant power system weight reductions by increasing the power storage watt-hour efficiency. Several possible module configurations exist for the power system. The module configurations were compared utilizing reliability, weight, volume and load capability as evaluation parameters.

  8. Configurations of self-identity formations of adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Kathard, Harsha; Norman, Vivienne; Pillay, Mershen

    2010-12-01

    It is important for clinicians to understand how adults who stutter construct who they are, i.e. their self-identity, in order to offer personally meaningful interventions. Early research on stuttering and self-concept provided initial knowledge, but there has been a dearth of further research in this field. This article, the third in a series of papers emanating from a doctoral study, provides new insight into the configurations of self-identity formations of adults who stutter. Previous articles from the study described how 'Able' (positive self-identity) and 'DisOther' (negative self-identity) self-identity formations developed over time. This paper describes the configurations of self-identities, Able and DisOther, evident across participants' stories. The study used a life-history methodology in which 7 adult participants (5 men and 2 women) shared their experiences of living with stuttering through open-ended interviews. The data from the interviews were analysed at two levels. The first level of analysis resulted in a description of the types of self-identity formations (positive and negative) and processes (personal, social and temporal) shaping the self-identity formations. This result was represented as a research story for each participant. The second level of analysis described the configurations of the self-identities, Able and DisOther, across the research stories. The main findings, illustrated through three research stories, were that the two types of self-identity formations, Able and DisOther, were present in singular and dual configurations. The dual presentation of self-identity formations occurred in co-existing, competing and coalescing configurations at particular time periods, illuminating the complexity of the stuttering experience. The clinical implications are discussed.

  9. CFD Simulations of Tiltrotor Configurations in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potsdam, Mark a.; Strawn, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics calculations are presented for isolated, half-span, and full-span V-22 tiltrotor hover configurations. These computational results extend the validity of CFD hover methodology beyond conventional rotorcraft applications to tiltrotor configurations. Computed steady-state, isolated rotor performance agrees well with experimental measurements, showing little sensitivity to grid resolution. However, blade-vortex interaction flowfield details are sensitive to numerical dissipation and are more difficult to model accurately. Time-dependent, dynamic, half- and full-span installed configurations show sensitivities in performance to the tiltrotor fountain flow. As such, the full-span configuration exhibits higher rotor performance and lower airframe download than the half-span configuration. Half-span rotor installation trends match available half-span data, and airframe downloads are reasonably well predicted. Overall, the CFD solutions provide a wealth of flowfield details that can be used to analyze and improve tiltrotor aerodynamic performance.

  10. Configuration Management Plan for K Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, W.R.; Laney, T.

    1995-01-27

    This plan describes a configuration management program for K Basins that establishes the systems, processes, and responsibilities necessary for implementation. The K Basins configuration management plan provides the methodology to establish, upgrade, reconstitute, and maintain the technical consistency among the requirements, physical configuration, and documentation. The technical consistency afforded by this plan ensures accurate technical information necessary to achieve the mission objectives that provide for the safe, economic, and environmentally sound management of K Basins and the stored material. The configuration management program architecture presented in this plan is based on the functional model established in the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-1073-93, {open_quotes}Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program{close_quotes}.

  11. Configural processing at birth: evidence for perceptual organisation.

    PubMed

    Farroni, T; Valenza, E; Simion, F; Umiltà, C

    2000-01-01

    We report a series of ten experiments aimed to investigate the newborn's ability to discriminate the components of a visual pattern and to process the visual information that specifies the global configuration of a stimulus. The results reveal that: (i) newborn babies are able to distinguish individual elements of a stimulus (experiments 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D); (ii) they can group individual elements into a holistic percept on the basis of Gestalt principles (experiments 2A and 3A); (iii) their spontaneous preferences cannot be easily modified by habituation (experiments 2B and 3B); and (iv) when horizontal stimuli are paired with vertical stimuli, they prefer the horizontal ones (experiments 4A and 4B).

  12. A highly versatile and easily configurable system for plant electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Gunsé, Benet; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rankl, Simone; Schröeder, Peter; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Barceló, Juan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a highly versatile and easily configurable system for measuring plant electrophysiological parameters and ionic flow rates, connected to a computer-controlled highly accurate positioning device. The modular software used allows easy customizable configurations for the measurement of electrophysiological parameters. Both the operational tests and the experiments already performed have been fully successful and rendered a low noise and highly stable signal. Assembly, programming and configuration examples are discussed. The system is a powerful technique that not only gives precise measuring of plant electrophysiological status, but also allows easy development of ad hoc configurations that are not constrained to plant studies. •We developed a highly modular system for electrophysiology measurements that can be used either in organs or cells and performs either steady or dynamic intra- and extracellular measurements that takes advantage of the easiness of visual object-oriented programming.•High precision accuracy in data acquisition under electrical noisy environments that allows it to run even in a laboratory close to electrical equipment that produce electrical noise.•The system makes an improvement of the currently used systems for monitoring and controlling high precision measurements and micromanipulation systems providing an open and customizable environment for multiple experimental needs.

  13. Study of the Synchronous Operation of an Annular Field Reversed Configuration Plasma Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-05

    experimental procedure, and diagnostics used. The XOCOT discharge experiment was a completely new test facility, pulsed-power distribution and storage... experiments , specifically an annular field reversed configuration theta pinch. The experimental setup utilized for the following discharge testing is...14 1.3.1.2 Synchronous/Tearing Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.3.2 The XOCOT Discharge Experiment Overview and Design

  14. Configurational Molecular Glue: One Optically Active Polymer Attracts Two Oppositely Configured Optically Active Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hideto; Noda, Soma; Kimura, Takayuki; Sobue, Tadashi; Arakawa, Yuki

    2017-03-01

    D-configured poly(D-lactic acid) (D-PLA) and poly(D-2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic acid) (D-P2H3MB) crystallized separately into their homo-crystallites when crystallized by precipitation or solvent evaporation, whereas incorporation of L-configured poly(L-2-hydroxybutanoic acid) (L-P2HB) in D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB induced co-crystallization or ternary stereocomplex formation between D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB and L-configured L-P2HB. However, incorporation of D-configured poly(D-2-hydroxybutanoic acid) (D-P2HB) in D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB did not cause co-crystallization between D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB and D-configured D-P2HB but separate crystallization of each polymer occurred. These findings strongly suggest that an optically active polymer (L-configured or D-configured polymer) like unsubstituted or substituted optically active poly(lactic acid)s can act as “a configurational or helical molecular glue” for two oppositely configured optically active polymers (two D-configured polymers or two L-configured polymers) to allow their co-crystallization. The increased degree of freedom in polymer combination is expected to assist to pave the way for designing polymeric composites having a wide variety of physical properties, biodegradation rate and behavior in the case of biodegradable polymers.

  15. Configurational Molecular Glue: One Optically Active Polymer Attracts Two Oppositely Configured Optically Active Polymers.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Hideto; Noda, Soma; Kimura, Takayuki; Sobue, Tadashi; Arakawa, Yuki

    2017-03-24

    D-configured poly(D-lactic acid) (D-PLA) and poly(D-2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic acid) (D-P2H3MB) crystallized separately into their homo-crystallites when crystallized by precipitation or solvent evaporation, whereas incorporation of L-configured poly(L-2-hydroxybutanoic acid) (L-P2HB) in D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB induced co-crystallization or ternary stereocomplex formation between D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB and L-configured L-P2HB. However, incorporation of D-configured poly(D-2-hydroxybutanoic acid) (D-P2HB) in D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB did not cause co-crystallization between D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB and D-configured D-P2HB but separate crystallization of each polymer occurred. These findings strongly suggest that an optically active polymer (L-configured or D-configured polymer) like unsubstituted or substituted optically active poly(lactic acid)s can act as "a configurational or helical molecular glue" for two oppositely configured optically active polymers (two D-configured polymers or two L-configured polymers) to allow their co-crystallization. The increased degree of freedom in polymer combination is expected to assist to pave the way for designing polymeric composites having a wide variety of physical properties, biodegradation rate and behavior in the case of biodegradable polymers.

  16. Configurational Molecular Glue: One Optically Active Polymer Attracts Two Oppositely Configured Optically Active Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Hideto; Noda, Soma; Kimura, Takayuki; Sobue, Tadashi; Arakawa, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    D-configured poly(D-lactic acid) (D-PLA) and poly(D-2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic acid) (D-P2H3MB) crystallized separately into their homo-crystallites when crystallized by precipitation or solvent evaporation, whereas incorporation of L-configured poly(L-2-hydroxybutanoic acid) (L-P2HB) in D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB induced co-crystallization or ternary stereocomplex formation between D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB and L-configured L-P2HB. However, incorporation of D-configured poly(D-2-hydroxybutanoic acid) (D-P2HB) in D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB did not cause co-crystallization between D-configured D-PLA and D-P2H3MB and D-configured D-P2HB but separate crystallization of each polymer occurred. These findings strongly suggest that an optically active polymer (L-configured or D-configured polymer) like unsubstituted or substituted optically active poly(lactic acid)s can act as “a configurational or helical molecular glue” for two oppositely configured optically active polymers (two D-configured polymers or two L-configured polymers) to allow their co-crystallization. The increased degree of freedom in polymer combination is expected to assist to pave the way for designing polymeric composites having a wide variety of physical properties, biodegradation rate and behavior in the case of biodegradable polymers. PMID:28338051

  17. Configuration effects on satellite charging response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1980-01-01

    The response of various spacecraft configurations to a charging environment in sunlight was studied using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program code. The configuration features geometry, type of stabilization, and overall size. Results indicate that sunlight charging response is dominated by differential charging effects. Shaded insulation charges negatively result in the formation of potential barriers which suppress photoelectron emission from sunlit surfaces. Sunlight charging occurs relatively slowly: with 30 minutes of charging simulations, in none of the configurations modeled did the most negative surface cell reach half its equilibrium potential in eclipse.

  18. Triple configuration coexistence in {sup 44}S

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Abramkina, V.; Avila, M. L.; Cottle, P. D.; Kemper, K. W.; Rojas, A.; Volya, A.; Baugher, T.; Brown, B. A.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; McDaniel, S.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Meharchand, R.; Bazin, D.; Weisshaar, D.; Simpson, E. C.; Tostevin, J. A.

    2011-06-15

    The neutron-rich N=28 nucleus {sup 44}S was studied using the two-proton knockout reaction from {sup 46}Ar at intermediate beam energy. We report the observation of four new excited states, one of which is a strongly prolate deformed 4{sup +} state, as indicated by a shell-model calculation. Its deformation originates in a neutron configuration which is fundamentally different from the ''intruder'' configuration responsible for the ground-state deformation. Consequently, we do not have three coexisting shapes in {sup 44}S, but three coexisting configurations, corresponding to zero-, one-, and two-neutron particle-hole excitations.

  19. CICADA -- Configurable Instrument Control and Data Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Peter J.; Roberts, William H.; Sebo, Kim M.

    CICADA (Young et al. 1997) is a multi-process, distributed application for the control of astronomical data acquisition systems. It comprises elements that control the operation of, and data flow from CCD camera systems; and the operation of telescope instrument control systems. CICADA can be used to dynamically configure support for astronomical instruments that can be made up of multiple cameras and multiple instrument controllers. Each camera is described by a hierarchy of parts that are each individually configured and linked together. Most of CICADA is written in C++ and much of the configurability of CICADA comes from the use of inheritance and polymorphism. An example of a multiple part instrument configuration -- a wide field imager (WFI) -- is described here. WFI, presently under construction, is made up of eight 2k x 4k CCDs with dual SDSU II controllers and will be used at Siding Spring's ANU 40in and AAO 3.9m telescopes.

  20. Shuttle Liquid Fly Back Booster Configuration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, Thomas J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper surveys the basic configuration options available to a Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB), integrated with the Space Shuttle system. The background of the development of the LFBB concept is given. The influence of the main booster engine (BME) installations and the fly back engine (FBE) installation on the aerodynamic configurations are also discussed. Limits on the LFBB configuration design space imposed by the existing Shuttle flight and ground elements are also described. The objective of the paper is to put the constrains and design space for an LFBB in perspective. The object of the work is to define LFBB configurations that significantly improve safety, operability, reliability and performance of the Shuttle system and dramatically lower operations costs.

  1. Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat Configuration

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animated video shows the process of transporting, assembling and testing the Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat (HDU DSH) configuration, which will be deployed during the 2011 Des...

  2. Status Configurations, Military Service and Higher Education

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H.; Spence, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for life course options. We hypothesize that young men with inconsistent statuses are more likely to enlist than men with consistent status profiles, and that military service improves access to college for certain configurations. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) show (1. that several status configurations markedly increased the likelihood of military enlistment and (2. within status configurations, recruits were generally more likely to enroll in higher education than nonveterans, with associate degrees being more likely. PMID:24511161

  3. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  4. Molecular Electronic Terms and Molecular Orbital Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazo, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the molecular electronic terms which can arise from a given electronic configuration. Considered are simple cases, molecular states, direct products, closed shells, and open shells. Two examples are provided. (CW)

  5. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  6. A Study of the Effects of Material Type and Configuration on Optical Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feirstine, K.; Yarbrough, J.; Sharples, R.; Crosher, C.; Bowers, D.; Wellems, D.; Jenkins, G.; Rosprim, D.; Duggin, M.; Vaughn, L.

    2012-09-01

    An experiment was designed to study the effects of material type and configuration on Optical Cross Section (OCS) and spectrum. The experiment was conducted at an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) far-field imaging facility, using different diffuse and specular materials and different configurations and/or combinations of each. It was hypothesized that the OCS of certain combinations of materials is dependent on the diffuseness or specularity of the materials used, but the spectrum is independent of these factors and does not change. The objective of the experiment is to capture both OCS and spectra of different material configurations using different combinations of diffuse and specular materials in the bi-static illumination condition. OCS was calculated relative to the scattering of a Spectralon material that was in the scene at all times. Results show the accurateness of the above hypothesis and illustrate other effects that material type and configuration have on OCS and spectra.

  7. Stellar configurations in f(R) theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henttunen, K.; Multamäki, T.; Vilja, I.

    2008-01-01

    We study stellar configurations and the space-time around them in metric f(R) theories of gravity. In particular, we focus on the polytropic model of the Sun in two specific cases: the f(R)=R-μ4/R model and a model with a stabilizing higher order term f(R)=R-μ4/R+βR3/(3μ4). We show how the stellar configuration in the f(R) theory can, by appropriate initial conditions, be selected to be equal to that described by the Lane-Emden equation and how a simple scaling relation exists between the solutions. We also derive the correct solution analytically near the center of the star in f(R) theory. Previous analytical and numerical results are confirmed, indicating that the space-time around the Sun is incompatible with solar system constraints in the f(R)=R-μ4/R model. Numerical work shows that stellar configurations, with a regular metric at the center, lead to γPPN≃1/2 outside the star for both models, i.e., the Schwarzschild de Sitter space-time is not the correct vacuum solution for such configurations. This shows that even when one fine-tunes the initial conditions inside a star such that the mass of the effective scalar in the equivalent scalar-tensor theory is large, γPPN is still 1/2 outside the star. Conversely, by selecting the Schwarzschild de Sitter metric as the outside solution, or equivalently setting the mass of the effective scalar to be large outside the star, we find that the stellar configuration is unchanged but the metric is irregular at the center. The possibility of constructing a f(R) theory compatible with the solar system experiments and possible new constraints arising from the radius-mass relation of stellar objects is discussed.

  8. Internal model of gravity influences configural body processing.

    PubMed

    Barra, Julien; Senot, Patrice; Auclair, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Human bodies are processed by a configural processing mechanism. Evidence supporting this claim is the body inversion effect, in which inversion impairs recognition of bodies more than other objects. Biomechanical configuration, as well as both visual and embodied expertise, has been demonstrated to play an important role in this effect. Nevertheless, the important factor of body inversion effect may also be linked to gravity orientation since gravity is one of the most fundamental constraints of our biology, behavior, and perception on Earth. The visual presentation of an inverted body in a typical body inversion paradigm turns the observed body upside down but also inverts the implicit direction of visual gravity in the scene. The orientation of visual gravity is then in conflict with the direction of actual gravity and may influence configural processing. To test this hypothesis, we dissociated the orientations of the body and of visual gravity by manipulating body posture. In a pretest we showed that it was possible to turn an avatar upside down (inversion relative to retinal coordinates) without inverting the orientation of visual gravity when the avatar stands on his/her hands. We compared the inversion effect in typical conditions (with gravity conflict when the avatar is upside down) to the inversion effect in conditions with no conflict between visual and physical gravity. The results of our experiment revealed that the inversion effect, as measured by both error rate and reaction time, was strongly reduced when there was no gravity conflict. Our results suggest that when an observed body is upside down (inversion relative to participants' retinal coordinates) but the orientation of visual gravity is not, configural processing of bodies might still be possible. In this paper, we discuss the implications of an internal model of gravity in the configural processing of observed bodies.

  9. Equilibrium Configuration of Φ4 Oscillatons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez-Alvarado, Susana; Becerril, Ricardo; Ureña-López, L. Arturo

    2010-07-01

    We search for equilibrium configurations of the (coupled) Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations for the case of a real scalar field endowed with a quartic self-interaction potential. The resulting solutions are the generalizations of the (massive) oscillating soliton stars, the so-called oscillatons. Among other parameters, we estimate the mass curve of the configurations, and determine their critical mass for different values of the quartic interaction.

  10. Missions and Mobility Configurations for RED HORSE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    use in other research reports or educational pursuits contingent upon the following stipulations: - Reproduction rights do not extend to any copyrighted...MOBILITY CONFIGURATIONS FOR RED HORSE AUTHOR(S) MAJOR JAMES T. RYBURN, USAF FACULTY ADVISOR LT COL ROBERT L. PETERS, ACSC/3823 STUS SPONSOR COL ROBERT J...Classification) MISSIONS AND MOBILITY CONFIGURATIONS FOR RED HORSE 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Ryburn, James T., Maj or, USAF 13a. TYPE OF REPORT J13b. TIME

  11. Intranet approach to the GTC configuration management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Alvaro

    1998-08-01

    Due to its size and complexity the GTC Project represents a challenge for configuration management. On the one hand there is a need to record and store the enormous amount of configuration documentation generated during the different phases of the project (technical specifications, engineering drawings, interface control documents, acceptance tests, etc.), so that it can be easily accessed on-line by an Project Office member. Moreover, this documentation has to be properly related to the different configuration elements and interfaces composing the GTC's Product Tree. On the other hand, the need arises to simplify all the configuration control procedures established by System Engineering and their associated work flow (document and baseline approval, configuration change requests and evaluation, approval or rejection of those changes, etc.). Intranet technology has proven to be an excellent and innovative tool for satisfying both needs in an integrated manner. This integrated philosophy of the GTC intranet application helps each member of the Project Office fulfill his or her own responsibilities, reduces paper work and minimizes errors. It also assists in locating and accessing any configuration information with a single tool (any standard Internet navigator) regardless of the original format of such information. This paper presents the main features of this intranet application, as well as the intended future extension to other management disciplines (project management, quality management, etc.).

  12. Edge plasma control using an LID configuration on CHS

    SciTech Connect

    Masuzaki, S.; Komori, A.; Morisaki, T.

    1997-07-01

    A Local Island Divertor (LID) has been proposed to enhance energy confinement through neutral particle control. For the case of the Large Helical Device (LHD), the separatrix of an m/n = 1/1 magnetic island, formed at the edge region, will be utilized as a divertor configuration. The divertor head is inserted in the island, and the island separatrix provides connection between the edge plasma region surrounding the core plasma and the back plate of the divertor head through the field lines. The particle flux and associated heat flux from the core plasma strike the back plate of the divertor head, and thus particle recycling is localized in this region. A pumping duct covers the divertor head to form a closed divertor system for efficient particle exhaust. The advantages of the LID are ease of hydrogen pumping because of the localized particle recycling and avoidance of the high heat load that would be localized on the leading edge of the divertor head. With efficient pumping, the neutral pressure in the edge plasma region will be reduced, and hence the edge plasma temperature will be higher, hopefully leading to a better core confinement region. A LID configuration experiment was done on the Compact Helical System (CHS) to confirm the effect of the LID. The typical effects of the LID configuration on the core plasma are reduction of the line averaged density to a half, and small or no reduction of the stored energy. In this contribution, the experimental results which were obtained in edge plasma control experiments with the LID configuration in the CHS are presented.

  13. Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography with Different Excitation Configurations for Metallic Material and Defect Characterization.

    PubMed

    Tian, Gui Yun; Gao, Yunlai; Li, Kongjing; Wang, Yizhe; Gao, Bin; He, Yunze

    2016-06-08

    This paper reviews recent developments of eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Due to the fact that line-coil-based ECPT, with the limitation of non-uniform heating and a restricted view, is not suitable for complex geometry structures evaluation, Helmholtz coils and ferrite-yoke-based excitation configurations of ECPT are proposed and compared. Simulations and experiments of new ECPT configurations considering the multi-physical-phenomenon of hysteresis losses, stray losses, and eddy current heating in conjunction with uniform induction magnetic field have been conducted and implemented for ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials. These configurations of ECPT for metallic material and defect characterization are discussed and compared with conventional line-coil configuration. The results indicate that the proposed ECPT excitation configurations can be applied for different shapes of samples such as turbine blade edges and rail tracks.

