Science.gov

Sample records for aerostatics

  1. Tethered Aerostat Effects on Nearby Seismometers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bowman, Daniel

    This report assesses seismic interference generated by a tethered aerostat. The study was motivated by a planned aerostat deployment within the footprint of the Dry Alluvium Geology seismic network. No evidence was found for seismic interference generated by the aerostat, and thus the e ects on the Dry Alluvium Geology sensors will be negligible.

  2. Response of a tethered aerostat to simulated turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanney, Keith A.; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2006-09-01

    Aerostats are lighter-than-air vehicles tethered to the ground by a cable and used for broadcasting, communications, surveillance, and drug interdiction. The dynamic response of tethered aerostats subject to extreme atmospheric turbulence often dictates survivability. This paper develops a theoretical model that predicts the planar response of a tethered aerostat subject to atmospheric turbulence and simulates the response to 1000 simulated hurricane scale turbulent time histories. The aerostat dynamic model assumes the aerostat hull to be a rigid body with non-linear fluid loading, instantaneous weathervaning for planar response, and a continuous tether. Galerkin's method discretizes the coupled aerostat and tether partial differential equations to produce a non-linear initial value problem that is integrated numerically given initial conditions and wind inputs. The proper orthogonal decomposition theorem generates, based on Hurricane Georges wind data, turbulent time histories that possess the sequential behavior of actual turbulence, are spectrally accurate, and have non-Gaussian density functions. The generated turbulent time histories are simulated to predict the aerostat response to severe turbulence. The resulting probability distributions for the aerostat position, pitch angle, and confluence point tension predict the aerostat behavior in high gust environments. The dynamic results can be up to twice as large as a static analysis indicating the importance of dynamics in aerostat modeling. The results uncover a worst case wind input consisting of a two-pulse vertical gust.

  3. Swot analysis of using aerostats for surveillance in counter terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetin, Hüseyin

    2013-06-01

    In today's conjuncture, the terrorist activities are the most compelling issue for the defence forces in maintaining homeland security. Especially, the terrorist elements that penetrate the homeland may give harm. This harm can be minimized by preventing the terrorist penetrations from homeland borders. In counter terrorism, having Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capability and using this capability by twenty four hours is deterrence for the terrorist groups. Aerostats emerge as the ideal platform which can provide this capability. Aerostats are unmanned and aerodynamically shaped balloons that are stayed in the air, fixed to the ground by steel cable(s). The aerostat is made of a large fabric envelope that is filled with nonflammable helium gas, which provides the lifting force. The cables also serve to supply the electrical power to the aerostat systems, and for data relay between the aerostat and the ground station. Aerostats are different from the other manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) because of aerostats' capabilities such as cost effectiveness, long endurance and high resolution image transmission. Especially having uninterrupted image transmission and surveillance capabilities is important to be advantageous in counter terrorism. In this article, a short definition of terrorism has been given and then the importance of ensuring the homeland border security has been emphasized in counter terrorism. In addition, the questions of "what are the technical capabilities, the usage areas and the purposes of aerostats?" will be introduced as a result of literature review. Finally the strengths and weaknesses of aerostats, opportunities and threats for the near future will be introduced by using "SWOT" analysis method.

  4. Experiments and Identification of the Unbalance of Aerostatic Guideways on the Micro-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongju; Bian, Yanhua; Fan, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    In order to diagnose the unbalance of aerostatic guideways, displacement and acceleration sensors were used to measure the vibration signals of the unbalance of the aerostatic guideways caused by the gas fluctuation. The frequency characteristics for the unbalance of aerostatic guideways caused by gas fluctuation has been extracted from the measured signals by power spectral density, and the basic frequencies of the guideway system have been diagnosed according to spectral characteristics, in agreement with the results calculated by the corresponding motion equations and the finite element method. PMID:24603638

  5. Technology update: Tethered aerostat structural design and material developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    Requirements exist for an extremely stable, high performance, all-weather tethered aerostat system. This requirement has been satisfied by a 250,000 cubic foot captive buoyant vehicle as demonstrated by over a year of successful field operations. This achievement required significant advancements in several technology areas including composite materials design, aerostatics and aerodynamics, structural design, electro-mechanical design, vehicle fabrication and mooring operations. This paper specifically addresses the materials and structural design aspects of pressurized buoyant vehicles as related to the general class of Lighter Than Air vehicles.

  6. A revolutionary and operational tethered aerostat system illustrating new LTA technology. [for ground-air-ground communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menke, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An operational tethered aerostat system, which demonstrates utility of LTA systems, is described. It was made possible by development of a reliable tethered aerostat that is used to support broadcast equipment at an altitude of 10,000 feet. Two elements of the TCOM system, the aerostat and mooring station, are particularly relevant to the LTA Workshop. They demonstrate the feasibility of using LTA vehicles in real, operational, all-weather applications and, in addition, illustrate an advance in the overall technology base of LTA. The aerostat and the mooring station, including their technical design features and demonstrated performance characteristics, are described.

  7. Development of an aerostatic bearing system for roll-to-roll printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shasha; Chen, Weihai; Liu, Jingmeng; Chen, Wenjie; Jin, Yan

    2018-06-01

    Roll-to-roll printed electronics is proved to be an effective way to fabricate electrical devices on various substrates. High precision overlay alignment plays a key role to create multi-layer electrical devices. Multiple rollers are adopted to support and transport the substrate web. In order to eliminate the negative effect of the machining error and assembling error of the roller, a whole roll-to-roll system including two aerostatic bearing devices with arrayed restrictors is proposed in this paper. Different to the conventional roller, the aerostatic bearing device can create a layer of air film between the web and the device to realize non-contact support and transport. Based on simplified Navier–Stokes equations, the theoretical model of the air film is established. Moreover, the pressure distribution of the whole flow field and single restrictor in different positions are modeled by conducting numerical simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT. The load capacity curves and stiffness curves are generated to provide guidance for optimizing the structure of the device. A prototype of the aerostatic bearing system is set up and the experiment tests are carried out. For the proposed aerostatic bearing roller with a diameter of 100 mm and length of 200 mm, the experimental results show the aerostatic bearing method can achieve the position accuracy in a range of 1 μm in the vertical direction of the web, which is much better than that using existing methods.

  8. Manufacture of ultra high precision aerostatic bearings based on glass guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Meng; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Tie, Guipeng; Lai, Tao

    2017-10-01

    The aerostatic guide in the traditional three-coordinate measuring machine and profilometer generally use metal or ceramics material. Limited by the guide processing precision, the measurement accuracy of these traditional instruments is around micro-meter level. By selection of optical materials as guide material, optical processing method and laser interference measurement can be introduced to the traditional aerostatic bearings manufacturing field. By using the large aperture wave-front interference measuring equipment , the shape and position error of the glass guide can be obtained in high accuracy and then it can be processed to 0.1μm or even better with the aid of Magnetorheological Finishing(MRF) and Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) process and other modern optical processing method, so the accuracy of aerostatic bearings can be fundamentally improved and ultra high precision coordinate measuring can be achieved. This paper introduces the fabrication and measurement process of the glass guide by K9 with 300mm measuring range, and its working surface accuracy is up to 0.1μm PV, the verticality and parallelism error between the two guide rail face is better than 2μm, and the straightness of the aerostatic bearings by this K9 glass guide is up to 40nm after error compensation.

  9. Aerostat-lofted instrument and sampling method for determination of emissions from open area sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    An aerostat-borne instrument and sampling method was developed to characterize air samples from area sources, such as emissions from open burning. The 10 kg battery-powered instrument system, termed "the Flyer," is lofted with a helium-filled aerostat of 4 m nominal diameter and ...

  10. Detection of impulsive sources from an aerostat-based acoustic array data collection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Wayne E.; Clark, Robert C.; Strickland, Joshua; Frazier, Wm. Garth; Singleton, Jere

    2009-05-01

    An aerostat based acoustic array data collection system was deployed at the NATO TG-53 "Acoustic Detection of Weapon Firing" Joint Field Experiment conducted in Bourges, France during the final two weeks of June 2008. A variety of impulsive sources including mortar, artillery, gunfire, RPG, and explosive devices were fired during the test. Results from the aerostat acoustic array will be presented against the entire range of sources.

  11. Kestrel: force protection and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) persistent surveillance on aerostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luber, David R.; Marion, John E.; Fields, David

    2012-05-01

    Logos Technologies has developed and fielded the Kestrel system, an aerostat-based, wide area persistent surveillance system dedicated to force protection and ISR mission execution operating over forward operating bases. Its development included novel imaging and stabilization capability for day/night operations on military aerostat systems. The Kestrel system's contribution is a substantial enhancement to aerostat-based, force protection systems which to date have relied on narrow field of view ball gimbal sensors to identify targets of interest. This inefficient mechanism to conduct wide area field of view surveillance is greatly enhanced by Kestrel's ability to maintain a constant motion imagery stare of the entire forward operating base (FOB) area. The Kestrel airborne sensor enables 360° coverage out to extended ranges which covers a city sized area at moderate resolution, while cueing a narrow field of view sensor to provide high resolution imagery of targets of interest. The ground station exploitation system enables operators to autonomously monitor multiple regions of interest in real time, and allows for backtracking through the recorded imagery, while continuing to monitor ongoing activity. Backtracking capability allows operators to detect threat networks, their CONOPS, and locations of interest. Kestrel's unique advancement has already been utilized successfully in OEF operations.

  12. MEASUREMENT OF MOTION CORRECTED WIND VELOCITY USING AN AEROSTAT LOFTED SONIC ANEMOMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An aerostat-lofted, sonic anemometer was used to determine instantaneous 3 dimensional wind velocities at altitudes relevant to fire plume dispersion modeling. An integrated GPS, inertial measurement unit, and attitude heading and reference system corrected the wind data for th...

  13. Investigation the gas film in micro scale induced error on the performance of the aerostatic spindle in ultra-precision machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongju; Huo, Chen; Cui, Xianxian; Pan, Ri; Fan, Jinwei; An, Chenhui

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this work is to study the influence of error induced by gas film in micro-scale on the static and dynamic behavior of a shaft supported by the aerostatic bearings. The static and dynamic balance models of the aerostatic bearing are presented by the calculated stiffness and damping in micro scale. The static simulation shows that the deformation of aerostatic spindle system in micro scale is decreased. For the dynamic behavior, both the stiffness and damping in axial and radial directions are increased in micro scale. The experiments of the stiffness and rotation error of the spindle show that the deflection of the shaft resulting from the calculating parameters in the micro scale is very close to the deviation of the spindle system. The frequency information in transient analysis is similar to the actual test, and they are also higher than the results from the traditional case without considering micro factor. Therefore, it can be concluded that the value considering micro factor is closer to the actual work case of the aerostatic spindle system. These can provide theoretical basis for the design and machining process of machine tools.

  14. Feasibility Study of Space Based Solar Power to Tethered Aerostat Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blank, Stephen J.; Leete, Stephen J.; Jaffe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of two-stage Space-Based Solar Power to Tethered Aerostat to Earth (SSP-TA) system architectures that offer significant advantages over conventional single stage space-to-earth architectures is being studied. There have been many proposals for the transmission of solar power collected in space to the surface of the earth so that solar energy could provide a major part of the electric power requirements on earth. There are, however, serious difficulties in implementing the single stage space-based solar power systems that have been previously studied. These difficulties arise due to: i) the cost of transporting the components needed for the extremely large microwave transmit beaming aperture into space orbit, ii) the even larger collection apertures required on earth, iii) the potential radiation hazard to personnel and equipment on earth, and iv) a lack of flexibility in location of the collection station on the earth. Two candidate system architectures are described here to overcome these difficulties. In both cases a two-stage space to tethered aerostat to earth transmission system (SSP-TA) is proposed. The use of high altitude tethered aerostats (or powered airships) avoids the effects of attenuation of EM energy propagating through the earth s lower atmosphere. This allows the use of beaming frequencies to be chosen from the range of high millimeter (THz) to near-infra-red (NIR) to the visible. This has the potential for: i) greatly reduced transportation costs to space, ii) much smaller receiver collection apertures and ground stations, iii) elimination of the potential radiation hazard to personnel and equipment on earth, and iv) ease in transportation and flexibility in location of the collection station on the earth. A preliminary comparison of system performance and efficiencies is presented.

  15. Aerostat-Based Sampling of Emissions from Open Burning and Open Detonation of Military Ordnance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from open detonation (OD), open burning (OB), and static firing (SF) of obsolete military munitions were collected using an aerostat-lofted sampling instrument maneuvered into the plumes with remotely controlled tether winches. PM2.5, PM10, metals, volatile organic comp...

  16. Defense Acquisitions: Future Aerostat and Airship Investment Decisions Drive Oversight and Coordination Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    earlier, LEMV experienced schedule delays of at least 10 months, largely rooted in technical, design, and engineering problems in scaling up the airship ...had informal coordination with the Blue Devil Block 2 effort in the past. For example, originally both airships had several diesel engine ...DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS Future Aerostat and Airship Investment Decisions Drive Oversight and Coordination Needs

  17. Design and analysis of drum lathe for manufacturing large-scale optical microstructured surface and load characteristics of aerostatic spindle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dongxu; Qiao, Zheng; Wang, Bo; Wang, Huiming; Li, Guo

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a four-axis ultra-precision lathe for machining large-scale drum mould with microstructured surface is presented. Firstly, because of the large dimension and weight of drum workpiece, as well as high requirement of machining accuracy, the design guidelines and component parts of this drum lathe is introduced in detail, including control system, moving and driving components, position feedback system and so on. Additionally, the weight of drum workpiece would result in the structural deformation of this lathe, therefore, this paper analyses the effect of structural deformation on machining accuracy by means of ANSYS. The position change is approximately 16.9nm in the X-direction(sensitive direction) which could be negligible. Finally, in order to study the impact of bearing parameters on the load characteristics of aerostatic journal bearing, one of the famous computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software, FLUENT, is adopted, and a series of simulations are carried out. The result shows that the aerostatic spindle has superior performance of carrying capacity and stiffness, it is possible for this lathe to bear the weight of drum workpiece up to 1000kg since there are two aerostatic spindles in the headstock and tailstock.

