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Sample records for aerospike rocket engine

  1. Parametric Model of an Aerospike Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    A suite of computer codes was assembled to simulate the performance of an aerospike engine and to generate the engine input for the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories. First an engine simulator module was developed that predicts the aerospike engine performance for a given mixture ratio, power level, thrust vectoring level, and altitude. This module was then used to rapidly generate the aerospike engine performance tables for axial thrust, normal thrust, pitching moment, and specific thrust. Parametric engine geometry was defined for use with the engine simulator module. The parametric model was also integrated into the iSIGHTI multidisciplinary framework so that alternate designs could be determined. The computer codes were used to support in-house conceptual studies of reusable launch vehicle designs.

  2. Parametric Model of an Aerospike Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    A suite of computer codes was assembled to simulate the performance of an aerospike engine and to generate the engine input for the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories. First an engine simulator module was developed that predicts the aerospike engine performance for a given mixture ratio, power level, thrust vectoring level, and altitude. This module was then used to rapidly generate the aerospike engine performance tables for axial thrust, normal thrust, pitching moment, and specific thrust. Parametric engine geometry was defined for use with the engine simulator module. The parametric model was also integrated into the iSIGHT multidisciplinary framework so that alternate designs could be determined. The computer codes were used to support in-house conceptual studies of reusable launch vehicle designs.

  3. Methane Dual Expander Aerospike Nozzle Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    include O/F ratio, thrust, and engine geometry. After thousands of iterations over the design space , the selected MDEAN engine concept has 349 s of...35 Table 7: Fluid Property Table Supported Parameters...44 Table 8: Fluid Property Input Data Independent Variable Ranges. ................................. 46 Table 9

  4. Optimized Dual Expander Aerospike Rocket

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    manufacturability, and mission effectiveness . Despite the advantages, the bell nozzle does not optimally operate at all altitudes of flight . Furthermore...aerospike include high cooling requirements of the spike, manufacturing difficulties, and lack of historical data and flight experience [23]. Since a...Ratio; taken from Martin [4] Carlile [37] conducted a high pressure, regeneratively cooled thrust chamber experimental investigation. The experiment

  5. A Modular Aerospike Engine Design Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John; Garcia, Chance; Burkhardt, Wendel

    2014-01-01

    A modular aerospike engine concept has been developed with the objective of demonstrating the viability of the aerospike design using additive manufacturing techniques. The aerospike system is a self-compensating design that allows for optimal performance over the entire flight regime and allows for the lowest possible mass vehicle designs. At low altitudes, improvements in Isp can be traded against chamber pressure, staging, and payload. In upper stage applications, expansion ratio and engine envelope can be traded against nozzle efficiency. These features provide flexibility to the System Designer optimizing a complete vehicle stage. The aerospike concept is a good example of a component that has demonstrated improved performance capability, but traditionally has manufacturing requirements that are too expensive and complex to use in a production vehicle. In recent years, additive manufacturing has emerged as a potential method for improving the speed and cost of building geometrically complex components in rocket engines. It offers a reduction in tooling overhead and significant improvements in the integration of the designer and manufacturing method. In addition, the modularity of the engine design provides the ability to perform full scale testing on the combustion devices outside of the full engine configuration. The proposed design uses a hydrocarbon based gas-generator cycle, with plans to take advantage of existing powerhead hardware while focusing DDT&E resources on manufacturing and sub-system testing of the combustion devices. The major risks for the modular aerospike concept lie in the performance of the propellant feed system, the structural integrity of the additive manufactured components, and the aerodynamic efficiency of the exhaust flow.

  6. Aerospike Engine Post-Test Diagnostic System Delivered to Rocketdyne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Claudia M.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, in cooperation with Rocketdyne, has designed, developed, and implemented an automated Post-Test Diagnostic System (PTDS) for the X-33 linear aerospike engine. The PTDS was developed to reduce analysis time and to increase the accuracy and repeatability of rocket engine ground test fire and flight data analysis. This diagnostic system provides a fast, consistent, first-pass data analysis, thereby aiding engineers who are responsible for detecting and diagnosing engine anomalies from sensor data. It uses analytical methods modeled after the analysis strategies used by engineers. Glenn delivered the first version of PTDS in September of 1998 to support testing of the engine s power pack assembly. The system was used to analyze all 17 power pack tests and assisted Rocketdyne engineers in troubleshooting both data acquisition and test article anomalies. The engine version of PTDS, which was delivered in June of 1999, will support all single-engine, dual-engine, and flight firings of the aerospike engine.

  7. Trong Bui, NASA Dryden's principal investigator for the aerospike rocket tests, with one of two rockets flown in the first tests.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-12-09

    Trong Bui, NASA Dryden's principal investigator for the aerospike rocket tests, holds the first of two 10-ft. long rockets that were flown at speeds up to Mach 1.5, the first known supersonic tests of rockets with aerospike nozzles. The goals of the flight research project were to obtain aerospike rocket nozzle performance data in flight and to investigate the effects of transonic flow and transient flight conditions on aerospike nozzle performance.

  8. Testing of Twin Linear Aerospike XRS-2200 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The test of twin Linear Aerospike XRS-2200 engines, originally built for the X-33 program, was performed on August 6, 2001 at NASA's Sternis Space Center, Mississippi. The engines were fired for the planned 90 seconds and reached a planned maximum power of 85 percent. NASA's Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program , also known as the Space Launch Initiative (SLI), is making advances in propulsion technology with this third and final successful engine hot fire, designed to test electro-mechanical actuators. Information learned from this hot fire test series about new electro-mechanical actuator technology, which controls the flow of propellants in rocket engines, could provide key advancements for the propulsion systems for future spacecraft. The Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, led by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is a technology development program designed to increase safety and reliability while reducing costs for space travel. The X-33 program was cancelled in March 2001.

  9. Coolant Design System for Liquid Propellant Aerospike Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Miranda; Branam, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engines burn at incredibly high temperatures making it difficult to design an effective coolant system. These particular engines prove to be extremely useful by powering the rocket with a variable thrust that is ideal for space travel. When combined with aerospike engine nozzles, which provide maximum thrust efficiency, this class of rockets offers a promising future for rocketry. In order to troubleshoot the problems that high combustion chamber temperatures pose, this research took a computational approach to heat analysis. Chambers milled into the combustion chamber walls, lined by a copper cover, were tested for their efficiency in cooling the hot copper wall. Various aspect ratios and coolants were explored for the maximum wall temperature by developing our own MATLAB code. The code uses a nodal temperature analysis with conduction and convection equations and assumes no internal heat generation. This heat transfer research will show oxygen is a better coolant than water, and higher aspect ratios are less efficient at cooling. This project funded by NSF REU Grant 1358991.

  10. Wind-tunnel development of an SR-71 aerospike rocket flight test configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen C.; Shirakata, Norm; Moes, Timothy R.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Conners, Timothy H.

    1996-01-01

    A flight experiment has been proposed to investigate the performance of an aerospike rocket motor installed in a lifting body configuration. An SR-71 airplane would be used to carry the aerospike configuration to the desired flight test conditions. Wind-tunnel tests were completed on a 4-percent scale SR-71 airplane with the aerospike pod mounted in various locations on the upper fuselage. Testing was accomplished using sting and blade mounts from Mach 0.6 to Mach 3.2. Initial test objectives included assessing transonic drag and supersonic lateral-directional stability and control. During these tests, flight simulations were run with wind-tunnel data to assess the acceptability of the configurations. Early testing demonstrated that the initial configuration with the aerospike pod near the SR-71 center of gravity was unsuitable because of large nosedown pitching moments at transonic speeds. The excessive trim drag resulting from accommodating this pitching moment far exceeded the excess thrust capability of the airplane. Wind-tunnel testing continued in an attempt to find a configuration suitable for flight test. Multiple configurations were tested. Results indicate that an aft-mounted model configuration possessed acceptable performance, stability, and control characteristics.

  11. The Control System for the X-33 Linear Aerospike Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jerry E.; Espenschied, Erich; Klop, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    The linear aerospike engine is being developed for single-stage -to-orbit (SSTO) applications. The primary advantages of a linear aerospike engine over a conventional bell nozzle engine include altitude compensation, which provides enhanced performance, and lower vehicle weight resulting from the integration of the engine into the vehicle structure. A feature of this integration is the ability to provide thrust vector control (TVC) by differential throttling of the engine combustion elements, rather than the more conventional approach of gimballing the entire engine. An analysis of the X-33 flight trajectories has shown that it is necessary to provide +/- 15% roll, pitch and yaw TVC authority with an optional capability of +/- 30% pitch at select times during the mission. The TVC performance requirements for X-33 engine became a major driver in the design of the engine control system. The thrust level of the X-33 engine as well as the amount of TVC are managed by a control system which consists of electronic, instrumentation, propellant valves, electro-mechanical actuators, spark igniters, and harnesses. The engine control system is responsible for the thrust control, mixture ratio control, thrust vector control, engine health monitoring, and communication to the vehicle during all operational modes of the engine (checkout, pre-start, start, main-stage, shutdown and post shutdown). The methodology for thrust vector control, the health monitoring approach which includes failure detection, isolation, and response, and the basic control system design are the topic of this paper. As an additional point of interest a brief description of the X-33 engine system will be included in this paper.

  12. X-33/RLV Program Aerospike Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Substantial progress was made during the past year in support of the X-33/RLV program. X-33 activity was directed towards completing the remaining design work and building hardware to support test activities. RLV work focused on the nozzle ramp and powerpack technology tasks and on supporting vehicle configuration studies. On X-33, the design activity was completed to the detail level and the remainder of the drawings were released. Component fabrication and engine assembly activity was initiated, and the first two powerpacks and the GSE and STE needed to support powerpack testing were completed. Components fabrication is on track to support the first engine assembly schedule. Testing activity included powerpack testing and component development tests consisting of thrust cell single cell testing, CWI system spider testing, and EMA valve flow and vibration testing. Work performed for RLV was divided between engine system and technology development tasks. Engine system activity focused on developing the engine system configuration and supporting vehicle configuration studies. Also, engine requirements were developed, and engine performance analyses were conducted. In addition, processes were developed for implementing reliability, mass properties, and cost controls during design. Technology development efforts were divided between powerpack and nozzle ramp technology tasks. Powerpack technology activities were directed towards the development of a prototype powerpack and a ceramic turbine technology demonstrator (CTTD) test article which will allow testing of ceramic turbines and a close-coupled gas generator design. Nozzle technology efforts were focused on the selection of a composite nozzle supplier and on the fabrication and test of composite nozzle coupons.

  13. Linear aerospike engine study. [for reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem, H. G.; Kirby, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    Parametric data on split-combustor linear engine propulsion systems are presented for use in mixed-mode single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle studies. Preliminary design data for two selected engine systems are included. The split combustor was investigated for mixed-mode operations with oxygen/hydrogen propellants used in the inner combustor in Mode 2, and in conjunction with either oxygen/RP-1, oxygen/RJ-5, O2/CH4, or O2/H2 propellants in the outer combustor for Mode 1. Both gas generator and staged combustion power cycles were analyzed for providing power to the turbopumps of the inner and outer combustors. Numerous cooling circuits and cooling fluids (propellants) were analyzed and hydrogen was selected as the preferred coolant for both combustors and the linear aerospike nozzle. The maximum operating chamber pressure was determined to be limited by the availability of hydrogen coolant pressure drop in the coolant circuit.

  14. Linear aerospike engine. [for reusable single-stage-to-orbit vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, F. M.; Martinez, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of a dual-fuel modular split-combustor linear aerospike engine concept. The considered engine represents an approach to an integrated engine for a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The engine burns two fuels (hydrogen and a hydrocarbon) with oxygen in separate combustors. Combustion gases expand on a linear aerospike nozzle. An engine preliminary design is discussed. Attention is given to the evaluation process for selecting the optimum number of modules or divisions of the engine, aspects of cooling and power cycle balance, and details of engine operation.

  15. Flight Testing the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Neal, Bradford A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Cox, Timothy H.; Monaghan, Richard C.; Voelker, Leonard S.; Corpening, Griffin P.; Larson, Richard R.; Powers, Bruce G.

    1998-01-01

    The design of the next generation of space access vehicles has led to a unique flight test that blends the space and flight research worlds. The new space vehicle designs, such as the X-33 vehicle and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), are powered by linear aerospike rocket engines. Conceived of in the 1960's, these aerospike engines have yet to be flown, and many questions remain regarding aerospike engine performance and efficiency in flight. To provide some of these data before flying on the X-33 vehicle and the RLV, a spacecraft rocket engine has been flight-tested atop the NASA SR-71 aircraft as the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE). A 20 percent-scale, semispan model of the X-33 vehicle, the aerospike engine, and all the required fuel and oxidizer tanks and propellant feed systems have been mounted atop the SR-71 airplane for this experiment. A major technical objective of the LASRE flight test is to obtain installed-engine performance flight data for comparison to wind-tunnel results and for the development of computational fluid dynamics-based design methodologies. The ultimate goal of firing the aerospike rocket engine in flight is still forthcoming. An extensive design and development phase of the experiment hardware has been completed, including approximately 40 ground tests. Five flights of the LASRE and firing the rocket engine using inert liquid nitrogen and helium in place of liquid oxygen and hydrogen have been successfully completed.

  16. Aerospike thrust chamber program. [cumulative damage and maintenance of structural members in hydrogen oxygen engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J., Jr.; Cobb, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    An existing, but damaged, 25,000-pound thrust, flightweight, oxygen/hydrogen aerospike rocket thrust chamber was disassembled and partially repaired. A description is presented of the aerospike chamber configuration and of the damage it had suffered. Techniques for aerospike thrust chamber repair were developed, and are described, covering repair procedures for lightweight tubular nozzles, titanium thrust structures, and copper channel combustors. Effort was terminated prior to completion of the repairs and conduct of a planned hot fire test program when it was found that the copper alloy walls of many of the thrust chamber's 24 combustors had been degraded in strength and ductility during the initial fabrication of the thrust chamber. The degradation is discussed and traced to a reaction between oxygen and/or oxides diffused into the copper alloy during fabrication processes and the hydrogen utilized as a brazing furnace atmosphere during the initial assembly operation on many of the combustors. The effects of the H2/O2 reaction within the copper alloy are described.

  17. X-33 Attitude Control Using the XRS-2200 Linear Aerospike Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Charles E.; Panossian, Hagop V.

    1999-01-01

    The Vehicle Control Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center, Structures and Dynamics Laboratory, Guidance and Control Systems Division is designing, under a cooperative agreement with Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, the Ascent, Transition, and Entry flight attitude control systems for the X-33 experimental vehicle. Test flights, while suborbital, will achieve sufficient altitudes and Mach numbers to test Single Stage To Orbit, Reusable Launch Vehicle technologies. Ascent flight control phase, the focus of this paper, begins at liftoff and ends at linear aerospike main engine cutoff (MECO). The X-33 attitude control system design is confronted by a myriad of design challenges: a short design cycle, the X-33 incremental test philosophy, the concurrent design philosophy chosen for the X-33 program, and the fact that the attitude control system design is, as usual, closely linked to many other subsystems and must deal with constraints and requirements from these subsystems. Additionally, however, and of special interest, the use of the linear aerospike engine is a departure from the gimbaled engines traditionally used for thrust vector control (TVC) in launch vehicles and poses certain design challenges. This paper discusses the unique problem of designing the X-33 attitude control system with the linear aerospike engine, requirements development, modeling and analyses that verify the design.

  18. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  19. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust.

  20. Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

  1. Robust Rocket Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for a revolutionary step in the durability of reusable rocket engines is made possible by the combination of several emerging technologies. The recent creation and analytical demonstration of life extending (or damage mitigating) control technology enables rapid rocket engine transients with minimum fatigue and creep damage. This technology has been further enhanced by the formulation of very simple but conservative continuum damage models. These new ideas when combined with recent advances in multidisciplinary optimization provide the potential for a large (revolutionary) step in reusable rocket engine durability. This concept has been named the robust rocket engine concept (RREC) and is the basic contribution of this paper. The concept also includes consideration of design innovations to minimize critical point damage.

  2. Rocket engine numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

  3. Rocket engine numerical simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: a rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS) definition; objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusion.

  4. Rocket engine numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-12-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

  5. X-33 XRS-2200 Linear Aerospike Engine Sea Level Plume Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAgostino, Mark G.; Lee, Young C.; Wang, Ten-See; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Wide band plume radiation data were collected during ten sea level tests of a single XRS-2200 engine at the NASA Stennis Space Center in 1999 and 2000. The XRS-2200 is a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fueled, gas generator cycle linear aerospike engine which develops 204,420 lbf thrust at sea level. Instrumentation consisted of six hemispherical radiometers and one narrow view radiometer. Test conditions varied from 100% to 57% power level (PL) and 6.0 to 4.5 oxidizer to fuel (O/F) ratio. Measured radiation rates generally increased with engine chamber pressure and mixture ratio. One hundred percent power level radiation data were compared to predictions made with the FDNS and GASRAD codes. Predicted levels ranged from 42% over to 7% under average test values.

  6. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust. The test was the first test ever anywhere outside Russia of a Russian designed and built engine.

  7. Rainbows and Rocket Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-22

    Rainbows and rocket engines – doesn’t get much better than that! Check out these gorgeous aerial views from today’s Space Launch System RS-25 engine test @NASA’s Stennis Space Center. PAO Name:Kim Henry Phone Number:256-544-1899 Email Address: kimberly.m.henry@nasa.gov

  8. Overview of rocket engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    The issues of Chemical Rocket Engine Control are broadly covered. The basic feedback information and control variables used in expendable and reusable rocket engines, such as Space Shuttle Main Engine, are discussed. The deficiencies of current approaches are considered and a brief introduction to Intelligent Control Systems for rocket engines (and vehicles) is presented.

  9. Liquid rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Criteria for the design and development of turbines for rocket engines to meet specific performance, and installation requirements are summarized. The total design problem, and design elements are identified, and the current technology pertaining to these elements is described. Recommended practices for achieving a successful design are included.

  10. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  11. Design and Evaluation of Dual-Expander Aerospike Nozzle Upper Stage Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    Nozzle , taken from Martin [2] . . . . . 19 2.3 Typical Liquid Rocket Engine Cycles from Huzel and Huang[3], credit J. Hall[4] 21 2.4 Liquid Rocket Engine...giving the maximum thrust. For steady, supersonic flow (no separation from the nozzle ) the exit pressure is constant for a given engine plus nozzle ...performance independent of a rocket’s nozzle . Assuming one-dimensional, steady, and isentropic flow of a perfect gas gives the definition for characteristic

  12. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

  13. ION ROCKET ENGINE

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, K.W.; Voelker, F. III

    1961-12-19

    A thrust generating engine utilizing cesium vapor as the propellant fuel is designed. The cesium is vaporized by heat and is passed through a heated porous tungsten electrode whereby each cesium atom is fonized. Upon emergfng from the tungsten electrode, the ions are accelerated rearwardly from the rocket through an electric field between the tungsten electrode and an adjacent accelerating electrode grid structure. To avoid creating a large negative charge on the space craft as a result of the expulsion of the positive ions, a source of electrons is disposed adjacent the ion stream to neutralize the cesium atoms following acceleration thereof. (AEC)

  14. Coal-Fired Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Brief report describes concept for coal-burning hybrid rocket engine. Proposed engine carries larger payload, burns more cleanly, and safer to manufacture and handle than conventional solid-propellant rockets. Thrust changeable in flight, and stops and starts on demand.

  15. Liquid rocket engine nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The nozzle is a major component of a rocket engine, having a significant influence on the overall engine performance and representing a large fraction of the engine structure. The design of the nozzle consists of solving simultaneously two different problems: the definition of the shape of the wall that forms the expansion surface, and the delineation of the nozzle structure and hydraulic system. This monography addresses both of these problems. The shape of the wall is considered from immediately upstream of the throat to the nozzle exit for both bell and annular (or plug) nozzles. Important aspects of the methods used to generate nozzle wall shapes are covered for maximum-performance shapes and for nozzle contours based on criteria other than performance. The discussion of structure and hydraulics covers problem areas of regeneratively cooled tube-wall nozzles and extensions; it treats also nozzle extensions cooled by turbine exhaust gas, ablation-cooled extensions, and radiation-cooled extensions. The techniques that best enable the designer to develop the nozzle structure with as little difficulty as possible and at the lowest cost consistent with minimum weight and specified performance are described.

  16. Visualization and Analyses of Jet Structures from a Cluster-Type Linear Aerospike Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Tomohide; Mori, Hideo; Okabe, Kazuki; Masai, Yusuke; Taniguchi, Mashio

    Aerospike nozzles have been expected as a candidate for an engine of reusable space shuttles to respond to growing demand for rocket-launching and its cost reduction. In this study, the flow field structure in any cross sections around the linear-type aerospike nozzle are visualized and analyzed, using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of NO seeded in the carrier gas N2. Since the flow field structure is affected mainly by the pressure ratio (P/P), the linear-type aerospike nozzle is set inside the vacuum chamber to carry out the experiments in the wide range of pressure ratios from 75 to 250. Flow fields are visualized in several cross-sections, demonstrating the complicated three-dimensional flow field structures. Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) of PtTFPP bound by poly(TMSP) is also applied successfully to measurement of the complicated pressure distribution on the spike surface.

  17. RS-25 Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-09

    The 8.5-minute test conducted at NASA’s Stennis Space Center is part of a series of tests designed to put the upgraded former space shuttle engines through the rigorous temperature and pressure conditions they will experience during a launch. The tests also support the development of a new controller, or “brain,” for the engine, which monitors engine status and communicates between the rocket and the engine, relaying commands to the engine and transmitting data back to the rocket.

  18. Multidisciplinary Approach to Aerospike Nozzle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Salas, A. O.; Dunn, H. J.; Alexandrov, N. M.; Follett, W. W.; Orient, G. E.; Hadid, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    A model of a linear aerospike rocket nozzle that consists of coupled aerodynamic and structural analyses has been developed. A nonlinear computational fluid dynamics code is used to calculate the aerodynamic thrust, and a three-dimensional finite-element model is used to determine the structural response and weight. The model will be used to demonstrate multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) capabilities for relevant engine concepts, assess performance of various MDO approaches, and provide a guide for future application development. In this study, the MDO problem is formulated using the multidisciplinary feasible (MDF) strategy. The results for the MDF formulation are presented with comparisons against separate aerodynamic and structural optimized designs. Significant improvements are demonstrated by using a multidisciplinary approach in comparison with the single-discipline design strategy.

  19. Centrifugal pumps for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. E.; Farquhar, J.

    1974-01-01

    The use of centrifugal pumps for rocket engines is described in terms of general requirements of operational and planned systems. Hydrodynamic and mechanical design considerations and techniques and test procedures are summarized. Some of the pump development experiences, in terms of both problems and solutions, are highlighted.

  20. Exposed by Rocket Engine Blasts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-12

    This color image from NASA Curiosity rover shows an area excavated by the blast of the Mars Science Laboratory descent stage rocket engines. This is part of a larger, high-resolution color mosaic made from images obtained by Curiosity Mast Camera.

  1. Reusable Rocket Engine Maintenance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 85,000 liquid rocket engine failure reports, obtained from 30 years of developing and delivering major pump feed engines, were reviewed and screened and reduced to 1771. These were categorized into 16 different failure modes. Failure propagation diagrams were established. The state of the art of engine condition monitoring for in-flight sensors and between flight inspection technology was determined. For the 16 failure modes, the potential measurands and diagnostic requirements were identified, assessed and ranked. Eight areas are identified requiring advanced technology development.

  2. AJ26 rocket engine test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-10

    Fire and steam signal a successful test firing of Orbital Sciences Corporation's Aerojet AJ26 rocket engine at John C. Stennis Space Center. AJ26 engines will be used to power Orbital's Taurus II space vehicle on commercial cargo flights to the International Space Station. On Nov. 10, operators at Stennis' E-1 Test Stand conducted a 10-second test fire of the engine, the first of a series of three verification tests. Orbital has partnered with NASA to provide eight missions to the ISS by 2015.

  3. High-Temperature Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.; Chazen, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Two rocket engines that operate at temperature of 2,500 K designed to provide thrust for station-keeping adjustments of geosynchronous satellites, for raising and lowering orbits, and for changing orbital planes. Also useful as final propulsion stages of launch vehicles delivering small satellites to low orbits around Earth. With further development, engines used on planetary exploration missions for orbital maneuvers. High-temperature technology of engines adaptable to gas-turbine combustors, ramjets, scramjets, and hot components of many energy-conversion systems.

  4. Computational study of performance characteristics for truncated conical aerospike nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Prasanth P.; Suryan, Abhilash; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2017-12-01

    Aerospike nozzles are advanced rocket nozzles that can maintain its aerodynamic efficiency over a wide range of altitudes. It belongs to class of altitude compensating nozzles. A vehicle with an aerospike nozzle uses less fuel at low altitudes due to its altitude adaptability, where most missions have the greatest need for thrust. Aerospike nozzles are better suited to Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) missions compared to conventional nozzles. In the current study, the flow through 20% and 40% aerospike nozzle is analyzed in detail using computational fluid dynamics technique. Steady state analysis with implicit formulation is carried out. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The results are compared with experimental results from previous work. The transition from open wake to closed wake happens in lower Nozzle Pressure Ratio for 20% as compared to 40% aerospike nozzle.

  5. Device for installing rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A device for installing rocket engines is reported that is supported at a cant relative to vertical by an axially extensible, tiltable pedestal. A lifting platform supports the rocket engine at its thrust chamber exit, including a mount having a concentric base characterized by a concave bearing surface, a plurality of uniformly spaced legs extended radially from the base, and an annular receiver coaxially aligned with the base and affixed to the distal ends of said legs for receiving the thrust chamber exit. The lifting platform rests on a seat concentrically related to the pedestal and affixed to an extended end portion thereof having a convex bearing surface mated in sliding engagement with the concave bearing surface of the annular base for accommodating a rocking motion of the platform.

  6. Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1997-01-01

    Work is being done at three universities to help today's NASA engineers use the knowledge and experience of their Apolloera predecessors in designing liquid rocket engines. Ground-breaking work is being done in important subject areas to create a prototype of the most important functions for the Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS). The goal of RENS is to develop an interactive, realtime application that engineers can utilize for comprehensive preliminary propulsion system design functions. RENS will employ computer science and artificial intelligence research in knowledge acquisition, computer code parallelization and objectification, expert system architecture design, and object-oriented programming. In 1995, a 3year grant from the NASA Lewis Research Center was awarded to Dr. Douglas Moreman and Dr. John Dyer of Southern University at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, to begin acquiring knowledge in liquid rocket propulsion systems. Resources of the University of West Florida in Pensacola were enlisted to begin the process of enlisting knowledge from senior NASA engineers who are recognized experts in liquid rocket engine propulsion systems. Dr. John Coffey of the University of West Florida is utilizing his expertise in interviewing and concept mapping techniques to encode, classify, and integrate information obtained through personal interviews. The expertise extracted from the NASA engineers has been put into concept maps with supporting textual, audio, graphic, and video material. A fundamental concept map was delivered by the end of the first year of work and the development of maps containing increasing amounts of information is continuing. Find out more information about this work at the Southern University/University of West Florida. In 1996, the Southern University/University of West Florida team conducted a 4day group interview with a panel of five experts to discuss failures of the RL10 rocket engine in conjunction with the Centaur launch vehicle. The

  7. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  8. Experimental Analyses of Flow Field Structures around Clustered Linear Aerospike Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Mashio; Mori, Hideo; Nishihira, Ryutaro; Niimi, Tomohide

    2005-05-01

    An aerospike nozzle has been expected as a candidate for an engine of a reusable space shuttle to respond to growing demand for rocket-launching and its cost reduction. In this study, the flow field structures in any cross sections around clustered linear aerospike nozzles are visualized and analyzed, using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of NO seeded in the carrier gas N2. Since flow field structures are affected mainly by pressure ratio (Ps/Pa, Ps: the source pressure in a reservoir, Pa: the ambient pressure in the vacuum chamber), the clustered linear aerospike nozzle is set inside a vacuum chamber to carry out the experiments in the wide range of pressure ratios from 75 to 200. Flow fields are visualized in several cross-sections, demonstrating the complicated three-dimensional flow field structures. Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) of PtTFPP bound by poly-IBM-co-TFEM is also applied to measurement of the complicated pressure distribution on the spike surface, and to verification of contribution of a truncation plane to the thrust. Finally, to examine the effect of the sidewalls attached to the aerospike nozzle, the flow fields around the nozzle with the sidewalls are compared with those without sidewalls.

  9. Engineers demonstrate the pocket rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Part of Stennis Space Center's mission with its traveling exhibits is to educate the younger generation on how propulsion systems work. A popular tool is the 'pocket rocket,' which demonstrates how a hybrid rocket works. A hybrid rocket is a cross breed between a solid fuel rocket and a liquid fuel rocket.

  10. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) ground cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph shows a ground cold flow test of the linear aerospike rocket engine mounted on the rear fuselage of an SR-71. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; design refinements looked at minimizing this

  11. Reusable rocket engine optical condition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyett, L.; Maram, J.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Reinert, J.

    1987-01-01

    Plume emission spectrometry and optical leak detection are described as two new applications of optical techniques to reusable rocket engine condition monitoring. Plume spectrometry has been used with laboratory flames and reusable rocket engines to characterize both the nominal combustion spectra and anomalous spectra of contaminants burning in these plumes. Holographic interferometry has been used to identify leaks and quantify leak rates from reusable rocket engine joints and welds.

  12. Teaching Engineering Design Through Paper Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welling, Jonathan; Wright, Geoffrey A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper rocket activity described in this article effectively teaches the engineering design process (EDP) by engaging students in a problem-based learning activity that encourages iterative design. For example, the first rockets the students build typically only fly between 30 and 100 feet. As students test and evaluate their rocket designs,…

  13. Development Status of Reusable Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Takada, Satoshi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Niu, Kenichi

    A 30-kN rocket engine, a pilot engine, is being developed in Japan. Development of this pilot engine has been initiated in relation to a reusable sounding rocket, which is also being developed in Japan. This rocket takes off vertically, reaches an altitude of 100 km, lands vertically at the launch site, and is launched again within several days. Due to advantage of reusability, successful development of this rocket will mean that observation missions can be carried out more frequently and economically. In order to realize this rocket concept, the engines installed on the rocket should be characterized by reusability, long life, deep throttling and health monitoring, features which have not yet been established in Japanese rocket engines. To solve the engineering factors entitled by those features, a new design methodology, advanced engine simulations and engineering testing are being focused on in the pilot engine development stage. Especially in engineering testing, limit condition data is acquired to facilitate development of new diagnostic techniques, which can be applied by utilizing the mobility of small-size hardware. In this paper, the development status of the pilot engine is described, including fundamental design and engineering tests of the turbopump bearing and seal, turbine rig, injector and combustion chamber, and operation and maintenance concepts for one hundred flights by a reusable rocket are examined.

  14. Program For Optimization Of Nuclear Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plebuch, R. K.; Mcdougall, J. K.; Ridolphi, F.; Walton, James T.

    1994-01-01

    NOP is versatile digital-computer program devoloped for parametric analysis of beryllium-reflected, graphite-moderated nuclear rocket engines. Facilitates analysis of performance of engine with respect to such considerations as specific impulse, engine power, type of engine cycle, and engine-design constraints arising from complications of fuel loading and internal gradients of temperature. Predicts minimum weight for specified performance.

  15. The pasty propellant rocket engine development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, V. I.; Ivanchenko, A. N.

    1993-06-01

    The paper describes a newly developed pasty propellant rocket engine (PPRE) and the combustion process and presents results of performance tests. It is shown that, compared with liquid propellant rocket engines, the PPREs can regulate the thrust level within a wider range, are safer ecologically, and have better weight characteristics. Compared with solid propellant rocket engines, the PPREs may be produced with lower costs and more safely, are able to regulate thrust performance within a wider range, and are able to offer a greater scope for the variation of the formulation components and propellant characteristics. Diagrams of the PPRE are included.

  16. XLR-11 - X-1 rocket engine display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    What started as a hobby for four rocket fanatics went on to break the sound barrier: Lovell Lawrence, Hugh Franklin Pierce, John Shesta, and Jimmy Wyld the four founders of Reaction Motors, Inc. that built the XLR-11 Rocket Engine. The XLR-11 engine is shown on display in the NASA Exchange Gift Shop, NASA Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. This engine, familiarly known as Black Betsy, a 4-chamber rocket that ignited diluted ethyl alcohol and liquid oxygen into 6000 pounds or more of thrust powered the X-1 series airplanes.

  17. Evaluation of the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Oxygen Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.; Corpening, Griffin P.; Jarvis, Michele; Chiles, Harry R.

    1999-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) was a propulsion flight experiment for advanced space vehicles such as the X-33 and reusable launch vehicle. A linear aerospike rocket engine was integrated into a semi-span of an X-33-like lifting body shape (model), and carried on top of an SR-71 aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Because no flight data existed for aerospike nozzles, the primary objective of the LASRE flight experiment was to evaluate flight effects on the engine performance over a range of altitudes and Mach numbers. Because it contained a large quantity of energy in the form of fuel, oxidizer, hypergolics, and gases at very high pressures, the LASRE propulsion system posed a major hazard for fire or explosion. Therefore, a propulsion-hazard mitigation system was created for LASRE that included a nitrogen purge system. Oxygen sensors were a critical part of the nitrogen purge system because they measured purge operation and effectiveness. Because the available oxygen sensors were not designed for flight testing, a laboratory study investigated oxygen-sensor characteristics and accuracy over a range of altitudes and oxygen concentrations. Laboratory test data made it possible to properly calibrate the sensors for flight. Such data also provided a more accurate error prediction than the manufacturer's specification. This predictive accuracy increased confidence in the sensor output during critical phases of the flight. This paper presents the findings of this laboratory test.

  18. Nitrous Oxide/Paraffin Hybrid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Snyder, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide/paraffin (N2OP) hybrid rocket engines have been invented as alternatives to other rocket engines especially those that burn granular, rubbery solid fuels consisting largely of hydroxyl- terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Originally intended for use in launching spacecraft, these engines would also be suitable for terrestrial use in rocket-assisted takeoff of small airplanes. The main novel features of these engines are (1) the use of reinforced paraffin as the fuel and (2) the use of nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Hybrid (solid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket engines offer advantages of safety and simplicity over fluid-bipropellant (fluid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket en - gines, but the thrusts of HTPB-based hybrid rocket engines are limited by the low regression rates of the fuel grains. Paraffin used as a solid fuel has a regression rate about 4 times that of HTPB, but pure paraffin fuel grains soften when heated; hence, paraffin fuel grains can, potentially, slump during firing. In a hybrid engine of the present type, the paraffin is molded into a 3-volume-percent graphite sponge or similar carbon matrix, which supports the paraffin against slumping during firing. In addition, because the carbon matrix material burns along with the paraffin, engine performance is not appreciably degraded by use of the matrix.

  19. Computational Design of Upperstage Chamber Aerospike and Cooling Jacket for Dual-Expander Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Strain, my fellow workers, who managed to endure on this project despite themselves. I would also like to thank Thomas Lavelle at NASA Glenn for his...mm millimeter N Newton’s NASA National Air and Space Association NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NPSS TM Numerical...effects of the changes apparent. 57 NPSS was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center, in conjunction with the U.S. aero propulsion industry

  20. Electrodynamic actuators for rocket engine valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiet, O.; Doshi, D.

    1972-01-01

    Actuators, employed in acoustic loudspeakers, operate liquid rocket engine valves by replacing light paper cones with flexible metal diaphragms. Comparative analysis indicates better response time than solenoid actuators, and improved service life and reliability.

  1. Flight Stability and Control and Performance Results from the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Cox, Timothy H.; Conners, Timothy R.; Iliff, Kenneth W.; Powers, Bruce G.

    1998-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) is presently being conducted to test a 20-percent-scale version of the Linear Aerospike rocket engine. This rocket engine has been chosen to power the X-33 Single Stage to Orbit Technology Demonstrator Vehicle. The rocket engine was integrated into a lifting body configuration and mounted to the upper surface of an SR-71 aircraft. This paper presents stability and control results and performance results from the envelope expansion flight tests of the LASRE configuration up to Mach 1.8 and compares the results with wind tunnel predictions. Longitudinal stability and elevator control effectiveness were well-predicted from wind tunnel tests. Zero-lift pitching moment was mispredicted transonically. Directional stability, dihedral stability, and rudder effectiveness were overpredicted. The SR-71 handling qualities were never significantly impacted as a result of the missed predictions. Performance results confirmed the large amount of wind-tunnel-predicted transonic drag for the LASRE configuration. This drag increase made the performance of the vehicle so poor that acceleration through transonic Mach numbers could not be achieved on a hot day without depleting the available fuel.

  2. Rocket propulsion elements - An introduction to the engineering of rockets (6th revised and enlarged edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, George P.

    The subject of rocket propulsion is treated with emphasis on the basic technology, performance, and design rationale. Attention is given to definitions and fundamentals, nozzle theory and thermodynamic relations, heat transfer, flight performance, chemical rocket propellant performance analysis, and liquid propellant rocket engine fundamentals. The discussion also covers solid propellant rocket fundamentals, hybrid propellant rockets, thrust vector control, selection of rocket propulsion systems, electric propulsion, and rocket testing.

  3. Ceramic composites for rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Eckel, Andrew J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of ceramic materials in the hot section of the fuel turbopump of advanced reusable rocket engines promises increased performance and payload capability, improved component life and economics, and greater design flexibility. Severe thermal transients present during operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), push metallic components to the limit of their capabilities. Future engine requirements might be even more severe. In phase one of this two-phase program, performance benefits were quantified and continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite components demonstrated a potential to survive the hostile environment of an advanced rocket engine turbopump.

  4. Ceramic composites for rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Eckel, Andrew J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of ceramic materials in the hot section of the fuel turbopump of advanced reusable rocket engines promises increased performance and payload capability, improved component life and economics, and greater design flexibility. Severe thermal transients present during operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), push metallic components to the limit of their capabilities. Future engine requirements might be even more severe. In phase one of this two-phase program, performance benefits were quantified and continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite components demonstrated a potential to survive the hostile environment of an advaced rocket engine turbopump.

  5. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  6. The Strutjet Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebenhaar, A.; Bulman, M. J.; Bonnar, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    The multi stage chemical rocket has been established over many years as the propulsion System for space transportation vehicles, while, at the same time, there is increasing concern about its continued affordability and rather involved reusability. Two broad approaches to addressing this overall launch cost problem consist in one, the further development of the rocket motor, and two, the use of airbreathing propulsion to the maximum extent possible as a complement to the limited use of a conventional rocket. In both cases, a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle is considered a desirable goal. However, neither the "all-rocket" nor the "all-airbreathing" approach seems realizable and workable in practice without appreciable advances in materials and manufacturing. An affordable system must be reusable with minimal refurbishing on-ground, and large mean time between overhauls, and thus with high margins in design. It has been suggested that one may use different engine cycles, some rocket and others airbreathing, in a combination over a flight trajectory, but this approach does not lead to a converged solution with thrust-to-mass, specific impulse, and other performance and operational characteristics that can be obtained in the different engines. The reason is this type of engine is simply a combination of different engines with no commonality of gas flowpath or components, and therefore tends to have the deficiencies of each of the combined engines. A further development in this approach is a truly combined cycle that incorporates a series of cycles for different modes of propulsion along a flight path with multiple use of a set of components and an essentially single gas flowpath through the engine. This integrated approach is based on realizing the benefits of both a rocket engine and airbreathing engine in various combinations by a systematic functional integration of components in an engine class usually referred to as a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine

  7. A Versatile Rocket Engine Hot Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of a versatile rocket engine facility, located in the Rocket Laboratory at the NASA Lewis Research Center, are presented. The gaseous hydrogen/oxygen facility can be used for thermal shock and hot gas testing of materials and structures as well as rocket propulsion testing. Testing over a wide range of operating conditions in both fuel and oxygen rich regimes can be conducted, with cooled or uncooled test specimens. The size and location of the test cell provide the ability to conduct large amounts of testing in short time periods with rapid turnaround between programs.

  8. AJ26 rocket engine testing news briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Operators at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center are completing modifications to the E-1 Test Stand to begin testing Aerojet AJ26 rocket engines in early summer of 2010. Modifications include construction of a 27-foot-deep flame deflector trench. The AJ26 rocket engines will be used to power Orbital Sciences Corp.'s Taurus II space vehicles to provide commercial cargo transportation missions to the International Space Station for NASA. Stennis has partnered with Orbital to test all engines for the transport missions.

  9. Fiberoptic sensors for rocket engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    A research effort was completed to summarize and evaluate the current level of technology in fiberoptic sensors for possible applications in integrated control and health monitoring (ICHM) systems in liquid propellant engines. The environment within a rocket engine is particuarly severe with very high temperatures and pressures present combined with extremely rapid fluid and gas flows, and high-velocity and high-intensity acoustc waves. Application of fiberoptic technology to rocket engine health monitoring is a logical evolutionary step in ICHM development and presents a significant challenge. In this extremely harsh environment, the additional flexibility of fiberoptic techniques to augment conventional sensor technologies offer abundant future potential.

  10. Composite Material Application to Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The substitution of reinforced plastic composite (RPC) materials for metal was studied. The major objectives were to: (1) determine the extent to which composite materials can be beneficially used in liquid rocket engines; (2) identify additional technology requirements; and (3) determine those areas which have the greatest potential for return. Weight savings, fabrication costs, performance, life, and maintainability factors were considered. Two baseline designs, representative of Earth to orbit and orbit to orbit engine systems, were selected. Weight savings are found to be possible for selected components with the substitution of materials for metal. Various technology needs are identified before RPC material can be used in rocket engine applications.

  11. Iridium/Rhenium Parts For Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Harding, John T.; Wooten, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidation/corrosion of metals at high temperatures primary life-limiting mechanism of parts in rocket engines. Combination of metals greatly increases operating temperature and longevity of these parts. Consists of two transition-element metals - iridium and rhenium - that melt at extremely high temperatures. Maximum operating temperature increased to 2,200 degrees C from 1,400 degrees C. Increases operating lifetimes of small rocket engines by more than factor of 10. Possible to make hotter-operating, longer-lasting components for turbines and other heat engines.

  12. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is a component of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine. This engine was designed to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsion systems and ultimately a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  13. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  14. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  15. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-07-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  16. Outbrief - Long Life Rocket Engine Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jason Eugene

    2004-01-01

    This white paper is an overview of the JANNAF Long Life Rocket Engine (LLRE) Panel results from the last several years of activity. The LLRE Panel has met over the last several years in order to develop an approach for the development of long life rocket engines. Membership for this panel was drawn from a diverse set of the groups currently working on rocket engines (Le. government labs, both large and small companies and university members). The LLRE Panel was formed in order to determine the best way to enable the design of rocket engine systems that have life capability greater than 500 cycles while meeting or exceeding current performance levels (Specific Impulse and Thrust/Weight) with a 1/1,OOO,OOO likelihood of vehicle loss due to rocket system failure. After several meetings and much independent work the panel reached a consensus opinion that the primary issues preventing LLRE are a lack of: physics based life prediction, combined loads prediction, understanding of material microphysics, cost effective system level testing. and the inclusion of fabrication process effects into physics based models. With the expected level of funding devoted to LLRE development, the panel recommended that fundamental research efforts focused on these five areas be emphasized.

  17. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Engine data and information are presented to perform system studies on cargo orbit-transfer vehicles which would deliver large space structures to geosynchronous equatorial orbit. Low-thrust engine performance, weight, and envelope parametric data were established, preliminary design information was generated, and technologies for liquid rocket engines were identified. Two major engine design drivers were considered in the study: cooling and engine cycle options. Both film-cooled and regeneratively cooled engines were evaluated. The propellant combinations studied were hydrogen/oxygen, methane/oxygen, and kerosene/oxygen.

  18. A reusable rocket engine intelligen control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent control system for reusable space propulsion systems for future launch vehicles is described. The system description includes a framework for the design. The framework consists of an execution level with high-speed control and diagnostics, and a coordination level which marries expert system concepts with traditional control. A comparison is made between air breathing and rocket engine control concepts to assess the relative levels of development and to determine the applicability of air breathing control concepts to future reusable rocket engine systems.

  19. A reusable rocket engine intelligent control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent control system for reusable space propulsion systems for future launch vehicles is described. The system description includes a framework for the design. The framework consists of an execution level with high-speed control and diagnostics, and a coordination level which marries expert system concepts with traditional control. A comparison is made between air breathing and rocket engine control concepts to assess the relative levels of development and to determine the applicability of air breathing control concepts ot future reusable rocket engine systems.

  20. Fiber-Reinforced Superalloys For Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Jack R.; Yuen, Jim L.; Petrasek, Donald W.; Stephens, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses experimental studies of fiber-reinforced superalloy (FRS) composite materials for use in turbine blades in rocket engines. Intended to withstand extreme conditions of high temperature, thermal shock, atmospheres containing hydrogen, high cycle fatigue loading, and thermal fatigue, which tax capabilities of even most-advanced current blade material - directionally-solidified, hafnium-modified MAR M-246 {MAR M-246 (Hf) (DS)}. FRS composites attractive combination of properties for use in turbopump blades of advanced rocket engines at temperatures from 870 to 1,100 degrees C.

  1. AXISYMMETRIC, THROTTLEABLE NON-GIMBALLED ROCKET ENGINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Robert L. (Inventor); Hutt, John J. (Inventor); Anderson, William E. (Inventor); Dressler, Gordon A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A rocket engine assembly is provided for a vertically launched rocket vehicle. A rocket engine housing of the assembly includes two or more combustion chambers each including an outlet end defining a sonic throat area. A propellant supply for the combustion chambers includes a throttling injector, associated with each of the combustion chambers and located opposite to sonic throat area, which injects the propellant into the associated combustion chamber. A modulator, which may form part of the injector, and which is controlled by a controller, modulates the flow rate of the propellant to the combustion chambers so that the chambers provide a vectorable net thrust. An expansion nozzle or body located downstream of the throat area provides expansion of the combustion gases produced by the combustion chambers so as to increase the net thrust.

  2. Transpiration cooled throat for hydrocarbon rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Lee R.; Burkhardt, Wendel M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective for the Transpiration Cooled Throat for Hydrocarbon Rocket Engines Program was to characterize the use of hydrocarbon fuels as transpiration coolants for rocket nozzle throats. The hydrocarbon fuels investigated in this program were RP-1 and methane. To adequately characterize the above transpiration coolants, a program was planned which would (1) predict engine system performance and life enhancements due to transpiration cooling of the throat region using analytical models, anchored with available data; (2) a versatile transpiration cooled subscale rocket thrust chamber was designed and fabricated; (3) the subscale thrust chamber was tested over a limited range of conditions, e.g., coolant type, chamber pressure, transpiration cooled length, and coolant flow rate; and (4) detailed data analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between the key performance and life enhancement variables.

  3. Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.

  4. Turbopump systems for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The turbopump system, from preliminary design through rocket engine testing is examined. Selection of proper system type for each application and integration of the components into a working system are dealt with. Details are also given on the design of various components including inducers, pumps, turbines, gears, and bearings.