  14. Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography with Different Excitation Configurations for Metallic Material and Defect Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Gui Yun; Gao, Yunlai; Li, Kongjing; Wang, Yizhe; Gao, Bin; He, Yunze

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments of eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Due to the fact that line-coil-based ECPT, with the limitation of non-uniform heating and a restricted view, is not suitable for complex geometry structures evaluation, Helmholtz coils and ferrite-yoke-based excitation configurations of ECPT are proposed and compared. Simulations and experiments of new ECPT configurations considering the multi-physical-phenomenon of hysteresis losses, stray losses, and eddy current heating in conjunction with uniform induction magnetic field have been conducted and implemented for ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials. These configurations of ECPT for metallic material and defect characterization are discussed and compared with conventional line-coil configuration. The results indicate that the proposed ECPT excitation configurations can be applied for different shapes of samples such as turbine blade edges and rail tracks. PMID:27338389

  15. A delta configured auxiliary resonant snubber inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; McKeever, J.W.; Peng, F.Z. |

    1995-09-01

    A delta ({Delta}) configured auxiliary resonant snubber inverter is developed to overcome the voltage floating problem in a wye (Y) configured resonant snubber inverter. The proposed inverter is to connect auxiliary resonant branches between phase outputs to avoid a floating point voltage which may cause over-voltage failure of the auxiliary switches. Each auxiliary branch consists of a resonant inductor and a reverse blocking auxiliary switch. Instead of using an anti-paralleled diode to allow resonant current to flow in the reverse direction, as in the Y-configured version, the resonant branch in the {Delta}-configured version must block the negative voltage, typically done by a series diode. This paper shows single-phase and three-phase versions of {Delta}-configured resonant snubber inverters and describes in detail the operating principle of a single-phase version. The extended three-phase version is proposed with non-adjacent state space vector modulation. For hardware implementation, a single-phase 1-kW unit and a three-phase 100-kW unit were built to prove the concept. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed topology.

  16. Inferring unstable equilibrium configurations from experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgin, L. N.; Wiebe, R.; Spottswood, S. M.; Beberniss, T.

    2016-09-01

    This research considers the structural behavior of slender, mechanically buckled beams and panels of the type commonly found in aerospace structures. The specimens were deflected and then clamped in a rigid frame in order to exhibit snap-through. That is, the initial equilibrium and the buckled (snapped-through) equilibrium configurations both co-existed for the given clamped conditions. In order to transit between these two stable equilibrium configurations (for example, under the action of an externally applied load), it is necessary for the structural component to pass through an intermediate unstable equilibrium configuration. A sequence of sudden impacts was imparted to the system, of various strengths and at various locations. The goal of this impact force was to induce relatively intermediate-sized transients that effectively slowed-down in the vicinity of the unstable equilibrium configuration. Thus, monitoring the velocity of the motion, and specifically its slowing down, should give an indication of the presence of an equilibrium configuration, even though it is unstable and not amenable to direct experimental observation. A digital image correlation (DIC) system was used in conjunction with an instrumented impact hammer to track trajectories and statistical methods used to infer the presence of unstable equilibria in both a beam and a panel.

  17. Configuring Airspace Sectors with Approximate Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod

    2010-01-01

    In response to changing traffic and staffing conditions, supervisors dynamically configure airspace sectors by assigning them to control positions. A finite horizon airspace sector configuration problem models this supervisor decision. The problem is to select an airspace configuration at each time step while considering a workload cost, a reconfiguration cost, and a constraint on the number of control positions at each time step. Three algorithms for this problem are proposed and evaluated: a myopic heuristic, an exact dynamic programming algorithm, and a rollouts approximate dynamic programming algorithm. On problem instances from current operations with only dozens of possible configurations, an exact dynamic programming solution gives the optimal cost value. The rollouts algorithm achieves costs within 2% of optimal for these instances, on average. For larger problem instances that are representative of future operations and have thousands of possible configurations, excessive computation time prohibits the use of exact dynamic programming. On such problem instances, the rollouts algorithm reduces the cost achieved by the heuristic by more than 15% on average with an acceptable computation time.

  18. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of the spheromak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, S.C.

    1982-01-19

    Results are presented of a parametric study of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability properties of the spheromak, or compact torus, configuration. In the absence of a nearby conducting wall, the spheromak is always unstable to at least one current driven mode. With a conducting wall at the surface, the spheromak can be unstable to current driven modes if the current is too peaked, i.e., q/sub o/(R/a) less than or equal to 2/3, or if the shear is too low at the origin. The Mercier criterion sets an upper limit on the pressure gradient everywhere, but configurations that are everywhere Mercier stable can be unstable to pressure driven low-n modes. Stable toroidal configurations exist with a spherical wall separated by half a minor radius, and with ..beta../sub theta/ = 30%.

  19. DAQMAN - A flexible configurable data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sivertz, Michael; Larry Hoff, Seth Nemesure

    2012-08-01

    DAQMAN is a flexible configurable interface that allows the user to build and operate a VME-based data acquisition system on a Linux workstation. It consists of two parts: a Java-based Graphical User Interface to configure the system, and a C-based utility that reads out the data and creates the output ASCII data file, with two levels of diagnostic tools. The data acquisition system requires a CAEN CONET-VME Bridge to communicate between the hardware in the VME crate and the Linux workstation. Data acquisition modules, such as ADCs, TDC, Scalers, can be loaded into the system, or removed easily. The GUI allows users to activate modules, and channels within modules by clicking on icons. Running configurations are stored; data are collected and can be viewed either as raw numbers, or by charts and histograms that update as the data are accumulated. Data files are written to disk in ASCII format, with a date and time stamp.

  20. Comparing Methods for Dynamic Airspace Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Lai, Chok Fung

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares airspace design solutions for dynamically reconfiguring airspace in response to nominal daily traffic volume fluctuation. Airspace designs from seven algorithmic methods and a representation of current day operations in Kansas City Center were simulated with two times today's demand traffic. A three-configuration scenario was used to represent current day operations. Algorithms used projected unimpeded flight tracks to design initial 24-hour plans to switch between three configurations at predetermined reconfiguration times. At each reconfiguration time, algorithms used updated projected flight tracks to update the subsequent planned configurations. Compared to the baseline, most airspace design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity, with similar traffic pattern complexity results. Design updates enabled several methods to as much as half the delay from their original designs. Freeform design methods reduced delay and increased reconfiguration complexity the most.

  1. Omnidirectional Structured Light in a Flexible Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Carmen; Puig, Luis; Guerrero, José J.

    2013-01-01

    Structured light is a perception method that allows us to obtain 3D information from images of the scene by projecting synthetic features with a light emitter. Traditionally, this method considers a rigid configuration, where the position and orientation of the light emitter with respect to the camera are known and calibrated beforehand. In this paper we propose a new omnidirectional structured light system in flexible configuration, which overcomes the rigidness of the traditional structured light systems. We propose the use of an omnidirectional camera combined with a conic pattern light, i.e., the 3D information of the conic in the space. This reconstruction considers the recovery of the depth and orientation of the scene surface where the conic pattern is projected. One application of our proposed structured light system in flexible configuration consists of a wearable omnicamera with a low-cost laser in hand for visual impaired personal assistance. PMID:24129024

  2. Oblique wing transonic transport configuration development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Studies of transport aircraft designed for boom-free supersonic flight show the variable sweep oblique wing to be the most efficient configuration for flight at low supersonic speeds. Use of this concept leads to a configuration that is lighter, quieter, and more fuel efficient than symmetric aircraft designed for the same mission. Aerodynamic structural, weight, aeroelastic and flight control studies show the oblique wing concept to be technically feasible. Investigations are reported for wing planform and thickness, pivot design and weight estimation, engine cycle (bypass ratio), and climb, descent and reserve fuel. Results are incorporated into a final configuration. Performance, weight, and balance characteristics are evaluated. Flight control requirements are reviewed, and areas in which further research is needed are identified.

  3. Fiber optic configurations for local area networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassehi, M. M.; Tobagi, F. A.; Marhic, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    A number of fiber optic configurations for a new class of demand assignment multiple-access local area networks requiring a physical ordering among stations are proposed. In such networks, the data transmission and linear-ordering functions may be distinguished and be provided by separate data and control subnetworks. The configurations proposed for the data subnetwork are based on the linear, star, and tree topologies. To provide the linear-ordering function, the control subnetwork must always have a linear unidirectional bus structure. Due to the reciprocity and excess loss of optical couplers, the number of stations that can be accommodated on a linear fiber optic bus is severely limited. Two techniques are proposed to overcome this limitation. For each of the data and control subnetwork configurations, the maximum number of stations as a function of the power margin, for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal couplers, is computed.

  4. Effect of injector configuration in rocket nozzle film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. Lakshya; Pisharady, J. C.; Shine, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out to analyze the effect of coolant injector configuration on overall film cooling performance in a divergent section of a rocket nozzle. Two different injector orientations are investigated: (1) shaped slots with a divergence angle of 15° (semi-divergent injector) (2) fully divergent slot (fully divergent injector). A 2-dimensional, axis-symmetric, multispecies computational model using finite volume formulation has been developed and validated against the experimental data. The experiments provided a consistent set of measurements for cooling effectiveness for different blowing ratios ranging from 3.7 to 6. Results show that the semi divergent configuration leads to higher effectiveness compared to fully divergent slot at all blowing ratios. The spatially averaged effectiveness results show that the difference between the two configurations is significant at higher blowing ratios. The increase in effectiveness was around 2 % at BR = 3.7 whereas it was around 12 % in the case of BR = 6. Numerical results show the presence of secondary flow recirculation zones near the jet exit for both the injectors. An additional recirculation zone present in the case of fully divergent injector caused an increase in mixing of the coolant and mainstream, and a reduction in film cooling performance.

  5. A methodology to determine the optimum WRF-ARW configuration over Andalusia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, Ignasi; Domingo-Dalmau, Anna; Picanyol, Miquel; Arasa, Raúl; Ángeles González-Serrano, M.°

    2016-04-01

    There is an inherent uncertainty in NWP modelling results. The objective of this study is to present a methodology to find the optimum Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) configuration which reduces this uncertainty. The project is located over a coastal region in Andalusia (South Spain). Different dynamical (diffusion and damping options) and physical (microphysics, long- and short-wave radiation, cumulus and planetary boundary layer schemes) configurations have been tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the model. We have also studied the influence of different vertical levels distributions as well as the impact of different high resolution elevation (ASTER and SRTM) and land use (CLC2006 and CCI-LC) data inputs. Finally, we have realized experiments using 3-dimensional variation data assimilation. Each configuration has been modelled for four chosen months in 2014. Each month selected belongs to a different season. The best configuration has been selected using the results from a numerical deterministic validation (RMSE,MB,MAGE). The optimum configuration is the one which reduces the uncertainty in all the meteorological variables evaluated. The optimum configuration obtained has been validated using a two years period (2012 and 2013). We have done a numerical deterministic validation and also a categorical validation for the wind speed using the Beaufort scale as categories. A significant reduction in the model uncertainty is found comparing the results of the final configuration and the results of WRF default configuration.

  6. Experimental verification of low sonic boom configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, A.; Wang, H. H.; Sorensen, H.

    1972-01-01

    A configuration designed to produce near field signature has been tested at M = 2.71 and the results are analyzed, by taking in account three-dimensional and second order effects. The configuration has an equivalent total area distribution that corresponds to an airplane flying at 60,000 ft. having a weight of 460,000 lbs, and 300 ft. length. A maximum overpressure of 0.95 lb/square foot has been obtained experimentally. The experimental results agree well with the analysis. The investigation indicates that the three-dimensional effects are very important when the measurements in wind tunnels are taken at small distances from the airplane.

  7. Configurations of the amphiphilic molecules in micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, K.A.

    1982-04-29

    Several theoretic models aim to account for the properties of micelles in terms of the configurations of the constituent amphiphilic chain molecules. Recent /sup 13/C NMR measurement of one property of the configuration distribution of the the hydrocarbon chain segments allows critical evaluation of these theories. It is concluded that the interphase and singly-bent chain theories, which fully account for chain continuity and for intermolecular constraints imposed by hydrophobic and steric forces, give a more satisfactory description of micellar molecular organization than models in which chains are ordered and radially aligned, or in which they have the complete disorder characteristic of an amorphous hydrocarbon liquid.

  8. Buried waste integrated demonstration configuration management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, P.G.

    1992-02-01

    This document defines plans for the configuration management requirements for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program. Since BWID is managed programmatically by the Waste Technology Development Department (WTDD), WTDD Program Directive (PD) 1.5 (Document Preparation, Review, Approval, Publication, Management and Change Control) is to be followed for all internal EG G Idaho, Inc., BWID programmatic documentation. BWID documentation generated by organizations external to EG G Idaho is not covered by this revision of the Configuration Management Plan (CMP), but will be addressed in subsequent revisions.

  9. Buried waste integrated demonstration configuration management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, P.G.

    1992-02-01

    This document defines plans for the configuration management requirements for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program. Since BWID is managed programmatically by the Waste Technology Development Department (WTDD), WTDD Program Directive (PD) 1.5 (Document Preparation, Review, Approval, Publication, Management and Change Control) is to be followed for all internal EG&G Idaho, Inc., BWID programmatic documentation. BWID documentation generated by organizations external to EG&G Idaho is not covered by this revision of the Configuration Management Plan (CMP), but will be addressed in subsequent revisions.

  10. CFD Computations on Multi-GPU Configurations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Sandeep; Perot, Blair

    2007-11-01

    Programmable graphics processors have shown favorable potential for use in practical CFD simulations -- often delivering a speed-up factor between 3 to 5 times over conventional CPUs. In recent times, most PCs are supplied with the option of installing multiple GPUs on a single motherboard, thereby providing the option of a parallel GPU configuration in a shared-memory paradigm. We demonstrate our implementation of an unstructured CFD solver using a set up which is configured to run two GPUs in parallel, and discuss its performance details.

  11. Electrochemical systems configured to harvest heat energy

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Ghasemi, Hadi; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-31

    Electrochemical systems for harvesting heat energy, and associated electrochemical cells and methods, are generally described. The electrochemical cells can be configured, in certain cases, such that at least a portion of the regeneration of the first electrochemically active material is driven by a change in temperature of the electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cells can be configured to include a first electrochemically active material and a second electrochemically active material, and, in some cases, the absolute value of the difference between the first thermogalvanic coefficient of the first electrochemically active material and the second thermogalvanic coefficient of the second electrochemically active material is at least about 0.5 millivolts/Kelvin.

  12. Minimum induced drag configurations with jet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, J. L.; Lan, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented for determining the optimum camber shape and twist distribution for the minimum induced drag in the wing-alone case without prescribing the span loading shape. The same method was applied to find the corresponding minimum induced drag configuration with the upper-surface-blowing jet. Lan's quasi-vortex-lattice method and his wing-jet interaction theory was used. Comparison of the predicted results with another theoretical method shows good agreement for configurations without the flowing jet. More applicable experimental data with blowing jets are needed to establish the accuracy of the theory.

  13. Absolute configurations of C34 and C35 of antibiotic niphimycin A.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Tomasz; Rafiński, Zbigniew; Sowiński, Paweł; Pawlak, Jan

    2012-05-01

    The relative configurations of four stereogenic centers of the C33-C42 fragment of niphimycin A were assigned as 2S*, 3R*, 4S* and 6S*, based upon (1)H NMR analysis with double-quantum filtered COSY and nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy experiments. These data were then correlated with absolute configurations at C36 and C38 of niphimycin A, which were declared previously as 36S and 38S [3]. This allowed for the assignment of the absolute configurations at C34 and C35 of niphimycin A as 34S and 35R.

  14. Grid generation on and about a cranked-wing fighter aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Pitts, Joan I.; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Wiese, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    Experiences at the NASA Langley Research Center generating grids about a cranked wing fighter aircraft configuration is described. A single block planar grid about the fuselage and canard used with a finite difference Navier-Stokes solver is also described. A dual block nonplanar grid about the complete configuration and used with a finite volume Euler solver is presented. The very important aspect of computing the aircraft surface grid, starting with a standardized model description, is also presented.

  15. Concerning gauge field fluctuations around classical configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Dennis D.

    2009-05-15

    We treat the fluctuations of non-Abelian gauge fields around a classical configuration by means of a transformation from the Yang-Mills gauge field to a homogeneously transforming field variable. We use the formalism to compute the effective action induced by these fluctuations in a static background without Wu-Yang ambiguity.

  16. Status Configurations, Military Service and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H., Jr.; Spence, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for…

  17. Examining issues with water quality model configuration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex watershed–scale, water quality models require a considerable amount of data in order to be properly configured, especially in view of the scarcity of data in many regions due to temporal and economic constraints. In this study, we examined two different input issues incurred while building ...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.304 - Pier configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... configuration. (a) Concrete blocks. Installation instructions for concrete block piers must be developed in...-bearing (not decorative) concrete blocks must have nominal dimensions of at least 8 inches × 8 inches × 16 inches; (2) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells aligned vertically; and (3)...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.304 - Pier configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... configuration. (a) Concrete blocks. Installation instructions for concrete block piers must be developed in...-bearing (not decorative) concrete blocks must have nominal dimensions of at least 8 inches × 8 inches × 16 inches; (2) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells aligned vertically; and (3)...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.304 - Pier configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... configuration. (a) Concrete blocks. Installation instructions for concrete block piers must be developed in...-bearing (not decorative) concrete blocks must have nominal dimensions of at least 8 inches × 8 inches × 16 inches; (2) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells aligned vertically; and (3)...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.304 - Pier configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... configuration. (a) Concrete blocks. Installation instructions for concrete block piers must be developed in...-bearing (not decorative) concrete blocks must have nominal dimensions of at least 8 inches × 8 inches × 16 inches; (2) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells aligned vertically; and (3)...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.304 - Pier configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... configuration. (a) Concrete blocks. Installation instructions for concrete block piers must be developed in...-bearing (not decorative) concrete blocks must have nominal dimensions of at least 8 inches × 8 inches × 16 inches; (2) The concrete blocks must be stacked with their hollow cells aligned vertically; and (3)...

  3. 40 CFR 610.50 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.50 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Durability Test Procedures § 610.50 Test... the same test sequence for fuel economy and exhaust emissions as specified in subpart D....

  4. 40 CFR 610.50 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.50 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Durability Test Procedures § 610.50 Test... the same test sequence for fuel economy and exhaust emissions as specified in subpart D....

  5. 40 CFR 610.50 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.50 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Durability Test Procedures § 610.50 Test... the same test sequence for fuel economy and exhaust emissions as specified in subpart D....

  6. 40 CFR 610.50 - Test configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test configurations. 610.50 Section... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Durability Test Procedures § 610.50 Test... the same test sequence for fuel economy and exhaust emissions as specified in subpart D....

  7. Integrating configuration workflows with project management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Dimitri; Weber, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    The complexity of the heterogeneous computing resources, services and recurring infrastructure changes at the GridKa WLCG Tier-1 computing center require a structured approach to configuration management and optimization of interplay between functional components of the whole system. A set of tools deployed at GridKa, including Puppet, Redmine, Foreman, SVN and Icinga, provides the administrative environment giving the possibility to define and develop configuration workflows, reduce the administrative effort and improve sustainable operation of the whole computing center. In this presentation we discuss the developed configuration scenarios implemented at GridKa, which we use for host installation, service deployment, change management procedures, service retirement etc. The integration of Puppet with a project management tool like Redmine provides us with the opportunity to track problem issues, organize tasks and automate these workflows. The interaction between Puppet and Redmine results in automatic updates of the issues related to the executed workflow performed by different system components. The extensive configuration workflows require collaboration and interaction between different departments like network, security, production etc. at GridKa. Redmine plugins developed at GridKa and integrated in its administrative environment provide an effective way of collaboration within the GridKa team. We present the structural overview of the software components, their connections, communication protocols and show a few working examples of the workflows and their automation.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, M.A.

    1995-06-09

    This document is a rewrite of the draft ``C`` that was agreed to ``in principle`` by SNF Project level 2 managers on EDT 609835, dated March 1995 (not released). The implementation process philosphy was changed in keeping with the ongoing reengineering of the WHC Controlled Manuals to achieve configuration management within the SNF Project.

  9. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  10. Sandia software guidelines, Volume 4: Configuration management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume is based on the IEEE standard and guide for software configuration management. The basic concepts and detailed guidance on implementation of these concepts are discussed for several software project types. Example planning documents for both projects and organizations are included.

  11. Linking Assessment and Instruction Innovation Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosp, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation configuration identifies the skills and competencies teachers need to make sound decisions about using assessment information to improve instruction and establishes a framework and justification for effective ways that teachers can collect and use assessment data to make instructional decisions. It is designed to provide a…

  12. Film bonded fuel cell interface configuration

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Terry, Peter L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. A multi-layer arrangement for the interface provides bridging electrical contact with a hot-pressed resin filling the void space.

  13. The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Judith A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of electron configurations and various systems used to help students write them correctly. Presents an approach to this type of instruction which uses diagrams and mnemonic devices. Examples of exercises which encourage the use of this method are provided. (TW)

  14. Studies of a flexible heliac configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Hender, T.C.; Cantrell, J.L.; Harris, J.H.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Lyon, J.F.; Fabregas, J.A.; Guasp, J.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Navarro, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    This paper documents a detailed study of the Flexible Heliac configuration. The remarkable flexibility of this device - which allows variation of the rotational transform, shear, and magnetic well depth over a relatively wide range - is described. Engineering considerations of error fields, finite cross-section conductors, and plasma coil clearances are also discussed.

  15. The effect of configural displays on pilot situation awareness in helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Joseph Christopher

    The current research utilized configural displays within the domain of aviation to assess what design features of configural displays contribute to the formation of operator situation awareness (SA). Configural displays map system information relevant to operator goals onto geometric shapes called emergent features. An emergent feature is formed from the combination of individual line segments to produce a global feature more perceptually salient and recognized sooner than the individual parts themselves. Configural displays have been shown in previous research to provide better operator performance for integration tasks where multiple pieces of information must be considered at once, yet the design aspects of configural displays that impact the formation of operator SA have yet to be determined. The current research compared the design features of three aviation configural displays over four experiments to quantify what aspects of configural displays would impact operator SA. The research sought to determine whether the simple act of representing system information in configural displays using emergent features is sufficient for facilitating operator SA or do other design factors need to be considered? Operator SA was assessed using explicit and implicit measures of SA from operator task performance in addition to a subjective SA rating scale. The recognition of aircraft attitude (climb/dive flight angles) when briefly presented to pilots in Experiment 1 revealed significant performance differences for the Arc Segment Attitude Reference (ASAR) configural display which mapped aircraft attitude information onto a circular shape versus the traditional aircraft head-up display (HUD) ladder found in the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HUD and Dual-Articulated (DA) HUD. The current research in Experiment 1 provides evidence that configural displays such as the ASAR that utilize emergent features well mapped to fully relate the information needed for a task will facilitate

  16. Multi configuration axysimmetric plasma shaping control on RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavazzana, R.; Finotti, C.; Marchiori, G.; Manduchi, G.; Zanotto, L.; Kudlacek, O.; Zuin, M.; Franz, P.; Zanca, P.; Marrelli, L.; Luce, T. C.; Jackson, G. L.