  18. Aerostat-based sampling of emissions from open burning and open detonation of military ordnance.

    PubMed

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K; Tabor, Dennis; Williams, Ryan K; Mitchell, William; Kemme, Michael R

    2015-03-02

    Emissions from open detonation (OD), open burning (OB), and static firing (SF) of obsolete military munitions were collected using an aerostat-lofted sampling instrument maneuvered into the plumes with remotely controlled tether winches. PM2.5, PM10, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), energetics, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were characterized from 121 trials of three different munitions (Composition B (hereafter, "Comp B"), V453, V548), 152 trials of five different propellants (M31A1E1, M26, SPCF, Arc 451, 452A), and 12 trials with static firing of ammonium perchlorate-containing Sparrow rocket motors. Sampling was conducted with operational charge sizes and under open area conditions to determine emission levels representative of actual disposal practices. The successful application of the tethered aerostat and sampling instruments demonstrated the ability to sample for and determine the first ever emission factors for static firing of rocket motors and buried and metal-cased OD, as well as the first measurements of PM2.5 for OB and for surface OD. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. System protection from atmospheric electricity for aerostats with conducting tethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, M. S.; Beach, G. R.; Jakubowski, P. R.; Fisher, F. A.

    1988-04-01

    Aerostat power tethers have demonstrated survival of lightning strikes, but they usually have to be reterminated or replaced afterward. Two requirements are given for the prevention of lightning damage to the tether to about 100 kA: installation of a metal-to-metal contact on the outer tether surface to ground the tether at the base flying sheave at typical flying positions; and installation of a shielding band within the outer tether jacket with a weight of about 0.05 lb/ft for a half-inch tether. This determination was made in part by high current tests and in part by electrical modeling.

  20. Capturing the Acoustic Radiation Pattern of Strombolian Eruptions using Infrasound Sensors Aboard a Tethered Aerostat, Yasur Volcano, Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Matoza, Robin S.; Fee, David; Kennedy, Ben M.; Iezzi, Alexandra M.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca H.; Austin, Allison C.; Johnson, Richard

    2017-10-01

    We obtained an unprecedented view of the acoustic radiation from persistent strombolian volcanic explosions at Yasur volcano, Vanuatu, from the deployment of infrasound sensors attached to a tethered aerostat. While traditional ground-based infrasound arrays may sample only a small portion of the eruption pressure wavefield, we were able to densely sample angular ranges of 200° in azimuth and 50° in takeoff angle by placing the aerostat at 38 tethered loiter positions around the active vent. The airborne data joined contemporaneously collected ground-based infrasound and video recordings over the period 29 July to 1 August 2016. We observe a persistent variation in the acoustic radiation pattern with average eastward directed root-mean-square pressures more than 2 times larger than in other directions. The observed radiation pattern may be related to both path effects from the crater walls, and source directionality.

  1. The Ship Tethered Aerostat Remote Sensing System (STARRS): Observations of Small-Scale Surface Lateral Transport During the LAgrangian Submesoscale ExpeRiment (LASER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. F.; Novelli, G.; Guigand, C.; Özgökmen, T.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Molemaker, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Research on the Transport of Hydrocarbon in the Environment (CARTHE) will carry out the LAgrangian Submesoscale ExpeRiment (LASER) to study the role of small-scale processes in the transport and dispersion of oil and passive tracers. The Ship-Tethered Aerostat Remote Sensing System (STARRS) will observe small-scale surface dispersion in the open ocean. STARRS is built around a high-lift-capacity (30 kg) helium-filled aerostat. STARRS is equipped with a high resolution digital camera. An integrated GNSS receiver and inertial navigation system permit direct geo-rectification of the imagery. Consortium for Advanced Research on the Transport of Hydrocarbon in the Environment (CARTHE) will carry out the LAgrangian Submesoscale ExpeRiment (LASER) to study the role of small-scale processes in the transport and dispersion of oil and passive tracers. The Ship-Tethered Aerostat Remote Sensing System (STARRS) was developed to produce observational estimates of small-scale surface dispersion in the open ocean. STARRS is built around a high-lift-capacity (30 kg) helium-filled aerostat. STARRS is equipped with a high resolution digital camera. An integrated GNSS receiver and inertial navigation system permit direct geo-rectification of the imagery. Thousands of drift cards deployed in the field of view of STARRS and tracked over time provide the first observational estimates of small-scale (1-500 m) surface dispersion in the open ocean. The STARRS imagery will be combined with GPS-tracked surface drifter trajectories, shipboard observations, and aerial surveys of sea surface temperature in the DeSoto Canyon. In addition to obvious applications to oil spill modelling, the STARRS observations will provide essential benchmarks for high resolution numerical modelsDrift cards deployed in the field of view of STARRS and tracked over time provide the first observational estimates of small-scale (1-100 m) surface dispersion in the open ocean. The STARRS

  2. Potential of Aerostats for the Recovery of Disabled Main Battle Tanks and Other Heavy Military Vehicles and Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    designs and operates numerous passenger airships. The envelope structure consists of a laminated fabric envelope. This envelope is a large bag...Layered Aerostat Fabric This multi-layered laminate is designed to withstand the sun’s UV rays, acid rain and other environmental concerns. It is...a tough laminate , which inhibits gas loss while providing a high strength-to-weight ratio. The CL75 envelope used a laminate material woven with

  3. The Short Wave Aerostat-Mounted Imager (SWAMI): A novel platform for acquiring remotely sensed data from a tethered balloon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vierling, L.A.; Fersdahl, M.; Chen, X.; Li, Z.; Zimmerman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new remote sensing system called the Short Wave Aerostat-Mounted Imager (SWAMI). The SWAMI is designed to acquire co-located video imagery and hyperspectral data to study basic remote sensing questions and to link landscape level trace gas fluxes with spatially and temporally appropriate spectral observations. The SWAMI can fly at altitudes up to 2 km above ground level to bridge the spatial gap between radiometric measurements collected near the surface and those acquired by other aircraft or satellites. The SWAMI platform consists of a dual channel hyperspectral spectroradiometer, video camera, GPS, thermal infrared sensor, and several meteorological and control sensors. All SWAMI functions (e.g. data acquisition and sensor pointing) can be controlled from the ground via wireless transmission. Sample data from the sampling platform are presented, along with several potential scientific applications of SWAMI data.

  4. Laboratory Studies of Hydrogen Gas Generation Using the Cobalt Chloride Catalyzed Sodium Borohydride-Water Reaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    already use hydrogen for weather balloons . Besides cost, hydrogen has other advantages over helium. Hydrogen has more lift than helium, so larger...of water vapor entering the gas stream, and avoid damaging the balloon /aerostat (aerostats typically have an operational temperature range of -50 to...Aerostats: “Gepard” Tethered Aerostats with Mobile Mooring Systems. Available at http://rosaerosystems.com/aero/obj7. Accessed June 4, 2015. 11

  5. 75 FR 66303 - Revocation of Restricted Areas R-3807 Glencoe, LA, and R-6320 Matagorda, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... restricted areas were originally established to contain aerostat balloons used in detecting illegal entry across the southern border of the United States. The aerostat balloons have not been operational for... restricted areas, which were originally established as Tethered Air Radar Sites (TARS) to contain aerostat...

  6. Numerical analysis of the static performance of an annular aerostatic gas thrust bearing applied in the cryogenic turbo-expander of the EAST subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Tianwei; Fu, Bao; Chen, Shuangtao; Zhang, Qiyong; Hou, Yu

    2017-02-01

    The EAST superconducting tokamak, an advanced steady-state plasma physics experimental device, has been built at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All the toroidal field magnets and poloidal field magnets, made of NbTi/Cu cable-in-conduit conductor, are cooled with forced flow supercritical helium at 3.8 K. The cryogenic system of EAST consists of a 2 kW/4 K helium refrigerator and a helium distribution system for the cooling of coils, structures, thermal shields, bus-lines, etc. The high-speed turbo-expander is an important refrigerating component of the EAST cryogenic system. In the turbo-expander, the axial supporting technology is critical for the smooth operation of the rotor bearing system. In this paper, hydrostatic thrust bearings are designed based on the axial load of the turbo-expander. Thereafter, a computational fluid dynamics-based numerical model of the aerostatic thrust bearing is set up to evaluate the bearing performance. Tilting effect on the pressure distribution and bearing load is analyzed for the thrust bearing. Bearing load and stiffness are compared with different static supply pressures. The net force from the thrust bearings can be calculated for different combinations of bearing clearance and supply pressure.

  7. A review of lighter-than-air progress in the United States and its technological significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.; Krida, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Lighter-than-air craft for transportation and communications systems are discussed, with attention given to tethered balloons used to provide stable platforms for airborne surveillance equipment, freight-carrying balloons, manned scientific research balloons such as Atmosat, high-altitude superpressure aerostats employed in satellite communications systems, airport feeder airships, and naval surveillance airships. In addition, technical problems associated with the development of advanced aerostats, including the aerodynamics of hybrid combinations of large rotor systems and aerostat hulls, the application of composites to balloon shells, computer analyses of the complex geometrical structures of aerostats and propulsion systems for airships, are considered.

  8. High efficiency machining technology and equipment for edge chamfer of KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Wang, Baorui; Chen, Jihong

    2016-10-01

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) is a type of nonlinear optical crystal material. To Inhibit the transverse stimulated Raman scattering of laser beam and then enhance the optical performance of the optics, the edges of the large-sized KDP crystal needs to be removed to form chamfered faces with high surface quality (RMS<5 nm). However, as the depth of cut (DOC) of fly cutting is usually several, its machining efficiency is too low to be accepted for chamfering of the KDP crystal as the amount of materials to be removed is in the order of millimeter. This paper proposes a novel hybrid machining method, which combines precision grinding with fly cutting, for crackless and high efficiency chamfer of KDP crystal. A specialized machine tool, which adopts aerostatic bearing linear slide and aerostatic bearing spindle, was developed for chamfer of the KDP crystal. The aerostatic bearing linear slide consists of an aerostatic bearing guide with linearity of 0.1 μm/100mm and a linear motor to achieve linear feeding with high precision and high dynamic performance. The vertical spindle consists of an aerostatic bearing spindle with the rotation accuracy (axial) of 0.05 microns and Fork type flexible connection precision driving mechanism. The machining experiment on flying and grinding was carried out, the optimize machining parameters was gained by a series of experiment. Surface roughness of 2.4 nm has been obtained. The machining efficiency can be improved by six times using the combined method to produce the same machined surface quality.

  9. Aerostat Icing Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    34.-0 " -4 to -0 ) i ’ to-0 - 0-1J :x0. tf1 0 0 * *4-0 0- - C -4- - t)0o U 4- fa -- Etot 0 In 00)- r 4- a..- - D 4- 0 41 0 --- 0). S- E4JaW 4) 4- CJ - ea... valves ). Figure B2. Icing patterns, copolymer-coated surface left, uncoated right, continuous sheet. 17 Figure B3. Icing pattern, copolymer-coated

  10. Ft. Hood iScout to Persistent Ground Surveillance System (PGSS) Cueing Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    significantly as the team waited for the aerostat crew to finish their day’s testing. By the time the aerostat was moored on the trailer , it was moving about...maintained (figure 6). After looking over several movie clips, we drove back to the TOC to discuss emplacement strategy with Nibblett, who already had a...location would allow reception of signals from the Jalalabad sensors (figure 10). Figure 10. Mounting site for the repeater antenna on the

  11. The R-38 Catastrophe and the Mechanics of Rigid Airship Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Emilio

    1922-01-01

    An airship frame may be regarded as a rigid girder subjected to a number of forces which, according to their nature, may be classified as follows: weight or loads (force of gravity); lifting forces (aero-static); accelerations (dynamic). These forces must be in equilibrium in the three most important cases during flight: 1) when the airship is floating (aerostatic problem); 2) when flying without acceleration (aerodynamic problem). 3) When under the influence of any accelerating force (dynamic problem). This report will briefly discuss each of these cases in regard to the R-38 airship accident.

  12. High capacity aerodynamic air bearing (HCAB) for laser scanning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Sean M.

    2005-08-01

    A high capacity aerodynamic air bearing (HCAB) has been developed for the laser scanning market. The need for increasing accuracies in the prepress and print plate-making market is causing a shift from ball bearing to air bearing scanners. Aerostatic air bearings are a good option to meet this demand for better performance however, these bearings tend to be expensive and require an additional air supply, filtering and drying system. Commercially available aerodynamic bearings have been typically limited to small mirrors, on the order of 3.5" diameter and less than 0.5" thick. A large optical facet, hence a larger mirror, is required to generate the high number of pixels needed for this type of application. The larger optic necessitated the development of a high capacity 'self-generating' or aerodynamic air bearing that would meet the needs of the optical scanning market. Its capacity is rated up to 6.0" diameter and 1.0" thick optics. The performance of an aerodynamic air bearing is better than a ball bearing and similar to an aerostatic air bearing. It retains the low costs while eliminating the need for ancillary equipment required by an aerostatic bearing.

  13. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads <500gm), can perform valuable systematic measurements of potential eruption hazards, as well as of volcano processes. Because they are economical, flexible, and effective, such platforms promise unprecedented capabilities for researchers and responders throughout Central and South America, undertaking volcanic data acquisitions uniquely suited to such small aircraft in close proximity to known hazards, or that were previously only available using full-sized manned aircraft. This work was

  14. Measurement of Emissions from Prescribed Burning of Forests and Grasslands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial sampling methods for open area sources, such as prescribed fires, are described. Evolution from the tethered aerostat and instrument package to the smaller lighter package flown on an unmanned aerial system is described.

  15. A comparison of force and acoustic emission sensors in monitoring precision cylindrical grinding; Technical Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Eric R.; Couey, Jeremiah A.; Knapp, Byron R.; Vallance, R. R.

    2005-05-01

    Aerostatic spindles are used in precision grinding applications requiring high stiffness and very low error motions (5 to 25 nm). Forces generated during precision grinding are small and present challenges for accurate and reliable process monitoring. These challenges are met by incorporating non-contact displacement sensors into an aerostatic spindle that are calibrated to measure grinding forces from rotor motion. Four experiments compare this force-sensing approach to acoustic emission (AE) in detecting workpiece contact, process monitoring with small depths of cut, detecting workpiece defects, and evaluating abrasive wheel wear/loading. Results indicate that force measurements are preferable to acoustic emission in precision grinding since the force sensor offers improved contact sensitivity, higher resolution, and is capable of detecting events occurring within a single revolution of the grinding wheel.