  5. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study evaluating thrust chamber cooling engine cycles and preliminary engine design for low thrust chemical rocket engines for orbit transfer vehicles is described. Oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, and oxygen/RP-1 engines with thrust levels from 444.8 N to 13345 N, and chamber pressures from 13.8 N/sq cm to 689.5 N/sq cm were evaluated. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the propellant theoretical performance data, and transport properties are documented. The thrust chamber cooling limits for regenerative/radiation and film/radiation cooling are defined and parametric heat transfer data presented. A conceptual evaluation of a number of engine cycles was performed and a 2224.1 N oxygen/hydrogen engine cycle configuration and a 2224.1 N oxygen/methane configuration chosen for preliminary engine design. Updated parametric engine data, engine design drawings, and an assessment of technology required are presented.

  6. Metal Matrix Composites for Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kathleen R.; Wooten, John R.

    2000-01-01

    This document is from a presentation about the applications of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) in rocket engines. Both NASA and the Air Force have goals which would reduce the costs and the weight of launching spacecraft. Charts show the engine weight distribution for both reuseable and expendable engine components. The presentation reviews the operating requirements for several components of the rocket engines. The next slide reviews the potential benefits of MMCs in general and in use as materials for Advanced Pressure Casting. The next slide reviews the drawbacks of MMCs. The reusable turbopump housing is selected to review for potential MMC application. The presentation reviews solutions for reusable turbopump materials, pointing out some of the issues. It also reviews the development of some of the materials.

  7. 12. Historic plot plan and drawings index for rocket engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic plot plan and drawings index for rocket engine test facility, June 28, 1956. NASA GRC drawing number CE-101810. On file at NASA Glenn Research Center. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. 7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-60674. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) dumps water after first in-flight cold flow test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-04

    The NASA SR-71A successfully completed its first cold flow flight as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California on March 4, 1998. During a cold flow flight, gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen are cycled through the linear aerospike engine to check the engine's plumbing system for leaks and to check the engine operating characterisitics. Cold-flow tests must be accomplished successfully before firing the rocket engine experiment in flight. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards at 12:13 p.m. PST. "I think all in all we had a good mission today," Dryden LASRE Project Manager Dave Lux said. Flight crew member Bob Meyer agreed, saying the crew "thought it was a really good flight." Dryden Research Pilot Ed Schneider piloted the SR-71 during the mission. Lockheed Martin LASRE Project Manager Carl Meade added, "We are extremely pleased with today's results. This will help pave the way for the first in-flight engine data-collection flight of the LASRE."

  10. Fabry-Perot interferometer development for rocket engine plume spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Madzsar, G.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes a new rugged high-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) designed for rocket engine plume spectroscopy, which is capable of detecting spectral signatures of eroding engine components during rocket engine tests and/or flight operations. The FPI system will make it possible to predict and to respond to the incipient rocket engine failures and to indicate the presence of rocket components degradation. The design diagram of the FPI spectrometer is presented.

  11. Fabry-Perot interferometer development for rocket engine plume spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Madzsar, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new rugged high-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) designed for rocket engine plume spectroscopy, which is capable of detecting spectral signatures of eroding engine components during rocket engine tests and/or flight operations. The FPI system will make it possible to predict and to respond to the incipient rocket engine failures and to indicate the presence of rocket components degradation. The design diagram of the FPI spectrometer is presented.

  12. Robotic Processing Of Rocket-Engine Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Maslakowski, John E.; Gutow, David A.; Deily, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Automated manufacturing cell containing computer-controlled robotic processing system developed to implement some important related steps in fabrication of rocket-engine nozzles. Performs several tedious and repetitive fabrication, measurement, adjustment, and inspection processes and subprocesses now performed manually. Offers advantages of reduced processing time, greater consistency, excellent collection of data, objective inspections, greater productivity, and simplified fixturing. Also affords flexibility: by making suitable changes in hardware and software, possible to modify process and subprocesses. Flexibility makes work cell adaptable to fabrication of heat exchangers and other items structured similarly to rocket nozzles.

  13. The next generation rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichel, Rudi; O'Brien, Charles J.; Taylor, James P.

    This paper examines propulsion system technologies for earth-to-orbit vehicles, and describes several propulsion system concepts which could support the recommendations of the Commission for Space Development for the year 2000. The hallmark of that system must and will be reliability. Reliability will be obtained through a very structured design approach, coupled with a rational, cost effective, development and qualification program. To improve the next generation space transportation propulsion systems we need to select the very best of alternative power and performance cycles and engine physical concepts with a rigid requirement to achieve a robust, dependable, affordable propulsion system. For example, engine concepts using either propellants or non-propellant fluids for cooling and/or power drive offer the potential to provide smooth, controlled engine starts, low turbine temperatures, etc. as required for long life turbomachinery. Concepts examined are LOX/LH 2, |LOX/LH 2 + hydrocarbon, and LOX/LH 2 + hydrocarbon + Al dual expander engines, separate LOX/LH 2 and LOX/hydrocarbon engines, and variable mixture ratio engines. A fully reusable propulsion system that is perceived to be very low risk and low in operation cost is described.

  14. AJ26 rocket engine testing news briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center) stands in front of a 'pathfinder' rocket engine with Orbital Sciences Corp. President and Chief Operating Officer J.R. Thompson (left) and Aerojet President Scott Seymour during a Feb. 24 news briefing at the south Mississippi facility. The leaders appeared together to announce a partnership for testing Aerojet AJ26 rocket engines at Stennis. The engines will be used to power Orbital's Taurus II space vehicles to provide commercial cargo transportation missions to the International Space Station for NASA. During the event, the Stennis partnership with Orbital was cited as an example of the new direction of NASA to work with commercial interests for space travel and transport.

  15. Combustion dynamics in liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A chemical analysis of the emission and absorption spectra in the combustion chamber of a nitrogen tetroxide/aerozine-50 rocket engine was conducted. Measurements were made under conditions of preignition, ignition, and post combustion operating periods. The cause of severe ignition overpressures sporadically observed during the vacuum startup of the Apollo reaction control system engine was investigated. The extent to which residual propellants or condensed intermediate reaction products remain after the engine has been operated in a pulse mode duty cycle was determined.

  16. Air breathing engine/rocket trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, V. K., III

    1979-01-01

    This research has focused on improving the mathematical models of the air-breathing propulsion systems, which can be mated with the rocket engine model and incorporated in trajectory optimization codes. Improved engine simulations provided accurate representation of the complex cycles proposed for advanced launch vehicles, thereby increasing the confidence in propellant use and payload calculations. The versatile QNEP (Quick Navy Engine Program) was modified to allow treatment of advanced turboaccelerator cycles using hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels and operating in the vehicle flow field.

  17. Radiation effect on rocket engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang

    1988-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the performance of modern rocket propulsion systems operating at high pressure and temperature were recognized as a key issue in the design and operation of various liquid rocket engines of the current and future generations. Critical problem areas of radiation coupled with combustion of bipropellants are assessed and accounted for in the formulation of a universal scaling law incorporated with a radiation-enhanced vaporization combustion model. Numerical algorithms are developed and the pertaining data of the Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) and Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are used to conduct parametric sensitivity studies to predict the principal intercoupling effects of radiation. The analysis reveals that low enthalpy engines, such as the VTE, are vulnerable to a substantial performance set back by the radiative loss, whereas the performance of high enthalpy engines such as the SSME, are hardly affected over a broad range of engine operation. Additionally, combustion enhancement by the radiative heating of the propellant has a significant impact in those propellants with high absorptivity. Finally, the areas of research related with radiation phenomena in bipropellant engines are identified.

  18. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch. The RBCC's overall objective is to provide a technology test bed to investigate critical technologies associated with opperational usage of these engines. The program will focus on near term technologies that can be leveraged to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsions systems and ultimately a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  19. Modified RS2101 rocket engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the program is to perform design studies and analyses to determine the effects of incorporating a 60:1 expansion area ratio nozzle extension, extended firing time, and modified operating conditions and environments on the MM'71 rocket engine assembly. An injector-to-thrust chamber seal study was conducted to define potential solutions for leakage past this joint. The results and recommendations evolving from the engine thermal analyses, the injector-to-thrust chamber seal studies, and the nozzle extension joint stress analyses are presented.

  20. Quantifying Instability Sources in Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Cheng, Gary C.

    2000-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics methodology to predict the effects of combusting flows on acoustic pressure oscillations in liquid rocket engines (LREs) is under development. 'Me intent of the investigation is to develop the causal physics of combustion driven acoustic resonances in LREs. The crux of the analysis is the accurate simulation of pressure/density/sound speed in a combustor which when used by the FDNS-RFV CFD code will produce realistic flow phenomena. An analysis of a gas generator considered for the Fastrac engine will be used as a test validation case.

  1. Analysis of a Radioisotope Thermal Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machado-Rodriguez, Jonathan P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    The Triton Hopper is a concept for a vehicle to explore the surface of Neptunes moon Triton, which uses a radioisotope heated rocket engine and in-situ propellant acquisition. The initial Triton Hopper conceptual design stores pressurized Nitrogen in a spherical tank to be used as the propellant. The aim of the research was to investigate the benefits of storing propellant at ambient temperature and heating it through a thermal block during engine operation, as opposed to storing gas at a high temperature.

  2. Software for Collaborative Engineering of Launch Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy

    2003-01-01

    The Rocket Evaluation and Cost Integration for Propulsion and Engineering software enables collaborative computing with automated exchange of information in the design and analysis of launch rockets and other complex systems. RECIPE can interact with and incorporate a variety of programs, including legacy codes, that model aspects of a system from the perspectives of different technological disciplines (e.g., aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, trajectory, aeroheating, controls, and operations) and that are used by different engineers on different computers running different operating systems. RECIPE consists mainly of (1) ISCRM a file-transfer subprogram that makes it possible for legacy codes executed in their original operating systems on their original computers to exchange data and (2) CONES an easy-to-use filewrapper subprogram that enables the integration of legacy codes. RECIPE provides a tightly integrated conceptual framework that emphasizes connectivity among the programs used by the collaborators, linking these programs in a manner that provides some configuration control while facilitating collaborative engineering tradeoff studies, including design to cost studies. In comparison with prior collaborative-engineering schemes, one based on the use of RECIPE enables fewer engineers to do more in less time.

  3. Turbo Pump Fed Micro-Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotti, P.; Tajmar, M.; Seco, F.; Guraya, C.; Perennes, F.; Soldati, A.; Lang, M.

    2004-10-01

    Micro-satellites (from 10kg up to 100kg) have mass, volume, and electrical power constraints due to their low dimensions. These limitations lead to the lack in currently available active orbit control systems in micro-satellites. Therefore, a micro-propulsion system with a high thrust to mass ratio is required to increase the potential functionality of small satellites. Mechatronic is presently working on a liquid bipropellant micro-rocket engine under contract with ESA (Contract No.16914/NL/Sfe - Micro-turbo-machinery Based Bipropellant System Using MNT). The advances in Mechatronic's project are to realise a micro-rocket engine with propellants pressurised by micro-pumps. The energy for driving the pumps would be extracted from a micro-turbine. Cooling channels around the nozzle would be also used in order to maintain the wall material below its maximum operating temperature. A mass budget comparison with more traditional pressure-fed micro-rockets shows a real benefit from this system in terms of mass reduction. In the paper, an overview of the project status in Mechatronic is presented.

  4. 1. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST ¼ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST ¼ OF THE X-15 ENGINE TEST COMPLEX. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Efficiency of the rocket engines with a supersonic afterburner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, A. A.

    1992-08-01

    The paper is concerned with the problem of regenerative cooling of the liquid-propellant rocket engine combustion chamber at high pressures of the working fluid. It is shown that high combustion product pressures can be achieved in the liquid-propellant rocket engine with a supersonic afterburner than in a liquid-propellant rocket engine with a conventional subsonic combustion chamber for the same allowable heat flux density. However, the liquid-propellant rocket engine with a supersonic afterburner becomes more economical than the conventional engine only at generator gas temperatures of 1700 K and higher.

  6. Reusable Rocket Engine Turbopump Health Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surko, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.

  7. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  8. Thermal/Fluid Analysis of a Composite Heat Exchanger for Use on the RLV Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Dalton

    2002-01-01

    As part of efforts to design a regeneratively cooled composite nozzle ramp for use on the reusable vehicle (RLV) rocket engine, an C-SiC composites heat exchanger concept was proposed for thermal performance evaluation. To test the feasibility of the concept, sample heat exchanger panels were made to fit the Glenn Research Center's cell 22 for testing. Operation of the heat exchanger was demonstrated in a combustion environment with high heat fluxes similar to the RLV Aerospike Ramp. Test measurements were reviewed and found to be valuable for the on going fluid and thermal analysis of the actual RLV composite ramp. Since the cooling fluid for the heat exchanger is water while the RLV Ramp cooling fluid is LH2, fluid and thermal models were constructed to correlate to the specific test set-up. The knowledge gained from this work will be helpful for analyzing the thermal response of the actual RLV Composite Ramp. The coolant thermal properties for the models are taken from test data. The heat exchanger's cooling performance was analyzed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). Temperatures of the heat exchanger's structure were predicted in finite element models using Patran and Sinda. Results from the analytical models and the tests show that RSC's heat exchanger satisfied the combustion environments in a series of 16 tests.

  9. Thermal/Fluid Analysis of a Composite Heat Exchanger for Use on the RLV Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Dalton; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of efforts to design a regeneratively cooled composite nozzle ramp for use on the reusable vehicle (RLV) rocket engine, a C-SiC composite heat exchanger concept was proposed for thermal performance evaluation. To test the feasibility of the concept, sample heat exchanger panels were made to fit the Glenn Research Center's cell 22 for testing. Operation of the heat exchanger was demonstrated in a combustion environment with high heat fluxes similar to the RLV Aerospike Ramp. Test measurements were reviewed and found to be valuable for the on-going fluid and thermal analysis of the actual RLV composite ramp. Since the cooling fluid for the heat exchanger is water while the RLV Ramp cooling fluid is LH2, fluid and therma models were constructed to correlate to the specific test set-up. The knowledge gained from this work will be helpful for analyzing the thermal response of the actual RLV Composite Ramp. The coolant thermal properties for the models are taken from test data. The heat exchanger's cooling performance was analyzed using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). Temperatures of the heat exchanger's structure were predicted in finite element models using Patran and Sinda. Results from the analytical models and the tests show that RSC's heat exchanger satisfied the combustion environments in a series of 16 tests.

  10. Parallelization of Rocket Engine System Software (Press)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cezzar, Ruknet

    1996-01-01

    The main goal is to assess parallelization requirements for the Rocket Engine Numeric Simulator (RENS) project which, aside from gathering information on liquid-propelled rocket engines and setting forth requirements, involve a large FORTRAN based package at NASA Lewis Research Center and TDK software developed by SUBR/UWF. The ultimate aim is to develop, test, integrate, and suitably deploy a family of software packages on various aspects and facets of rocket engines using liquid-propellants. At present, all project efforts by the funding agency, NASA Lewis Research Center, and the HBCU participants are disseminated over the internet using world wide web home pages. Considering obviously expensive methods of actual field trails, the benefits of software simulators are potentially enormous. When realized, these benefits will be analogous to those provided by numerous CAD/CAM packages and flight-training simulators. According to the overall task assignments, Hampton University's role is to collect all available software, place them in a common format, assess and evaluate, define interfaces, and provide integration. Most importantly, the HU's mission is to see to it that the real-time performance is assured. This involves source code translations, porting, and distribution. The porting will be done in two phases: First, place all software on Cray XMP platform using FORTRAN. After testing and evaluation on the Cray X-MP, the code will be translated to C + + and ported to the parallel nCUBE platform. At present, we are evaluating another option of distributed processing over local area networks using Sun NFS, Ethernet, TCP/IP. Considering the heterogeneous nature of the present software (e.g., first started as an expert system using LISP machines) which now involve FORTRAN code, the effort is expected to be quite challenging.

  11. Rocket engine diagnostics using qualitative modeling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael; Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Sovie, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center are presently developing qualitative modeling techniques for automated rocket engine diagnostics. A qualitative model of a turbopump interpropellant seal system has been created. The qualitative model describes the effects of seal failures on the system steady-state behavior. This model is able to diagnose the failure of particular seals in the system based on anomalous temperature and pressure values. The anomalous values input to the qualitative model are generated using numerical simulations. Diagnostic test cases include both single and multiple seal failures.

  12. Rocket engine diagnostics using qualitative modeling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael; Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Sovie, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center are presently developing qualitative modeling techniques for automated rocket engine diagnostics. A qualitative model of a turbopump interpropellant seal system was created. The qualitative model describes the effects of seal failures on the system steady state behavior. This model is able to diagnose the failure of particular seals in the system based on anomalous temperature and pressure values. The anomalous values input to the qualitative model are generated using numerical simulations. Diagnostic test cases include both single and multiple seal failures.

  13. Life extending control for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, C. F.; Saus, J. R.; Ray, A.; Carpino, M.; Wu, M.-K.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of life extending control is defined. A brief discussion of current fatigue life prediction methods is given and the need for an alternative life prediction model based on a continuous functional relationship is established. Two approaches to life extending control are considered: (1) the implicit approach which uses cyclic fatigue life prediction as a basis for control design; and (2) the continuous life prediction approach which requires a continuous damage law. Progress on an initial formulation of a continuous (in time) fatigue model is presented. Finally, nonlinear programming is used to develop initial results for life extension for a simplified rocket engine (model).

  14. Numerical investigations of hybrid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betelin, V. B.; Kushnirenko, A. G.; Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Tyurenkova, V. V.; Stamov, L. I.

    2018-03-01

    Paper presents the results of numerical studies of hybrid rocket engines operating cycle including unsteady-state transition stage. A mathematical model is developed accounting for the peculiarities of diffusion combustion of fuel in the flow of oxidant, which is composed of oxygen-nitrogen mixture. Three dimensional unsteady-state simulations of chemically reacting gas mixture above thermochemically destructing surface are performed. The results show that the diffusion combustion brings to strongly non-uniform fuel mass regression rate in the flow direction. Diffusive deceleration of chemical reaction brings to the decrease of fuel regression rate in the longitudinal direction.

  15. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.; Ewen, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study identifies and evaluates promising LO2/HC rocket engine cycles, produces a consistent and reliable data base for vehicle optimization and design studies, demonstrates the significance of propulsion system improvements, and selects the critical technology areas necessary to realize an improved surface to orbit transportation system. Parametric LO2/HC engine data were generated over a range of thrust levels from 890 to 6672 kN (200K to 1.5M 1bF) and chamber pressures from 6890 to 34500 kN (1000 to 5000 psia). Engine coolants included RP-1, refined RP-1, LCH4, LC3H8, LO2, and LH2. LO2/RP-1 G.G. cycles were found to be not acceptable for advanced engines. The highest performing LO2/RP-1 staged combustion engine cycle utilizes LO2 as the coolant and incorporates an oxidizer rich preburner. The highest performing cycle for LO2/LCH4 and LO2/LC3H8 utilizes fuel cooling and incorporates both fuel and oxidizer rich preburners. LO2/HC engine cycles permitting the use of a third fluid LH2 coolant and an LH2 rich gas generator provide higher performance at significantly lower pump discharge pressures. The LO2/HC dual throat engine, because of its high altitude performance, delivers the highest payload for the vehicle configuration that was investigated.

  16. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) dumps water after first in-flight cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The NASA SR-71A successfully completed its first cold flow flight as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California on March 4, 1998. During a cold flow flight, gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen are cycled through the linear aerospike engine to check the engine's plumbing system for leaks and to check the engine operating characterisitics. Cold-flow tests must be accomplished successfully before firing the rocket engine experiment in flight. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards at 12:13 p.m. PST. 'I think all in all we had a good mission today,' Dryden LASRE Project Manager Dave Lux said. Flight crew member Bob Meyer agreed, saying the crew 'thought it was a really good flight.' Dryden Research Pilot Ed Schneider piloted the SR-71 during the mission. Lockheed Martin LASRE Project Manager Carl Meade added, 'We are extremely pleased with today's results. This will help pave the way for the first in-flight engine data-collection flight of the LASRE.' The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous

  17. 2. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, SHOWING TANK (BUILDING 1929) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, SHOWING TANK (BUILDING 1929) AND GARAGE (BUILDING 1930) AT LEFT REAR. Looking to west. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarrant, C.; Crook, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS) Program is a technology demonstration effort designed to advance the state-of-the-art in launch vehicle propulsion systems. Its emphasis is on developing and demonstrating a modular software architecture for advanced engine control systems that will result in lower software maintenance (operations) costs. It effectively accommodates software requirement changes that occur due to hardware technology upgrades and engine development testing. Ground rules directed by MSFC were to optimize modularity and implement the software in the Ada programming language. MRECS system software and the software development environment utilize Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) products. This paper presents the objectives, benefits, and status of the program. The software architecture, design, and development environment are described. MRECS tasks are defined and timing relationships given. Major accomplishments are listed. MRECS offers benefits to a wide variety of advanced technology programs in the areas of modular software architecture, reuse software, and reduced software reverification time related to software changes. MRECS was recently modified to support a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot-fire test. Cold Flow and Flight Readiness Testing were completed before the test was cancelled. Currently, the program is focused on supporting NASA MSFC in accomplishing development testing of the Fastrac Engine, part of NASA's Low Cost Technologies (LCT) Program. MRECS will be used for all engine development testing.

  19. A Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The overall structure and capabilities of an expert system designed to evaluate rocket engine performance are described. The expert system incorporates a JANNAF standard reference computer code to determine rocket engine performance and a state of the art finite element computer code to calculate the interactions between propellant injection, energy release in the combustion chamber, and regenerative cooling heat transfer. Rule-of-thumb heuristics were incorporated for the H2-O2 coaxial injector design, including a minimum gap size constraint on the total number of injector elements. One dimensional equilibrium chemistry was used in the energy release analysis of the combustion chamber. A 3-D conduction and/or 1-D advection analysis is used to predict heat transfer and coolant channel wall temperature distributions, in addition to coolant temperature and pressure drop. Inputting values to describe the geometry and state properties of the entire system is done directly from the computer keyboard. Graphical display of all output results from the computer code analyses is facilitated by menu selection of up to five dependent variables per plot.

  20. A rocket engine design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The overall structure and capabilities of an expert system designed to evaluate rocket engine performance are described. The expert system incorporates a JANNAF standard reference computer code to determine rocket engine performance and a state-of-the-art finite element computer code to calculate the interactions between propellant injection, energy release in the combustion chamber, and regenerative cooling heat transfer. Rule-of-thumb heuristics were incorporated for the hydrogen-oxygen coaxial injector design, including a minimum gap size constraint on the total number of injector elements. One-dimensional equilibrium chemistry was employed in the energy release analysis of the combustion chamber and three-dimensional finite-difference analysis of the regenerative cooling channels was used to calculate the pressure drop along the channels and the coolant temperature as it exits the coolant circuit. Inputting values to describe the geometry and state properties of the entire system is done directly from the computer keyboard. Graphical display of all output results from the computer code analyses is facilitated by menu selection of up to five dependent variables per plot.

  1. Rocket engine hot-spot detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collamore, F. N.

    1985-04-01

    On high performance devices such as rocket engines it is desirable to know if local hot spots or areas of reduced cooling margin exist. The objective of this program is to design, fabricate and test an electronic hot spot detector capable of sensing local hot spot on the exterior circumference of a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber in order to avoid hardware damage. The electronic hot spot sensor consists of an array of 120 thermocouple elements which are bonded in a flexible belt of polyimide film. The design temperature range is from +30 F to +400 F continuously with an intermittent temperature of 500 F maximum. The thermocouple belt consists of 120 equally spaced copper-Constantan thermocouple junctions which is wrapped around the OMS liquid rocket engine combustion chamber, to monitor temperatures of individual cooling channels. Each thermocouple is located over a cooling channel near the injector end of the combustion chamber. The thermocouple array sensor is held in place by a spring loaded clamp band. Analyses show that in the event of a blocked cooling channel the surface temperature of the chamber over the blocked channel will rise from a normal operating temperature of approx. 300 F to approx. 600 F. The hot spot detector will respond quickly to this change with a response time constant less than 0.05 seconds. The hot spot sensor assembly is fabricated with a laminated construction of layers of Kapton film and an outer protective layer of fiberglass reinforced silicone rubber.

  2. Engine protection system for recoverable rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelby, Jr., Jerry A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A rocket engine protection system for a recoverable rocket booster which is arranged to land in a salt water body in substantially a nose down attitude. The system includes an inflatable bag which is stowed on a portion of a flat annular rim of the aft skirt of the booster. The bag is hinged at opposing sides and is provided with springs that urge the bag open. The bag is latched in a stowed position during launch and prior to landing for recovery is unlatched to permit the bag to be urged open and into sealing engagement with the rim. A source of pressurized gas further inflates the bag and urges it into sealing engagement with the rim of the skirt where it is locked into position. The gas provides a positive pressure upon the interior of the bag to preclude entry of salt water into the skirt and into contact with the engine. A flotation arrangement may assist in precluding the skirt of the booster from becoming submerged.

  3. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  4. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology 7.5K-LB thrust rocket engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, T. J.; Roschak, E.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary design of an advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine producing 7,500 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer vehicle missions was completed. Engine system, component and turbomachinery analysis at both on design and off design conditions were completed. The preliminary design analysis results showed engine requirements and performance goals were met. Computer models are described and model outputs are presented. Engine system assembly layouts, component layouts and valve and control system analysis are presented. Major design technologies were identified and remaining issues and concerns were listed.

  5. Acoustic/infrasonic rocket engine signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenney, Stephen M.; Noble, John M.; Whitaker, Rodney W.; ReVelle, Douglas O.

    2003-09-01

    Infrasonics offers the potential of long-range acoustic detection of explosions, missiles and even sounds created by manufacturing plants. The atmosphere attenuates acoustic energy above 20 Hz quite rapidly, but signals below 10 Hz can propagate to long ranges. Space shuttle launches have been detected infrasonically from over 1000 km away and the Concorde airliner from over 400 km. This technology is based on microphones designed to respond to frequencies from .1 to 300 Hz that can be operated outdoors for extended periods of time with out degrading their performance. The US Army Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collected acoustic and infrasonic signatures of static engine testing of two missiles. Signatures were collected of a SCUD missile engine at Huntsville, AL and a Minuteman engine at Edwards AFB. The engines were fixed vertically in a test stand during the burn. We will show the typical time waveform signals of these static tests and spectrograms for each type. High resolution, 24-bit data were collected at 512 Hz and 16-bit acoustic data at 10 kHz. Edwards data were recorded at 250 Hz and 50 Hz using a Geotech Instruments 24 bit digitizer. Ranges from the test stand varied from 1 km to 5 km. Low level and upper level meteorological data was collected to provide full details of atmospheric propagation during the engine test. Infrasonic measurements were made with the Chaparral Physics Model 2 microphone with porous garden hose attached for wind noise suppression. A B&K microphone was used for high frequency acoustic measurements. Results show primarily a broadband signal with distinct initiation and completion points. There appear to be features present in the signals that would allow identification of missile type. At 5 km the acoustic/infrasonic signal was clearly present. Detection ranges for the types of missile signatures measured will be predicted based on atmospheric modeling. As part of an experiment conducted by ARL

  6. Propellant Feed System Leak Detection: Lessons Learned From the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, Neal; Mizukami, Masashi; Neal, Bradford A.; St. John, Clinton; Beil, Robert J.; Griffin, Timothy P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents pertinent results and assessment of propellant feed system leak detection as applied to the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) program flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The LASRE was a flight test of an aerospike rocket engine using liquid oxygen and high-pressure gaseous hydrogen as propellants. The flight safety of the crew and the experiment demanded proven technologies and techniques that could detect leaks and assess the integrity of hazardous propellant feed systems. Point source detection and systematic detection were used. Point source detection was adequate for catching gross leakage from components of the propellant feed systems, but insufficient for clearing LASRE to levels of acceptability. Systematic detection, which used high-resolution instrumentation to evaluate the health of the system within a closed volume, provided a better means for assessing leak hazards. Oxygen sensors detected a leak rate of approximately 0.04 cubic inches per second of liquid oxygen. Pressure sensor data revealed speculated cryogenic boiloff through the fittings of the oxygen system, but location of the source(s) was indeterminable. Ultimately, LASRE was cancelled because leak detection techniques were unable to verify that oxygen levels could be maintained below flammability limits.

  7. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE): Aerospace Propulsion Hazard Mitigation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Corpening, Griffin P.; Ray, Ronald J.; Hass, Neal; Ennix, Kimberly A.; Lazaroff, Scott M.

    1998-01-01

    A major hazard posed by the propulsion system of hypersonic and space vehicles is the possibility of fire or explosion in the vehicle environment. The hazard is mitigated by minimizing or detecting, in the vehicle environment, the three ingredients essential to producing fire: fuel, oxidizer, and an ignition source. The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) consisted of a linear aerospike rocket engine integrated into one-half of an X-33-like lifting body shape, carried on top of an SR-71 aircraft. Gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen were used as propellants. Although LASRE is a one-of-a-kind experimental system, it must be rated for piloted flight, so this test presented a unique challenge. To help meet safety requirements, the following propulsion hazard mitigation systems were incorporated into the experiment: pod inert purge, oxygen sensors, a hydrogen leak detection algorithm, hydrogen sensors, fire detection and pod temperature thermocouples, water misting, and control room displays. These systems are described, and their development discussed. Analyses, ground test, and flight test results are presented, as are findings and lessons learned.

  8. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, N. B.; Harmon, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced near term (1990's) space-based Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine (OTVE) system was designed, and the technologies applicable to its construction, maintenance, and operations were developed under Tasks A through F of the Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program. Task A was a reporting task. In Task B, promising OTV turbomachinery technologies were explored: two stage partial admission turbines, high velocity ratio diffusing crossovers, soft wear ring seals, advanced bearing concepts, and a rotordynamic analysis. In Task C, a ribbed combustor design was developed. Possible rib and channel geometries were chosen analytically. Rib candidates were hot air tested and laser velocimeter boundary layer analyses were conducted. A channel geometry was also chosen on the basis of laser velocimeter data. To verify the predicted heat enhancement effects, a ribbed calorimeter spool was hot fire tested. Under Task D, the optimum expander cycle engine thrust, performance and envelope were established for a set of OTV missions. Optimal nozzle contours and quick disconnects for modularity were developed. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses, maintenance and reliability studies and component study results were incorporated into the engine system. Parametric trades on engine thrust, mixture ratio, and area ratio were also generated. A control system and the health monitoring and maintenance operations necessary for a space-based engine were outlined in Task E. In addition, combustor wall thickness measuring devices and a fiberoptic shaft monitor were developed. These monitoring devices were incorporated into preflight engine readiness checkout procedures. In Task F, the Integrated Component Evaluator (I.C.E.) was used to demonstrate performance and operational characteristics of an advanced expander cycle engine system and its component technologies. Sub-system checkouts and a system blowdown were performed. Short transitions were then made into main combustor ignition and

  9. Robust Strategy for Rocket Engine Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring the health of rocket engine systems is essentially a two-phase process. The acquisition phase involves sensing physical conditions at selected locations, converting physical inputs to electrical signals, conditioning the signals as appropriate to establish scale or filter interference, and recording results in a form that is easy to interpret. The inference phase involves analysis of results from the acquisition phase, comparison of analysis results to established health measures, and assessment of health indications. A variety of analytical tools may be employed in the inference phase of health monitoring. These tools can be separated into three broad categories: statistical, rule based, and model based. Statistical methods can provide excellent comparative measures of engine operating health. They require well-characterized data from an ensemble of "typical" engines, or "golden" data from a specific test assumed to define the operating norm in order to establish reliable comparative measures. Statistical methods are generally suitable for real-time health monitoring because they do not deal with the physical complexities of engine operation. The utility of statistical methods in rocket engine health monitoring is hindered by practical limits on the quantity and quality of available data. This is due to the difficulty and high cost of data acquisition, the limited number of available test engines, and the problem of simulating flight conditions in ground test facilities. In addition, statistical methods incur a penalty for disregarding flow complexity and are therefore limited in their ability to define performance shift causality. Rule based methods infer the health state of the engine system based on comparison of individual measurements or combinations of measurements with defined health norms or rules. This does not mean that rule based methods are necessarily simple. Although binary yes-no health assessment can sometimes be established by

  10. Catalyst Development for Hydrogen Peroxide Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morlan, P. W.; Wu, P.-K.; Ruttle, D. W.; Fuller, R. P.; Nejad, A. S.; Anderson, W. E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of various catalysts of hydrogen peroxide was conducted for the applications of liquid rocket engines. The catalyst development includes silver screen technology, solid catalyst technology, and homogeneous catalyst technology. The silver screen technology development was performed with 85% (by weight) hydrogen peroxide. The results of this investigation were used as the basis for the catalyst design of a pressure-fed liquid-fueled upper stage engine. Both silver-plated nickel 200 screens and pure silver screens were used as the active metal catalyst during the investigation, The data indicate that a high decomposition efficiency (greater than 90%) of 85% hydrogen peroxide can be achieved at a bed loading of 0.5 lbm/sq in/sec with both pure silver and silver plated screens. Samarium oxide coating, however, was found to retard the decomposition process and the catalyst bed was flooded at lower bed loading. A throughput of 200 lbm of hydrogen peroxide (1000 second run time) was tested to evaluate the catalyst aging issue and performance degradation was observed starting at approximately 400 seconds. Catalyst beds of 3.5 inch in diameter was fabricated using the same configuration for a 1,000-lbf rocket engine. High decomposition efficiency was obtained with a low pressure drop across the bed. Solid catalyst using precious metal was also developed for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide from 85% to 98% by weight. Preliminary results show that the catalyst has a strong reactivity even after 15 minutes of peroxide decomposition. The development effort also includes the homogeneous catalyst technology. Various non-toxic catalysts were evaluated with 98% peroxide and hydrocarbon fuels. The results of open cup drop tests indicate an ignition delay around 11 ms.

  11. Developments in REDES: The rocket engine design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) is being developed at the NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP, a nozzle design program named RAO, a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE, and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES is built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  12. Developments in REDES: The Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) was developed at NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP; a nozzle design program named RAO; a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE; and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES was built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  13. Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarrant, Charlie; Crook, Jerry

    1997-01-01

    The Modular Rocket Engine Control Software (MRECS) Program is a technology demonstration effort designed to advance the state-of-the-art in launch vehicle propulsion systems. Its emphasis is on developing and demonstrating a modular software architecture for a generic, advanced engine control system that will result in lower software maintenance (operations) costs. It effectively accommodates software requirements changes that occur due to hardware. technology upgrades and engine development testing. Ground rules directed by MSFC were to optimize modularity and implement the software in the Ada programming language. MRECS system software and the software development environment utilize Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) products. This paper presents the objectives and benefits of the program. The software architecture, design, and development environment are described. MRECS tasks are defined and timing relationships given. Major accomplishment are listed. MRECS offers benefits to a wide variety of advanced technology programs in the areas of modular software, architecture, reuse software, and reduced software reverification time related to software changes. Currently, the program is focused on supporting MSFC in accomplishing a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot-fire test at Stennis Space Center and the Low Cost Boost Technology (LCBT) Program.

  14. 6. Historic photo of rocket engine test facility Building 202 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic photo of rocket engine test facility Building 202 complex in operation at night, September 12, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45924. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. 30. Historic view of twentythousandpound rocket test stand with engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Historic view of twenty-thousand-pound rocket test stand with engine installation in test cell of Building 202, looking down from elevated location, September 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45872. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1270. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. 29. Historic view of twentythousandpound rocket test stand with engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic view of twenty-thousand-pound rocket test stand with engine installation in test cell of Building 202, September 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45870. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. 13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including Buildings 202, 205, 206, and 206A, February 3, 1984. NASA GRC drawing number CF-101539. On file at NASA Glenn Research Center. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. 10. Historic photo of rendering of rocket engine test facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic photo of rendering of rocket engine test facility complex, April 28, 1964. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-69472. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. 11. Historic photo of cutaway rendering of rocket engine test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic photo of cutaway rendering of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-74433. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. 5. Historic photo of scale model of rocket engine test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic photo of scale model of rocket engine test facility, June 18, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45264. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. 8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1271. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detailed design issues associated with liquid rocket engine injectors and combustion chamber operation require CFD methodology which simulates highly three-dimensional, turbulent, vaporizing, and combusting flows. The primary utility of such simulations involves predicting multi-dimensional effects caused by specific injector configurations. SECA, Inc. and Engineering Sciences, Inc. have been developing appropriate computational methodology for NASA/MSFC for the past decade. CFD tools and computers have improved dramatically during this time period; however, the physical submodels used in these analyses must still remain relatively simple in order to produce useful results. Simulations of clustered coaxial and impinger injector elements for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels, which account for real fluid properties, is the immediate goal of this research. The spray combustion codes are based on the FDNS CFD code' and are structured to represent homogeneous and heterogeneous spray combustion. The homogeneous spray model treats the flow as a continuum of multi-phase, multicomponent fluids which move without thermal or velocity lags between the phases. Two heterogeneous models were developed: (1) a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model which represents the liquid core of coaxial or impinger jets and their atomization and vaporization, and (2) a Blob model which represents the injected streams as a cloud of droplets the size of the injector orifice which subsequently exhibit particle interaction, vaporization, and combustion. All of these spray models are computationally intensive, but this is unavoidable to accurately account for the complex physics and combustion which is to be predicted, Work is currently in progress to parallelize these codes to improve their computational efficiency. These spray combustion codes were used to simulate the three test cases which are the subject of the 2nd International Workshop on-Rocket Combustion Modeling. Such test cases are considered by

  4. Parallelization of Rocket Engine Simulator Software (PRESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cezzar, Ruknet

    1997-01-01

    Parallelization of Rocket Engine System Software (PRESS) project is part of a collaborative effort with Southern University at Baton Rouge (SUBR), University of West Florida (UWF), and Jackson State University (JSU). The second-year funding, which supports two graduate students enrolled in our new Master's program in Computer Science at Hampton University and the principal investigator, have been obtained for the period from October 19, 1996 through October 18, 1997. The key part of the interim report was new directions for the second year funding. This came about from discussions during Rocket Engine Numeric Simulator (RENS) project meeting in Pensacola on January 17-18, 1997. At that time, a software agreement between Hampton University and NASA Lewis Research Center had already been concluded. That agreement concerns off-NASA-site experimentation with PUMPDES/TURBDES software. Before this agreement, during the first year of the project, another large-scale FORTRAN-based software, Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK), was being used for translation to an object-oriented language and parallelization experiments. However, that package proved to be too complex and lacking sufficient documentation for effective translation effort to the object-oriented C + + source code. The focus, this time with better documented and more manageable PUMPDES/TURBDES package, was still on translation to C + + with design improvements. At the RENS Meeting, however, the new impetus for the RENS projects in general, and PRESS in particular, has shifted in two important ways. One was closer alignment with the work on Numerical Propulsion System Simulator (NPSS) through cooperation and collaboration with LERC ACLU organization. The other was to see whether and how NASA's various rocket design software can be run over local and intra nets without any radical efforts for redesign and translation into object-oriented source code. There were also suggestions that the Fortran based code be

  5. Test Stand at the Rocket Engine Test Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-02-21

    The thrust stand in the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The Rocket Engine Test Facility was constructed in the mid-1950s to expand upon the smaller test cells built a decade before at the Rocket Laboratory. The $2.5-million Rocket Engine Test Facility could test larger hydrogen-fluorine and hydrogen-oxygen rocket thrust chambers with thrust levels up to 20,000 pounds. Test Stand A, seen in this photograph, was designed to fire vertically mounted rocket engines downward. The exhaust passed through an exhaust gas scrubber and muffler before being vented into the atmosphere. Lewis researchers in the early 1970s used the Rocket Engine Test Facility to perform basic research that could be utilized by designers of the Space Shuttle Main Engines. A new electronic ignition system and timer were installed at the facility for these tests. Lewis researchers demonstrated the benefits of ceramic thermal coatings for the engine’s thrust chamber and determined the optimal composite material for the coatings. They compared the thermal-coated thrust chamber to traditional unlined high-temperature thrust chambers. There were more than 17,000 different configurations tested on this stand between 1973 and 1976. The Rocket Engine Test Facility was later designated a National Historic Landmark for its role in the development of liquid hydrogen as a propellant.

  6. Combustion Processes in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran,S.; Merkle, C. L.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the development of hybrid rocket engines for advanced launch vehicle applications. Hybrid propulsion systems use a solid fuel such as hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) along with a gaseous/liquid oxidizer. The performance of hybrid combustors depends on the convective and radiative heat fluxes to the fuel surface, the rate of pyrolysis in the solid phase, and the turbulent combustion processes in the gaseous phases. These processes in combination specify the regression rates of the fuel surface and thereby the utilization efficiency of the fuel. In this paper, we employ computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques in order to gain a quantitative understanding of the physical trends in hybrid rocket combustors. The computational modeling is tailored to ongoing experiments at Penn State that employ a two dimensional slab burner configuration. The coordinated computational/experimental effort enables model validation while providing an understanding of the experimental observations. Computations to date have included the full length geometry with and with the aft nozzle section as well as shorter length domains for extensive parametric characterization. HTPB is sed as the fuel with 1,3 butadiene being taken as the gaseous product of the pyrolysis. Pure gaseous oxygen is taken as the oxidizer. The fuel regression rate is specified using an Arrhenius rate reaction, which the fuel surface temperature is given by an energy balance involving gas-phase convection and radiation as well as thermal conduction in the solid-phase. For the gas-phase combustion, a two step global reaction is used. The standard kappa - epsilon model is used for turbulence closure. Radiation is presently treated using a simple diffusion approximation which is valid for large optical path lengths, representative of radiation from soot particles. Computational results are obtained to determine the trends in the fuel burning or

  7. Software Estimates Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Cost Model (SiCM), a discrete event simulation developed in Extend , simulates pertinent aspects of the testing of rocket propulsion test articles for the purpose of estimating the costs of such testing during time intervals specified by its users. A user enters input data for control of simulations; information on the nature of, and activity in, a given testing project; and information on resources. Simulation objects are created on the basis of this input. Costs of the engineering-design, construction, and testing phases of a given project are estimated from numbers and labor rates of engineers and technicians employed in each phase, the duration of each phase; costs of materials used in each phase; and, for the testing phase, the rate of maintenance of the testing facility. The three main outputs of SiCM are (1) a curve, updated at each iteration of the simulation, that shows overall expenditures vs. time during the interval specified by the user; (2) a histogram of the total costs from all iterations of the simulation; and (3) table displaying means and variances of cumulative costs for each phase from all iterations. Other outputs include spending curves for each phase.

  8. Fiber reinforced superalloys for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, Donald W.; Stephens, Joseph R.

    1988-01-01

    High-pressure turbopumps for advanced reusable liquid-propellant rocket engines such as that for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) require turbine blade materials that operate under extreme conditions of temperature, hydrogen environment, high-cycle fatigue loading, thermal fatigue and thermal shock. Such requirements tax the capabilities of current blade materials. Based on projections of properties for tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy (FRS) composites, it was concluded that FRS turbine blades offer the potential of a several-fold increase in life and over a 200C increase in temperature capability over current SSME blade material. FRS composites were evaluated with respect to mechanical property requirements for SSME blade applications. Compared to the current blade material, the thermal shock resistance of FRS materials is excellent, two to nine times better, and their thermal fatigue resistance is equal to or higher than the current blade material. FRS materials had excellent low and high-cycle fatigue strengths, and thermal shock-induced surface microcracks had no influence on their fatigue strength. The material also exhibited negligible embrittlement when exposed to a hydrogen environment.

  9. Fiber reinforced superalloys for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, Donald W.; Stephens, Joseph R.

    1989-01-01

    High pressure turbopumps for advanced reusable liquid propellant rocket engines such as that for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) require turbine blade materials that operate under extreme conditions of temperature, hydrogen environment, high-cycle fatigue loading, thermal fatigue and thermal shock. Such requirements tax the capabilities of current blade materials. Based on projections of properties for tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy (FRS) composites, it was concluded that FRS turbine blades offer the potential of a several fold increase in life and over a 200 C increase in temperature capability over the current SSME blade material. FRS composites were evaluated with respect to mechanical property requirements for SSME blade applications. Compared to the current blade material, the thermal shock resistance of FRS materials is excellent, two to nine times better, and their thermal fatigue resistance is equal to or higher than the current blade material. FRS materials had excellent low and high-cycle fatigue strengths, and thermal shock-induced surface microcracks had no influence on their fatigue strength. The material also exhibited negligible embrittlement when exposed to a hydrogen environment.

  10. A hybrid rocket engine design for simple low cost sounding rocket use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubelich, Mark; Rowland, John; Reese, Larry

    1993-06-01

    Preliminary test results on a nitrous oxide/HTPB hybrid rocket engine suitable for powering a small sounding rocket to altitudes of 50-100 K/ft are presented. It is concluded that the advantage of the N2O hybrid engine over conventional solid propellant rocket motors is the ability to obtain long burn times with core burning geometries due to the low regression rate of the fuel. Long burn times make it possible to reduce terminal velocity to minimize air drag losses.

  11. Telemetry Boards Interpret Rocket, Airplane Engine Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    For all the data gathered by the space shuttle while in orbit, NASA engineers are just as concerned about the information it generates on the ground. From the moment the shuttle s wheels touch the runway to the break of its electrical umbilical cord at 0.4 seconds before its next launch, sensors feed streams of data about the status of the vehicle and its various systems to Kennedy Space Center s shuttle crews. Even while the shuttle orbiter is refitted in Kennedy s orbiter processing facility, engineers constantly monitor everything from power levels to the testing of the mechanical arm in the orbiter s payload bay. On the launch pad and up until liftoff, the Launch Control Center, attached to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, screens all of the shuttle s vital data. (Once the shuttle clears its launch tower, this responsibility shifts to Mission Control at Johnson Space Center, with Kennedy in a backup role.) Ground systems for satellite launches also generate significant amounts of data. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, across the Banana River from Kennedy s location on Merritt Island, Florida, NASA rockets carrying precious satellite payloads into space flood the Launch Vehicle Data Center with sensor information on temperature, speed, trajectory, and vibration. The remote measurement and transmission of systems data called telemetry is essential to ensuring the safe and successful launch of the Agency s space missions. When a launch is unsuccessful, as it was for this year s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite, telemetry data also provides valuable clues as to what went wrong and how to remedy any problems for future attempts. All of this information is streamed from sensors in the form of binary code: strings of ones and zeros. One small company has partnered with NASA to provide technology that renders raw telemetry data intelligible not only for Agency engineers, but also for those in the private sector.