    2013-10-01

    RFX-mod is a flexible experiment, equipped with a full coverage MHD control system, composed by 192 (48 toroidal x 4 poloidal) coils. Being built as a high current RFP (a/R = 0.46m/2.0m; Ip max 2 MA) it has recently operated also as a low current circular tokamak (Bt = 0.45 T; Ip 85 kA @ q(a) ~ 3 ; Ip 150 kA @ q(a) ~ 2), achieving the full stabilization of m = 2, n = 1 mode at q(a) ~ 2. In order to extend the significance of MHD control experiments, there arose the need of creating non circular shaped discharges, exploiting the flexibility of the 16 shaping coils of the machine. Plasma of with moderate elliptical and triangular shape can be obtained both in tokamak and RFP configuration. Moreover tokamak D-shaped plasmas with double X-point have been obtained by proper reconfiguration of the power supply. The design structure and the experimental performance of the new shape reconstruction, plasma position and shape real-time control algorithms, tested in both RFP and tokamak configuration, are presented and discussed, along with some preliminary results of the MHD mode interaction and control behavior with the modified plasma shapes.

  17. Experimental beta limits of symmetric linear heliac configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Spanjers, G.G.; Nelson, B.A.; Ribe, F.L.; Jarboe, T.R. )

    1994-08-01

    Helically symmetric heliac equilibria [H. P. Furth, [ital Plasma] [ital Physics] [ital and] [ital Controlled] [ital Fusion] [ital Research] (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1966), Vol. 1, p. 103] are formed on the High Beta Q Machine (HBQM) [C. M. Greenfield, Phys. Fluids B [bold 2], 133 (1990)] by using a fast-rising central conductor (hardcore) current in conjunction with a shock-heated [ital l]=1 stellarator configuration. The equilibria are found to possess a high global beta and the plasma pressure is approximately a flux-surface quantity. Under the effects of plasma, the magnetic well is found to deepen and the rotational transform is greatly increased and becomes highly sheared, owing to plasma currents induced by the fast-rising hardcore current. In the second phase of the experiment, the equilibrium fields of the symmetric heliac are lowered while maintaining the same shock heating in an attempt to raise the global beta. No substantial change in global beta is seen, indicating that the configuration forms at the beta limit in the shock-heated HBQM, and that the plasma beta seen in the first phase of the experiment is the symmetric heliac beta limit.

  18. Liquid-Vapor Interface Configurations Investigated in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) is part of a multifaceted study that is exploring the often striking behavior of liquid-vapor interfaces in low-gravity environments. Although the experiment was posed largely as a test of current mathematical theory, applications of the results should be manifold. In space almost every fluid system is affected, if not dominated, by capillarity (the effects of surface tension). As a result, knowledge of fluid interface behavior, in particular an equilibrium interface shape from which any analysis must begin, is fundamental--from the control of liquid fuels and oxygen in storage tanks to the design and development of inspace thermal systems, such as heat pipes and capillary pumped loops. ICE has increased, and should continue to increase, such knowledge as it probes the specific peculiarities of current theory upon which our present understanding rests. Several versions of ICE have been conducted in the drop towers at the NASA Lewis Research Center, on the space shuttles during the first and second United States Microgravity Laboratory missions (USML-1 and USML-2), and most recently aboard the Russian Mir space station. These studies focused on interfacial problems concerning the existence, uniqueness, configuration, stability, and flow characteristics of liquid-vapor interfaces. Results to date have clearly demonstrated the value of the present theory and the extent to which it can predict the behavior of capillary systems.

  19. How Configural Is the Configural Superiority Effect? A Neuroimaging Investigation of Emergent Features in Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Fox, Olivia M; Harel, Assaf; Bennett, Kevin B

    2017-01-01

    The perception of a visual stimulus is dependent not only upon local features, but also on the arrangement of those features. When stimulus features are perceptually well organized (e.g., symmetric or parallel), a global configuration with a high degree of salience emerges from the interactions between these features, often referred to as emergent features. Emergent features can be demonstrated in the Configural Superiority Effect (CSE): presenting a stimulus within an organized context relative to its presentation in a disarranged one results in better performance. Prior neuroimaging work on the perception of emergent features regards the CSE as an "all or none" phenomenon, focusing on the contrast between configural and non-configural stimuli. However, it is still not clear how emergent features are processed between these two endpoints. The current study examined the extent to which behavioral and neuroimaging markers of emergent features are responsive to the degree of configurality in visual displays. Subjects were tasked with reporting the anomalous quadrant in a visual search task while being scanned. Degree of configurality was manipulated by incrementally varying the rotational angle of low-level features within the stimulus arrays. Behaviorally, we observed faster response times with increasing levels of configurality. These behavioral changes were accompanied by increases in response magnitude across multiple visual areas in occipito-temporal cortex, primarily early visual cortex and object-selective cortex. Our findings suggest that the neural correlates of emergent features can be observed even in response to stimuli that are not fully configural, and demonstrate that configural information is already present at early stages of the visual hierarchy.

  20. How Configural Is the Configural Superiority Effect? A Neuroimaging Investigation of Emergent Features in Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Olivia M.; Harel, Assaf; Bennett, Kevin B.

    2017-01-01

    The perception of a visual stimulus is dependent not only upon local features, but also on the arrangement of those features. When stimulus features are perceptually well organized (e.g., symmetric or parallel), a global configuration with a high degree of salience emerges from the interactions between these features, often referred to as emergent features. Emergent features can be demonstrated in the Configural Superiority Effect (CSE): presenting a stimulus within an organized context relative to its presentation in a disarranged one results in better performance. Prior neuroimaging work on the perception of emergent features regards the CSE as an “all or none” phenomenon, focusing on the contrast between configural and non-configural stimuli. However, it is still not clear how emergent features are processed between these two endpoints. The current study examined the extent to which behavioral and neuroimaging markers of emergent features are responsive to the degree of configurality in visual displays. Subjects were tasked with reporting the anomalous quadrant in a visual search task while being scanned. Degree of configurality was manipulated by incrementally varying the rotational angle of low-level features within the stimulus arrays. Behaviorally, we observed faster response times with increasing levels of configurality. These behavioral changes were accompanied by increases in response magnitude across multiple visual areas in occipito-temporal cortex, primarily early visual cortex and object-selective cortex. Our findings suggest that the neural correlates of emergent features can be observed even in response to stimuli that are not fully configural, and demonstrate that configural information is already present at early stages of the visual hierarchy. PMID:28167924

  1. Experimental and analytical investigations of sleeved pipeline configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, J.D.; Powell, G.H.; Rinawi, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    A series of buckling experiments has been conducted on 60 foot long 48-inch diameter sleeved pipe specimens at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. The tests included the application of internal pressure and axial force to simulate fully restrained conditions, followed by the application of four-point bending loads up to and beyond wrinkling of the specimens. The results from the first two of these tests are presented together with results from analytical correlation studies in which the tests were simulated using beam bending models. The comparisons show close agreement between the analyses and the experiments, provided that (a) anisotropy of the steel properties is accounted for and (b) a special wrinkling segment is included in the bending models. It is concluded that the analytical approach can be used with a substantial degree of confidence to analyze pipeline configurations up to the point of incipient wrinkling.

  2. Application of measurement configuration optimization for accurate metrology of sub-wavelength dimensions in multilayer gratings using optical scatterometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinlong; Shi, Yating; Goddard, Lynford L; Liu, Shiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Critical dimension measurement accuracy in optical scatterometry relies not only on the systematic noise level of instruments and the reliability of forward modeling algorithms, but also heavily on the measurement configuration. To construct a set of potentially high-accuracy configurations, we apply a general measurement configuration optimization method based on error propagation theory and singular value decomposition, by which the measurement accuracy is approximated as a function of a pseudo Jacobian with respect to the measurement configurations. Simulations and experiments for the optical metrology of a sub-wavelength deep-etched multilayer grating establish the feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. A Vertical Differential Configuration in GPR prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pochanin, Gennadiy; Varianytsia-Roshchupkina, Liudmyla; Catapano, Ilaria; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The rejection of the direct coupling between the antennas is an issue of interest in several GPR applications, especially when it is important to distinguish the targets of interest from the clutter and the signal reflected from the air soil interface. Therefore, in this framework several hardware and software strategies have been proposed. Among the software strategies, probably the most common one is the background removal [1], whereas as an hardware strategy the differential configuration has been introduced in [2-3] and then further on studied in [4] with respect to the spatial filtering properties of the relevant mathematical operator. In particular, the studies proposed in [1] and [4] have shown that, in general, all the strategies for the rejection of the direct coupling have necessarily some drawback, essentially because it is not possible to erase all and only the undesired contributions leaving "untouched" the contributions of the targets of interest to the gathered signal. With specific regard to the differential configuration, in [2-3], the differential configuration consisted in a couple of receiving antennas symmetrically placed around the transmitting one, being the three antennas placed along the same horizontal segment. Therefore, we might define that configuration as a "horizontal differential configuration". Here, we propose a novel differential GPR configuration, where the two receiving antennas are still symmetrically located with respect to the transmitting one, but are placed piled on each other at different heights from the air-soil interface, whereas the transmitting antenna is at the medium height between the two receiving one (however, it is not at the same abscissa but at a fixed horizontal offset from the receiving antennas). Such a differential configuration has been previously presented in [5-6] and allows a good isolation between the antennas, while preserving the possibility to collect backscattered signals from both electrically

  4. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  5. Shaping light with split lens configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizana, A.; Vargas, A.; Turpin, A.; Ramirez, C.; Estevez, I.; Campos, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present an intuitive and versatile method that can dynamically generate 2D and 3D tailored light patterns. The light structures are generated by dynamically implementing discrete and continuous split lens configurations onto a spatial light modulator. These configurations can be dynamically modified by tuning a reduced number of control parameters with simple physical interpretation. We demonstrate the versatility of the method by experimentally implementing a wide number of structured beams, including optical lattices, a light cone, and vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum. Compared with other optical illuminators, the advantages of our method are its simple interpretation and control for creating the light structures, and that it is based on a robust, dynamic and easy-to-build optical set-up. The proposed method may be useful in a large number of applications, such as optical trapping, super-resolution imaging or illuminating arrays of photonic switching devices.

  6. Configurational subdiffusion of peptides: A network study

    SciTech Connect

    Neusius, Thomas; Diadone, Isabella; Sokolov, Igor; Smith, Jeremy C

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of linear peptides reveals configurational subdiffusion at equilibrium extending from 10-12 to 10-8 s. Rouse chain and continuous-time random walk models of the subdiffusion are critically discussed. Network approaches to analyzing MD simulations are shown to reproduce the time dependence of the subdiffusive mean squared displacement, which is found to arise from the fractal-like geometry of the accessible volume in the configuration space. Convergence properties of the simulation pertaining to the subdiffusive dynamics are characterized and the effect on the subdiffusive properties of representing the solvent explicitly or implicitly is compared. Non-Markovianity and other factors limiting the range of applicability of the network models are examined.

  7. Mission configurable threat detection sensor suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Jean; Cantin, Andre; Dubois, Jacques; Trudel, Carol

    2000-12-01

    This article describes work that has been undertaken at the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier (DREV) to integrate a number of electro-optics sensors into a modular mission configurable threat detection sensor suite (TDSS) demonstrator. The sensor suite is based on a series of plug and play detection heads networked together in the same fashion as a computer network. The architecture allows optimization of the detection capabilities according to a mission requirement. The TDSS demonstrator was developed to study different sensor configuration in order to establish the requirements to improve the protection of the military platforms. It is a good example showing how networking can help in adapting military systems to specific requirements. The paper gives an up to date description of the TDSS demonstrator. To our knowledge, it is the first time that this approach is used in the field of military detection sensors.

  8. Lidar configurations for wind turbine control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Mann, Jakob

    2016-09-01

    Lidar sensors have proved to be very beneficial in the wind energy industry. They can be used for yaw correction, feed-forward pitch control and load verification. However, the current lidars are expensive. One way to reduce the price is to use lidars with few measurement points. Finding the best configuration of an inexpensive lidar in terms of number of measurement points, the measurement distance and the opening angle is the subject of this study. In order to solve the problem, a lidar model is developed and used to measure wind speed in a turbulence box. The effective wind speed measured by the lidar is compared against the effective wind speed on a wind turbine rotor both theoretically and through simulations. The study provides some results to choose the best configuration of the lidar with few measurement points.

  9. Spacecraft (Mobile Satellite) configuration design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The relative costs to procure and operate a two-satellite mobile satellite system designed to operate either in the UHF band of the L Band, and with several antenna diameter options in each frequency band was investigated. As configured, the size of the spacecraft is limited to the current RCA Series 4000 Geosynchronous Communications Spacecraft bus, which spans the range from 4000 to 5800 pounds in the transfer orbit. The Series 4000 bus forms the basis around which the Mobile Satellite transponder and associated antennas were appended. Although the resultant configuration has little outward resemblance to the present Series 4000 microwave communications spacecraft, the structure, attitude control, thermal, power, and command and control subsystems of the Series 4000 spacecraft are all adapted to support the Mobile Satellite mission.

  10. Configuration management; Operating power station electrical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, R.R.; Sumiec, K.F. )

    1989-01-01

    Increasing regulatory and industry attention has been focused on properly controlling electrical design changes. These changes can be controlled by using configuration management techniques. Typically, there are ongoing modifications to various process systems or additions due to new requirements at every power plant. Proper control of these changes requires that an organized method be used to ensure that all important parameters of the electrical auxiliary systems are analyzed and that these parameters are evaluated accurately. This process, commonly referred to as configuration management, is becoming more important on both fossil and nuclear plants. Recent NRC- and utility-initiated inspections have identified problems due to incomplete analysis of changes to electrical auxiliary systems at nuclear stations.

  11. Parallel spin-orbit coupled configuration interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilson, J. L.; Ermler, W. C.; Pitzer, R. M.

    2000-06-01

    A parallel spin-orbit configuration interaction (SOCI) code has been developed. This code, named P-SOCI, is an extension of an existing sequential SOCI program and permits solution to heavy-element systems requiring both explicit spin-orbit (SO) effects and significant electron correlation. The relativistic procedure adopted here is an ab initio conventional configuration interaction (CI) method that constructs a Hamiltonian matrix in a double-group-adapted basis. P-SOCI enables solutions to problems far larger than possible with the original code by exploiting the resources of large massively parallel processing computers (MPP). This increase in capability permits not only the continued inclusion of explicit spin-orbit effects but now also a significant amount of non-dynamic and dynamic correlation as is necessary for a good description of heavy-element systems.

  12. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    PubMed

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research.

  13. Future MAUS payload and the TWIN-MAUS configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staniek, S.; Otto, G.; Doepkens, J.

    1988-01-01

    The German MAUS project (materials science autonomous experiments in weightlessness) was initiated in 1979 for optimum utilization of NASA's Get Away Special (GAS) program. The standard MAUS system was developed to meet GAS requirements and can accommodate a wide variety of GAS-type experiments. The system offers a range of services to experimenters within the framework of standardized interfaces. Four MAUS payloads being prepared for future space shuttle flight opportunities are described. The experiments include critical Marangoni convection, oscillatory Marangoni convection, pool boiling, and gas bubbles in glass melts. Scientific objectives as well as equipment hardware are presented together with recent improvements to the MAUS standard system, e.g., a new experiment control and data management unit and a semiconductor memory. A promising means of increasing resources in the field of GAS experiments is the interconnection of GAS containers. This important feature has been studied to meet the challenge of future advanced payloads. In the TWIN-MAUS configuration, electrical power and data will be transferred between two containers mounted adjacent to each other.

  14. Protocols for configuring computation loops on a distributed multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect

    Woei Lin; Chuan-lin Wu

    1983-01-01

    Protocols for configuring computation loops in a multiprocessing system are examined. Processing nodes are connected by a reconfigurable communication subnet using a multistage interconnection network. Configuration protocols are presented in terms of distributed algorithms such that processing nodes are configured in loop topologies. The configurability of loop topologies is first investigated. It is verified that the communication subnet can emulate loop distributed systems. It is also proven that multiple loops of various lengths can be configured in the distributed network. The technique demonstrated for configuring loop topologies can be used to configure other computation topologies. 6 references.

  15. Inhibition drives configural superiority of illusory Gestalt: Combined behavioral and drift-diffusion model evidence.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qi-Yang; Maurer, Mara; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Illusory Kanizsa figures demonstrate that a perceptually completed whole is more than the sum of its composite parts. In the current study, we explored part/whole relationships in object completion using the configural superiority effect (CSE) with illusory figures (Pomerantz & Portillo, 2011). In particular, we investigated to which extent the CSE is modulated by closure in target and distractor configurations. Our results demonstrated a typical CSE, with detection of a configural whole being more efficient than the detection of a corresponding part-level target. Moreover, the CSE was more pronounced when grouped objects were presented in distractors rather than in the target. A follow-up experiment systematically manipulated closure in whole target or, respectively, distractor configurations. The results revealed the effect of closure to be again stronger in distractor, rather than in target configurations, suggesting that closure primarily affects the inhibition of distractors, and to a lesser extent the selection of the target. In addition, a drift-diffusion model analysis of our data revealed that efficient distractor inhibition expedites the rate of evidence accumulation, with closure in distractors particularly speeding the drift toward the decision boundary. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the CSE in Kanizsa figures derives primarily from the inhibition of closed distractor objects, rather than being driven by a conspicuous target configuration. Altogether, these results support a fundamental role of inhibition in driving configural superiority effects in visual search.

  16. Regimes of pulsed formation of a compact plasma configuration with a high energy input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romadanov, I. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    Results of experiments on the formation of a compact toroidal magnetic configuration at the Compact Toroid Challenge setup are presented. The experiments were primarily aimed at studying particular formation stages. Two series of experiments, with and without an auxiliary capacitor bank, were conducted. The magnetic field was measured, its time evolution and spatial distribution over the chamber volume were determined, and its influence on the formation regimes was investigated.

  17. Regimes of pulsed formation of a compact plasma configuration with a high energy input

    SciTech Connect

    Romadanov, I. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V.

    2015-10-15

    Results of experiments on the formation of a compact toroidal magnetic configuration at the Compact Toroid Challenge setup are presented. The experiments were primarily aimed at studying particular formation stages. Two series of experiments, with and without an auxiliary capacitor bank, were conducted. The magnetic field was measured, its time evolution and spatial distribution over the chamber volume were determined, and its influence on the formation regimes was investigated.

  18. Quasistatic formation of the spheromak plasma configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, M.; Furth, H.P.; Hsu, W.; Jardin, S.; Janos, A.; Okabayashi, M.; Sinnis, J.; Stix, T.H.; Yamazaki, K.

    1980-10-01

    A novel method for creating the spheromak configuration has been proposed and verified experimentally. The scheme is based on a transfer of poloidal and toroidal magnetic fluxes into a plasma from a flux core. In this paper we present the first experimental verification of this quasistatic (tau/sub Alf/ much less than tau/sub form/ < tau/sub diff/) formation scheme, which is suitable for future scale-up to fusion-reactor parameters.

  19. Reproducibility of 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Mark R.; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this 3D structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts—spatially close chromosomal loci—which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining 3D reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically—the purpose of this paper. We use a constrained optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between 3D configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of constrained optimization approaches to 3D architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a

  20. Unsteady loads due to propulsive lift configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, J. B.; Haviland, J. K.; Catalano, G. D.; Herling, W. W.

    1975-01-01

    The flow of a jet over an airfoil representative of upper surface blowing was studied using laser techniques. Experimental techniques were developed for the investigation of unsteady pressures behind a cold model jet. Construction of a 1/4 scale model of the 'Beach' test configuration was completed along with construction of a portable detector. The portable detector is used in conjunction with a laser to measure jet flows during tests on the 'Beach' facility. The detector incorporates both optical and electronic components.

  1. Configuration of Wireless Cooperative/Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-25

    advance. It is thus possible, that the source node uses one or more terminals or none at all. The purpose of this research work is to devise suitable...Force Office of Scientific Research , Air Force Material Command, USAF, under grant number FA8655-07-1-3040. The U.S Government is authorized to reproduce...available channel state information (CSI) at each node. In this research work, our goal is to investigate various configuration strategies for wireless

  2. Automatic Configuration of Programmable Logic Controller Emulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    techniques used in reverse engineering protocols in order to automatically configure PLC emula- tors using network traces. The accuracy, flexibility, and...Reference traffic is captured and used to build protocol state machines, and then the resultant emulators’ experimental traffic is captured. Variability...thank my advisor, Dr. Barry Mullins, for providing my first formal introduction to network protocols and all of the wondrous things they can do. Thank

  3. Configuration mixing calculations in soluble models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambiaggio, M. C.; Plastino, A.; Szybisz, L.; Miller, H. G.

    1983-07-01

    Configuration mixing calculations have been performed in two quasi-spin models using basis states which are solutions of a particular set of Hartree-Fock equations. Each of these solutions, even those which do not correspond to the global minimum, is found to contain interesting physical information. Relatively good agreement with the exact lowest-lying states has been obtained. In particular, one obtains a better approximation to the ground state than that provided by Hartree-Fock.

  4. Configuration management plan for the GENII software

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1994-12-12

    The GENII program calculates doses from radionuclides released into the environment for a variety of possible exposure scenarios. The user prepares an input data file with the necessary modelling assumptions and parameters. The program reads the user`s input file, computes the necessary doses and stores these results in an output file. The output file also contains a listing of the user`s input and gives the title lines from the data libraries which are accessed in the course of the calculations. The purpose of this document is to provide users of the GENII software with the configuration controls which are planned for use by WHC in accordance with WHC-CM-3-10. The controls are solely for WHC employees. Non-WHC individuals are not excluded, but no promise is made or implied that they will be informed of errors or revisions to the software. The configuration controls cover the GENII software, the GENII user`s guide, the list of GENII users at WHC, and the backup copies. Revisions to the software must be approved prior to distribution in accordance with this configuration management plan.

  5. Chirality and Magnetic Configurations of Solar Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Y.; Zhou, Y. H.; Chen, P. F.; Fang, C.