  16. Air Bearings Machined On Ultra Precision, Hydrostatic CNC-Lathe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knol, Pierre H.; Szepesi, Denis; Deurwaarder, Jan M.

    1987-01-01

    Micromachining of precision elements requires an adequate machine concept to meet the high demand of surface finish, dimensional and shape accuracy. The Hembrug ultra precision lathes have been exclusively designed with hydrostatic principles for main spindle and guideways. This concept is to be explained with some major advantages of hydrostatics compared with aerostatics at universal micromachining applications. Hembrug has originally developed the conventional Mikroturn ultra precision facing lathes, for diamond turning of computer memory discs. This first generation of machines was followed by the advanced computer numerically controlled types for machining of complex precision workpieces. One of these parts, an aerostatic bearing component has been succesfully machined on the Super-Mikroturn CNC. A case study of airbearing machining confirms the statement that a good result of the micromachining does not depend on machine performance alone, but also on the technology applied.

  17. Grassland and forest understory biomass emissions from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States – RxCADRE 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smoke measurements were made during grass and forest understory prescribed fires as part of a comprehensive program to understand fire and smoke behaviour. Instruments deployed on the ground, airplane and tethered aerostat platforms characterized the smoke plumes through measure...

  18. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  19. Emissions from Prescribed Burning of Agricultural Fields in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide...

  20. Determination of OB/OD/SF Emission Factors Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation to the Demilitarization Symposium. This proposal will present the methods of tethered aerostat and unmanned aerial system for collection of plume samples and determination of emission factors form open burning, open detonation, and static firing for weapon demilita...

  1. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems/Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fixed wing airplanes, and he...

  2. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matte...

  3. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Opportunistic particle samples were gathered from the sail of a tethered aerostat during at-sea plume sampling of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),...

  4. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), ...

  5. Aerial Sampling of Emissions from Biomass Pile Burns in Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), ...

  6. Characterization of Emissions from Liquid Fuel and Propane Open Burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comparative combustion emissions of using jet propellant (JP-5) liquid fuel pools or a propane manifold grid to simulate the effects of accidental fires was investigated. A helium-filled tethered aerostat was used to maneuver an instrument package into the open fire plumes ...

  7. Characterization of Air Emissions from Open Burning and Open Detonation of Gun Propellants and Ammunition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD) of military ordnance and static fires (SF) of rocket motors were sampled in fall, 2013 at the Dundurn Depot (Saskatchewan, Canada). Emission sampling was conducted with an aerostat-lofted instrument package termed the “Fl...

  8. Grassland and forest understorey biomass emissions from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States - RxCADRE 2012

    Treesearch

    Tara Strand; Brian Gullett; Shawn Urbanski; Susan O’Neill; Brian Potter; Johanna Aurell; Amara Holder; Narasimhan Larkin; Mark Moore; Miriam Rorig

    2016-01-01

    Smoke measurements were made during grass and forest understorey prescribed fires as part of a comprehensive programme to understand fire and smoke behaviour. Instruments deployed on the ground, airplane and tethered aerostat platforms characterised the smoke plumes through measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and...

  9. Atmospheric Electricity and Tethered Aerostats, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-11

    vs Altitude (Non- conducting or Conducting Tethers...Effect of Corona Charge Plume 15 3.1 Tether Current vs Balloon Altitude , BJ+3 - 25 Sep 73 20 3.2 Tether Current vs Balloon Altitude , Baldy - 17 Oct 73 21...3.3 Tether Current vs Balloon Altitude , Baldy - 31 Oct 73 22 3.4 Tether Current vs Balloon Altitude , Baldy - 2 Nov 73 23 3.5 Tether Current vs

  10. Emissions from prescribed burning of agricultural fields in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    A. L. Holder; B. K. Gullett; S. P. Urbanski; R. Elleman; S. O' Neill; D. Tabor; W. Mitchell; K. R. Baker

    2017-01-01

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide a current and comprehensive set of emissions data for air quality models, climate models,...

  11. Mechanism and experimental research on ultra-precision grinding of ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Xinxing; Zhao, Huiying; Dong, Longchao; Zhu, Xueliang; Zhang, Chupeng; Gu, Yawen

    2017-02-01

    Ultra-precision grinding of ferrite is conducted to investigate the removal mechanism. Effect of the accuracy of machine tool key components on grinding surface quality is analyzed. The surface generation model of ferrite ultra-precision grinding machining is established. In order to reveal the surface formation mechanism of ferrite in the process of ultraprecision grinding, furthermore, the scientific and accurate of the calculation model are taken into account to verify the grinding surface roughness, which is proposed. Orthogonal experiment is designed using the high precision aerostatic turntable and aerostatic spindle for ferrite which is a typical hard brittle materials. Based on the experimental results, the influence factors and laws of ultra-precision grinding surface of ferrite are discussed through the analysis of the surface roughness. The results show that the quality of ferrite grinding surface is the optimal parameters, when the wheel speed of 20000r/mm, feed rate of 10mm/min, grinding depth of 0.005mm, and turntable rotary speed of 5r/min, the surface roughness Ra can up to 75nm.

  12. Stretchable, Highly Durable Ternary Nanocomposite Strain Sensor for Structural Health Monitoring of Flexible Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Feng; Ye, Dong; Zhu, Chen; Qiu, Lei; Huang, YongAn

    2017-01-01

    Harmonious developments of electrical and mechanical performances are crucial for stretchable sensors in structural health monitoring (SHM) of flexible aircraft such as aerostats and morphing aircrafts. In this study, we prepared a highly durable ternary conductive nanocomposite made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), carbon black (CB) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to fabricate stretchable strain sensors. The nanocomposite has excellent electrical and mechanical properties by intensively optimizing the weight percentage of conducting fillers as well as the ratio of PDMS pre-polymer and curing agent. It was found that the nanocomposite with homogeneous hybrid filler of 1.75 wt % CB and 3 wt % MWCNTs exhibits a highly strain sensitive characteristics of good linearity, high gauge factor (GF ~ 12.25) and excellent durability over 105 stretching-releasing cycles under a tensile strain up to 25% when the PDMS was prepared at the ratio of 12.5:1. A strain measurement of crack detection for the aerostats surface was also employed, demonstrating a great potential of such ternary nanocomposite used as stretchable strain sensor in SHM. PMID:29156620

  13. Collaborative Point Paper on Border Surveillance Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    including; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Airships, and/or Aerostats, (RF, Electro-Optical, Infrared, Video) • Land- based Sensor Systems (Attended...warning. These ground- based systems are primarily short-range, up to around 500 meters. • Observation towers extend surveillance capabilities many...Foreign Companies Applicable Environment(s Foreign Companies Air Land Maritime Technology 25. BAE Systems PLC (BAE Systems Inc. is a US subsidiary

  14. Remote Sensing Systems to Detect and Analyze Oil Spills on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf - A State of the Art Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-18

    multi- sensor remote sensing approach to describe the distribution of oil from the DWH spill. They used airborne and satellite , multi- and hyperspectral...Experimental Sensors e.g., Acoustic and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) (Fingas and Brown, 2012; Puestow et al., 2013). These are further...ship, aerial - aircraft, aerostat or UAV, or satellite ), among other classification criteria. A comprehensive review of sensor categories employed

  15. Collaborative Point Paper on Border Surveillance Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Systems PLC LORHIS (Long Range Hyperspectral Imaging System ) can be configured for either manned or unmanned aircraft to automatically detect and...Airships, and/or Aerostats, (RF, Electro-Optical, Infrared, Video) • Land- based Sensor Systems (Attended/Mobile and Unattended: e.g., CCD, Motion, Acoustic...electronic surveillance technologies for intrusion detection and warning. These ground- based systems are primarily short-range, up to around 500 meters

  16. Navy Shipboard Lasers for Surface, Air, and Missile Defense: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-27

    include silicon carbide ( SiC )- based transistors, transformers and power converters. “ SiC is important because it improves power quality and reduces size...existing shipboard gun systems. An airborne mirror , perhaps mounted on an aerostat,11 could bounce light from a shipboard laser, so as to permit non-line...super conducting RF electron beam injectors, advanced high power cathode technologies, high power compact amplifiers, and advanced mirrors

  17. Overview of Innovative Aircraft Power and Propulsion Systems and Their Applications for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony; Landis, Geoffrey; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Planetary exploration may be enhanced by the use of aircraft for mobility. This paper reviews the development of aircraft for planetary exploration missions at NASA and reviews the power and propulsion options for planetary aircraft. Several advanced concepts for aircraft exploration, including the use of in situ resources, the possibility of a flexible all-solid-state aircraft, the use of entomopters on Mars, and the possibility of aerostat exploration of Titan, are presented.

  18. C2 System Engineering for the Adversities of the Amazon Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    within Brazil (60%), followed by Peru (13%), Colombia (10%), and with minor amounts in Venezuela, Ecuador , Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana...connection is permanently maintained. The UAVs fly according to a given movement pattern, such as a random movement for instance. In the case of a...with the Aerostat or the island of sensor nodes in the case of the UAVs that are in the extremities of this network) is about to break. This

  19. Colonization of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    Although the surface of Venus is an extremely hostile environment, at about 50 kilometers above the surface the atmosphere of Venus is the most earthlike environment (other than Earth itself) in the solar system. It is proposed here that in the near term, human exploration of Venus could take place from aerostat vehicles in the atmosphere, and that in the long term, permanent settlements could be made in the form of cities designed to float at about fifty kilometer altitude in the atmosphere of Venus.

  20. The Dirigible: A Catalyst for Resource Exploitation in Remote Areas?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    ir’ship (26’.: 13). .. Hybrid . A he ,vi er than air vehiLile which Lomb nes.’-. s.tar~ it (gas) anrid cly ,mi L (pro~pel 1er s, jet e, g ines ) li ft...another test with a hybrid airship (8:.33). TABLE 1. - Airships Rejected p The three remaining airships will be discussed next. All arc? hybrid LTAs...heavy-lift markets. (Drawing at Appendix 3.) The Cyclo-Crane is a hybrid aircraft utilizing aerostatic lift from a helium filled centerbody to support

  1. Characterization and measurement of hybrid gas journal bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Tom Marquis

    This thesis concentrates on the study of hybrid gas journal bearings (bearings with externally pressurized mass addition). It differs from most work in that it goes back to "basics" to explore the hydrodynamic phenomena in the bearing gap. The thesis compares geometrically identical bearings with 2 configurations of external pressurization, porous liners where mass-addition compensation is varied by varying the liner's permeability, and bushings with 2 rows of 6 feedholes where the mass-addition compensation is varied by the feedhole diameter. Experimentally, prototype bearings with mass-addition compensation that spans 2 orders of magnitude with differing clearances are built and their aerostatic properties and mass addition characteristics are thoroughly tested. The fundamental equations for compressible, laminar, Poiseuille flow are used to suggest how the mass flow "compensation" should be mathematically modeled. This is back-checked against the experimental mass flow measurements and is used to determine a mass-addition compensation parameter (called Kmeas) for each prototype bushing. In so doing, the methodology of modeling and measuring the mass addition in a hybrid gas bearing is re-examined and an innovative, practical, and simple method is found that makes it possible to make an "apples-to-apples" comparison between different configurations of external pressurization. This mass addition model is used in conjunction with the Reynolds equation to perform theory-based numerical analysis of virtual hybrid gas journal bearings (CFD experiments). The first CFD experiments performed use virtual bearings modeled to be identical to the experimental prototypes and replicate the experimental work. The results are compared and the CFD model is validated. The ontological significance of appropriate dimensionless similitude parameters is re-examined and a, previously lacking, complete set of similitude factors is found for hybrid bearings. A new practical method is

  2. Applying Unmanned Airborne Sampling Technology to Active Volcanoes: Successes, Challenges, and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Buongiorno, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Over the last three years, we have conducted in situ sampling of airborne volcanic emissions for the calibration and validation of remote sensing data and derivative ash and gas transport models, as well as for proximal and distal hazard evaluations. We are collaboratively operating currently in three main locales: (a) Costa Rica: Turrialba Volcano; (b) Italy: Vulcano Island and La Sofatara Crater; and (c) the United States: Kilauea Volcano and the Salton Sea Geothermal Zone. During 2014-2016 we systematically deployed fixed wing UAVs and aerostats into the phreato-magmatic plume at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, for time-series 3D SO2 profiles during overpasses of the ASTER radiometer onboard the NASA Terra platform. To date we have completed more than 50 aerostat and/or unmanned fixed and/or rotary wing sampling missions. Preliminary science results have been published by Pieri and Diaz (2015; DyDESS), Diaz et al. (2015; JASMS), and Xi et al. (2016, JVGR). We conducted field measurements of H2S, CO2, and SO2 and other species with INGV quad-copters to lift a UCR Multi-gas sensor into the phreatic gas jet at La Sofatara Crater, Pozzuoli, Italy in October 2014 and at Isole Vulcano in August 2015. At La Solfatara, our results documented 8000ppmv (max) up to 200 ft above the vent, and at Vulcano we noted CO2 concentrations approximately 2x ambient up to 100ft above the main crater. Deployment of the ARC SIERRA-B UAV and Dragon Eye mini-UAVs is now planned for the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in October 2016. We have integrated the UCR 20kg mass-spectrometer into SIERRA-B for flight certification in August 2016. We will also conduct near simultaneous airborne sensor-web observations with Dragon Eye UAVs using targeted electrochemical sensors, including sensors for SO2, H2S, CO2, and NH3, along with simultaneous aerostat (tethered balloon/kite-borne) observations using electrochemical sensors, focused on gas emissions from sub-aerial mud volcano fields. Finally, we

  3. Emissions from prescribed burning of agricultural fields in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, A. L.; Gullett, B. K.; Urbanski, S. P.; Elleman, R.; O'Neill, S.; Tabor, D.; Mitchell, W.; Baker, K. R.