  12. Performance and Thrust-to-Weight Optimization of the Dual-Expander Aerospike Nozzle Upper Stage Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    calculates a constant convection heat transfer coefficient on the hot and cold side of the cooling jacket wall. The calculated maximum wall temperature for...regeneratively cools the combustion chamber and nozzle. The heat transferred to the fuel from cooling provides enough power to the turbine to power both... heat transfer at the throat compared to a bell nozzle. This increase in heat transfer surface area means more power to the turbine, increased chamber

  13. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratekin, G.; Goldman, Allen; Ortwerth, P.; Weisberg, S.; McArthur, J. Craig (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems is part of a 12 year effort under both company funding and contract work. The concept is a fixed geometry integrated rocket, ramjet, scramjet, which is hydrogen fueled and uses hydrogen regenerative cooling. The baseline engine structural configuration uses an integral structure that eliminates panel seals, seal purge gas, and closeout side attachments. Engine A5 is the current configuration for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the ART program. Engine A5 models the complete flight engine flowpath of inlet, isolator, airbreathing combustor, and nozzle. High-performance rocket thrusters are integrated into the engine enabling both low speed air-augmented rocket (AAR) and high speed pure rocket operation. Engine A5 was tested in GASL's new Flight Acceleration Simulation Test (FAST) facility in all four operating modes, AAR, RAM, SCRAM, and Rocket. Additionally, transition from AAR to RAM and RAM to SCRAM was also demonstrated. Measured performance demonstrated vision vehicle performance levels for Mach 3 AAR operation and ramjet operation from Mach 3 to 4. SCRAM and rocket mode performance was above predictions. For the first time, testing also demonstrated transition between operating modes.

  14. Injector for liquid fueled rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael David (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An injector for liquid fueled rocket engines wherein a generally flat core having a frustoconical dome attached to one side of the core to serve as a manifold for a first liquid, with the core having a generally circular configuration having an axis. The other side of the core has a plurality of concentric annular first slots and a plurality of annular concentric second slots alternating with the first slots, the second slots having a greater depth than said first slots. A bore extends through the core for inletting a second liquid into said core, the bore intersecting the second slots to feed the second liquid into the second slots. The core also has a plurality of first passageways leading from the manifold to the first annular slots for feeding the first liquid into said first slots. A faceplate brazed to said other side of the core is provided with apertures extending from the first and second slots through said face plate, these apertures being positioned to direct fuel and liquid oxygen into contact with each other in the combustion chamber. The first liquid may be liquid oxygen and the second liquid may be kerosene or liquid hydrogen.

  15. MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.

  16. A minimum cost tolerance allocation method for rocket engines and robust rocket engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerth, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    Rocket engine design follows three phases: systems design, parameter design, and tolerance design. Systems design and parameter design are most effectively conducted in a concurrent engineering (CE) environment that utilize methods such as Quality Function Deployment and Taguchi methods. However, tolerance allocation remains an art driven by experience, handbooks, and rules of thumb. It was desirable to develop and optimization approach to tolerancing. The case study engine was the STME gas generator cycle. The design of the major components had been completed and the functional relationship between the component tolerances and system performance had been computed using the Generic Power Balance model. The system performance nominals (thrust, MR, and Isp) and tolerances were already specified, as were an initial set of component tolerances. However, the question was whether there existed an optimal combination of tolerances that would result in the minimum cost without any degradation in system performance.

  17. Potential Climate and Ozone Impacts From Hybrid Rocket Engine Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.

    2009-12-01

    Hybrid rocket engines that use N2O as an oxidizer and a solid hydrocarbon (such as rubber) as a fuel are relatively new. Little is known about the composition of such hybrid engine emissions. General principles and visual inspection of hybrid plumes suggest significant soot and possibly NO emissions. Understanding hybrid rocket emissions is important because of the possibility that a fleet of hybrid powered suborbital rockets will be flying on the order of 1000 flights per year by 2020. The annual stratospheric emission for these rockets would be about 10 kilotons, equal to present day solid rocket motor (SRM) emissions. We present a preliminary analysis of the magnitude of (1) the radiative forcing from soot emissions and (2) the ozone depletion from soot and NO emissions associated with such a fleet of suborbital hybrid rockets. Because the details of the composition of hybrid emissions are unknown, it is not clear if the ozone depletion caused by these hybrid rockets would be more or less than the ozone depletion from SRMs. We also consider the climate implications associated with the N2O production and use requirements for hybrid rockets. Finally, we identify the most important data collection and modeling needs that are required to reliably assess the complete range of environmental impacts of a fleet of hybrid rockets.

  18. 29. SATURN ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SATURN ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC TEST STAND - DETAILS OF THE EXPANSION NOZZLE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. Scale-Up of GRCop: From Laboratory to Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2016-01-01

    GRCop is a high temperature, high thermal conductivity copper-based series of alloys designed primarily for use in regeneratively cooled rocket engine liners. It began with laboratory-level production of a few grams of ribbon produced by chill block melt spinning and has grown to commercial-scale production of large-scale rocket engine liners. Along the way, a variety of methods of consolidating and working the alloy were examined, a database of properties was developed and a variety of commercial and government applications were considered. This talk will briefly address the basic material properties used for selection of compositions to scale up, the methods used to go from simple ribbon to rocket engines, the need to develop a suitable database, and the issues related to getting the alloy into a rocket engine or other application.

  20. Rocketdyne/Westinghouse nuclear thermal rocket engine modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: systems approach needed for nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) design optimization; generic NTR engine power balance codes; rocketdyne nuclear thermal system code; software capabilities; steady state model; NTR engine optimizer code-logic; reactor power calculation logic; sample multi-component configuration; NTR design code output; generic NTR code at Rocketdyne; Rocketdyne NTR model; and nuclear thermal rocket modeling directions.

  1. Analysis of a Radioisotope Thermal Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machado-Rodriguez, Jonathan P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The Triton Hopper is a concept for a global hopper vehicle which uses a radioisotope rocket engine and In-situ propellant acquisition to explore the surface of Neptune's moon, Triton. The current Triton Hopper concept stores heated Nitrogen in a spherical tank to be used as the propellant. The aim of the research was to investigate the benefits of storing propellant at ambient temperature and heating it through the use of a thermal block during engine operation, as opposed to storing gas at a high temperature. Lithium, Lithium Fluoride and Beryllium were considered as possible materials for the thermal block. A heat energy analysis indicated that a lithium thermal mass would provide the highest heat energy for a temperature change from 900 Celsius to -100 Celsius. A heat transfer analysis was performed for Nitrogen at -100 Celsius flowing through 1000 passages inside a 1kg lithium thermal block at a temperature of 900 Celsius. The system was analyzed as turbulent flow through a tube with constant surface temperature. The analysis indicated that the propellant reached a maximum temperature of 877 Celsius before entering the nozzle. At this exit temperature, the average specific impulse [I(sub sp)] of the engine was determined to be 157s. Previous studies for the stored heated gas concept suggest that the engine would have an average I(sub sp) of approximately 52s. Thus, the use of a thermal block concept results in a 200 percent engine performance increase. In addition, a tank sizing study was performed to determine if the concept is feasible in terms of mass requirements. The mass for a spherical carbon fiber COPV storing 35kg of nitrogen at an initial temperature of -100 Celsius and a pressure of 1000psia, was determined to be 7.2kg. The specific impulse analysis indicated that the maximum engine performance is obtained for a mass ratio of 5kg of Nitrogen per every 1kg of lithium thermal mass. Thus for 35kg of Nitrogen the total thermal mass would be 7kg. This

  2. Supercomputer modeling of hydrogen combustion in rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betelin, V. B.; Nikitin, V. F.; Altukhov, D. I.; Dushin, V. R.; Koo, Jaye

    2013-08-01

    Hydrogen being an ecological fuel is very attractive now for rocket engines designers. However, peculiarities of hydrogen combustion kinetics, the presence of zones of inverse dependence of reaction rate on pressure, etc. prevents from using hydrogen engines in all stages not being supported by other types of engines, which often brings the ecological gains back to zero from using hydrogen. Computer aided design of new effective and clean hydrogen engines needs mathematical tools for supercomputer modeling of hydrogen-oxygen components mixing and combustion in rocket engines. The paper presents the results of developing verification and validation of mathematical model making it possible to simulate unsteady processes of ignition and combustion in rocket engines.

  3. Propellant-Flow-Actuated Rocket Engine Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A rocket engine igniter has been created that uses a pneumatically driven hammer that, by specialized geometry, is induced into an oscillatory state that can be used to either repeatedly impact a piezoelectric crystal with sufficient force to generate a spark capable of initiating combustion, or can be used with any other system capable of generating a spark from direct oscillatory motion. This innovation uses the energy of flowing gaseous propellant, which by means of pressure differentials and kinetic motion, causes a hammer object to oscillate. The concept works by mass flows being induced through orifices on both sides of a cylindrical tube with one or more vent paths. As the mass flow enters the chamber, the pressure differential is caused because the hammer object is supplied with flow on one side and the other side is opened with access to the vent path. The object then crosses the vent opening and begins to slow because the pressure differential across the ball reverses due to the geometry in the tube. Eventually, the object stops because of the increasing pressure differential on the object until all of the kinetic energy has been transferred to the gas via compression. This is the point where the object reverses direction because of the pressure differential. This behavior excites a piezoelectric crystal via direct impact from the hammer object. The hammer strikes a piezoelectric crystal, then reverses direction, and the resultant high voltage created from the crystal is transferred via an electrode to a spark gap in the ignition zone, thereby providing a spark to ignite the engine. Magnets, or other retention methods, might be employed to favorably position the hammer object prior to start, but are not necessary to maintain the oscillatory behavior. Various manifestations of the igniter have been developed and tested to improve device efficiency, and some improved designs are capable of operation at gas flow rates of a fraction of a gram per second (0

  4. Performance of a RBCC Engine in Rocket-Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Sadatake; Kubo, Takahiro; Noboru Sakuranaka; Tani, Koichiro

    Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket-based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for space launch vehicles. Either SSTO (Single Stage To Orbit) system or TSTO (Two Stage To Orbit) system with separation at high altitude needs final stage acceleration in space, so that the RBCC (Rocket Based Combined Cycle) engine should be operated as rocket engines. Performance of the scramjet combustor as the extension to the rocket nozzle, was experimentally evaluated by injecting inert gas at various pressure through the embedded rocket chamber while the whole sub-scaled model was placed in a low pressure chamber connected to an air-driven ejector system. The results showed that the thrust coefficient was about 1.2, the low value being found to mainly due to the friction force on the scramjet combustor wall, while blocking the scramjet flow pass’s opening to increase nozzle extension thrust surface, was found to have little effects on the thrust performance. The combustor was shortened to reduce the friction loss, however, degree of reduction was limited as friction decreased rapidly with distance from the onset of the scramjet combustor.

  5. The Viking Orbiter 1975 beryllium INTEREGEN rocket engine assembly.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, R. S.; Mcfarland, B. L.; Fischler, S.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the conversion of the Mariner 9 rocket engine for Viking Orbiter use. Engine conversion consists of replacing the 40:1 expansion area ratio nozzle with a 60:1 nozzle of the internal regeneratively (INTEREGEN) cooled rocket engine. Five converted engines using nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine demonstrated thermal stability during the nominal 2730-sec burn, but experienced difficulty at operating extremes. The thermal stability characteristic was treated in two ways. The first treatment consisted of mapping the operating regime of the engine to determine its safest operating boundaries as regards thermal equilibrium. Six engines were used for this purpose. Two of the six engines were then modified to effect the second approach - i.e., extend the operating regime. The engines were modified by permitting fuel injection into the acoustic cavity.

  6. An Object Model for a Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, D.; Bhalla, P. N.; Pratap, V.; Reddy, P.

    1998-01-01

    Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS) is a packet of software which numerically simulates the behavior of a rocket engine. Different parameters of the components of an engine is the input to these programs. Depending on these given parameters the programs output the behaviors of those components. These behavioral values are then used to guide the design of or to diagnose a model of a rocket engine "built" by a composition of these programs simulating different components of the engine system. In order to use this software package effectively one needs to have a flexible model of a rocket engine. These programs simulating different components then should be plugged into this modular representation. Our project is to develop an object based model of such an engine system. We are following an iterative and incremental approach in developing the model, as is the standard practice in the area of object oriented design and analysis of softwares. This process involves three stages: object modeling to represent the components and sub-components of a rocket engine, dynamic modeling to capture the temporal and behavioral aspects of the system, and functional modeling to represent the transformational aspects. This article reports on the first phase of our activity under a grant (RENS) from the NASA Lewis Research center. We have utilized Rambaugh's object modeling technique and the tool UML for this purpose. The classes of a rocket engine propulsion system are developed and some of them are presented in this report. The next step, developing a dynamic model for RENS, is also touched upon here. In this paper we will also discuss the advantages of using object-based modeling for developing this type of an integrated simulator over other tools like an expert systems shell or a procedural language, e.g., FORTRAN. Attempts have been made in the past to use such techniques.

  7. NASA Conducts Final RS-25 Rocket Engine Test of 2017

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-13

    NASA engineers at Stennis Space Center capped a year of Space Launch System testing with a final RS-25 rocket engine hot fire on Dec. 13. The 470-second test on the A-1 Test Stand was a “green run” test of an RS-25 flight controller. The engine tested also included a large 3-D-printed part, a pogo accumulator assembly, scheduled for use on future RS-25 flight engines.

  8. Reusable rocket engine intelligent control system framework design, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, ED; Anderson, Ron; Ols, Joe; Olsasky, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Elements of an advanced functional framework for reusable rocket engine propulsion system control are presented for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) demonstration case. Functional elements of the baseline functional framework are defined in detail. The SSME failure modes are evaluated and specific failure modes identified for inclusion in the advanced functional framework diagnostic system. Active control of the SSME start transient is investigated, leading to the identification of a promising approach to mitigating start transient excursions. Key elements of the functional framework are simulated and demonstration cases are provided. Finally, the advanced function framework for control of reusable rocket engines is presented.

  9. Analysis of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine during Rocket Only Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T. D.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Yungster, S.; Keller, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The all rocket mode of operation is a critical factor in the overall performance of a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) vehicle. However, outside of performing experiments or a full three dimensional analysis, there are no first order parametric models to estimate performance. As a result, an axisymmetric RBCC engine was used to analytically determine specific impulse efficiency values based upon both full flow and gas generator configurations. Design of experiments methodology was used to construct a test matrix and statistical regression analysis was used to build parametric models. The main parameters investigated in this study were: rocket chamber pressure, rocket exit area ratio, percent of injected secondary flow, mixer-ejector inlet area, mixer-ejector area ratio, and mixer-ejector length-to-inject diameter ratio. A perfect gas computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed to obtain values of vacuum specific impulse. Statistical regression analysis was performed based on both full flow and gas generator engine cycles. Results were also found to be dependent upon the entire cycle assumptions. The statistical regression analysis determined that there were five significant linear effects, six interactions, and one second-order effect. Two parametric models were created to provide performance assessments of an RBCC engine in the all rocket mode of operation.

  10. Laser Ignition Technology for Bi-Propellant Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matt; Bossard, John; Early, Jim; Trinh, Huu; Dennis, Jay; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of laser ignition technology for bipropellant rocket engines applications. The objectives of this project include: (1) the selection test chambers and flows; (2) definition of the laser ignition setup; (3) pulse format optimization; (4) fiber optic coupled laser ignition system analysis; and (5) chamber integration issues definition. The testing concludes that rocket combustion chamber laser ignition is imminent. Support technologies (multiplexing, window durability/cleaning, and fiber optic durability) are feasible.

  11. Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Research at NASA Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2003-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modeling task. A quasi 1-D, finite-rate chemistry CFD model for a PDRE is described and implemented. A parametric study of the effect of blowdown pressure ratio on the performance of an optimized, fixed PDRE nozzle configuration is reported. The results are compared to a steady-state rocket system using similar modeling assumptions.

  12. 6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low oblique aerial view of Test Area 1-115, looking south, showing Test Stand 1-3 at left, Instrumentation and Control building 8668 at center, and Test Stand 15 at right. The test area is under construction; no evidence of railroad line in photo. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Blood Pump Development Using Rocket Engine Flow Simulation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the transfer of rocket engine flow simulation technology to work involving the development of blood pumps. Details are offered regarding the design and requirements of mechanical heart assist devices, or VADs (ventricular assist device). There are various computational fluid dynamics issues involved in the visualization of flow in such devices, and these are highlighted and compared to those of rocket turbopumps.

  14. Analysis of liquid-propellant rocket engines designed by F. A. Tsander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dushkin, L. S.; Moshkin, Y. K.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the oxygen-gasoline OR-2 engines and the oxygen-alcohol GIRD-10 rocket engine is described. A result of Tsander's rocket research was an engineering method for propellant calculation of oxygen-propellant rocket engines that determined the basic parameters of the engine and the structural elements.

  15. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.; Salkeld, R.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages, system performance and operating limits, engine parametric data, and technology requirements for candidate high pressure LO2/Hydrocarbon engine systems are summarized. These summaries of parametric analysis and design provide a consistent engine system data base. Power balance data were generated for the eleven engine cycles. Engine cycle rating parameters were established and the desired condition and the effect of the parameter on the engine and/or vehicle are described.

  16. A Historical Systems Study of Liquid Rocket Engine Throttling Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive systems study to examine and evaluate throttling capabilities of liquid rocket engines. The focus of this study is on engine components, and how the interactions of these components are considered for throttling applications. First, an assessment of space mission requirements is performed to determine what applications require engine throttling. A background on liquid rocket engine throttling is provided, along with the basic equations that are used to predict performance. Three engines are discussed that have successfully demonstrated throttling. Next, the engine system is broken down into components to discuss special considerations that need to be made for engine throttling. This study focuses on liquid rocket engines that have demonstrated operational capability on American space launch vehicles, starting with the Apollo vehicle engines and ending with current technology demonstrations. Both deep throttling and shallow throttling engines are discussed. Boost and sustainer engines have demonstrated throttling from 17% to 100% thrust, while upper stage and lunar lander engines have demonstrated throttling in excess of 10% to 100% thrust. The key difficulty in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injector, which is necessary to provide propellant atomization and mixing. For the combustion chamber, cooling can be an issue at low thrust levels. For turbomachinery, the primary considerations are to avoid cavitation, stall, surge, and to consider bearing leakage flows, rotordynamics, and structural dynamics. For valves, it is necessary to design valves and actuators that can achieve accurate flow control at all thrust levels. It is also important to assess the amount of nozzle flow separation that can be tolerated at low thrust levels for ground testing.

  17. Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the numerical modeling of pulse detonation rocket engines (PDRE), with an emphasis on the Gasdynamics and performance analysis of these engines. The topics include: 1) Performance Analysis of PDREs; 2) Simplified PDRE Cycle; 3) Comparison of PDRE and Steady-State Rocket Engines (SSRE) Performance; 4) Numerical Modeling of Quasi 1-D Rocket Flows; 5) Specific PDRE Geometries Studied; 6) Time-Accurate Thrust Calculations; 7) PDRE Performance (Geometries A B C and D); 8) PDRE Blowdown Gasdynamics (Geom. A B C and D); 9) PDRE Geometry Performance Comparison; 10) PDRE Blowdown Time (Geom. A B C and D); 11) Specific SSRE Geometry Studied; 12) Effect of F-R Chemistry on SSRE Performance; 13) PDRE/SSRE Performance Comparison; 14) PDRE Performance Study; 15) Grid Resolution Study; and 16) Effect of F-R Chemistry on SSRE Exit Species Mole Fractions.

  18. Liquid-propellant rocket engines health-monitoring—a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianjun

    2005-02-01

    This paper is intended to give a summary on the health-monitoring technology, which is one of the key technologies both for improving and enhancing the reliability and safety of current rocket engines and for developing new-generation high reliable reusable rocket engines. The implication of health-monitoring and the fundamental principle obeyed by the fault detection and diagnostics are elucidated. The main aspects of health-monitoring such as system frameworks, failure modes analysis, algorithms of fault detection and diagnosis, control means and advanced sensor techniques are illustrated in some detail. At last, the evolution trend of health-monitoring techniques of liquid-propellant rocket engines is set out.

  19. Use of Soft Computing Technologies For Rocket Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Olcmen, Semih; Polites, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to further improve overall engine system reliability and performance. Specifically, this will be presented by enhancing rocket engine control and engine health management (EHM) using SCT coupled with conventional control technologies, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall s Flight Software Group. The principle goals are to improve software management, software development time and maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control and EHM methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, EHM, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion, software engineering for embedded systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, and Bayesian belief networks), much of which is presented in this paper. The first targeted demonstration rocket engine platform is the MC-1 (formerly FASTRAC Engine) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed laboratory that

  20. Atlas Centaur Rocket With Reusable Booster Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed modification of Atlas Centaur enables reuse of booster engines. Includes replacement of current booster engines with engine of new design in which hydrogen used for both cooling and generation of power. Use of hydrogen in new engine eliminates coking and clogging and improves performance significantly. Primary advantages: reduction of cost; increased reliability; and increased payload.

  1. Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William

    2009-01-01

    An alternative design concept for nuclear thermal rocket engines for interplanetary spacecraft calls for the use of grooved-ring fuel elements. Beyond spacecraft rocket engines, this concept also has potential for the design of terrestrial and spacecraft nuclear electric-power plants. The grooved ring fuel design attempts to retain the best features of the particle bed fuel element while eliminating most of its design deficiencies. In the grooved ring design, the hydrogen propellant enters the fuel element in a manner similar to that of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element.

  2. Mean Line Pump Flow Model in Rocket Engine System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    A mean line pump flow modeling method has been developed to provide a fast capability for modeling turbopumps of rocket engines. Based on this method, a mean line pump flow code PUMPA has been written that can predict the performance of pumps at off-design operating conditions, given the loss of the diffusion system at the design point. The pump code can model axial flow inducers, mixed-flow and centrifugal pumps. The code can model multistage pumps in series. The code features rapid input setup and computer run time, and is an effective analysis and conceptual design tool. The map generation capability of the code provides the map information needed for interfacing with a rocket engine system modeling code. The off-design and multistage modeling capabilities of the code permit parametric design space exploration of candidate pump configurations and provide pump performance data for engine system evaluation. The PUMPA code has been integrated with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code and an expander rocket engine system has been simulated. The mean line pump flow code runs as an integral part of the NPSS rocket engine system simulation and provides key pump performance information directly to the system model at all operating conditions.

  3. Rocket Engines Displayed for 1966 Inspection at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-10-21

    An array of rocket engines displayed in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory for the 1966 Inspection held at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Lewis engineers had been working on chemical, nuclear, and solid rocket engines throughout the 1960s. The engines on display are from left to right: two scale models of the Aerojet M-1, a Rocketdyne J-2, a Pratt and Whitney RL-10, and a Rocketdyne throttleable engine. Also on display are several ejector plates and nozzles. The Chemical Rocket Division resolved issues such as combustion instability and screech, and improved operation of cooling systems and turbopumps. The 1.5-million pound thrust M-1 engine was the largest hydrogen-fueled rocket engine ever created. It was a joint project between NASA Lewis and Aerojet-General. Although much larger in size, the M-1 used technology developed for the RL-10 and J-2. The M-1 program was cancelled in late 1965 due to budget cuts and the lack of a post-Apollo mission. The October 1966 Inspection was the culmination of almost a year of events held to mark the centers’ 25th anniversary. The three‐day Inspection, Lewis’ first since 1957, drew 2000 business, industry, and government executives and included an employee open house. The visitors witnessed presentations at the major facilities and viewed the Gemini VII spacecraft, a Centaur rocket, and other displays in the hangar. In addition, Lewis’ newest facility, the Zero Gravity Facility, was shown off for the first time.

  4. NASA Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The advanced expander cycle engine with a 15,000 lb thrust level and a 6:1 mixture ratio and optimized performance was used as the baseline for a design study of the hydrogen/oxgyen propulsion system for the orbit transfer vehicle. The critical components of this engine are the thrust chamber, the turbomachinery, the extendible nozzle system, and the engine throttling system. Turbomachinery technology is examined for gears, bearing, seals, and rapid solidification rate turbopump shafts. Continuous throttling concepts are discussed. Components of the OTV engine described include the thrust chamber/nozzle assembly design, nozzles, the hydrogen regenerator, the gaseous oxygen heat exchanger, turbopumps, and the engine control valves.

  5. Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Research at NASA Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation provides an overview of research being conducted on Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines (PDRE) by the Propulsion Research Center (PRC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. PDREs have a theoretical thermodynamic advantage over Steady-State Rocket Engines (SSREs) although unsteady blowdown processes complicate effective use of this advantage in practice; PRE is engaged in a fundamental study of PDRE gas dynamics to improve understanding of performance issues. Topics covered include: simplified PDRE cycle, comparison of PDRE and SSRE performance, numerical modeling of quasi 1-D rocket flows, time-accurate thrust calculations, finite-rate chemistry effects in nozzles, effect of F-R chemistry on specific impulse, effect of F-R chemistry on exit species mole fractions and PDRE performance optimization studies.

  6. Two-step rocket engine bipropellant valve concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, J. E.; Ferguson, R. E.; Pohl, H. O.

    1969-01-01

    Initiating combustion of altitude control rocket engines in a precombustion chamber of ductile material reduces high pressure surges generated by hypergolic propellants. Two-step bipropellant valve concepts control initial propellant flow into precombustion chamber and subsequent full flow into main chamber.

  7. Multivariable optimization of liquid rocket engines using particle swarm algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel Ray

    Liquid rocket engines are highly reliable, controllable, and efficient compared to other conventional forms of rocket propulsion. As such, they have seen wide use in the space industry and have become the standard propulsion system for launch vehicles, orbit insertion, and orbital maneuvering. Though these systems are well understood, historical optimization techniques are often inadequate due to the highly non-linear nature of the engine performance problem. In this thesis, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) variant was applied to maximize the specific impulse of a finite-area combustion chamber (FAC) equilibrium flow rocket performance model by controlling the engine's oxidizer-to-fuel ratio and de Laval nozzle expansion and contraction ratios. In addition to the PSO-controlled parameters, engine performance was calculated based on propellant chemistry, combustion chamber pressure, and ambient pressure, which are provided as inputs to the program. The performance code was validated by comparison with NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) and the commercially available Rocket Propulsion Analysis (RPA) tool. Similarly, the PSO algorithm was validated by comparison with brute-force optimization, which calculates all possible solutions and subsequently determines which is the optimum. Particle Swarm Optimization was shown to be an effective optimizer capable of quick and reliable convergence for complex functions of multiple non-linear variables.

  8. Pretest uncertainty analysis for chemical rocket engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric pretest uncertainty analysis has been performed for a chemical rocket engine test at a unique 1000:1 area ratio altitude test facility. Results from the parametric study provide the error limits required in order to maintain a maximum uncertainty of 1 percent on specific impulse. Equations used in the uncertainty analysis are presented.

  9. Cryostatless high temperature supercurrent bearings for rocket engine turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dantam K.; Dill, James F.

    1989-01-01

    The rocket engine systems examined include SSME, ALS, and CTV systems. The liquid hydrogen turbopumps in the SSME and ALS vehicle systems are identified as potentially attractive candidates for development of Supercurrent Bearings since the temperatures around the bearings is about 30 K, which is considerably lower than the 95 K transition temperatures of HTS materials. At these temperatures, the current HTS materials are shown to be capable of developing significantly higher current densities. This higher current density capability makes the development of supercurrent bearings for rocket engines an attractive proposition. These supercurrent bearings are also shown to offer significant advantages over conventional bearings used in rocket engines. They can increase the life and reliability over rolling element bearings because of noncontact operation. They offer lower power loss over conventional fluid film bearings. Compared to conventional magnetic bearings, they can reduce the weight of controllers significantly, and require lower power because of the use of persistent currents. In addition, four technology areas that require further attention have been identified. These are: Supercurrent Bearing Conceptual Design Verification; HTS Magnet Fabrication and Testing; Cryosensors and Controller Development; and Rocket Engine Environmental Compatibility Testing.

  10. Improved maintainability of space-based reusable rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Szemenyei, B.; Nelson, R. S.; Pauckert, R.; Harmon, T.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced, noninferential, noncontacting, in situ measurement technologies, combined with automated testing and expert systems, can provide continuous, automated health monitoring of critical space-based rocket engine components, requiring minimal disassembly and no manual data analysis, thus enhancing their maintainability. This paper concentrates on recent progress of noncontacting combustion chamber wall thickness condition-monitoring technologies.

  11. Liquid rocket engine fluid-cooled combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A monograph on the design and development of fluid cooled combustion chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines is presented. The subjects discussed are (1) regenerative cooling, (2) transpiration cooling, (3) film cooling, (4) structural analysis, (5) chamber reinforcement, and (6) operational problems.

  12. Machine learning of fault characteristics from rocket engine simulation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Min; Ali, Moonis

    1990-01-01

    Transformation of data into knowledge through conceptual induction has been the focus of our research described in this paper. We have developed a Machine Learning System (MLS) to analyze the rocket engine simulation data. MLS can provide to its users fault analysis, characteristics, and conceptual descriptions of faults, and the relationships of attributes and sensors. All the results are critically important in identifying faults.

  13. Additive Manufacturing a Liquid Hydrogen Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Carl P.; Robertson, Elizabeth H.; Koelbl, Mary Beth; Singer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Space Propulsion is a 5 day event being held from 2nd May to the 6th May 2016 at the Rome Marriott Park Hotel in Rome, Italy. This event showcases products like Propulsion sub-systems and components, Production and manufacturing issues, Liquid, Solid, Hybrid and Air-breathing Propulsion Systems for Launcher and Upper Stages, Overview of current programmes, AIV issues and tools, Flight testing and experience, Technology building blocks for Future Space Transportation Propulsion Systems : Launchers, Exploration platforms & Space Tourism, Green Propulsion for Space Transportation, New propellants, Rocket propulsion & global environment, Cost related aspects of Space Transportation propulsion, Modelling, Pressure-Thrust oscillations issues, Impact of new requirements and regulations on design etc. in the Automotive, Manufacturing, Fabrication, Repair & Maintenance industries.

  14. Reusable rocket engine turbopump condition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampson, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Significant improvements in engine readiness with reductions in maintenance costs and turn-around times can be achieved with an engine condition monitoring systems (CMS). The CMS provides health status of critical engine components, without disassembly, through monitoring with advanced sensors. Engine failure reports over 35 years were categorized into 20 different modes of failure. Rotor bearings and turbine blades were determined to be the most critical in limiting turbopump life. Measurement technologies were matched to each of the failure modes identified. Three were selected to monitor the rotor bearings and turbine blades: the isotope wear detector and fiberoptic deflectometer (bearings), and the fiberoptic pyrometer (blades). Signal processing algorithms were evaluated for their ability to provide useful health data to maintenance personnel. Design modifications to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure turbopumps were developed to incorporate the sensors. Laboratory test fixtures have been designed for monitoring the rotor bearings and turbine blades in simulated turbopump operating conditions.

  15. Radiation effect on rocket engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang; Kross, K. W.; Krebsbach, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    Critical problem areas involving the effect of radiation on the combustion of bipropellants are addressed by formulating a universal scaling law in combination with a radiation-enhanced vaporization combustion model. Numerical algorithms are developed and data pertaining to the Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are used to conduct parametric sensitivity studies to predict the principal intercoupling effects of radiation. The analysis reveals that low-enthalpy engines, such as the VTE, are vulnerable to a substantial performance setback due to radiative loss, whereas the performance of high-enthalpy engines such as the SSME are hardly affected over a broad range of engine operation. Combustion enhancement by radiative heating of the propellant has a significant impact on propellants with high absorptivity.

  16. Liquid rocket engine centrifugal flow turbopumps. [design criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Design criteria and recommended practices are discussed for the following configurations selected from the design sequence of a liquid rocket engine centrifugal flow turbopump: (1) pump performance including speed, efficiency, and flow range; (2) impeller; (3) housing; and (4) thrust balance system. Hydrodynamic, structural, and mechanical problems are addressed for the achievement of required pump performance within the constraints imposed by the engine/turbopump system. Materials and fabrication specifications are also discussed.

  17. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  18. Analytical concepts for health management systems of liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Richard; Tulpule, Sharayu; Hawman, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Substantial improvement in health management systems performance can be realized by implementing advanced analytical methods of processing existing liquid rocket engine sensor data. In this paper, such techniques ranging from time series analysis to multisensor pattern recognition to expert systems to fault isolation models are examined and contrasted. The performance of several of these methods is evaluated using data from test firings of the Space Shuttle main engines.

  19. Linear quadratic servo control of a reusable rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    A design method for a servo compensator is developed in the frequency domain using singular values. The method is applied to a reusable rocket engine. An intelligent control system for reusable rocket engines was proposed which includes a diagnostic system, a control system, and an intelligent coordinator which determines engine control strategies based on the identified failure modes. The method provides a means of generating various linear multivariable controllers capable of meeting performance and robustness specifications and accommodating failure modes identified by the diagnostic system. Command following with set point control is necessary for engine operation. A Kalman filter reconstructs the state while loop transfer recovery recovers the required degree of robustness while maintaining satisfactory rejection of sensor noise from the command error. The approach is applied to the design of a controller for a rocket engine satisfying performance constraints in the frequency domain. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the linear design on a nonlinear engine model over all power levels during mainstage operation.

  20. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) refueling during first flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 refuels with an Edwards Air Force Base KC-135 during the first flight of the NASA/Rocketdyne/ Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE). The flight took place Oct. 31 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It

  1. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) first flight takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 takes off Oct. 31, making its first flight as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust

  2. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) first flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 successfully completed its first flight 31 October 1997 as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with

  3. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) first flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 made its successful first flight Oct. 31 as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/ Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust

  4. Educating Tomorrow's Aerrospace Engineers by Developing and Launching Liquid-Propelled Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Eric; Garvey, John; Holleman, Tom; Mueller, Tom

    2002-01-01

    conducted at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB), in which engineering students develop and launch liquid propelled rockets. The program is articulated around two main activities, each with specific objectives. The first component of CALVEIN is a systems integration laboratory where students develop/improve vehicle subsystems and integrate them into a vehicle (Prospector-2 - P-2 - for the 2001-02 academic year - AY). This component has three main objectives: (1) Develop hands- on skills for incoming students and expose them to aerospace hardware; (2) allow for upper division students who have been involved in the program to mentor incoming students and manage small teams; and (3) provide students from various disciplines within the College of Engineering - and other universities - with the chance to develop/improve subsystems on the vehicle. Among recent student projects conducted as part of this component are: a new 1000 lbf thrust engine using pintle injector technology, which was successfully tested on Dec. 1, 2001 and flown on Prospector-2 in Feb. 2002 (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); a digital flight telemetry package (developed by CSULB Electrical Engineering students); a new recovery system where a mechanical system replaces pyrotechnics for parachute release (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); and a 1-ft payload bay to accommodate experimental payloads (e.g. "CANSATS" developed by Stanford University students). The second component of CALVEIN is a formal Aerospace System Design curriculum. In the first-semester, from top-level system requirements, the students perform functional analysis, define the various subsystems and derive their requirements. These are presented at the Systems Functional and Requirement Reviews (SFR &SRR). The methods used for validation and verification are determined. Specifications and Interface Control Documents (ICD) are generated by the student team

  5. Liquid-hydrogen rocket engine development at Aerojet, 1944 - 1950

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, G. H.; Gordon, R.; Coplen, H. L.; James, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    This program demonstrated the feasibility of virtually all the components in present-day, high-energy, liquid-rocket engines. Transpiration and film-cooled thrust chambers were successfully operated. The first liquid-hydrogen tests of the coaxial injector was conducted and the first pump to successfully produce high pressures in pumping liquid hydrogen was tested. A 1,000-lb-thrust gaseous propellant and a 3,000-lb-thrust liquid-propellant thrust chamber were operated satisfactorily. Also, the first tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of jet overexpansion and separation on performance of rocket thrust chambers with hydrogen-oxygen propellants.

  6. Composite material application for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heubner, S. W.

    1982-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on improving engine thrust-to-weight ratios to provide improved payload capabilities, weight reductions achievable by the use of composites have become attractive. Of primary significance is the weight reduction offered by composites, although high temperature properties and cost reduction were also considered. The potential for application of composites to components of Earth-to-orbit hydrocarbon engines and orbit-to-orbit LOX/H2 engines was assessed. The components most likely to benefit from the application of composites were identified, as were the critical technology areas where developed would be required. Recommendations were made and a program outlined for the design, fabrication, and demonstration of specific engine components.

  7. Reusable rocket engine turbopump condition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampson, M. E.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1985-01-01

    Significant improvements in engine readiness with attendant reductions in maintenance costs and turnaround times can be achieved with an engine condition monitoring system (CMS). The CMS provides real time health status of critical engine components, without disassembly, through component monitoring with advanced sensor technologies. Three technologies were selected to monitor the rotor bearings and turbine blades: the isotope wear detector and fiber optic deflectometer (bearings), and the fiber optic pyrometer (blades). Signal processing algorithms were evaluated and ranked for their utility in providing useful component health data to unskilled maintenance personnel. Design modifications to current configuration Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure turbopumps and the MK48-F turbopump were developed to incorporate the sensors.

  8. Liquid rocket engine combustion stabilization devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Combustion instability, which results from a coupling of the combustion process and the fluid dynamics of the engine system, was investigated. The design of devices which reduce coupling (combustion chamber baffles) and devices which increase damping (acoustic absorbers) are described. Included in the discussion are design criteria and recommended practices, structural and mechanical design, thermal control, baffle geometry, baffle/engine interactions, acoustic damping analysis, and absorber configurations.

  9. NASA Engineer Examines the Design of a Regeneratively-Cooled Rocket Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-12-21

    An engineer at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center examines a drawing showing the assembly and details of a 20,000-pound thrust regeneratively cooled rocket engine. The engine was being designed for testing in Lewis’ new Rocket Engine Test Facility, which began operating in the fall of 1957. The facility was the largest high-energy test facility in the country that was capable of handling liquid hydrogen and other liquid chemical fuels. The facility’s use of subscale engines up to 20,000 pounds of thrust permitted a cost-effective method of testing engines under various conditions. The Rocket Engine Test Facility was critical to the development of the technology that led to the use of hydrogen as a rocket fuel and the development of lightweight, regeneratively-cooled, hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. Regeneratively-cooled engines use the cryogenic liquid hydrogen as both the propellant and the coolant to prevent the engine from burning up. The fuel was fed through rows of narrow tubes that surrounded the combustion chamber and nozzle before being ignited inside the combustion chamber. The tubes are visible in the liner sitting on the desk. At the time, Pratt and Whitney was designing a 20,000-pound thrust liquid-hydrogen rocket engine, the RL-10. Two RL-10s would be used to power the Centaur second-stage rocket in the 1960s. The successful development of the Centaur rocket and the upper stages of the Saturn V were largely credited to the work carried out Lewis.

  10. Advanced active health monitoring system of liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Xinlin P.; Wu, Zhanjun; Beard, Shawn; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2008-11-01

    An advanced SMART TAPE system has been developed for real-time in-situ monitoring and long term tracking of structural integrity of pressure vessels in liquid rocket engines. The practical implementation of the structural health monitoring (SHM) system including distributed sensor network, portable diagnostic hardware and dedicated data analysis software is addressed based on the harsh operating environment. Extensive tests were conducted on a simulated large booster LOX-H2 engine propellant duct to evaluate the survivability and functionality of the system under the operating conditions of typical liquid rocket engines such as cryogenic temperature, vibration loads. The test results demonstrated that the developed SHM system could survive the combined cryogenic temperature and vibration environments and effectively detect cracks as small as 2 mm.

  11. Developing Avionics Hardware and Software for Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberg, Bryce Robert

    2014-01-01

    My summer was spent working as an intern at Kennedy Space Center in the Propulsion Avionics Branch of the NASA Engineering Directorate Avionics Division. The work that I was involved with was part of Rocket University's Project Neo, a small scale liquid rocket engine test bed. I began by learning about the layout of Neo in order to more fully understand what was required of me. I then developed software in LabView to gather and scale data from two flowmeters and integrated that code into the main control software. Next, I developed more LabView code to control an igniter circuit and integrated that into the main software, as well. Throughout the internship, I performed work that mechanics and technicians would do in order to maintain and assemble the engine.

  12. Reusable Rocket Engine Operability Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, R. L.; Komar, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology, model, input data, and analysis results of a reusable launch vehicle engine operability study conducted with the goal of supporting design from an operations perspective. Paralleling performance analyses in schedule and method, this requires the use of metrics in a validated operations model useful for design, sensitivity, and trade studies. Operations analysis in this view is one of several design functions. An operations concept was developed given an engine concept and the predicted operations and maintenance processes incorporated into simulation models. Historical operations data at a level of detail suitable to model objectives were collected, analyzed, and formatted for use with the models, the simulations were run, and results collected and presented. The input data used included scheduled and unscheduled timeline and resource information collected into a Space Transportation System (STS) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) historical launch operations database. Results reflect upon the importance not only of reliable hardware but upon operations and corrective maintenance process improvements.

  13. Turnaround Time Modeling for Conceptual Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, Michael; Staton, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have brought about a paradigm shift within NASA and the Space Launch Community regarding the performance of conceptual design. Reliability, maintainability, supportability, and operability are no longer effects of design; they have moved to the forefront and are affecting design. A primary focus of this shift has been a planned decrease in vehicle turnaround time. Potentials for instituting this decrease include attacking the issues of removing, refurbishing, and replacing the engines after each flight. less, it is important to understand the operational affects of an engine on turnaround time, ground support personnel and equipment. One tool for visualizing this relationship involves the creation of a Discrete Event Simulation (DES). A DES model can be used to run a series of trade studies to determine if the engine is meeting its requirements, and, if not, what can be altered to bring it into compliance. Using DES, it is possible to look at the ways in which labor requirements, parallel maintenance versus serial maintenance, and maintenance scheduling affect the overall turnaround time. A detailed DES model of the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) has been developed. Trades may be performed using the SSME Processing Model to see where maintenance bottlenecks occur, what the benefits (if any) are of increasing the numbers of personnel, or the number and location of facilities, in addition to trades previously mentioned, all with the goal of optimizing the operational turnaround time and minimizing operational cost. The SSME Processing Model was developed in such a way that it can easily be used as a foundation for developing DES models of other operational or developmental reusable engines. Performing a DES on a developmental engine during the conceptual phase makes it easier to affect the design and make changes to bring about a decrease in turnaround time and costs.

  14. An RL10A-3-3A rocket engine model using the rocket engine transient simulator (ROCETS) software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Steady-state and transient computer models of the RL10A-3-3A rocket engine have been created using the Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) code. These models were created for several purposes. The RL10 engine is a critical component of past, present, and future space missions; the model will give NASA an in-house capability to simulate the performance of the engine under various operating conditions and mission profiles. The RL10 simulation activity is also an opportunity to further validate the ROCETS program. The ROCETS code is an important tool for modeling rocket engine systems at NASA Lewis. ROCETS provides a modular and general framework for simulating the steady-state and transient behavior of any desired propulsion system. Although the ROCETS code is being used in a number of different analysis and design projects within NASA, it has not been extensively validated for any system using actual test data. The RL10A-3-3A has a ten year history of test and flight applications; it should provide sufficient data to validate the ROCETS program capability. The ROCETS models of the RL10 system were created using design information provided by Pratt & Whitney, the engine manufacturer. These models are in the process of being validated using test-stand and flight data. This paper includes a brief description of the models and comparison of preliminary simulation output against flight and test-stand data.

  15. Preliminary Studies of a Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc; Adelman, H. G.; Menees, G. P.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the new era of space exploration, there is a strong need for more efficient, cheaper and more reliable propulsion devices. With dramatic increase in specific impulse, the overall mass of fuel to be lifted into orbit is decreased, and this leads, in turn, to much lower mass requirements at lift-off, higher payload ratios and lower launch costs. The Pulsed Detonation engine (PDE) has received much attention lately due to its unique combination of simplicity, light-weight and efficiency. Current investigations focus principally on its use as a low speed, airbreathing engine, although other applications have also been proposed. Its use as a rocket propulsion device was first proposed in 1988 by the present authors. The superior efficiency of the Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE) is due to the near constant volume combustion process of a detonation wave. Our preliminary estimates suggest that the PDRE is theoretically capable of achieving specific impulses as high as 720 sec, a dramatic improvement over the current 480 sec of conventional rocket engines, making it competitive with nuclear thermal rockets. In addition to this remarkable efficiency, the PDRE may eliminate the need for high pressure cryogenic turbopumps, a principal source of failures. The heat transfer rates are also much lower, eliminating the need for nozzle cooling. Overall, the engine is more reliable and has a much lower weight. This paper will describe in detail the operation of the PDRE and calculate its performance, through numerical simulations. Engineering issues will be addressed and discussed, and the impact on mission profiles will also be presented. Finally, the performance of the PDRE using in-situ resources, such as CO and O2 from the martian atmosphere, will also be computed.

  16. Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-15

    3 TASK D - ADVANCED ENGINE STUDY .............................................. 5 Phase I (D.1, D.2 and D. 3 ...34 High Velocity Ratio Diffusing Crossovers (1.2) .............................. 41 Soft Wear Ring Seals (B. 3 and B.5...67 Combustor Coolant Channel Selection (C.2) .................................. 77 Combustor Caloriniiter Experiments (C. 3 , C.A

  17. Improving of Hybrid Rocket Engine on the Basis of Optimizing Design Fuel Grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriekov, K. M.; Ushkin, M. P.

    2015-09-01

    This article examines the processes intrachamber in hybrid rocket engine (HRE) and the comparative assessment of the use of solid rocket motors (SRM) and HRE for meteorological rockets with a mass of payload of the 364 kg. Results of the research showed the possibility of a significant increase in the ballistic effectiveness of meteorological rocket.

  18. Computational analysis of liquid hypergolic propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, A.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gross, K. W.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion process in liquid rocket engines depends on a number of complex phenomena such as atomization, vaporization, spray dynamics, mixing, and reaction mechanisms. A computational tool to study their mutual interactions is developed to help analyze these processes with a view of improving existing designs and optimizing future designs of the thrust chamber. The focus of the article is on the analysis of the Variable Thrust Engine for the Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle. This engine uses a hypergolic liquid bipropellant combination of monomethyl hydrazine as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide as oxidizer.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    Pulse detonation engines (PDB) have generated considerable research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional gas turbines and rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a theoretical thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional engines. However, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to all pulse detonation devices has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance of PDES problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the progress that has been made in comparing the available experimental measurements with analytical and numerical models.

  20. Instrumentation for In-Flight SSME Rocket Engine Plume Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.; Bickford, Randall L.; Duncan, David B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes instrumentation that is under development for an in-flight demonstration of a plume spectroscopy system on the space shuttle main engine. The instrumentation consists of a nozzle mounted optical probe for observation of the plume, and a spectrometer for identification and quantification of plume content. This instrumentation, which is intended for use as a diagnostic tool to detect wear and incipient failure in rocket engines, will be validated by a hardware demonstration on the Technology Test Bed engine at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. Dual-fuel, dual-mode rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a dual fuel, dual mode rocket engine designed to improve the performance of earth-to-orbit vehicles. For any vehicle that operates from the earth's surface to earth orbit, it is advantageous to use two different fuels during its ascent. A high density impulse fuel, such as kerosene, is most efficient during the first half of the trajectory. A high specific impulse fuel, such as hydrogen, is most efficient during the second half of the trajectory. The invention allows both fuels to be used with a single rocket engine. It does so by adding a minimum number of state-of-the-art components to baseline single made rocket engines, and is therefore relatively easy to develop for near term applications. The novelty of this invention resides in the mixing of fuels before exhaust nozzle cooling. This allows all of the engine fuel to cool the exhaust nozzle, and allows the ratio of fuels used throughout the flight depend solely on performance requirements, not cooling requirements.