    2017-01-01

    It has been revealed that the magnetic topology in the solar atmosphere displays hemispheric preference, i.e., helicity is mainly negative/positive in the northern/southern hemispheres, respectively. However, the strength of the hemispheric rule and its cyclic variation are controversial. In this paper, we apply a new method based on the filament drainage to 571 erupting filaments from 2010 May to 2015 December in order to determine the filament chirality and its hemispheric preference. It is found that 91.6% of our sample of erupting filaments follows the hemispheric rule of helicity sign. It is also found that the strength of the hemispheric preference of the quiescent filaments decreases slightly from ∼97% in the rising phase to ∼85% in the declining phase of solar cycle 24, whereas the strength of the intermediate filaments keeps a high value around 96 ± 4% at all times. Only the active-region filaments show significant variations. Their strength of the hemispheric rule rises from ∼63% to ∼95% in the rising phase, and keeps a high value of 82% ± 5% during the declining phase. Furthermore, during a half-year period around the solar maximum, their hemispheric preference totally vanishes. Additionally, we also diagnose the magnetic configurations of the filaments based on our indirect method and find that in our sample of erupting events, 89% are inverse-polarity filaments with a flux rope magnetic configuration, whereas 11% are normal-polarity filaments with a sheared arcade configuration.

  6. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration Scaling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration is a subsonic transport aircraft concept with the potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions compared to conventional concepts. Initial studies focused on very large applications with capacities for up to 800 passengers. More recent studies have focused on the large, twin-aisle class with passenger capacities in the 300-450 range. Efficiently scaling this concept down to the single aisle or smaller size is challenging due to geometric constraints, potentially reducing the desirability of this concept for applications in the 100-200 passenger capacity range or less. In order to quantify this scaling challenge, five advanced conventional (tube-and-wing layout) concepts were developed, along with equivalent (payload/range/technology) HWB concepts, and their fuel burn performance compared. The comparison showed that the HWB concepts have fuel burn advantages over advanced tube-and-wing concepts in the larger payload/range classes (roughly 767-sized and larger). Although noise performance was not quantified in this study, the HWB concept has distinct noise advantages over the conventional tube-and-wing configuration due to the inherent noise shielding features of the HWB. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project will continue to investigate advanced configurations, such as the HWB, due to their potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions.

  7. Air Traffic Sector Configuration Change Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.; Drew, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A Mixed Integer Linear Programming method is used for creating sectors in Fort Worth, Cleveland, and Los Angeles centers based on several days of good-weather traffic data. The performance of these sectors is studied when they are subjected to traffic data from different days. Additionally, the advantage of using different sector designs at different times of day with varying traffic loads is examined. Specifically, traffic data from 10 days are used for design, and 47 other days are played back to test if the traffic-counts stay below the design values used in creating the partitions. The primary findings of this study are as follows. Sectors created with traffic from good-weather days can be used on other good-weather days. Sector configurations created with two hours of traffic can be used for 6 to 12 hours without exceeding the peak-count requirement. Compared to using a single configuration for the entire day, most of the sector-hour reduction is achieved by using two sector configurations -one during daytime hours and one during nighttime hours.

  8. Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2015-09-14

    We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.

  9. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  10. Configurational Variations and Finite-Beta Effects on Neoclassical Viscosities and Flows in Stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breyfogle, M.; Marine, T.; Ware, A. S.; Spong, D. A.

    2008-11-01

    The impact of magnetic geometry on neoclassical flows and viscosities for the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) is investigated using the PENTA code [1,2]. Specifically, two topics are investigated: (1) finite-beta effects and (2) configurational variations. The PENTA code is used to calculate flows in HSX with the vacuum magnetic geometry and with finite-beta magnetic surfaces from the VMEC equilibrium code. This is done for the standard quasi-helically symmetric configuration of HSX, a symmetry-breaking mirror configuration and a hill configuration. The impact of these changes in the magnetic geometry on neoclassical viscosities and flows in HSX will be discussed.[0pt] [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [0pt] [2] D. A. Spong, Fusion Sci. Technology 50, 343 (2006).

  11. Annoyance caused by advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Comparison of different propeller configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1991-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the annoyance of flyover noise from advanced turboprop aircraft having different propeller configurations with the annoyance of conventional turboprop and turbofan aircraft flyover noise. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 40 realistic, time varying simulations of advanced turboprop takeoff noise. Of the 40 noises, single-rotating propeller configurations (8) and counter-rotating propeller configurations with an equal (12) and unequal (20) number of blades on each rotor were represented. Analyses found that advanced turboprops with single-rotating propellers were, on average, slightly less annoying than the other aircraft. Fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio affected annoyance response to advanced turboprops, but the effects varied with propeller configuration and noise metric. The addition of duration corrections and corrections for tones above 500 Hz to the noise measurement procedures improved annoyance prediction ability.

  12. Ignition, Transition, Flame Spread in Multidimensional Configurations in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashiwagi, Takashi; Mell, William E.; Baum, Howard R.; Olson, Sandra

    1999-01-01

    In the inhabited quarters of orbiting spacecraft, fire is a greatly feared hazard. Thus, the fire safety strategy in a spacecraft is (1) to keep any fire as small as possible, (2) to detect any fire as early as possible, and (3) to extinguish any fire as quickly as possible. This suggests that a material which undergoes a momentary ignition might be tolerable but a material which permits a transition from a localized ignition to flame spread would significantly increase the fire hazard in a spacecraft. If the transition does not take place, fire growth does not occur. Therefore, it is critical to understand what process controls the transition. Many previous works have studied ignition and flame spread separately or were limited to a two-dimensional configuration. In this study, time-dependent phenomena of the transition over a thermally thin sample is studied experimentally and theoretically in two- and three-dimensional (2D,3D) configurations. Furthermore, localized ignition can be initiated at the center portion of thermally thin paper sample instead of at one end of the sample. Thus, the transition to flame spread could occur either toward upstream or downstream or both directions simultaneously with an external flow. In this presentation, the difference in the transition between the 3D and 2D configurations is explained with the numerically calculated data. For sufficiently narrow samples edge effects exist. Some results on this issue are presented. New analysis of the surface smoldering experiments conducted in the space shuttle STS-75 flight is also described.

  13. Experiment definition phase shuttle laboratory LDRL 10.6 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    System optimization is reported along with mission and parameter requirements. Link establishment and maintenance requirements are discussed providing an acquisition and tracking scheme. The shuttle terminal configurations are considered and are included in the experiment definition.

  14. US specificity of occasion setting: hierarchical or configural learning?

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Charlotte; Bartle, Craig; Jennings, Dómhnall

    2012-07-01

    Four experiments in rats examined whether occasion setters and target CSs play qualitatively different roles in occasion-setting discriminations. Two visual occasion setters, A and B, signalled reinforcement of two auditory target CSs, x and y, with sucrose and oil (A…x→suc, B…y→oil, A-, B-, x-, y-); in addition two transfer CSs w and z were paired with sucrose and oil (w→suc, z→oil). When w and z were substituted for x and y (A…w, B…w, A…z, B…z) more responding was observed when both stimuli had been paired with the same outcome (Experiments 1 and 3a). No effect was observed when two visual "pseudo-occasion setters", C and D (paired with sucrose and oil in a trace relation to the US:C…→suc, D…→oil), were substituted for the occasion setters A and B (C…x, D…x, C…y, D…y; Experiments 2, 3b and 4). These results could not be explained in terms of Pavlovian summation: responding to combinations of Pavlovian CSs paired with same or different outcomes was either the same, or lower when both stimuli had been paired with the same outcome (Experiment 4). Implications of these results for theories of occasion setting and configural learning are discussed.

  15. US specificity of occasion setting: Hierarchical or configural learning?

    PubMed Central

    Bonardi, Charlotte; Bartle, Craig; Jennings, Dómhnall

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments in rats examined whether occasion setters and target CSs play qualitatively different roles in occasion-setting discriminations. Two visual occasion setters, A and B, signalled reinforcement of two auditory target CSs, x and y, with sucrose and oil (A…x → suc, B…y → oil, A−, B−, x−, y−); in addition two transfer CSs w and z were paired with sucrose and oil (w → suc, z → oil). When w and z were substituted for x and y (A…w, B…w, A…z, B…z) more responding was observed when both stimuli had been paired with the same outcome (Experiments 1 and 3a). No effect was observed when two visual “pseudo-occasion setters”, C and D (paired with sucrose and oil in a trace relation to the US:C… → suc, D… → oil), were substituted for the occasion setters A and B (C…x, D…x, C…y, D…y; Experiments 2, 3b and 4). These results could not be explained in terms of Pavlovian summation: responding to combinations of Pavlovian CSs paired with same or different outcomes was either the same, or lower when both stimuli had been paired with the same outcome (Experiment 4). Implications of these results for theories of occasion setting and configural learning are discussed. PMID:22459561

  16. The Change of Expression Configuration Affects Identity-Dependent Expression Aftereffect but Not Identity-Independent Expression Aftereffect.

    PubMed

    Song, Miao; Shinomori, Keizo; Qian, Qian; Yin, Jun; Zeng, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of expression configuration on cross-identity expression aftereffect. The expression configuration refers to the spatial arrangement of facial features in a face for conveying an emotion, e.g., an open-mouth smile vs. a closed-mouth smile. In the first of two experiments, the expression aftereffect is measured using a cross-identity/cross-expression configuration factorial design. The facial identities of test faces were the same or different from the adaptor, while orthogonally, the expression configurations of those facial identities were also the same or different. The results show that the change of expression configuration impaired the expression aftereffect when the facial identities of adaptor and tests were the same; however, the impairment effect disappears when facial identities were different, indicating the identity-independent expression representation is more robust to the change of the expression configuration in comparison with the identity-dependent expression representation. In the second experiment, we used schematic line faces as adaptors and real faces as tests to minimize the similarity between the adaptor and tests, which is expected to exclude the contribution from the identity-dependent expression representation to expression aftereffect. The second experiment yields a similar result as the identity-independent expression aftereffect observed in Experiment 1. The findings indicate the different neural sensitivities to expression configuration for identity-dependent and identity-independent expression systems.

  17. The Change of Expression Configuration Affects Identity-Dependent Expression Aftereffect but Not Identity-Independent Expression Aftereffect

    PubMed Central

    Song, Miao; Shinomori, Keizo; Qian, Qian; Yin, Jun; Zeng, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of expression configuration on cross-identity expression aftereffect. The expression configuration refers to the spatial arrangement of facial features in a face for conveying an emotion, e.g., an open-mouth smile vs. a closed-mouth smile. In the first of two experiments, the expression aftereffect is measured using a cross-identity/cross-expression configuration factorial design. The facial identities of test faces were the same or different from the adaptor, while orthogonally, the expression configurations of those facial identities were also the same or different. The results show that the change of expression configuration impaired the expression aftereffect when the facial identities of adaptor and tests were the same; however, the impairment effect disappears when facial identities were different, indicating the identity-independent expression representation is more robust to the change of the expression configuration in comparison with the identity-dependent expression representation. In the second experiment, we used schematic line faces as adaptors and real faces as tests to minimize the similarity between the adaptor and tests, which is expected to exclude the contribution from the identity-dependent expression representation to expression aftereffect. The second experiment yields a similar result as the identity-independent expression aftereffect observed in Experiment 1. The findings indicate the different neural sensitivities to expression configuration for identity-dependent and identity-independent expression systems. PMID:26733922

  18. Flammability Configuration Analysis for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is one of the many potentially catastrophic hazards associated with the operation of crewed spacecraft. A major lesson learned by NASA from the Apollo 204 fire in 1966 was that ignition sources in an electrically powered vehicle should and can be minimized, but can never be eliminated completely. For this reason, spacecraft fire control is based on minimizing potential ignition sources and eliminating materials that can propagate fire. Fire extinguishers are always provided on crewed spacecraft, but are not considered as part of the fire control process. "Eliminating materials that can propagate fire" does not mean eliminating all flammable materials - the cost of designing and building spacecraft using only nonflammable materials is extraordinary and unnecessary. It means controlling the quantity and configuration of such materials to eliminate potential fire propagation paths and thus ensure that any fire would be small, localized, and isolated, and would self-extinguish without harm to the crew. Over the years, NASA has developed many solutions for controlling the configuration of flammable materials (and potentially flammable materials in commercial "off-the-shelf" hardware) so that they can be used safely in air and oxygen-enriched environments in crewed spacecraft. This document describes and explains these design solutions so payload customers and other organizations can use them in designing safe and cost-effective flight hardware. Proper application of these guidelines will produce acceptable flammability configurations for hardware located in any compartment of the International Space Station or other program crewed vehicles and habitats. However, use of these guidelines does not exempt hardware organizations of the responsibility for safety of the hardware under their control.

  19. Detection of Critical Camera Configurations for Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, M.; Mayer, H.

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with the detection of critical, i.e., poor or degenerate camera configurations, with a poor or undefined intersection geometry between views. This is the basis for a calibrated Structure from Motion (SfM) approach employing image triplets for complex, unordered image sets, e.g., obtained by combining terrestrial images and images from small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). Poor intersection geometry results from a small ratio between the baseline length and the depth of the scene. If there is no baseline between views, the intersection geometry becomes undefined. Our approach can detect image pairs without or with a very weak baseline (motion degeneracy). For the detection we have developed various metrics and evaluated them by means of extensive experiments with about 1500 image pairs. The metrics are based on properties of the reconstructed 3D points, such as the roundness of the error ellipsoid. The detection of weak baselines is formulated as a classification problem using the metrics as features. Machine learning techniques are applied to improve the classification. By taking into account the critical camera configurations during the iterative composition of the image set, a complete, metric 3D reconstruction of the whole scene could be achieved also in this case. We sketch our approach for the orientation of unordered image sets and finally demonstrate that the approach is able to produce very accurate and reliable orientations.

  20. Evaluation of Sensor Configurations for Robotic Surgical Instruments.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; Harwin, William

    2015-10-27

    Designing surgical instruments for robotic-assisted minimally-invasive surgery (RAMIS) is challenging due to constraints on the number and type of sensors imposed by considerations such as space or the need for sterilization. A new method for evaluating the usability of virtual teleoperated surgical instruments based on virtual sensors is presented. This method uses virtual prototyping of the surgical instrument with a dual physical interaction, which allows testing of different sensor configurations in a real environment. Moreover, the proposed approach has been applied to the evaluation of prototypes of a two-finger grasper for lump detection by remote pinching. In this example, the usability of a set of five different sensor configurations, with a different number of force sensors, is evaluated in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures in clinical experiments with 23 volunteers. As a result, the smallest number of force sensors needed in the surgical instrument that ensures the usability of the device can be determined. The details of the experimental setup are also included.

  1. Evaluation of Sensor Configurations for Robotic Surgical Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M.; Harwin, William

    2015-01-01

    Designing surgical instruments for robotic-assisted minimally-invasive surgery (RAMIS) is challenging due to constraints on the number and type of sensors imposed by considerations such as space or the need for sterilization. A new method for evaluating the usability of virtual teleoperated surgical instruments based on virtual sensors is presented. This method uses virtual prototyping of the surgical instrument with a dual physical interaction, which allows testing of different sensor configurations in a real environment. Moreover, the proposed approach has been applied to the evaluation of prototypes of a two-finger grasper for lump detection by remote pinching. In this example, the usability of a set of five different sensor configurations, with a different number of force sensors, is evaluated in terms of quantitative and qualitative measures in clinical experiments with 23 volunteers. As a result, the smallest number of force sensors needed in the surgical instrument that ensures the usability of the device can be determined. The details of the experimental setup are also included. PMID:26516863

  2. Uniformity on the grid via a configuration framework

    SciTech Connect

    Igor V Terekhov et al.

    2003-03-11

    As Grid permeates modern computing, Grid solutions continue to emerge and take shape. The actual Grid development projects continue to provide higher-level services that evolve in functionality and operate with application-level concepts which are often specific to the virtual organizations that use them. Physically, however, grids are comprised of sites whose resources are diverse and seldom project readily onto a grid's set of concepts. In practice, this also creates problems for site administrators who actually instantiate grid services. In this paper, we present a flexible, uniform framework to configure a grid site and its facilities, and otherwise describe the resources and services it offers. We start from a site configuration and instantiate services for resource advertisement, monitoring and data handling; we also apply our framework to hosting environment creation. We use our ideas in the Information Management part of the SAM-Grid project, a grid system which will deliver petabyte-scale data to the hundreds of users. Our users are High Energy Physics experimenters who are scattered worldwide across dozens of institutions and always use facilities that are shared with other experiments as well as other grids. Our implementation represents information in the XML format and includes tools written in XQuery and XSLT.

  3. Numerical Flow Simulation for Complete Vehicle Configurations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. •uNOING NUMBERS Numerical Field Simulation around complete configuration F49620-90-C- 6. AUTHOR(S) 0027PO006 Bharat K. Soni...2_3 d 71 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING CRGANIZATION NSF/Engineering Research Center f•r . 5 j 5 ( F i REPORT NUMBER P...AVAILABLE. THE COPY FURNISHED TO DTIC CONTAINED A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. TABLE OF CONTENTS A bstract

  4. Aerodynamic prediction techniques for hypersonic configuration design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of approximate theoretical techniques for predicting aerodynamic characteristics and surface pressures for relatively slender vehicles at moderate hypersonic speeds was performed. Emphasis was placed on approaches that would be responsive to preliminary configuration design level of effort. Potential theory was examined in detail to meet this objective. Numerical pilot codes were developed for relatively simple three dimensional geometries to evaluate the capability of the approximate equations of motion considered. Results from the computations indicate good agreement with higher order solutions and experimental results for a variety of wing, body, and wing-body shapes for values of the hypersonic similarity parameter M delta approaching one.

  5. Distance distribution in configuration-model networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitzan, Mor; Katzav, Eytan; Kühn, Reimer; Biham, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    We present analytical results for the distribution of shortest path lengths between random pairs of nodes in configuration model networks. The results, which are based on recursion equations, are shown to be in good agreement with numerical simulations for networks with degenerate, binomial, and power-law degree distributions. The mean, mode, and variance of the distribution of shortest path lengths are also evaluated. These results provide expressions for central measures and dispersion measures of the distribution of shortest path lengths in terms of moments of the degree distribution, illuminating the connection between the two distributions.

  6. Soliton configurations in generalized Mie electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rybakov, Yu. P.

    2011-07-15

    The generalization of the Mie electrodynamics within the scope of the effective 8-spinor field model is suggested, with the Lagrangian including Higgs-like potential and higher degrees of the invariant A{sub Micro-Sign }A{sup Micro-Sign }. Using special Brioschi 8-spinor identity, we show that the model includes the Skyrme and the Faddeev models as particular cases. We investigate the large-distance asymptotic of static solutions and estimate the electromagnetic contribution to the energy of the localized charged configuration.

  7. EMMA: A New Paradigm in Configurable Software

    SciTech Connect

    Nogiec, J. M.; Trombly-Freytag, K.

    2016-10-05

    EMMA is a framework designed to create a family of configurable software systems, with emphasis on extensibility and flexibility. It is based on a loosely coupled, event driven architecture. The EMMA framework has been built upon the premise of composing software systems from independent components. It opens up opportunities for reuse of components and their functionality and composing them together in many different ways. It provides the developer of test and measurement applications with a lightweight alternative to microservices, while sharing their various advantages, including composability, loose coupling, encapsulation, and reuse.

  8. Operational benefits from the terminal configured vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. P.; Schmitz, R. A.; Clark, L. V.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle is a flying laboratory used to conduct research and development on improved airborne systems (including avionics) and operational flight procedures, with particular emphasis on utilization in the terminal area environment. The objectives of this technology development activity, focused on conventional transport aircraft, are to develop and demonstrate improvements which can lead to increased airport and runway capacity, increased air traffic controller productivity, energy efficient terminal area operations, reduced weather minima with safety, and reduced community noise by use of appropriate procedures. This paper discusses some early results of this activity in addition to defining present efforts and future research plans.

  9. Equilibrium properties of hybrid field reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Onofri, M.; Osin, D.; Deng, B. H.; Dettrick, S. A.; Hubbard, K.; Gota, H.

    2017-01-01

    Field Reversed Configurations (FRCs) heated by neutral beam injection may include a large fast ion pressure that significantly modifies the equilibrium. A new analysis is required to characterize such hybrid FRCs, as the simple relations used up to now prove inaccurate. The substantial contributions of fast ions to FRC radial pressure balance and diamagnetism are described. A simple model is offered to reconstruct more accurately the equilibrium parameters of elongated hybrid FRCs. Further modeling requires new measurements of either the magnetic field or the plasma pressure.

  10. On Problems Associated with Modeling Wing-Tail Configurations from Wind Tunnel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers factors that contribute to poor identification of unsteady aerodynamics from wind tunnel data for an airliner configuration. One approach to modeling a wing-tail configuration is considered and applied to both steady and large-amplitude forced pitch oscillation wind tunnel data taken over a wide range of angles of attack but a limited range of amplitude and frequencies. The identified models fit the measured data well but in some cases with inaccurate parameters. Only limited conclusions can be drawn from analysis of the current data set until further experiments can be performed to resolve the identification issues. The analysis of measured and simulated data provides some insights and guidance on how an effective experiment may be designed for wing-tail configurations with nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics.

  11. Advanced discretizations and multigrid methods for liquid crystal configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, David B.