    2017-10-01

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide a current and comprehensive set of emissions data for air quality models, climate models, and emission inventories. Batch measurements of PM2.5, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and continuous measurements of black carbon (BC), particle mass by size, CO, CO2, CH4, and aerosol characteristics were taken at ground level, on an aerostat-lofted instrument package, and from an airplane. Biomass samples gathered from the field were burned in a laboratory combustion facility for comparison with these ground and aerial field measurements. Emission factors for PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), CH4, and CO measured in the field study platforms were typically higher than those measured in the laboratory combustion facility. Field data for Kentucky bluegrass suggest that biomass residue loading is directly proportional to the PM2.5 emission factor; no such relationship was found with the limited wheat data. CO2 and BC emissions were higher in laboratory burn tests than in the field, reflecting greater carbon oxidation and flaming combustion conditions. These distinctions between field and laboratory results can be explained by measurements of the modified combustion efficiency (MCE). Higher MCEs were recorded in the laboratory burns than from the airplane platform. These MCE/emission factor trends are supported by 1-2 min grab samples from the ground and aerostat platforms. Emission factors measured here are similar to other studies measuring comparable fuels, pollutants, and combustion conditions. The size distribution of refractory BC (rBC) was single modal with a log-normal shape, which was

  4. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Opportunistic particle samples were gathered from the sail of a tethered aerostat during at-sea plume sampling of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Emission factors were calculated using previous sampling values of background-adjusted CO2 and particulate matter (PM)-bound C. The mean of five thermal-optical analyses indicated that the burned crude oil particulate matter was 93% carbon (w/w) with the predominance being refractory elemental carbon (82% w/w) on average. PAHs accounted for roughly 60 ug/g of the PM mass or 4.5 mg/kg oil burned, at least an order of magnitude less than earlier laboratory based studies. Microscopy indicates that the soot from the in situ oil burns is distinct from more common soot by its aggregate size, primary particle size, and nanostructure within the primary particles. The PCDD/PCDF concentration of the PM was 1.5 to 3.3 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg PM sampled, about 10-fold lower than from a previous dedicated gas/solid sample, indicating loss of small particle-bound and more volatile PCDD/PCDF congeners through the aerostat sail. This work presents an analysis of smoke particles opportunistically caught during the in situ surface oil burns during the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon di

  5. Investigation of Kevlar fabric-based materials for use with inflatable structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niccum, R. J.; Munson, J. B.; Rueter, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Design, manufacture and testing of laminated and coated composite materials incorporating a structural matrix of Kevlar are reported. The practicality of using Kevlar in aerostat materials is demonstrated, and data are provided on practical weaves, lamination and coating particulars, rigidity, strength, weight, elastic coefficients, abrasion resistance, crease effects, peel strength, blocking tendencies, helium permeability, and fabrication techniques. Properties of the Kevlar-based materials are compared with conventional Dacron-reinforced counterparts. A comprehensive test and qualification program is discussed, and considerable quantitative biaxial tensile and shear test data are provided.

  6. 1983 LTA technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashford, R. L.; Browning, R. G. E.; Levitt, B. B.; Mayer, N. J.; Woodward, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Several aspects of LTA (lighter-than-air) technology development are reviewed. Technological developments of classical airships through 1974 are examined. A brief historical and technological summary of five specialized LTA equipment concepts is presented: metal-clad airships, free balloons, semibuoyant vehicles, high-altitude platforms, and tethered aerostats. Current LTA technology developments are reviewed with particular emphasis on VTOL airships capable of heavy lift and on long endurance types for coastal maritime patrol. Finally, the future prospects of LTA system development are considered with attention given to manned conventional and hybrid vehicles, tethered vehicles, and RPVs.

  7. On the capabilities and limitations of high altitude pseudo-satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo, Jesús; López, Deibi; Domínguez, Diego; García, Adrián; Escapa, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    The idea of self-sustaining air vehicles that excited engineers in the seventies has nowadays become a reality as proved by several initiatives worldwide. High altitude platforms, or Pseudo-satellites (HAPS), are unmanned vehicles that take advantage of weak stratospheric winds and solar energy to operate without interfering with current commercial aviation and with enough endurance to provide long-term services as satellites do. Target applications are communications, Earth observation, positioning and science among others. This paper reviews the major characteristics of stratospheric flight, where airplanes and airships will compete for best performance. The careful analysis of involved technologies and their trends allow budget models to shed light on the capabilities and limitations of each solution. Aerodynamics and aerostatics, structures and materials, propulsion, energy management, thermal control, flight management and ground infrastructures are the critical elements revisited to assess current status and expected short-term evolutions. Stratospheric airplanes require very light wing loading, which has been demonstrated to be feasible but currently limits their payload mass to few tenths of kilograms. On the other hand, airships need to be large and operationally complex but their potential to hover carrying hundreds of kilograms with reasonable power supply make them true pseudo-satellites with enormous commercial interest. This paper provides useful information on the relative importance of the technology evolutions, as well as on the selection of the proper platform for each application or set of payload requirements. The authors envisage prompt availability of both types of HAPS, aerodynamic and aerostatic, providing unprecedented services.

  8. Design aspects of zeppelin operations from case histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiersperger, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    Some widely held beliefs concerning the practicability of rigid airships in air carrier operations are discussed. It is shown by a review of past operational experience, and some basic aerostatic theory, their actual record and the reasons for their demise. Problems of atmospheric density and temperature variations, meteorological factors, aerodynamic stability and control, and mooring difficulties are discussed and related to actual case histories. Structural and flight efficiencies are compared to airplane efficiencies for airplanes contemporary with the zeppelin as well as modern designs. The difficulty of supporting new, commercial airship developments on an economic basis is made clear.

  9. The balloon and the airship technological heritage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    The balloon and the airship are discussed with emphasis on the identification of commonalities and distinctions. The aerostat technology behind the shape and structure of the vehicles is reviewed, including a discussion of structural weight, internal pressure, buckling, and the development of a stable tethered balloon system. Proper materials for the envelope are considered, taking elongation and stress into account, and flight operation and future developments are reviewed. Airships and tethered balloons which are designed to carry high operating pressure with low gas loss characteristics are found to share similar problems in low speed flight operations, while possessing interchangeable technologies.

  10. Helium-3 Mining Aerostats in the Atmospheres of the Outer Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanCleve, Jeffrey E.; Grillmair, Carl; Hanna, Mark; Reinert, Rich

    2005-01-01

    Imagine an interplanetary future where: a) d-He3 fusion produces most of Earth s energy needs without radioactivity or carbon emissions; b) Space transportation has been revolutionized by an efficient fusion propulsion system with exhaust velocity up to 0.088 c; c) Space commerce is stimulated by the existence of an interplanetary cargo worth $3-M a kilogram; and d) Unmanned probes travel to the nearest star systems with flight times less than a human lifetime.

  11. Fine-scale behaviour of bottlenose dolphins around gillnets.

    PubMed

    Read, Andrew J; Waples, Danielle M; Urian, Kim W; Swanner, Dave

    2003-08-07

    We studied the fine-scale behaviour of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus around gillnets in North Carolina, USA, during May and June 2002. We made observations from an overhead digital video camera, suspended from a helium-filled aerostat, tethered 70 m above a fishing vessel. We positioned the camera above a gillnet set for Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus. We observed frequent encounters (n = 36) and interactions (n = 27) between dolphins and the net, but no dolphins became entangled. Most dolphins diverted their course around the net, but on nine occasions we observed dolphins engaging in depredation. We conclude that interactions between dolphins and these gillnets are common, but that entanglement is rare.

  12. Design and performance evaluation of an interferometric controlled planar nanopositioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, S.; Schäffel, C.; Mohr, H.-U.; Katzschmann, M.; Büchner, H.-J.

    2012-07-01

    High technology applications for example in the semiconductor or the optical industry require positioning systems providing repeatability and uncertainty in the range of nanometers together with x-, y-travel ranges of several hundreds of millimeters. We contribute in this research by investigating the applicability of integrated planar direct drives for the realization of nanopositioning- and nanomeasuring machines (NPM/NMM). The paper introduces the concept of planar integrated direct drives and explains the engineering design of the realized system for a 100 mm circular travel range in x and y. It presents the drive system parameters and the arrangement and interaction of the main components. The results of the initial operation are presented with a special focus on the question how the closed loop system can be taken into operation with a free floating slider. The evaluation of the positioning performance leads to the result that a 2D servo error of less than exy = 1.3 nm is achieved at arbitrary positions within the travel range. As a result of repeated step response tests, the positioning resolution is 0.5 nm. The measurement of the coincidental z-movement of the aerostatically supported slider yields a z-vibration with a standard deviation of σz = 0.45 nm. Regarding the drive system these results represent the limit of what can be reached with this setup as the measured error motions are in the range of the noise of the fixed environment setup. By measuring the characteristics of the aerostatic slider support at the fully assembled system the present air bearing stiffness is determined and based on a FEM-simulation of the slider eigenfrequencies the influence on the force transfer behavior is expected to be only marginal.

  13. Bridging Informatics and Earth Science: a Look at Gregory Leptoukh's Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.

    2012-12-01

    With the tragic passing this year of Gregory Leptoukh, the Earth and Space Sciences community lost a tireless participant in--and advocate for--science informatics. Throughout his career at NASA, Dr. Leptoukh established a theme of bridging the gulf between the informatics and science communities. Nowhere is this more evident than his leadership in the development of Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). Giovanni is an online tool that serves to hide the often-complex technical details of data format and structure, making science data easier to explore and use by Earth scientists. To date Giovanni has been acknowledged as a contributor in 500-odd scientific articles. In recent years, Leptoukh concentrated his efforts on multi-sensor data inter-comparison, merging and fusion. This work exposed several challenges at the intersection of data and science. One of these was the ease with which a naive user might generate spurious comparisons, a potential hazard that was the genesis of the Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA). The MDSA uses semantic ontologies and inference rules to organize knowledge about dataset quality and other salient characteristics in order to advise users on potential caveats for comparing or merging two datasets. Recently, Leptoukh also led the development of AeroStat, an online Giovanni instance to investigate aerosols via statistics from station and satellite comparisons and merged maps of data from more than one instrument. Aerostat offers a neural net based bias adjustment to "harmonize" the data by removing systematic offsets between datasets before merging. These examples exhibit Leptoukh's talent for adopting advanced computer technologies in the service of making science data more accessible to researchers. In this, he set an example that is at once both vital and challenging for the ESSI community to emulate.

  14. Bridging Informatics and Earth Science: a Look at Gregory Leptoukh's Contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    With the tragic passing this year of Gregory Leptoukh, the Earth and Space Sciences community lost a tireless participant in--and advocate for--science informatics. Throughout his career at NASA, Dr. Leptoukh established a theme of bridging the gulf between the informatics and science communities. Nowhere is this more evident than his leadership in the development of Giovanni (GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure). Giovanni is an online tool that serves to hide the often-complex technical details of data format and structure, making science data easier to explore and use by Earth scientists. To date Giovanni has been acknowledged as a contributor in 500-odd scientific articles. In recent years, Leptoukh concentrated his efforts on multi-sensor data inter-comparison, merging and fusion. This work exposed several challenges at the intersection of data and science. One of these was the ease with which a naive user might generate spurious comparisons, a potential hazard that was the genesis of the Multi-sensor Data Synergy Advisor (MDSA). The MDSA uses semantic ontologies and inference rules to organize knowledge about dataset quality and other salient characteristics in order to advise users on potential caveats for comparing or merging two datasets. Recently, Leptoukh also led the development of AeroStat, an online Giovanni instance to investigate aerosols via statistics from station and satellite comparisons and merged maps of data from more than one instrument. Aerostat offers a neural net based bias adjustment to harmonize the data by removing systematic offsets between datasets before merging. These examples exhibit Leptoukh's talent for adopting advanced computer technologies in the service of making science data more accessible to researchers. In this, he set an example that is at once both vital and challenging for the ESSI community to emulate.

  15. Weight and cost estimating relationships for heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Weight and cost estimating relationships, including additional parameters that influence the cost and performance of heavy-lift airships (HLA), are discussed. Inputs to a closed loop computer program, consisting of useful load, forward speed, lift module positive or negative thrust, and rotors and propellers, are examined. Detail is given to the HLA cost and weight program (HLACW), which computes component weights, vehicle size, buoyancy lift, rotor and propellar thrust, and engine horse power. This program solves the problem of interrelating the different aerostat, rotors, engines and propeller sizes. Six sets of 'default parameters' are left for the operator to change during each computer run enabling slight data manipulation without altering the program.

  16. Balloon concepts for scientific investigation of Mars and Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Opportunities for scientific investigation of the atmospheric planets using buoyant balloons have been explored. Mars and Jupiter were considered in this study because design requirements at those planets bracket nominally the requirements at Venus, and plans are already underway for a joint Russian-French balloon system at Venus. Viking data has provided quantitative information for definition of specific balloon systems at Mars. Free flying balloons appear capable of providing valuable scientific support for more sophisticated Martian surface probes, but tethered and powered aerostats are not attractive. The Jovian environment is so extreme, hot atmosphere balloons may be the only scientific platforms capable of extended operations there. However, the estimated system mass and thermal energy required are very large.

  17. Fine-scale behaviour of bottlenose dolphins around gillnets.

    PubMed Central

    Read, Andrew J; Waples, Danielle M; Urian, Kim W; Swanner, Dave

    2003-01-01

    We studied the fine-scale behaviour of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus around gillnets in North Carolina, USA, during May and June 2002. We made observations from an overhead digital video camera, suspended from a helium-filled aerostat, tethered 70 m above a fishing vessel. We positioned the camera above a gillnet set for Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus. We observed frequent encounters (n = 36) and interactions (n = 27) between dolphins and the net, but no dolphins became entangled. Most dolphins diverted their course around the net, but on nine occasions we observed dolphins engaging in depredation. We conclude that interactions between dolphins and these gillnets are common, but that entanglement is rare. PMID:12952646

  18. Investigation of Kevlar fabric based materials for use with inflatable structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niccum, R. J.; Munson, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Design, manufacture and testing of laminated and coated composite materials incorporating a structural matrix of Kevlar are reported in detail. The practicality of using Kevlar in aerostat materials is demonstrated and data are provided on practical weaves, lamination and coating particulars, rigidity, strength, weight, elastic coefficients, abrasion resistance, crease effects, peel strength, blocking tendencies, helium permeability, and fabrication techniques. Properties of the Kevlar based materials are compared with conventional, Dacron reinforced counterparts. A comprehensive test and qualification program is discussed and quantitative biaxial tensile and shear test data are provided. The investigation shows that single ply laminates of Kevlar and plastic films offer significant strength to weight improvements, are less permeable than two ply coated materials, but have a lower flex life.