  2. Nonlinear Control of a Reusable Rocket Engine for Life Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Holmes, Michael S.; Ray, Asok

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual development of a life-extending control system where the objective is to achieve high performance and structural durability of the plant. A life-extending controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine via damage mitigation in both the fuel (H2) and oxidizer (O2) turbines while achieving high performance for transient responses of the combustion chamber pressure and the O2/H2 mixture ratio. The design procedure makes use of a combination of linear and nonlinear controller synthesis techniques and also allows adaptation of the life-extending controller module to augment a conventional performance controller of the rocket engine. The nonlinear aspect of the design is achieved using non-linear parameter optimization of a prescribed control structure. Fatigue damage in fuel and oxidizer turbine blades is primarily caused by stress cycling during start-up, shutdown, and transient operations of a rocket engine. Fatigue damage in the turbine blades is one of the most serious causes for engine failure.

  3. Deimos Methane-Oxygen Rocket Engine Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, S.; Souverein, L. J.; Twigt, D. J.

    This paper presents the results of the first DEIMOS Liquid Methane/Oxygen rocket engine test campaign. DEIMOS is an acronym for `Delft Experimental Methane Oxygen propulsion System'. It is a project performed by students under the auspices of DARE (Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering). The engine provides a theoretical design thrust of 1800 N and specific impulse of 287 s at a chamber pressure of 40 bar with a total mass flow of 637 g/s. It has links to sustainable development, as the propellants used are one of the most promising so-called `green propellants'-combinations, currently under scrutiny by the industry, and the engine is designed to be reusable. This paper reports results from the provisional tests, which had the aim of verifying the engine's ability to fire, and confirming some of the design assumptions to give confidence for further engine designs. Measurements before and after the tests are used to determine first estimates on feed pressures, propellant mass flows and achieved thrust. These results were rather disappointing from a performance point of view, with an average thrust of a mere 3.8% of the design thrust, but nonetheless were very helpful. The reliability of ignition and stability of combustion are discussed as well. An initial assessment as to the reusability, the flexibility and the adaptability of the engine was made. The data provides insight into (methane/oxygen) engine designs, leading to new ideas for a subsequent design. The ultimate goal of this project is to have an operational rocket and to attempt to set an amateur altitude record.

  4. Rocket Engine Plume Diagnostics at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tejwani, Gopal D.; Langford, Lester A.; VanDyke, David B.; McVay, Gregory P.; Thurman, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The Stennis Space Center has been at the forefront of development and application of exhaust plume spectroscopy to rocket engine health monitoring since 1989. Various spectroscopic techniques, such as emission, absorption, FTIR, LIF, and CARS, have been considered for application at the engine test stands. By far the most successful technology h a been exhaust plume emission spectroscopy. In particular, its application to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) ground test health monitoring has been invaluable in various engine testing and development activities at SSC since 1989. On several occasions, plume diagnostic methods have successfully detected a problem with one or more components of an engine long before any other sensor indicated a problem. More often, they provide corroboration for a failure mode, if any occurred during an engine test. This paper gives a brief overview of our instrumentation and computational systems for rocket engine plume diagnostics at SSC. Some examples of successful application of exhaust plume spectroscopy (emission as well as absorption) to the SSME testing are presented. Our on-going plume diagnostics technology development projects and future requirements are discussed.

  5. Analysis of rocket engine injection combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A critique is given of the JANNAF sub-critical propellant injection/combustion process analysis computer models and application of the models to correlation of well documented hot fire engine data bases. These programs are the distributed energy release (DER) model for conventional liquid propellants injectors and the coaxial injection combustion model (CICM) for gaseous annulus/liquid core coaxial injectors. The critique identifies model inconsistencies while the computer analyses provide quantitative data on predictive accuracy. The program is comprised of three tasks: (1) computer program review and operations; (2) analysis and data correlations; and (3) documentation.

  6. Parallelization of Rocket Engine Simulator Software (PRESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cezzar, Ruknet

    1998-01-01

    /18/99). At the least, the research would need to be done on Windows 95/Windows NT based platforms. Moreover, with the acquisition of Lahey Fortran package for PC platform, and the existing Borland C + + 5. 0, we can do work on C + + wrapper issues. We have carefully studied the blueprint for Space Transportation Propulsion Integrated Design Environment for the next 25 years [13] and found the inclusion of HBCUs in that effort encouraging. Especially in the long period for which a map is provided, there is no doubt that HBCUs will grow and become better equipped to do meaningful research. In the shorter period, as was suggested in our presentation at the HBCU conference, some key decisions regarding the aging Fortran based software for rocket propellants will need to be made. One important issue is whether or not object oriented languages such as C + + or Java should be used for distributed computing. Whether or not "distributed computing" is necessary for the existing software is yet another, larger, question to be tackled with.

  7. Method of fabricating a rocket engine combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); Mckechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Power, Christopher A. (Inventor); Daniel, Ronald L., Jr. (Inventor); Saxelby, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for making a combustion chamber for a rocket engine wherein a copper alloy in particle form is injected into a stream of heated carrier gas in plasma form which is then projected onto the inner surface of a hollow metal jacket having the configuration of a rocket engine combustion chamber is described. The particles are in the plasma stream for a sufficient length of time to heat the particles to a temperature such that the particles will flatten and adhere to previously deposited particles but will not spatter or vaporize. After a layer is formed, cooling channels are cut in the layer, then the channels are filled with a temporary filler and another layer of particles is deposited.

  8. Schlieren image velocimetry measurements in a rocket engine exhaust plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Rudy; Peguero, Julio; Hargather, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Schlieren image velocimetry (SIV) measures velocity fields by tracking the motion of naturally-occurring turbulent flow features in a compressible flow. Here the technique is applied to measuring the exhaust velocity profile of a liquid rocket engine. The SIV measurements presented include discussion of visibility of structures, image pre-processing for structure visibility, and ability to process resulting images using commercial particle image velocimetry (PIV) codes. The small-scale liquid bipropellant rocket engine operates on nitrous oxide and ethanol as propellants. Predictions of the exhaust velocity are obtained through NASA CEA calculations and simple compressible flow relationships, which are compared against the measured SIV profiles. Analysis of shear layer turbulence along the exhaust plume edge is also presented.

  9. Multiobjective Optimization of Rocket Engine Pumps Using Evolutionary Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, Akira; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2001-01-01

    A design optimization method for turbopumps of cryogenic rocket engines has been developed. Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) is used for multiobjective pump design optimizations. Performances of design candidates are evaluated by using the meanline pump flow modeling method based on the Euler turbine equation coupled with empirical correlations for rotor efficiency. To demonstrate the feasibility of the present approach, a single stage centrifugal pump design and multistage pump design optimizations are presented. In both cases, the present method obtains very reasonable Pareto-optimal solutions that include some designs outperforming the original design in total head while reducing input power by one percent. Detailed observation of the design results also reveals some important design criteria for turbopumps in cryogenic rocket engines. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the EA-based design optimization method in this field.

  10. Review on pressure swirl injector in liquid rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Wang, Zhen-guo; Li, Qinglian; Cheng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    The pressure swirl injector with tangential inlet ports is widely used in liquid rocket engine. Commonly, this type of pressure swirl injector consists of tangential inlet ports, a swirl chamber, a converging spin chamber, and a discharge orifice. The atomization of the liquid propellants includes the formation of liquid film, primary breakup and secondary atomization. And the back pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber could have great influence on the atomization of the injector. What's more, when the combustion instability occurs, the pressure oscillation could further affects the atomization process. This paper reviewed the primary atomization and the performance of the pressure swirl injector, which include the formation of the conical liquid film, the breakup and atomization characteristics of the conical liquid film, the effects of the rocket engine environment, and the response of the injector and atomization on the pressure oscillation.

  11. Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An engine is disclosed, including a controllable output plasma generator, a controllable heater for selectably raising a temperature of the plasma connected to an outlet of the plasma generator, and a nozzle connected to an outlet of the heater, through which heated plasma is discharged to provide thrust. In one embodiment, the source of plasma is a helicon generator. In one embodiment, the heater is an ion cyclotron resonator. In one embodiment, the nozzle is a radially diverging magnetic field disposed on a discharge side of the heater so that helically travelling particles in the beater exit the heater at high axial velocity. A particular embodiment includes control circuits for selectably directing a portion of radio frequency power from an RF generator to the helicon generator and to the cyclotron resonator so that the thrust output and the specific impulse of the engine can be selectively controlled. A method of propelling a vehicle is also disclosed. The method includes generating a plasma, heating said plasma, and discharging the heated plasma through a nozzle. In one embodiment, the nozzle is a diverging magnetic field. In this embodiment, the heating is performed by applying a radio frequency electro magnetic field to the plasma at the ion cyclotron frequency in an axially polarized DC magnetic field.

  12. Nonlinear Acoustic Processes in a Solid Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-29

    conceptual framwork for the study number (M), weakly viscous internal flow sustained of solid rocket engine chamber flow dynamics which by mass...same magnitude. The formulation and results provide a conceptual framwork for the study of injected cylinder flow dynamics which supplements traditional...towards the axial direction. Until recently, conceptual understanding of this flow turning process has been based largely on the viscous properties of the

  13. Research Technology (ASTP) Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch. The RBCC's overall objective is to provide a technology test bed to investigate critical technologies associated with opperational usage of these engines. The program will focus on near term technologies that can be leveraged to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsions systems and ultimately a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  14. Health management system for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Edward

    1990-01-01

    The functional framework of a failure detection algorithm for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is developed. The basic algorithm is based only on existing SSME measurements. Supplemental measurements, expected to enhance failure detection effectiveness, are identified. To support the algorithm development, a figure of merit is defined to estimate the likelihood of SSME criticality 1 failure modes and the failure modes are ranked in order of likelihood of occurrence. Nine classes of failure detection strategies are evaluated and promising features are extracted as the basis for the failure detection algorithm. The failure detection algorithm provides early warning capabilities for a wide variety of SSME failure modes. Preliminary algorithm evaluation, using data from three SSME failures representing three different failure types, demonstrated indications of imminent catastrophic failure well in advance of redline cutoff in all three cases.

  15. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  16. Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engine Throttling: A Comprehensive Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casiano, Matthew; Hulka, James; Yang, Virog

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engines (LREs) are capable of on-command variable thrust or thrust modulation, an operability advantage that has been studied intermittently since the late 1930s. Throttleable LREs can be used for planetary entry and descent, space rendezvous, orbital maneuvering including orientation and stabilization in space, and hovering and hazard avoidance during planetary landing. Other applications have included control of aircraft rocket engines, limiting of vehicle acceleration or velocity using retrograde rockets, and ballistic missile defense trajectory control. Throttleable LREs can also continuously follow the most economical thrust curve in a given situation, compared to discrete throttling changes over a few select operating points. The effects of variable thrust on the mechanics and dynamics of an LRE as well as difficulties and issues surrounding the throttling process are important aspects of throttling behavior. This review provides a detailed survey of LRE throttling centered around engines from the United States. Several LRE throttling methods are discussed, including high-pressure-drop systems, dual-injector manifolds, gas injection, multiple chambers, pulse modulation, throat throttling, movable injector components, and hydrodynamically dissipative injectors. Concerns and issues surrounding each method are examined, and the advantages and shortcomings compared.

  17. Combustion-wave ignition for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry C.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion wave ignition concept was experimentally studied in order to verify its suitability for application in baffled sections of a large booster engine combustion chamber. Gaseous oxygen/gaseous methane (GOX/GH4) and gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GOX/GH2) propellant combinations were evaluated in a subscale combustion wave ignition system. The system included four element tubes capable of carrying ignition energy simultaneously to four locations, simulating four baffled sections. Also, direct ignition of a simulated Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) was performed. Tests were conducted over a range of mixture ratios and tube geometries. Ignition was consistently attained over a wide range of mixture ratios. And at every ignition, the flame propagated through all four element tubes. For GOX/GH4, the ignition system ignited the MCC flow at mixture ratios from 2 to 10 and for GOX/GH2 the ratios is from 2 to 13. The ignition timing was found to be rapid and uniform. The total ignition delay when using the MCC was under 11 ms, with the tube-to-tube, as well as the run-to-run, variation under 1 ms. Tube geometries were found to have negligible effect on the ignition outcome and timing.

  18. Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Charles D.; Ottinger, Cathy A.; Sanchez, Lawrence C.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1992-07-01

    Nuclear (fission) thermal propulsion has been identified as a critical technology for a manned mission to Mars by the year 2019. Facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design, which must support a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power for a flight weight reactor/engine. This paper describes the design of a fuel element ground test facility, with a strong emphasis on safety and economy. The details of major structures and support systems of the facility are discussed, and a design diagram of the test facility structures is presented.

  19. Oxidation of Copper Alloy Candidates for Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogbuji, Linus U. Thomas; Humphrey, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    The gateway to affordable and reliable space transportation in the near future remains long-lived rocket-based propulsion systems; and because of their high conductivities, copper alloys remain the best materials for lining rocket engines and dissipating their enormous thermal loads. However, Cu and its alloys are prone to oxidative degradation -- especially via the ratcheting phenomenon of blanching, which occurs in situations where the local ambient can oscillate between oxidation and reduction, as it does in a H2/02- fuelled rocket engine. Accordingly, resistance to blanching degradation is one of the key requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) liner materials. Candidate copper alloys have been studied with a view to comparing their oxidation behavior, and hence resistance to blanching, in ambients corresponding to conditions expected in rocket engine service. These candidate materials include GRCop-84 and GRCop-42 (Cu - Cr-8 - Nb-4 and Cu - Cr-4 - Nb-2 respectively); NARloy-Z (Cu-3%Ag-0.5%Y), and GlidCop (Cu-O.l5%Al2O3 ODS alloy); they represent different approaches to improving the mechanical properties of Cu without incurring a large drop in thermal conductivity. Pure Cu (OFHC-Cu) was included in the study to provide a baseline for comparison. The samples were exposed for 10 hours in the TGA to oxygen partial pressures ranging from 322 ppm to 1.0 atmosphere and at temperatures of up to 700 C, and examined by SEM-EDS and other techniques of metallography. This paper will summarize the results obtained.

  20. Large liquid rocket engine transient performance simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. R.; Southwick, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    A simulation system, ROCETS, was designed and developed to allow cost-effective computer predictions of liquid rocket engine transient performance. The system allows a user to generate a simulation of any rocket engine configuration using component modules stored in a library through high-level input commands. The system library currently contains 24 component modules, 57 sub-modules and maps, and 33 system routines and utilities. FORTRAN models from other sources can be operated in the system upon inclusion of interface information on comment cards. Operation of the simulation is simplified for the user by run, execution, and output processors. The simulation system makes available steady-state trim balance, transient operation, and linear partial generation. The system utilizes a modern equation solver for efficient operation of the simulations. Transient integration methods include integral and differential forms for the trapezoidal, first order Gear, and second order Gear corrector equations. A detailed technology test bed engine (TTBE) model was generated to be used as the acceptance test of the simulation system. The general level of model detail was that reflected in the Space Shuttle Main Engine DTM. The model successfully obtained steady-state balance in main stage operation and simulated throttle transients, including engine starts and shutdown. A NASA FORTRAN control model was obtained, ROCETS interface installed in comment cards, and operated with the TTBE model in closed-loop transient mode.

  1. Investigation of Cooling Water Injection into Supersonic Rocket Engine Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Hansen; Jeansonne, Christopher; Menon, Shyam

    2017-11-01

    Water spray cooling of the exhaust plume from a rocket undergoing static testing is critical in preventing thermal wear of the test stand structure, and suppressing the acoustic noise signature. A scaled test facility has been developed that utilizes non-intrusive diagnostic techniques including Focusing Color Schlieren (FCS) and Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) to examine the interaction of a pressure-fed water jet with a supersonic flow of compressed air. FCS is used to visually assess the interaction of the water jet with the strong density gradients in the supersonic air flow. PDPA is used in conjunction to gain statistical information regarding water droplet size and velocity as the jet is broken up. Measurement results, along with numerical simulations and jet penetration models are used to explain the observed phenomena. Following the cold flow testing campaign a scaled hybrid rocket engine will be constructed to continue tests in a combusting flow environment similar to that generated by the rocket engines tested at NASA facilities. LaSPACE.

  2. Quasi-One-Dimensional Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated considerable research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred a great deal of interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the difficulties in comparing the available experimental measurements with numerical models. In a previous paper by the author, parametric studies of the performance of a single, straight-tube PDRE were reported. A 1-D, unsteady method of characteristics code, employing a constant-gamma assumption behind the detonation front, was developed for that study. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and are particularly useful for parametric performance comparisons. For example, a plot showing the specific impulse of various PDRE and steady-state rocket engine (SSRE) configurations as a function of blowdown pressure ratio. The performance curves clearly indicate that a straight-tube PDRE is superior in specific impulse to a SSRE with a sonic nozzle over the entire range of pressure ratios. Note, however, that a straight-tube PDRE in general does not compare favorably to a SSRE fitted with an optimized de Laval supersonic nozzle, particularly at the high pressure ratios typical for boost or in-space rocket applications. However, the calculations also show that if a dynamically optimized, supersonic de Laval nozzle could be could be fitted to a PDRE, then the specific impulse of the device would exceed that of a comparable SSRE

  3. An expert system for spectroscopic analysis of rocket engine plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, Greg; Valenti, Elizabeth; Alphonso, Keith; Holladay, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    The expert system described in this paper analyzes spectral emissions of rocket engine exhaust plumes and shows major promise for use in engine health diagnostics. Plume emission spectroscopy is an important tool for diagnosing engine anomalies, but it is time-consuming and requires highly skilled personnel. The expert system was created to alleviate such problems. The system accepts a spectral plot in the form of wavelength vs intensity pairs and finds the emission peaks in the spectrum, lists the elemental emitters present in the data and deduces the emitter that produced each peak. The system consists of a conventional language component and a commercially available inference engine that runs on an Apple Macintosh computer. The expert system has undergone limited preliminary testing. It detects elements well and significantly decreases analysis time.

  4. Development of CFD model for augmented core tripropellant rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth M.

    1994-10-01

    The Space Shuttle era has made major advances in technology and vehicle design to the point that the concept of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle appears more feasible. NASA presently is conducting studies into the feasibility of certain advanced concept rocket engines that could be utilized in a SSTO vehicle. One such concept is a tripropellant system which burns kerosene and hydrogen initially and at altitude switches to hydrogen. This system will attain a larger mass fraction because LOX-kerosene engines have a greater average propellant density and greater thrust-to-weight ratio. This report describes the investigation to model the tripropellant augmented core engine. The physical aspects of the engine, the CFD code employed, and results of the numerical model for a single modular thruster are discussed.

  5. Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 rocket engine assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoke, D. R.; Williams, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication and test of rocket engine assemblies (REA) for Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 are reported. The fabrication, assembly and flight acceptance test of seven REA's including the type approval test of one engine and fabrication of one additional kit consisting of detail parts for an engine ready for catalyst loading are presented. The MV/M '73 REA which is a nominal 51 lbs thrust monopropellant engine is described. Under steady state operation the specific impulse is not less than 228 lb-sec at 55 lb and 218.5 lb-sec at 10 lb thrust varying linearly between these limits. The characteristic velocity is not less than 4100 ft/sec at any thrust level.

  6. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  7. Dual Expander Cycle Rocket Engine with an Intermediate, Closed-cycle Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A dual expander cycle (DEC) rocket engine with an intermediate closed-cycle heat exchanger is provided. A conventional DEC rocket engine has a closed-cycle heat exchanger thermally coupled thereto. The heat exchanger utilizes heat extracted from the engine's fuel circuit to drive the engine's oxidizer turbomachinery.

  8. Scaling of Performance in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses scaling of combustion and combustion performance in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. In development of new combustors, comparisons are often made between predicted performance in a new combustor and measured performance in another combustor with different geometric and thermodynamic characteristics. Without careful interpretation of some key features, the comparison can be misinterpreted and erroneous information used in the design of the new device. This paper provides a review of this performance comparison, including a brief review of the initial liquid rocket scaling research conducted during the 1950s and 1960s, a review of the typical performance losses encountered and how they scale, a description of the typical scaling procedures used in development programs today, and finally a review of several historical development programs to see what insight they can bring to the questions at hand.

  9. Scaling of Performance in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Combustion Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses scaling of combustion and combustion performance in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. In development of new combustors, comparisons are often made between predicted performance in a new combustor and measured performance in another combustor with different geometric and thermodynamic characteristics. Without careful interpretation of some key features, the comparison can be misinterpreted and erroneous information used in the design of the new device. This paper provides a review of this performance comparison, including a brief review of the initial liquid rocket scaling research conducted during the 1950s and 1960s, a review of the typical performance losses encountered and how they scale, a description of the typical scaling procedures used in development programs today, and finally a review of several historical development programs to see what insight they can bring to the questions at hand.

  10. The Rocket Engine Advancement Program 2 (REAP2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Brent (Technical Monitor); Hawk, Clark W.

    2004-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Advancement Program (REAP) 2 program is being conducted by a university propulsion consortium consisting of the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Penn State University, Purdue University, Tuskegee University and Auburn University. It has been created to bring their combined skills to bear on liquid rocket combustion stability and thrust chamber cooling. The research team involves well established and known researchers in the propulsion community. The cure team provides the knowledge base, research skills, and commitment to achieve an immediate and continuing impact on present and future propulsion issues. through integrated research teams composed of analysts, diagnosticians, and experimentalists working together in an integrated multi-disciplinary program. This paper provides an overview of the program, its objectives and technical approaches. Research on combustion instability and thrust chamber cooling are being accomplished

  11. Magnetic bearings: A key technology for advanced rocket engines?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girault, J. PH.

    1992-01-01

    For several years, active magnetic bearings (AMB) have demonstrated their capabilities in many fields, from industrial compressors to control wheel suspension for spacecraft. Despite this broad area, no significant advance has been observed in rocket propulsion turbomachinery, where size, efficiency, and cost are crucial design criteria. To this respect, Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) had funded for several years significant efforts to delineate the advantages and drawbacks of AMB applied to rocket propulsion systems. Objectives of this work, relative technological basis, and improvements are described and illustrated by advanced turbopump layouts. Profiting from the advantages of compact design in cryogenic environments, the designs show considerable improvements in engine life, performances, and reliability. However, these conclusions should still be tempered by high recurrent costs, mainly due to the space-rated electronics. Development work focused on this point and evolution of electronics show the possibility to decrease production costs by an order of magnitude.

  12. Investigation of Cleanliness Verification Techniques for Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, Marilyn L.; Skowronski, Raymund P.

    1994-01-01

    Oxidizer propellant systems for liquid-fueled rocket engines must meet stringent cleanliness requirements for particulate and nonvolatile residue. These requirements were established to limit residual contaminants which could block small orifices or ignite in the oxidizer system during engine operation. Limiting organic residues in high pressure oxygen systems, such as in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), is particularly important. The current method of cleanliness verification for the SSME uses an organic solvent flush of the critical hardware surfaces. The solvent is filtered and analyzed for particulate matter followed by gravimetric determination of the nonvolatile residue (NVR) content of the filtered solvent. The organic solvents currently specified for use (1, 1, 1-trichloroethane and CFC-113) are ozone-depleting chemicals slated for elimination by December 1995. A test program is in progress to evaluate alternative methods for cleanliness verification that do not require the use of ozone-depleting chemicals and that minimize or eliminate the use of solvents regulated as hazardous air pollutants or smog precursors. Initial results from the laboratory test program to evaluate aqueous-based methods and organic solvent flush methods for NVR verification are provided and compared with results obtained using the current method. Evaluation of the alternative methods was conducted using a range of contaminants encountered in the manufacture of rocket engine hardware.

  13. Rover nuclear rocket engine program: Overview of rover engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finseth, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The results of nuclear rocket development activities from the inception of the ROVER program in 1955 through the termination of activities on January 5, 1973 are summarized. This report discusses the nuclear reactor test configurations (non cold flow) along with the nuclear furnace demonstrated during this time frame. Included in the report are brief descriptions of the propulsion systems, test objectives, accomplishments, technical issues, and relevant test results for the various reactor tests. Additionally, this document is specifically aimed at reporting performance data and their relationship to fuel element development with little or no emphasis on other (important) items.

  14. Integrated Design Methodology for Highly Reliable Liquid Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratani, Naoshi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Yasui, Masaaki; Kure, Hirotaka; Masuya, Goro

    The Integrated Design Methodology is strongly required at the conceptual design phase to achieve the highly reliable space transportation systems, especially the propulsion systems, not only in Japan but also all over the world in these days. Because in the past some catastrophic failures caused some losses of mission and vehicle (LOM/LOV) at the operational phase, moreover did affect severely the schedule delays and cost overrun at the later development phase. Design methodology for highly reliable liquid rocket engine is being preliminarily established and investigated in this study. The sensitivity analysis is systematically performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology, and to clarify and especially to focus on the correlation between the combustion chamber, turbopump and main valve as main components. This study describes the essential issues to understand the stated correlations, the need to apply this methodology to the remaining critical failure modes in the whole engine system, and the perspective on the engine development in the future.

  15. Axisymmetric Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2005-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred considerable interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the progress that has been made in comparing the available experimental measurements with analytical and numerical models. In recent work by the author, a quasi-one-dimensional, finite rate chemistry CFD model was utilized to study the gasdynamics and performance characteristics of PDREs over a range of blowdown pressure ratios from 1-1000. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and enable first-order parametric studies of the effect of several nozzle and extension geometries on PDRE performance over a wide range of conditions. However, the quasi-one-dimensional approach is limited in that it cannot properly capture the multidimensional blast wave and flow expansion downstream of the PDRE, nor can it resolve nozzle flow separation if present. Moreover, the previous work was limited to single-pulse calculations. In this paper, an axisymmetric finite rate chemistry model is described and utilized to study these issues in greater detail. Example Mach number contour plots showing the multidimensional blast wave and nozzle exhaust plume are shown. The performance results are compared with the quasi-one-dimensional results from the previous paper. Both Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions are calculated in order to determine the effect of viscous

  16. Thrust augmentation nozzle (TAN) concept for rocket engine booster applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forde, Scott; Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd

    2006-07-01

    Aerojet used the patented thrust augmented nozzle (TAN) concept to validate a unique means of increasing sea-level thrust in a liquid rocket booster engine. We have used knowledge gained from hypersonic Scramjet research to inject propellants into the supersonic region of the rocket engine nozzle to significantly increase sea-level thrust without significantly impacting specific impulse. The TAN concept overcomes conventional engine limitations by injecting propellants and combusting in an annular region in the divergent section of the nozzle. This injection of propellants at moderate pressures allows for obtaining high thrust at takeoff without overexpansion thrust losses. The main chamber is operated at a constant pressure while maintaining a constant head rise and flow rate of the main propellant pumps. Recent hot-fire tests have validated the design approach and thrust augmentation ratios. Calculations of nozzle performance and wall pressures were made using computational fluid dynamics analyses with and without thrust augmentation flow, resulting in good agreement between calculated and measured quantities including augmentation thrust. This paper describes the TAN concept, the test setup, test results, and calculation results.

  17. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  18. Thermal stratification potential in rocket engine coolant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacynski, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    The potential for rocket engine coolant channel flow stratification was computationally studied. A conjugate, 3-D, conduction/advection analysis code (SINDA/FLUINT) was used. Core fluid temperatures were predicted to vary by over 360 K across the coolant channel, at the throat section, indicating that the conventional assumption of a fully mixed fluid may be extremely inaccurate. Because of the thermal stratification of the fluid, the walls exposed to the rocket engine exhaust gases will be hotter than an assumption of full mixing would imply. In this analysis, wall temperatures were 160 K hotter in the turbulent mixing case than in the full mixing case. The discrepancy between the full mixing and turbulent mixing analyses increased with increasing heat transfer. Both analysis methods predicted identical channel resistances at the coolant inlet, but in the stratified analysis the thermal resistance was negligible. The implications are significant. Neglect of thermal stratification could lead to underpredictions in nozzle wall temperatures. Even worse, testing at subscale conditions may be inadequate for modeling conditions that would exist in a full scale engine.

  19. Multiple dopant injection system for small rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakala, G. G.; Raines, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The Diagnostics Test Facility (DTF) at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) was designed and built to provide a standard rocket engine exhaust plume for use in the research and development of engine health monitoring instrumentation. A 1000 lb thrust class liquid oxygen (LOX)-gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fueled rocket engine is used as the subscale plume source to simulate the SSME during experimentation and instrument development. The ability of the DTF to provide efficient, and low cost test operations makes it uniquely suited for plume diagnostic experimentation. The most unique feature of the DTF is the Multiple Dopant Injection System (MDIS) that is used to seed the exhaust plume with the desired element or metal alloy. The dopant injection takes place at the fuel injector, yielding a very uniform and homogeneous distribution of the seeding material in the exhaust plume. The MDIS allows during a single test firing of the DTF, the seeding of the exhaust plume with up to three different dopants and also provides distilled water base lines between the dopants. A number of plume diagnostic-related experiments have already utilized the unique capabilities of the DTF.

  20. Net-Shape HIP Powder Metallurgy Components for Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bampton, Cliff; Goodin, Wes; VanDaam, Tom; Creeger, Gordon; James, Steve

    2005-01-01

    True net shape consolidation of powder metal (PM) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) provides opportunities for many cost, performance and life benefits over conventional fabrication processes for large rocket engine structures. Various forms of selectively net-shape PM have been around for thirty years or so. However, it is only recently that major applications have been pursued for rocket engine hardware fabricated in the United States. The method employs sacrificial metallic tooling (HIP capsule and shaped inserts), which is removed from the part after HIP consolidation of the powder, by selective acid dissolution. Full exploitation of net-shape PM requires innovative approaches in both component design and materials and processing details. The benefits include: uniform and homogeneous microstructure with no porosity, irrespective of component shape and size; elimination of welds and the associated quality and life limitations; removal of traditional producibility constraints on design freedom, such as forgeability and machinability, and scale-up to very large, monolithic parts, limited only by the size of existing HIP furnaces. Net-shape PM HIP also enables fabrication of complex configurations providing additional, unique functionalities. The progress made in these areas will be described. Then critical aspects of the technology that still require significant further development and maturation will be discussed from the perspective of an engine systems builder and end-user of the technology.

  1. Plasma Igniter for Reliable Ignition of Combustion in Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Adam; Eskridge, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A plasma igniter has been developed for initiating combustion in liquid-propellant rocket engines. The device propels a hot, dense plasma jet, consisting of elemental fluorine and fluorine compounds, into the combustion chamber to ignite the cold propellant mixture. The igniter consists of two coaxial, cylindrical electrodes with a cylindrical bar of solid Teflon plastic in the region between them. The outer electrode is a metal (stainless steel) tube; the inner electrode is a metal pin (mild steel, stainless steel, tungsten, or thoriated-tungsten). The Teflon bar fits snugly between the two electrodes and provides electrical insulation between them. The Teflon bar may have either a flat surface, or a concave, conical surface at the open, down-stream end of the igniter (the igniter face). The igniter would be mounted on the combustion chamber of the rocket engine, either on the injector-plate at the upstream side of the engine, or on the sidewalls of the chamber. It also might sit behind a valve that would be opened just prior to ignition, and closed just after, in order to prevent the Teflon from melting due to heating from the combustion chamber.

  2. Evaluation of Vortex Chamber Concepts for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu Phuoc; Knuth, Williams; Michaels, Scott; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Rocket-based combined-cycle engines (RBBC) being considered at NASA for future generation launch vehicles feature clusters of small rocket thrusters as part of the engine components. Depending on specific RBBC concepts, these thrusters may be operated at various operating conditions including power level and/or propellant mixture ratio variations. To pursue technology developments for future launch vehicles, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is examining vortex chamber concepts for the subject cycle engine application. Past studies indicated that the vortex chamber schemes potentially have a number of advantages over conventional chamber methods. Due to the nature of the vortex flow, relatively cooler propellant streams tend to flow along the chamber wall. Hence, the thruster chamber can be operated without the need of any cooling techniques. This vortex flow also creates strong turbulence, which promotes the propellant mixing process. Consequently, the subject chamber concepts not only offer the system simplicity but they also would enhance the combustion performance. The test results showed that the chamber performance was markedly high even at a low chamber length-to- diameter ratio (L/D). This incentive can be translated to a convenience in the thrust chamber packaging.

  3. Application of Additively Manufactured Components in Rocket Engine Turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, Marty, Jr.; Hanks, Andrew; Schmauch, Preston; Delessio, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The use of additive manufacturing technology has the potential to revolutionize the development of turbopump components in liquid rocket engines. When designing turbomachinery with the additive process there are several benefits and risks that are leveraged relative to a traditional development cycle. This topic explores the details and development of a 90,000 RPM Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump from which 90% of the parts were derived from the additive process. This turbopump was designed, developed and will be tested later this year at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. A digital controller for variable thrust liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Zhang, Y. L.; Chen, Q. Z.

    1993-06-01

    The paper describes the design and development of a built-in digital controller (BDC) for the variable thrust liquid rocket engine (VTLRE). Particular attention is given to the function requirements of the BDC, the hardware and software configuration, and the testing process, as well as to the VTLRE real-time computer simulation system used for the development of the BDC. A diagram of the VLTRE control system is presented as well as block diagrams illustrating the hardware and software configuration of the BDC.

  5. Structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber: Experimental and analytical validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Arya, Vinod K.; Kazaroff, John M.; Halford, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A new, structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber design has been validated through analysis and experiment. Subscale, tubular channel chambers have been cyclically tested and analytically evaluated. Cyclic lives were determined to have a potential for 1000 percent increase over those of rectangular channel designs, the current state of the art. Greater structural compliance in the circumferential direction gave rise to lower thermal strains during hot firing, resulting in lower thermal strain ratcheting and longer predicted fatigue lives. Thermal, structural, and durability analyses of the combustion chamber design, involving cyclic temperatures, strains, and low-cycle fatigue lives, have corroborated the experimental observations.

  6. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Oxygen materials compatibility testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, Leonard

    1989-01-01

    Particle impact and frictional heating tests of metals in high pressure oxygen, are conducted in support of the design of an advanced rocket engine oxygen turbopump. Materials having a wide range of thermodynamic properties including heat of combustion and thermal diffusivity were compared in their resistance to ignition and sustained burning. Copper, nickel and their alloys were found superior to iron based and stainless steel alloys. Some materials became more difficult to ignite as oxygen pressure was increased from 7 to 21 MPa (1000 to 3000 psia).

  7. Controls concepts for next generation reuseable rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.; Musgrave, Jefferey L.; Ray, Asok

    1995-04-01

    Three primary issues will drive the design and control used in next generation reuseable rocket engines. In addition to steady-state and dynamic performance, the requirements for increased durability, reliability and operability (with faults) will dictate which new controls and design technologies and features will be brought to bear. An array of concepts which have been brought forward will be tested against the measures of cost and benefit as reflected in the above 'ilities'. This paper examines some of the new concepts and looks for metrics to judge their value.

  8. Controls concepts for next generation reuseable rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.; Musgrave, Jefferey L.; Ray, Asok

    1995-01-01

    Three primary issues will drive the design and control used in next generation reuseable rocket engines. In addition to steady-state and dynamic performance, the requirements for increased durability, reliability and operability (with faults) will dictate which new controls and design technologies and features will be brought to bear. An array of concepts which have been brought forward will be tested against the measures of cost and benefit as reflected in the above 'ilities'. This paper examines some of the new concepts and looks for metrics to judge their value.

  9. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    In Task D.6 of the Advanced Engine Study, three primary subtasks were accomplished: (1) design of parametric data; (2) engine requirement variation studies; and (3) vehicle study/engine study coordination. Parametric data were generated for vacuum thrusts ranging from 7500 lbf to 50,000 lbf, nozzle expansion ratios from 600 to 1200, and engine mixture ratios from 5:1 to 7:1. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was used as a departure point for these parametric analyses. These data are intended to assist in definition and trade studies. In the Engine Requirements Variation Studies, the individual effects of increasing the throttling ratio from 10:1 to 20:1 and requiring the engine to operate at a maximum mixture ratio of 12:1 were determined. Off design engine balances were generated at these extreme conditions and individual component operating requirements analyzed in detail. Potential problems were identified and possible solutions generated. In the Vehicle Study/Engine Study coordination subtask, vehicle contractor support was provided as needed, addressing a variety of issues uncovered during vehicle trade studies. This support was primarily provided during Technical Interchange Meetings (TIM) in which Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) studies were addressed.

  10. Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Plume Diagnostics: Analytical Developments and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tejwani, Gopal D.; McVay, Gregory P.; Langford, Lester A.; St. Cyr, William W.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing experimental results and analytical developments about plume diagnostics for hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engines is shown. The topics include: 1) SSC Plume Diagnostics Background; 2) Engine Health Monitoring Approach; 3) Rocket Plume Spectroscopy Simulation Code; 4) Spectral Simulation for 10 Atomic Species and for 11 Diatomic Molecular Electronic Bands; 5) "Best" Lines for Plume Diagnostics for Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engines; 6) Experimental Set Up for the Methane Thruster Test Program and Experimental Results; and 7) Summary and Recommendations.

  11. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Warren R.

    1992-01-01

    An advanced LOX/LH2 engine study for the use of NASA and vehicle prime contractors in developing concepts for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and Phobos is documented. Parametric design data was obtained at five engine thrusts from 7.5K lbf to 50K lbf. Also, a separate task evaluated engine throttling over a 20:1 range and operation at a mixture ratio of 12 plus or minus 1 versus the 6 plus or minus 1 nominal. Cost data was also generated for DDT&E, first unit production, and factors in other life cycle costs. The major limitation of the study was lack of contact with vehicle prime contractors to resolve the issues in vehicle/engine interfaces. The baseline Aerojet dual propellant expander cycle was shown capable of meeting all performance requirements with an expected long operational life due to the high thermal margins. The basic engine design readily accommodated the 20:1 throttling requirement and operation up to a mixture ratio of 10 without change. By using platinum for baffled injector construction the increased thermal margin allowed operation up to mixture ratio 13. An initial engine modeling with an Aerojet transient simulation code (named MLETS) indicates stable engine operation with the baseline control system. A throttle ratio of 4 to 5 seconds from 10 percent to 100 percent thrust is also predicted. Performance predictions are 483.1 sec at 7.5K lbf, 487.3 sec at 20K lbf, and 485.2 sec at 50K lbf with a mixture ratio of 6 and an area ratio of 1200. Engine envelopes varied from 120 in. length/53 in. exit diameter at 7.5K lbf to 305 in. length/136 in. exit diameter at 50 K lbf. Packaging will be an important consideration. Continued work is recommended to include more vehicle prime contractor/engine contractor joint assessment of the interface issues.

  12. Large liquid rocket engine transient performance simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. R.; Southwick, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    Phase 1 of the Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) program consists of seven technical tasks: architecture; system requirements; component and submodel requirements; submodel implementation; component implementation; submodel testing and verification; and subsystem testing and verification. These tasks were completed. Phase 2 of ROCETS consists of two technical tasks: Technology Test Bed Engine (TTBE) model data generation; and system testing verification. During this period specific coding of the system processors was begun and the engineering representations of Phase 1 were expanded to produce a simple model of the TTBE. As the code was completed, some minor modifications to the system architecture centering on the global variable common, GLOBVAR, were necessary to increase processor efficiency. The engineering modules completed during Phase 2 are listed: INJTOO - main injector; MCHBOO - main chamber; NOZLOO - nozzle thrust calculations; PBRNOO - preburner; PIPE02 - compressible flow without inertia; PUMPOO - polytropic pump; ROTROO - rotor torque balance/speed derivative; and TURBOO - turbine. Detailed documentation of these modules is in the Appendix. In addition to the engineering modules, several submodules were also completed. These submodules include combustion properties, component performance characteristics (maps), and specific utilities. Specific coding was begun on the system configuration processor. All functions necessary for multiple module operation were completed but the SOLVER implementation is still under development. This system, the Verification Checkout Facility (VCF) allows interactive comparison of module results to store data as well as provides an intermediate checkout of the processor code. After validation using the VCF, the engineering modules and submodules were used to build a simple TTBE.

  13. Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program, Advanced Engine Study Task D.6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-28

    l!J~iliiJl 1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3 . Recipient’s Catalog No. NASA 187215 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date ORBIT TRANSFER ROCKET...Engine Study, three primary subtasks were accomplished: 1) Design and Parametric Data, 2) Engine Requirement Variation Studies, and 3 ) Vehicle Study...Mixture Ratio Parametrics 18 3 . Thrust Parametrics Off-Design Mixture Ratio Scans 22 4. Expansion Area Ratio Parametrics 24 5. OTV 20 klbf Engine Off

  14. Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. F.; Figueroa, F.; Politopoulos, T.; Oonk, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to correctly detect and identify any possible failure in the systems, subsystems, or sensors within a reusable liquid rocket engine is a major goal at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). A health management (HM) system is required to provide an on-ground operation crew with an integrated awareness of the condition of every element of interest by determining anomalies, examining their causes, and making predictive statements. However, the complexity associated with relevant systems, and the large amount of data typically necessary for proper interpretation and analysis, presents difficulties in implementing complete failure detection, identification, and prognostics (FDI&P). As such, this paper presents a Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines as a solution to these problems through the use of highly intelligent algorithms for real-time FDI&P, and efficient and embedded processing at multiple levels. The end result is the ability to successfully incorporate a comprehensive HM platform despite the complexity of the systems under consideration.

  15. Solid rocket booster performance evaluation model. Volume 1: Engineering description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The space shuttle solid rocket booster performance evaluation model (SRB-II) is made up of analytical and functional simulation techniques linked together so that a single pass through the model will predict the performance of the propulsion elements of a space shuttle solid rocket booster. The available options allow the user to predict static test performance, predict nominal and off nominal flight performance, and reconstruct actual flight and static test performance. Options selected by the user are dependent on the data available. These can include data derived from theoretical analysis, small scale motor test data, large motor test data and motor configuration data. The user has several options for output format that include print, cards, tape and plots. Output includes all major performance parameters (Isp, thrust, flowrate, mass accounting and operating pressures) as a function of time as well as calculated single point performance data. The engineering description of SRB-II discusses the engineering and programming fundamentals used, the function of each module, and the limitations of each module.

  16. Hyperthermal Environments Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Engine Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Clifton, W. B.; Hickman, Robert R.; Wang, Ten-See; Dobson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    An arc-heater driven hyperthermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to produce hightemperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of nuclear reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects, and is intended to serve as a low-cost facility for supporting non-nuclear developmental testing of hightemperature fissile fuels and structural materials. The resulting reactor environments simulator represents a valuable addition to the available inventory of non-nuclear test facilities and is uniquely capable of investigating and characterizing candidate fuel/structural materials, improving associated processing/fabrication techniques, and simulating reactor thermal hydraulics. This paper summarizes facility design and engineering development efforts and reports baseline operational characteristics as determined from a series of performance mapping and long duration capability demonstration tests. Potential follow-on developmental strategies are also suggested in view of the technical and policy challenges ahead. Keywords: Nuclear Rocket Engine, Reactor Environments, Non-Nuclear Testing, Fissile Fuel Development.

  17. Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology - 7.5K-LB Thrust Rocket Engine Preliminary Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-15

    AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION October, 1993 r W NASA-Lewis Research Center Cleveland, Ohio 44135 94-08572 Contract Nc. NAS3-23773 Task B.7 and D.5 4I3’OA4 3 ...APPROACH 1 4.0 SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS 2 5.0 TECHNICAL DISCUSSIONS 3 6.0 PROGRAM WORK PLAN 5 6.1 Engine Analysis 5 6.2 Component Analysis 15 6.2.1...FIGURES Page Figure 1 Advanced Engine Studv Logic Diagram 4 Figure 2 Design Point Engine Pertormance at Full Thrust & MR = 6.0 7 Figure 3 Off-Design

  18. Boiler and Pressure Balls Monopropellant Thermal Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed technology is a rocket engine cycle utilizing as the propulsive fluid a low molecular weight, cryogenic fluid, typically liquid hydrogen, pressure driven, heated, and expelled through a nozzle to generate high velocity and high specific impulse discharge gas. The proposed technology feeds the propellant through the engine cycle without the use of a separate pressurization fluid and without the use of turbomachinery. Advantages of the proposed technology are found in those elements of state-of-the-art systems that it avoids. It does not require a separate pressurization fluid or a thick-walled primary propellant tank as is typically required for a classical pressure-fed system. Further, it does not require the acceptance of intrinsic reliability risks associated with the use of turbomachinery

  19. Gas-Generator Augmented Expander Cycle Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An augmented expander cycle rocket engine includes first and second turbopumps for respectively pumping fuel and oxidizer. A gas-generator receives a first portion of fuel output from the first turbopump and a first portion of oxidizer output from the second turbopump to ignite and discharge heated gas. A heat exchanger close-coupled to the gas-generator receives in a first conduit the discharged heated gas, and transfers heat to an adjacent second conduit carrying fuel exiting the cooling passages of a primary combustion chamber. Heat is transferred to the fuel passing through the cooling passages. The heated fuel enters the second conduit of the heat exchanger to absorb more heat from the first conduit, and then flows to drive a turbine of one or both of the turbopumps. The arrangement prevents the turbopumps exposure to combusted gas that could freeze in the turbomachinery and cause catastrophic failure upon attempted engine restart.

  20. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merlon M.

    2004-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  1. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merion M.

    2002-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  2. Software for Estimating Costs of Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Merlon M.

    2003-01-01

    A high-level parametric mathematical model for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center has been implemented as a Microsoft Excel program that generates multiple spreadsheets. The model and the program are both denoted, simply, the Cost Estimating Model (CEM). The inputs to the CEM are the parameters that describe particular tests, including test types (component or engine test), numbers and duration of tests, thrust levels, and other parameters. The CEM estimates anticipated total project costs for a specific test. Estimates are broken down into testing categories based on a work-breakdown structure and a cost-element structure. A notable historical assumption incorporated into the CEM is that total labor times depend mainly on thrust levels. As a result of a recent modification of the CEM to increase the accuracy of predicted labor times, the dependence of labor time on thrust level is now embodied in third- and fourth-order polynomials.

  3. Parallel Unsteady Turbopump Simulations for Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the progress being made towards complete turbo-pump simulation capability for liquid rocket engines. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump impeller is used as a test case for the performance evaluation of the MPI and hybrid MPI/Open-MP versions of the INS3D code. Then, a computational model of a turbo-pump has been developed for the shuttle upgrade program. Relative motion of the grid system for rotor-stator interaction was obtained by employing overset grid techniques. Time-accuracy of the scheme has been evaluated by using simple test cases. Unsteady computations for SSME turbo-pump, which contains 136 zones with 35 Million grid points, are currently underway on Origin 2000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability, and the performance of the parallel versions of the code will be presented in the final paper.

  4. Linear quadratic servo control of a reusable rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of a design method for a servo component in the frequency domain using singular values and its application to a reusable rocket engine. A general methodology used to design a class of linear multivariable controllers for intelligent control systems is presented. Focus is placed on performance and robustness characteristics, and an estimator design performed in the framework of the Kalman-filter formalism with emphasis on using a sensor set different from the commanded values is discussed. It is noted that loop transfer recovery modifies the nominal plant noise intensities in order to obtain the desired degree of robustness to uncertainty reflected at the plant input. Simulation results demonstrating the performance of the linear design on a nonlinear engine model over all power levels during mainstage operation are discussed.