    Liquid crystals are substances that possess mesophases with properties intermediate between liquids and crystals. Here, we consider nematic liquid crystals, which consist of rod-like molecules whose average pointwise orientation is represented by a unit-length vector, n( x, y, z) = (n1, n 2, n3)T. In addition to their self-structuring properties, nematics are dielectrically active and birefringent. These traits continue to lead to many important applications and discoveries. Numerical simulations of liquid crystal configurations are used to suggest the presence of new physical phenomena, analyze experiments, and optimize devices. This thesis develops a constrained energy-minimization finite-element method for the efficient computation of nematic liquid crystal equilibrium configurations based on a Lagrange multiplier formulation and the Frank-Oseen free-elastic energy model. First-order optimality conditions are derived and linearized via a Newton approach, yielding a linear system of equations. Due to the nonlinear unit-length constraint, novel well-posedness theory for the variational systems, as well as error analysis, is conducted. The approach is shown to constitute a convergent and well-posed approach, absent typical simplifying assumptions. Moreover, the energy-minimization method and well-posedness theory developed for the free-elastic case are extended to include the effects of applied electric fields and flexoelectricity. In the computational algorithm, nested iteration is applied and proves highly effective at reducing computational costs. Additionally, an alternative technique is studied, where the unit-length constraint is imposed by a penalty method. The performance of the penalty and Lagrange multiplier methods is compared. Furthermore, tailored trust-region strategies are introduced to improve robustness and efficiency. While both approaches yield effective algorithms, the Lagrange multiplier method demonstrates superior accuracy per unit cost. In

  12. Closeup of rear of LASRE pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This rear view of the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod shows the business end of the linear aerospike rocket engine prior to the experiment's fit-check on Feb. 15, 1996, at Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, California. One of the differences between linear aerospike and traditional rocket engines is that the linear aerospike utilizes the airflow around the engine to form the outer 'nozzle.' There is no bell-shaped nozzle as is commonly seen on most rocket engines. The engine is made of a high strength copper alloy called NARloy-Z. The white curved ramps next to the copper area pictured act as the inner half of the engine's 'nozzle.' There are four thrusters (copper area) on each side of the engine for a total of eight which combine the fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source for the engine. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The

  13. Technical activities of the configuration aeroelasticity branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stanley R. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    A number of recent technical activities of the Configuration Aeroelasticity Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed in detail. The information on the research branch is compiled in twelve separate papers. The first of these topics is a summary of the purpose of the branch, including a full description of the branch and its associated projects and program efforts. The next ten papers cover specific projects and are as follows: Experimental transonic flutter characteristics of supersonic cruise configurations; Aeroelastic effects of spoiler surfaces mounted on a low aspect ratio rectangular wing; Planform curvature effects on flutter of 56 degree swept wing determined in Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT); An introduction to rotorcraft testing in TDT; Rotorcraft vibration reduction research at the TDT; A preliminary study to determine the effects of tip geometry on the flutter of aft swept wings; Aeroelastic models program; NACA 0012 pressure model and test plan; Investigation of the use of extension twist coupling in composite rotor blades; and Improved finite element methods for rotorcraft structures. The final paper describes the primary facility operation by the branch, the Langley TDT.

  14. MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) instabilities in simple plasma configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Manheimer, W.M.; Lashmore-Davies, C.

    1984-01-01

    This work provides what, we hope, is a relatively simple, self contained description of MHD instabilities in plasmas with simple configurations. By simple configuration, we mean a plasma in which all quantities vary in only one spatial direction. We deal with such plasmas here because we want to emphasize the basic physics of MHD instabilities. Although some fusion devices are inherently two or three dimensional in nature, there are others, specifically tokamaks and reversed field pinches which are, to good approximation, one dimensional. Also, these devices both display a wealth of complex MHD activity which can be fruitfully discussed. One deceptive aspect of MHD instabilities is that the simplest ones are extremely easy to understand. However more complicated instabilities, for instance in a plasma where both an axial and azimuthal field are present are much more difficult to visualize; but they are also much more interesting. This work is divided into two parts. Chapters 2-9 describe linear theory and chapters 10-15 describe the nonlinear theory. The latter part is naturally much more speculative than the former because less is known about nonlinear theory.

  15. Configuration of frontal sinuses: A forensic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Jhansi Lakshmi; Jaisanghar, Nallusamy; Elangovan, Somasundaram; Mahaboob, Nazargi; Senthilkumar, Balasubramaniyan; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan; Srichinthu, Kenniyan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identification of an individual whether living or deceased is of paramount importance in maintaining the integrity of the society. A simple, reliable, and efficacious method always finds a way for easier acceptance and inclusion in any discipline. Likewise, identification of an individual using the radiographic frontal sinus patterns is a simple technique which emphasized to conduct the study with a proven result. Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the radiographic configurations of frontal sinuses for their uniqueness based on different parameters. Study Group and Methods: Study group consisted of thirty individuals (15 males and 15 females) of age between 20 and 30. Individuals with the history of sinusitis, surgery, or any trauma were not included in the study. Paranasal sinus views were taken using standard exposure parameters, and the radiographs were assessed for their uniqueness. Results: The radiographs were assessed for area size, area asymmetry, superiority of the upper border, outline of the upper border, presence or absence of partial septa and supraorbital cells, and based on these results, a unique code number was assigned to each individual to prove the uniqueness. Conclusion: A frontal sinus comparison is particularly useful when no other means of an individual identification are available. Caution must be taken regarding the physiological and pathological changes (trauma, infection, old age, surgery, etc.) and postmortem changes and about the technical issues while taking a radiograph (distance, angle, orientation of the skull). In spite of all these issues, the configuration of frontal sinus is an excellent individualizing feature. PMID:27829755

  16. Comparative analysis of alternate MHS configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera-Mercader, Carlos R.; Staelin, David H.

    1995-01-01

    Given the possibility that the passive Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) may have to be replaced, two alternate configurations are analyzed in this document. One option mirrors AMSU-B, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) moisture sounder; which consists of five channels at 89, 150, 183 +/- 1, 183 +/- 3, and 183 +/- 7 GHz. The second option contains an additional channel at 183 +/- 14 GHz and replaces the channels at 89 and 150 GHz with three channels at 118 +/- 0.5, 118 +/- 1.4, and 118 +/- 3 GHz. The latter configuration is considered to be superior due to its greater scientific benefits and reduced cost and complexity -- it would require only two local oscillators and a smaller antenna size for a given resolution on the ground. As shown by means of simulations, humidity profile retrieval accuracy for the second option is superior in most cases and only slightly degraded relative to the first option in the worst-case scenario. The results are summarized. Including the 118-GHz channels also offers the possibility of cell-top altitude retrievals and improved temperature profile retrievals when used in conjunction with a temperature sounder such as the 15-channel AMSU-A.

  17. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

  18. ICAROUS: Integrated Configurable Architecture for Unmanned Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) project aims at enabling near-term, safe operations of small UAS vehicles in uncontrolled airspace, i.e., Class G airspace. A far-term goal of UTM research and development is to accommodate the expected rise in small UAS traffic density throughout the National Airspace System (NAS) at low altitudes for beyond visual line-of-sight operations. This video describes a new capability referred to as ICAROUS (Integrated Configurable Algorithms for Reliable Operations of Unmanned Systems), which is being developed under the auspices of the UTM project. ICAROUS is a software architecture comprised of highly assured algorithms for building safety-centric, autonomous, unmanned aircraft applications. Central to the development of the ICAROUS algorithms is the use of well-established formal methods to guarantee higher levels of safety assurance by monitoring and bounding the behavior of autonomous systems. The core autonomy-enabling capabilities in ICAROUS include constraint conformance monitoring and autonomous detect and avoid functions. ICAROUS also provides a highly configurable user interface that enables the modular integration of mission-specific software components.

  19. Magnetic topology of a candidate NCSX plasma boundary configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koniges, A. E.; Grossman, A.; Fenstermacher, M.; Kisslinger, J.; Mioduszewski, P.; Rognlien, T.; Strumberger, E.; Umansky, M.

    2003-02-01

    A candidate magnetic topology of the plasma boundary of the proposed compact stellarator national compact stellarator experiment (NCSX) is investigated using field-line tracing with diffusion. The required magnetic fields are obtained from a free-boundary equilibrium using the magnetic fields from external coils and bootstrap plasma currents inside the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS). These results are used to calculate the magnetic fields of the finite beta equilibria inside and outside the LCMS in a form suitable for field-line tracing. Poincaré plots of field lines that diffuse outwards from starting points just inside the LCMS indicate an ergodic divertor region. Intersections of field lines with a simple limiting surface show contained patches suitable for divertor control. Undesirable regions of sharply inclined angle of intersection with the limiting surface are localized, indicating the suitability of the configuration for optimized divertor design techniques. We also discuss physics implications of field-line lengths in the divertor region.

  20. Profile stabilization of tilt mode in a Field Reversed Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.W.; Tajima, T.; Barnes, D.C.

    1993-06-01

    The possibility of stabilizing the tilt mode in Field Reversed Configurations without resorting to explicit kinetic effects such as large ion orbits is investigated. Various pressure profiles, P({Psi}), are chosen, including ``hollow`` profiles where current is strongly peaked near the separatrix. Numerical equilibria are used as input for an initial value simulation which uses an extended Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that includes viscous and Hall terms. Tilt stability is found for specific hollow profiles when accompanied by high values of separatrix beta, {beta}{sub sep}. The stable profiles also have moderate to large elongation, racetrack separatrix shape, and lower values of 3, average ratio of Larmor radius to device radius. The stability is unaffected by changes in viscosity, but the neglect of the Hall term does cause stable results to become marginal or unstable. Implications for interpretation of recent experiments are discussed.

  1. Configurational phases in elastic foams under lengthscale-free punching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuwala, Tapan; Dai, Xiangyu; Gioia, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    We carry out experiments with brick-like specimens of elastic open-cell (EOC) foams of three relative densities. Individual specimens may be "tall" (height = width = depth) or "short" (2 height = width = depth). We place each specimen on a supporting plate and use a lengthscale-free (wedge-shaped or conical) punch to apply forces downward along the specimen's height. Regardless of the type of specimen, the force-penetration curves remain linear, for the wedge-shaped punch, or quadratic, for the conical punch, up to a sizable penetration commensurate with the smallest lengthscale of the specimen. After that there is an abrupt, all-but-discontinuous change in stiffness: if the specimen is tall, the stiffness drops; if the specimen is short, the stiffness shoots up. To analyze these curious experimental results, we posit that EOC foams can be found in either of two configurational phases, here termed the low-strain phase and the high-strain phase, which share a two-dimensional interface (a surface of strain discontinuity). The analysis may be outlined as follows. In the first part of an experiment, there obtains a "similarity regime" in which the penetration of the punch and the radius of the interface are the only prevailing lengthscales (because the punch is lengthscale free). In this case, it is possible to show that the force-penetration curve must be linear, or quadratic, depending on whether the punch be wedge-shaped or conical, respectively. This prediction of the analysis is consistent with the experiments. In time, the similarity regime breaks down when the interface reaches one of the specimen's boundaries distal to the tip of the punch. If the specimen is tall, the soft, stress-free lateral boundary is reached first, and the stiffness must drop; if the specimen is short, the hard boundary in contact with the supporting plate is reached first, and the stiffness must shoot up. These predictions too are consistent with the experiments. To provide direct

  2. 3D magnetic field configuration of small-scale reconnection events in the solar plasma atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, T.

    2015-10-01

    The outer solar atmosphere, i.e., the corona and the chromosphere, is replete with small energy-release events, which are accompanied by transient brightening and jet-like ejections. These events are considered to be magnetic reconnection events in the solar plasma, and their dynamics have been studied using recent advanced observations from the Hinode spacecraft and other observatories in space and on the ground. These events occur at different locations in the solar atmosphere and vary in their morphology and amount of the released energy. The magnetic field configurations of these reconnection events are inferred based on observations of magnetic fields at the photospheric level. Observations suggest that these magnetic configurations can be classified into two groups. In the first group, two anti-parallel magnetic fields reconnect to each other, yielding a 2D emerging flux configuration. In the second group, helical or twisted magnetic flux tubes are parallel or at a relative angle to each other. Reconnection can occur only between anti-parallel components of the magnetic flux tubes and may be referred to as component reconnection. The latter configuration type may be more important for the larger class of small-scale reconnection events. The two types of magnetic configurations can be compared to counter-helicity and co-helicity configurations, respectively, in laboratory plasma collision experiments.

  3. Effects of configural processing on the perceptual spatial resolution for face features.

    PubMed

    Namdar, Gal; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-11-01

    Configural processing governs human perception across various domains, including face perception. An established marker of configural face perception is the face inversion effect, in which performance is typically better for upright compared to inverted faces. In two experiments, we tested whether configural processing could influence basic visual abilities such as perceptual spatial resolution (i.e., the ability to detect spatial visual changes). Face-related perceptual spatial resolution was assessed by measuring the just noticeable difference (JND) to subtle positional changes between specific features in upright and inverted faces. The results revealed robust inversion effect for spatial sensitivity to configural-based changes, such as the distance between the mouth and the nose, or the distance between the eyes and the nose. Critically, spatial resolution for face features within the region of the eyes (e.g., the interocular distance between the eyes) was not affected by inversion, suggesting that the eye region operates as a separate 'gestalt' unit which is relatively immune to manipulations that would normally hamper configural processing. Together these findings suggest that face orientation modulates fundamental psychophysical abilities including spatial resolution. Furthermore, they indicate that classic psychophysical methods can be used as a valid measure of configural face processing.

  4. 3D magnetic field configuration of small-scale reconnection events in the solar plasma atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, T.

    2015-10-15

    The outer solar atmosphere, i.e., the corona and the chromosphere, is replete with small energy-release events, which are accompanied by transient brightening and jet-like ejections. These events are considered to be magnetic reconnection events in the solar plasma, and their dynamics have been studied using recent advanced observations from the Hinode spacecraft and other observatories in space and on the ground. These events occur at different locations in the solar atmosphere and vary in their morphology and amount of the released energy. The magnetic field configurations of these reconnection events are inferred based on observations of magnetic fields at the photospheric level. Observations suggest that these magnetic configurations can be classified into two groups. In the first group, two anti-parallel magnetic fields reconnect to each other, yielding a 2D emerging flux configuration. In the second group, helical or twisted magnetic flux tubes are parallel or at a relative angle to each other. Reconnection can occur only between anti-parallel components of the magnetic flux tubes and may be referred to as component reconnection. The latter configuration type may be more important for the larger class of small-scale reconnection events. The two types of magnetic configurations can be compared to counter-helicity and co-helicity configurations, respectively, in laboratory plasma collision experiments.

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Part-Based and Configural Object Recognition in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juttner, Martin; Wakui, Elley; Petters, Dean; Kaur, Surinder; Davidoff, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the development of children's part and configural (part-relational) processing in object recognition during adolescence. In total, 312 school children aged 7-16 years and 80 adults were tested in 3-alternative forced choice (3-AFC) tasks. They judged the correct appearance of upright and inverted presented familiar…

  6. Impaired Spatial and Non-Spatial Configural Learning in Patients with Hippocampal Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; Spiers, Hugo J.; Vann, Seralynne D.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampus has been proposed to play a critical role in memory through its unique ability to bind together the disparate elements of an experience. This hypothesis has been widely examined in rodents using a class of tasks known as "configural" or "non-linear", where outcomes are determined by specific combinations of elements, rather than…

  7. The Transition to a Configurator Based Design Process in an MTO+C+E Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Fred

    2009-01-01

    University student internships can be an important pre-professional experience for the student and be an immense benefit to an employer. Because of the findings of a 6-Sigma project to reduce engineering errors, a design configurator was to be rebuilt to include updated design information and expanded product coverage. Lacking available full time…

  8. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement.

  9. Patterns in the Pythagorean Configuration and Some Extensions: The Power of Interactive Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, José

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I describe classroom experiences with pre-service secondary mathematics teachers (PSMTs) investigating and extending patterns embedded in the Pythagorean configuration. This geometric figure is a fruitful source of mathematical tasks to help students, including PSMTs, further develop habits of mind such as visualization,…

  10. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  11. Towards easing the configuration and new team member accommodation for open source software based portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L.; West, P.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For simple portals such as vocabulary based services, which contain small amounts of data and require only hyper-textual representation, it is often an overkill to adopt the whole software stack of database, middleware and front end, or to use a general Web development framework as the starting point of development. Directly combining open source software is a much more favorable approach. However, our experience with the Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Vocabulary (CMSPV) service portal shows that there are still issues such as system configuration and accommodating a new team member that need to be handled carefully. In this contribution, we share our experience in the context of the CMSPV portal, and focus on the tools and mechanisms we've developed to ease the configuration job and the incorporation process of new project members. We discuss the configuration issues that arise when we don't have complete control over how the software in use is configured and need to follow existing configuration styles that may not be well documented, especially when multiple pieces of such software need to work together as a combined system. As for the CMSPV portal, it is built on two pieces of open source software that are still under rapid development: a Fuseki data server and Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA) front end. Both lack mature documentation and tutorials. We developed comparison and labeling tools to ease the problem of system configuration. Another problem that slowed down the project is that project members came and went during the development process, so new members needed to start with a partially configured system and incomplete documentation left by old members. We developed documentation/tutorial maintenance mechanisms based on our comparison and labeling tools to make it easier for the new members to be incorporated into the project. These tools and mechanisms also provided benefit to other projects that reused the software components from the CMSPV

  12. Classifier based on support vector machine for JET plasma configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N.; Vargas, H.

    2008-10-15

    The last flux surface can be used to identify the plasma configuration of discharges. For automated recognition of JET configurations, a learning system based on support vector machines has been developed. Each configuration is described by 12 geometrical parameters. A multiclass system has been developed by means of the one-versus-the-rest approach. Results with eight simultaneous classes (plasma configurations) show a success rate close to 100%.

  13. Optimized geometric configuration of active ring laser gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gormley, John; Salloum, Tony

    2016-05-01

    We present a thorough derivation of the Sagnac effect for a ring laser gyroscope of any arbitrary polygonal configuration. We determine optimized alternative geometric configurations for the mirrors. The simulations incur the implementation of a lasing medium with the standard square system, triangular, pentagonal, and oblongated square configuration (diamond). Simulations of possible new geometric configurations are considered, as well as the possibility of adjusting the concavity of the mirrors.

  14. SEPAC software configuration control plan and procedures, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    SEPAC Software Configuration Control Plan and Procedures are presented. The objective of the software configuration control is to establish the process for maintaining configuration control of the SEPAC software beginning with the baselining of SEPAC Flight Software Version 1 and encompass the integration and verification tests through Spacelab Level IV Integration. They are designed to provide a simplified but complete configuration control process. The intent is to require a minimum amount of paperwork but provide total traceability of SEPAC software.

  15. Configural Effect in Multiple-Cue Probability Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgell, Stephen E.; Castellan, N. John, Jr.

    1973-01-01

    In a nonmetric multiple-cue probability learning task involving 2 binary cue dimensions, it was found that Ss can learn to use configural or pattern information (a) when only the configural information is relevant, and in addition to the configural information, one or both of the cue dimensions are relevant. (Author/RK)

  16. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  17. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  18. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  19. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  20. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  1. Software Configuration Management: A Discipline with Added Value

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    achieved when practitioners are pro- vided with proper tools, adequate train- ing, and empowered with a quality process.u Note 1. Configuration management ... definition is as defined by the Configuration Management Training Foundation (CMTF), Magalia, Calif. Testing & Configuration Management 8 CROSSTALK

  2. autokonf - A Configuration Script Generator Implemented in Perl

    SciTech Connect

    Reus, J F

    2005-01-12

    This paper discusses configuration scripts in general and the scripting language issues involved. A brief description of GNU autoconf is provided along with a contrasting overview of autokonf, a configuration script generator implemented in Perl, whose macros are implemented in Perl, generating a configuration script in Perl. It is very portable, easily extensible, and readily mastered.

  3. Toward a Phonetic Representation of Hand Configuration: The Thumb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a system for the representation of the configurations of the thumb in the hand configurations of signed languages and for the interactions of the thumb with the four fingers proper. The configuration of the thumb is described as a componential combination of the descriptions of thumb opposition, abduction of the CM…

  4. MarFS-Requirements-Design-Configuration-Admin

    SciTech Connect

    Kettering, Brett Michael; Grider, Gary Alan

    2015-07-08

    This document will be organized into sections that are defined by the requirements for a file system that presents a near-POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) interface to the user, but whose data is stored in whatever form is most efficient for the type of data being stored. After defining the requirement the design for meeting the requirement will be explained. Finally there will be sections on configuring and administering this file system. More and more, data dominates the computing world. There is a “sea” of data out there in many different formats that needs to be managed and used. “Mar” means “sea” in Spanish. Thus, this product is dubbed MarFS, a file system for a sea of data.

  5. SOFIA Optical Design for the Aft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.; Melugin, Ramsey K.

    1994-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a planned NASA facility consisting of an infrared telescope of 2.5 meter system aperture flying in a modified Boeing 747. It will have an image diameter of 1.5 arc seconds, an operating wavelength range from visible through 1 millimeter, an 8 arc minute field of view, and a chopping secondary. the configuration is a Cassegrian with a diagonal tertiary to direct the beam to a Nasmyth focus. The new choice of a location aft of the wings allows the primary mirror to have about an f/1.4 focal ratio, which is preferable to f/1.1 previously planned for the forward location.

  6. Vehicle drive module having improved cooling configuration

    DOEpatents

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Beihoff, Bruce C.

    2007-02-13

    An electric vehicle drive includes a thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. Power electronic circuits are thermally matched, such as between component layers and between the circuits and the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  7. Blob dynamics in TORPEX poloidal null configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, B. W.; Dudson, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    3D blob dynamics are simulated in X-point magnetic configurations in the TORPEX device via a non-field-aligned coordinate system, using an isothermal model which evolves density, vorticity, parallel velocity and parallel current density. By modifying the parallel gradient operator to include perpendicular perturbations from poloidal field coils, numerical singularities associated with field aligned coordinates are avoided. A comparison with a previously developed analytical model (Avino 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 105001) is performed and an agreement is found with minimal modification. Experimental comparison determines that the null region can cause an acceleration of filaments due to increasing connection length, but this acceleration is small relative to other effects, which we quantify. Experimental measurements (Avino 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 105001) are reproduced, and the dominant acceleration mechanism is identified as that of a developing dipole in a moving background. Contributions from increasing connection length close to the null point are a small correction.

  8. Properties of the Skyrme soliton configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananias Neto, Jorge; Galain, Ramón Méndez; Ferreira, Erasmo

    1991-07-01

    Properties of the Euler-Lagrange differential equation for cos F, where F is the chiral angle of the classical Skyrme soliton in the hedgehog ansatz, are investigated. The power series solution for y=cos F, is obtained that presents the behavior of an almost geometric series, and the existence of single poles located at imaginary values of the radial variable r is shown. Padé approximants are built to the series expansion about the origin, and its terms are modified in order to incorporate the main features of the asymptotic behavior of the field configuration. Thus rational fractions are constructed which provide very good and practical analytical representations of the Skyrme soliton profile function.