  19. Correcting groove error in gratings ruled on a 500-mm ruling engine using interferometric control.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xiaotao; Yu, Haili; Yu, Hongzhu; Zhang, Shanwen; Li, Xiaotian; Yao, Xuefeng; Qi, Xiangdong; Bayinhedhig; Wan, Qiuhua

    2017-07-20

    Groove error is one of the most important factors affecting grating quality and spectral performance. To reduce groove error, we propose a new ruling-tool carriage system based on aerostatic guideways. We design a new blank carriage system with double piezoelectric actuators. We also propose a completely closed-loop servo-control system with a new optical measurement system that can control the position of the diamond relative to the blank. To evaluate our proposed methods, we produced several gratings, including an echelle grating with 79  grooves/mm, a grating with 768  grooves/mm, and a high-density grating with 6000  grooves/mm. The results show that our methods effectively reduce groove error in ruled gratings.

  20. 1981 LTA technology assessment - Past and present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashford, R. L.; Levitt, B. B.; Mayer, N. J.; Vocar, J. M.; Woodward, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    A four-part presentation is made of (1) lessons learned from the design and operation of the 'classic' airships of the 1920s and 30s, with respect to such issues as construction, propulsion, control, instrumentation, ground handling, habitability, aerodynamics, and structure and construction; (2) lessons learned from the development of such specialized lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts as metal-clad airships, semi-buoyant lifting bodies, experimental, sport and commercial free balloons, high-altitude platforms, and tethered aerostats; (3) the current status of LTA technology in various countries, with emphasis on significant developments in configuration, dynamics, control, structures, materials, and propulsion; and (4) a projection of future trends. It is concluded that socio-economic factors will strongly influence and encourage LTA development in the 1990s.

  1. Advanced 3-V semiconductor technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowogrodzki, M.

    1983-01-01

    Components required for extensions of currently planned space communications systems are discussed for large antennas, crosslink systems, single sideband systems, Aerostat systems, and digital signal processing. Systems using advanced modulation concepts and new concepts in communications satellites are included. The current status and trends in materials technology are examined with emphasis on bulk growth of semi-insulating GaAs and InP, epitaxial growth, and ion implantation. Microwave solid state discrete active devices, multigigabit rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, microwave integrated circuits, and the exploratory development of GaInAs devices, heterojunction devices, and quasi-ballistic devices is considered. Competing technologies such as RF power generation, filter structures, and microwave circuit fabrication are discussed. The fundamental limits of semiconductor devices and problems in implementation are explored.

  2. Qualification of the new French balloon system and of the new Canadian launch site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, André; Levesque, Daniel

    In the frame of an international collaboration between the ‘Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales’ (CNES) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), a new mid-latitude stratospheric balloon base has been developed and finalized at the Victor M. Power Timmins Airport, located in Ontario, Canada. As part of this collaboration, CNES, based on its 3500 flights heritage and 50 years experience in ballooning, provides all flight hardware, including a newly developed control system for aerostats known as NOSYCA, as well as all associated ground support equipment. On the other hand, CSA provides a mid-latitude launch base located in a low populated area of northern Ontario, aerostats recovery services as well as interfaces with all national authorities needed to fly heavy stratospheric balloons safely within Canadian airspace. In exchanges of these services, Canadian payloads are to be flown yearly by CNES from its worldwide network of sites. Following the completion of the base’s construction in March 2013, a qualification plan was put together by the two (2) agencies in order to test and verify all technical and operational aspects of this new mid-latitude launch site. Furthermore, the plan included hosting NOSYCA’s maiden flights, with the aim of allowing CNES to resume stratospheric science campaigns as soon as 2014. For CNES, the main objectives of the campaign were to qualify NOSYCA as well as to tests ground and flight operational procedures. For the CSA, the goals were to qualify its launch base, recovery procedures, operational procedures with national authorities, and to validate mapping & drop zones. The campaign, which began in June 2013, was successfully completed in September 2013 with two (2) qualification flights that included a one hundred (100) and an eight hundreds (800) thousands meter cubes balloons, lasting 10 and 13 hours respectively. This paper presents, in the context of this French-Canadian collaboration, the results from the first campaign, and

  3. Strive toward data harmony of multi sensor aerosol data - Tribute to Dr. Gregory Leptoukh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. C.; Lynnes, C.; Kempler, S. J.; Shen, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has been involved with aerosol data synergy activities and projects over recent years, led by Dr. Gregory Leptoukh. His particular interests centered on issues related to comparison and harmonization of several aspects of aerosol data, such as data quality, bias adjustment, and data provenance. A thorough understanding of these issues is needed to guide multi-sensor data usage and avoid apples-to-oranges inter-comparison and data fusion. In this talk, I will highlight these activities/projects. These would include the tools developed, but also the projects that address specific user needs and innovative services, such as GIOVANNI-MAPSS, AeroStat, NEESPI, MAIRS, ATDD, MDSA, LTA-SWDB, etc. I will also discuss preliminary results from new projects and future goals that build on the ground breaking work, left by Dr. Leptoukh.

  4. Aerostat-Lofted Instrument Platform and Sampling Method for Determination of Emissions from Open Area Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling emissions from open area sources, particularly sources of open burning, is difficult due to fast dilution of emissions and safety concerns for personnel. Representative emission samples can be difficult to obtain with flaming and explosive sources since personnel safety ...

  5. The Essential Role of Tethered Balloons in Characterizing Boundary Layer Structure and Evolution during Discover-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) provided the opportunity to observe the influence of local and regional circulations on the structure and evolution of the boundary layer (BL) and in turn study the associated effects on air quality and aerosol trends within four different airsheds. An extended network of ground-based instruments, balloon-borne profilers, and remote sensing instruments supported the in-situ airborne measurements made by the NASA aircraft in capturing the structure and evolution of the daytime BL. The Millersville University Atmospheric Research and Aerostat Facility (MARAF) is one of many assets deployed for DISCOVER-AQ. Central to MARAF is a heavy-lift-capacity tethered balloon (aerostat) used to obtain high resolution profiles of meteorological variables, trace gases, and particulates in the BL. The benefit of including a tethered balloon is that it can fill a data void between the surface and the lowest altitudes flown by the aircraft and provide critical time-height series for ground-based remote sensing instruments in the layer below their first range gate. MARAF also includes an acoustic sodar with RASS, MPL4 micropulse Lidar, 4-meter flux tower, rawinsonde system, and a suite of trace gas analyzers (O3, NOx/NO2/NO, CO, and SO2), 3-wavelength nephelometer, and particle sizers/counters spanning the range from 10 nm to 10 microns. MARAF is capable of providing a detailed and nearly continuous Eulerian characterization of the surface layer and lower BL, and with proper FAA airspace authorization, can be deployed both day and night. Three case studies will be presented that incorporate the MARAF into the combined assets of DISCOVER-AQ to better characterize: 1) bay breeze convergence, recirculation, and ramp-up events in Edgewood, MD in July 2011; 2) aerosol transport over Central Valley, CA in January 2013; and 3) multiple sea-bay breeze

  6. Cosmic ray physics in space: the role of Sergey Vernov's scientific school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.

    2011-04-01

    Cosmic rays were discovered almost 100 years ago. Since then the scientific world has learned a lot from their nature: the particles nascent in the Universe, both in our Galaxy and outside, the basic mechanisms of their acceleration, transfer in the interstellar environment and the interaction of the primary cosmic rays with the atmosphere surrounding the Earth. Before 1957, i.e., the beginning of the Space Era, researchers' capabilities were limited to experiments performed on the ground, underground and in near-ground atmosphere to flight altitudes of aerostats, airplanes and rockets, i.e., where only secondary radiation is in existence, this is the result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. The launching of spacecraft allowed the scientists to commence exploring the Universe's primordial matter itself outside the atmosphere, i.e., the primary cosmic rays. Sergey Vernov, the Russian scientist, was among them.

  7. A New Age for Aerostats: Proving Airfield-Centric MANPADS Defense for Civil Aircraft Supporting Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Maintaining Readiness, RAND Report MR-1506 (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2003, 58. 15 Graham, David R . Statement before the U.S. Congress Committee on...2. 19 Ibid., 4. 20 Ibid., 2. 21 Bolkcom, Christopher, CRAF, 9. 22 Graham, David R ., 3. 23 Cortez, Robert K. Statement before the U.S...Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/ r /pa/prs/ps/2009/july/126397.htm on 8 Dec 2009. 30 GlobalSecurity.org. “Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS

  8. Aerial Sampling of Emissions from Biomass Pile Burns in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abstract (already cleared). Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, semi-volatile organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans), filter-based metals, and volatile organics were sampled for determination of emission factors. The effect on emissions from covering or not covering piles with polyethylene sheets to prevent fuel wetting was determined. Results showed that the uncovered (“wet”) piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emissions of volatile organic compounds. Results for other pollutants will also be discussed. This work determines the first known in-field emission factors for burning of timber slash piles. The results also document the effect on emissions of covering the piles with polyethylene covers to reduce the moisture content of the biomass.

  9. Fuel Cell Power System and Equipment Bay for High Altitude, Super- Pressured, Powered Aerostat (HASPA) Operational Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-20

    across the anode side of the membrane -electrode assembly. Flow distribution of the hydrogen gas from cell to cell is not a problem as that system is...DOCUMENTATION PAGE RiEAI T C OMPLETING FORM V ~i 12.BR NUMVE AccEisioN NO4 II T AAO UM811" 4. TITL[ (Wd SibItl@) ... . I YPE or REPORT I PERIOD COVERED...instructions for Fuel Cell Module FS-2. The ion exchange membrane fuel cell module is produced by the General Electric Company, Direct Energy

  10. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K.; Tabor, Dennis; Yonker, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas-fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, filter-based metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled to determine emission factors, the amount of pollutant formed per amount of biomass burned. The effect on emissions from covering the piles with polyethylene (PE) sheets to prevent fuel wetting versus uncovered piles was also determined. Results showed that the uncovered ("wet") piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emission factors for VOCs, PM2.5, PCDD/PCDF, and PAHs. Removal of the PE prior to ignition, variation of PE size, and changing PE thickness resulted in no statistical distinction between emissions. Results suggest that dry piles, whether covered with PE or not, exhibited statistically significant lower emissions than wet piles due to better combustion efficiency.

  11. A method for establishing a long duration, stratospheric platform for astronomical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert; Brown, Yorke

    2015-10-01

    During certain times of the year at middle and low latitudes, winds in the upper stratosphere move in nearly the opposite direction than the wind in the lower stratosphere. Here we present a method for maintaining a high-altitude balloon platform in near station-keeping mode that utilizes this stratospheric wind shear. The proposed method places a balloon-borne science platform high in the stratosphere connected by a lightweight, high-strength tether to a tug vehicle located in the lower or middle stratosphere. Using aerodynamic control surfaces, wind-induced aerodynamic forces on the tug can be manipulated to counter the wind drag acting on the higher altitude science vehicle, thus controlling the upper vehicle's geographic location. We describe the general framework of this station-keeping method, some important properties required for the upper stratospheric science payload and lower tug platforms, and compare this station-keeping approach with the capabilities of a high altitude airship and conventional tethered aerostat approaches. We conclude by discussing the advantages of such a platform for a variety of missions with emphasis on astrophysical research.

  12. Characterization of the particulate emissions from the BP Deepwater Horizon surface oil burns.

    PubMed

    Gullett, Brian K; Hays, Michael D; Tabor, Dennis; Wal, Randy Vander

    2016-06-15

    Sampling of the smoke plumes from the BP Deepwater Horizon surface oil burns led to the unintentional collection of soot particles on the sail of an instrument-bearing, tethered aerostat. This first-ever plume sampling from oil burned at an actual spill provided an opportunistic sample from which to characterize the particles' chemical properties for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon, elemental carbon, metals, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and physical properties for size and nanostructure. Thermal-optical analyses indicated that the particulate matter was 93% carbon with 82% being refractory elemental carbon. PAHs accounted for roughly 68μg/g of the PM filter mass and 5mg/kg oil burned, much lower than earlier laboratory based studies. Microscopy indicated that the soot is distinct from more common soot by its aggregate size, primary particle size, and nanostructure. PM-bound metals were largely unremarkable but PCDD/PCDF formation was observed, contrary to other's findings. Levels of lighter PCDD/PCDF and PAH compounds were reduced compared to historical samples, possibly due to volatilization or photo-oxidation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Free-electron laser power beaming to satellites at China Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Harold E.; Rather, John D.; Montgomery, Edward E.

    1994-05-01

    Laser power beaming of energy through the atmosphere to a satellite can extend its lifetime by maintaining the satellite batteries in operating condition. An alternate propulsion system utilizing power beaming will also significantly reduce the initial insertion cost of these satellites, which now are as high as $72,000/lb for geosynchronous orbit. Elements of the power beaming system are a high-power laser, a large diameter telescope to reduce diffractive losses, an adaptive optic beam conditioning system and possibly a balloon or aerostat carrying a large mirror to redirect the laser beam to low earth orbit satellites after it has traversed most of the earth's atmosphere vertically. China Lake, California has excellent seeing, averages 260 cloud-free days/year, has the second largest geothermal plant in the United States nearby for power, groundwater from the lake for cooling water, and is at the center of one of the largest restricted airspaces in the United States. It is an ideal site for such a laser power beaming system. Technological challenges in building such a system and installing it at China Lake are discussed.

  14. Acoustic source signal and directivity for explosive sources in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waxler, R.; Bonner, J. L.; Reinke, R.; Talmadge, C. L.; Kleinert, D. E.; Alberts, W.; Lennox, E.

    2012-12-01

    Much work has gone into characterizing the blast wave, and ultimate acoustic pulse, produced by an explosion in flat, open land. Recently, an experiment was performed to study signals produced by explosions in more complex environments, both above and below ground. Explosive charges, ranging in weight from 200 to 2000 lbs., were detonated in a variety of configurations in and around tubes and culverts as well as buried in alluvium and limestone. A large number of acoustic sensors were deployed to capture the signals from the explosions. The deployment included two concentric rings of eighteen sensors each, spaced roughly every twenty degrees at radii of 300 and 1000 meters and surrounding the explosions. These captured the acoustic source function and directivity. In addition, a network of sensors, including sensors mounted on an aerostat and elevated to 300 meters altitude, were deployed throughout the area to capture the signals as they propagated. The meteorological state was monitored with a variety of instruments including a tethersonde, radiosonde and sodar. Significant directivity was observed in the signals from many of the shots, including those from charges that were detonated underground, but not near any structure. Results from the experiment will be presented.