  5. Comparison of Engine Cycle Codes for Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waltrup, Paul J.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Bradford, John E.; Carreiro, Louis R.; Gettinger, Christopher; Komar, D. R.; McDonald, J.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from a one day workshop on Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine Cycle Codes held in Monterey CA in November of 2000 at the 2000 JANNAF JPM with the authors as primary participants. The objectives of the workshop were to discuss and compare the merits of existing Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine cycle codes being used by government and industry to predict RBCC engine performance and interpret experimental results. These merits included physical and chemical modeling, accuracy and user friendliness. The ultimate purpose of the workshop was to identify the best codes for analyzing RBCC engines and to document any potential shortcomings, not to demonstrate the merits or deficiencies of any particular engine design. Five cases representative of the operating regimes of typical RBCC engines were used as the basis of these comparisons. These included Mach 0 sea level static and Mach 1.0 and Mach 2.5 Air-Augmented-Rocket (AAR), Mach 4 subsonic combustion ramjet or dual-mode scramjet, and Mach 8 scramjet operating modes. Specification of a generic RBCC engine geometry and concomitant component operating efficiencies, bypass ratios, fuel/oxidizer/air equivalence ratios and flight dynamic pressures were provided. The engine included an air inlet, isolator duct, axial rocket motor/injector, axial wall fuel injectors, diverging combustor, and exit nozzle. Gaseous hydrogen was used as the fuel with the rocket portion of the system using a gaseous H2/O2 propellant system to avoid cryogenic issues. The results of the workshop, even after post-workshop adjudication of differences, were surprising. They showed that the codes predicted essentially the same performance at the Mach 0 and I conditions, but progressively diverged from a common value (for example, for fuel specific impulse, Isp) as the flight Mach number increased, with the largest differences at Mach 8. The example cases and results are compared and discussed in this paper.

  6. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, E. M.; Eddleman, D. E.; Reynolds, D. C.; Hardin, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As the United States enters into the next space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, rapid manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on NASA s Space Launch System (SLS) upper stage engine, J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator (GG) discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using a workhorse gas generator (WHGG) test fixture at MSFC's East Test Area, the duct was subjected to extreme J-2X hot gas environments during 7 tests for a total of 537 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct underwent extensive post-test evaluation and showed no signs of degradation. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  7. Control Room at the NACA’s Rocket Engine Test Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1957-05-21

    Test engineers monitor an engine firing from the control room of the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The Rocket Engine Test Facility, built in the early 1950s, had a rocket stand designed to evaluate high-energy propellants and rocket engine designs. The facility was used to study numerous different types of rocket engines including the Pratt and Whitney RL-10 engine for the Centaur rocket and Rocketdyne’s F-1 and J-2 engines for the Saturn rockets. The Rocket Engine Test Facility was built in a ravine at the far end of the laboratory because of its use of the dangerous propellants such as liquid hydrogen and liquid fluorine. The control room was located in a building 1,600 feet north of the test stand to protect the engineers running the tests. The main control and instrument consoles were centrally located in the control room and surrounded by boards controlling and monitoring the major valves, pumps, motors, and actuators. A camera system at the test stand allowed the operators to view the tests, but the researchers were reliant on data recording equipment, sensors, and other devices to provide test data. The facility’s control room was upgraded several times over the years. Programmable logic controllers replaced the electro-mechanical control devices. The new controllers were programed to operate the valves and actuators controlling the fuel, oxidant, and ignition sequence according to a predetermined time schedule.

  8. Design and Testing of a Liquid Nitrous Oxide and Ethanol Fueled Rocket Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Stewart

    A small-scale, bi-propellant, liquid fueled rocket engine and supporting test infrastructure were designed and constructed at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC). This facility was used to evaluate liquid nitrous oxide and ethanol as potential rocket propellants. Thrust and pressure measurements along with high-speed digital imaging of the rocket exhaust plume were made. This experimental data was used for validation of a computational model developed of the rocket engine tested. The developed computational model was utilized to analyze rocket engine performance across a range of operating pressures, fuel-oxidizer mixture ratios, and outlet nozzle configurations. A comparative study ofmore » the modeling of a liquid rocket engine was performed using NASA CEA and Cantera, an opensource equilibrium code capable of being interfaced with MATLAB. One goal of this modeling was to demonstrate the ability of Cantera to accurately model the basic chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics, and transport properties for varied fuel and oxidizer operating conditions. Once validated for basic equilibrium, an expanded MATLAB code, referencing Cantera, was advanced beyond CEAs capabilities to predict rocket engine performance as a function of supplied propellant flow rate and rocket engine nozzle dimensions. Cantera was found to comparable favorably to CEA for making equilibrium calculations, supporting its use as an alternative to CEA. The developed rocket engine performs as predicted, demonstrating the developedMATLAB rocket engine model was successful in predicting real world rocket engine performance. Finally, nitrous oxide and ethanol were shown to perform well as rocket propellants, with specific impulses experimentally recorded in the range of 250 to 260 seconds.« less

  9. Rocket-Plume Spectroscopy Simulation for Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tejwani, Gopal D.

    2010-01-01

    The UV-Vis spectroscopic system for plume diagnostics monitors rocket engine health by using several analytical tools developed at Stennis Space Center (SSC), including the rocket plume spectroscopy simulation code (RPSSC), to identify and quantify the alloys from the metallic elements observed in engine plumes. Because the hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engine is likely to contain C2, CO, CH, CN, and NO in addition to OH and H2O, the relevant electronic bands of these molecules in the spectral range of 300 to 850 nm in the RPSSC have been included. SSC incorporated several enhancements and modifications to the original line-by-line spectral simulation computer program implemented for plume spectral data analysis and quantification in 1994. These changes made the program applicable to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Diagnostic Testbed Facility Thruster (DTFT) exhaust plume spectral data. Modifications included updating the molecular and spectral parameters for OH, adding spectral parameter input files optimized for the 10 elements of interest in the spectral range from 320 to 430 nm and linking the output to graphing and analysis packages. Additionally, the ability to handle the non-uniform wavelength interval at which the spectral computations are made was added. This allowed a precise superposition of wavelengths at which the spectral measurements have been made with the wavelengths at which the spectral computations are done by using the line-by-line (LBL) code. To account for hydrocarbon combustion products in the plume, which might interfere with detection and quantification of metallic elements in the spectral region of 300 to 850 nm, the spectroscopic code has been enhanced to include the carbon-based combustion species of C2, CO, and CH. In addition, CN and NO have spectral bands in 300 to 850 nm and, while these molecules are not direct products of hydrocarbon-oxygen combustion systems, they can show up if nitrogen or a nitrogen compound is present

  10. Enrichment Zoning Options for the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce G. Schnitzler; Stanley K. Borowski

    2010-07-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. In NASA’s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study (NASA-SP-2009-566, July 2009), nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option because of its high thrust and high specific impulse (-900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effortmore » was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. Past activities at the NASA Glenn Research Center have included development of highly detailed MCNP Monte Carlo transport models of the SNRE and other small engine designs. Preliminary core configurations typically employ fuel elements with fixed fuel composition and fissile material enrichment. Uniform fuel loadings result in undesirable radial power and temperature profiles in the engines. Engine performance can be improved by some combination of propellant flow control at the fuel element level and by varying the fuel composition. Enrichment zoning at the fuel element level with lower enrichments in the higher power elements at the core center and on the core periphery is particularly effective. Power flattening by enrichment zoning typically results in more uniform propellant exit temperatures and improved engine performance. For the SNRE, element enrichment zoning provided very flat radial power profiles with 551 of

  11. Using Innovative Techniques for Manufacturing Rocket Engine Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Reynolds, David C.; Eddleman, David E.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing this technology on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powder metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently hot-fire tested a J-2X gas generator discharge duct that was manufactured using DMLS. The duct was inspected and proof tested prior to the hot-fire test. Using the Workhorse Gas Generator (WHGG) test setup at MSFC?s East Test Area test stand 116, the duct was subject to extreme J-2X gas generator environments and endured a total of 538 seconds of hot-fire time. The duct survived the testing and was inspected after the test. DMLS manufacturing has proven to be a viable option for manufacturing rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of this manufacturing method is recommended.

  12. Romanian MRE Rocket Engines Program - An Early Endeavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugescu, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    (MRE) was initiated in the years '60 of the past century at the Chair of Aerospace Sciences "Elie Carafoli" from the "Politehnica" University in Bucharest (PUB). Consisting of theoretical and experimental investigations in the form of computational methods and technological solutions for small size MRE-s and the concept of the test stand for these engines, the program ended in the construction of the first Romanian liquid rocket motors. Hermann Oberth and Dorin Pavel, were known from 1923, no experimental practice was yet tempted, at the time level of 1960. It was the intention of the developers at PUB to cover this gap and initiate a feasible, low-cost, demonstrative program of designing and testing experimental models of MRE. The research program was oriented towards future development of small size space carrier vehicles for scientific applications only, as an independent program with no connection to other defense programs imagined by the authorities in Bucharest, at that time. Consequently the entire financial support was assured by "Politehnica" university. computerized methods in the thermochemistry of heterogeneous combustion, for both steady and unsteady flows with chemical reactions and two phase flows. The research was gradually extended to the production of a professional CAD program for steady-state heat transfer simulations and the loading capacity analyses of the double wall, cooled thrust chamber. The resulting computer codes were run on a 360-30 IMB machine, beginning in 1968. Some of the computational methods were first exposed at the 9th International Conference on Applied Mechanics, held in Bucharest between June 23-27, 1969. hot testing of a series of storable propellant, variable thrust, variable geometry, liquid rocket motors, with a maximal thrust of 200N. A remotely controlled, portable test bad, actuated either automatically or manually and consisting of a 6-modules construction was built for this motor series, with a simple 8 analog

  13. Test Report for NASA MSFC Support of the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) was performed in support of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program to help develop a linear aerospike engine. The objective of this program was to operate a small aerospike engine at various speeds and altitudes to determine how slipstreams affect the engine's performance. The joint program between government and industry included NASA!s Dryden Flight Research Center, The Air Force's Phillips Laboratory, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Skunkworks, Lockheed-Martin Astronautics, and Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American. Ground testing of the LASRE engine produced two successful hot-fire tests, along with numerous cold flows to verify sequencing and operation before mounting the assembly on the SR-71. Once installed on the aircraft, flight testing performed several cold flows on the engine system at altitudes ranging from 30,000 to 50,000 feet and Mach numbers ranging from 0.9 to 1.5. The program was terminated before conducting hot-fires in flight because excessive leaks in the propellant supply systems could not be fixed to meet required safety levels without significant program cost and schedule impacts.

  14. Wireless Data-Acquisition System for Testing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chujen; Lonske, Ben; Hou, Yalin; Xu, Yingjiu; Gang, Mei

    2007-01-01

    A prototype wireless data-acquisition system has been developed as a potential replacement for a wired data-acquisition system heretofore used in testing rocket engines. The traditional use of wires to connect sensors, signal-conditioning circuits, and data acquisition circuitry is time-consuming and prone to error, especially when, as is often the case, many sensors are used in a test. The system includes one master and multiple slave nodes. The master node communicates with a computer via an Ethernet connection. The slave nodes are powered by rechargeable batteries and are packaged in weatherproof enclosures. The master unit and each of the slave units are equipped with a time-modulated ultra-wide-band (TMUWB) radio transceiver, which spreads its RF energy over several gigahertz by transmitting extremely low-power and super-narrow pulses. In this prototype system, each slave node can be connected to as many as six sensors: two sensors can be connected directly to analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in the slave node and four sensors can be connected indirectly to the ADCs via signal conditioners. The maximum sampling rate for streaming data from any given sensor is about 5 kHz. The bandwidth of one channel of the TM-UWB radio communication system is sufficient to accommodate streaming of data from five slave nodes when they are fully loaded with data collected through all possible sensor connections. TM-UWB radios have a much higher spatial capacity than traditional sinusoidal wave-based radios. Hence, this TM-UWB wireless data-acquisition can be scaled to cover denser sensor setups for rocket engine test stands. Another advantage of TM-UWB radios is that it will not interfere with existing wireless transmission. The maximum radio-communication range between the master node and a slave node for this prototype system is about 50 ft (15 m) when the master and slave transceivers are equipped with small dipole antennas. The range can be increased by changing to

  15. Software for Preprocessing Data From Rocket-Engine Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Chiu-Fu

    2002-01-01

    Three computer programs have been written to preprocess digitized outputs of sensors during rocket-engine tests at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The programs apply exclusively to the SSC "E" test-stand complex and utilize the SSC file format. The programs are the following: 1) Engineering Units Generator (EUGEN) converts sensor-output-measurement data to engineering units. The inputs to EUGEN are raw binary test-data files, which include the voltage data, a list identifying the data channels, and time codes. EUGEN effects conversion by use of a file that contains calibration coefficients for each channel; 2) QUICKLOOK enables immediate viewing of a few selected channels of data, in contradistinction to viewing only after post test processing (which can take 30 minutes to several hours depending on the number of channels and other test parameters) of data from all channels. QUICKLOOK converts the selected data into a form in which they can be plotted in engineering units by use of Winplot (a free graphing program written by Rick Paris); and 3) EUPLOT provides a quick means for looking at data files generated by EUGEN without the necessity of relying on the PVWAVE based plotting software.

  16. Software for Preprocessing Data from Rocket-Engine Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Chiu-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Three computer programs have been written to preprocess digitized outputs of sensors during rocket-engine tests at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The programs apply exclusively to the SSC E test-stand complex and utilize the SSC file format. The programs are the following: Engineering Units Generator (EUGEN) converts sensor-output-measurement data to engineering units. The inputs to EUGEN are raw binary test-data files, which include the voltage data, a list identifying the data channels, and time codes. EUGEN effects conversion by use of a file that contains calibration coefficients for each channel. QUICKLOOK enables immediate viewing of a few selected channels of data, in contradistinction to viewing only after post-test processing (which can take 30 minutes to several hours depending on the number of channels and other test parameters) of data from all channels. QUICKLOOK converts the selected data into a form in which they can be plotted in engineering units by use of Winplot (a free graphing program written by Rick Paris). EUPLOT provides a quick means for looking at data files generated by EUGEN without the necessity of relying on the PV-WAVE based plotting software.

  17. Software for Preprocessing Data From Rocket-Engine Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Chiu-Fu

    2003-01-01

    Three computer programs have been written to preprocess digitized outputs of sensors during rocket-engine tests at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The programs apply exclusively to the SSC E test-stand complex and utilize the SSC file format. The programs are the following: (1) Engineering Units Generator (EUGEN) converts sensor-output-measurement data to engineering units. The inputs to EUGEN are raw binary test-data files, which include the voltage data, a list identifying the data channels, and time codes. EUGEN effects conversion by use of a file that contains calibration coefficients for each channel. (2) QUICKLOOK enables immediate viewing of a few selected channels of data, in contradistinction to viewing only after post-test processing (which can take 30 minutes to several hours depending on the number of channels and other test parameters) of data from all channels. QUICKLOOK converts the selected data into a form in which they can be plotted in engineering units by use of Winplot. (3) EUPLOT provides a quick means for looking at data files generated by EUGEN without the necessity of relying on the PVWAVE based plotting software.

  18. NASA Conducts First RS-25 Rocket Engine Test of 2015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-09

    From the Press Release: The new year is off to a hot start for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The engine that will drive America's next great rocket to deep space blazed through its first successful test Jan. 9 at the agency's Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The RS-25, formerly the space shuttle main engine, fired up for 500 seconds on the A-1 test stand at Stennis, providing NASA engineers critical data on the engine controller unit and inlet pressure conditions. This is the first hot fire of an RS-25 engine since the end of space shuttle main engine testing in 2009. Four RS-25 engines will power SLS on future missions, including to an asteroid and Mars. "We’ve made modifications to the RS-25 to meet SLS specifications and will analyze and test a variety of conditions during the hot fire series,” said Steve Wofford, manager of the SLS Liquid Engines Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, where the SLS Program is managed. "The engines for SLS will encounter colder liquid oxygen temperatures than shuttle; greater inlet pressure due to the taller core stage liquid oxygen tank and higher vehicle acceleration; and more nozzle heating due to the four-engine configuration and their position in-plane with the SLS booster exhaust nozzles.” The engine controller unit, the "brain" of the engine, allows communication between the vehicle and the engine, relaying commands to the engine and transmitting data back to the vehicle. The controller also provides closed-loop management of the engine by regulating the thrust and fuel mixture ratio while monitoring the engine's health and status. The new controller will use updated hardware and software configured to operate with the new SLS avionics architecture. "This first hot-fire test of the RS-25 engine represents a significant effort on behalf of Stennis Space Center’s A-1 test team," said Ronald Rigney, RS-25 project manager at Stennis. "Our technicians and

  19. Unsteady Analyses of Valve Systems in Rocket Engine Testing Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Jeremy; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses simulation technology used to support the testing of rocket propulsion systems by performing high fidelity analyses of feed system components. A generalized multi-element framework has been used to perform simulations of control valve systems. This framework provides the flexibility to resolve the structural and functional complexities typically associated with valve-based high pressure feed systems that are difficult to deal with using traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods. In order to validate this framework for control valve systems, results are presented for simulations of a cryogenic control valve at various plug settings and compared to both experimental data and simulation results obtained at NASA Stennis Space Center. A detailed unsteady analysis has also been performed for a pressure regulator type control valve used to support rocket engine and component testing at Stennis Space Center. The transient simulation captures the onset of a modal instability that has been observed in the operation of the valve. A discussion of the flow physics responsible for the instability and a prediction of the dominant modes associated with the fluctuations is presented.

  20. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    A number of promising alternative rocket propulsion concepts have been developed over the past two decades that take advantage of unsteady combustion waves in order to produce thrust. These concepts include the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE), in which repetitive ignition, propagation, and reflection of detonations and shocks can create a high pressure chamber from which gases may be exhausted in a controlled manner. The Pulse Detonation Rocket Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector (PDRIME) is a modification of the basic PDRE concept, developed by Cambier (1998), which has the potential for performance improvements based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrust augmentation. The PDRIME has the advantage of both low combustion chamber seeding pressure, per the PDRE concept, and efficient energy distribution in the system, per the rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) concept of Cole, et al. (1995). In the initial part of this thesis, we explore flow and performance characteristics of different configurations of the PDRIME, assuming quasi-one-dimensional transient flow and global representations of the effects of MHD phenomena on the gas dynamics. By utilizing high-order accurate solvers, we thus are able to investigate the fundamental physical processes associated with the PDRIME and PDRE concepts and identify potentially promising operating regimes. In the second part of this investigation, the detailed coupling of detonations and electric and magnetic fields are explored. First, a one-dimensional spark-ignited detonation with complex reaction kinetics is fully evaluated and the mechanisms for the different instabilities are analyzed. It is found that complex kinetics in addition to sufficient spatial resolution are required to be able to quantify high frequency as well as low frequency detonation instability modes. Armed with this quantitative understanding, we then examine the interaction of a propagating detonation and the applied MHD, both in one-dimensional and two

  1. Materials for advanced rocket engine turbopump turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    A study program was conducted to identify those materials that will provide the greatest benefits as turbine blades for advanced liquid propellant rocket engine turbines and to prepare technology plans for the development of those materials for use in the 1990 through 1995 period. The candidate materials were selected from six classes of materials: single-crystal (SC) superalloys, oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, rapid solidification processed (RSP) superalloys, directionally solidified eutectic (DSE) superalloys, fiber-reinforced superalloy (FRS) composites, and ceramics. Properties of materials from the six classes were compiled and evaluated and property improvements were projected approximately 5 years into the future for advanced versions of materials in each of the six classes.

  2. Scaling of Performance in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, James

    2008-01-01

    The objectives are: a) Re-introduce to you the concept of scaling; b) Describe the scaling research conducted in the 1950s and early 1960s, and present some of their conclusions; c) Narrow the focus to scaling for performance of combustion devices for liquid propellant rocket engines; and d) Present some results of subscale to full-scale performance from historical programs. Scaling is "The ability to develop new combustion devices with predictable performance on the basis of test experience with old devices." Scaling can be used to develop combustion devices of any thrust size from any thrust size. Scaling is applied mostly to increase thrust. Objective is to use scaling as a development tool. - Move injector design from an "art" to a "science"

  3. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) Implementation in Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Walker, Mark; Kapadia, Ravi; Venkatesh, Meera

    2010-01-01

    A pilot operational ISHM capability has been implemented for the E-2 Rocket Engine Test Stand (RETS) and a Chemical Steam Generator (CSG) test article at NASA Stennis Space Center. The implementation currently includes an ISHM computer and a large display in the control room. The paper will address the overall approach, tools, and requirements. It will also address the infrastructure and architecture. Specific anomaly detection algorithms will be discussed regarding leak detection and diagnostics, valve validation, and sensor validation. It will also describe development and use of a Health Assessment Database System (HADS) as a repository for measurements, health, configuration, and knowledge related to a system with ISHM capability. It will conclude with a discussion of user interfaces, and a description of the operation of the ISHM system prior, during, and after testing.

  4. Comparison of two procedures for predicting rocket engine nozzle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    Two nozzle performance prediction procedures which are based on the standardized JANNAF methodology are presented and compared for four rocket engine nozzles. The first procedure required operator intercedence to transfer data between the individual performance programs. The second procedure is more automated in that all necessary programs are collected into a single computer code, thereby eliminating the need for data reformatting. Results from both procedures show similar trends but quantitative differences. Agreement was best in the predictions of specific impulse and local skin friction coefficient. Other compared quantities include characteristic velocity, thrust coefficient, thrust decrement, boundary layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness, and heat loss rate to the wall. Effects of wall temperature profile used as an input to the programs was investigated by running three wall temperature profiles. It was found that this change greatly affected the boundary layer displacement thickness and heat loss to the wall. The other quantities, however, were not drastically affected by the wall temperature profile change.

  5. A Method for Prevention of Screaming in Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Male, T.

    1954-01-01

    Lateral and longitudinal combustion-pressure oscillations that occurred in screaming combustion of a 1000-pound-thrust rocket engine using white fuming nitric acid and JP-4 fuel as propellants were successfully prevented by means of longitudinal fins in the combustion chamber. Fin position was critical, and complete attenuation was achieved only when the fins were located in a zone approximately 8 to 16 inches from the injector. Fins located in other zones, that is, near the injector or far downstream from the injector, did not stop the oscillations. When oscillations occurred in finned chambers, the longitudinal mode seemed more dominant than the lateral mode; in chambers without fins, the lateral mode tended to be dominant. The lateral oscillation was distorted and its intensity diminished by the fins. Fins, however, did not affect the frequencies; the longitudinal frequency varied inversely with chamber length, and lateral frequencies varied only slightly from an average of 6000 cycles per second.

  6. NASA Engineers Test Combustion Chamber to Advance 3-D Printed Rocket Engine Design

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-08

    A series of test firings like this one in late August brought a group of engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, a big step closer to their goal of a 100-percent 3-D printed rocket engine, said Andrew Hanks, test lead for the additively manufactured demonstration engine project. The main combustion chamber, fuel turbopump, fuel injector, valves and other components used in the tests were of the team's new design, and all major engine components except the main combustion chamber were 3-D printed. (NASA/MSFC)

  7. Robust Low Cost Aerospike/RLV Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; Ellis, David; McKechnie

    1999-01-01

    Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines will require materials that can withstand high temperatures while retaining high thermal conductivity. At the same time, fabrication techniques must be cost efficient so that engine components can be manufactured within the constraints of a shrinking NASA budget. In recent years, combustion chambers of equivalent size to the Aerospike chamber have been fabricated at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using innovative, relatively low-cost, vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) techniques. Typically, such combustion chambers are made of the copper alloy NARloy-Z. However, current research and development conducted by NASA-Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has identified a Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy which possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability. In fact, researchers at NASA-LeRC have demonstrated that powder metallurgy (P/M) Cu-8Cr-4Nb exhibits better mechanical properties at 1,200 F than NARloy-Z does at 1,000 F. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology to fabricate high-performance, robust, inexpensive combustion chambers for advanced propulsion systems (such as Lockheed-Martin's VentureStar and NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) using the low-cost, VPS process to deposit Cu-8Cr-4Nb with mechanical properties that match or exceed those of P/M Cu-8Cr-4Nb. In addition, oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings can be incorporated as an integral part of the hot wall of the liner during the VPS process. Tensile properties of Cu-8Cr-4Nb material produced by VPS are reviewed and compared to material produced previously by extrusion. VPS formed combustion chamber liners have also been prepared and will be reported on following scheduled hot firing tests at NASA-Lewis.

  8. Design issues for lunar in situ aluminum/oxygen propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    Design issues for lunar ascent and lunar descent rocket engines fueled by aluminum/oxygen propellant produced in situ at the lunar surface were evaluated. Key issues are discussed which impact the design of these rockets: aluminum combustion, throat erosion, and thrust chamber cooling. Four engine concepts are presented, and the impact of combustion performance, throat erosion and thrust chamber cooling on overall engine design are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of each engine concept are presented.

  9. A Design Tool for Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R.; Cheng, G.; Trinh, H.; Tucker, K.

    2000-01-01

    A practical design tool which emphasizes the analysis of flowfields near the injector face of liquid rocket engines has been developed and used to simulate preliminary configurations of NASA's Fastrac and vortex engines. This computational design tool is sufficiently detailed to predict the interactive effects of injector element impingement angles and points and the momenta of the individual orifice flows and the combusting flow which results. In order to simulate a significant number of individual orifices, a homogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed. To describe sub- and supercritical liquid and vapor flows, the model utilized thermal and caloric equations of state which were valid over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The model was constructed such that the local quality of the flow was determined directly. Since both the Fastrac and vortex engines utilize RP-1/LOX propellants, a simplified hydrocarbon combustion model was devised in order to accomplish three-dimensional, multiphase flow simulations. Such a model does not identify drops or their distribution, but it does allow the recirculating flow along the injector face and into the acoustic cavity and the film coolant flow to be accurately predicted.

  10. Analysis of Aerospike Plume Induced Base-Heating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    1998-01-01

    Computational analysis is conducted to study the effect of an aerospike engine plume on X-33 base-heating environment during ascent flight. To properly account for the effect of forebody and aftbody flowfield such as shocks and to allow for potential plume-induced flow-separation, thermo-flowfield of trajectory points is computed. The computational methodology is based on a three-dimensional finite-difference, viscous flow, chemically reacting, pressure-base computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a three-dimensional, finite-volume, spectral-line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases radiation absorption model computational heat transfer formulation. The predicted convective and radiative base-heat fluxes are presented.

  11. Performance Increase Verification for a Bipropellant Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; Wilson, Reed; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott; England, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Component performance assessment testing for a, pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engine was successfully completed at Aerojet's Redmond test facility. The primary goal of the this development project is to increase the specific impulse of an apogee class bi-propellant engine to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. The secondary goal of the project is to take greater advantage of the high temperature capabilities of iridium/rhenium chambers. In order to achieve these goals, the propellant feed pressures were increased to 400 psia, nominal, which in turn increased the chamber pressure and temperature, allowing for higher c*. The tests article used a 24-on-24 unlike doublet injector design coupled with a copper heat sink chamber to simulate a flight configuration combustion chamber. The injector is designed to produce a nominal 200 lbf of thrust with a specific impulse of 335 seconds (using hydrazine fuel). Effect of Chamber length on engine C* performance was evaluated with the use of modular, bolt-together test hardware and removable chamber inserts. Multiple short duration firings were performed to characterize injector performance across a range of thrust levels, 180 to 220 lbf, and mixture ratios, from 1.1 to 1.3. During firing, ignition transient, chamber pressure, and various temperatures were measured in order to evaluate the performance of the engine and characterize the thermal conditions. The tests successfully demonstrated the stable operation and performance potential of a full scale engine with a measured c* of XXXX ft/sec (XXXX m/s) under nominal operational conditions.

  12. Real-time diagnostics for a reusable rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, T. H.; Merrill, W.; Duyar, A.

    1992-01-01

    A hierarchical, decentralized diagnostic system is proposed for the Real-Time Diagnostic System component of the Intelligent Control System (ICS) for reusable rocket engines. The proposed diagnostic system has three layers of information processing: condition monitoring, fault mode detection, and expert system diagnostics. The condition monitoring layer is the first level of signal processing. Here, important features of the sensor data are extracted. These processed data are then used by the higher level fault mode detection layer to do preliminary diagnosis on potential faults at the component level. Because of the closely coupled nature of the rocket engine propulsion system components, it is expected that a given engine condition may trigger more than one fault mode detector. Expert knowledge is needed to resolve the conflicting reports from the various failure mode detectors. This is the function of the diagnostic expert layer. Here, the heuristic nature of this decision process makes it desirable to use an expert system approach. Implementation of the real-time diagnostic system described above requires a wide spectrum of information processing capability. Generally, in the condition monitoring layer, fast data processing is often needed for feature extraction and signal conditioning. This is usually followed by some detection logic to determine the selected faults on the component level. Three different techniques are used to attack different fault detection problems in the NASA LeRC ICS testbed simulation. The first technique employed is the neural network application for real-time sensor validation which includes failure detection, isolation, and accommodation. The second approach demonstrated is the model-based fault diagnosis system using on-line parameter identification. Besides these model based diagnostic schemes, there are still many failure modes which need to be diagnosed by the heuristic expert knowledge. The heuristic expert knowledge is

  13. Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweig, Herbert R.; Fischler, Stanley; Wagner, William R.

    1993-01-01

    With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment.

  14. Optimization of the rocket mode trajectory in a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered SSTO vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Richard W.

    1989-07-01

    The application of rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engines to booster-stage propulsion, in combination with all-rocket second stages in orbital-ascent missions, has been studied since the mid-1960s; attention is presently given to the case of the 'ejector scramjet' RBCC configuration's application to SSTO vehicles. While total mass delivered to initial orbit is optimized at Mach 20, payload delivery capability to initial orbit optimizes at Mach 17, primarily due to the reduction of hydrogen fuel tankage structure, insulation, and thermal protection system weights.

  15. Effect of Swirl on an Unstable Single-Element Gas-Gas Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    at 300 K, and the combustor is filled with a mixture of water and carbon dioxide at 1500 K. The warmer temperature in the combustor enables the auto...a variety of configurations including gas turbines and rocket engines.4–13 The single-element engine chosen for this study is the continuously...combustion systems including gas turbines , rocket engines, and industrial furnaces. Swirl can have dramatic effects on the flowfield; these include jet growth

  16. Reusable Rocket Engine Advanced Health Management System. Architecture and Technology Evaluation: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, C. D.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Daumann, A. G., Jr.; Provan, G. M.; ElFattah, Y. M.; Glover, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we proposed an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) functional architecture and conducted a technology assessment for liquid propellant rocket engine lifecycle health management. The purpose of the AHMS is to improve reusable rocket engine safety and to reduce between-flight maintenance. During the study, past and current reusable rocket engine health management-related projects were reviewed, data structures and health management processes of current rocket engine programs were assessed, and in-depth interviews with rocket engine lifecycle and system experts were conducted. A generic AHMS functional architecture, with primary focus on real-time health monitoring, was developed. Fourteen categories of technology tasks and development needs for implementation of the AHMS were identified, based on the functional architecture and our assessment of current rocket engine programs. Five key technology areas were recommended for immediate development, which (1) would provide immediate benefits to current engine programs, and (2) could be implemented with minimal impact on the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) engine controllers.

  17. Rocket engine exhaust plume diagnostics and health monitoring/management during ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenevert, D. J.; Meeks, G. R.; Woods, E. G.; Huseonica, H. F.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of a rocket exhaust plume diagnostics program sponsored by NASA is reviewed. The near-term objective of the program is to enhance test operation efficiency and to provide for safe cutoff of rocket engines prior to incipient failure, thereby avoiding the destruction of the engine and the test complex and preventing delays in the national space program. NASA programs that will benefit from the nonintrusive remote sensed rocket plume diagnostics and related vehicle health management and nonintrusive measurement program are Space Shuttle Main Engine, National Launch System, National Aero-Space Plane, Space Exploration Initiative, Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, and Space Station Freedom. The role of emission spectrometry and other types of remote sensing in rocket plume diagnostics is discussed.

  18. Performance of an Axisymmetric Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine During Rocket Only Operation Using Linear Regression Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Yungster, Shaye; Keller, Dennis J.

    1998-01-01

    The all rocket mode of operation is shown to be a critical factor in the overall performance of a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) vehicle. An axisymmetric RBCC engine was used to determine specific impulse efficiency values based upon both full flow and gas generator configurations. Design of experiments methodology was used to construct a test matrix and multiple linear regression analysis was used to build parametric models. The main parameters investigated in this study were: rocket chamber pressure, rocket exit area ratio, injected secondary flow, mixer-ejector inlet area, mixer-ejector area ratio, and mixer-ejector length-to-inlet diameter ratio. A perfect gas computational fluid dynamics analysis, using both the Spalart-Allmaras and k-omega turbulence models, was performed with the NPARC code to obtain values of vacuum specific impulse. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis showed that for both the full flow and gas generator configurations increasing mixer-ejector area ratio and rocket area ratio increase performance, while increasing mixer-ejector inlet area ratio and mixer-ejector length-to-diameter ratio decrease performance. Increasing injected secondary flow increased performance for the gas generator analysis, but was not statistically significant for the full flow analysis. Chamber pressure was found to be not statistically significant.

  19. Studies of Fission Fragment Rocket Engine Propelled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werka, Robert O.; Clark, Rodney; Sheldon, Rob; Percy, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Office of Chief Technologist has funded from FY11 through FY14 successive studies of the physics, design, and spacecraft integration of a Fission Fragment Rocket Engine (FFRE) that directly converts the momentum of fission fragments continuously into spacecraft momentum at a theoretical specific impulse above one million seconds. While others have promised future propulsion advances if only you have the patience, the FFRE requires no waiting, no advances in physics and no advances in manufacturing processes. Such an engine unequivocally can create a new era of space exploration that can change spacecraft operation. The NIAC (NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts) Program Phase 1 study of FY11 first investigated how the revolutionary FFRE technology could be integrated into an advanced spacecraft. The FFRE combines existent technologies of low density fissioning dust trapped electrostatically and high field strength superconducting magnets for beam management. By organizing the nuclear core material to permit sufficient mean free path for escape of the fission fragments and by collimating the beam, this study showed the FFRE could convert nuclear power to thrust directly and efficiently at a delivered specific impulse of 527,000 seconds. The FY13 study showed that, without increasing the reactor power, adding a neutral gas to the fission fragment beam significantly increased the FFRE thrust through in a manner analogous to a jet engine afterburner. This frictional interaction of gas and beam resulted in an engine that continuously produced 1000 pound force of thrust at a delivered impulse of 32,000 seconds, thereby reducing the currently studied DRM 5 round trip mission to Mars from 3 years to 260 days. By decreasing the gas addition, this same engine can be tailored for much lower thrust at much higher impulse to match missions to more distant destinations. These studies created host spacecraft concepts configured for manned round trip journeys. While the

  20. Acoustic-Structure Interaction in Rocket Engines: Validation Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. Benjamin; Joji, Scott S.; Parks, Russel A.; Brown, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    While analyzing a rocket engine component, it is often necessary to account for any effects that adjacent fluids (e.g., liquid fuels or oxidizers) might have on the structural dynamics of the component. To better characterize the fully coupled fluid-structure system responses, an analytical approach that models the system as a coupled expansion of rigid wall acoustic modes and in vacuo structural modes has been proposed. The present work seeks to experimentally validate this approach. To experimentally observe well-coupled system modes, the test article and fluid cavities are designed such that the uncoupled structural frequencies are comparable to the uncoupled acoustic frequencies. The test measures the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and forced response of cylindrical test articles in contact with fluid-filled cylindrical and/or annular cavities. The test article is excited with a stinger and the fluid-loaded response is acquired using a laser-doppler vibrometer. The experimentally determined fluid-loaded natural frequencies are compared directly to the results of the analytical model. Due to the geometric configuration of the test article, the analytical model is found to be valid for natural modes with circumferential wave numbers greater than four. In the case of these modes, the natural frequencies predicted by the analytical model demonstrate excellent agreement with the experimentally determined natural frequencies.

  1. Rocket Engine Turbine Blade Surface Pressure Distributions Experiment and Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Dorney, Daniel J.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the unsteady aspects of turbine rotor flow fields is critical to successful future turbine designs. A technology program was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to increase the understanding of unsteady environments for rocket engine turbines. The experimental program involved instrumenting turbine rotor blades with miniature surface mounted high frequency response pressure transducers. The turbine model was then tested to measure the unsteady pressures on the rotor blades. The data obtained from the experimental program is unique in two respects. First, much more unsteady data was obtained (several minutes per set point) than has been possible in the past. Also, an extensive steady performance database existed for the turbine model. This allowed an evaluation of the effect of the on-blade instrumentation on the turbine's performance. A three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis was also used to blindly predict the unsteady flow field in the turbine at the design operating conditions and at +15 degrees relative incidence to the first-stage rotor. The predicted time-averaged and unsteady pressure distributions show good agreement with the experimental data. This unique data set, the lessons learned for acquiring this type of data, and the improvements made to the data analysis and prediction tools are contributing significantly to current Space Launch Initiative turbine airflow test and blade surface pressure prediction efforts.

  2. Measurements for liquid rocket engine performance code verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, Sarat C.; Palko, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the rocket engine performance code verification tests is to obtain the I sub sp with an accuracy of 0.25% or less. This needs to be done during the sequence of four related tests (two reactive and two hot gas simulation) to best utilize the loss separation technique recommended in this study. In addition to I sub sp, the measurements of the input and output parameters for the codes are needed. This study has shown two things in regard to obtaining the I sub sp uncertainty within the 0.25% target. First, this target is generally not being realized at the present time, and second, the instrumentation and testing technology does exist to obtain this 0.25% uncertainty goal. However, to achieve this goal will require carefully planned, designed, and conducted testing. In addition, the test-stand (or system) dynamics must be evaluated in the pre-test and post-test phases of the design of the experiment and data analysis, respectively always keeping in mind that a .25% overall uncertainty in I sub sp is targeted. A table gives the maximum allowable uncertainty required for obtaining I sub sp with 0.25% uncertainty, the currently-quoted instrument specification, and present test uncertainty for the parameters. In general, it appears that measurement of the mass flow parameter within the required uncertainty may be the most difficult.

  3. System Engineering and Technical Challenges Overcome in the J-2X Rocket Engine Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, NASA initiated the J-2X engine development effort to develop an upper stage propulsion system to enable the achievement of the primary objectives of the Constellation program (CxP): provide continued access to the International Space Station following the retirement of the Space Station and return humans to the moon. The J-2X system requirements identified to accomplish this were very challenging and the time expended over the five years following the beginning of the J- 2X effort have been noteworthy in the development of innovations in both the fields for liquid rocket propulsion and system engineering.

  4. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  5. The use of programmable logic controllers (PLC) for rocket engine component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nail, William; Scheuermann, Patrick; Witcher, Kern

    1991-01-01

    Application of PLCs to the rocket engine component testing at a new Stennis Space Center Component Test Facility is suggested as an alternative to dedicated specialized computers. The PLC systems are characterized by rugged design, intuitive software, fault tolerance, flexibility, multiple end device options, networking capability, and built-in diagnostics. A distributed PLC-based system is projected to be used for testing LH2/LOx turbopumps required for the ALS/NLS rocket engines.

  6. Rocket Ejector Studies for Application to RBCC Engines: An Integrated Experimental/CFD Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, S.; Merkle, C. L.; Anderson, W. E.; Santoro, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent interest in low cost, reliable access to space has generated increased interest in advanced technology approaches to space transportation systems. A key to the success of such programs lies in the development of advanced propulsion systems capable of achieving the performance and operations goals required for the next generation of space vehicles. One extremely promising approach involves the combination of rocket and air- breathing engines into a rocket-based combined-cycle engine (RBCC). A key element of that engine is the rocket ejector which is utilized in the zero to Mach two operating regime. Studies of RBCC engine concepts are not new and studies dating back thirty years are well documented in the literature. However, studies focused on the rocket ejector mode of the RBCC cycle are lacking. The present investigation utilizes an integrated experimental and computation fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to examine critical rocket ejector performance issues. In particular, the development of a predictive methodology capable of performance prediction is a key objective in order to analyze thermal choking and its control, primary/secondary pressure matching considerations, and effects of nozzle expansion ratio. To achieve this objective, the present study emphasizes obtaining new data using advanced optical diagnostics such as Raman spectroscopy and CFD techniques to investigate mixing in the rocket ejector mode. A new research facility for the study of the rocket ejector mode is described along with the diagnostic approaches to be used. The CFD modeling approach is also described along with preliminary CFD predictions obtained to date.

  7. Combustion response to acoustic perturbation in liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafourian, Akbar

    An experimental study of the effect of acoustic perturbations on combustion behavior of a model liquid propellant rocket engine has been carried out. A pair of compression drivers were used to excite transverse and longitudinal acoustic fields at strengths of up to 156.6 dB and 159.5 dB respectively in the combustion chamber of the experimental rocket engine. Propellant simulants were injected into the combustion chamber through a single element shear coaxial injector. Water and air were used in cold flow studies and ethanol and oxygen-enriched air were used as fuel and oxidizer in reacting hot flow studies. In cold flow studies an imposed transverse acoustic field had a more pronounced effect on the spray pattern than a longitudinal acoustic fields. A transverse acoustic field widened the spray by as much as 33 percent and the plane of impingement of the spray with chamber walls moved up closer to the injection plane. The behavior was strongly influenced by the gas phase velocity but was less sensitive to changes in the liquid phase velocity. In reacting hot flow studies the effects of changes in equivalence ratio, excitation amplitude, excitation frequency, liquid and gas phase velocity and chamber pressure on the response of the injector to imposed high frequency transverse acoustic excitation were measured. Reducing the equivalence ratio from 7.4 to 3.8 increased the chamber pressure response to the imposed excitation at 3000 Hz. Increasing the excitation amplitude from 147 dB to 155.6 dB at 3000 Hz increased the chamber pressure response to the excitation. In the frequency range of 1240 Hz to 3220 Hz, an excitation frequency of 3000 Hz resulted in the largest response of the chamber pressure indicating the importance of fluid dynamic coupling. Increasing the liquid phase velocity from 9.2 m/sec to 22.7 m/sec, did not change the amplitude of the chamber pressure response to excitation. This implied the importance of local equivalence ratio and not the overall

  8. Measuring Rocket Engine Temperatures with Hydrogen Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Osborne, Robin J.; Trinh, Huu P.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Optically accessible, high pressure, hot fire test articles are available at NASA Marshall for use in development of advanced rocket engine propellant injectors. Single laser-pulse ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy has been used in the past in these devices for analysis of high pressure H2- and CH4-fueled combustion, but relies on an independent pressure measurement in order to provide temperature information. A variation of UV Raman (High Resolution Hydrogen Raman Spectroscopy) is under development and will allow temperature measurement without the need for an independent pressure measurement, useful for flows where local pressure may not be accurately known. The technique involves the use of a spectrometer with good spectral resolution, requiring a small entrance slit for the spectrometer. The H2 Raman spectrum, when created by a narrow linewidth laser source and obtained from a good spectral resolution spectrograph, has a spectral shape related to temperature. By best-fit matching an experimental spectrum to theoretical spectra at various temperatures, a temperature measurement is obtained. The spectral model accounts for collisional narrowing, collisional broadening, Doppler broadening, and collisional line shifting of each Raman line making up the H2 Stokes vibrational Q-branch spectrum. At pressures from atmospheric up to those associated with advanced preburner components (5500 psia), collisional broadening though present does not cause significant overlap of the Raman lines, allowing high resolution H2 Raman to be used for temperature measurements in plumes and in high pressure test articles. Experimental demonstrations of the technique are performed for rich H2-air flames at atmospheric pressure and for high pressure, 300 K H2-He mixtures. Spectrometer imaging quality is identified as being critical for successful implementation of technique.

  9. Nonlinear Longitudinal Mode Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Preburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear pressure oscillations have been observed in liquid propellant rocket instability preburner devices. Unlike the familiar transverse mode instabilities that characterize primary combustion chambers, these oscillations appear as longitudinal gas motions with frequencies that are typical of the chamber axial acoustic modes. In several respects, the phenomenon is similar to longitudinal mode combustion instability appearing in low-smoke solid propellant motors. An important feature is evidence of steep-fronted wave motions with very high amplitude. Clearly, gas motions of this type threaten the mechanical integrity of associated engine components and create unacceptably high vibration levels. This paper focuses on development of the analytical tools needed to predict, diagnose, and correct instabilities of this type. For this purpose, mechanisms that lead to steep-fronted, high-amplitude pressure waves are described in detail. It is shown that such gas motions are the outcome of the natural steepening process in which initially low amplitude standing acoustic waves grow into shock-like disturbances. The energy source that promotes this behavior is a combination of unsteady combustion energy release and interactions with the quasi-steady mean chamber flow. Since shock waves characterize the gas motions, detonation-like mechanisms may well control the unsteady combustion processes. When the energy gains exceed the losses (represented mainly by nozzle and viscous damping), the waves can rapidly grow to a finite amplitude limit cycle. Analytical tools are described that allow the prediction of the limit cycle amplitude and show the dependence of this wave amplitude on the system geometry and other design parameters. This information can be used to guide corrective procedures that mitigate or eliminate the oscillations.

  10. Space processing applications rocket project SPAR 4, engineering report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    The materials processing experiments in space, conducted on the SPAR 4 Black Brant VC rocket, are described and discussed. The SPAR 4 payload configuration, the rocket performance, and the flight sequence are reported. The results, analyses, and anomalies of the four experiments are discussed. The experiments conducted were the uniform dispersions of crystallization processing, the contained polycrstalline solidification in low gravity, the containerless processing of ferromagnetic materials, and the containerless processing technology. The instrumentation operations, payload power relay anomaly, relay postflight operational test, and relay postflight shock test are reported.

  11. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) first flight view from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 made its successful first flight Oct. 31 as part of the NASA/Rocketdyne/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust

  12. Video File - NASA Conducts Final RS-25 Rocket Engine Test of 2017

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-13

    NASA engineers at Stennis Space Center capped a year of Space Launch System testing with a final RS-25 rocket engine hot fire on Dec. 13. The 470-second test on the A-1 Test Stand was a “green run” test of an RS-25 flight controller. The engine tested also included a large 3-D-printed part, a pogo accumulator assembly, scheduled for use on future RS-25 flight engines.

  13. The development of a post-test diagnostic system for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.

    1991-01-01

    An effort was undertaken by NASA to develop an automated post-test, post-flight diagnostic system for rocket engines. The automated system is designed to be generic and to automate the rocket engine data review process. A modular, distributed architecture with a generic software core was chosen to meet the design requirements. The diagnostic system is initially being applied to the Space Shuttle Main Engine data review process. The system modules currently under development are the session/message manager, and portions of the applications section, the component analysis section, and the intelligent knowledge server. An overview is presented of a rocket engine data review process, the design requirements and guidelines, the architecture and modules, and the projected benefits of the automated diagnostic system.

  14. An Historical Perspective of the NERVA Nuclear Rocket Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, W. H.; Finger, H. B.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear rocket research and development was initiated in the United States in 1955 and is still being pursued to a limited extent. The major technology emphasis occurred in the decade of the 1960s and was primarily associated with the Rover/NERVA Program where the technology for a nuclear rocket engine system for space application was developed and demonstrated. The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology developed twenty years ago provides a comprehensive and viable propulsion technology base that can be applied and will prove to be valuable for application to the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper, which is historical in scope, provides an overview of the conduct of the NERVA Engine Program, its organization and management, development philosophy, the engine configuration, and significant accomplishments.