  9. Flight Control Role in RLV Configuration Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youssef, Hussein; Lee, Howard; Chowdhry, Rajiv; Cotting, Chris

    2000-01-01

    A new optimization technique was used to aide in the selection of aerodynamic surfaces and Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC) based on maximizing control margin during ascent and entry portions of the trajectory. In order to meet the mass fraction requirement of RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle), every substructure needed to be carefully designed to minimize the dry mass. The trajectory was designed to deliver the payload required for each mission subject to thermal and structural constraints. At each point on the trajectory the angle of attack and Mach number pair was used to calculate the control power required to trim and to stabilize the vehicle. The new optimization technique was based on finding the configuration that minimizes the control power peaks along the entire trajectory.

  10. An automated approach to configuration baseline documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, G.D.; Khan, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE and G's) automated approach to configuration base-line documentation (CBD) for Salem units 1 and 2 and Hope Creek. The CBD project is a proactive project, similar to what is commonly termed a design basis documentation program in the nuclear utility industry. The data information management system (DIMS) element of the CBD project is expected to automate the CBD development, review/approval, control, maintenance, and distribution of CBD and the subsequent integration of the CBD into the day-to-day design processes of PSE and G's nuclear engineering department. The DIMS project scope emphasizes streamlined, swift, and accurate design information retrieval system hardware and software; proper and controlled screening of stored design information; legible storage of design information; and more efficient and user-friendly information handling. This paper discusses the selection and implementation of an integrated optical imaging and textual search technology.

  11. Configuration space representation in parallel coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Inselberg, Alfred

    1989-01-01

    By means of a system of parallel coordinates, a nonprojective mapping from R exp N to R squared is obtained for any positive integer N. In this way multivariate data and relations can be represented in the Euclidean plane (embedded in the projective plane). Basically, R squared with Cartesian coordinates is augmented by N parallel axes, one for each variable. The N joint variables of a robotic device can be represented graphically by using parallel coordinates. It is pointed out that some properties of the relation are better perceived visually from the parallel coordinate representation, and that new algorithms and data structures can be obtained from this representation. The main features of parallel coordinates are described, and an example is presented of their use for configuration space representation of a mechanical arm (where Cartesian coordinates cannot be used).

  12. Configuration management after design basis reconstitution

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.J. ); Livingston, B.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Over the last few years, Fort Calhoun station (FCS) has implemented a number of programs to enhance plant operability and readiness. The design basis document (DBD) reconstitution project was the cornerstone of this effort. Vendor manual upgrade, operating procedures upgrade, plant equipment data-base verification, equipment labeling, and warehousing improvements were also implemented as part of this improvement program. With the completion of these programs, plant documentation was current to the baselines established by each program, and a configuration management program (CMP) was established to maintain this level of accuracy throughout the remaining life of FCS. Change control throughout the organization has been reviewed and upgraded to ensure that all changes are evaluated for impact to the design bases.

  13. Neuroplasmonics: From Kretschmann configuration to plasmonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Foozieh; Hamidi, Seyedeh Mehri

    2016-07-01

    Recently, a worldwide attempt for understanding the functions of brain and nervous system has been made. Hence, various aspects of neuroscience have been investigated through different techniques. Among these techniques, neuroplasmonics as a newborn branch of this science tries to seize the realm of in vitro and in vivo neural imaging, recording and healing. Neuroplasmonics offers advantages comprising rapidity, high sensitivity, biological compatibility, label-free and real-time detection by benefiting from the sensing and thermal characteristics of surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). This paper reviews four main branches of neuroplasmonics comprising prism coupler configurations, the combination of SPR and fluorescence microscopy and methods based on nanorods and plasmonic crystals. For each division, the advantages, disadvantages and the provided facilities will be discussed in detail.

  14. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Recently, several innovative approaches were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator - snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each approach have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties deduced from provisional configurations that implement the approach but are not necessarily optimized. Further optimization is needed in all cases to evaluate the full potential of each approach. Results of these studies indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  15. Polycrystalline configurations that maximize electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesi, Vincenzo; Milton, Graeme W.

    A lower bound on the effective conductivity tensor of polycrystalline aggregates formed from a single basic crystal of conductivity σ was recently established by Avellaneda. Cherkaev, Lurie and Milton. The bound holds for any basic crystal, but for isotropic aggregates of a uniaxial crystal, the bound is achieved by a sphere assemblage model of Schulgasser. This left open the question of attainability of the bound when the crystal is not uniaxial. The present work establishes that the bound is always attained by a rather large class of polycrystalline materials. These polycrystalline materials, with maximal electrical resistivity, are constructed by sequential lamination of the basic crystal and rotations of itself on widely separated length scales. The analysis is facilitated by introducing a tensor S = 0( 0I + σ) -1 where 0 > 0 is chosen so that Tr S = 1. This tensor s is related to the electric field in the optimal polycrystalline configurations.

  16. Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Reichner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

  17. Simulations of Oscillating Hydrofoils in Array Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Jennifer; Simeski, Filip; Spaulding, Arianne

    2016-11-01

    The vortex and wake interactions of multiple oscillating foils are investigated computationally for energy harvesting applications. Oscillating with high pitch and heave amplitudes to maximize power production, the elliptical-shaped foils generate large coherent vortices at the leading and trailing edge, which are shed downstream to create a large highly structured wake of vortices with alternating sign. Downstream foils oscillate within the large organized wake at a relative phase angle to the lead foil such that power efficiency is optimized. When placed directly downstream of one another, the optimal phase of a second foil is to avoid interactions with the first foil's wake, generating less than half of the total power of the first foil. However, when placed in a staggered configuration the downstream foil has an increase in efficiency through constructive vortex-foil interactions. Funded by ARPAe.

  18. Hartle formalism for rotating Newtonian configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Quevedo, Hernando; Kalymova, Zhanerke; Zhami, Bakytzhan

    2016-11-01

    We apply the Hartle formalism to study equilibrium configurations in the framework of Newtonian gravity. This approach allows one to study in a simple manner the properties of the interior gravitational field in the case of static as well as stationary rotating stars in hydrostatic equilibrium. It is shown that the gravitational equilibrium conditions reduce to a system of ordinary differential equations which can be integrated numerically. We derive all the relevant equations up to the second order in the angular velocity. Moreover, we find explicitly the total mass, the moment of inertia, the quadrupole moment, the polar and equatorial radii, the eccentricity and the gravitational binding energy of the rotating body. We also present the procedure to calculate the gravitational Love number. We test the formalism in the case of white dwarfs and show its compatibility with the known results in the literature.

  19. Aircraft configuration optimization including optimized flight profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccullers, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) is an aircraft configuration optimization program developed for use in conceptual design of new aircraft and in the assessment of the impact of advanced technology. The modular makeup of the program is illustrated. It contains modules for preliminary weights estimation, preliminary aerodynamics, detailed mission performance, takeoff and landing, and execution control. An optimization module is used to drive the overall design and in defining optimized profiles in the mission performance. Propulsion data, usually received from engine manufacturers, are used in both the mission performance and the takeoff and landing analyses. Although executed as a single in-core program, the modules are stored separately so that the user may select the appropriate modules (e.g., fighter weights versus transport weights) or leave out modules that are not needed.

  20. Mechanical systems with limited configurational space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermeyer, G.-P.

    A mechanical analysis of systems with nonholonomic constraints is developed, combining the parameterized-holonomic-constraint concept of Baumgarte (1982) with numerical integration methods. The notation and problem formulation of Baumgarte are introduced, and the generalized formulas for velocity jumps caused by discontinuous compulsive forces are derived via a variation problem. Classical methods of numerical stabilization of first integrals are examined, a theory of stabilization processes is developed, and an optimal method for the present application is determined. A second approach using quasi-generalized variables is shown to permit the calculation of a large class of constraints without a classical error-minimizing procedure. The coordinate invariance of the jump equations is demonstrated, and necessary and sufficient conditions for velocity jumps are defined. Various test configurations are computed using standard iterative procedures, a time transformation involving ordinary differential equations, and an approximation method based on a finite impulse interval; the results are illustrated with graphs and drawings.

  1. Hierarchical motion organization in random dot configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertamini, M.; Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Motion organization has 2 aspects: the extraction of a (moving) frame of reference and the hierarchical organization of moving elements within the reference frame. Using a discrimination of relative motions task, the authors found large differences between different types of motion (translation, divergence, and rotation) in the degree to which each can serve as a moving frame of reference. Translation and divergence are superior to rotation. There are, however, situations in which rotation can serve as a reference frame. This is due to the presence of a second factor, structural invariants (SIs). SIs are spatial relationships persisting among the elements within a configuration such as a collinearity among points or one point coinciding with the center of rotation for another (invariant radius). The combined effect of these 2 factors--motion type and SIs-influences perceptual motion organization.

  2. Multi-Canister overpack sealing configuration

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) position regarding the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) sealing configuration is to initially rely on an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section III Subsection NB code compliant mechanical closure/sealing system to quickly and safely establish and maintain full confinement of radioactive materials prior to and during MCO fuel drying activities. Previous studies have shown the mechanical seal to be the preferred closure method, based on dose, cost, and schedule considerations. The cost and schedule impacts of redesigning the mechanical closure to a welded shield plug do not support changing the closure system. The SNF Project has determined that the combined mechanical/welded closure system meets or exceeds the regulatory requirements to provide redundant seals while accommodating key safety and schedule limitations that are unique to K Basins fuel removal effort.

  3. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  4. Microscopic Approaches to Nuclear Structure: Configuration Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ormand, W E

    2007-09-21

    The configuration interaction (CI) approach to solving the nuclear many-body problem, also known as the interacting shell model, has proven to be powerful tool in understanding the structure of nuclei. The principal criticism of past applications of the shell model is the reliance on empirical tuning to interaction matrix elements. If an accurate description of nuclei far from the valley of stability, where little or no data is available, a more fundamental approach is needed. This starts with recent ab initio approaches with effective interactions in the no-core shell model (NCSM). Using effective-field theory for guidance, fully ab initio descriptions of nuclei up to {sup 16}O with QCD based NN, NNN, and NNNN interactions will be possible within the next five years. An important task is then to determine how to use these NCSM results to develop effective interactions to describe heavier nuclei without the need to resort to an empirical retuning with every model space. Thus, it is likely that more traditional CI applications utilizing direct diagonalization and more fundamental interactions will be applicable to nuclei with perhaps up to one hundred constituents. But, these direct diagonalization CI applications will always be computationally limited due to the rapid increase in the number of configurations with particle number. Very recently, the shifted-contour method has been applied to the Auxiliary-field Monte Carlo approach to the Shell Model (AFMCSM), and preliminary applications exhibit a remarkable taming of the notorious sign problem. If the mitigation of the sign problem holds true, the AFMCSM will offer a method to compute quantum correlations to mean-field applications for just about all nuclei; giving exact results for CI model spaces that can approach 10{sup 20-25}. In these lectures, I will discuss modern applications of CI to the nuclear many-body problem that have the potential to guide nuclear structure theory into the next decade.

  5. Nonequilibrium dynamics of emergent field configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Rafael Cassidy

    The processes by which nonlinear physical systems approach thermal equilibrium is of great importance in many areas of science. Central to this is the mechanism by which energy is transferred between the many degrees of freedom comprising these systems. With this in mind, in this research the nonequilibrium dynamics of nonperturbative fluctuations within Ginzburg-Landau models are investigated. In particular, two questions are addressed. In both cases the system is initially prepared in one of two minima of a double-well potential. First, within the context of a (2 + 1) dimensional field theory, we investigate whether emergent spatio-temporal coherent structures play a dynamcal role in the equilibration of the field. We find that the answer is sensitive to the initial temperature of the system. At low initial temperatures, the dynamics are well approximated with a time-dependent mean-field theory. For higher temperatures, the strong nonlinear coupling between the modes in the field does give rise to the synchronized emergence of coherent spatio-temporal configurations, identified with oscillons. These are long-lived coherent field configurations characterized by their persistent oscillatory behavior at their core. This initial global emergence is seen to be a consequence of resonant behavior in the long wavelength modes in the system. A second question concerns the emergence of disorder in a highly viscous system modeled by a (3 + 1) dimensional field theory. An integro-differential Boltzmann equation is derived to model the thermal nucleation of precursors of one phase within the homogeneous background. The fraction of the volume populated by these precursors is computed as a function of temperature. This model is capable of describing the onset of percolation, characterizing the approach to criticality (i.e. disorder). It also provides a nonperturbative correction to the critical temperature based on the nonequilibrium dynamics of the system.

  6. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; McCullers, Arnie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a hybrid wing body (HWB) sizing and analysis capability, apply that capability to estimate the fuel burn potential for an HWB concept, and identify associated technology requirements. An advanced tube with wings concept was also developed for comparison purposes. NASA s Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) conceptual aircraft sizing and synthesis software was modified to enable the sizing and analysis of HWB concepts. The noncircular pressurized centerbody of the HWB concept was modeled, and several options were created for defining the outboard wing sections. Weight and drag estimation routines were modified to accommodate the unique aspects of an HWB configuration. The resulting capability was then utilized to model a proprietary Boeing blended wing body (BWB) concept for comparison purposes. FLOPS predicted approximately a 15 percent greater drag, mainly caused by differences in compressibility drag estimation, and approximately a 5 percent greater takeoff gross weight, mainly caused by the additional fuel required, as compared with the Boeing data. Next, a 777-like reference vehicle was modeled in FLOPS and calibrated to published Boeing performance data; the same mission definition was used to size an HWB in FLOPS. Advanced airframe and propulsion technology assumptions were applied to the HWB to develop an estimate for potential fuel burn savings from such a concept. The same technology assumptions, where applicable, were then applied to an advanced tube-with-wings concept. The HWB concept had a 39 percent lower block fuel burn than the reference vehicle and a 12 percent lower block fuel burn than the advanced tube-with-wings configuration. However, this fuel burn advantage is partially derived from assuming the high-risk technology of embedded engines with boundary-layer-ingesting inlets. The HWB concept does have the potential for significantly reduced noise as a result of the shielding advantages that are inherent

  7. A software package for the configuration of hardware devices following a generic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, N.; Alemany, R.; Glege, F.; da Silva, J. C.; Varela, J.

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes a software package developed in C++ under the Linux environment that is intended for automatic hardware configuration in VME or PCI buses. Based on a generic model, users specify the configuration procedures and data in configuration files. Actual hardware configuration is performed by the software package, accessed through a simple C++ interface. The model is well suited for storage of configuration data in XML files or databases. The package is now being used in the local data acquisition system of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN. Program summaryTitle of program: Generic Configurator Catalogue identifier: ADUK Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUK Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Intel Pentium IV PC Installations: ECAL Data Acquisition of the CMS experiment at CERN Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: Linux 2.4.2 Programming language used: C++ Memory required to execute with typical data: depends on the complexity of the module configuration. Test runs requires less then 500 KB Number of bits in a word: 32 Number of processors used: 1 Distribution format: tar gzip file Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 234 542 Number of lines in distributed program, including test data etc.: 17 365 Nature of physical problem: Generalization of hardware device configuration procedure in VME or PCI buses. Method of solution: The developed package uses a generic configuration model that allows users to configure VME and PCI devices. The hardware configuration parameters and the data structures associated to each hardware register are specified in XML files. The package performs the desired configuration using these files along with a description of the hardware access proprieties of each register. Typical

  8. Effect of collector configuration on test section turbulence levels in an open-jet wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, G. S.; Molloy, John K.; Barna, P. Stephen

    1992-01-01

    Flow quality studies in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel indicated periodic flow pulsation at discrete frequencies in the test section when the tunnel operated in an open-jet configuration. To alleviate this problem, experiments were conducted in a 1/24-scale model of the full-scale tunnel to evaluate the turbulence reduction potential of six collector configurations. As a result of these studies, the original bell-mouth collector of the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel was replaced by a collector with straight walls, and a slot was incorporated between the trailing edge of the collector and the entrance of the diffuser.

  9. On the scaling analysis of the solute boundary layer in idealized growth configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garandet, J. P.; Duffar, T.; Favier, J. J.

    1990-11-01

    A scaling procedure is applied to the equation governing chemical transport in idealized Czochralski and horizontal Bridgman growth experiments. Our purpose is to get a fair estimate of the solute boundary layer in front of the solidification interface. The results are very good in the Czochralski type configuration, the maximum error with respect to the semi-analytical solution of Burton, Prim and Schlichter being of the order of 20%. In the Bridgman type configuration, our predictions compare well with the values of the numerical simulations; however, more data would be needed for a definite conclusion to be drawn.

  10. Advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise annoyance - Comparison of different propeller configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the annoyance of flyover noise from advanced turboprop aircraft having different propeller configurations with the annoyance of conventional turboprop and jet aircraft flyover noise. It was found that advanced turboprops with single-rotating propellers were, on average, slightly less annoying than the other aircraft. Fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio affected annoyance response to advanced turboprops but the effects varied with propeller configuration and noise metric. The addition of duration corrections and corrections for tones above 500 Hz to the noise measurement procedures improved prediction ability.

  11. Formation of field-reversed-configuration plasma with punctuated-betatron-orbit electrons.

    PubMed

    Welch, D R; Cohen, S A; Genoni, T C; Glasser, A H

    2010-07-02

    We describe ab initio, self-consistent, 3D, fully electromagnetic numerical simulations of current drive and field-reversed-configuration plasma formation by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields (RMF{o}). Magnetic-separatrix formation and field reversal are attained from an initial mirror configuration. A population of punctuated-betatron-orbit electrons, generated by the RMF{o}, carries the majority of the field-normal azimuthal electrical current responsible for field reversal. Appreciable current and plasma pressure exist outside the magnetic separatrix whose shape is modulated by the RMF{o} phase. The predicted plasma density and electron energy distribution compare favorably with RMF{o} experiments.

  12. Formation of Field-reversed-Configuration Plasma with Punctuated-betatron-orbit Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D. R.; Cohen, S. A.; Genoni, T. C.; Glasser, A. H.

    2010-06-28

    We describe ab initio, self-consistent, 3D, fully electromagnetic numerical simulations of current drive and field-reversed-configuration plasma formation by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields (RMFo). Magnetic-separatrix formation and field reversal are attained from an initial mirror configuration. A population of punctuated-betatron-orbit electrons, generated by the RMFo, carries the majority of the field-normal azimuthal electrical current responsible for field reversal. Appreciable current and plasma pressure exist outside the magnetic separatrix whose shape is modulated by the RMFo phase. The predicted plasma density and electron energy distribution compare favorably with RMFo experiments. __________________________________________________

  13. Method and apparatus configured for identification of a material

    DOEpatents

    Slater, John M.; Crawford, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes an apparatus configured for identification of a material, and methods of identifying a material. One embodiment of the invention provides an apparatus including a first region configured to receive a first sample, the first region being configured to output a first spectrum corresponding to the first sample and responsive to exposure of the first sample to radiation; a modulator configured to modulate the first spectrum according to a first frequency; a second region configured to receive a second sample, the second region being configured to output a second spectrum corresponding to the second sample and responsive to exposure of the second sample to the modulated first spectrum; and a detector configured to detect the second spectrum having a second frequency greater than the first frequency.

  14. Configuration Studies and Recommendations for the ILC DampingRings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Gao, Jie; Guiducci, Susanna

    2006-02-04

    We describe the results of studies comparing different options for the baseline configuration of the ILC damping rings. The principal configuration decisions apply to the circumference, beam energy, lattice type, and technology options for key components, including the injection/extraction kickers and the damping wigglers. To arrive at our recommended configuration, we performed detailed studies of a range of lattices representing a variety of different configuration options; these lattices are described in Chapter 2. The results of the various studies are reported in chapters covering issues of beam dynamics, technical subsystems, costs, and commissioning, reliability and upgrade ability. Our detailed recommendations for the baseline configuration are given in Chapter 7, where we also outline further research and development that is needed before a machine using our recommended configuration can be built and operated successfully. In the same chapter, we suggest possible alternatives to the baseline configuration.

  15. ISE structural dynamic experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Malcolm H.; Clark, S. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: directed energy systems - vibration issue; Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment (NPB-ISE) opportunity/study objective; vibration sources/study plan; NPB-ISE spacecraft configuration; baseline slew analysis and results; modal contributions; fundamental pitch mode; vibration reduction approaches; peak residual vibration; NPB-ISE spacecraft slew experiment; goodbye ISE - hello Zenith Star Program.

  16. Influence of throat configuration and fish density on escapement of channel catfish from hoop nets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porath, Mark T.; Pape, Larry D.; Richters, Lindsey K.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several state agencies have adopted the use of baited, tandemset hoop nets to assess lentic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations. Some level of escapement from the net is expected because an opening exists in each throat of the net, although factors influencing rates of escapement from hoop nets have not been quantified. We conducted experiments to quantify rates of escapement and to determine the influence of throat configuration and fish density within the net on escapement rates. An initial experiment to determine the rate of escapement from each net compartment utilized individually tagged channel catfish placed within the entrance (between the two throats) and cod (within the second throat) compartments of a single hoop net for overnight sets. From this experiment, the mean rate (±SE) of channel catfish escaping was 4.2% (±1.5) from the cod (cod throat was additionally restricted from the traditionally manufactured product), and 74% (±4.2) from the entrance compartments. In a subsequent experiment, channel catfish were placed only in the cod compartment with different throat configurations (restricted or unrestricted) and at two densities (low [6 fish per net] and high [60 fish per net]) for overnight sets to determine the influence of fish density and throat configuration on escapement rates. Escapement rates between throat configurations were doubled at low fish density (13.3 ± 5.4% restricted versus 26.7 ± 5.6% unrestricted) and tripled at high fish density (14.3 ± 4.9% restricted versus 51.9 ± 5.0% unrestricted). These results suggest that retention efficiency is high from cod compartments with restricted throat entrances. However, managers and researchers need to be aware that modification to the cod throats (restrictions) is needed for hoop nets ordered from manufacturers. Managers need to be consistent in their use and reporting of cod end throat configurations when using this gear.