  15. In-situ exploration of Venus on a global scale : direct measurements of origins and evolution, meterology, dynamics, and chemistry by a long-duration aerial science station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Atreya, Sushi; Carlson, Robert W.; Chutjian, Ara; Crisp, David; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kerzhanovich, Victor V.; Limaye, Sanjay S.

    2005-01-01

    Drifting in the strong winds of Venus under benign Earth-like temperature and pressure conditions, an instrumented balloon-borne science station presents a viable means to explore, in-situ, the Venusian atmosphere on a global scale. Flying over the ground at speeds exceeding 240 km/hour while floating in the Venusian skies near 55 km altitude for several weeks, such an aerostat can conduct a 'world tour' of our neighboring planet, as it circumnavigates the globe multiple times during its flight from equatorial to polar latitudes. Onboard science sensors can repeatedly and directly sample gas compositions, atmospheric pressures and temperatures and cloud particle properties, giving unprecedented insight into the chemical processes occurring within the sulfuric clouds. Additionally, interferometric tracking via Earth-based radio observatories can yield positions and windspeeds to better than 10 cm/sec over one-hour periods, providing important information for understanding the planet's meridional circulation and enigmatic zonal super-rotation, as well as local dynamics associated with meteorological processes. As well, hundreds of GCMS spectra collected during the flight can provide measurements of noble gas compositions and their isotopes with unprecedented accuracy, thereby enabling fundamental new insights into Venus's origin and evolution.

  16. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, semi-volatile organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans), filter-based metals, and volatile organics were sampled for determination of emission factors. The effect on emissions from covering or not covering piles with polyethylene sheets to prevent fuel wetting was determined. Results showed that the uncovered (“wet”) piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emissions of volatile organic compounds. Results for other pollutants will also be discussed. This work determined the emissions from open burning of forest slash wood, with and without plastic sheeting. The foresters advocate the use of plastic to keep the slash wood dry and aid in the controlled combustion of the slash to reduce fuel loading. Concerns about the emissions from the burning plastic prompted this work which conducted an extensive characterization of dry, wet, and dry with plastic slash pile emissions.

  17. Free-electron laser power beaming to satellites at China Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Harold E.; Rather, John D.; Montgomery, Edward E.

    1994-05-01

    Laser power beaming of energy through the atmosphere to a satellite can extend its lifetime by maintaining the satellite batteries in operating condition. An alternate propulsion system utilizing power beaming will also significantly reduce the initial insertion cost of these satellites, which now are as high as $DLR72,000/lb for geosynchronous orbit. Elements of the power beaming system are a high-power laser, a large diameter telescope to reduce diffractive losses, an adaptive optic beam conditioning system and possibly a balloon or aerostat carrying a large mirror to redirect the laser beam to low earth orbit satellites after it has traversed most of the earth's atmosphere vertically. China Lake, California has excellent seeing, averages 260 cloud-free days/year, has the second largest geothermal plant in the United States nearby for power, groundwater from the lake for cooling water, and is at the center of one of the largest restricted airspaces in the United States. It is an ideal site for such a laser power beaming system. Technological challenges in building such a system and installing it at China Lake will be discussed.

  18. Two hundred years of flight in America: A bicentennial survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emme, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    The first recorded balloon ascension in America took place on June 19, 1784, when an unmanned balloon was raised in a public demonstration at Bladensburg, Maryland. On June 24, 1784, a thirteen-year-old boy ascended in the same balloon. The history of actual flight during the nineteenth century was entirely concerned with balloons except for several gliders and models leading to the coming of the airship and the aircraft. The history of practical flight in America begins in the twentieth century. The described developments related to aerostatics are concerned with balloons, rigid airships, and blimps. In a review of the evolution of aeronautics, attention is given to general aviation and its search for a market, trends in military aeronautics, and commercial aviation. It is pointed out that American air transport had its birth on New Year's Day, 1914, at Tampa Bay, Florida. The evolution of astronautics during the period from 1957 to 1976 is also examined, taking into account scientific satellites, the Apollo project, the exploration of the planets with the aid of unmanned spacecraft, strategic reconnaissance satellites, missile alarm satellites, instrumental satellites for detecting nuclear and thermonuclear explosions, weather satellites, communications satellites, and earth resource survey and geodetic satellites.

  19. LISA: a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conessa, Huguette

    2016-07-01

    LISA (LIbrarie de Simulation pour les Aerostats) is a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons (Zero Pressure Balloons, Pressurized Balloons, Infrared Montgolfier), and for all phases of flight (ascent, ceiling, descent). This library has for goals to establish a reliable repository of Balloons flight physics models, to capitalize developments and control models used in different tools. It is already used for flight physics study software in CNES, to understand and reproduce the behavior of balloons, observed during real flights. It will be used operationally for the ground segment of the STRATEOLE2 mission. It was developed with quality rules of "critical software." It is based on fundamental generic concepts, linking the simulation state variables to interchangeable calculation models. Each LISA model defines how to calculate a consistent set of state variables combining validity checks. To perform a simulation for a type of balloon and a phase of flight, it is necessary to select or create a macro-model that is to say, a consistent set of models to choose from among those offered by LISA, defining the behavior of the environment and the balloon. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the main concepts of LISA, and the new perspectives offered by this library.

  20. “Comprehensive emission measurements from prescribed ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Simultaneous aerial- and ground-based emission sampling was conducted during prescribed burns at Eglin Air Force Base in November 2012 on a short grass/shrub field and a pine forest. Cumulative emission samples for volatile organic comounds, elemental carbon, organic carbon, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and PM2.5 and continuous samples for black carbon, particle size, and CO2 were taken. Aerial instruments were lofted using a 5 m diameter, helium-filled aerostat that was maneuvered with two remotely-controlled tethers mounted on all-terrain vehicles. A parallel set of instruments on the ground made simultaneous measurements, allowing for a comparison of ground level versus elevated measurements. Ground instruments were supplemented by additional measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particle aerosol absorption and light scattering. Raw biomass was also gathered on site and tested in a laboratory combustion facility using the same array of instruments. This work compares emissions derived from aerial and ground sampling as well as field and laboratory results. This abstract will likely be the first ever prescribed burn study to compare laboratory and field emission results with results from aerial and and ground sampling. As such it will inform sampling methods for future events and determine the ability of laboratory simulations to mimic events inthe field.

  1. Coherent Evaluation of Aerosol Data Products from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol retrieval from satellite has practically become routine, especially during the last decade. However, there is often disagreement between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors, thereby leaving users confused as to which sensors to trust for answering important science questions about the distribution, properties, and impacts of aerosols. As long as there is no consensus, and the inconsistencies are not well characterized and understood, there will be no way of developing reliable model inputs and climate data records from satellite aerosol measurements. Fortunately, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is providing well-calibrated globally representative ground-based aerosol measurements corresponding to the satellite-retrieved products. Through a recently developed web-based Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), we are utilizing the advantages offered by collocated AERONET and satellite products to characterize and evaluate aerosol retrieval from multiple sensors. Indeed, MAPSS and its companion statistical tool AeroStat are facilitating detailed comparative uncertainty analysis of satellite aerosol measurements from Terra-MODIS, Aqua-MODIS, Terra-MISR, Aura-OMI, Parasol-POLDER, and Calipso-CALIOP. In this presentation, we will describe the strategy of the MAPSS system, its potential advantages for the aerosol community, and the preliminary results of an integrated comparative uncertainly analysis of aerosol products from multiple satellite sensors.

  2. Miniature robotic sample analysis lab for planetary in situ mineralogy and microbiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruzelecky, Roman; Wong, Brian; Haddad, Emile; Jamroz, Wes; Cloutis, Edward; Strong, Kimberly; Ghafoor, Nadeem; Jessen, Sean

    the data synergy provided by infrared (IR) reflection between 900 and 4300 nm at about 4 nm resolution, visible micro-imaging, and complementary IR Raman spectroscopy from about 400 to 4000 cm-1 . IR spectroscopy provides direct information on the presence of H2 O or OH, either as free H2 O or bonded within hydrated minerals. The IR Raman provides for direct C-C biological detection and supplementary measurement of IR inactive modes. The boresight microimaging provides information on the sample grain structure to assist the spectral data analysis. The combined data synergy can, for the first time, directly and unambiguously detect H2 O and determine its state (ice/liquid/structural), distinguish key mineral species (including those associated with favourable habitats for microbial activity) and determine their hydration states, as well as detect and differentiate various C-H and C-C molecular structures for astrobiological investigations. The mission features a small He-inflatable Skycam aerostat tethered to the rover. It will provide stereographic 2-D VIS surface maps of the rover and its geolocation from a 10-15 m altitude to improve the rover autonomy and maneuverability around obstacles. The Skycam aerostat will also provide boundary layer investigations of Mars weather and residual atmospheric processes with high 0.015 nm spectral resolution for CO2 and CH4 using tunable fiber-optic sources to study the C isotopic ratios. Mission cost effectiveness is achieved through a synergistic instrument suite based on advanced but mature patented MPBC miniaturization technologies that enable high IR spectral measurement performance with minimal mass and power, and an innovative MDA tethered mole drill design. The estimated Inukshuk net payload mass including instrument suite, robotic tethered mole drill with insitu bore-hole probe and Skycam aerostat is under 12 kg. The core IR spectral processor is based on MPBC's patented IOSPEC technology for miniature guided

  3. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  4. Emission factors from aerial and ground measurements of field and laboratory forest burns in the southeastern US: PM2.5, black and brown carbon, VOC, and PCDD/PCDF.

    PubMed

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K

    2013-08-06

    Aerial- and ground-sampled emissions from three prescribed forest burns in the southeastern U.S. were compared to emissions from laboratory open burn tests using biomass from the same locations. A comprehensive array of emissions, including PM2.5, black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were sampled using ground-based and aerostat-lofted platforms for determination of emission factors. The PM2.5 emission factors ranged from 14 to 47 g/kg biomass, up to three times higher than previously published studies. The biomass type was the primary determinant of PM2.5, rather than whether the emission sample was gathered from the laboratory or the field and from aerial- or ground-based sampling. The BC and BrC emission factors ranged from 1.2 to 2.1 g/kg biomass and 1.0 to 1.4 g/kg biomass, respectively. A decrease in BC and BrC emission factors with decreased combustion efficiency was found from both field and laboratory data. VOC emission factors increased with decreased combustion efficiency. No apparent differences in averaged emission factors were observed between the field and laboratory for BC, BrC, and VOCs. The average PCDD/PCDF emission factors ranged from 0.06 to 4.6 ng TEQ/kg biomass.

  5. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Chen, H; Yu, T; Li, B

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  6. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Chen, H.; Yu, T.; Li, B.

    2016-08-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software tema Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the matlab program, a Lissajous' figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  7. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yang, Z., E-mail: zhaohui@nwpu.edu.cn; Yu, T.; Chen, H.

    2016-08-15

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images whenmore » the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software TEMA Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the MATLAB program, a Lissajous’ figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.« less

  8. Intelligent route surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent ground sensor networks use simple sensing nodes, e.g. seismic, magnetic, radar, or acoustic, or combinations of these in one housing. The nodes deliver rudimentary data at any time to be processed with software that filters out the required information. At TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) research has started on how to equip a sensor network with data analysis software to determine whether behaviour is suspicious or not. Furthermore, the nodes should be expendable, if necessary, and be small in size such that they are hard to detect by adversaries. The network should be self-configuring and self-sustaining and should be reliable, efficient, and effective during operational tasks - especially route surveillance - as well as robust in time and space. If data from these networks are combined with data from other remote sensing devices (e.g. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)/aerostats), an even more accurate assessment of the tactical situation is possible. This paper shall focus on the concepts of operation towards a working intelligent route surveillance (IRS) research demonstrator network for monitoring suspicious behaviour in IED sensitive domains.

  9. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the “Flyer”) that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration

  10. Termination of Lease and the Transfer of Property Back to the Landowner for the Matagorda, Texas Tethered Aerostat Radar System (TARS) Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Above-ground Storage Tank CAA Clean Air Act CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response...on Environmental Quality TDLR Texas Department of Licensing and Regulation THC Texas Historical Commission TPWD Texas Parks and... Storage Tank FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 1.0 NAME OF THE PROPOSED ACTION Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed action to terminate the

  11. Characterization of Air Emissions from Open Burning and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions from open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD) of military ordnance and static fires (SF) of rocket motors were sampled in fall, 2013 at the Dundurn Depot (Saskatchewan, Canada). Emission sampling was conducted with an aerostat-lofted instrument package termed the “Flyer” that was maneuvered into the downwind plumes. Forty-nine OB events, 94 OD events, and 16 SF on four propellants types (Triple base, 105 M1, 155 M4A2 white bag, and 155 M6 red bag), two smokes (HC grenade and red phosphorus), five explosive types (Trigran, C4, ANFO, ANFO+HC grenade, and ANFO+Flare), and two rocket motors types (CVR-7 and MK 58) resulted in emission factors for particulate matter (PM), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), chlorine species (HCl, chloride, chlorate, perchlorate), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and PM-based metals. These data provide Canada and the United States with additional air emissions data to support health risk assessments and permitting for safe treatment of military ordnance by OB/OD/SF. In addition, the data will be used to conduct air dispersion modelling assessing the impact of treatment of various ordnance on the air quality, to support mandatory reporting requirements of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI), and to update the Canadian Ammunition Chemical Database.Result

  12. Scientific balloons: historical remarks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, P.

    The paper is an overview of the Human attempt to fly, from the myth of Daedalus and his son Icarus to the first "aerostatic" experiment by Joseph-Michel and Jaques-Etienne Montgolfier. Then, via a jump of about 200 years, we arrive to the era of the modern stratospheric ballooning that, from the beginning of the last century, have provided a unique flight opportunity for aerospace experiments. In particular, the Italian scientific community has employed stratospheric balloons since the '50s for cosmic rays and high energy astrophysical experiments with initial launches performed from Cagliari Helmas Airport (Sardinia). More recently an almost ideal location was found in the area of Trapani-Milo (Sicily, Italy), were an old abandoned airport was refurbished to be used as a new launch site that became operative at the beginning of the '70s. Finally, we suggest a short reminiscence of the first transatlantic experiment carried out on August 1975 in collaboration between SAS-CNR (Italy) and NSBF-NASA (USA). The reason why the Long Duration Balloon has been recently re-oriented in a different direction is analysed and future perspectives discussed. Finally, the spirit of the balloon launch performed by the Groups lead by Edoardo Amaldi, Livio Scarsi and other Italian pioneers, with payloads looking like "refrigerators" weighting a few tens of kg is intact and the wide participation to the present Workshop is the clear demonstration.

  13. Gondola development for CNES stratospheric balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, A.; Audoubert, J.; Cau, M.; Evrard, J.; Verdier, N.

    The CNES has been supporting scientific ballooning since its establishment in 1962. The two main parts of the balloon system or aerostat are the balloon itself and the flight train, comprising the house-keeping gondola, for the control of balloon flight (localization and operational telemetry & telecommand - TM/TC), and the scientific gondola with its dedicated telecommunication system. For zero pressure balloon, the development of new TM/TC system for the housekeeping and science data transmission are going on from 1999. The main concepts are : - for balloon house-keeping and low rate scientific telemetry, the ELITE system, which is based on single I2C bus standardizing communication between the different components of the system : trajectography, balloon control, power supply, scientific TM/TC, .... In this concept, Radio Frequency links are developed between the house keeping gondola and the components of the aerostat (balloon valve, ballast machine, balloon gas temperature measurements, ...). The main objectives are to simplify the flight train preparation in term of gondola testing before flight, and also by reducing the number of long electrical cables integrated in the balloon and the flight train; - for high rate scientific telemetry, the use of functional interconnection Internet Protocol (IP) in interface with the Radio Frequency link. The main idea is to use off-the-shelf IP hardware products (routers, industrial PC, ...) and IP software (Telnet, FTP, Web-HTTP, ...) to reduce the development costs; - for safety increase, the adding, in the flight train, of a totally independent house keeping gondola based on the satellite Inmarsat M and Iridium telecommunication systems, which permits to get real time communications between the on-board data mobile and the ground station, reduced to a PC computer with modem connected to the phone network. These GEO and LEO telecommunication systems give also the capability to operate balloon flights over longer distance

  14. Middle atmospheric electric fields over thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    This grant has supported a variety of investigations all having to do with the external electrodynamics of thunderstorms. The grant was a continuation of work begun while the PI was at the Aerospace Corporation (under NASA Grant NAS6-3109) and the general line of investigation continues today under NASA Grants NAG5-685 and NAG6-111. This report will briefly identify the subject areas of the research and associated results. The period actually covered by the grant NAG5-604 included the following analysis and flights: (1) analysis of five successful balloon flights in 1980 and 1981 (under the predecessor NASA grant) in the stratosphere over thunderstorms; (2) development and flight of the Hy-wire tethered balloon system for direct measurement of the atmospheric potential to 250 kV (this involved multiple tethered balloon flight periods from 1981 through 1986 from several locations including Wallops Island, VA, Poker Flat and Ft. Greely, AK and Holloman AFB, NM.); (3) balloon flights in the stratosphere over thunderstorms to measure vector electric fields and associated parameters in 1986 (2 flights), 1987 (4 flights), and 1988 (2 flights); and (4) rocket-borne optical lightning flash detectors on two rocket flights (1987 and 1988) (the same detector design that was used for the balloon flights listed under #3). In summary this grant supported 8 stratospheric zero-pressure balloon flights, tethered aerostat flights every year between 1982-1985, instruments on 2 rockets, and analysis of data from 6 stratospheric flights in 1980/81.

  15. High Altitude Infrasound Measurements using Balloon-Borne Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. C.; Johnson, C. S.; Gupta, R. A.; Anderson, J.; Lees, J. M.; Drob, D. P.; Phillips, D.

    2015-12-01

    For the last fifty years, almost all infrasound sensors have been located on the Earth's surface. A few experiments consisting of microphones on poles and tethered aerostats comprise the remainder. Such surface and near-surface arrays likely do not capture the full diversity of acoustic signals in the atmosphere. Here, we describe results from a balloon mounted infrasound array that reached altitudes of up to 38 km (the middle stratosphere). The balloon drifted at the ambient wind speed, resulting in a near total reduction in wind noise. Signals consistent with tropospheric turbulence were detected. A spectral peak in the ocean microbarom range (0.12 - 0.35 Hz) was present on balloon-mounted sensors but not on static infrasound stations near the flight path. A strong 18 Hz signal, possibly related to building ventilation systems, was observed in the stratosphere. A wide variety of other narrow band acoustic signals of uncertain provenance were present throughout the flight, but were absent in simultaneous recordings from nearby ground stations. Similar phenomena were present in spectrograms from the last balloon infrasound campaign in the 1960s. Our results suggest that the infrasonic wave field in the stratosphere is very different from that which is readily detectable on surface stations. This has implications for modeling acoustic energy transfer between the lower and upper atmosphere as well as the detection of novel acoustic signals that never reach the ground. Our work provides valuable constraints on a proposed mission to detect earthquakes on Venus using balloon-borne infrasound sensors.

  16. Characterization of Emissions from Liquid Fuel and Propane Open Burns.

    PubMed

    Aurell, Johanna; Hubble, David; Gullett, Brian K; Holder, Amara; Washburn, Ephraim; Tabor, Dennis

    2017-11-07

    The effect of accidental fires are simulated to understand the response of items such as vehicles, fuel tanks, and military ordnance and to remediate the effects through re-design of the items or changes in operational procedures. The comparative combustion emissions of using jet propellant (JP-5) liquid fuel pools or a propane manifold grid to simulate the effects of accidental fires was investigated. A helium-filled tethered aerostat was used to maneuver an instrument package into the open fire plumes to measure CO, CO 2 , fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and elemental/organic/total carbon (EC/OC/TC). The results showed that all emissions except CO 2 were significantly higher from JP-5 burns than from propane. The major portion of the PM mass from fires of both fuels was less than 1 μm in diameter and differed in carbon content. The PM 2.5 emission factor from JP-5 burns (129 ± 23 g/kg Fuel c ) was approximately 150 times higher than the PM 2.5 emission factor from propane burns (0.89 ± 0.21 g/kg Fuel c ). The PAH emissions as well as some VOCs were more than one hundred times higher for the JP-5 burns than the propane burns. Using the propane test method to study flammability responses, the environmental impact of PM 2.5 , PAHs, and VOCs would be reduced by 2300, 700, and 100 times per test, respectively.

  17. Modeling and Simulation Tools for Heavy Lift Airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstetler, Ron; Chachad, Girish; Hardy, Gordon; Blanken, Matthew; Melton, John

    2016-01-01

    For conventional fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft a variety of modeling and simulation tools have been developed to provide designers the means to thoroughly investigate proposed designs and operational concepts. However, lighter-than-air (LTA) airships, hybrid air vehicles, and aerostats have some important aspects that are different from heavier-than-air (HTA) vehicles. In order to account for these differences, modifications are required to the standard design tools to fully characterize the LTA vehicle design and performance parameters.. To address these LTA design and operational factors, LTA development organizations have created unique proprietary modeling tools, often at their own expense. An expansion of this limited LTA tool set could be accomplished by leveraging existing modeling and simulation capabilities available in the National laboratories and public research centers. Development of an expanded set of publicly available LTA modeling and simulation tools for LTA developers would mitigate the reliance on proprietary LTA design tools in use today. A set of well researched, open source, high fidelity LTA design modeling and simulation tools would advance LTA vehicle development and also provide the analytical basis for accurate LTA operational cost assessments. This paper will present the modeling and analysis tool capabilities required for LTA vehicle design, analysis of operations, and full life-cycle support. A survey of the tools currently available will be assessed to identify the gaps between their capabilities and the LTA industry's needs. Options for development of new modeling and analysis capabilities to supplement contemporary tools will also be presented.

  18. Nano-level instrumentation for analyzing the dynamic accuracy of a rolling element bearing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Hong, J; Zhang, J; Wang, M Y; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    The rotational performance of high-precision rolling bearings is fundamental to the overall accuracy of complex mechanical systems. A nano-level instrument to analyze rotational accuracy of high-precision bearings of machine tools under working conditions was developed. In this instrument, a high-precision (error motion < 0.15 μm) and high-stiffness (2600 N axial loading capacity) aerostatic spindle was applied to spin the test bearing. Operating conditions could be simulated effectively because of the large axial loading capacity. An air-cylinder, controlled by a proportional pressure regulator, was applied to drive an air-bearing subjected to non-contact and precise loaded axial forces. The measurement results on axial loading and rotation constraint with five remaining degrees of freedom were completely unconstrained and uninfluenced by the instrument's structure. Dual capacity displacement sensors with 10 nm resolution were applied to measure the error motion of the spindle using a double-probe error separation method. This enabled the separation of the spindle's error motion from the measurement results of the test bearing which were measured using two orthogonal laser displacement sensors with 5 nm resolution. Finally, a Lissajous figure was used to evaluate the non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the bearing at different axial forces and speeds. The measurement results at various axial loadings and speeds showed the standard deviations of the measurements' repeatability and accuracy were less than 1% and 2%. Future studies will analyze the relationship between geometrical errors and NRRO, such as the ball diameter differences of and the geometrical errors in the grooves of rings.

  19. Environmental Assessment for Termination of Lease and the Transfer of Property Back to the Landowner for the Morgan City, LA, Tethered Aerostat Radar System (TARS) Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    infrastructure would be affected under Alternative A since all buildings, utility systems, roads, pavements, fences, etc. would be removed. Physical... affect the TARS program objectives. 1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE DOCUMENT This EA is organized into seven chapters plus appendices. Chapter 1...Action affects public health or safety; • Unique characteristics of the geographic area such as proximity to historic or cultural resources, park

  20. Nano-level instrumentation for analyzing the dynamic accuracy of a rolling element bearing

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yang, Z.; Hong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-15

    The rotational performance of high-precision rolling bearings is fundamental to the overall accuracy of complex mechanical systems. A nano-level instrument to analyze rotational accuracy of high-precision bearings of machine tools under working conditions was developed. In this instrument, a high-precision (error motion < 0.15 μm) and high-stiffness (2600 N axial loading capacity) aerostatic spindle was applied to spin the test bearing. Operating conditions could be simulated effectively because of the large axial loading capacity. An air-cylinder, controlled by a proportional pressure regulator, was applied to drive an air-bearing subjected to non-contact and precise loaded axial forces. The measurement results onmore » axial loading and rotation constraint with five remaining degrees of freedom were completely unconstrained and uninfluenced by the instrument's structure. Dual capacity displacement sensors with 10 nm resolution were applied to measure the error motion of the spindle using a double-probe error separation method. This enabled the separation of the spindle's error motion from the measurement results of the test bearing which were measured using two orthogonal laser displacement sensors with 5 nm resolution. Finally, a Lissajous figure was used to evaluate the non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the bearing at different axial forces and speeds. The measurement results at various axial loadings and speeds showed the standard deviations of the measurements’ repeatability and accuracy were less than 1% and 2%. Future studies will analyze the relationship between geometrical errors and NRRO, such as the ball diameter differences of and the geometrical errors in the grooves of rings.« less

  1. Fabrication of micro-lens array on convex surface by meaning of micro-milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Du, Yunlong; Wang, Bo; Shan, Debin

    2014-08-01

    In order to develop the application of the micro-milling technology, and to fabricate ultra-precision optical surface with complex microstructure, in this paper, the primary experimental research on micro-milling complex microstructure array is carried out. A complex microstructure array surface with vary parameters is designed, and the mathematic model of the surface is set up and simulated. For the fabrication of the designed microstructure array surface, a micro three-axis ultra-precision milling machine tool is developed, aerostatic guideway drove directly by linear motor is adopted in order to guarantee the enough stiffness of the machine, and novel numerical control strategy with linear encoders of 5nm resolution used as the feedback of the control system is employed to ensure the extremely high motion control accuracy. With the help of CAD/CAM technology, convex micro lens array on convex spherical surface with different scales on material of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and pure copper is fabricated using micro tungsten carbide ball end milling tool based on the ultra-precision micro-milling machine. Excellent nanometer-level micro-movement performance of the axis is proved by motion control experiment. The fabrication is nearly as the same as the design, the characteristic scale of the microstructure is less than 200μm and the accuracy is better than 1μm. It prove that ultra-precision micro-milling technology based on micro ultra-precision machine tool is a suitable and optional method for micro manufacture of microstructure array surface on different kinds of materials, and with the development of micro milling cutter, ultraprecision micro-milling complex microstructure surface will be achieved in future.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Technologies for Observations at Active Volcanoes: Advances and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M.; Makel, D.; Schwandner, F. M.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Elston, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Modern application of unmanned aerial systems' (UASs) technology allow us to conduct in situ measurements in volcanic plumes and drifting volcanic clouds that were impossible to make in the past. Thus, we are now able to explore proximal airspace near and within eruption columns and or other active vents, at very high and at very low altitudes—risk to human investigators is vastly reduced (although not eliminated). We are now on the cusp of being able to make in situ measurements and conduct sampling at altitudes of 5000-6000 meters relatively routinely. We also are developing heat tolerant electronics and sensors that will deployed on, around, and over active lava lakes and lava flows at terrestrial volcanoes, but with a view toward developing planetary applications, for instance on the surface of Venus. We report on our 2012-present systematic UAS-based observations of light gases (e.g., SO2 CO2, H2S) at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, at Italian volcanic sites (e.g., Isole Vulcano; La Solfatara), and most recently at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii in collaboration with USGS and NPS colleagues. Other deployments for Fall 2017 and Winter 2018 are in planning stages for the Salton Sea Basin and Costa Rica, which will include an airborne miniature mass spectrometer onboard several different types of UAVs. In addition, under development is the first purpose-built-for-volcanology small unmanned aircraft. We discuss strategies for acquiring airborne data from proximal ash/gas plumes during restless periods and during eruptions, from distal drifting ash/gas clouds from eruptions, and from diffuse emissions (e.g., CO2) at very low altitudes, utilizing UASs (e.g., fixed wing, multi-rotor, aerostat), especially regarding inputs for source flux reverse models. This work was carried out, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.

  3. Error analysis of motion correction method for laser scanning of moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, S.; Lohani, B.

    2014-05-01

    The limitation of conventional laser scanning methods is that the objects being scanned should be static. The need of scanning moving objects has resulted in the development of new methods capable of generating correct 3D geometry of moving objects. Limited literature is available showing development of very few methods capable of catering to the problem of object motion during scanning. All the existing methods utilize their own models or sensors. Any studies on error modelling or analysis of any of the motion correction methods are found to be lacking in literature. In this paper, we develop the error budget and present the analysis of one such `motion correction' method. This method assumes availability of position and orientation information of the moving object which in general can be obtained by installing a POS system on board or by use of some tracking devices. It then uses this information along with laser scanner data to apply correction to laser data, thus resulting in correct geometry despite the object being mobile during scanning. The major application of this method lie in the shipping industry to scan ships either moving or parked in the sea and to scan other objects like hot air balloons or aerostats. It is to be noted that the other methods of "motion correction" explained in literature can not be applied to scan the objects mentioned here making the chosen method quite unique. This paper presents some interesting insights in to the functioning of "motion correction" method as well as a detailed account of the behavior and variation of the error due to different sensor components alone and in combination with each other. The analysis can be used to obtain insights in to optimal utilization of available components for achieving the best results.

  4. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaochi; Aurell, Johanna; Mitchell, William; Tabor, Dennis; Gullett, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and time-integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications such as vehicles, tethered balloons (aerostats) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to determine emission factors. The system is particularly applicable to open area sources, such as forest fires, due to its light weight (3.5 kg), compact size (6.75 L), and internal power supply. The sensor system, termed ;Kolibri;, consists of sensors measuring CO2 and CO, and samplers for particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Kolibri is controlled by a microcontroller which can record and transfer data in real time through a radio module. Selection of the sensors was based on laboratory testing for accuracy, response delay and recovery, cross-sensitivity, and precision. The Kolibri was compared against rack-mounted continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMs) and another mobile sampling instrument (the ;Flyer;) that has been used in over ten open area pollutant sampling events. Our results showed that the time series of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations measured by the Kolibri agreed well with those from the CEMs and the Flyer, with a laboratory-tested percentage error of 4.9%, 3%, and 5.8%, respectively. The VOC emission factors obtained using the Kolibri were consistent with existing literature values that relate concentration to modified combustion efficiency. The potential effect of rotor downwash on particle sampling was investigated in an indoor laboratory and the preliminary results suggested that its influence is minimal. Field application of the Kolibri sampling open detonation plumes indicated that the CO and CO2 sensors responded dynamically and their concentrations co-varied with emission transients. The Kolibri system can be applied to various challenging open area scenarios such as

  5. Lifting options for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering: advantages of tethered balloon systems.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Peter; Burgoyne, Chris; Hunt, Hugh; Causier, Matt

    2012-09-13

    The Royal Society report 'Geoengineering the Climate' identified solar radiation management using albedo-enhancing aerosols injected into the stratosphere as the most affordable and effective option for geoengineering, but did not consider in any detail the options for delivery. This paper provides outline engineering analyses of the options, both for batch-delivery processes, following up on previous work for artillery shells, missiles, aircraft and free-flying balloons, as well as a more lengthy analysis of continuous-delivery systems that require a pipe connected to the ground and supported at a height of 20 km, either by a tower or by a tethered balloon. Towers are shown not to be practical, but a tethered balloon delivery system, with high-pressure pumping, appears to have much lower operating and capital costs than all other delivery options. Instead of transporting sulphuric acid mist precursors, such a system could also be used to transport slurries of high refractive index particles such as coated titanium dioxide. The use of such particles would allow useful experiments on opacity, coagulation and atmospheric chemistry at modest rates so as not to perturb regional or global climatic conditions, thus reducing scale-up risks. Criteria for particle choice are discussed, including the need to minimize or prevent ozone destruction. The paper estimates the time scales and relatively modest costs required if a tethered balloon system were to be introduced in a measured way with testing and development work proceeding over three decades, rather than in an emergency. The manufacture of a tether capable of sustaining the high tensions and internal pressures needed, as well as strong winds, is a significant challenge, as is the development of the necessary pumping and dispersion technologies. The greatest challenge may be the manufacture and launch of very large balloons, but means have been identified to significantly reduce the size of such balloons or aerostats.

  6. Dispersion and Cluster Scales in the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirwan, A. D., Jr.; Chang, H.; Huntley, H.; Carlson, D. F.; Mensa, J. A.; Poje, A. C.; Fox-Kemper, B.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean flow space scales range from centimeters to thousands of kilometers. Because of their large Reynolds number these flows are considered turbulent. However, because of rotation and stratification constraints they do not conform to classical turbulence scaling theory. Mesoscale and large-scale motions are well described by geostrophic or "2D turbulence" theory, however extending this theory to submesoscales has proved to be problematic. One obvious reason is the difficulty in obtaining reliable data over many orders of magnitude of spatial scales in an ocean environment. The goal of this presentation is to provide a preliminary synopsis of two recent experiments that overcame these obstacles. The first experiment, the Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) was conducted during July 2012 in the eastern half of the Gulf of Mexico. Here approximately 300 GPS-tracked drifters were deployed with the primary goal to determine whether the relative dispersion of an initially densely clustered array was driven by processes acting at local pair separation scales or by straining imposed by mesoscale motions. The second experiment was a component of the LAgrangian Submesoscale Experiment (LASER) conducted during the winter of 2016. Here thousands of bamboo plates were tracked optically from an Aerostat. Together these two deployments provided an unprecedented data set on dispersion and clustering processes from 1 to 106 meter scales. Calculations of statistics such as two point separations, structure functions, and scale dependent relative diffusivities showed: inverse energy cascade as expected for scales above 10 km, a forward energy cascade at scales below 10 km with a possible energy input at Langmuir circulation scales. We also find evidence from structure function calculations for surface flow convergence at scales less than 10 km that account for material clustering at the ocean surface.

  7. Coherent Uncertainty Analysis of Aerosol Measurements from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow / ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which is the only one of the sensors capable of measuring polarized aerosols, outperforms other sensors in

  8. Surface accuracy analysis and mathematical modeling of deployable large aperture elastic antenna reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Michael J.

    of design parameters can increase the performance of inflatable antennas, opening up new antenna applications where higher resolution and greater sensitivity are desired. These include space applications involving high data rates and high bandwidths, such as lunar surface wireless local networks and orbiting relay satellites. A light-weight inflatable antenna is also an ideal component in aerostat, airship and free balloon systems that supports communication, surveillance and remote sensing applications.

  9. Spectral mixture analyses of hyperspectral data acquired using a tethered balloon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Vierling, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Tethered balloon remote sensing platforms can be used to study radiometric issues in terrestrial ecosystems by effectively bridging the spatial gap between measurements made on the ground and those acquired via airplane or satellite. In this study, the Short Wave Aerostat-Mounted Imager (SWAMI) tethered balloon-mounted platform was utilized to evaluate linear and nonlinear spectral mixture analysis (SMA) for a grassland-conifer forest ecotone during the summer of 2003. Hyperspectral measurement of a 74-m diameter ground instantaneous field of view (GIFOV) attained by the SWAMI was studied. Hyperspectral spectra of four common endmembers, bare soil, grass, tree, and shadow, were collected in situ, and images captured via video camera were interpreted into accurate areal ground cover fractions for evaluating the mixture models. The comparison between the SWAMI spectrum and the spectrum derived by combining in situ spectral data with video-derived areal fractions indicated that nonlinear effects occurred in the near infrared (NIR) region, while nonlinear influences were minimal in the visible region. The evaluation of hyperspectral and multispectral mixture models indicated that nonlinear mixture model-derived areal fractions were sensitive to the model input data, while the linear mixture model performed more stably. Areal fractions of bare soil were overestimated in all models due to the increased radiance of bare soil resulting from side scattering of NIR radiation by adjacent grass and trees. Unmixing errors occurred mainly due to multiple scattering as well as close endmember spectral correlation. In addition, though an apparent endmember assemblage could be derived using linear approaches to yield low residual error, the tree and shade endmember fractions calculated using this technique were erroneous and therefore separate treatment of endmembers subject to high amounts of multiple scattering (i.e. shadows and trees) must be done with caution. Including the

  10. Volcanic sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide measurements using small unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.; Bland, G.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Christensen, L. E.; Corrales, E.; Linick, J.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Ramsey, M. S.; Realmuto, V. J.; Schwandner, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanoes emit gases continuously with significant pre-post-eruption changes, mainly H2O and CO2, plus SO2, and others. The SO2/CO2 ratio changes within volcanic life cycles making it an indicator of oncoming eruption phases: it can dip weeks to months before eruptions, then increase, and decrease back to background after eruptions. Over the last five years, we have made an effort to develop small and inexpensive lighter-than-air and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms in Costa Rica at Turrialba Volcano. Turrialba is an appropriate natural laboratory to test and prove platforms and instrumentation in low-level steady state volcanogenic gas and aerosol emissions at moderate altitudes (<12Kft ASL), where good technical infrastructure exists, with good physical access to the volcano. Our program in Costa Rica includes: (1) systematic monitoring of Turrialba from orbit with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), with its thermal infrared (TIR) camera for SO2 retrieval, and more recently with GOSAT and OCO-2 for CO2; (2) in situ observations from aerostats and UAVs during ASTER overpasses, and (3) reconciliation of the orbital results with in situ data to validate mass retrieval and transport models. As part of the NASA HyspIRI Preparatory Airborne Activities program, we will conduct similar observations at Kilauea volcano using small UAVs and for both SO2 and CO2 in situ. One of the salient characteristics of the long lived Kilauea eruptions since 1983 has been the emission of SO2 in significant amounts, generating environmental stresses on local inhabitants due to lowered air quality, and stress on vegetation. Kilauea volcanic plumes, as with Turrialba, are mainly gases and liquid--SO2 is hydrolyzed to H2SO4 and the resulting highly acidic liquid aerosol is termed "vog," an environmental health hazard. Measurement of the diffuse CO2 emissions at Kilauea will also be of interest. Such measurements at Turrialba

  11. International Design Concepts for the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, J.

    2001-12-01

    In August of 2000, representatives of eleven countries signed a Memorandum of Understanding to Establish the International Square Kilometre Array Steering Committee (ISSC). Arguably, the SKA could be built today, but without question it would be unaffordable. Increasing collecting area by a factor of 100 beyond today's largest array cannot be done cost effectively by simple extensions of what has been done before. New concepts, new designs, and new technologies will be required, as well as a paradigm shift. It will be necessary to heavily exploit emerging communications and consumer market technologies; to "hammer" them into shapes required to solve the SKA challenges, rather than inventing our own solutions from scratch. Or if we do invent ab initio solutions, we should look at creating consumer markets to embrace them, so that the full benefits of mass production and manufacturing can be realized. The strawman science goals of the SKA are extremely ambitious. Today there are six primary design concepts being studied that attempt to meet some or all of these goals; phased arrays of active elements embedded into flat tiles, "super Arecibo" antennas constructed in individual limestone karst sinkholes and arrayed together, large arrays of small, spherical (or hemispherical) Luneberg lenses, large deformable apertures with long focal ratios and aerostat-borne focal plane array receivers, arrays of large parabolic antennas constructed from steel "ropes," and large arrays of small parabolic dishes derived from the TVRO industry. This talk summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of these various designs in their current, incomplete state. In the US, the US SKA Consortium of 10 academic and research organizations has generated a roadmap to guide and assess the technology development that will be required to produce a successful SKA design, with well understood costs, performance, and minimal risk. The design and construction efforts for the ATA, LOFAR and the EVLA will

  12. Non-linear visco-elastic analysis and the design of super-pressure balloons : stress, strain and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, David

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures. Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite, these activities have broadened to encompass ‘lighter than air' structures such as aerostats, hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons. Since 2004 Tensys have acted as consultants to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Program. Early implementations of the super-pressure balloon design chosen for ULDB have shown problems of geometric instability, characterised by improper deployment and the potential for overall geometric instability once deployed. The latter has been reproduced numerically using inTENS, and the former are better understood following a series of large-scale hangar tests simulating launch and ascent. In both cases the solution lies in minimising the film lobing between the tendons. These tendons, which span between base and apex end fittings, cause the characteristic pumpkin shape of the balloons and also provide valuable constraint against excessive film deformation. There is also the requirement to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness. A consequence of reduced lobing between tendons is the development of higher stresses in the balloon film under pressure. The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film lead to further significant meridional stress under low temperature flight conditions. The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate excessive stress and local concentrations. However, creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations sufficient to compromise the geometric stability of the balloon. The design of a balloon requires an analysis approach that addresses the questions of stress and stability over the duration of a flight by time stepping analyses using an appropriate material model. This paper summarises the Dynamic Relaxation

  13. Geological hazard zonation in a marble exploitation area (Apuan Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francioni, M.; Salvini, R.; Riccucci, S.

    2011-12-01

    The present paper describes the hazard mapping of an exploitation area sited in the Apuan Alps marble district (Italy) carried out by the integration of various survey and analysis methodologies. The research, supported by the Massa and Carrara Local Sanitary Agency responsible for workplace health and safety activities, aimed to reduce the high degree hazard of rock fall caused by the presence of potentially unstable blocks located on slopes overhanging the marble quarries. The study of rocky fronts bases on the knowledge of both the structural setting and the physical-mechanical properties of intact material and its discontinuities. In this work the main difficulty in obtaining this information was the inaccessibility of the slope overhanging the area (up to 500 meters high). For this reason, the structural and geological-engineering surveys were integrated by outcomes from digital photogrammetry carried out through terrestrial stereoscopic photos acquired from an aerostatic balloon and a helicopter. In this way, it was possible to derive the geometrical characteristics of joints (such as discontinuities dip, dip direction, spacing and persistence), blocks volumes and slopes morphology also in inaccessible areas. This information, combined with data coming from the geological-engineering survey, was used to perform the stability analysis of the slope. Subsequently, using the topographic map at the scale of 1:2,000, the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the slopes and several topographic profiles along it were produced. Assuming that there is a good correspondence between travelling paths and maximum down slope angle, probable trajectories of rock fall along the slope were calculated on the DTM by means of a GIS procedure which utilizes the ArcHydro module of EsriTM ArcMap software. When performing such a 2D numerical modelling of rock falls, lateral dispersion of trajectories has often been hampered by the "a priori" choice of the travelling path. Such a choice can