  15. Theoretical Acoustic Absorber Design Approach for LOX/LCH4 Pintle Injector Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelaria, Jonathan

    Liquid rocket engines, or LREs, have served a key role in space exploration efforts. One current effort involves the utilization of liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) LREs to explore Mars with in-situ resource utilization for propellant production. This on-site production of propellant will allow for greater payload allocation instead of fuel to travel to the Mars surface, and refueling of propellants to travel back to Earth. More useable mass yields a greater benefit to cost ratio. The University of Texas at El Paso's (UTEP) Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research Center (cSETR) aims to further advance these methane propulsion systems with the development of two liquid methane - liquid oxygen propellant combination rocket engines. The design of rocket engines, specifically liquid rocket engines, is complex in that many variables are present that must be taken into consideration in the design. A problem that occurs in almost every rocket engine development program is combustion instability, or oscillatory combustion. It can result in the destruction of the rocket, subsequent destruction of the vehicle and compromise the mission. These combustion oscillations can vary in frequency from 100 to 20,000 Hz or more, with varying effects, and occur from different coupling phenomena. It is important to understand the effects of combustion instability, its physical manifestations, how to identify the instabilities, and how to mitigate or dampen them. Linear theory methods have been developed to provide a mathematical understanding of the low- to mid-range instabilities. Nonlinear theory is more complex and difficult to analyze mathematically, therefore no general analytical method that yields a solution exists. With limited resources, time, and the advice of our NASA mentors, a data driven experimental approach utilizing quarter wave acoustic dampener cavities was designed. This thesis outlines the methodology behind the design of an acoustic

  16. Monomethylhydrazine versus hydrazine fuels - Test results using a 100 pound thrust bipropellant rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A.; Stechman, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A test program was performed to evaluate hydrazine (N2H4) as a fuel for a 445 Newton (100 lbf) thrust bipropellant rocket engine. Results of testing with an identical thruster utilizing monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are included for comparison. Engine performance with hydrazine fuel was essentially identical to that experienced with monomethylhydrazine although higher combustor wall temperatures (approximately 400 F) were obtained with hydrazine. Results are presented which indicate that hydrazine as a fuel is compatible with Marquardt bipropellant rocket engines which use monomethylhydrazine as a baseline fuel.

  17. Smoke and fire Rocket-engine ablaze on This Week @NASA – August 14, 2015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-14

    On Aug. 13, NASA conducted a test firing of the RS-25 rocket engine at Stennis Space Center. The 535 second test was the sixth in the current series of seven developmental tests of the former space shuttle main engine. Four RS-25 engines will power the core stage of the new Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, which will carry humans deeper into space than ever before, including to an asteroid and Mars. Also, Veggies in space, Russian spacewalk, Supply ship undocks from ISS, Smallest giant black hole, 10th anniversary of MRO launch and more!

  18. Combustion dynamics in cryogenic rocket engines: Research programme at DLR Lampoldshausen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardi, Justin S.; Traudt, Tobias; Bombardieri, Cristiano; Börner, Michael; Beinke, Scott K.; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Nicolas Blanco, P.; Tonti, Federica; Suslov, Dmitry; Dally, Bassam; Oschwald, Michael

    2018-06-01

    The Combustion Dynamics group in the Rocket Propulsion Department at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Lampoldshausen, strives to advance the understanding of dynamic processes in cryogenic rocket engines. Leveraging the test facilities and experimental expertise at DLR Lampoldshausen, the group has taken a primarily experimental approach to investigating transient flows, ignition, and combustion instabilities for over one and a half decades. This article provides a summary of recent achievements, and an overview of current and planned research activities.

  19. Options for flight testing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John

    1996-01-01

    While NASA's current next-generation launch vehicle research has largely focused on advanced all-rocket single-stage-to-orbit vehicles (i.e. the X-33 and it's RLV operational follow-on), some attention is being given to advanced propulsion concepts suitable for 'next-generation-and-a-half' vehicles. Rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines combining rocket and airbreathing elements are one candidate concept. Preliminary RBCC engine development was undertaken by the United States in the 1960's. However, additional ground and flight research is required to bring the engine to technological maturity. This paper presents two options for flight testing early versions of the RBCC ejector scramjet engine. The first option mounts a single RBCC engine module to the X-34 air-launched technology testbed for test flights up to about Mach 6.4. The second option links RBCC engine testing to the simultaneous development of a small-payload (220 lb.) two-stage-to-orbit operational vehicle in the Bantam payload class. This launcher/testbed concept has been dubbed the W vehicle. The W vehicle can also serve as an early ejector ramjet RBCC launcher (albeit at a lower payload). To complement current RBCC ground testing efforts, both flight test engines will use earth-storable propellants for their RBCC rocket primaries and hydrocarbon fuel for their airbreathing modes. Performance and vehicle sizing results are presented for both options.

  20. A Design Tool for Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Cheng, Gary; Trinh, Huu Phuoc; Tucker, P. Kevin; Hutt, John

    1999-01-01

    A practical design tool for the analysis of flowfields near the injector face has been developed and used to analyze the Fastrac engine. The objective was to produce a computational design tool which was detailed enough to predict the interactive effects of injector element impingement angles and points and the momenta of the individual orifice flows. To obtain a model which could be used to simulate a significant number of individual orifices, a homogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed. To describe liquid and vapor sub- and super-critical flows, the model included thermal and caloric equations of state which were valid over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. A homogeneous model was constructed such that the local state of the flow was determined directly, i.e. the quality of the flow was calculated. Such a model does not identify drops or their distribution, but it does allow the flow along the injector face and into the acoustic cavity to be predicted. It also allows the film coolant flow to be accurately described. The initial evaluation of the injector code was made by simulating cold flow from an unlike injector element and from a like-on-like overlapping fan (LOL) injector element. The predicted mass flux distributions of these injector elements compared well to cold flow test results. These are the same cold flow tests which serve as the data base for the JANNAF performance prediction codes. The flux distributions 1 inch downstream of the injector face are very similar; the differences were somewhat larger at further distances from the faceplate. Since the cold flow testing did not achieve good mass balances when integrations across the entire fan were made, the CFD simulation appears to be reasonable alternative to future cold flow testing. To simulate the Fastrac, an RP-1/LOX combustion model must be chosen. This submodel must be relatively simple to accomplish three-dimensional, multiphase flow simulations. Single RP-1

  1. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  2. Gas Emission Measurements from the RD 180 Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. R.

    2001-01-01

    The Science Laboratory operated by GB Tech was tasked by the Environmental Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to collect rocket plume samples and to measure gaseous components and airborne particulates from the hot test firings of the Atlas III/RD 180 test article at MSFC. This data will be used to validate plume prediction codes and to assess environmental air quality issues.

  3. A demonstration of an intelligent control system for a reusable rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1992-01-01

    An Intelligent Control System for reusable rocket engines is under development at NASA Lewis Research Center. The primary objective is to extend the useful life of a reusable rocket propulsion system while minimizing between flight maintenance and maximizing engine life and performance through improved control and monitoring algorithms and additional sensing and actuation. This paper describes current progress towards proof-of-concept of an Intelligent Control System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. A subset of identifiable and accommodatable engine failure modes is selected for preliminary demonstration. Failure models are developed retaining only first order effects and included in a simplified nonlinear simulation of the rocket engine for analysis under closed loop control. The engine level coordinator acts as an interface between the diagnostic and control systems, and translates thrust and mixture ratio commands dictated by mission requirements, and engine status (health) into engine operational strategies carried out by a multivariable control. Control reconfiguration achieves fault tolerance if the nominal (healthy engine) control cannot. Each of the aforementioned functionalities is discussed in the context of an example to illustrate the operation of the system in the context of a representative failure. A graphical user interface allows the researcher to monitor the Intelligent Control System and engine performance under various failure modes selected for demonstration.

  4. Evaluation of Proposed Rocket Engines for Earth-to-Orbit Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Kramer, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate recently analyzed rocket engines for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles. The engines evaluated are full-flow staged combustion engines and split expander engines, both at mixture ratios at 6 and above with oxygen and hydrogen propellants. The vehicles considered are single-stage and two-stage fully reusable vehicles and the Space Shuttle with liquid rocket boosters. The results indicate that the split expander engine at a mixture ratio of about 7 is competitive with the full-flow staged combustion engine for all three vehicle concepts. A key factor in this result is the capability to increase the chamber pressure for the split expander as the mixture ratio is increased from 6 to 7.

  5. Computer Design Technology of the Small Thrust Rocket Engines Using CAE / CAD Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, V.; Lapshin, E.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an algorithm for designing liquid small thrust rocket engine, the process of which consists of five aggregated stages with feedback. Three stages of the algorithm provide engineering support for design, and two stages - the actual engine design. A distinctive feature of the proposed approach is a deep study of the main technical solutions at the stage of engineering analysis and interaction with the created knowledge (data) base, which accelerates the process and provides enhanced design quality. The using multifunctional graphic package Siemens NX allows to obtain the final product -rocket engine and a set of design documentation in a fairly short time; the engine design does not require a long experimental development.

  6. Identification of Noise Sources During Rocket Engine Test Firings and a Rocket Launch Using a Microphone Phased-Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Mosher, Robert N.; Porter, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    A 70 microphone, 10-foot by 10-foot, microphone phased array was built for use in the harsh environment of rocket launches. The array was setup at NASA Wallops launch pad 0A during a static test firing of Orbital Sciences' Antares engines, and again during the first launch of the Antares vehicle. It was placed 400 feet away from the pad, and was hoisted on a scissor lift 40 feet above ground. The data sets provided unprecedented insight into rocket noise sources. The duct exit was found to be the primary source during the static test firing; the large amount of water injected beneath the nozzle exit and inside the plume duct quenched all other sources. The maps of the noise sources during launch were found to be time-dependent. As the engines came to full power and became louder, the primary source switched from the duct inlet to the duct exit. Further elevation of the vehicle caused spilling of the hot plume, resulting in a distributed noise map covering most of the pad. As the entire plume emerged from the duct, and the ondeck water system came to full power, the plume itself became the loudest noise source. These maps of the noise sources provide vital insight for optimization of sound suppression systems for future Antares launches.

  7. NASA Conducts First RS-25 Rocket Engine Test of 2018

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-16

    A main objective for today’s test will be testing a new flight controller or “brain” of the engine. The controller, which is currently installed on a developmental engine, has the electronics that operate the engine and communicate with the SLS vehicle. Once test data is certified, the engine controller will be removed and installed on a flight engine in preparation for flight of SLS and the Orion spacecraft.

  8. Upper-stage space shuttle propulsion by means of separate scramjet and rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.; Allen, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary mission study of a reusable vehicle from staging to orbit indicates payload advantages for a dual-propulsion system consisting of separate scramjet and rocket engines. In the analysis the scramjet operated continuously and the initiation of rocket operation was varied. For a stage weight of 500,000 lb the payload was 10.4 percent of stage weight or 70 percent greater than that of a comparable all-rocket-powered stage. When compared with a reusable two-state rocket vehicle having 50,000 lb payload, the use of the dual propulsion system for the second stage resulted in significant decreases in lift-off weight and empty weight, indicating possible lower hardware costs.

  9. Rocket Science: The Shuttle's Main Engines, though Old, Are not Forgotten in the New Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), developed 30 years ago, remains a strong candidate for use in the new Exploration Initiative as part of a shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable booster. This is because the Boeing-Rocket- dyne man-rated SSME remains the most highly efficient liquid rocket engine ever developed. There are only enough parts for 12-15 existing SSMEs, however, so one NASA option is to reinitiate SSME production to use it as a throw-away, as opposed to a reusable, powerplant for NASA s new heavy-lift booster.

  10. Simplified Analysis of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Blowdown Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. I.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modellng task. A simplified model for an idealized, straight-tube, single-shot PDRE blowdown process and thrust determination is described and implemented. In order to form an assessment of the accuracy of the model, the flowfield time history is compared to experimental data from Stanford University. Parametric Studies of the effect of mixture stoichiometry, initial fill temperature, and blowdown pressure ratio on the performance of a PDRE are performed using the model. PDRE performance is also compared with a conventional steady-state rocket engine over a range of pressure ratios using similar gasdynamic assumptions.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Method Developed for Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Renewed interest in hypersonic propulsion systems has led to research programs investigating combined cycle engines that are designed to operate efficiently across the flight regime. The Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine is a propulsion system under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This engine integrates a high specific impulse, low thrust-to-weight, airbreathing engine with a low-impulse, high thrust-to-weight rocket. From takeoff to Mach 2.5, the engine operates as an air-augmented rocket. At Mach 2.5, the engine becomes a dual-mode ramjet; and beyond Mach 8, the rocket is turned back on. One Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine variation known as the "Strut-Jet" concept is being investigated jointly by NASA Lewis, the U.S. Air Force, Gencorp Aerojet, General Applied Science Labs (GASL), and Lockheed Martin Corporation. Work thus far has included wind tunnel experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigations with the NPARC code. The CFD method was initiated by modeling the geometry of the Strut-Jet with the GRIDGEN structured grid generator. Grids representing a subscale inlet model and the full-scale demonstrator geometry were constructed. These grids modeled one-half of the symmetric inlet flow path, including the precompression plate, diverter, center duct, side duct, and combustor. After the grid generation, full Navier-Stokes flow simulations were conducted with the NPARC Navier-Stokes code. The Chien low-Reynolds-number k-e turbulence model was employed to simulate the high-speed turbulent flow. Finally, the CFD solutions were postprocessed with a Fortran code. This code provided wall static pressure distributions, pitot pressure distributions, mass flow rates, and internal drag. These results were compared with experimental data from a subscale inlet test for code validation; then they were used to help evaluate the demonstrator engine net thrust.

  12. Experimental research and design planning in the field of liquid-propellant rocket engines conducted between 1934 - 1944 by the followers of F. A. Tsander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dushkin, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the following Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engines (LPRE) is reviewed: (1) an alcohol-oxygen single-firing LPRE for use in wingless and winged rockets, (2) a similar multifiring LPRE for use in rocket gliders, (3) a combined solid-liquid propellant rocket engine, and (4) an aircraft LPRE operating on nitric acid and kerosene.

  13. Development of Improved Rhenium Coatings for Fluorine Engine Thrust Chambers. [hydrazine-fluorine rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, K. J.; Yurkewycz, R.; Harada, Y.; Daniels, I.

    1981-01-01

    Coating trials were undertaken to evaluate the application of rhenium to carbon-carbon composite sheet by plasma spraying. Optimum spray parameters and coating thickness were identified for production of coatings free from continuous defects and with adequate adherence to the substrate. A tungsten underlayer was not beneficial and possibly detracted from coating integrity. Stress calculations indicated that the proposed operating cycle of the rocket engine would not cause spalling of the rhenium coating. Calculations indicated that permeation of gases through the coating would not be significant during the expected life of the thrust chamber. The feasibility of applying rhenium coatings by laser melting was also studied. Poor wetting of the composite surface by the liquid rhenium precluded production of uniform coatings. Borate/carborate fluxes did not improve wetting characteristics.

  14. Laser Ignition Technology for Bi-Propellant Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew E.; Bossard, John A.; Early, Jim; Trinh, Huu; Dennis, Jay; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The fiber optically coupled laser ignition approach summarized is under consideration for use in igniting bi-propellant rocket thrust chambers. This laser ignition approach is based on a novel dual pulse format capable of effectively increasing laser generated plasma life times up to 1000 % over conventional laser ignition methods. In the dual-pulse format tinder consideration here an initial laser pulse is used to generate a small plasma kernel. A second laser pulse that effectively irradiates the plasma kernel follows this pulse. Energy transfer into the kernel is much more efficient because of its absorption characteristics thereby allowing the kernel to develop into a much more effective ignition source for subsequent combustion processes. In this research effort both single and dual-pulse formats were evaluated in a small testbed rocket thrust chamber. The rocket chamber was designed to evaluate several bipropellant combinations. Optical access to the chamber was provided through small sapphire windows. Test results from gaseous oxygen (GOx) and RP-1 propellants are presented here. Several variables were evaluated during the test program, including spark location, pulse timing, and relative pulse energy. These variables were evaluated in an effort to identify the conditions in which laser ignition of bi-propellants is feasible. Preliminary results and analysis indicate that this laser ignition approach may provide superior ignition performance relative to squib and torch igniters, while simultaneously eliminating some of the logistical issues associated with these systems. Further research focused on enhancing the system robustness, multiplexing, and window durability/cleaning and fiber optic enhancements is in progress.

  15. Boundary cooled rocket engines for space storable propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesselring, R. C.; Mcfarland, B. L.; Knight, R. M.; Gurnitz, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation of an existing analytical heat transfer model was made to develop the technology of boundary film/conduction cooled rocket thrust chambers to the space storable propellant combination oxygen difluoride/diborane. Critical design parameters were identified and their importance determined. Test reduction methods were developed to enable data obtained from short duration hot firings with a thin walled (calorimeter) chamber to be used quantitatively evaluate the heat absorbing capability of the vapor film. The modification of the existing like-doublet injector was based on the results obtained from the calorimeter firings.

  16. Experimental evaluation of a 600 lbf spacecraft rocket engine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for a long-duration-capability (1000-sec), space-storable, bipropellant liquid rocket motor burning fluorine/hydrazine or FLOX/monomethylhydrazine. The interrelationship between injected mixture ratio and the per cent film cooling on vacuum specific impulse performance and chamber heat transfer is given. Experimental sea level measurements are used to predict space vacuum performance based upon simplified JANNAF reference procedures. Dynamic combustion stability is demonstrated over a wide range of operating conditions. Analytical results of char penetration, erosion, and ablative wall temperature distributions are presented for prototype chamber designs.

  17. Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites for Earth-to-orbit rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmeyer, Jerry W.; Schnittgrund, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (FRCMC) are emerging materials systems that offer potential for use in liquid rocket engines. Advantages of these materials in rocket engine turbomachinery include performance gain due to higher turbine inlet temperature, reduced launch costs, reduced maintenance with associated cost benefits, and reduced weight. This program was initiated to assess the state of FRCMC development and to propose a plan for their implementation into liquid rocket engine turbomachinery. A complete range of FRCMC materials was investigated relative to their development status and feasibility for use in the hot gas path of earth-to-orbit rocket engine turbomachinery. Of the candidate systems, carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) offers the greatest near-term potential. Critical hot gas path components were identified, and the first stage inlet nozzle and turbine rotor of the fuel turbopump for the liquid oxygen/hydrogen Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) were selected for conceptual design and analysis. The critical issues associated with the use of FRCMC were identified. Turbine blades were designed, analyzed and fabricated. The Technology Development Plan, completed as Task 5 of this program, provides a course of action for resolution of these issues.

  18. NASA Researchers Examine a Pratt and Whitney RL-10 Rocket Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-04-21

    Lead Test Engineer John Kobak (right) and a technician use an oscilloscope to test the installation of a Pratt and Whitney RL-10 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. In 1955 the military asked Pratt and Whitney to develop hydrogen engines specifically for aircraft. The program was canceled in 1958, but Pratt and Whitney decided to use the experience to develop a liquid-hydrogen rocket engine, the RL-10. Two of the 15,000-pound-thrust RL-10 engines were used to power the new Centaur second-stage rocket. Centaur was designed to carry the Surveyor spacecraft on its mission to soft-land on the Moon. Pratt and Whitney ran into problems while testing the RL-10 at their facilities. NASA Headquarters assigned Lewis the responsibility for investigating the RL-10 problems because of the center’s long history of liquid-hydrogen development. Lewis’ Chemical Rocket Division began a series of tests to study the RL-10 at its Propulsion Systems Laboratory in March 1960. The facility contained two test chambers that could study powerful engines in simulated altitude conditions. The first series of RL-10 tests in early 1961 involved gimballing the engine as it fired. Lewis researchers were able to yaw and pitch the engine to simulate its behavior during a real flight.

  19. Progress toward an advanced condition monitoring system for reusable rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maram, J.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1987-01-01

    A new generation of advanced sensor technologies will allow the direct measurement of critical/degradable rocket engine components' health and the detection of degraded conditions before component deterioration affects engine performance, leading to substantial improvements in reusable engines' operation and maintenance. When combined with a computer-based engine condition-monitoring system, these sensors can furnish a continuously updated data base for the prediction of engine availability and advanced warning of emergent maintenance requirements. Attention is given to the case of a practical turbopump and combustion device diagnostic/prognostic health-monitoring system.

  20. Study of basic physical processes in liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Chen, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    Inconsistencies between analytical results and measurements for liquid rocket thrust chamber performance, which escape suitable explanations, have motivated the examination of the basic phys ical modeling formulations as to their unlimited application. The publication of Prof. D. Straub's book, 'Thermofluid-dynamics of Optimized Rocket Propulsions,' further stimulated the interest of understanding the gas dynamic relationships in chemically reacting mixtures. A review of other concepts proposed by Falk-Ruppel (Gibbsian Thermodynamics), Straub (Alternative Theory, AT), Prigogine (Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics), Boltzmann (Kinetic Theory), and Truesdell (Rational Mechanism) has been made to obtain a better understanding of the Navier-Stokes equation, which is now used extensively for chemically reacting flow treatment in combustion chambers. In addition to the study of the different concepts, two workshops were conducted to clarify some of the issues. The first workshop centered on Falk-Ruppel's new 'dynamics' concept, while the second one concentrated on Straub's AT. In this report brief summaries of the reviewed philosophies are presented and compared with the classical Navier-Stokes formulation in a tabular arrangement. Also the highlights of both workshops are addressed.

  1. Project-based introduction to aerospace engineering course: A model rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, Sanjay; Boyer, Lawrence; George, John; Ravindra, K.; Mitchell, Kyle

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a model rocket project suitable for sophomore aerospace engineering students is described. This project encompasses elements of drag estimation, thrust determination and analysis using digital data acquisition, statistical analysis of data, computer aided drafting, programming, team work and written communication skills. The student built rockets are launched in the university baseball field with the objective of carrying a specific amount of payload so that the rocket achieves a specific altitude before the parachute is deployed. During the course of the project, the students are introduced to real-world engineering practice through written report submission of their designs. Over the years, the project has proven to enhance the learning objectives, yet cost effective and has provided good outcome measures.

  2. JANNAF "Test and Evaluation Guidelines for Liquid Rocket Engines": Status and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Douglas; VanLerberghe, Wayne M.; Rahman, Shamim A.

    2017-01-01

    For many decades, the U.S. rocket propulsion industrial base has performed remarkably in developing complex liquid rocket engines that can propel critical payloads into service for the nation, as well as transport people and hardware for missions that open the frontiers of space exploration for humanity. This has been possible only at considerable expense given the lack of detailed guidance that captures the essence of successful practices and knowledge accumulated over five decades of liquid rocket engine development. In an effort to provide benchmarks and guidance for the next generation of rocket engineers, the Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force (JANNAF) Interagency Propulsion Committee published a liquid rocket engine (LRE) test and evaluation (T&E) guideline document in 2012 focusing on the development challenges and test verification considerations for liquid rocket engine systems. This document has been well received and applied by many current LRE developers as a benchmark and guidance tool, both for government-driven applications as well as for fully commercial ventures. The USAF Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) has taken an additional near-term step and is directing activity to adapt and augment the content from the JANNAF LRE T&E guideline into a standard for potential application to future USAF requests for proposals for LRE development initiatives and launch vehicles for national security missions. A draft of this standard was already sent out for review and comment, and is intended to be formally approved and released towards the end of 2017. The acceptance and use of the LRE T&E guideline is possible through broad government and industry participation in the JANNAF liquid propulsion committee and associated panels. The sponsoring JANNAF community is expanding upon this initial baseline version and delving into further critical development aspects of liquid rocket propulsion testing at the integrated stage level as well as engine component level, in

  3. Rocket Engine Nozzle Side Load Transient Analysis Methodology: A Practical Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, John J.

    2005-01-01

    At the sea level, a phenomenon common with all rocket engines, especially for a highly over-expanded nozzle, during ignition and shutdown is that of flow separation as the plume fills and empties the nozzle, Since the flow will be separated randomly. it will generate side loads, i.e. non-axial forces. Since rocket engines are designed to produce axial thrust to power the vehicles, it is not desirable to be excited by non-axial input forcing functions, In the past, several engine failures were attributed to side loads. During the development stage, in order to design/size the rocket engine components and to reduce the risks, the local dynamic environments as well as dynamic interface loads have to be defined. The methodology developed here is the way to determine the peak loads and shock environments for new engine components. In the past it is not feasible to predict the shock environments, e.g. shock response spectra, from one engine to the other, because it is not scaleable. Therefore, the problem has been resolved and the shock environments can be defined in the early stage of new engine development. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  4. An intelligent control system for rocket engines - Need, vision, and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    Several components of intelligence are defined. Within the context of these definitions an intelligent control system for rocket engines is described. The description includes a framework for development of an intelligent control system, including diagnostics, coordination, and direct control. Some current results and issues are presented.

  5. Erosive burning research. [for solid-propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L.; Yang, L. C.; Nguyen, M. H.; Cohen, N. S.

    1986-01-01

    A status report is given on the results for the completed tests in a series of motor firings being carried out to measure the effects of the parameters that are considered to most strongly influence the scaling to larger rocket motor sizes of the transition to/or threshold conditions for erosive burning rate augmentation. Propellant burning rates at locations along the axis of the test motors are measured with a newly developed plasma capacitance gauge technique. The measured results are compared with erosive-burning predictions from a supporting ballistics analysis. The completed motor firings have successfully demonstrated response to the designed test variables. The trends with varying propellant burning rate, chamber pressure, and mass flow rate are consistent with existing results, but no pronounced effect of surface roughness has been observed. Rather, the influence of propellant oxidizer particle size on erosive burning is through its effect on the base, no-corssflow burning rate.

  6. Rocket engine system reliability analyses using probabilistic and fuzzy logic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    The reliability of rocket engine systems was analyzed by using probabilistic and fuzzy logic techniques. Fault trees were developed for integrated modular engine (IME) and discrete engine systems, and then were used with the two techniques to quantify reliability. The IRRAS (Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System) computer code, developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was used for the probabilistic analyses, and FUZZYFTA (Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis), a code developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, was used for the fuzzy logic analyses. Although both techniques provided estimates of the reliability of the IME and discrete systems, probabilistic techniques emphasized uncertainty resulting from randomness in the system whereas fuzzy logic techniques emphasized uncertainty resulting from vagueness in the system. Because uncertainty can have both random and vague components, both techniques were found to be useful tools in the analysis of rocket engine system reliability.

  7. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1940-01-01

    The cutaway drawing of the A-4 (Aggregate-4) rocket. Later renamed the V-2 (Vengeance Weapon-2), The rocket was developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the German rocket team at Peenemuende, Germany on the Baltic Sea. At the end of World War II, the team of German engineers and scientists came to the United States and continued rocket research for the Army at Fort Bliss, Texas, and Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama.

  8. Reactive Shear Layer Mixing and Growth Rate Effects on Afterburning Properties for Axisymetric Rocket Engine Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide . The ratio of specific heats is reduced as the number of atoms in the molecule increases and as the...The flow of the jet is faster than the surrounding air, and since gas turbine engines run fuel lean, the exhaust products have generally fully reacted...previous types by several characteristics. The core of the rocket exhaust flowfield is fuel rich, and unlike gas turbine engines, which burn fuel

  9. Optimizing a liquid propellant rocket engine with an automated combustor design code (AUTOCOM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Reichel, R. H.; Jones, R. T.; Glatt, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    A procedure for automatically designing a liquid propellant rocket engine combustion chamber in an optimal fashion is outlined. The procedure is contained in a digital computer code, AUTOCOM. The code is applied to an existing engine, and design modifications are generated which provide a substantial potential payload improvement over the existing design. Computer time requirements for this payload improvement were small, approximately four minutes in the CDC 6600 computer.

  10. Asymmetric Base-Bleed Effect on Aerospike Plume-Induced Base-Heating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Droege, Alan; DAgostino, Mark; Lee, Young-Ching; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    A computational heat transfer design methodology was developed to study the dual-engine linear aerospike plume-induced base-heating environment during one power-pack out, in ascent flight. It includes a three-dimensional, finite volume, viscous, chemically reacting, and pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, a special base-bleed boundary condition, and a three-dimensional, finite volume, and spectral-line-based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption computational radiation heat transfer formulation. A separate radiation model was used for diagnostic purposes. The computational methodology was systematically benchmarked. In this study, near-base radiative heat fluxes were computed, and they compared well with those measured during static linear aerospike engine tests. The base-heating environment of 18 trajectory points selected from three power-pack out scenarios was computed. The computed asymmetric base-heating physics were analyzed. The power-pack out condition has the most impact on convective base heating when it happens early in flight. The source of its impact comes from the asymmetric and reduced base bleed.

  11. An overview of in-flight plume diagnostics for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, G. C.; Bickford, R. L.; Duncan, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    An overview and progress report of the work performed or sponsored by LeRC toward the development of in-flight plume spectroscopy technology for health and performance monitoring of liquid propellant rocket engines are presented. The primary objective of this effort is to develop technology that can be utilized on any flight engine. This technology will be validated by a hardware demonstration of a system capable of being retrofitted onto the Space Shuttle Main Engines for spectroscopic measurements during flight. The philosophy on system definition and status on the development of instrumentation, optics, and signal processing with respect to implementation on a flight engine are discussed.

  12. Summary of Rocketdyne Engine A5 Rocket Based Combined Cycle Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum. A.; Emanuel, Mark; Cramer, John

    1998-01-01

    Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power (RPP) has completed a highly successful experimental test program of an advanced rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion system. The test program was conducted as part of the Advanced Reusable Technology program directed by NASA-MSFC to demonstrate technologies for low-cost access to space. Testing was conducted in the new GASL Flight Acceleration Simulation Test (FAST) facility at sea level (Mach 0), Mach 3.0 - 4.0, and vacuum flight conditions. Significant achievements obtained during the test program include 1) demonstration of engine operation in air-augmented rocket mode (AAR), ramjet mode and rocket mode and 2) smooth transition from AAR to ramjet mode operation. Testing in the fourth mode (scramjet) is scheduled for November 1998.

  13. Rocket Engine Health Management: Early Definition of Critical Flight Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, Rick L.; Nelson, Michael A.; Butas, John P.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA led Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program has established key requirements related to safety, reliability, launch availability and operations cost to be met by the next generation of reusable launch vehicles. Key to meeting these requirements will be an integrated vehicle health management ( M) system that includes sensors, harnesses, software, memory, and processors. Such a system must be integrated across all the vehicle subsystems and meet component, subsystem, and system requirements relative to fault detection, fault isolation, and false alarm rate. The purpose of this activity is to evolve techniques for defining critical flight engine system measurements-early within the definition of an engine health management system (EHMS). Two approaches, performance-based and failure mode-based, are integrated to provide a proposed set of measurements to be collected. This integrated approach is applied to MSFC s MC-1 engine. Early identification of measurements supports early identification of candidate sensor systems whose design and impacts to the engine components must be considered in engine design.

  14. In-situ propellant rocket engines for Mars missions ascent vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roncace, Elizabeth A.

    1991-01-01

    When contemplating the human exploration of Mars, many scenarios using various propulsion systems have been considered. One propulsion option among them is a vehicle stage with multiple, pump fed rocket engines capable of operating on propellants available on Mars. This reduces the earth launch mass requirements, resulting in economic and payload benefits. No plentiful sources of hydrogen on Mars have been identified on the surface of Mars, so most commonly used high performance liquid fuels, such as hydrogen and hydrocarbons, can be eliminated as possible in situ propellants. But 95 pct of the Martian atmosphere consists of carbon dioxide, which can be converted into carbon monoxide and oxygen. The carbon monoxide oxygen propellant combination is a candidate for a Martian in situ propellant rocket engine. The feasibility is analyzed of a pump fed engine cycle using the propellant combination of carbon monoxide and oxygen.

  15. In-situ propellant rocket engines for Mars mission ascent vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roncace, Elizabeth A.

    1991-01-01

    When comtemplating the human exploration of Mars, many scenarios using various propulsion systems have been considered. One propulsion option among them is a vehicle stage with multiple, pump fed rocket engines capable of operating on propellants available on Mars. This reduces the Earth launch mass requirements, resulting in economic and payload benefits. No plentiful sources of hydrogen on Mars have been identified on the surface of Mars, so most commonly used high performance liquid fuels, such as hydrogen and hydrocarbons, can be eliminated as possible in-situ propellants. But 95 pct. of the Martian atmosphere consists of carbon dioxide, which can be converted into carbon monoxide and oxygen. The carbon monoxide oxygen propellant conbination is a candidate for a Martian in-situ propellant rocket engine. The feasibility is analyzed of a pump fed engine cycle using the propellant combination of carbon monoxide and oxygen.

  16. High-temperature, high-pressure optical port for rocket engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delcher, Ray; Nemeth, ED; Powers, W. T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and test of a window assembly for instrumentation of liquid-fueled rocket engine hot gas systems. The window was designed to allow optical measurements of hot gas in the SSME fuel preburner and appears to be the first window designed for application in a rocket engine hot gas system. Such a window could allow the use of a number of remote optical measurement technologies including: Raman temperature and species concentration measurement, Raleigh temperature measurements, flame emission monitoring, flow mapping, laser-induced florescence, and hardware imaging during engine operation. The window assembly has been successfully tested to 8,000 psi at 1000 F and over 11,000 psi at room temperature. A computer stress analysis shows the window will withstand high temperature and cryogenic thermal shock.

  17. Transient Mathematical Modeling for Liquid Rocket Engine Systems: Methods, Capabilities, and Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seymour, David C.; Martin, Michael A.; Nguyen, Huy H.; Greene, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The subject of mathematical modeling of the transient operation of liquid rocket engines is presented in overview form from the perspective of engineers working at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The necessity of creating and utilizing accurate mathematical models as part of liquid rocket engine development process has become well established and is likely to increase in importance in the future. The issues of design considerations for transient operation, development testing, and failure scenario simulation are discussed. An overview of the derivation of the basic governing equations is presented along with a discussion of computational and numerical issues associated with the implementation of these equations in computer codes. Also, work in the field of generating usable fluid property tables is presented along with an overview of efforts to be undertaken in the future to improve the tools use for the mathematical modeling process.

  18. Transient Mathematical Modeling for Liquid Rocket Engine Systems: Methods, Capabilities, and Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Michael A.; Nguyen, Huy H.; Greene, William D.; Seymout, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The subject of mathematical modeling of the transient operation of liquid rocket engines is presented in overview form from the perspective of engineers working at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The necessity of creating and utilizing accurate mathematical models as part of liquid rocket engine development process has become well established and is likely to increase in importance in the future. The issues of design considerations for transient operation, development testing, and failure scenario simulation are discussed. An overview of the derivation of the basic governing equations is presented along with a discussion of computational and numerical issues associated with the implementation of these equations in computer codes. Also, work in the field of generating usable fluid property tables is presented along with an overview of efforts to be undertaken in the future to improve the tools use for the mathematical modeling process.

  19. Design of a 500 lbf liquid oxygen and liquid methane rocket engine for suborbital flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trillo, Jesus Eduardo

    Liquid methane (LCH4)is the most promising rocket fuel for our journey to Mars and other space entities. Compared to liquid hydrogen, the most common cryogenic fuel used today, methane is denser and can be stored at a more manageable temperature; leading to more affordable tanks and a lighter system. The most important advantage is it can be produced from local sources using in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology. This will allow the production of the fuel needed to come back to earth on the surface of Mars, or the space entity being explored, making the overall mission more cost effective by enabling larger usable mass. The major disadvantage methane has over hydrogen is it provides a lower specific impulse, or lower rocket performance. The UTEP Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research (cSETR) in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been the leading research center for the advancement of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Methane (LCH4) propulsion technologies. Through this partnership, the CROME engine, a throattable 500 lbf LOX/LCH4 rocket engine, was designed and developed. The engine will serve as the main propulsion system for Daedalus, a suborbital demonstration vehicle being developed by the cSETR. The purpose of Daedalus mission and the engine is to fire in space under microgravity conditions to demonstrate its restartability. This thesis details the design process, decisions, and characteristics of the engine to serve as a complete design guide.

  20. Integrated health monitoring and controls for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.; Musgrave, J. L.; Guo, T. H.

    1992-01-01

    Current research in intelligent control systems at the Lewis Research Center is described in the context of a functional framework. The framework is applicable to a variety of reusable space propulsion systems for existing and future launch vehicles. It provides a 'road map' technology development to enable enhanced engine performance with increased reliability, durability, and maintainability. The framework hierarchy consists of a mission coordination level, a propulsion system coordination level, and an engine control level. Each level is described in the context of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The concept of integrating diagnostics with control is discussed within the context of the functional framework. A distributed real time simulation testbed is used to realize and evaluate the functionalities in closed loop.

  1. Artificial intelligence techniques for ground test monitoring of rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Moonis; Gupta, U. K.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system is being developed which can detect anomalies in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) sensor data significantly earlier than the redline algorithm currently in use. The training of such an expert system focuses on two approaches which are based on low frequency and high frequency analyses of sensor data. Both approaches are being tested on data from SSME tests and their results compared with the findings of NASA and Rocketdyne experts. Prototype implementations have detected the presence of anomalies earlier than the redline algorithms that are in use currently. It therefore appears that these approaches have the potential of detecting anomalies early eneough to shut down the engine or take other corrective action before severe damage to the engine occurs.

  2. Calculation of Dynamic Loads Due to Random Vibration Environments in Rocket Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Eric R.; Brown, Andrew M.; Frady, Greg P.

    2007-01-01

    An important part of rocket engine design is the calculation of random dynamic loads resulting from internal engine "self-induced" sources. These loads are random in nature and can greatly influence the weight of many engine components. Several methodologies for calculating random loads are discussed and then compared to test results using a dynamic testbed consisting of a 60K thrust engine. The engine was tested in a free-free condition with known random force inputs from shakers attached to three locations near the main noise sources on the engine. Accelerations and strains were measured at several critical locations on the engines and then compared to the analytical results using two different random response methodologies.

  3. Reusability aspects for space transportation rocket engines: programmatic status and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preclik, D.; Strunz, R.; Hagemann, G.; Langel, G.

    2011-09-01

    Rocket propulsion systems belong to the most critical subsystems of a space launch vehicle, being illustrated in this paper by comparing different types of transportation systems. The aspect of reusability is firstly discussed for the space shuttle main engine, the only rocket engine in the world that has demonstrated multiple reuses. Initial projections are contrasted against final reusability achievements summarizing three decades of operating the space shuttle main engine. The discussion is then extended to engines employed on expendable launch vehicles with an operational life requirement typically specifying structural integrities up to 20 cycles (start-ups) and an accumulated burning time of about 6,000 s (Vulcain engine family). Today, this life potential substantially exceeds the duty cycle of an expendable engine. It is actually exploited only during the development and qualification phase of an engine when system reliability is demonstrated on ground test facilities with a reduced number of hardware sets that are subjected to an extended number of test cycles and operation time. The paper will finally evaluate the logic and effort necessary to qualify a reusable engine for a required reliability and put this result in context of possible cost savings realized from reuse operations over a time span of 25 years.

  4. Prediction of high frequency combustion instability in liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. M.; Chen, C. P.; Ziebarth, J. P.; Chen, Y. S.

    1992-01-01

    The present use of a numerical model developed for the prediction of high-frequency combustion stabilities in liquid propellant rocket engines focuses on (1) the overall behavior of nonlinear combustion instabilities (2) the effects of acoustic oscillations on the fuel-droplet vaporization and combustion process in stable and unstable engine operating conditions, oscillating flowfields, and liquid-fuel trajectories during combustion instability, and (3) the effects of such design parameters as inlet boundary conditions, initial spray conditions, and baffle length. The numerical model has yielded predictions of the tangential-mode combustion instability; baffle length and droplet size variations are noted to have significant effects on engine stability.

  5. Signal Processing Methods for Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Spontaneous Stability and Rough Combustion Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Casiano, Matthew; Fischbach, Sean; Hulka, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid rocket engine combustion stability assessments are traditionally broken into three categories: dynamic stability, spontaneous stability, and rough combustion. This work focuses on comparing the spontaneous stability and rough combustion assessments for several liquid engine programs. The techniques used are those developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the J-2X Workhorse Gas Generator program. Stability assessment data from the Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator (IPD), FASTRAC, and Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE) programs are compared against previously processed J-2X Gas Generator data. Prior metrics for spontaneous stability assessments are updated based on the compilation of all data sets.

  6. Automated Testing Experience of the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Richard R.

    1999-01-01

    System controllers must be fail-safe, low cost, flexible to software changes, able to output health and status words, and permit rapid retest qualification. The system controller designed and tested for the aerospike engine program was an attempt to meet these requirements. This paper describes (1) the aerospike controller design, (2) the automated simulation testing techniques, and (3) the real time monitoring data visualization structure. Controller cost was minimized by design of a single-string system that used an off-the-shelf 486 central processing unit (CPU). A linked-list architecture, with states (nodes) defined in a user-friendly state table, accomplished software changes to the controller. Proven to be fail-safe, this system reported the abort cause and automatically reverted to a safe condition for any first failure. A real time simulation and test system automated the software checkout and retest requirements. A program requirement to decode all abort causes in real time during all ground and flight tests assured the safety of flight decisions and the proper execution of mission rules. The design also included health and status words, and provided a real time analysis interpretation for all health and status data.

  7. Engineering the Space Age: A Rocket Scientist Remembers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    energy sources -Research I. Title. 629.130092-dc22 Disclaimer Opinions, conclusions, and recommendations expressed or implied within are solely those of the...technical armed forces oc- 12 AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING cupation specialty and keep flying. At the time, the atomic bombs were bulky and heavy and could only...way to learn about the F-84 aircraft. A welcome respite occurred when Major Wailer sent me to RAC to monitor a test to find the source and correct the

  8. Modeling Liquid Rocket Engine Atomization and Swirl/Coaxial Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-27

    47-61, 2004. 2. Yoon, S . S ., and Heister, S . D., "A Fully Nonlinear Model for Atomization of High - Speed Jets," Engineering Analysis with... Power , V20, pp 468-479, 2004. 5. Yoon, S . S ., and Heister, S . D., "Analytic Solutions for Computing Velocities Induced from Potential Vortex Ring...Heister, S . D., "Three Dimensional Flow Simulations in Recessed Region of a Coaxial Injector," J. Propulsion and Power , V21, No.4, pp. 728-742

  9. Design Considerations for Human Rating of Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I.Human-rating is specific to each engine; a. Context of program/project must be understood. b. Engine cannot be discussed independently from vehicle and mission. II. Utilize a logical combination of design, manufacturing, and test approaches a. Design 1) It is crucial to know the potential ways a system can fail, and how a failure can propagate; 2) Fault avoidance, fault tolerance, DFMR, caution and warning all have roles to play. b. Manufacturing and Assembly; 1) As-built vs. as-designed; 2) Review procedures for assembly and maintenance periodically; and 3) Keep personnel trained and certified. c. There is no substitute for test: 1) Analytical tools are constantly advancing, but still need test data for anchoring assumptions; 2) Demonstrate robustness and explore sensitivities; 3) Ideally, flight will be encompassed by ground test experience. III. Consistency and repeatability is key in production a. Maintain robust processes and procedures for inspection and quality control based upon development and qualification experience; b. Establish methods to "spot check" quality and consistency in parts: 1) Dedicated ground test engines; 2) Random components pulled from the line/lot to go through "enhanced" testing.

  10. A transient model of the RL10A-3-3A rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    RL10A-3-3A rocket engines have served as the main propulsion system for Centaur upper stage vehicles since the early 1980's. This hydrogen/oxygen expander cycle engine continues to play a major role in the American launch industry. The Space Propulsion Technology Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center has created a computer model of the RL10 engine, based on detailed component analyses and available test data. This RL10 engine model can predict the performance of the engine over a wide range of operating conditions. The model may also be used to predict the effects of any proposed design changes and anticipated failure scenarios. In this paper, the results of the component analyses are discussed. Simulation results from the new system model are compared with engine test and flight data, including the start and shut-down transient characteristics.

  11. Controls, health assessment, and conditional monitoring for large, reusable, liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cikanek, H. A., III

    1986-01-01

    Past and future progress in the performance of control systems for large, liquid rocket engines typified such as current state-of-the-art, the Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), is discussed. Details of the first decade of efforts, which culminates in the F-1 and J-2 Saturn engines control systems, are traced, noting problem modes and improvements which were implemented to realize the SSME. Future control system designs, to accommodate the requirements of operation of engines for a heavy lift launch vehicle, an orbital transfer vehicle and the aerospace plane, are summarized. Generic design upgrades needed include an expanded range of fault detection, maintenance as-needed instead of as-scheduled, reduced human involvement in engine operations, and increased control of internal engine states. Current NASA technology development programs aimed at meeting the future control system requirements are described.

  12. Rocket Engine Nozzle Side Load Transient Analysis Methodology: A Practical Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, John J.

    2005-01-01

    During the development stage, in order to design/to size the rocket engine components and to reduce the risks, the local dynamic environments as well as dynamic interface loads must be defined. There are two kinds of dynamic environment, i.e. shock transients and steady-state random and sinusoidal vibration environments. Usually, the steady-state random and sinusoidal vibration environments are scalable, but the shock environments are not scalable. In other words, based on similarities only random vibration environments can be defined for a new engine. The methodology covered in this paper provides a way to predict the shock environments and the dynamic loads for new engine systems and new engine components in the early stage of new engine development or engine nozzle modifications.

  13. Ceramics and composites for rocket engines and space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhya, Kamleshwar

    1992-05-01

    The use of ceramic and other nonmetallic composites is considered for engine and structural elements of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), the Space Shuttle, and space stations. Attention is given to the application of refractory composites with protective coatings for oxidation and hydrogen contamination to the NASP to address the high-temperature environments the vehicle is expected to encounter. Existing applications of metal-matrix composite struts and Gr-Ep cargo-bay doors on the Space Shuttle are reviewed, and the need for more data on the service life and failure modes of the materials is identified.

  14. Shock-Induced Heating In A Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagnado, Ronald R.; Raiszadeh, Farhad

    1989-01-01

    Misalignments give rise to hotspots on walls. Report discusses numerical simulation of flow in and near small, ringlike cavity in wall of Space Shuttle main engine at junction of main combustion chamber and nozzle. Purpose to study effects of misalignments between combustion chamber and nozzle on transfer of heat into surfaces chamber, cavity, and nozzle. Depending on specific misalignment flow encounters forward-or backward-facing step leaving chamber and entering nozzle. Results in serious losses of performance and excessive heating of walls.

  15. Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

  16. Studies of an extensively axisymmetric rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Richard W.; Escher, William J. D.; Robinson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The present comparative performance study has established that rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems, when incorporated by essentially axisymmetric SSTO launch vehicle configurations whose conical forebody maximizes both capture-area ratio and total capture area, are capable of furnishing payload-delivery capabilities superior to those of most multistage, all-rocket launchers. Airbreathing thrust augmentation in the rocket-ejector mode of an RBCC powerplant is noted to make a major contribution to final payload capability, by comparison to nonair-augmented rocket engine propulsion systems.