  17. Equilibrium Configurations of a Fiber in a Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerron, Pamela; Berghout, Christopher; Nita, Bogdan; Vaidya, Ashwin

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the coupled dynamics of flexible fibers in a fluid flow. In particular, we examine the equilibrium configurations of the fiber with changing Reynolds numbers, orientations and lengths of the fiber. Our study is motivated by biological phenomena such as ciliary bending, flexing of plants and trees in winds etc. Our approach to resolving this problem has been threefold: experimental, numerical and theoretical. In our experiments we create physical models of variable length fibers inserted into a basal body structure, which is then suspended in a flow tank and positioned at different angles. The structure (fibers) are subjected to different velocities of water flow, ranging from 0m/s to 0.53 m/s in increments of 0.038 m/s. The results of the experiment were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop and the effect of the above mentioned parameters upon the shape of the fiber is analyzed. In addition, we also simulate this problem using the software Comsol and also create a simple, toy mathematical model incorporating the competing effects of tension and fluid drag on the fiber to obtain a closed form expression. Our various approaches point to consistent results.

  18. Monte Carlo simulations as a part of the configuration for neutron instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, P.; Lefmann, K.; Theil Kuhn, L.; Willendrup, P. K.; Farhi, E.

    2004-07-01

    We demonstrate the use of simulations in the process of determining the optimal instrument setup by virtual experiments using the simulation package McStas. The focus of the analysis is the optimization of the multi-blade analyzer present at the RITA-II spectrometer at PSI for a test experiment with powder diffraction. The agreement in resolution and signal-to-background ratio between measurements and simulations shows the validity of the approach. For a sample with broadened Bragg peaks, the optimal instrument configuration could be established only on careful consideration. This shows that in general instrument simulations are approaching a state where they can assist users in selecting the optimal configuration and possibly demonstrate the feasibility of their experiments prior to allocated beamtime.

  19. Common-path configuration in total internal reflection digital holography microscopy.

    PubMed

    Calabuig, Alejandro; Matrecano, Marcella; Paturzo, Melania; Ferraro, Pietro

    2014-04-15

    Total Internal Reflection Digital Holographic Microscopy (TIRDHM) is recognized to be a powerful tool for retrieving quantitative phase images of cell-substrate interfaces, adhesions, and tissue structures close to the prism surface. In this Letter, we develop an improved TIRDHM system, taking advantage of a refractive index mismatch between the prism and the sample substrate, to allow phase-shifting DH with just a single-beam interferometric configuration. Instead of the traditional off-axis method, phase-shift method is used to retrieve amplitude and phase images in coherent light and TIR modality. Essentially, the substrate-prism interface acts like a beam splitter generating a reference beam, where the phase-shift dependence on the incident angle is exploited in this common-path configuration. With the aim to demonstrate the technique's validity, some experiments are performed to establish the advantage of this compact and simple configuration, in which the reference arm in the setup is avoided.

  20. Characteristics of shock-compressed configuration of Ti and Si powder mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Thadhani, N.N.; Dunbar, E.; Graham, R.A.

    1993-08-01

    Shock-compression recovery experiments were performed on mixtures of Ti and Si powders of fine, medium, and coarse morphology, and packed at different initial densities, using the Sandia Momma and Poppa Bear fixtures with Baratol explosive. The shock-compressed configuration revealed characteristics typical of either chemically reacted material with fine equiaxed grains, or unreacted material with densely packed Ti and Si particles. The unreacted configuration showed that Ti particles were extensively deformed, irrespective of powder morphology and shock conditions generated by either fixture. In contrast Si particles showed different characteristics depending on the powder morphology, packing density, and shock conditions. The microstructural characteristics of unreacted configuration of Ti and Si powder mixtures were investigated. Mechanistic processes occurring prior to the inception of shock-induced chemical reactions in this system are described.

  1. Structural dynamics model and response of the deployable reference configuration space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The analytical models and results of a structural dynamics investigation of the reference initial operation and evolutionary configurations of the nine foot bay space station are presented. This investigation was carried out between April and August 1984 as part of a team effort to define a reference configuration for the first U.S. manned space station. The results presented herein serve as a guide, a point of departure and a standard for future NASA and contractor studies leading to the design of the Space Station. The reference initial operation configuration of the nine foot bay station was found to be very flexible, with its lowest mode between 0.096 and 0.138 Hertz depending on station attachments. However, for the transient load cases which were then available, internal member loads had positive margins of safety and preliminary results indicate that laboratory experiments which require quiescent conditions can be satisfied down to the order of 0.0001 g's.

  2. A high performance field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Garate, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Gota, H.; Barnes, D.; Deng, B. H.; Thompson, M. C.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Putvinski, S.; Rostoker, N.; Andow, R.; Aefsky, S.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Conventional field-reversed configurations (FRCs), high-beta, prolate compact toroids embedded in poloidal magnetic fields, face notable stability and confinement concerns. These can be ameliorated by various control techniques, such as introducing a significant fast ion population. Indeed, adding neutral beam injection into the FRC over the past half-decade has contributed to striking improvements in confinement and stability. Further, the addition of electrically biased plasma guns at the ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved stability. Together, these enabled the build-up of a well-confined and dominant fast-ion population. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, macroscopically stable hot FRCs (with total plasma temperature of ∼1 keV) with record lifetimes were achieved. These accomplishments point to the prospect of advanced, beam-driven FRCs as an intriguing path toward fusion reactors. This paper reviews key results and presents context for further interpretation.

  3. Space Station-Baseline Configuration With Callouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  4. Blank fire configuration for automatic pistol

    DOEpatents

    Teague, Tommy L.

    1990-01-01

    A pistol configured to fire blank cartridges includes a modified barrel with a breech portion connected to an aligned inner sleeve. Around the inner sleeve, there is disposed an outer sleeve having a vent therein through which the cartridge discharges. The breech portion is connected to a barrel anchor to move backward in a slight arc when the pistol is fired. A spring retention rod projects from the barrel anchor and receives a shortened recoil spring therearound which recoil spring has one end abutting a stop on the barrel anchor and the other end in abutment with the end of a spring retaining cup. The spring retaining cup is engaged by a flange projecting from a slide so that when the pistol is fired, the slide moves rearwardly against the compression of the spring to eject the spent cartridge and then moves forwardly under the urging of the spring to load a fresh cartridge into the breech portion. The spring then returns all of the slidable elements to their initial position so that the pistol may again be fired.

  5. Phased array-fed antenna configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswell, W. F.; Ball, D. E.; Taylor, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The scope of this contract entails a configuration study for a phased array fed transmit antenna operating in the frequency band of 17.7 to 20.2 GHz. This initial contract provides a basis for understanding the design limitations and advantages of advanced phased array and cluster feeds (both utilizing intergral MMIC modules) illuminating folded reflector optics (both near field and focused types). Design parametric analyses are performed utilizing as constraints the objective secondary performance requirements of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (Table 1.0). The output of the study provides design information which serves as a data base for future active phased array fed antenna studies such as detailed designs required to support the development of a ground tested breadboard. In general, this study is significant because it provides the antenna community with an understanding of the basic principles which govern near field phased scanned feed effects on secondary reflector system performance. Although several articles have been written on analysis procedures and results for these systems, the authors of this report have observed phenomenon of near field antenna systems not previously documented. Because the physical justification for the exhibited performance is provided herein, the findings of this study add a new dimension to the available knowledge of the subject matter.

  6. Configurable metamaterial absorber with pseudo wideband spectrum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiren; Huang, Yongjun; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Wen, Guangjun; Premaratne, Malin

    2012-03-12

    Metamaterials attain their behavior due to resonant interactions among their subwavelength components and thus show specific designer features only in a very narrow frequency band. There is no simple way to dynamically increase the operating bandwidth of a narrowband metamaterial, but it may be possible to change its central frequency, shifting the spectral response to a new frequency range. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a metamaterial absorber that can shift its central operating frequency by using mechanical means. The shift is achieved by varying the gap between the metamaterial and an auxiliary dielectric slab parallel to its surface. We also show that it is possible to create multiple absorption peaks by adjusting the size and/or shape of the dielectric slab, and to shift them by moving the slab relative to the metamaterial. Specifically, using numerical simulations we design a microwave metamaterial absorber and experimentally demonstrate that its central frequency can be set anywhere in a 1.6 GHz frequency range. The proposed configuration is simple and easy to make, and may be readily extended to THz frequencies.

  7. Reactor core length, externally configured thermionic converter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.; Rouklove, P.

    1971-01-01

    Results of testing a converter having an external emitter configuration for 190 hours using RF induction heating. The converter was assembled with a rhenium emitter, 25.4 cm long, having a 91.2 sq cm emitting area, and a niobium collector with a molybdenum coating to improve its electronic property. The collector was water-cooled. The test included: static power output measurements, dynamic characteristics, and the effects of the temperature distribution along the emitter. The maximum power output achieved from the converter at an emitter temperature of 1942 K was 178 W at 0.48 V output, with a power density of 1.95 W/sq cm and an efficiency of 5.5%. The static characteristics also indicated that, with a constant power input, the converter power output does not vary with the output voltage as a result of self-adjustment of the emitter temperature. An investigation of the effects of the temperature distribution along the emitter length showed a 33% improvement in the converter output power with a flattening of the emitter temperature.

  8. SAPHIRE 8 Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith

    2010-01-01

    The INL software developers use version control for both the formally released SAPHIRE versions, as well as for source code. For each formal release of the software, the developers perform an acceptance test: the software must pass a suite of automated tests prior to official release. Each official release of SAPHIRE is assigned a unique version identifier. The release is bundled into a standard installation package for easy and consistent set-up by individual users. Included in the release is a list of bug fixes and new features for the current release, as well as a history of those items for past releases. Each formal release of SAPHIRE will have passed an acceptance test. In addition to assignment of a unique version identifier for an official software release, each source code file is kept in a controlled library. Source code is a collection of all the computer instructions written by developers to create the finished product. The library is kept on a server, where back-ups are regularly made. This document describes the configuration management approach used as part of the SAPHIRE development.

  9. New QP/QI optimized stellarator configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, D. A.; Harris, J. H.

    2009-11-01

    A unique characteristic of the quasi-poloidal/isodynamic transport optimization strategy is that it can lead to stellarators that deviate from the usual ``doughnut'' shape; i.e., they can have extended relatively straight cylindrical sections of plasma (connected by corner regions). This offers a number of potential design advantages, including simplified coil geometries, novel divertor approaches, low bootstrap current (less potential for ELMs and disruptions), more acceptable wall heat fluxes, and demountable blankets for reactors. The STELLOPT approach has been used to develop optimized configurations of this type for two, three and four field periods; the primary optimization targets used so far have been: effective ripple, J* closure and aspect ratio. From a top view, the two field period device is an extended racetrack with -- i=0.2-0.25, ɛeff^3/2 =8x10-4-3x10-3 and outboard Rmax/Rmin ˜3; /'s in the range of 9 to 20 have been examined so far. The physics characteristics and remaining optimization targets that are under consideration for such devices will be discussed.

  10. Kinetic stability of field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Staudenmeier, J.L.; Hsiao, M.-Y.

    1991-01-01

    The internal tilt mode is considered to be the biggest threat to Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) global stability. The tilt stability of the FRC is studied using the MHD, Hall MHD, and the Vlasov-fluid (Vlasov ions, cold massless fluid electrons) models. Nonlinear Hall MHD calculations showed that the FRC was stable to the tilt mode when the s value of the FRC was below a critical value that was dependent on plasma length. The critical s value is larger for longer plasma equilibria. The stability of FRC's with toroidal field was studied with a linear initial value MHD code. The calculations showed an axial perturbation wavelength of the most unstable eigenfunction that was consistent with internal probe measurements made on translated FRC's. Linear Vlasov-fluid eigenvalue calculations showed that kinetic ion effects can change both the growth rate and the structure of the eigenfunctions when compared to the corresponding MHD modes. Calculations on short FRC equilibria indicate that MHD is not the appropriate small gyroradius limit of the Vlasov-fluid model because the axial transit time of a thermal ion is approximately equal to an MHD growth time for the tilt mode. Calculations were done using a small number of unstable MHD eigenfunctions as basis functions in order to reduce the dimensionality of the stability problem. The results indicated that this basis set can produce inaccurate growth rates at large value for s for some equilibria.

  11. Kinetic stability of field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Ming-Yuan; Staudenmeier, J.L.

    1990-05-01

    This project studies the linear stability of global MHD-like modes in the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) within the context of the Vlasov-fluid model (Vlasov ions, cold massless fluid electrons). The approach taken in this study is to use unstable MHD eigenfunctions as basis functions to solve a variational form of the linearized Vlasov-fluid equations. In this approach the Vlasov-fluid dispersion functional is separated into a fluid-like part and a part that depends on the ion orbits in the equilibrium electric and magnetic fields. The fluid-like part is equivalent in form to the MHD energy principle without the compressibility term. The part that depends on the equilibrium particle orbits contains finite larmor radius effects, the Hall effect and the parallel kinetic effects. The dispersion functional is solved by numerical computation. This project will try to determine the scaling of the Vlasov-fluid growth rates of unstable modes with variations in FRC equilibrium parameters such as s (the approximate number of ion gyroradii between the magnetic axis and the separatrix of the FRC), elongation, and other profile parameters.

  12. Electrode Configurations in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietz, Amanda M.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being studied for emerging medical applications including cancer treatment and wound healing. APPJs typically consist of a dielectric tube through which a rare gas flows, sometimes with an O2 or H2O impurity. In this paper, we present results from a computational study of APPJs using nonPDPSIM, a 2-D plasma hydrodynamics model, with the goal of providing insights on how the placement of electrodes can influence the production of reactive species. Gas consisting of He/O2 = 99.5/0.5 is flowed through a capillary tube at 2 slpm into humid air, and a pulsed DC voltage is applied. An APPJ with two external ring electrodes will be compared with one having a powered electrode inside and a ground electrode on the outside. The consequences on ionization wave propagation and the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) will be discussed. Changing the electrode configuration can concentrate the power deposition in volumes having different gas composition, resulting in different RONS production. An internal electrode can result in increased production of NOx and HNOx by increasing propagation of the ionization wave through the He dominated plume to outside of the tube where humid air is diffusing into the plume. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  13. Selected configuration tradeoffs of contour optical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J.; Strohbehn, K.; Murchie, S.; Fort, D.; Reynolds, E.; Heyler, G.; Peacock, K.; Boldt, J.; Darlington, E.; Hayes, J.; Henshaw, R.; Izenberg, N.; Kardian, C.; Lees, J.; Lohr, D.; Mehoke, D.; Schaefer, E.; Sholar, T.; Spisz, T.; Willey, C.; Veverka, J.; Bell, J.; Cochran, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Comet Nucleus Tour (CONTOUR) is a low-cost NASA Discovery mission designed to conduct three close flybys of comet nuclei. Selected configuration tradeoffs conducted to balance science requirements with low mission cost are reviewed. The tradeoffs discussed focus on the optical instruments and related spacecraft considerations. Two instruments are under development. The CONTOUR Forward Imager (CFI) is designed to perform optical navigation, moderate resolution nucleus/jet imaging, and imaging of faint molecular emission bands in the coma. The CONTOUR Remote Imager and Spectrometer (CRISP) is designed to obtain high-resolution multispectral images of the nucleus, conduct spectral mapping of the nucleus surface, and provide a backup optical navigation capability. Tradeoffs discussed are: (1) the impact on the optical instruments of not using reaction wheels on the spacecraft, (2) the improved performance and simplification gained by implementing a dedicated star tracker instead of including this function in CFI, (3) the improved flexibility and robustness of switching to a low frame rate tracker for CRISP, (4) the improved performance and simplification of replacing a visible imaging spectrometer by enhanced multispectral imaging in CRISP, and (5) the impact on spacecraft resources of these and other tradeoffs.

  14. Testing Installed Propulsion for Shielded Exhaust Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.; Podboy, Gary G.; Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    Jet-surface interaction (JSI) can be a significant factor in the exhaust noise of installed propulsion systems. Tests to further the understanding and prediction of the acoustic impacts of JSI have been described. While there were many objectives for the test, the overall objective was to prepare for a future test validating the design of a low-noise, lowboom supersonic commercial airliner. In this paper we explore design requirements for a partial aircraft model to be used in subscale acoustic testing, especially focusing on the amount of aircraft body that must be included to produce the acoustic environment between propulsion exhaust system and observer. We document the dual-stream jets, both nozzle and flow conditions, which were tested to extend JSI acoustic modeling from simple singlestream jets to realistic dual-stream exhaust nozzles. Sample observations are provided of changes to far-field sound as surface geometry and flow conditions were varied. Initial measurements are presented for integrating the propulsion on the airframe for a supersonic airliner with simulated airframe geometries and nozzles. Acoustic impacts of installation were modest, resulting in variations of less than 3 EPNdB in most configurations.

  15. Multisensor configurations for early sniper detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, D.; Bank, D.; Carlsson, L.; Dulski, R.; Duval, Y.; Fournier, G.; Grasser, R.; Habberstad, H.; Jacquelard, C.; Kastek, M.; Otterlei, R.; Piau, G.-P.; Pierre, F.; Renhorn, I.; Sjöqvist, L.; Steinvall, O.; Trzaskawka, P.

    2011-11-01

    This contribution reports some of the fusion results from the EDA SNIPOD project, where different multisensor configurations for sniper detection and localization have been studied. A project aim has been to cover the whole time line from sniper transport and establishment to shot. To do so, different optical sensors with and without laser illumination have been tested, as well as acoustic arrays and solid state projectile radar. A sensor fusion node collects detections and background statistics from all sensors and employs hypothesis testing and multisensor estimation programs to produce unified and reliable sniper alarms and accurate sniper localizations. Operator interfaces that connect to the fusion node should be able to support both sniper countermeasures and the guidance of personnel to safety. Although the integrated platform has not been actually built, sensors have been evaluated at common field trials with military ammunitions in the caliber range 5.56 to 12.7 mm, and at sniper distances up to 900 m. It is concluded that integrating complementary sensors for pre- and postshot sniper detection in a common system with automatic detection and fusion will give superior performance, compared to stand alone sensors. A practical system is most likely designed with a cost effective subset of available complementary sensors.

  16. Configuration interaction with antisymmetrized geminal powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Wataru; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Sugino, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    To avoid the combinatorial computational cost of configuration interaction (CI), we previously introduced the symmetric tensor decomposition CI (STD-CI) method, which takes advantage of the antisymmetric nature of the electronic wave function and expresses the CI coefficients compactly as a series of Kronecker product states (STD series) [W. Uemura and O. Sugino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253001 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.253001]. Here we extend the variational degrees of freedom by using different molecular orbitals for different terms in the STD series. This scheme is equivalent to the linear combination of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov state or the antisymmetrized geminal powers (AGPs). The total energy converges very rapidly within 0.72 μ hartree taking only 10 terms for the water molecule, and the convergence is likewise fast for Hubbard tetramers. The computational cost scales as the fifth power of the number of electrons and the square of the number of terms in the STD series, indicating the promise of this AGP-based scheme for highly accurate and efficient computation of quantum systems.

  17. Cryogenics Testbed Laboratory Flange Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, Marie Lei Ysabel D.

    2013-01-01

    As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), I was involved in research for the Fluids and Propulsion Division of the NASA Engineering (NE) Directorate. I was immersed in the Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project for the majority of my time at KSC, primarily with the Ground Operations Demonstration Unit Liquid Oxygen (GODU L02) branch of IGODU. This project was established to develop advancements in cryogenic systems as a part of KSC's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. The vision of AES is to develop new approaches for human exploration, and operations in and beyond low Earth orbit. Advanced cryogenic systems are crucial to minimize the consumable losses of cryogenic propellants, develop higher performance launch vehicles, and decrease operations cost for future launch programs. During my internship, I conducted a flange torque tracking study that established a baseline configuration for the flanges in the Simulated Propellant Loading System (SPLS) at the KSC Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL) - the testing environment for GODU L02.

  18. Configuring a Powered Knee and Ankle Prosthesis for Transfemoral Amputees within Five Specific Ambulation Modes

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ann M.; Ingraham, Kimberly A.; Fey, Nicholas P.; Finucane, Suzanne B.; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Young, Aaron J.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2014-01-01

    Lower limb prostheses that can generate net positive mechanical work may restore more ambulation modes to amputees. However, configuration of these devices imposes an additional burden on clinicians relative to conventional prostheses; devices for transfemoral amputees that require configuration of both a knee and an ankle joint are especially challenging. In this paper, we present an approach to configuring such powered devices. We developed modified intrinsic control strategies—which mimic the behavior of biological joints, depend on instantaneous loads within the prosthesis, or set impedance based on values from previous states, as well as a set of starting configuration parameters. We developed tables that include a list of desired clinical gait kinematics and the parameter modifications necessary to alter them. Our approach was implemented for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis in five ambulation modes (level-ground walking, ramp ascent/descent, and stair ascent/descent). The strategies and set of starting configuration parameters were developed using data from three individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputations who had previous experience using the device; this approach was then tested on three novice unilateral transfemoral amputees. Only 17% of the total number of parameters (i.e., 24 of the 140) had to be independently adjusted for each novice user to achieve all five ambulation modes and the initial accommodation period (i.e., time to configure the device for all modes) was reduced by 56%, to 5 hours or less. This approach and subsequent reduction in configuration time may help translate powered prostheses into a viable clinical option where amputees can more quickly appreciate the benefits such devices can provide. PMID:24914674

  19. A Moving Target Environment for Computer Configurations Using Genetic Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, Michael; Fulp, Errin W.

    2011-10-31

    Moving Target (MT) environments for computer systems provide security through diversity by changing various system properties that are explicitly defined in the computer configuration. Temporal diversity can be achieved by making periodic configuration changes; however in an infrastructure of multiple similarly purposed computers diversity must also be spatial, ensuring multiple computers do not simultaneously share the same configuration and potential vulnerabilities. Given the number of possible changes and their potential interdependencies discovering computer configurations that are secure, functional, and diverse is challenging. This paper describes how a Genetic Algorithm (GA) can be employed to find temporally and spatially diverse secure computer configurations. In the proposed approach a computer configuration is modeled as a chromosome, where an individual configuration setting is a trait or allele. The GA operates by combining multiple chromosomes (configurations) which are tested for feasibility and ranked based on performance which will be measured as resistance to attack. The result of successive iterations of the GA are secure configurations that are diverse due to the crossover and mutation processes. Simulations results will demonstrate this approach can provide at MT environment for a large infrastructure of similarly purposed computers by discovering temporally and spatially diverse secure configurations.