  17. Damage-mitigating control of a reusable rocket engine for high performance and extended life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asok; Dai, Xiaowen

    1995-01-01

    The goal of damage mitigating control in reusable rocket engines is to achieve high performance with increased durability of mechanical structures such that functional lives of the critical components are increased. The major benefit is an increase in structural durability with no significant loss of performance. This report investigates the feasibility of damage mitigating control of reusable rocket engines. Phenomenological models of creep and thermo-mechanical fatigue damage have been formulated in the state-variable setting such that these models can be combined with the plant model of a reusable rocket engine, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), for synthesizing an optimal control policy. Specifically, a creep damage model of the main thrust chamber wall is analytically derived based on the theories of sandwich beam and viscoplasticity. This model characterizes progressive bulging-out and incremental thinning of the coolant channel ligament leading to its eventual failure by tensile rupture. The objective is to generate a closed form solution of the wall thin-out phenomenon in real time where the ligament geometry is continuously updated to account for the resulting deformation. The results are in agreement with those obtained from the finite element analyses and experimental observation for both Oxygen Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper and a copper-zerconium-silver alloy called NARloy-Z. Due to its computational efficiency, this damage model is suitable for on-line applications of life prediction and damage mitigating control, and also permits parametric studies for off-line synthesis of damage mitigating control systems. The results are presented to demonstrate the potential of life extension of reusable rocket engines via damage mitigating control. The control system has also been simulated on a testbed to observe how the damage at different critical points can be traded off without any significant loss of engine performance. The research work

  18. Feasibility Investigation on the Development of a Structural Damage Diagnostic and Monitoring System for Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Ji Y.; Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The research activity for this project is mainly to investigate the necessity and feasibility to develop a structural health monitoring system for rocket engines, and to carry out a research plan for further development of the system. More than one hundred technical papers have been searched and reviewed during the period. We concluded after this investigation that adding a new module in NASA's existing automated diagnostic system to monitor the healthy condition of rocket engine structures is a crucial task, and it's possible to develop such a system based upon the vibrational-based nondestructive damage assessment techniques. A number of such techniques have been introduced. Their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. A global research plan has been figured out. As the first step of the overall research plan, a proposal for the next fiscal year has been submitted.

  19. An improved heat transfer configuration for a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Walton, James T.; Mcguire, Melissa L.

    1992-01-01

    Interrupted flow, impingement cooling, and axial power distribution are employed to enhance the heat-transfer configuration of a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine. Impingement cooling is introduced to increase the local heat-transfer coefficients between the reactor material and the coolants. Increased fuel loading is used at the inlet end of the reactor to enhance heat-transfer capability where the temperature differences are the greatest. A thermal-hydraulics computer program for an unfueled NERVA reactor core is employed to analyze the proposed configuration with attention given to uniform fuel loading, number of channels through the impingement wafers, fuel-element length, mass-flow rate, and wafer gap. The impingement wafer concept (IWC) is shown to have heat-transfer characteristics that are better than those of the NERVA-derived reactor at 2500 K. The IWC concept is argued to be an effective heat-transfer configuration for solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engines.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine Flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daines, Russell L.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic techniques are used to study the flowfield of a fixed geometry Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine operating in rocket ejector mode. Heat addition resulting from the combustion of injected fuel causes the subsonic engine flow to choke and go supersonic in the slightly divergent combustor-mixer section. Reacting flow computations are undertaken to predict the characteristics of solutions where the heat addition is determined by the flowfield. Here, adaptive gridding is used to improve resolution in the shear layers. Results show that the sonic speed is reached in the unheated portions of the flow first, while the heated portions become supersonic later. Comparison with results from another code show reasonable agreement. The coupled solutions show that the character of the combustion-based thermal choking phenomenon can be controlled reasonably well such that there is opportunity to optimize the length and expansion ratio of the combustor-mixer.

  1. Application of Background Oriented Schlieren for Altitude Testing of Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.

    2017-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed to determine the feasibility of using the Background Oriented Schlieren, BOS, flow visualization technique to image a simulated, small, rocket engine, plume under altitude test conditions. Testing was performed at the NASA Glenn Research Centers Altitude Combustion Stand, ACS, using nitrogen as the exhaust gas simulant. Due to limited optical access to the facility test capsule, all of the hardware required to conduct the BOS were located inside the vacuum chamber. During the test series 26 runs were performed using two different nozzle configurations with pressures in the test capsule around 0.3 psia. No problems were encountered during the test series resulting from the optical hardware being located in the test capsule and acceptable resolution images were captured. The test campaign demonstrated the ability of using the BOS technique for small, rocket engine, plume flow visualization during altitude testing.

  2. A study on various methods of supplying propellant to an orbit insertion rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boretz, J. E.; Huniu, S.; Thompson, M.; Pagani, M.; Paulsen, B.; Lewis, J.; Paul, D.

    1980-01-01

    Various types of pumps and pump drives were evaluated to determine the lightest weight system for supplying propellants to a planetary orbit insertion rocket engine. From these analyses four candidate propellant feed systems were identified. Systems Nos. 1 and 2 were both battery powered (lithium-thionyl-chloride or silver-zinc) motor driven pumps. System 3 was a monopropellant gas generator powered turbopump. System 4 was a bipropellant gas generator powered turbopump. Parameters considered were pump break horsepower, weight, reliability, transient response and system stability. Figures of merit were established and the ranking of the candidate systems was determined. Conceptual designs were prepared for typical motor driven pumps and turbopump configurations for a 1000 lbf thrust rocket engine.

  3. Reusable rocket engine turbopump health monitoring system, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, John G.

    1989-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms and sensor identification/selection resulted in a list of degradation modes and a list of sensors that are utilized in the diagnosis of these degradation modes. The sensor list is divided into primary and secondary indicators of the corresponding degradation modes. The signal conditioning requirements are discussed, describing the methods of producing the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) post-hot-fire test data to be utilized by the Health Monitoring System. Development of the diagnostic logic and algorithms is also presented. The knowledge engineering approach, as utilized, includes the knowledge acquisition effort, characterization of the expert's problem solving strategy, conceptually defining the form of the applicable knowledge base, and rule base, and identifying an appropriate inferencing mechanism for the problem domain. The resulting logic flow graphs detail the diagnosis/prognosis procedure as followed by the experts. The nature and content of required support data and databases is also presented. The distinction between deep and shallow types of knowledge is identified. Computer coding of the Health Monitoring System is shown to follow the logical inferencing of the logic flow graphs/algorithms.

  4. Stennis Space Center's approach to liquid rocket engine health monitoring using exhaust plume diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, D. G.; Tejwani, G. D.; Bircher, F. E.; Loboda, J. A.; Van Dyke, D. B.; Chenevert, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Details are presented of the approach used in a comprehensive program to utilize exhaust plume diagnostics for rocket engine health-and-condition monitoring and assessing SSME component wear and degradation. This approach incorporates both spectral and video monitoring of the exhaust plume. Video monitoring provides qualitative data for certain types of component wear while spectral monitoring allows both quantitative and qualitative information. Consideration is given to spectral identification of SSME materials and baseline plume emissions.

  5. Signal Processing Methods for Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Stability Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Lee, Erik; Hulka, James R.; Casiano, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The J2X Gas Generator engine design specifications include dynamic, spontaneous, and broadband combustion stability requirements. These requirements are verified empirically based high frequency chamber pressure measurements and analyses. Dynamic stability is determined with the dynamic pressure response due to an artificial perturbation of the combustion chamber pressure (bomb testing), and spontaneous and broadband stability are determined from the dynamic pressure responses during steady operation starting at specified power levels. J2X Workhorse Gas Generator testing included bomb tests with multiple hardware configurations and operating conditions, including a configuration used explicitly for engine verification test series. This work covers signal processing techniques developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to help assess engine design stability requirements. Dynamic stability assessments were performed following both the CPIA 655 guidelines and a MSFC in-house developed statistical-based approach. The statistical approach was developed to better verify when the dynamic pressure amplitudes corresponding to a particular frequency returned back to pre-bomb characteristics. This was accomplished by first determining the statistical characteristics of the pre-bomb dynamic levels. The pre-bomb statistical characterization provided 95% coverage bounds; these bounds were used as a quantitative measure to determine when the post-bomb signal returned to pre-bomb conditions. The time for post-bomb levels to acceptably return to pre-bomb levels was compared to the dominant frequency-dependent time recommended by CPIA 655. Results for multiple test configurations, including stable and unstable configurations, were reviewed. Spontaneous stability was assessed using two processes: 1) characterization of the ratio of the peak response amplitudes to the excited chamber acoustic mode amplitudes and 2) characterization of the variability of the peak response

  6. Ablative material testing for low-pressure, low-cost rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, G. Paul; Smith, Timothy D.

    1995-01-01

    The results of an experimental evaluation of ablative materials suitable for the production of light weight, low cost rocket engine combustion chambers and nozzles are presented. Ten individual specimens of four different compositions of silica cloth-reinforced phenolic resin materials were evaluated for comparative erosion in a subscale rocket engine combustion chamber. Gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen were used as propellants, operating at a nominal chamber pressure of 1138 kPa (165 psi) and a nominal mixture ratio (O/F) of 3.3. These conditions were used to thermally simulate operation with RP-1 and liquid oxygen, and achieved a specimen throat gas temperature of approximately 2456 K (4420 R). Two high-density composition materials exhibited high erosion resistance, while two low-density compositions exhibited approximately 6-75 times lower average erosion resistance. The results compare favorably with previous testing by NASA and provide adequate data for selection of ablatives for low pressure, low cost rocket engines.

  7. Regeneratively cooled rocket engine for space storable propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.; Waldman, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses and experimental studies were performed with the OF2 (F2/O2)/B2H6 propellant combination over a range in operating conditions to determine suitability for a space storable pressure fed engine configuration for an extended flight space vehicle configuration. The regenerative cooling mode selected for the thrust chamber was explored in detail with the use of both the fuel and oxidizer as coolants in an advanced milled channel construction thrust chamber design operating at 100 psia chamber pressure and a nominal mixture ratio of 3.0 with a 60:1 area ratio nozzle. Benefits of the simultaneous cooling as related to gaseous injection of both fuel and oxidizer propellants were defined. Heat transfer rates, performance and combustor stability were developed for impinging element triplet injectors in uncooled copper calorimeter hardware with flow, pressure and temperature instrumentation. Evaluation of the capabilities of the B2H6 and OF2 during analytical studies and numerous tests with flow through electrically heated blocks provided design criteria for subsequent regenerative chamber design and fabrication.

  8. Advanced Computing Technologies for Rocket Engine Propulsion Systems: Object-Oriented Design with C++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekele, Gete

    2002-01-01

    This document explores the use of advanced computer technologies with an emphasis on object-oriented design to be applied in the development of software for a rocket engine to improve vehicle safety and reliability. The primary focus is on phase one of this project, the smart start sequence module. The objectives are: 1) To use current sound software engineering practices, object-orientation; 2) To improve on software development time, maintenance, execution and management; 3) To provide an alternate design choice for control, implementation, and performance.

  9. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) first flight view from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the SR-71 with the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment on the rear fuselage as seen from above. The photo was taken on the first flight of the aircraft with the experiment aboard, which took place on 31 October 1997. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the

  10. Paraffin-based hybrid rocket engines applications: A review and a market perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Alessandro; Merotto, Laura; Pinarello, Giordano

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion technology for aerospace applications has received growing attention in recent years due to its important advantages over competitive solutions. Hybrid rocket engines have a great potential for several aeronautics and aerospace applications because of their safety, reliability, low cost and high performance. As a consequence, this propulsion technology is feasible for a number of innovative missions, including space tourism. On the other hand, hybrid rocket propulsion's main drawback, i.e. the difficulty in reaching high regression rate values using standard fuels, has so far limited the maturity level of this technology. The complex physico-chemical processes involved in hybrid rocket engines combustion are of major importance for engine performance prediction and control. Therefore, further investigation is ongoing in order to achieve a more complete understanding of such phenomena. It is well known that one of the most promising solutions for overcoming hybrid rocket engines performance limits is the use of liquefying fuels. Such fuels can lead to notably increased solid fuel regression rate due to the so-called "entrainment phenomenon". Among liquefying fuels, paraffin-based formulations have great potentials as solid fuels due to their low cost, availability (as they can be derived from industrial waste), low environmental impact and high performance. Despite the vast amount of literature available on this subject, a precise focus on market potential of paraffins for hybrid propulsion aerospace applications is lacking. In this work a review of hybrid rocket engines state of the art was performed, together with a detailed analysis of the possible applications of such a technology. A market study was carried out in order to define the near-future foreseeable development needs for hybrid technology application to the aforementioned missions. Paraffin-based fuels are taken into account as the most promising segment for market development

  11. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1940-01-01

    This drawing illustrates the vital dimensions of the A-4 (Aggregate-4). Later renamed the V-2 (Vengeance Weapon-2), the rocket was developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the German rocket team at Peenemuende, Germany on the Baltic Sea. At the end of World War II, the team of German engineers and scientists came to the United States and continued rocket research for the Army at Fort Bliss, Texas, and Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama.

  12. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1940-01-01

    This German cutaway drawing of the Aggregate-4 (A-4) illustrates the dimensions and internal workings of the rocket. Later renamed the V-2, the rocket was developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the German Rocket Team at Peenemuende on the Baltic Sea. At the end of World War II, the team of German engineers and scientists came to the United States to work for the Army at Fort Bliss, Texas, and Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama.

  13. Real-Time Simulation of the X-33 Aerospace Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and performance of the X-33 Aerospike Engine RealTime Model. This model was developed for the purposes of control law development, six degree-of-freedom trajectory analysis, vehicle system integration testing, and hardware-in-the loop controller verification. The Real-Time Model uses time-step marching solution of non-linear differential equations representing the physical processes involved in the operation of a liquid propellant rocket engine, albeit in a simplified form. These processes include heat transfer, fluid dynamics, combustion, and turbomachine performance. Two engine models are typically employed in order to accurately model maneuvering and the powerpack-out condition where the power section of one engine is used to supply propellants to both engines if one engine malfunctions. The X-33 Real-Time Model is compared to actual hot fire test data and is been found to be in good agreement.

  14. An Object-Oriented Graphical User Interface for a Reusable Rocket Engine Intelligent Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Paxson, Daniel E.; Wong, Edmond; Saus, Joseph R.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent control system for reusable rocket engines under development at NASA Lewis Research Center requires a graphical user interface to allow observation of the closed-loop system in operation. The simulation testbed consists of a real-time engine simulation computer, a controls computer, and several auxiliary computers for diagnostics and coordination. The system is set up so that the simulation computer could be replaced by the real engine and the change would be transparent to the control system. Because of the hard real-time requirement of the control computer, putting a graphical user interface on it was not an option. Thus, a separate computer used strictly for the graphical user interface was warranted. An object-oriented LISP-based graphical user interface has been developed on a Texas Instruments Explorer 2+ to indicate the condition of the engine to the observer through plots, animation, interactive graphics, and text.

  15. Development of the platelet micro-orifice injector. [for liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Botz, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    For some time to come, liquid rocket engines will continue to provide the primary means of propulsion for space transportation. The injector represents a key to the optimization of engine and system performance. The present investigation is concerned with a unique injector design and fabrication process which has demonstrated performance capabilities beyond that achieved with more conventional approaches. This process, which is called the 'platelet process', makes it feasible to fabricate injectors with a pattern an order of magnitude finer than that obtainable by drilling. The fine pattern leads to an achievement of high combustion efficiencies. Platelet injectors have been identified as one of the significant technology advances contributing to the feasibility of advanced dual-fuel booster engines. Platelet injectors are employed in the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System (OMS) engines. Attention is given to injector design theory as it relates to pattern fineness, a description of platelet injectors, and test data obtained with three different platelet injectors.

  16. A unique nuclear thermal rocket engine using a particle bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Donald W.; Dahl, Wayne B.; McIlwain, Melvin C.

    1992-01-01

    Aerojet Propulsion Division (APD) studied 75-klb thrust Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines (NTRE) with particle bed reactors (PBR) for application to NASA's manned Mars mission and prepared a conceptual design description of a unique engine that best satisfied mission-defined propulsion requirements and customer criteria. This paper describes the selection of a sprint-type Mars transfer mission and its impact on propulsion system design and operation. It shows how our NTRE concept was developed from this information. The resulting, unusual engine design is short, lightweight, and capable of high specific impulse operation, all factors that decrease Earth to orbit launch costs. Many unusual features of the NTRE are discussed, including nozzle area ratio variation and nozzle closure for closed loop after cooling. Mission performance calculations reveal that other well known engine options do not support this mission.

  17. New Frontiers AO: Advanced Materials Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) Engine Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry C.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Material Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) engine is a high performance (I(sub sp)), higher thrust, radiation cooled, storable bi-propellant space engine of the same physical envelope as the High Performance Apogee Thruster (HiPAT(TradeMark)). To provide further information about the AMBR engine, this document provides details on performance, development, mission implementation, key spacecraft integration considerations, project participants and approach, contact information, system specifications, and a list of references. The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) leads the technology development of the AMBR engine. Their NASA partners were Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Aerojet leads the industrial partners selected competitively for the technology development via the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process.

  18. A study of the durability of beryllium rocket engines. [space shuttle reaction control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paster, R. D.; French, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental test program was performed to demonstrate the durability of a beryllium INTEREGEN rocket engine when operating under conditions simulating the space shuttle reaction control system. A vibration simulator was exposed to the equivalent of 100 missions of X, Y, and Z axes random vibration to demonstrate the integrity of the recently developed injector-to-chamber braze joint. An off-limits engine was hot fired under extreme conditions of mixture ratio, chamber pressure, and orifice plugging. A durability engine was exposed to six environmental cycles interspersed with hot-fire tests without intermediate cleaning, service, or maintenance. Results from this program indicate the ability of the beryllium INTEREGEN engine concept to meet the operational requirements of the space shuttle reaction control system.

  19. Test Results of the RS-44 Integrated Component Evaluator Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. F.; Lariviere, B. W.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine, producing 15,000 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer Vehicle missions, was tested to determine ignition, transition, and main stage characteristics. Detail design and fabrication of the pump fed RS44 integrated component evaluator (ICE) was accomplished using company discretionary resources and was tested under this contracted effort. Successful demonstrations were completed to about the 50 percent fuel turbopump power level (87,000 RPM), but during this last test, a high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) bearing failed curtailing the test program. No other hardware were affected by the HPFTP premature shutdown. The ICE operations matched well with the predicted start transient simulations. The tests demonstrated the feasibility of a high performance advanced expander cycle engine. All engine components operated nominally, except for the HPFTP, during the engine hot-fire tests. A failure investigation was completed using company discretionary resources.

  20. Prediction of pressure and flow transients in a gaseous bipropellant reaction control rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowsky, J. J.; Mcmanus, H. N., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An analytic model is developed to predict pressure and flow transients in a gaseous hydrogen-oxygen reaction control rocket engine feed system. The one-dimensional equations of momentum and continuity are reduced by the method of characteristics from partial derivatives to a set of total derivatives which describe the state properties along the feedline. System components, e.g., valves, manifolds, and injectors are represented by pseudo steady-state relations at discrete junctions in the system. Solutions were effected by a FORTRAN IV program on an IBM 360/65. The results indicate the relative effect of manifold volume, combustion lag time, feedline pressure fluctuations, propellant temperature, and feedline length on the chamber pressure transient. The analytical combustion model is verified by good correlation between predicted and observed chamber pressure transients. The developed model enables a rocket designer to vary the design parameters analytically to obtain stable combustion for a particular mode of operation which is prescribed by mission objectives.

  1. Design of a 2000 lbf LOX/LCH4 Throttleable Rocket Engine for a Vertical Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Israel

    Liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) has been recognized as an attractive rocket propellant combination because of its in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) capabilities, namely in Mars. ISRU would allow launch vehicles to carry greater payloads and promote missions to Mars. This has led to an increasing interest to develop spacecraft technologies that employ this propellant combination. The UTEP Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research (cSETR) has focused part of its research efforts to developing LOX/LCH4 systems. One of those projects includes the development of a vertical takeoff and landing vehicle called JANUS. This vehicle will employ a LOX/LCH 4 propulsion system. The main propulsion engine is called CROME-X and is currently being developed as part of this project. This rocket engine will employ LOX/LCH4 propellants and is intended to operate from 2000-500 lbf thrust range. This thesis describes the design and development of CROME-X. Specifically, it describes the design process for the main engine components, the design criteria for each, and plans for future engine development.

  2. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1946-01-01

    A V-2 rocket takes flight at White Sands, New Mexico, in 1946. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s.

  3. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1947-01-01

    A V-2 rocket is hoisted into a static test facility at White Sands, New Mexico. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s.

  4. Metallized Gelled Propellants: Oxygen/RP-1/Aluminum Rocket Engine Calorimeter Heat Transfer Measurements and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1997-01-01

    A set of analyses was conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics of metallized gelled liquid propellants in a rocket engine. The analyses used the data from experiments conducted with a small 30- to 40-lbf thrust engine composed of a modular injector, igniter, chamber and nozzle. The fuels used were traditional liquid RP-1 and gelled RP-1 with 0-wt %, 5-wt%, and 55-wt% loadings of aluminum with silicon dioxide gellant, and gaseous oxygen as the oxidizer. Heat transfer was computed based on measurements using calorimeter rocket chamber and nozzle hardware with a total of 31 cooling channels. A gelled fuel coating formed in the 0-, 5- and 55-wt% engines, and the coating was composed of unburned gelled fuel and partially combusted RP-1. The coating caused a large decrease in calorimeter engine heat flux in the last half of the chamber for the 0- and 5-wt% RP-1/Al. This heat flux reduction effect was analyzed by comparing engine runs and the changes in the heat flux during a run as well as from run to run. Heat transfer and time-dependent heat flux analyses and interpretations are provided. The 5- and 55-wt% RP-1/Al fueled engines had the highest chamber heat fluxes, with the 5-wt% fuel having the highest throat flux. This result is counter to the predicted result, where the 55 wt% fuel has the highest combustion and throat temperature, and therefore implies that it would deliver the highest throat heat flux. The 5-wt% RP-1/Al produced the most influence on the engine heat transfer and the heat flux reduction was caused by the formation of a gelled propellant layer in the chamber and nozzle.

  5. Development of an intelligent diagnostic system for reusable rocket engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anex, R. P.; Russell, J. R.; Guo, T.-H.

    1991-01-01

    A description of an intelligent diagnostic system for the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) is presented. This system is suitable for incorporation in an intelligent controller which implements accommodating closed-loop control to extend engine life and maximize available performance. The diagnostic system architecture is a modular, hierarchical, blackboard system which is particularly well suited for real-time implementation of a system which must be repeatedly updated and extended. The diagnostic problem is formulated as a hierarchical classification problem in which the failure hypotheses are represented in terms of predefined data patterns. The diagnostic expert system incorporates techniques for priority-based diagnostics, the combination of analytical and heuristic knowledge for diagnosis, integration of different AI systems, and the implementation of hierarchical distributed systems. A prototype reusable rocket engine diagnostic system (ReREDS) has been implemented. The prototype user interface and diagnostic performance using SSME test data are described.

  6. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  7. A reliability as an independent variable (RAIV) methodology for optimizing test planning for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strunz, Richard; Herrmann, Jeffrey W.

    2011-12-01

    The hot fire test strategy for liquid rocket engines has always been a concern of space industry and agency alike because no recognized standard exists. Previous hot fire test plans focused on the verification of performance requirements but did not explicitly include reliability as a dimensioning variable. The stakeholders are, however, concerned about a hot fire test strategy that balances reliability, schedule, and affordability. A multiple criteria test planning model is presented that provides a framework to optimize the hot fire test strategy with respect to stakeholder concerns. The Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator, a program of the European Space Agency, is used as example to provide the quantitative answer to the claim that a reduced thrust scale demonstrator is cost beneficial for a subsequent flight engine development. Scalability aspects of major subsystems are considered in the prior information definition inside the Bayesian framework. The model is also applied to assess the impact of an increase of the demonstrated reliability level on schedule and affordability.

  8. A study of mass data storage technology for rocket engine data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ready, John F.; Benser, Earl T.; Fritz, Bernard S.; Nelson, Scott A.; Stauffer, Donald R.; Volna, William M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a nine month study program on mass data storage technology for rocket engine (especially the Space Shuttle Main Engine) health monitoring and control are summarized. The program had the objective of recommending a candidate mass data storage technology development for rocket engine health monitoring and control and of formulating a project plan and specification for that technology development. The work was divided into three major technical tasks: (1) development of requirements; (2) survey of mass data storage technologies; and (3) definition of a project plan and specification for technology development. The first of these tasks reviewed current data storage technology and developed a prioritized set of requirements for the health monitoring and control applications. The second task included a survey of state-of-the-art and newly developing technologies and a matrix-based ranking of the technologies. It culminated in a recommendation of optical disk technology as the best candidate for technology development. The final task defined a proof-of-concept demonstration, including tasks required to develop, test, analyze, and demonstrate the technology advancement, plus an estimate of the level of effort required. The recommended demonstration emphasizes development of an optical disk system which incorporates an order-of-magnitude increase in writing speed above the current state of the art.

  9. Application of High Speed Digital Image Correlation in Rocket Engine Hot Fire Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Schmidt, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Hot fire testing of rocket engine components and rocket engine systems is a critical aspect of the development process to understand performance, reliability and system interactions. Ground testing provides the opportunity for highly instrumented development testing to validate analytical model predictions and determine necessary design changes and process improvements. To properly obtain discrete measurements for model validation, instrumentation must survive in the highly dynamic and extreme temperature application of hot fire testing. Digital Image Correlation has been investigated and being evaluated as a technique to augment traditional instrumentation during component and engine testing providing further data for additional performance improvements and cost savings. The feasibility of digital image correlation techniques were demonstrated in subscale and full scale hotfire testing. This incorporated a pair of high speed cameras to measure three-dimensional, real-time displacements and strains installed and operated under the extreme environments present on the test stand. The development process, setup and calibrations, data collection, hotfire test data collection and post-test analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  10. RL10A-3-3A Rocket Engine Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael; Tomsik, Thomas; Veres, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    Two RL10A-3-3A rocket engines comprise the main propulsion system for the Centaur upper stage vehicle. Centaur is used with bod Titan and Atlas launch vehicles, carrying military and civilian payloads from high altitudes into orbit and beyond. The RL10 has delivered highly reliable service for the past 30 years. Recently, however, there have been two in-flight failures which have refocused attention on the RL10. This heightened interest has sparked a desire for an independent RL10 modeling capability within NASA and th Air Force. Pratt & Whitney, which presently has the most detailed model of the RL10, also sees merit in having an independent model which could be used as a cross-check with their own simulations. The Space Propulsion Technology Division (SPTD) at the NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a computer model of the RL10A-3-3A. A project team was formed, consisting of experts in the areas of turbomachinery, combustion, and heat transfer. The overall goal of the project was to provide a model of the entire RL10 rocket engine for government use. In the course of the project, the major engine components have been modeled using a combination of simple correlations and detailed component analysis tools (computer codes). The results of these component analyses were verified with data provided by Pratt & Whitney. Select modeling results and test data curves were then integrated to form the RL10 engine system model The purpose of this report is to introduce the reader to the RL10 rocket engine and to describe the engine system model. The RL10 engine and its application to U.S. launch vehicles are described first, followed by a summary of the SPTD project organization, goals, and accomplishments. Simulated output from the system model are shown in comparison with test and flight data for start transient, steady state, and shut-down transient operations. Detailed descriptions of all component analyses, including those not selected for integration with the

  11. Performance and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide/oxygen rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1993-01-01

    The combustion and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide and oxygen rocket engine were evaluated. The test hardware consisted of a calorimeter combustion chamber with a heat sink nozzle and an eighteen element concentric tube injector. Experimental results are given at chamber pressures of 1070 and 3070 kPa, and over a mixture ratio range of 0.3 to 1.0. Experimental C efficiency was between 95 and 96.5 percent. Heat transfer results are discussed both as a function of mixture ratio and axial distance in the chamber. They are also compared to a Nusselt number correlation for fully developed turbulent flow.

  12. Interaction of external conditions with the internal flowfield in liquid rocket engines - A computational study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, H. P.; Gross, K. W.

    1989-01-01

    Computational studies have been conducted to examine the capability of a CFD code by simulating the steady state thrust chamber internal flow. The SSME served as the sample case, and significant parameter profiles are presented and discussed. Performance predictions from TDK, the recommended JANNAF reference computer program, are compared with those from PHOENICS to establish the credibility of its results. The investigation of an overexpanded nozzle flow is particularly addressed since it plays an important role in the area ratio selection of future rocket engines. Experience gained during this uncompleted flow separation study and future steps are outlined.

  13. Turbulent Mixing of Primary and Secondary Flow Streams in a Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, J. M.; Greene, M. U.; Pal, S.; Santoro, R. J.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the turbulent mixing of primary and secondary flow streams in a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine. A significant RBCC ejector mode database has been generated, detailing single and twin thruster configurations and global and local measurements. On-going analysis and correlation efforts include Marshall Space Flight Center computational fluid dynamics modeling and turbulent shear layer analysis. Potential follow-on activities include detailed measurements of air flow static pressure and velocity profiles, investigations into other thruster spacing configurations, performing a fundamental shear layer mixing study, and demonstrating single-shot Raman measurements.

  14. A Demonstration of an Intelligent Control System for a Reusable Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Research Center Cleveland, Ohio 44135 ABSTRACT DTIC QUALrI’ ’illE ,;TED 3 An Intelligent Control System for reusable rocket engines is under development at...through the ring seal may be written as rh,i,,g - 0.685 It Co d c~iiPexi g ( 3 )VRTIprt( where d. and cri6t now correspond to the shaft diameter and the ring...discharge coefficient of 0.9 for both seals and disk and shaft diameters of 6.0 and 2.0 inches respectively, equations I and 3 may be equated and the

  15. A new vision for fusion energy research: Fusion rocket engines for planetary defense

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.; Turchi, P. J.

    Here, we argue that it is essential for the fusion energy program to identify an imagination-capturing critical mission by developing a unique product which could command the marketplace. We lay out the logic that this product is a fusion rocket engine, to enable a rapid response capable of deflecting an incoming comet, to prevent its impact on the planet Earth, in defense of our population, infrastructure, and civilization. As a side benefit, deep space solar system exploration, with greater speed and orders-of-magnitude greater payload mass would also be possible.

  16. A new vision for fusion energy research: Fusion rocket engines for planetary defense

    DOE PAGES

    Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.; Turchi, P. J.; ...

    2015-11-16

    Here, we argue that it is essential for the fusion energy program to identify an imagination-capturing critical mission by developing a unique product which could command the marketplace. We lay out the logic that this product is a fusion rocket engine, to enable a rapid response capable of deflecting an incoming comet, to prevent its impact on the planet Earth, in defense of our population, infrastructure, and civilization. As a side benefit, deep space solar system exploration, with greater speed and orders-of-magnitude greater payload mass would also be possible.

  17. Evaluation of innovative rocket engines for single-stage earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manski, Detlef; Martin, James A.

    1988-07-01

    Computer models of rocket engines and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles that were developed by the authors at DFVLR and NASA have been combined. The resulting code consists of engine mass, performance, trajectory and vehicle sizing models. The engine mass model includes equations for each subsystem and describes their dependences on various propulsion parameters. The engine performance model consists of multidimensional sets of theoretical propulsion properties and a complete thermodynamic analysis of the engine cycle. The vehicle analyses include an optimized trajectory analysis, mass estimation, and vehicle sizing. A vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing, single-stage, winged, manned, fully reusable vehicle with a payload capability of 13.6 Mg (30,000 lb) to low earth orbit was selected. Hydrogen, methane, propane, and dual-fuel engines were studied with staged-combustion, gas-generator, dual bell, and the dual-expander cycles. Mixture ratio, chamber pressure, nozzle exit pressure liftoff acceleration, and dual fuel propulsive parameters were optimized.

  18. Evaluation of innovative rocket engines for single-stage earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manski, Detlef; Martin, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Computer models of rocket engines and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles that were developed by the authors at DFVLR and NASA have been combined. The resulting code consists of engine mass, performance, trajectory and vehicle sizing models. The engine mass model includes equations for each subsystem and describes their dependences on various propulsion parameters. The engine performance model consists of multidimensional sets of theoretical propulsion properties and a complete thermodynamic analysis of the engine cycle. The vehicle analyses include an optimized trajectory analysis, mass estimation, and vehicle sizing. A vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing, single-stage, winged, manned, fully reusable vehicle with a payload capability of 13.6 Mg (30,000 lb) to low earth orbit was selected. Hydrogen, methane, propane, and dual-fuel engines were studied with staged-combustion, gas-generator, dual bell, and the dual-expander cycles. Mixture ratio, chamber pressure, nozzle exit pressure liftoff acceleration, and dual fuel propulsive parameters were optimized.

  19. Experimental Study on an Unsteady Pressure Gain Combustion Hypergolic Rocket Engine Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Brandon K.

    An experimental study is conducted to investigate pulsed combustion in a lab-scale bipropellant rocket engine using hypergolic propellants. The propellant combination is high concentration hydrogen peroxide and a catalyst-laced triglyme fuel. A total of 50 short duration firings have been conducted; the vast majority in an open-chamber configuration. High amplitude pulsations were evident in nearly all cases and have been assessed with high frequency pressure measurements. Both pintle and unlike impinging quadlet injector types have been evaluated although the bulk of the testing was with the latter configuration. Several firings were conducted with a transparent chamber in an attempt to gain understanding using a high-speed camera in the visible spectrum. Peak chamber pressures in excess of 5000 psi have been recorded with surface mounted high frequency gages with pulsation frequencies exceeding 600 Hz. A characterization of time-averaged performance is made for the unsteady system, where time-resolved thrust and pressure measurements were attempted. While prior literature describes this system as a pulse detonation rocket engine, the combustion appears to be more "constant volume" in nature.

  20. Calculation of Free-Atom Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Satyajit

    2006-01-01

    Free atom fractions (Beta) of nine elements are calculated in the exhaust plume of CH4- oxygen and RP-1-oxygen fueled rocket engines using free energy minimization method. The Chemical Equilibrium and Applications (CEA) computer program developed by the Glenn Research Center, NASA is used for this purpose. Data on variation of Beta in both fuels as a function of temperature (1600 K - 3100 K) and oxygen to fuel ratios (1.75 to 2.25 by weight) is presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Recommendation is made for the Beta value for a tenth element, Palladium. The CEA computer code was also run to compare with experimentally determined Beta values reported in literature for some of these elements. A reasonable agreement, within a factor of three, between the calculated and reported values is observed. Values reported in this work will be used as a first approximation for pilot rocket engine testing studies at the Stennis Space Center for at least six elements Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe and Ni - until experimental values are generated. The current estimates will be improved when more complete thermodynamic data on the remaining four elements Ag, Co, Mn and Pd are added to the database. A critique of the CEA code is also included.

  1. Engine Cycle Analysis of Air Breathing Microwave Rocket with Reed Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Fukunari, Masafumi; Komatsu, Reiji; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu

    The Microwave Rocket is a candidate for a low cost launcher system. Pulsed plasma generated by a high power millimeter wave beam drives a blast wave, and a vehicle acquires impulsive thrust by exhausting the blast wave. The thrust generation process of the Microwave Rocket is similar to a pulse detonation engine. In order to enhance the performance of its air refreshment, the air-breathing mechanism using reed valves is under development. Ambient air is taken to the thruster through reed valves. Reed valves are closed while the inside pressure is high enough. After the time when the shock wave exhaustsmore » at the open end, an expansion wave is driven and propagates to the thrust-wall. The reed valve is opened by the negative gauge pressure induced by the expansion wave and its reflection wave. In these processes, the pressure oscillation is important parameter. In this paper, the pressure oscillation in the thruster was calculated by CFD combined with the flux through from reed valves, which is estimated analytically. As a result, the air-breathing performance is evaluated using Partial Filling Rate (PFR), the ratio of thruster length to diameter L/D, and ratio of opening area of reed valves to superficial area {alpha}. An engine cycle and predicted thrust was explained.« less

  2. Two-phase flow in the cooling circuit of a cryogenic rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preclik, D.

    1992-07-01

    Transient two-phase flow was investigated for the hydrogen cooling circuit of the HM7 rocket engine. The nuclear reactor code ATHLET/THESEUS was adapted to cryogenics and applied to both principal and prototype experiments for validation and simulation purposes. The cooling circuit two-phase flow simulation focused on the hydrogen prechilling and pump transient phase prior to ignition. Both a single- and a multichannel model were designed and employed for a valve leakage flow, a nominal prechilling flow, and a prechilling with a subsequent pump-transient flow. The latter case was performed in order to evaluate the difference between a nominal and a delayed turbo-pump start-up. It was found that an extension of the nominal prechilling sequence in the order of 1 second is sufficient to finally provide for liquid injection conditions of hydrogen which, as commonly known, is undesirable for smooth ignition and engine starting transients.

  3. Navier-Stokes analysis of a liquid rocket engine disk cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, Theodore G.; Mcconnaughey, Paul K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a Navier-Stokes analysis of hydrodynamic phenomena occurring in the aft disk cavity of a liquid rocket engine turbine. The cavity analyzed in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Alternate Turbopump currently being developed by NASA and Pratt and Whitney. Comparison of results obtained from the Navier-Stokes code for two rotating disk datasets available in the literature are presented as benchmark validations. The benchmark results obtained using the code show good agreement relative to experimental data, and the turbine disk cavity was analyzed with comparable grid resolution, dissipation levels, and turbulence models. Predicted temperatures in the cavity show that little mixing of hot and cold fluid occurs in the cavity and the flow is dominated by swirl and pumping up the rotating disk.

  4. Heat transfer in rocket engine combustion chambers and regeneratively cooled nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A conjugate heat transfer computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to describe regenerative cooling in the main combustion chamber and nozzle and in the injector faceplate region for a launch vehicle class liquid rocket engine was developed. An injector model for sprays which treats the fluid as a variable density, single-phase media was formulated, incorporated into a version of the FDNS code, and used to simulate the injector flow typical of that in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Various chamber related heat transfer analyses were made to verify the predictive capability of the conjugate heat transfer analysis provided by the FDNS code. The density based version of the FDNS code with the real fluid property models developed was successful in predicting the streamtube combustion of individual injector elements.

  5. Thermo-mechanical concepts applied to modeling liquid propellant rocket engine stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassoy, David R.; Norris, Adam

    2016-11-01

    The response of a gas to transient, spatially distributed energy addition can be quantified mathematically using thermo-mechanical concepts available in the literature. The modeling demonstrates that the ratio of the energy addition time scale to the acoustic time scale of the affected volume, and the quantity of energy added to that volume during the former determine the whether the responses to heating can be described as occurring at nearly constant volume, fully compressible or nearly constant pressure. Each of these categories is characterized by significantly different mechanical responses. Application to idealized configurations of liquid propellant rocket engines provides an opportunity to identify physical conditions compatible with gasdynamic disturbances that are sources of engine instability. Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  6. Aero-Thermo-Structural Analysis of Inlet for Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Challa, Preeti; Sree, Dave; Reddy, Dhanireddy R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA has been developing advanced space transportation concepts and technologies to make access to space less costly. One such concept is the reusable vehicles with short turn-around times. The NASA Glenn Research Center's concept vehicle is the Trailblazer powered by a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine. Inlet is one of the most important components of the RBCC engine. This paper presents fluid flow, thermal, and structural analysis of the inlet for Mach 6 free stream velocity for fully supersonic and supercritical with backpressure conditions. The results concluded that the fully supersonic condition was the most severe case and the largest stresses occur in the ceramic matrix composite layer of the inlet cowl. The maximum tensile and the compressive stresses were at least 3.8 and 3.4, respectively, times less than the associated material strength.

  7. Comparison of FDNS liquid rocket engine plume computations with SPF/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, G. N.; Griffith, D. O., II; Warsi, S. A.; Seaford, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of a plume's shape and structure is essential to the evaluation of base region environments. The JANNAF standard plume flowfield analysis code SPF/2 predicts plumes well, but cannot analyze base regions. Full Navier-Stokes CFD codes can calculate both zones; however, before they can be used, they must be validated. The CFD code FDNS3D (Finite Difference Navier-Stokes Solver) was used to analyze the single plume of a Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) and comparisons were made with SPF/2 computations. Both frozen and finite rate chemistry models were employed as well as two turbulence models in SPF/2. The results indicate that FDNS3D plume computations agree well with SPF/2 predictions for liquid rocket engine plumes.

  8. Bleed cycle propellant pumping in a gas-core nuclear rocket engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.; Easley, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The performance of ideal and real staged primary propellant pumps and bleed-powered turbines was calculated for gas-core nuclear rocket engines over a range of operating pressures from 500 to 5000 atm. This study showed that for a required engine operating pressure of 1000 atm the pump work was about 0.8 hp/(lb/sec), the specific impulse penalty resulting from the turbine propellant bleed flow as about 10 percent; and the heat required to preheat the propellant was about 7.8 MN/(lb/sec). For a specific impulse above 2400 sec, there is an excess of energy available in the moderator due to the gamma and neutron heating that occurs there. Possible alternative pumping cycles are the Rankine or Brayton cycles.

  9. Towards Rocket Engine Components with Increased Strength and Robust Operating Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Hadid, Ali; Lin, Pei; Balcazar, Daniel; Rai, Man Mohan; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    High-energy rotating machines, powering liquid propellant rocket engines, are subject to various sources of high and low cycle fatigue generated by unsteady flow phenomena. Given the tremendous need for reliability in a sustainable space exploration program, a fundamental change in the design methodology for engine components is required for both launch and space based systems. A design optimization system based on neural-networks has been applied and demonstrated in the redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo Pump (LPOTP) turbine nozzle. One objective of the redesign effort was to increase airfoil thickness and thus increase its strength while at the same time detuning the vane natural frequency modes from the vortex shedding frequency. The second objective was to reduce the vortex shedding amplitude. The third objective was to maintain this low shedding amplitude even in the presence of large manufacturing tolerances. All of these objectives were achieved without generating any detrimental effects on the downstream flow through the turbine, and without introducing any penalty in performance. The airfoil redesign and preliminary assessment was performed in the Exploration Technology Directorate at NASA ARC. Boeing/Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC independently performed final CFD assessments of the design. Four different CFD codes were used in this process. They include WIL DCA T/CORSAIR (NASA), FLUENT (commercial), TIDAL (Boeing Rocketdyne) and, a new family (AardvarWPhantom) of CFD analysis codes developed at NASA MSFC employing LOX fluid properties and a Generalized Equation Set formulation. Extensive aerodynamic performance analysis and stress analysis carried out at Boeing Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC indicate that the redesign objectives have been fully met. The paper presents the results of the assessment analysis and discusses the future potential of robust optimal design for rocket engine components.

  10. Experimental Altitude Performance of JP-4 Fuel and Liquid-Oxygen Rocket Engine with an Area Ratio of 48

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, Anthony; Hendrix, Charles D.; Huff, Vearl N.

    1959-01-01

    The performance for four altitudes (sea-level, 51,000, 65,000, and 70,000 ft) of a rocket engine having a nozzle area ratio of 48.39 and using JP-4 fuel and liquid oxygen as a propellant was evaluated experimentally by use of a 1000-pound-thrust engine operating at a chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute. The altitude environment was obtained by a rocket-ejector system which utilized the rocket exhaust gases as the pumping fluid of the ejector. Also, an engine having a nozzle area ratio of 5.49 designed for sea level was tested at sea-level conditions. The following table lists values from faired experimental curves at an oxidant-fuel ratio of 2.3 for various approximate altitudes.

  11. Breakdown voltage determination of gaseous and near cryogenic fluids with application to rocket engine ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, Nicholas Jeremy

    Liquid rocket engines extensively use spark-initiated torch igniters for ignition. As the focus shifts to longer missions that require multiple starts of the main engines, there exists a need to solve the significant problems associated with using spark-initiated devices. Improving the fundamental understanding of predicting the required breakdown voltage in rocket environments along with reducing electrical noise is necessary to ensure that missions can be completed successfully. To better understand spark ignition systems and add to the fundamental research on spark development in rocket applications, several parameter categories of interest were hypothesized to affect breakdown voltage: (i) fluid, (ii) electrode, and (iii) electrical. The fluid properties varied were pressure, temperature, density and mass flow rate. Electrode materials, insert electrode angle and spark gap distance were the electrode properties varied. Polarity was the electrical property investigated. Testing how breakdown voltage is affected by each parameter was conducted using three different isolated insert electrodes fabricated from copper and nickel. A spark plug commonly used in torch igniters was the other electrode. A continuous output power source connected to a large impedance source and capacitance provided the pulsing potential. Temperature, pressure and high voltage measurements were recorded for the 418 tests that were successfully completed. Nitrogen, being inert and similar to oxygen, a propellant widely used in torch igniters, was used as the fluid for the majority of testing. There were 68 tests completed with oxygen and 45 with helium. A regression of the nitrogen data produced a correction coefficient to Paschen's Law that predicts the breakdown voltage to within 3000 volts, better than 20%, compared to an over prediction on the order of 100,000 volts using Paschen's Law. The correction coefficient is based on the parameters most influencing breakdown voltage: fluid

  12. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  13. Digital Image Correlation Techniques Applied to Large Scale Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Rocket engine hot-fire ground testing is necessary to understand component performance, reliability and engine system interactions during development. The J-2X upper stage engine completed a series of developmental hot-fire tests that derived performance of the engine and components, validated analytical models and provided the necessary data to identify where design changes, process improvements and technology development were needed. The J-2X development engines were heavily instrumented to provide the data necessary to support these activities which enabled the team to investigate any anomalies experienced during the test program. This paper describes the development of an optical digital image correlation technique to augment the data provided by traditional strain gauges which are prone to debonding at elevated temperatures and limited to localized measurements. The feasibility of this optical measurement system was demonstrated during full scale hot-fire testing of J-2X, during which a digital image correlation system, incorporating a pair of high speed cameras to measure three-dimensional, real-time displacements and strains was installed and operated under the extreme environments present on the test stand. The camera and facility setup, pre-test calibrations, data collection, hot-fire test data collection and post-test analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  14. Analysis and Evaluation of German Attainments and Research in the Liquid Rocket Engine Field. Volume 7. Thrust Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-01-01

    by lowered cost, complexity, and flxed weight of the engine . An evaluation of the effect of throttling on specific impulse, as well as the way in... combustion chamber development. The throttling arrangement and the method of pump control are both closely with the design of the entire engine . As...the use of the rocket engine . For a complete coverage of these subjects, it is recommended that all volumes of this series be consulted

  15. Experimental Results on the Feasibility of an Aerospike for Hypersonic Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Mitchell, Anthony M.; Boudreaux, Ellis J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests have been performed on an aerospike-protected missile dome at a Mach number of 6 to obtain quantitative surface pressure and temperature-rise data, as well as qualitative flow visualization data. These data were used to determine aerospike concept feasibility and will also provide a database to be used for calibration of computational fluid dynamics codes. Data were obtained on the hemispherical missile dome with and without an aerospike that protrudes ahead of the dome along the axisymmetric center line. Data were obtained on two models (one pressure, one temperature) in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel at a freestream Reynolds number of 8.0 x 10(exp 6) per feet and angles of attack from 0 to 40 degrees. Surface pressure and temperature-rise results indicate that the aerospike is effective for very low angles of attack (less than 5 degrees) at Mach 6. Above 5 degrees, impingement of the aerospike bow shock and the flow separation shock from the recirculation region created by the aerospike causes pressure and temperature increases on the windward side of the dome which exceed values observed in the same region with the aerospike removed. Flow characterization obtained via oil-flow and schlieren photographs provides some insight into the quantitative surface data results, including vortical flow and shock-wave impingement.