  20. Separation of plastic waste via the hydraulic separator Multidune under different geometric configurations.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Floriana; Moroni, Monica; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Lupo, Emanuela; Cenedese, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    The recovery of high-quality plastic materials is becoming an increasingly challenging issue for the recycling sector. Technologies for plastic recycling have to guarantee high-quality secondary raw material, complying with specific standards, for use in industrial applications. The variability in waste plastics does not always correspond to evident differences in physical characteristics, making traditional methodologies ineffective for plastic separation. The Multidune separator is a hydraulic channel allowing the sorting of solid particles on the basis of differential transport mechanisms by generating particular fluid dynamic conditions due to its geometric configuration and operational settings. In this paper, the fluid dynamic conditions were investigated by an image analysis technique, allowing the reconstruction of velocity fields generated inside the Multidune, considering two different geometric configurations of the device, Configuration A and Configuration B. Furthermore, tests on mono- and bi-material samples were completed with varying operational conditions under both configurations. In both series of experiments, the bi-material samples were composed of differing proportions (85% vs. 15%) to simulate real conditions in an industrial plant for the purifying of a useful fraction from a contaminating fraction. The separation results were evaluated in terms of grade and recovery of the useful fraction.

  1. Dynamic positioning configuration and its first-order optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shuqiang; Yang, Yuanxi; Dang, Yamin; Chen, Wu

    2014-02-01

    Traditional geodetic network optimization deals with static and discrete control points. The modern space geodetic network is, on the other hand, composed of moving control points in space (satellites) and on the Earth (ground stations). The network configuration composed of these facilities is essentially dynamic and continuous. Moreover, besides the position parameter which needs to be estimated, other geophysical information or signals can also be extracted from the continuous observations. The dynamic (continuous) configuration of the space network determines whether a particular frequency of signals can be identified by this system. In this paper, we employ the functional analysis and graph theory to study the dynamic configuration of space geodetic networks, and mainly focus on the optimal estimation of the position and clock-offset parameters. The principle of the D-optimization is introduced in the Hilbert space after the concept of the traditional discrete configuration is generalized from the finite space to the infinite space. It shows that the D-optimization developed in the discrete optimization is still valid in the dynamic configuration optimization, and this is attributed to the natural generalization of least squares from the Euclidean space to the Hilbert space. Then, we introduce the principle of D-optimality invariance under the combination operation and rotation operation, and propose some D-optimal simplex dynamic configurations: (1) (Semi) circular configuration in 2-dimensional space; (2) the D-optimal cone configuration and D-optimal helical configuration which is close to the GPS constellation in 3-dimensional space. The initial design of GPS constellation can be approximately treated as a combination of 24 D-optimal helixes by properly adjusting the ascending node of different satellites to realize a so-called Walker constellation. In the case of estimating the receiver clock-offset parameter, we show that the circular configuration, the

  2. An artificial gravity demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, C.; Lemke, L.; Penzo, P.

    1989-01-01

    An artificial gravity experiment which is tethered to a Delta second stage and which uses the Small Expendable Deployer System is proposed. Following tether deployment, the Delta vehicle performs the required spin-up maneuver and can then be passivated. A surplus reentry vehicle houses the artificial gravity life science experiments. When the experiments are completed, the reentry phase of the experiment is initiated by synchronizing the spin of the configuration with the required deorbit impulse.

  3. Positioning configurations with the lowest GDOP and their classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shuqiang; Yang, Yuanxi

    2015-01-01

    The positioning configuration optimization is a basic problem in surveying, and the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) is a key index to handle this problem. Simplex graphs as regular polygons and regular polyhedrons are the well-known configurations with the lowest GDOP. However, it has been proved that there are at most five kinds of regular polyhedrons. We analytically solve the GDOP minimization problem with arbitrary observational freedom to extend the current knowledge. The configuration optimization framework established is composed of the algebraic and geometric operators (including combination, reflection, collinear mapping, projection and three kinds of equivalence relations), basic properties to GDOP minimization (including continuity, combination invariant, reflection invariant, rotation invariant and collinear invariant) and the lowest GDOP configurations (including cones, regular polygons, regular polyhedrons, Descartes configuration, helical configuration and generalized Walker configuration, and their reflections and combinations). GDOP minimization criterion and D-maximization criterion both reduce to the same criterion matrices that the optimization becomes the problem for solving an underdetermined quadratic equation system. Making use of the concepts for solving underdetermined linear equation system, the concepts of base configuration (single classification) and general configuration (combined classification) are applied to the GDOP minimization to analytically solve the quadratic equation system. Firstly, the problems are divided into two subproblems by two kinds of GDOP to reveal the impact of the clock-offset on the configuration optimization, and it shows that the symmetry and uniformity play a key role in identifying the systematic errors. Then, the solution of the GDOP minimization is classified by the number of symmetry axes, that the base configurations with at least one symmetry axis and the general configurations without symmetry

  4. The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope (CAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Lynch, Dana H.; Vassigh, Kenny K.; Young, Zion

    2016-07-01

    The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope, CAST, is a concept that provides access to a UV/visible-infrared wavelength sub-arcsecond imaging platform from space, something that will be in high demand after the retirement of the astronomy workhorse, the 2.4 meter diameter Hubble Space Telescope. CAST allows building large aperture telescopes based on small, compatible and low-cost segments mounted on autonomous cube-sized satellites. The concept merges existing technology (segmented telescope architecture) with emerging technology (smartly interconnected modular spacecraft, active optics, deployable structures). Requiring identical mirror segments, CAST's optical design is a spherical primary and secondary mirror telescope with modular multi-mirror correctors placed at the system focal plane. The design enables wide fields of view, up to as much as three degrees, while maintaining aperture growth and image performance requirements. We present a point design for the CAST concept based on a 0.6 meter diameter (3 x 3 segments) growing to a 2.6 meter diameter (13 x 13 segments) primary, with a fixed Rp=13,000 and Rs=8,750 mm curvature, f/22.4 and f/5.6, respectively. Its diffraction limited design uses a two arcminute field of view corrector with a 7.4 arcsec/mm platescale, and can support a range of platescales as fine as 0.01 arcsec/mm. Our paper summarizes CAST, presents a strawman optical design and requirements for the underlying modular spacecraft, highlights design flexibilities, and illustrates applications enabled by this new method in building space observatories.

  5. A Modular Re-configurable Rover System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouloubasis, A.; McKee, G.; Active Robotics Lab

    In this paper we present the novel concepts incorporated in a planetary surface exploration rover design that is currently under development. The Multitasking Rover (MTR) aims to demonstrate functionality that will cover many of the current and future needs such as rough-terrain mobility, modularity and upgradeability [1]. The rover system has enhanced mobility characteristics. It operates in conjunction with Science Packs (SPs) and Tool Packs (TPs) - modules attached to the main frame of the rover, which are either special tools or science instruments and alter the operation capabilities of the system. To date, each rover system design is very much task driven for example, the scenario of cooperative transportation of extended payloads [2], comprises two rovers each equipped with a manipulator dedicated to the task [3]. The MTR approach focuses mostly on modularity and upgradeability presenting at the same time a fair amount of internal re-configurability for the sake of rough terrain stability. The rover itself does not carry any scientific instruments or tools. To carry out the scenario mentioned above, the MTR would have to locate and pick-up a TP with the associated manipulator. After the completion of the task the TP could be put away to a storage location enabling the rover to utilize a different Pack. The rover will not only offer mobility to these modules, but also use them as tools, transforming its role and functionality. The advantage of this approach is that instead of sending a large number of rovers to perform a variety of tasks, a smaller number of MTRs could be deployed with a large number of SPs/TPs, offering multiples of the functionality at a reduced payload. Two SPs or TPs (or a combination of) can be carried and deployed. One of the key elements in the design of the four wheeled rover, lies within its suspension system. It comprises a linear actuator located within each leg and also an active differential linking the two shoulders. This novel

  6. Gauge Configurations for Lattice QCD from The Gauge Connection

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Gauge Connection is an experimental archive for lattice QCD and a repository of gauge configurations made freely available to the community. Contributors to the archive include the Columbia QCDSP collaboration, the MILC collaboration, and others. Configurations are stored in QCD archive format, consisting of an ASCII header which defines various parameters, followed by binary data. NERSC has also provided some utilities and examples that will aid users in handling the data. Users may browse the archive, but are required to register for a password in order to download data. Contents of the archive are organized under four broad headings: Quenched (more than 1200 configurations); Dynamical, Zero Temperature (more than 300 configurations); MILC Improved Staggered Asqtad Lattices (more than 7000 configurations); and Dynamical, Finite Temperature (more than 1200 configurations)

  7. Design of a holographic waveguide with L configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Guangxin-Xin; Li, Wen-Qiang

    2016-10-01

    In order to decrease the complexity to design and manufacture the turning grating of the configuration with one reflecting surface, an L-shape two-dimension extended configuration with single plate is given in the paper. This configuration consists of one specular reflecting surface and three holographic gratings two in which periods and the groove orientations are totally same, which makes gratings design and fabrication easier. According to the calculation and analysis to the optical path of configuration, the dimension of the turning grating is no larger than 40mm×30mm. The simulation result demonstrates the display configuration is reasonable and correct and can realize the display effect with 30°×30° field of view and Φ30mm large exit pupil. This configuration can be applied to an Augmented Reality Display (AR) or a Head-Mounted Display (HMD).

  8. Aeroacoustic characterization of scaled canonical nose landing gear configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.

    Aircraft noise is a critical issue in the commercial airline industry. Airframe noise is a subcomponent of aircraft noise and is generally dominant over jet engine noise during approach conditions, which can lead to high community impact. Landing gears have been identified as major components of airframe noise during landing configurations for commercial aircraft. They are perhaps the least understood contributors to airframe noise due to complex flow patterns associated with intricate gear component geometries. Nose landing gear in particular have received much attention in recent years, exhibiting acoustic signatures on the order of the main landing gear assembly of an aircraft, while simultaneously being more amenable to scaled wind tunnel testing. In order to characterize the acoustic signature of a complex geometry such as a nose landing gear, it is important to isolate, study, and understand the acoustic contributions of individual component geometries. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a correlation between the complex flow field nature and far-field acoustic signature of a nose landing gear sub-system. The model under investigation is a 1/2-scale shock-strut cylinder coupled with an adjustable torque link apparatus. This geometry was chosen due to its fundamental importance and implementation across a wide span of commercial aircraft. The fluid dynamic (surface pressure and stereoscopic particle image velocimety) and aeroacoustic (far-field microphone and phased array) experiments were performed in the University of Florida Aeroacoustic Flow Facility. The experimental data compare favorably with the results of a numerical simulation using PowerFLOW, a lattice-Boltzmann solver developed by the Exa Corporation. The far-field acoustic results of this dissertation have shown non-uniform scaling behavior as a function of frequency for the different model configurations tested. For frequencies that appropriately satisfied the condition of acoustic

  9. Impact of spectral transition zone in reference ENIGMA configuration.

    SciTech Connect

    Aliberti, G.; Palmiotti, G.; Taiwo, T. A.; Tommasi, J.

    2005-10-05

    Neutron Investigation of Gas-cooled reactor at Masurca) is being planned for Cadarache. This new experiment would provide better understanding of GFR neutronic features and will be the basis for the extension of current neutronics code validation domain (particularly, the ERANOS code system in France) to the analysis of GFRs. Experimental planning and decisions are ongoing for ENIGMA. One of the items that have been evaluated is the feasibility of obtaining different flux spectra in the ENIGMA reference configuration, giving the flexibility of simulating a large series of proposed gas-cooled fast systems with harder or softer spectra. In order to achieve this goal it was proposed to use a spectral transition zone in the center region of the ENIGMA core configuration. Another goal of the study is to evaluate the impact of the graphite cross-sections on the performance characteristics of the MASURCA configurations. The work was supported by ANL, through the residence of one of the authors at CEA-Cadarache in 2005. In this report, the impacts of the transition zone on the core physics parameters of the reference ENIGMA configuration are summarized.

  10. The guidance of spatial attention during visual search for color combinations and color configurations.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Representations of target-defining features (attentional templates) guide the selection of target objects in visual search. We used behavioral and electrophysiological measures to investigate how such search templates control the allocation of attention in search tasks where targets are defined by the combination of 2 colors or by a specific spatial configuration of these colors. Target displays were preceded by spatially uninformative cue displays that contained items in 1 or both target-defining colors. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that, during search for color combinations, attention is initially allocated independently and in parallel to all objects with target-matching colors, but is then rapidly withdrawn from objects that only have 1 of the 2 target colors. In Experiment 3, targets were defined by a particular spatial configuration of 2 colors, and could be accompanied by nontarget objects with a different configuration of the same colors. Attentional guidance processes were unable to distinguish between these 2 types of objects. Both attracted attention equally when they appeared in a cue display, and both received parallel focal-attentional processing and were encoded into working memory when they were presented in the same target display. Results demonstrate that attention can be guided simultaneously by multiple features from the same dimension, but that these guidance processes have no access to the spatial-configural properties of target objects. They suggest that attentional templates do not represent target objects in an integrated pictorial fashion, but contain separate representations of target-defining features. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Sediment replenishment: Influence of the geometrical configuration on the morphological evolution of channel-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisacco, E.; Franca, M. J.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    Dams trap sediment in the upstream reservoir, which may lead to river bed armoring, streambank erosion and failure, channel incision and reduction of the morphological diversity in the downstream river reaches. The replenishment of sediment is a mitigation measure for this problem to be applied in river reaches downstream of dams. Previously performed field experiments always used one single volume of sediment replenishment. To explore different alternatives, the replenished volume was here divided in four deposits with the motivation to influence also the morphological evolution downstream. Six different geometrical configurations together with three submergence conditions of sediment replenishment were tested for the first time in a laboratory experiment and are herein discussed. The results of the sediment replenishment mitigation technique are described in terms of occupied surface of the flume bed and the temporal evolution of erosion and transport of the introduced sediments. It is shown that, under our experimental conditions, complete submersion of the replenishment volume results in complete erosion of the placed sediment, with a high persistence of the added material along the channel length. The geometrical configuration of the replenishment volume plays a key role for the evolution of bed-forms downstream. Parallel configurations lead to a wider spread of material across the channel. Alternated configurations are suitable to produce sediment clustering and high persistence of placed material in the channel. Observed periodic mounds, considered as the initiating condition for alternate bars, follow a wavelength related to the length of the replenishment when the replenishment volumes are alternating.

  12. CFD-CAA Coupled Calculations of a Tandem Cylinder Configuration to Assess Facility Installation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redonnet, Stephane; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical assessment of acoustic installation effects in the tandem cylinder (TC) experiments conducted in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility (QFF), an open-jet, anechoic wind tunnel. Calculations that couple the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) of the TC configuration within the QFF are conducted using the CFD simulation results previously obtained at NASA LaRC. The coupled simulations enable the assessment of installation effects associated with several specific features in the QFF facility that may have impacted the measured acoustic signature during the experiment. The CFD-CAA coupling is based on CFD data along a suitably chosen surface, and employs a technique that was recently improved to account for installed configurations involving acoustic backscatter into the CFD domain. First, a CFD-CAA calculation is conducted for an isolated TC configuration to assess the coupling approach, as well as to generate a reference solution for subsequent assessments of QFF installation effects. Direct comparisons between the CFD-CAA calculations associated with the various installed configurations allow the assessment of the effects of each component (nozzle, collector, etc.) or feature (confined vs. free jet flow, etc.) characterizing the NASA LaRC QFF facility.

  13. The satellite configuration of satellite-TV navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu-Ping

    2001-02-01

    The positioning accuracy and availability of navigation system are affected directly by the quality of satellite configuration. The possible satellite configurations for satellite-TV navigation system are discussed and estimated in this paper. The results show that a well setted configuration or a resonable integration of satellite-TV navigation system and Chinese Loran-C will improve the positioning accuracy and availability of the system.

  14. An Analysis of Naval Aviation Configuration Status Accounting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    R -A41O 473 AN ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AVIATION CONFIGURATION STATUS 1/2 ACCOUNTING (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CR M A SNYDER ET AL. DEC 83...THESIS "S AN ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AVIATION CONFIGURATION STATUS ACCOUNTING by ____ Marlene A. Snyder -... ,and C..) Thomas F. Snyder 4/ December 1983 Thesis...NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Aejt11a) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED An Analysis of Naval Aviation Master’s Thesis Configuration Status Accounting December

  15. Concealed configuration mixing and shape coexistence in the platinum nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Ramos, J. E.; Hellemans, V.; Heyde, K.

    2012-10-20

    The role of configuration mixing in the Pt region is investigated. The nature of the ground state changes smoothly, being spherical around mass A{approx} 174 and A{approx} 192 and deformed around the mid-shell N= 104 region. Interacting Boson Model with configuration mixing calculations are presented for deformations and isotope shifts. The assumption of the existence of two configurations with very different deformation provides a simple framework to explain the observed isotope shifts systematics.

  16. Effect of anaerobic reactor process configuration on useful energy production.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Thomas D; Palomar, Albert

    2010-04-01

    The effect of reactor process configuration on anaerobic production of useful energy (hydrogen and methane) from a complex substrate was investigated for the following reactor systems: suspended growth, two-phase mixed, two-stage mixed, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, and two-phase UASB. The mixed two-phase and two-stage configurations yielded the highest specific energy productions of 13.3 and 13.4 kJ/g COD fed, respectively. Reactor process configuration influenced microbial pathways in acidogenic reactors in that butyrate was the predominant volatile acid in phased configurations, whereas acetate was predominant in the staged configuration. The UASB reactor achieved the highest average daily energy production per reactor volume of 101 kJ/L reactor-d. All reactor configurations achieved high COD removals on the order of 99%. However, hydrogen represented only 3% of the total energy produced by the two-phase mixed and two-phase UASB configurations. Theoretical analysis revealed that the maximum specific energy production by the two-phase suspended-growth configuration is only 9% higher than that for a single-stage mixed reactor. Consequently, the production of hydrogen from complex substrates in these process configurations does not seem to be justifiable solely from an energy point of view. Instead, it is suggested that phased anaerobic systems should be considered primarily for improved process stability whereas resultant hydrogen production is of secondary benefit.

  17. Positronic molecule calculations using Monte Carlo configuration interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Jeremy P.; Paterson, Martin J.

    2016-02-01

    We modify the Monte Carlo configuration interaction procedure to model atoms and molecules combined with a positron. We test this method with standard quantum chemistry basis sets on a number of positronic systems and compare results with the literature and full configuration interaction when appropriate. We consider positronium hydride, positronium hydroxide, lithium positride and a positron interacting with lithium, magnesium or lithium hydride. We demonstrate that we can capture much of the full configuration interaction results, but often require less than 10% of the configurations of these multireference wavefunctions. The effect of the number of frozen orbitals is also discussed.

  18. Impact of tree planting configuration on canopy interception and soil hydrological properties: Implications for flood mitigation in silvopastoral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunka, Peter; Patil, Sopan

    2015-04-01

    Compaction of upper soil layers by intensive sheep grazing has been connected with increased local flood risk in silvopastoral systems. A 12 week field study was conducted at the Henfaes Research Station near Bangor, Wales to compare two silvopastoral configurations, trees planted in fenced off clumps and trees planted evenly spaced, in terms of canopy throughfall, soil water infiltration and soil bulk density. The study's aim was to characterize the potential of these tree planting configurations to reduce local flood risk. The study site (Henfaes) was established in 1992 on 14 ha of agricultural land and is part of the Silvopastoral National Network Experiment sites that have been set up across the UK to examine the potential of silvopasture and agroforestry on UK farms. Automated throughfall gauges were installed in each silvopastoral treatment along with a similarly designed control gauge located in the grazed control pasture. Soil water infiltration and bulk density were measured 20 times in a stratified random design for each treatment and the control. Soil infiltration capacity in the clumped configuration was significantly higher than in the even spaced configuration and control pasture. The clumped configuration had mean infiltration capacity 504% greater than the control pasture and 454% greater than the even spaced configuration. Canopy interception was higher in the clumped trees than in the evenly spaced trees. Average canopy interception was 34% in the clumped treatment and 28% in the evenly spaced treatment. Soil bulk density was lower in the clumped configuration than in the control pasture and evenly spaced configuration. Results suggest that in silvopastoral systems the clumped tree configuration is more likely to reduce local flood risk than the evenly spaced tree configuration due to enhanced infiltration and increased canopy interception.

  19. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  20. Linear stability of ideal MHD configurations. II. Results for stationary equilibrium configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaerel, T.; Keppens, R.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we continue exploring the consequences of the general equation of motion (EOM) governing all Lagrangian perturbations ξ about a time-dependent, ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) configuration, which includes self-gravity, external gravity, pressure gradients, compressibility, inertial effects, and anisotropic Lorentz force. We here address the specific case of MHD stability for 3D stationary equilibria, where the perturbed EOM features a symmetric operator F and an antisymmetric Doppler-Coriolis operator v . ∇ . For this case, we state and prove the general properties for the solutions ξ of the governing dynamical system. For axisymmetric perturbations about axisymmetric equilibria with purely toroidal, or purely poloidal magnetic fields, specific stability theorems can be formulated. We derive a useful integral expression for the quadratic quantity given by the inner product ⟨ ξ , F [ ξ ] ⟩ . For deriving stability statements on MHD states where self-gravity is involved as well, we provide an upper bound on the perturbed self-gravitational energy associated with the displacement ξ . The resulting expression elucidates the role of potentially stabilizing versus destabilizing contributions and shows the role of gravity, entropy gradients, velocity shear, currents, Lorentz forces, inertia, and pressure gradients in offering many routes to unstable behavior in flowing gases and plasmas. These have historically mostly been studied for static v = 0 configurations, looking at stability of exactly force-balanced states, or by assuming stationarity similar to our approach here (i.e., ∂ t ≡ 0 for the state we perturb), but typically in combination with some reduced dimensionality on the configuration of interest (translational or axisymmetry). We show that in these limits, we find and generalize expressions well-known from, e.g., the study of ideal MHD stability of tokamak plasmas or from Schwarzschild's criteria controlling convection in