  16. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) during first in-flight cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph shows the LASRE pod on the upper rear fuselage of an SR-71 aircraft during take-off of the first flight to experience an in-flight cold flow test. The flight occurred on 4 March 1998. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume

  17. High Thermal Conductivity NARloy-Z-Diamond Composite Combustion Chamber Liner For Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Ellis, David; Singh, Jogender

    2014-01-01

    Advanced high thermal conductivity materials research conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with state of the art combustion chamber liner material NARloy-Z showed that its thermal conductivity can be increased significantly by adding diamond particles and sintering it at high temperatures. For instance, NARloy-Z containing 40 vol. percent diamond particles, sintered at 975C to full density by using the Field assisted Sintering Technology (FAST) showed 69 percent higher thermal conductivity than baseline NARloy-Z. Furthermore, NARloy-Z-40vol. percent D is 30 percent lighter than NARloy-Z and hence the density normalized thermal conductivity is 140 percent better. These attributes will improve the performance and life of the advanced rocket engines significantly. By one estimate, increased thermal conductivity will directly translate into increased turbopump power up to 2X and increased chamber pressure for improved thrust and ISP, resulting in an expected 20 percent improvement in engine performance. Follow on research is now being conducted to demonstrate the benefits of this high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite for combustion chamber liner applications in advanced rocket engines. The work consists of a) Optimizing the chemistry and heat treatment for NARloy-Z-D composite, b) Developing design properties (thermal and mechanical) for the optimized NARloy-Z-D, c) Fabrication of net shape subscale combustion chamber liner, and d) Hot fire testing of the liner for performance. FAST is used for consolidating and sintering NARlo-Z-D. The subscale cylindrical liner with built in channels for coolant flow is also fabricated near net shape using the FAST process. The liner will be assembled into a test rig and hot fire tested in the MSFC test facility to determine performance. This paper describes the development of this novel high thermal conductivity NARloy-Z-D composite material, and the advanced net shape technology to fabricate the combustion

  18. Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program: Advanced engine study, task D.1/D.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, A.; Erickson, C.; Hines, B.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts for space maintainability of OTV engines were examined. An engine design was developed which was driven by space maintenance requirements and by a failure mode and effects (FME) analysis. Modularity within the engine was shown to offer cost benefits and improved space maintenance capabilities. Space operable disconnects were conceptualized for both engine change-out and for module replacement. Through FME mitigation the modules were conceptualized to contain the least reliable and most often replaced engine components. A preliminary space maintenance plan was developed around a controls and condition monitoring system using advanced sensors, controls, and condition monitoring concepts. A complete engine layout was prepared satisfying current vehicle requirements and utilizing projected component advanced technologies. A technology plan for developing the required technology was assembled.

  19. Towards Flange-to-Flange Turbopump Simulations for Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Williams, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to support the design of liquid rocket systems for the Advanced Space Transportation System. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to rely on liquid rocket engines, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the engine components is an important task. One of the major problems in the liquid rocket engine is to understand fluid dynamics of fuel and oxidizer flows from the fuel tank to plume. Understanding the flow through the entire turbopump geometry through numerical simulation will be of significant value toward design. This will help to improve safety of future space missions. One of the milestones of this effort is to develop, apply and demonstrate the capability and accuracy of 3D CFD methods as efficient design analysis tools on high performance computer platforms. The development of the MPI and MLP versions of the INS3D code is currently underway. The serial version of INS3D code is a multidimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes solver based on overset grid technology. INS3D-MPI is based on the explicit massage-passing interface across processors and is primarily suited for distributed memory systems. INS3D-MLP is based on multi-level parallel method and is suitable for distributed-shared memory systems. For the entire turbopump simulations, moving boundary capability and an efficient time-accurate integration methods are build in the flow solver. To handle the geometric complexity and moving boundary problems, overset grid scheme is incorporated with the solver that new connectivity data will be obtained at each time step. The Chimera overlapped grid scheme allows subdomains move relative to each other, and provides a great flexibility when the boundary movement creates large displacements. The performance of the two time integration schemes for time-accurate computations is investigated. For an unsteady flow which requires small physical time step, the pressure projection method was found

  20. An experimental investigation of reacting and nonreacting coaxial jet mixing in a laboratory rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumaker, Stephen Alexander

    Coaxial jets are commonly used as injectors in propulsion and combustion devices due to both the simplicity of their geometry and the rapid mixing they provide. In liquid rocket engines it is common to use coaxial jets in the context of airblast atomization. However, interest exists in developing rocket engines using a full flow staged combustion cycle. In such a configuration both propellants are injected in the gaseous phase. In addition, gaseous coaxial jets have been identified as an ideal test case for the validation of the next generation of injector modeling tools. For these reasons an understanding of the fundamental phenomena which govern mixing in gaseous coaxial jets and the effect of combustion on these phenomena in coaxial jet diffusion flames is needed. A study was performed to better understand the scaling of the stoichiometric mixing length in reacting and nonreacting coaxial jets with velocity ratios greater than one and density ratios less than one. A facility was developed that incorporates a single shear coaxial injector in a laboratory rocket engine capable of ten atmospheres. Optical access allows the use of flame luminosity and laser diagnostic techniques such as Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). Stoichiometric mixing lengths (LS), which are defined as the distance along the centerline where the stoichiometric condition occurs, were measured using PLIF. Acetone was seeded into the center jet to provide direct PLIF measurement of the average and instantaneous mixture fraction fields for a range of momentum flux ratios for the nonreacting cases. For the coaxial jet diffusion flames, LS was measured from OH radical contours. For nonreacting cases the use of a nondimensional momentum flux ratio was found to collapse the mixing length data. The flame lengths of coaxial jet diffusion flames were also found to scale with the momentum flux ratio but different scaling constants are required which depended on the chemistry of the reaction. The

  1. Primary atomization of liquid jets issuing from rocket engine coaxial injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Roger D.

    1993-01-01

    The investigation of liquid jet breakup and spray development is critical to the understanding of combustion phenomena in liquid-propellant rocket engines. Much work has been done to characterize low-speed liquid jet breakup and dilute sprays, but atomizing jets and dense sprays have yielded few quantitative measurements due to their optical opacity. This work focuses on a characteristic of the primary breakup process of round liquid jets, namely the length of the intact liquid core. The specific application considered is that of shear-coaxial type rocket engine injectors. Real-time x-ray radiography, capable of imaging through the dense two-phase region surrounding the liquid core, has been used to make the measurements. Nitrogen and helium were employed as the fuel simulants while an x-ray absorbing potassium iodide aqueous solution was used as the liquid oxygen (LOX) simulant. The intact-liquid-core length data have been obtained and interpreted to illustrate the effects of chamber pressure (gas density), injected-gas and liquid velocities, and cavitation. The results clearly show that the effect of cavitation must be considered at low chamber pressures since it can be the dominant breakup mechanism. A correlation of intact core length in terms of gas-to-liquid density ratio, liquid jet Reynolds number, and Weber number is suggested. The gas-to-liquid density ratio appears to be the key parameter for aerodynamic shear breakup in this study. A small number of hot-fire, LOX/hydrogen tests were also conducted to attempt intact-LOX-core measurements under realistic conditions in a single-coaxial-element rocket engine. The tests were not successful in terms of measuring the intact core, but instantaneous imaging of LOX jets suggests that LOX jet breakup is qualitatively similar to that of cold-flow, propellant-simulant jets. The liquid oxygen jets survived in the hot-fire environment much longer than expected, and LOX was even visualized exiting the chamber nozzle

  2. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine Technology Development: Inlet CFD Validation and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, J. R.; Yungster, S.

    1996-01-01

    A CFD methodology has been developed for inlet analyses of Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engines. A full Navier-Stokes analysis code, NPARC, was used in conjunction with pre- and post-processing tools to obtain a complete description of the flow field and integrated inlet performance. This methodology was developed and validated using results from a subscale test of the inlet to a RBCC 'Strut-Jet' engine performed in the NASA Lewis 1 x 1 ft. supersonic wind tunnel. Results obtained from this study include analyses at flight Mach numbers of 5 and 6 for super-critical operating conditions. These results showed excellent agreement with experimental data. The analysis tools were also used to obtain pre-test performance and operability predictions for the RBCC demonstrator engine planned for testing in the NASA Lewis Hypersonic Test Facility. This analysis calculated the baseline fuel-off internal force of the engine which is needed to determine the net thrust with fuel on.

  3. Cooling Duct Analysis for Transpiration/Film Cooled Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micklow, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a low cost space transportation system requires that the propulsion system be reusable, have long life, with good performance and use low cost propellants. Improved performance can be achieved by operating the engine at higher pressure and temperature levels than previous designs. Increasing the chamber pressure and temperature, however, will increase wall heating rates. This necessitates the need for active cooling methods such as film cooling or transpiration cooling. But active cooling can reduce the net thrust of the engine and add considerably to the design complexity. Recently, a metal drawing process has been patented where it is possible to fabricate plates with very small holes with high uniformity with a closely specified porosity. Such a metal plate could be used for an inexpensive transpiration/film cooled liner to meet the demands of advanced reusable rocket engines, if coolant mass flow rates could be controlled to satisfy wall cooling requirements and performance. The present study investigates the possibility of controlling the coolant mass flow rate through the porous material by simple non-active fluid dynamic means. The coolant will be supplied to the porous material by series of constant geometry slots machined on the exterior of the engine.

  4. Thermal analysis of regenerative-cooled pylon in multi-mode rocket based combined cycle engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dekun; He, Guoqiang; Li, Wenqiang; Zhang, Duo; Qin, Fei

    2018-07-01

    Combining pylon injector with rocket is an effective method to achieve efficient mixing and combustion in the RBCC engine. This study designs a fuel pylon with active cooling structure, and numerically investigates the coupled heat transfer between active cooling process in the pylon and combustion in the combustor in different modes. Effect of the chemical reaction of the fuel on the flow, heat transfer and physical characteristics is also discussed. The numerical results present a good agreement with the experimental data. Results indicate that drastic supplementary combustion caused by rocket gas and secondary combustion caused by the fuel injection from the pylon result in severe thermal load on the pylon. Although regenerative cooling without cracking can reduce pylon's temperature below the allowable limit, a high-temperature area appears in the middle and nail section of the pylon due to the coolant's insufficient convective heat transfer coefficient. Comparatively, endothermic cracking can provide extra chemical heat sink for the coolant and low velocity contributes to prolong the reaction time to increase the heat absorption from chemical reaction, which further lowers and unifies the pylon surface temperature.

  5. Extensions to the time lag models for practical application to rocket engine stability design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casiano, Matthew J.

    The combustion instability problem in liquid-propellant rocket engines (LREs) has remained a tremendous challenge since their discovery in the 1930s. Improvements are usually made in solving the combustion instability problem primarily using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and also by testing demonstrator engines. Another approach is to use analytical models. Analytical models can be used such that design, redesign, or improvement of an engine system is feasible in a relatively short period of time. Improvements to the analytical models can greatly aid in design efforts. A thorough literature review is first conducted on liquid-propellant rocket engine (LRE) throttling. Throttling is usually studied in terms of vehicle descent or ballistic missile control however there are many other cases where throttling is important. It was found that combustion instabilities are one of a few major issues that occur during deep throttling (other major issues are heat transfer concerns, performance loss, and pump dynamics). In the past and again recently, gas injected into liquid propellants has shown to be a viable solution to throttle engines and to eliminate some forms of combustion instability. This review uncovered a clever solution that was used to eliminate a chug instability in the Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE), a modified RL10 engine. A separate review was also conducted on classic time lag combustion instability models. Several new stability models are developed by incorporating important features to the classic and contemporary models, which are commonly used in the aerospace rocket industry. The first two models are extensions of the original Crocco and Cheng concentrated combustion model with feed system contributions. A third new model is an extension to the Wenzel and Szuch double-time lag model also with feed system contributions. The first new model incorporates the appropriate injector acoustic boundary condition which is neglected in contemporary

  6. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program. Phase 2: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, C.; Martinez, A.; Hines, B.

    1987-01-01

    In Phase 2 of the Advanced Engine Study, the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) maintenance-driven engine design, preliminary maintenance plan, and concept for space operable disconnects generated in Phase 1 were further developed. Based on the results of the vehicle contractors Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) Concept Definition and System Analysis Phase A studies, minor revisions to the engine design were made. Additional refinements in the engine design were identified through further engine concept studies. These included an updated engine balance incorporating experimental heat transfer data from the Enhanced Heat Load Thrust Chamber Study and a Rao optimum nozzle contour. The preliminary maintenance plan of Phase 1 was further developed through additional studies. These included a compilation of critical component lives and life limiters and a review of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) operations and maintenance manual in order to begin outlining the overall maintenance procedures for the Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine and identifying technology requirements for streamlining space-based operations. Phase 2 efforts also provided further definition to the advanced fluid coupling devices including the selection and preliminary design of a preferred concept and a preliminary test plan for its further development.

  7. LOX/hydrocarbon rocket engine analytical design methodology development and validation. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niiya, Karen E.; Walker, Richard E.; Pieper, Jerry L.; Nguyen, Thong V.

    1993-01-01

    This final report includes a discussion of the work accomplished during the period from Dec. 1988 through Nov. 1991. The objective of the program was to assemble existing performance and combustion stability models into a usable design methodology capable of designing and analyzing high-performance and stable LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines. The methodology was then used to design a validation engine. The capabilities and validity of the methodology were demonstrated using this engine in an extensive hot fire test program. The engine used LOX/RP-1 propellants and was tested over a range of mixture ratios, chamber pressures, and acoustic damping device configurations. This volume contains time domain and frequency domain stability plots which indicate the pressure perturbation amplitudes and frequencies from approximately 30 tests of a 50K thrust rocket engine using LOX/RP-1 propellants over a range of chamber pressures from 240 to 1750 psia with mixture ratios of from 1.2 to 7.5. The data is from test configurations which used both bitune and monotune acoustic cavities and from tests with no acoustic cavities. The engine had a length of 14 inches and a contraction ratio of 2.0 using a 7.68 inch diameter injector. The data was taken from both stable and unstable tests. All combustion instabilities were spontaneous in the first tangential mode. Although stability bombs were used and generated overpressures of approximately 20 percent, no tests were driven unstable by the bombs. The stability instrumentation included six high-frequency Kistler transducers in the combustion chamber, a high-frequency Kistler transducer in each propellant manifold, and tri-axial accelerometers. Performance data is presented, both characteristic velocity efficiencies and energy release efficiencies, for those tests of sufficient duration to record steady state values.

  8. Analysis of Flame Deflector Spray Nozzles in Rocket Engine Test Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachdev, Jai S.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Allgood, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a unified tightly coupled multi-phase computational framework is described for the analysis and design of cooling spray nozzle configurations on the flame deflector in rocket engine test stands. An Eulerian formulation is used to model the disperse phase and is coupled to the gas-phase equations through momentum and heat transfer as well as phase change. The phase change formulation is modeled according to a modified form of the Hertz-Knudsen equation. Various simple test cases are presented to verify the validity of the numerical framework. The ability of the methodology to accurately predict the temperature load on the flame deflector is demonstrated though application to an actual sub-scale test facility. The CFD simulation was able to reproduce the result of the test-firing, showing that the spray nozzle configuration provided insufficient amount of cooling.

  9. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology program: Soft wear ring seal technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lariviere, Brian W.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX) compatibility tests, including autogenous ignition, promoted ignition, LOX impact tests, and friction and wear tests on different PV products were conducted for several polymer materials as verification for the implementation of soft wear ring seals in advanced rocket engine turbopumps. Thermoplastics, polyimide based materials, and polyimide-imide base materials were compared for oxygen compatibility, specific wear coefficient, wear debris production, and heat dissipation mechanisms. A thermal model was generated that simulated the frictional heating input and calculated the surface temperature and temperature distribution within the seal. The predictions were compared against measured values. Heat loads in the model were varied to better match the test data and determine the difference between the measured and the calculated coefficients of friction.

  10. Status on Technology Development of Optic Fiber-Coupled Laser Ignition System for Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Early, Jim; Osborne, Robin; Thomas, Matthew; Bossard, John

    2003-01-01

    To pursue technology developments for future launch vehicles, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is examining vortex chamber concepts for liquid rocket engine applications. Past studies indicated that the vortex chamber schemes potentially have a number of advantages over conventional chamber methods. Due to the nature of the vortex flow, relatively cooler propellant streams tend to flow along the chamber wall. Hence, the thruster chamber can be operated without the need of any cooling techniques. This vortex flow also creates strong turbulence, which promotes the propellant mixing process. Consequently, the subject chamber concept: not only offer system simplicity, but also enhance the combustion performance. Test results have shown that chamber performance is markedly high even at a low chamber length-to-diameter ratio. This incentive can be translated to a convenience in the thrust chamber packaging.

  11. Experimental evaluation of the ignition process of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition boundaries were determined in a spark torch igniter as a function of propellant inlet temperatures. The oxygen temperature was varied from ambient to -258 F, and the carbon monoxide temperature was varied from ambient to -241 F. With the oxygen and carbon monoxide at -253 F and -219 F, respectively, they successfully ignited between mixture ratios of 2.42 and 3.10. Analysis of the results indicated that the lower ignition boundary was more sensitive to oxygen temperature than to carbon monoxide temperature. Another series of tests was performed in a small simulated rocket engine with oxygen at -197 F and carbon monoxide at -193 F. An oxygen/hydrogen flame was used to initiate combustion of the oxygen and carbon monoxide. Tests performed at the optimum operating mixture ratio of 0.55 obtained steady-state combustion in every test.

  12. Characterization of typical platelet injector flow configurations. [liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickox, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study to investigate the hydraulic atomization characteristics of several novel injector designs for use in liquid propellant rocket engines is presented. The injectors were manufactured from a series of thin stainless steel platelets through which orifices were very accurately formed by a photoetching process. These individual platelets were stacked together and the orifices aligned so as to produce flow passages of prescribed geometry. After alignment, the platelets were bonded into a single, 'platelet injector', unit by a diffusion bonding process. Because of the complex nature of the flow associated with platelet injectors, it was necessary to use experimental techniques, exclusively, throughout the study. Large scale models of the injectors were constructed from aluminum plates and the appropriate fluids were modeled using a glycerol-water solution. Stop-action photographs of test configurations, using spark-shadowgraph or stroboscopic back-lighting, are shown.

  13. Materials and processes for shuttle engine, external tank, and solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Shuttle flight system is composed of the Orbiter, an External Tank (ET) that contains the ascent propellant to be used by the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB). The ET is expended on each launch; the Orbiter and SRB's are reusable. It is the requirement for reuse which poses the exciting new materials and processes challenges in the development of the Space Shuttle. A brief description of the Space Shuttle and the mission profile is given. The Shuttle configuration is then described with emphasis on the SSME, ET, and SRB. The materials selection, tracking, and control system used to assure reliability and to minimize cost are described, and salient features and challenges in materials and processes associated with the SSME, ET, and SRB are subsequently discussed.

  14. Fuel/oxidizer-rich high-pressure preburners. [staged-combustion rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.

    1981-01-01

    The analyses, designs, fabrication, and cold-flow acceptance testing of LOX/RP-1 preburner components required for a high-pressure staged-combustion rocket engine are discussed. Separate designs of injectors, combustion chambers, turbine simulators, and hot-gas mixing devices are provided for fuel-rich and oxidizer-rich operation. The fuel-rich design addresses the problem of non-equilibrium LOX/RP-1 combustion. The development and use of a pseudo-kinetic combustion model for predicting operating efficiency, physical properties of the combustion products, and the potential for generating solid carbon is presented. The oxygen-rich design addresses the design criteria for the prevention of metal ignition. This is accomplished by the selection of materials and the generation of well-mixed gases. The combining of unique propellant injector element designs with secondary mixing devices is predicted to be the best approach.

  15. Very Low Thrust Gaseous Oxygen-hydrogen Rocket Engine Ignition Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, Roy A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental program was performed to determine the minimum energy per spark for reliable and repeatable ignition of gaseous oxygen (GO2) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) in very low thrust 0.44 to 2.22-N (0.10 to 0.50-lb sub f) rocket engines or spacecraft and satellite attitude control systems (ACS) application. Initially, the testing was conducted at ambient conditions, with the results subsequently verified under vacuum conditions. An experimental breadboard electrical exciter that delivered 0.2 to 0.3 mj per spark was developed and demonstrated by repeated ignitions of a 2.22-N (0.50-lb sub f) thruster in a vacuum chamber with test durations up to 30 min.

  16. An experimental investigation of liquid methane convection and boiling in rocket engine cooling channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Abraham Gerardo

    In the past decades, interest in developing hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engines for deep spaceflight missions has continued to grow. In particular, liquid methane (LCH4) has been of interest due to the weight efficiency, storage, and handling advantages it offers over several currently used propellants. Deep space exploration requires reusable, long life rocket engines. Due to the high temperatures reached during combustion, the life of an engine is significantly impacted by the cooling system's efficiency. Regenerative (regen) cooling is presented as a viable alternative to common cooling methods such as film and dump cooling since it provides improved engine efficiency. Due to limited availability of experimental sub-critical liquid methane cooling data for regen engine design, there has been an interest in studying the heat transfer characteristics of the propellant. For this reason, recent experimental studies at the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) have focused on investigating the heat transfer characteristics of sub-critical CH4 flowing through sub-scale cooling channels. To conduct the experiments, the csETR developed a High Heat Flux Test Facility (HHFTF) where all the channels are heated using a conduction-based thermal concentrator. In this study, two smooth channels with cross sectional geometries of 1.8 mm x 4.1 mm and 3.2 mm x 3.2 mm were tested. In addition, three roughened channels all with a 3.2 mm x 3.2 mm square cross section were also tested. For the rectangular smooth channel, Reynolds numbers ranged between 68,000 and 131,000, while the Nusselt numbers were between 40 and 325. For the rough channels, Reynolds numbers ranged from 82,000 to 131,000, and Nusselt numbers were between 65 and 810. Sub-cooled film-boiling phenomena were confirmed for all the channels presented in this work. Film-boiling onset at Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was correlated to a Boiling Number (Bo) of

  17. Graduate students Chris Hill and Ryan Anderson examine a cross section of the prototype rocket engine igniter.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-08

    Majid Babai along with Dr. Judy Schneider, and graduate students Chris Hill and Ryan Anderson examine a cross section of the prototype rocket engine igniter created by an innovative bi-metallic 3-D printing advanced manufacturing process under a microscope.

  18. SRB-3D Solid Rocket Booster performance prediction program. Volume 1: Engineering description/users information manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The modified Solid Rocket Booster Performance Evaluation Model (SRB-3D) was developed as an extension to the internal ballistics module of the SRB-2 performance program. This manual contains the engineering description of SRB-3D which describes the approach used to develop the 3D concept and an explanation of the modifications which were necessary to implement these concepts.

  19. Fuzzy/Neural Software Estimates Costs of Rocket-Engine Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Freddie; Bourgeois, Edit Kaminsky

    2005-01-01

    The Highly Accurate Cost Estimating Model (HACEM) is a software system for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center. HACEM is built on a foundation of adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) a hybrid software concept that combines the adaptive capabilities of neural networks with the ease of development and additional benefits of fuzzy-logic-based systems. In ANFIS, fuzzy inference systems are trained by use of neural networks. HACEM includes selectable subsystems that utilize various numbers and types of inputs, various numbers of fuzzy membership functions, and various input-preprocessing techniques. The inputs to HACEM are parameters of specific tests or series of tests. These parameters include test type (component or engine test), number and duration of tests, and thrust level(s) (in the case of engine tests). The ANFIS in HACEM are trained by use of sets of these parameters, along with costs of past tests. Thereafter, the user feeds HACEM a simple input text file that contains the parameters of a planned test or series of tests, the user selects the desired HACEM subsystem, and the subsystem processes the parameters into an estimate of cost(s).

  20. Plume flowfield analysis of the shuttle primary Reaction Control System (RCS) rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueser, J. E.; Brock, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    A solution was generated for the physical properties of the Shuttle RCS 4000 N (900 lb) rocket engine exhaust plume flowfield. The modeled exhaust gas consists of the five most abundant molecular species, H2, N2, H2O, CO, and CO2. The solution is for a bare RCS engine firing into a vacuum; the only additional hardware surface in the flowfield is a cylinder (=engine mount) which coincides with the nozzle lip outer corner at X = 0, extends to the flowfield outer boundary at X = -137 m and is coaxial with the negative symmetry axis. Continuum gas dynamic methods and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method were combined in an iterative procedure to produce a selfconsistent solution. Continuum methods were used in the RCS nozzle and in the plume as far as the P = 0.03 breakdown contour; the DSMC method was used downstream of this continuum flow boundary. The DSMC flowfield extends beyond 100 m from the nozzle exit and thus the solution includes the farfield flow properties, but substantial information is developed on lip flow dynamics and thus results are also presented for the flow properties in the vicinity of the nozzle lip.

  1. Integrated control and health management. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzmann, Wilfried A.; Hayden, Warren R.

    1988-01-01

    To insure controllability of the baseline design for a 7500 pound thrust, 10:1 throttleable, dual expanded cycle, Hydrogen-Oxygen, orbit transfer rocket engine, an Integrated Controls and Health Monitoring concept was developed. This included: (1) Dynamic engine simulations using a TUTSIM derived computer code; (2) analysis of various control methods; (3) Failure Modes Analysis to identify critical sensors; (4) Survey of applicable sensors technology; and, (5) Study of Health Monitoring philosophies. The engine design was found to be controllable over the full throttling range by using 13 valves, including an oxygen turbine bypass valve to control mixture ratio, and a hydrogen turbine bypass valve, used in conjunction with the oxygen bypass to control thrust. Classic feedback control methods are proposed along with specific requirements for valves, sensors, and the controller. Expanding on the control system, a Health Monitoring system is proposed including suggested computing methods and the following recommended sensors: (1) Fiber optic and silicon bearing deflectometers; (2) Capacitive shaft displacement sensors; and (3) Hot spot thermocouple arrays. Further work is needed to refine and verify the dynamic simulations and control algorithms, to advance sensor capabilities, and to develop the Health Monitoring computational methods.

  2. Orbital Transfer Rocket Engine Technology. Advanced Engine Study, Task D.6 Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    PROPERTIES _- -,mr m" , MANUAL a PAQ *E,- 7.3.2.1.2. IA .A.2 ,C -- 70-t’ i Rl I _ N -’.±v-j-. .......-441I 0.2% YS Design Allowable • -’Moo 0 2W0" 6W...Storage External Radiation Environment ( Buried Engine) The engine thrust chamber would be cold to the touch even at full thrust operation from the

  3. Coil-On-Plug Ignition for LOX/Methane Liquid Rocket Engines in Thermal Vacuum Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Morehead, Robert L.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Bugarin, Luz; Chaidez, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    A coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed and tested for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane rocket engines operating in thermal vacuum conditions. The igniters were developed and tested as part of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), previously tested as part of the Project Morpheus test vehicle. The ICPTA uses an integrated, pressure-fed, cryogenic LOX/methane propulsion system including a reaction control system (RCS) and a main engine. The ICPTA was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under vacuum and thermal vacuum conditions. In order to successfully demonstrate ignition reliability in the vacuum conditions and eliminate corona discharge issues, a coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed. The ICPTA uses spark-plug ignition for both the main engine igniter and the RCS. The coil-on-plug configuration eliminates the conventional high-voltage spark plug cable by combining the coil and the spark-plug into a single component. Prior to ICPTA testing at Plum Brook, component-level reaction control engine (RCE) and main engine igniter testing was conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), which demonstrated successful hot-fire ignition using the coil-on-plug from sea-level ambient conditions down to 10(exp.-2) torr. Integrated vehicle hot-fire testing at JSC demonstrated electrical and command/data system performance. Lastly, Plum Brook testing demonstrated successful ignitions at simulated altitude conditions at 30 torr and cold thermal-vacuum conditions at 6 torr. The test campaign successfully proved that coil-on-plug technology will enable integrated LOX/methane propulsion systems in future spacecraft.

  4. Heat transfer to throat tubes in a square-chambered rocket engine at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Brindley, William J.

    1989-01-01

    A gaseous H2/O2 rocket engine was constructed at the NASA-Lewis to provide a high heat flux source representative of the heat flux to the blades in the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) during startup of the space shuttle main engines. The high heat flux source was required to evaluate the durability of thermal barrier coatings being investigated for use on these blades. The heat transfer, and specifically, the heat flux to tubes located at the throat of the test rocket engine was evaluated and compared to the heat flux to the blades in the HPFTP during engine startup. Gas temperatures, pressures and heat transfer coefficients in the test rocket engine were measured. Near surface metal temperatures below thin thermal barrier coatings were also measured at various angular orientations around the throat tube to indicate the angular dependence of the heat transfer coefficients. A finite difference model for a throat tube was developed and a thermal analysis was performed using the measured gas temperatures and the derived heat transfer coefficients to predict metal temperatures in the tube. Near surface metal temperatures of an uncoated throat tube were measured at the stagnation point and showed good agreement with temperatures predicted by the thermal model. The maximum heat flux to the throat tube was calculated and compared to that predicted for the leading edge of an HPFTP blade. It is shown that the heat flux to an uncooled throat tube is slightly greater than the heat flux to an HPFTP blade during engine startup.

  5. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing - Historical Lecture: Simulated Altitude Testing at AEDC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    The span of history covered is from 1958 to the present. The outline of this lecture draws from historical examples of liquid propulsion testing done at AEDC primarily for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) in the Saturn/Apollo Program and for USAF Space and Missile Systems dual-use customers. NASA has made dual use of Air Force launch vehicles, Test Ranges and Tracking Systems, and liquid rocket altitude test chambers / facilities. Examples are drawn from the Apollo/ Saturn vehicles and the testing of their liquid propulsion systems. Other examples are given to extend to the family of the current ELVs and Evolved ELVs (EELVs), in this case, primarily to their Upper Stages. The outline begins with tests of the XLR 99 Engine for the X-15 aircraft, tests for vehicle / engine induced environments during flight in the atmosphere and in Space, and vehicle staging at high altitude. The discussion is from the author's perspective and background in developmental testing.

  6. Analysis of Flowfields over Four-Engine DC-X Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Cornelison, Joni

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to validate a computational methodology for the aerodynamic performance of an advanced conical launch vehicle configuration. The computational methodology is based on a three-dimensional, viscous flow, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation. Both wind-tunnel and ascent flight-test data are used for validation. Emphasis is placed on multiple-engine power-on effects. Computational characterization of the base drag in the critical subsonic regime is the focus of the validation effort; until recently, almost no multiple-engine data existed for a conical launch vehicle configuration. Parametric studies using high-order difference schemes are performed for the cold-flow tests, whereas grid studies are conducted for the flight tests. The computed vehicle axial force coefficients, forebody, aftbody, and base surface pressures compare favorably with those of tests. The results demonstrate that with adequate grid density and proper distribution, a high-order difference scheme, finite rate afterburning kinetics to model the plume chemistry, and a suitable turbulence model to describe separated flows, plume/air mixing, and boundary layers, computational fluid dynamics is a tool that can be used to predict the low-speed aerodynamic performance for rocket design and operations.

  7. Oxidation Behavior of Copper Alloy Candidates for Rocket Engine Applications (Technical Poster)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogbuji, Linus U. J.; Humphrey, Donald H.; Barrett, Charles A.; Greenbauer-Seng, Leslie (Technical Monitor); Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A rocket engine's combustion chamber is lined with material that is highly conductive to heat in order to dissipate the huge thermal load (evident in a white-hot exhaust plume). Because of its thermal conductivity copper is the best choice of liner material. However, the mechanical properties of pure copper are inadequate to withstand the high stresses, hence, copper alloys are needed in this application. But copper and its alloys are prone to oxidation and related damage, especially "blanching" (an oxidation-reduction mode of degradation). The space shuttle main engine combustion chamber is lined with a Cu-Ag-Zr alloy, "NARloy-Z", which exhibits blanching. A superior liner is being sought for the next generation of RLVs (Reusable Launch Vehicles) It should have improved mechanical properties and higher resistance to oxidation and blanching, but without substantial penalty in thermal conductivity. GRCop84, a Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy (Cr2Nb in Cu matrix), developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and Case Western Reserve University, is a prime contender for RLV liner material. In this study, the oxidation resistance of GRCop-84 and other related/candidate copper alloys are investigated and compared

  8. Integrated System Health Management: Pilot Operational Implementation in a Rocket Engine Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jonathan A.; Turowski, Mark P.; Franzl, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a credible implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability, as a pilot operational system. Important core elements that make possible fielding and evolution of ISHM capability have been validated in a rocket engine test stand, encompassing all phases of operation: stand-by, pre-test, test, and post-test. The core elements include an architecture (hardware/software) for ISHM, gateways for streaming real-time data from the data acquisition system into the ISHM system, automated configuration management employing transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS?s) adhering to the IEEE 1451.4 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, broadcasting and capture of sensor measurements and health information adhering to the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, user interfaces for management of redlines/bluelines, and establishment of a health assessment database system (HADS) and browser for extensive post-test analysis. The ISHM system was installed in the Test Control Room, where test operators were exposed to the capability. All functionalities of the pilot implementation were validated during testing and in post-test data streaming through the ISHM system. The implementation enabled significant improvements in awareness about the status of the test stand, and events and their causes/consequences. The architecture and software elements embody a systems engineering, knowledge-based approach; in conjunction with object-oriented environments. These qualities are permitting systematic augmentation of the capability and scaling to encompass other subsystems.

  9. Raman Gas Species Measurements in Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Injector Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph; Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Trinh, Huu P.; Dobson, Chris C.; Eskridge, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Rocket engine propellent injector development at NASA-Marshall includes experimental analysis using optical techniques, such as Raman, fluorescence, or Mie scattering. For the application of spontaneous Raman scattering to hydrocarbon-fueled flows a technique needs to be developed to remove the interfering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluorescence from the relatively weak Raman signals. A current application of such a technique is to the analysis of the mixing and combustion performance of multijet, impinging-jet candidate fuel injectors for the baseline Mars ascent engine, which will burn methane and liquid oxygen produced in-situ on Mars to reduce the propellent mass transported to Mars for future manned Mars missions. The Raman technique takes advantage of the strongly polarized nature of Raman scattering. It is shown to be discernable from unpolarized fluorescence interference by subtracting one polarized image from another. Both of these polarized images are obtained from a single laser pulse by using a polarization-separating calcite rhomb mounted in the imaging spectrograph. A demonstration in a propane-air flame is presented, as well as a high pressure demonstration in the NASA-Marshall Modular Combustion Test Artice, using the liquid methane-liquid oxygen propellant system

  10. Parallelization of Rocket Engine Simulator Software (P.R.E.S.S.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cezzar, Ruknet

    1999-01-01

    Parallelization of Rocket Engine System Software (PRESS) project is part of a collaborative effort with Southern University at Baton Rouge (SUBR), University of West Florida (UWF), and Jackson State University (JSU). The project has started on October 19, 1995, and after a three-year period corresponding to project phases and fiscal-year funding by NASA Lewis Research Center (now Glenn Research Center), has ended on October 18, 1998. The one-year no-cost extension period was granted on June 7, 1998, until October 19, 1999. The aim of this one year no-cost extension period was to carry out further research to complete the work and lay the groundwork for subsequent research in the area of aerospace engine design optimization software tools. The previous progress for the research has been reported in great detail in respective interim and final research progress reports, seven of them, in all. While the purpose of this report is to be a final summary and an valuative view of the entire work since the first year funding, the following is a quick recap of the most important sections of the interim report dated April 30, 1999.

  11. Genetic algorithm to optimize the design of main combustor and gas generator in liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Min; Ko, Sangho; Koo, Jaye

    2014-06-01

    A genetic algorithm was used to develop optimal design methods for the regenerative cooled combustor and fuel-rich gas generator of a liquid rocket engine. For the combustor design, a chemical equilibrium analysis was applied, and the profile was calculated using Rao's method. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed along the profile, and cooling channels were designed. For the gas-generator design, non-equilibrium properties were derived from a counterflow analysis, and a vaporization model for the fuel droplet was adopted to calculate residence time. Finally, a genetic algorithm was adopted to optimize the designs. The combustor and gas generator were optimally designed for 30-tonf, 75-tonf, and 150-tonf engines. The optimized combustors demonstrated superior design characteristics when compared with previous non-optimized results. Wall temperatures at the nozzle throat were optimized to satisfy the requirement of 800 K, and specific impulses were maximized. In addition, the target turbine power and a burned-gas temperature of 1000 K were obtained from the optimized gas-generator design.

  12. Enhancement and Extension of Porosity Model in the FDNS-500 Code to Provide Enhanced Simulations of Rocket Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary

    2003-01-01

    In the past, the design of rocket engines has primarily relied on the cold flow/hot fire test, and the empirical correlations developed based on the database from previous designs. However, it is very costly to fabricate and test various hardware designs during the design cycle, whereas the empirical model becomes unreliable in designing the advanced rocket engine where its operating conditions exceed the range of the database. The main goal of the 2nd Generation Reusable Launching Vehicle (GEN-II RLV) is to reduce the cost per payload and to extend the life of the hardware, which poses a great challenge to the rocket engine design. Hence, understanding the flow characteristics in each engine components is thus critical to the engine design. In the last few decades, the methodology of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been advanced to be a mature tool of analyzing various engine components. Therefore, it is important for the CFD design tool to be able to properly simulate the hot flow environment near the liquid injector, and thus to accurately predict the heat load to the injector faceplate. However, to date it is still not feasible to conduct CFD simulations of the detailed flowfield with very complicated geometries such as fluid flow and heat transfer in an injector assembly and through a porous plate, which requires gigantic computer memories and power to resolve the detailed geometry. The rigimesh (a sintered metal material), utilized to reduce the heat load to the faceplate, is one of the design concepts for the injector faceplate of the GEN-II RLV. In addition, the injector assembly is designed to distribute propellants into the combustion chamber of the liquid rocket engine. A porosity mode thus becomes a necessity for the CFD code in order to efficiently simulate the flow and heat transfer in these porous media, and maintain good accuracy in describing the flow fields. Currently, the FDNS (Finite Difference Navier-Stakes) code is one of the CFD codes

  13. Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology for Rocket Engine Component Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Papita, Nilay; Shyy, Wei; Tucker, P. Kevin; Griffin, Lisa W.; Haftka, Raphael; Fitz-Coy, Norman; McConnaughey, Helen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this work is to compare the performance of response surface methodology (RSM) and two types of neural networks (NN) to aid preliminary design of two rocket engine components. A data set of 45 training points and 20 test points obtained from a semi-empirical model based on three design variables is used for a shear coaxial injector element. Data for supersonic turbine design is based on six design variables, 76 training, data and 18 test data obtained from simplified aerodynamic analysis. Several RS and NN are first constructed using the training data. The test data are then employed to select the best RS or NN. Quadratic and cubic response surfaces. radial basis neural network (RBNN) and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) are compared. Two-layered RBNN are generated using two different training algorithms, namely solverbe and solverb. A two layered BPNN is generated with Tan-Sigmoid transfer function. Various issues related to the training of the neural networks are addressed including number of neurons, error goals, spread constants and the accuracy of different models in representing the design space. A search for the optimum design is carried out using a standard gradient-based optimization algorithm over the response surfaces represented by the polynomials and trained neural networks. Usually a cubic polynominal performs better than the quadratic polynomial but exceptions have been noticed. Among the NN choices, the RBNN designed using solverb yields more consistent performance for both engine components considered. The training of RBNN is easier as it requires linear regression. This coupled with the consistency in performance promise the possibility of it being used as an optimization strategy for engineering design problems.

  14. Acoustic streaming in simplified liquid rocket engines with transverse mode oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.; Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    This study considers a simplified model of a liquid rocket engine in which uniform injection is imposed at the faceplate. The corresponding cylindrical chamber has a small length-to-diameter ratio with respect to solid and hybrid rockets. Given their low chamber aspect ratios, liquid thrust engines are known to experience severe tangential and radial oscillation modes more often than longitudinal ones. In order to model this behavior, tangential and radial waves are superimposed onto a basic mean-flow model that consists of a steady, uniform axial velocity throughout the chamber. Using perturbation tools, both potential and viscous flow equations are then linearized in the pressure wave amplitude and solved to the second order. The effects of the headwall Mach number are leveraged as well. While the potential flow analysis does not predict any acoustic streaming effects, the viscous solution carried out to the second order gives rise to steady secondary flow patterns near the headwall. These axisymmetric, steady contributions to the tangential and radial traveling waves are induced by the convective flow motion through interactions with inertial and viscous forces. We find that suppressing either the convective terms or viscosity at the headwall leads to spurious solutions that are free from streaming. In our problem, streaming is initiated at the headwall, within the boundary layer, and then extends throughout the chamber. We find that nonlinear streaming effects of tangential and radial waves act to alter the outer solution inside a cylinder with headwall injection. As a result of streaming, the radial wave velocities are intensified in one-half of the domain and reduced in the opposite half at any instant of time. Similarly, the tangential waves are either enhanced or weakened in two opposing sectors that are at 90° angle to the radial velocity counterparts. The second-order viscous solution that we obtain clearly displays both an oscillating and a steady flow

  15. Thermal Modelling of Various Thermal Barrier Coatings in a High Flux Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A thermal model was developed to predict the thermal response of coated and uncoated tubes tested in a H2/O2 rocket engine. Temperatures were predicted for traditional APS ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings, as well as APS and LPPS ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY cermet coatings. Good agreement was observed between predicted and measured metal temperatures at locations near the tube surface or at the inner tube wall. The thermal model was also used to quantitatively examine the effect of various coating system parameters on the temperatures in the substrate and coating. Accordingly, the effect of the presence a metallic bond coat and the effect of radiation from the surface of the ceramic layer were examined. In addition, the effect of a variation in the values of the thermal conductivity of the ceramic layer was also investigated. It was shown that a variation in the thermal conductivity of the ceramic layer, on the order of that reported in the literature for plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings, can result in temperature differences in the substrate greater than 100 C, a much greater effect than that due to the presence of a bond coat or radiation from the ceramic layer. The thermal model was also used to predict the thermal response of a coated rod in order to quantify the difference in the metal temperatures between the two substrate geometries in order to explain the previously-observed increased life of coatings on rods over that on tubes. It was shown that for the short duration testing in the rocket engine, the temperature in a tube could exceed that in a rod by more than 100 C. Lastly, a two-dimensional model was developed to evaluate the effect of tangential heat transfer around the tube and its impact on reducing the stagnation point temperature. It was also shown that tangential heat transfer does not significantly reduce the stagnation point temperature, thus allowing application of a simpler, one-dimensional model for comparing measured and predicted stagnation point

  16. On-board Optical Spectrometry for Detection of Mixture Ratio and Eroded Materials in Rocket Engine Exhaust Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, Sarkis; Kittinger, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Optical spectrometry can provide means to characterize rocket engine exhaust plume impurities due to eroded materials, as well as combustion mixture ratio without any interference with plume. Fiberoptic probes and cables were designed, fabricated and installed on Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME), allowing monitoring of the plume spectra in real time with a Commercial of the Shelf (COTS) fiberoptic spectrometer, located in a test-stand control room. The probes and the cables survived the harsh engine environments for numerous hot-fire tests. When the plume was seeded with a nickel alloy powder, the spectrometer was able to successfully detect all the metallic and OH radical spectra from 300 to 800 nanometers.

  17. Effect of buoyancy on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putre, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis aimed at determining the scaling laws for the buoyancy effect on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine, so conducted that experimental conditions can be related to engine conditions. The fuel volume fraction in a short coaxial flow cavity is calculated with a programmed numerical solution of the steady Navier-Stokes equations for isothermal, variable density fluid mixing. A dimensionless parameter B, called the Buoyancy number, was found to correlate the fuel volume fraction for large accelerations and various density ratios. This parameter has the value B = 0 for zero acceleration, and B = 350 for typical engine conditions.

  18. Cooling of in-situ propellant rocket engines for Mars mission. M.S. Thesis - Cleveland State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth S.

    1991-01-01

    One propulsion option of a Mars ascent/descent vehicle is multiple high-pressure, pump-fed rocket engines using in-situ propellants, which have been derived from substances available on the Martian surface. The chosen in-situ propellant combination for this analysis is carbon monoxide as the fuel and oxygen as the oxidizer. Both could be extracted from carbon dioxide, which makes up 96 percent of the Martian atmosphere. A pump-fed rocket engine allows for higher chamber pressure than a pressure-fed engine, which in turn results in higher thrust and in higher heat flux in the combustion chamber. The heat flowing through the wall cannot be sufficiently dissipated by radiation cooling and, therefore, a regenerative coolant may be necessary to avoid melting the rocket engine. The two possible fluids for this coolant scheme, carbon monoxide and oxygen, are compared analytically. To determine their heat transfer capability, they are evaluated based upon their heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics.

  19. Concept Assessment of a Fission Fragment Rocket Engine (FFRE) Propelled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werka, Robert; Clark, Rod; Sheldon, Rob; Percy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The March, 2012 issue of Aerospace America stated that ?the near-to-medium prospects for applying advanced propulsion to create a new era of space exploration are not very good. In the current world, we operate to the Moon by climbing aboard a Carnival Cruise Lines vessel (Saturn 5), sail from the harbor (liftoff) shedding whole decks of the ship (staging) along the way and, having reached the return leg of the journey, sink the ship (burnout) and return home in a lifeboat (Apollo capsule). Clearly this is an illogical way to travel, but forced on Explorers by today's propulsion technology. However, the article neglected to consider the one propulsion technology, using today's physical principles that offer continuous, substantial thrust at a theoretical specific impulse of 1,000,000 sec. This engine unequivocally can create a new era of space exploration that changes the way spacecraft operate. Today's space Explorers could travel in Cruise Liner fashion using the technology not considered by Aerospace America, the novel Dusty Plasma Fission Fragment Rocket Engine (FFRE). This NIAC study addresses the FFRE as well as its impact on Exploration Spacecraft design and operation. It uses common physics of the relativistic speed of fission fragments to produce thrust. It radiatively cools the fissioning dusty core and magnetically controls the fragments direction to practically implement previously patented, but unworkable designs. The spacecraft hosting this engine is no more complex nor more massive than the International Space Station (ISS) and would employ the successful ISS technology for assembly and check-out. The elements can be lifted in "chunks" by a Heavy Lift Launcher. This Exploration Spacecraft would require the resupply of small amounts of nuclear fuel for each journey and would be an in-space asset for decades just as any Cruise Liner on Earth. This study has synthesized versions of the FFRE, integrated one concept onto a host spacecraft designed for

  20. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1940-01-01

    In this undated file photo, probably from World War II, a V-2 rocket emerges from its camouflaged shelter. The team of German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States after World War II and worked for the U. S. Army at Fort Bliss, Texas and Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama.