Aerothermal modeling. Executive summary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenworthy, M. K.; Correa, S. M.; Burrus, D. L.
1983-01-01
One of the significant ways in which the performance level of aircraft turbine engines has been improved is by the use of advanced materials and cooling concepts that allow a significant increase in turbine inlet temperature level, with attendant thermodynamic cycle benefits. Further cycle improvements have been achieved with higher pressure ratio compressors. The higher turbine inlet temperatures and compressor pressure ratios with corresponding higher temperature cooling air has created a very hostile environment for the hot section components. To provide the technology needed to reduce the hot section maintenance costs, NASA has initiated the Hot Section Technology (HOST) program. One key element of this overall program is the Aerothermal Modeling Program. The overall objective of his program is to evolve and validate improved analysis methods for use in the design of aircraft turbine engine combustors. The use of such combustor analysis capabilities can be expected to provide significant improvement in the life and durability characteristics of both combustor and turbine components.
Aerothermal modeling program, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; Reynolds, R.; Ball, I.; Berry, R.; Johnson, K.; Mongia, H.
1983-01-01
Aerothermal submodels used in analytical combustor models are analyzed. The models described include turbulence and scalar transport, gaseous full combustion, spray evaporation/combustion, soot formation and oxidation, and radiation. The computational scheme is discussed in relation to boundary conditions and convergence criteria. Also presented is the data base for benchmark quality test cases and an analysis of simple flows.
Aero-thermal modeling framework for TMT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogiatzis, Konstantinos
2011-09-01
The Performance Error Budget of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) suggests that nearly one third of the total image degradation is due to aero-thermal disturbances (mirror and dome seeing, dynamic wind loading and thermal deformations of the optics, telescope structure and enclosure). An update of the current status of aero-thermal modeling and Computational Fluid-Solid Dynamics (CFSD) simulations for TMT is presented. A fast three-dimensional transient conduction-convection-radiation bulk-air-volume model has also been developed for the enclosure and selected telescope components in order to track the temperature variations of the surfaces, structure and interstitial air over a period of three years using measured environmental conditions. It is used for Observatory Heat Budget analysis and also provides estimates of thermal boundary conditions required by the CFD/FEA models and guidance to the design. Detailed transient CFSD conjugate heat transfer simulations of the mirror support assemblies determine the direction of heat flow from important heat sources and provide guidance to the design. Finally, improved CFD modeling is used to calculate wind forces and temperature fields. Wind loading simulations are demonstrated through TMT aperture deflector forcing. Temperature fields are transformed into refractive index ones and the resulting Optical Path Differences (OPDs) are fed into an updated thermal seeing model to estimate seeing performance metrics. Keck II simulations are the demonstrator for the latter type of modeling.
Aerothermal modeling program, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sturgess, G. J.
1983-01-01
The physical modeling embodied in the computational fluid dynamics codes is discussed. The objectives were to identify shortcomings in the models and to provide a program plan to improve the quantitative accuracy. The physical models studied were for: turbulent mass and momentum transport, heat release, liquid fuel spray, and gaseous radiation. The approach adopted was to test the models against appropriate benchmark-quality test cases from experiments in the literature for the constituent flows that together make up the combustor real flow.
Aerothermal modeling program, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; Reynolds, R.; Ball, I.; Berry, R.; Johnson, K.; Mongia, H.
1983-01-01
The combustor performance submodels for complex flows are evaluated. The benchmark test cases for complex nonswirling flows are identified and analyzed. The introduction of swirl into the flow creates much faster mixing, caused by radial pressure gradients and increase in turbulence generation. These phenomena are more difficult to predict than the effects due to geometrical streamline curvatures, like the curved duct, and sudden expansion. Flow fields with swirl, both confined and unconfined are studied. The role of the dilution zone to achieve the turbine inlet radial profile plays an important part, therefore temperature field measurements were made in several idealized dilution zone configurations.
Turbulence Models for Accurate Aerothermal Prediction in Hypersonic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang-Hong; Wu, Yi-Zao; Wang, Jiang-Feng
Accurate description of the aerodynamic and aerothermal environment is crucial to the integrated design and optimization for high performance hypersonic vehicles. In the simulation of aerothermal environment, the effect of viscosity is crucial. The turbulence modeling remains a major source of uncertainty in the computational prediction of aerodynamic forces and heating. In this paper, three turbulent models were studied: the one-equation eddy viscosity transport model of Spalart-Allmaras, the Wilcox k-ω model and the Menter SST model. For the k-ω model and SST model, the compressibility correction, press dilatation and low Reynolds number correction were considered. The influence of these corrections for flow properties were discussed by comparing with the results without corrections. In this paper the emphasis is on the assessment and evaluation of the turbulence models in prediction of heat transfer as applied to a range of hypersonic flows with comparison to experimental data. This will enable establishing factor of safety for the design of thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Bo; Li, Lin; Zhu, Ying
2014-11-01
Researches on hypersonic vehicles have been a hotspot in the field of aerospace because of the pursuits for higher speed by human being. Infrared imaging guidance is playing a very important role in modern warfare. When an Infrared Ray(IR) imaging guided missile is flying in the air at high speed, its optical dome suffers from serious aero-optic effects because of air flow. The turbulence around the dome and the thermal effects of the optical window would cause disturbance to the wavefront from the target. Therefore, detected images will be biased, dithered and blurred, and the capabilities of the seeker for detecting, tracking and recognizing are weakened. In this paper, methods for thermal and structural analysis with Heat Transfer and Elastic Mechanics are introduced. By studying the aero-thermal effects and aero-thermal radiation effects of the optical window, a 3D analysis model of the optical window is established by using finite element method. The direct coupling analysis is employed as a solving strategy. The variation regularity of the temperature field is obtained. For light with different incident angles, the influence on the ray propagation caused by window deformation is analyzed with theoretical calculation and optical/thermal/structural integrated analysis method respectively.
A Review of Aerothermal Modeling for Mars Entry Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Michael J; Tang, Chun Y.; Edquist, Karl T.; Hollis, Brian R.; Krasa, Paul
2009-01-01
The current status of aerothermal analysis for Mars entry missions is reviewed. The aeroheating environment of all Mars missions to date has been dominated by convective heating. Two primary uncertainties in our ability to predict forebody convective heating are turbulence on a blunt lifting cone and surface catalysis in a predominantly CO2 environment. Future missions, particularly crewed vehicles, will encounter additional heating from shock-layer radiation due to a combination of larger size and faster entry velocity. Localized heating due to penetrations or other singularities on the aeroshell must also be taken into account. The physical models employed to predict these phenomena are reviewed, and key uncertainties or deficiencies inherent in these models are explored. Capabilities of existing ground test facilities to support aeroheating validation are also summarized. Engineering flight data from the Viking and Pathfinder missions, which may be useful for aerothermal model validation, are discussed, and an argument is presented for obtaining additional flight data. Examples are taken from past, present, and future Mars entry missions, including the twin Mars Exploration Rovers and the Mars Science Laboratory, scheduled for launch by NASA in 2011.
Assessment, development, and application of combustor aerothermal models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holdeman, J. D.; Mongia, H. C.; Mularz, E. J.
1988-01-01
The gas turbine combustion system design and development effort is an engineering exercise to obtain an acceptable solution to the conflicting design trade-offs between combustion efficiency, gaseous emissions, smoke, ignition, restart, lean blowout, burner exit temperature quality, structural durability, and life cycle cost. For many years, these combustor design trade-offs have been carried out with the help of fundamental reasoning and extensive component and bench testing, backed by empirical and experience correlations. Recent advances in the capability of computational fluid dynamcis codes have led to their application to complex 3-D flows such as those in the gas turbine combustor. A number of U.S. Government and industry sponsored programs have made significant contributions to the formulation, development, and verification of an analytical combustor design methodology which will better define the aerothermal loads in a combustor, and be a valuable tool for design of future combustion systems. The contributions made by NASA Hot Section Technology (HOST) sponsored Aerothermal Modeling and supporting programs are described.
Assessment, development, and application of combustor aerothermal models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holdeman, J. D.; Mongia, H. C.; Mularz, E. J.
1989-01-01
The gas turbine combustion system design and development effort is an engineering exercise to obtain an acceptable solution to the conflicting design trade-offs between combustion efficiency, gaseous emissions, smoke, ignition, restart, lean blowout, burner exit temperature quality, structural durability, and life cycle cost. For many years, these combustor design trade-offs have been carried out with the help of fundamental reasoning and extensive component and bench testing, backed by empirical and experience correlations. Recent advances in the capability of computational fluid dynamics codes have led to their application to complex 3-D flows such as those in the gas turbine combustor. A number of U.S. Government and industry sponsored programs have made significant contributions to the formulation, development, and verification of an analytical combustor design methodology which will better define the aerothermal loads in a combustor, and be a valuable tool for design of future combustion systems. The contributions made by NASA Hot Section Technology (HOST) sponsored Aerothermal Modeling and supporting programs are described.
Assessment, development and application of combustor aerothermal models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holdeman, J. D.; Mongia, H. C.; Mularz, E. J.
1988-01-01
The gas turbine combustion system design and development effort is an engineering exercise to obtain an acceptable solution to the conflicting design trade-offs between combustion efficiency, gaseous emissions, smoke, ignition, restart, lean blowout, burner exit temperature quality, structural durability, and life cycle cost. For many years, these combustor design trade-offs have been carried out with the help of fundamental reasoning and extensive component and bench testing, backed by empirical and experience correlations. Recent advances in the capability of computational fluid dynamics codes have led to their application to complex 3-D flows such as those in the gas turbine combustor. A number of U.S. Government and industry sponsored programs have made significant contributions to the formulation, development, and verification of an analytical combustor design methodology which will better define the aerothermal loads in a combustor, and be a valuable tool for design of future combustion systems. The contributions made by NASA Hot Section Technology (HOST) sponsored Aerothermal Modeling and supporting programs are described.
Executive summary, aerothermal modeling program, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; Reynolds, R.; Bail, I.; Berry, R.; Johnson, K.; Mongia, H.
1983-01-01
Submodels used in the combustor analytical models that were successfully used in designing advanced technology combustors were assessed. Specific recommendations for further improvement of model accuracy for combustor design purposes were made. Based upon an exhaustive literature survey, a number of test cases were selected to assess accuracy of submodels of turbulence, turbulence/chemistry interaction, spray combustion, and dilution jet mixing processes within a confined cross-stream. These test cases included simple flows and complex flows with and without swirl. Nonrecirculating and recirculating, and nonreactive and reactive flows were investigated. It was concluded that the current models give qualitative trends for the recirculating secondary flows (as encountered in a gas turbine combustor primary zone), but the predictions are good for the dilution zone.
Aerothermal modeling program, Phase 2, Element C: Fuel injector-air swirl characterization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mostafa, A. A.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonnel, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.
1987-01-01
The main objectives of the NASA sponsored Aerothermal Modeling Program, Phase 2, Element C, are to collect benchmark quality data to quantify the fuel spray interaction with the turbulent swirling flows and to validate current and advanced two phase flow models. The technical tasks involved in this effort are discussed.
Methodology for the Assessment of 3D Conduction Effects in an Aerothermal Wind Tunnel Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, Anthony Brandon
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews a method for the assessment of three-dimensional conduction effects during test in a Aerothermal Wind Tunnel. The test objectives were to duplicate and extend tests that were performed during the 1960's on thermal conduction on proturberance on a flat plate. Slides review the 1D versus 3D conduction data reduction error, the analysis process, CFD-based analysis, loose coupling method that simulates a wind tunnel test run, verification of the CFD solution, Grid convergence, Mach number trend, size trends, and a Sumary of the CFD conduction analysis. Other slides show comparisons to pretest CFD at Mach 1.5 and 2.16 and the geometries of the models and grids.
Aerothermal modeling program, phase 2. Element C: Fuel injector-air swirl characterization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mostafa, A. A.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonnell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.
1986-01-01
The main objectives of the NASA-sponsored Aerothermal Modeling Program, Phase 2--Element C, are experimental evaluation of the air swirler interaction with a fuel injector in a simulated combustor chamber, assessment of the current two-phase models, and verification of the improved spray evaporation/dispersion models. This experimental and numerical program consists of five major tasks. Brief descriptions of the five tasks are given.
Flow interaction experiment. Volume 1: Aerothermal modeling, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Sullivan, J. P.; Murthy, S. N. B.
1993-01-01
An experimental and computational study is reported for the flow of a turbulent jet discharging into a rectangular enclosure. The experimental configurations consisting of primary jets only, annular jets only, and a combination of annular and primary jets are investigated to provide a better understanding of the flow field in an annular combustor. A laser Doppler velocimeter is used to measure mean velocity and Reynolds stress components. Major features of the flow field include recirculation, primary and annular jet interaction, and high turbulence. A significant result from this study is the effect the primary jets have on the flow field. The primary jets are seen to create statistically larger recirculation zones and higher turbulence levels. In addition, a technique called marker nephelometry is used to provide mean concentration values in the model combustor. Computations are performed using three levels of turbulence closures, namely k-epsilon model, algebraic second moment (ASM), and differential second moment (DSM) closure. Two different numerical schemes are applied. One is the lower-order power-law differencing scheme (PLDS) and the other is the higher-order flux-spline differencing scheme (FSDS). A comparison is made of the performance of these schemes. The numerical results are compared with experimental data. For the cases considered in this study, the FSDS is more accurate than the PLDS. For a prescribed accuracy, the flux-spline scheme requires a far fewer number of grid points. Thus, it has the potential for providing a numerical error-free solution, especially for three-dimensional flows, without requiring an excessively fine grid. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained, the deficiencies regarding the modeled dissipation rate (epsilon) equation, pressure-strain correlation model, and the inlet epsilon profile and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to
Flow interaction experiment. Volume 2: Aerothermal modeling, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Sullivan, J. P.; Murthy, S. N. B.
1993-01-01
An experimental and computational study is reported for the flow of a turbulent jet discharging into a rectangular enclosure. The experimental configurations consisting of primary jets only, annular jets only, and a combination of annular and primary jets are investigated to provide a better understanding of the flow field in an annular combustor. A laser Doppler velocimeter is used to measure mean velocity and Reynolds stress components. Major features of the flow field include recirculation, primary and annular jet interaction, and high turbulence. A significant result from this study is the effect the primary jets have on the flow field. The primary jets are seen to create statistically larger recirculation zones and higher turbulence levels. In addition, a technique called marker nephelometry is used to provide mean concentration values in the model combustor. Computations are performed using three levels of turbulence closures, namely k-epsilon model, algebraic second moment (ASM), and differential second moment (DSM) closure. Two different numerical schemes are applied. One is the lower-order power-law differencing scheme (PLDS) and the other is the higher-order flux-spline differencing scheme (FSDS). A comparison is made of the performance of these schemes. The numerical results are compared with experimental data. For the cases considered in this study, the FSDS is more accurate than the PLDS. For a prescribed accuracy, the flux-spline scheme requires a far fewer number of grid points. Thus, it has the potential for providing a numerical error-free solution, especially for three-dimensional flows, without requiring an excessively fine grid. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained, the deficiencies regarding the modeled dissipation rate (epsilon) equation, pressure-strain correlation model, and the inlet epsilon profile and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to
Aerothermal Considerations for Entry, Descent, and Landing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Chun
2015-01-01
Aerothermal modeling is inherently entwined with TPS design. Aerothermal, radiation, and TPS material response are coupled so it's important to check modeling assumptions. Validation of numerical models using ground and flight tests is important to quantify uncertainties. A margin policy based on statistical methods may provide greater insight in the key drivers and overall reliability of the design
Transient aero-thermal simulations for TMT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogiatzis, Konstantinos
2014-08-01
Aero-thermal simulations are an integral part of the design process for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). These simulations utilize Computational Solid-Fluid Dynamics (CSFD) to estimate wind jitter and blur, dome and mirror seeing, telescope pointing error due to thermal drift, and to predict thermal effects on performance of components such as the primary mirror segments. Design guidance obtained from these simulations is provided to the Telescope, Enclosure, Facilities and Adaptive Optics groups. Computational advances allow for model enhancements and inclusion of phenomena not previously resolved, such as transient effects on wind loading and thermal seeing due to vent operation while observing or long exposure effects, with potentially different flow patterns corresponding to the beginning and end of observation. Accurate knowledge of the Observatory aero-thermal environment will result in developing reliable look-up tables for effective open loop correction of key active optics system elements, and cost efficient operation of the Observatory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Da-Lin; Qi, Hong
Semi-transparent materials (such as IR optical windows) are widely used for heat protection or transfer, temperature and image measurement, and safety in energy , space, military, and information technology applications. They are used, for instance, ceramic coatings for thermal barriers of spacecrafts or gas turbine blades, and thermal image observation under extreme or some dangerous environments. In this paper, the coupled conduction and radiation heat transfer model is established to describe temperature distribution of semitransparent thermal barrier medium within the aerothermal environment. In order to investigate this numerical model, one semi-transparent sample with black coating was considered, and photothermal properties were measured. At last, Finite Volume Method (FVM) was used to solve the coupled model, and the temperature responses from the sample surfaces were obtained. In addition, experiment study was also taken into account. In the present experiment, aerodynamic heat flux was simulated by one electrical heater, and two experiment cases were designed in terms of the duration of aerodynamic heating. One case is that the heater irradiates one surface of the sample continually until the other surface temperature up to constant, and the other case is that the heater works only 130 s. The surface temperature responses of these two cases were recorded. Finally, FVM model of the coupling conduction-radiation heat transfer was validated based on the experiment study with relative error less than 5%.
Advanced Models for Prediction of High Altitude Aero-Thermal Loads of a Space Re-entry Vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Votta, R.; Schettino, A.; Bonfiglioli, A.
2011-05-01
The analysis of the rarefaction effects in predicting the main aero-thermal loads of a Space re-entry vehicle is presented. It is well known that the Navier-Stokes equations fail in rarefied regimes and other approaches must be used. In the present paper different configurations have been simulated by using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. Moreover, slip flow boundary conditions have been implemented in a Navier-Stokes code in order to extend the validity of the continuum approach to the transitional flow regime. Finally, bridging formulas for high altitude aerodynamics of winged bodies have been used. Firstly, two simple geometries have been analysed, specifically designed to study the phenomenon of shock wave boundary layer interaction: a hollow cylinder flare, for which some experiments are available; and a blunt-nosed flat plate/flap model designed and tested at the Italian Aerospace Research Centre. The other configurations taken into account are, respectively, an experimental winged re-entry vehicle and a capsule, for which global aerodynamic coefficients and local wall heating have been determined with different approaches. The Navier-Stokes code with slip flow boundary conditions has shown good predicting capabilities compared with experiments in the hollow cylinder flare case; however, for the winged vehicle and capsule cases, the CFD results are not fully satisfactory and the Monte Carlo method remains the most reliable approach, together with the bridging formula, that provides good results for the aerodynamic coefficients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian
2015-01-01
NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.
Aerothermal tests of quilted dome models on a flat plate at a Mach number of 6.5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, Christopher E.; Hunt, L. Roane
1988-01-01
Aerothermal tests were conducted in the NASA Langley 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel (8'HTT) at a Mach number of 6.5 on simulated arrays of thermally bowed metallic thermal protection system (TPS) tiles at an angle of attack of 5 deg. Detailed surface pressures and heating rates were obtained for arrays aligned with the flow and skewed 45 deg diagonally to the flow with nominal bowed heights of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 inch submerged in both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Aerothermal tests were made at a nominal total temperature of 3300 R, a total pressure of 400 psia, a total enthalpy of 950 Btu/lbm, a dynamic pressure of 2.7 psi, and a unit Reynolds number of 400,000 per foot. The experimental results form a data base that can be used to help protect aerothermal load increases from bowed arrays of TPS tiles.
2012-05-01
AFRL-RZ-WP-TM-2012-0192 TURBINE AEROTHERMAL RESEARCH Rolf Sondergaard, Shichuan Ou, and Richard Rivir Turbomachinery Branch Turbine...SONDERGAARD CHARLES W. STEVENS Project Engineer Branch Chief Turbomachinery Branch Turbomachinery Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine Engine...WORK UNIT NUMBER Q0EE 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Turbomachinery Branch (AFRL/RQTT
Application of CFD to aerothermal heating problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macaraeg, M. G.
1986-01-01
Numerical solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations by an alternating direction implicit scheme, applied to two experimental investigations are presented. The first is cooling by injection of a gas jet through the nose of an ogive-cone, and the second is the aerothermal environment in the gap formed by the wing and elevon section of a test model of the space shuttle. The simulations demonstrate that accurate pressure calculations are easily obtained on a coarse grid, while convergence is obtained after the residual reduces by four orders of magnitude. Accurate heating rates, however, require a fine grid solution, with convergence requiring at least a reduction of six orders of magnitude in the residual. The effect of artificial dissipation on numerical results is also assessed.
Fuel injector: Air swirl characterization aerothermal modeling, phase 2, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.
1993-01-01
A well integrated experimental/analytical investigation was conducted to provide benchmark quality relevant to a prefilming type airblast fuel nozzle and its interaction with the combustor dome air swirler. The experimental investigation included a systematic study of both single-phase flows that involved single and twin co-axial jets with and without swirl. A two-component Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) was used to document the interaction of single and co-axial air jets with glass beads that simulate nonevaporating spray and simultaneously avoid the complexities associated with fuel atomization processes and attendant issues about the specification of relevant boundary conditions. The interaction of jets with methanol spray produced by practical airblast nozzle was also documented in the spatial domain of practical interest. Model assessment activities included the use of three turbulence models (k-epsilon, algebraic second moment (ASM), and differential second moment (DSM)) for the carrier phase, deterministic or stochastic Lagrangian treatment of the dispersed phase, and advanced numerical schemes. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained for most of the cases investigated, the model deficiencies in regard to modeled dissipation rate transport equation, single length scale, pressure-strain correlation, and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to analytically design combustion systems.
Fuel Injector: Air swirl characterization aerothermal modeling, phase 2, volume 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelson, G. S.
1993-01-01
A well integrated experimental/analytical investigation was conducted to provide benchmark quality data relevant to prefilming type airblast fuel nozzle and its interaction with combustor dome air swirler. The experimental investigation included a systematic study of both single-phase flows that involved single and twin co-axial jets with and without swirl. A two-component Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) equipment was used to document the interaction of single and co-axial air jets with glass beads that simulate nonevaporating spray and simultaneously avoid the complexities associated with fuel atomization processes and attendant issues about the specification of relevant boundary conditions. The interaction of jets with methanol spray produced by practical airblast nozzle was also documented in the spatial domain of practical interest. Model assessment activities included the use of three turbulence models (k-epsilon, algebraic second moment (ASM) and differential second moment (DSM)) for the carrier phase, deterministic or stochastic Lagrangian treatment of the dispersed phase, and advanced numerical schemes. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained for most of the cases investigated, the model deficiencies in regard to modeled dissipation rate transport equation, single length scale, pressure-strain correlation, and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to analytically design combustion systems.
EFT-1 Heatshield Aerothermal Environment Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, A. Brandon; Amar, Adam J.; Droba, Justin; Lessard, Victor; Mahzari, Milad
2016-01-01
The EFT-1 Avcoat heatshield was instrumented with 34 plugs containing multiple thermocouples in-depth with an objective being to measure the flight aerothermal environment. This paper presents a discussion of the instrumentation and the techniques used to reconstruct the heating environment from the measured in-depth temperatures. The inverse heat transfer problem algorithms, models and assumptions will be outlined, and available results will be presented.
Overview of CFD methods and comparison with flight aerothermal data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sutton, Kenneth; Zoby, Ernest V.; Hamilton, H. Harris
1988-01-01
An overview of previously published aerothermal investigations which demonstrate the capabilities of detailed computational fluid dynamics and engineering codes to predict the aerothermal environment about an entry vehicle is presented. The overview consists of a brief discussion of the computational methods and experimental data and includes comparisons between the computed results and data. The overview focuses primarily on analyses of flight data since these data provide the unique capability to assess the real-gas chemistry options in the codes. The computed results are based on a series of codes which are employed by the Aerothermodynamics Branch of the Space System Division at the Langley Research Center. The flight data, which were measured on the Reentry F, the Space Shuttle, and the Fire II vehicles, represent a wide range of vehicle configurations and freestream conditions. Also, results of one recent set of ground tests are included since the tests provide data on a model of a pending flight project. The comparisons of the predicted results and data demonstrate the adequacy of the present computational fluid dynamics capabilities and indicate the potential to predict the aerothermal environment about future flight vehicles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, J. W.
1977-01-01
A flightweight, metallic thermal protection system (TPS) applicable to reentry and hypersonic vehicles was subjected to multiple cycles of both radiant and aerothermal heating in order to evaluate its aerothermal performance and structural integrity. Good structural integrity and thermal performance were demonstrated by the TPS under both a radiant and aerothermal heating environment typical of a shuttle entry. The shingle-slip joints effectively allowed for thermal expansion of the panel without allowing any appreciable hot gas flow into the TPS cavity. The TPS also demonstrated good structural ruggedness.
Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Test)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pastor-Barsi, Christine M.; Arrington, E. Allen; VanZante, Judith Foss
2012-01-01
A major modification of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) occurred in autumn of 2011. It is standard practice at NASA Glenn to perform a full aero-thermal calibration of the test section of a wind tunnel facility upon completion of major modifications. This paper will discuss the tools and techniques used to complete an aero-thermal calibration of the IRT and the results that were acquired. The goal of this test entry was to complete a flow quality survey and aero-thermal calibration measurements in the test section of the IRT. Test hardware that was used includes the 2D Resistive Temperature Detector (RTD) array, 9-ft pressure survey rake, hot wire survey rake, and the quick check survey rake. This test hardware provides a map of the velocity, Mach number, total and static pressure, total temperature, flow angle and turbulence intensity. The data acquired were then reduced to examine pressure, temperature, velocity, flow angle, and turbulence intensity. Reduced data has been evaluated to assess how the facility meets flow quality goals. No icing conditions were tested as part of the aero-thermal calibration. However, the effects of the spray bar air injections on the flow quality and aero-thermal calibration measurements were examined as part of this calibration.
Spacecraft Orbital Debris Reentry: Aerothermal Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rochelle, Wm. C.; Kinsey, Robin E.; Reid, Ethan A.; Reynolds, Robert C.; Johnson, Nicholas L.
1997-01-01
In the past 40 years, thousands of objects have been placed in Earth orbit and are being tracked. Space hardware reentry survivability must be evaluated to assess risks to human life and property on the ground. The objective of this paper is to present results of a study to determine altitude of demise (burn-up) or survivability of reentering objects. Two NASA/JSC computer codes - Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) and Miniature ORSAT (MORSAT) were used to determine trajectories, aerodynamic aerothermal environment, and thermal response of selected spacecraft components. The methodology of the two codes is presented, along with results of a parametric study of reentering objects modeled as spheres and cylinders. Parameters varied included mass, diameter, wall thickness, ballistic coefficient, length, type of material, and mode of tumbling/spinning. Two fragments of a spent Delta second stage undergoing orbital decay, stainless steel cylindrical propellant tank and titanium pressurization sphere, were evaluated with ORSAT and found to survive entry, as did the actual objects. Also, orbital decay reentry predictions of the Japanese Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) aluminum and nickel box-type components and the Russian COSMOS 954 satellite beryllium cylinders were made with MORSAT. These objects were also shown to survive reentry.
Aerothermal Heating Predictions for Mars Microprobe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitcheltree, R. A.; DiFulvio, M.; Horvath, T. J.; Braun, R. D.
1998-01-01
A combination of computational predictions and experimental measurements of the aerothermal heating expected on the two Mars Microprobes during their entry to Mars are presented. The maximum, non-ablating, heating rate at the vehicle's stagnation point (at alpha = 0 degrees) is predicted for an undershoot trajectory to be 194 Watts per square centimeters with associated stagnation point pressure of 0.064 atm. Maximum stagnation point pressure occurs later during the undershoot trajectory and is 0.094 atm. From computations at seven overshoot-trajectory points, the maximum heat load expected at the stagnation point is near 8800 Joules per square centimeter. Heat rates and heat loads on the vehicle's afterbody are much lower than the forebody. At zero degree angle-of-attack, heating over much of the hemi-spherical afterbody is predicted to be less than 2 percent of the stagnation point value. Good qualitative agreement is demonstrated for forebody and afterbody heating between CFD calculations at Mars entry conditions and experimental thermographic phosphor measurements from the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. A novel approach which incorporates six degree-of-freedom trajectory simulations to perform a statistical estimate of the effect of angle-of-attack, and other off-nominal conditions, on heating is included.
Orbital flight test Shuttle External Tank flowfield and aerothermal analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, S. C.; Foster, L. D.
1984-01-01
This paper discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ET). These ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight including heat transfer, pressure and structural temperature. The flight data were reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base, but has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications.
An evaluation of computer codes for simulating the Galileo Probe aerothermal entry environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menees, G. P.
1981-01-01
The approaches of three computer flow field codes (HYVIS, COLTS, and RASLE), used to determine the Galileo Probe aerothermal environment and its effect on the design of the thermal protection system, are analyzed in order to resolve differences in their predicted results. All three codes account for the hypersonic, massively blown, radiation shock layers, characteristic of Jupiter entry. Significant differences, however, are evident in their solution procedures: the governing conservation equations, the numerical differencing methods, the governing physics (chemical, radiation, diffusion, and turbulence models), and the basic physical data (thermodynamic, transport, chemical, and spectral properties for atomic and molecular species). Solutions are compared for two near peak heating entry conditions for a Galileo Probe baseline configuration, having an initial mass of 242 kg and simulating entry into the Orton nominal atmosphere. The modern numerical methodology of COLTS and RASLE appear to provide an improved capability for coupled flow-field solutions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Avery, D. E.
1984-01-01
A flight-weight, metallic thermal protection system (TPS) model applicable to Earth-entry and hypersonic-cruise vehicles was subjected to multiple cycles of both radiant and aerothermal heating in order to evaluate its aerothermal performance, structural integrity, and damage tolerance. The TPS was designed for a maximum operating temperature of 2060 R and featured a shingled, corrugation-stiffened corrugated-skin heat shield of Rene 41, a nickel-base alloy. The model was subjected to 10 radiant heating tests and to 3 radiant preheat/aerothermal tests. Under radiant-heating conditions with a maximum surface temperature of 2050 R, the TPS performed as designed and limited the primary structure away from the support ribs to temperatures below 780 R. During the first attempt at aerothermal exposure, a failure in the panel-holder test fixture severely damaged the model. However, two radiant preheat/aerothermal tests were made with the damaged model to test its damage tolerance. During these tests, the damaged area did not enlarge; however, the rapidly increasing structural temperature measuring during these tests indicates that had the damaged area been exposed to aerodynamic heating for the entire trajectory, an aluminum burn-through would have occurred.
Statistical Methods for Rapid Aerothermal Analysis and Design Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Carolyn; DePriest, Douglas; Thompson, Richard (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The cost and safety goals for NASA's next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will require that rapid high-fidelity aerothermodynamic design tools be used early in the design cycle. To meet these requirements, it is desirable to establish statistical models that quantify and improve the accuracy, extend the applicability, and enable combined analyses using existing prediction tools. The research work was focused on establishing the suitable mathematical/statistical models for these purposes. It is anticipated that the resulting models can be incorporated into a software tool to provide rapid, variable-fidelity, aerothermal environments to predict heating along an arbitrary trajectory. This work will support development of an integrated design tool to perform automated thermal protection system (TPS) sizing and material selection.
Aerothermal Test of Metallic TPS for X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, James Wayne; Hodge, Jefferson; Moore, Brad
1998-01-01
An array of metallic Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels including the seals developed for the windward surface of the X-33 vehicle is being tested in the Eight Foot High Temperature Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. These tests are the first aerothermal tests of an X-33 TPS array and will be used to validate the TPS for the X-33 flight program. Specifically, the tests will be used to evaluate the structural and thermal performance of the TPS, the effectiveness of the high temperature seals between adjacent tiles and the durability of the TPS under realistic aerothermal flight conditions. The effect of varying step heights, damage to the seals between adjacent panels, and the use of secondary seals will also be investigated during the test program. The metallic TPS developed for the windward surface of the X-33 and the test program in the Eight Foot High Temperature Tunnel is presented and discussed.
Atlas F entry aerothermic study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
The feasibility of obtaining heat transfer data on an expended Atlas F booster launch vehicle was investigated in the altitude range of 300,000 to 200,000 feet during entry conditions, with a velocity in the range of 20,000 to 25,000 feet per second, and through a range of vehicle attitudes of plus or minus 90 degrees. These data are desired for correlation with turbulent heat transfer and boundary layer transition data obtained from wind tunnel test facilities. The data would also be valuable in assessing rarified gas and surface catalicity effects in a real gas environment.
Aerodynamic and Aerothermal TPS Instrumentation Reference Guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woollard, Bryce A.; Braun, Robert D.; Bose, Deepack
2016-01-01
The hypersonic regime of planetary entry combines the most severe environments that an entry vehicle will encounter with the greatest amount of uncertainty as to the events unfolding during that time period. This combination generally leads to conservatism in the design of an entry vehicle, specifically that of the thermal protection system (TPS). Each planetary entry provides a valuable aerodynamic and aerothermal testing opportunity; the utilization of this opportunity is paramount in better understanding how a specific entry vehicle responds to the demands of the hypersonic entry environment. Previous efforts have been made to instrument entry vehicles in order to collect data during the entry period and reconstruct the corresponding vehicle response. The purpose of this paper is to cumulatively document past TPS instrumentation designs for applicable planetary missions, as well as to list pertinent results and any explainable shortcomings.
Performance of Conformable Ablators in Aerothermal Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, J.; Fan, W.; Skokova, K.; Stackpoole, M.; Beck, R.; Chavez-Garcia, J.
2012-01-01
Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICAs performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.
Adaptive computational methods for aerothermal heating analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Price, John M.; Oden, J. Tinsley
1988-01-01
The development of adaptive gridding techniques for finite-element analysis of fluid dynamics equations is described. The developmental work was done with the Euler equations with concentration on shock and inviscid flow field capturing. Ultimately this methodology is to be applied to a viscous analysis for the purpose of predicting accurate aerothermal loads on complex shapes subjected to high speed flow environments. The development of local error estimate strategies as a basis for refinement strategies is discussed, as well as the refinement strategies themselves. The application of the strategies to triangular elements and a finite-element flux-corrected-transport numerical scheme are presented. The implementation of these strategies in the GIM/PAGE code for 2-D and 3-D applications is documented and demonstrated.
Shuttle Return-to-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at CUBRC - Flow Field Calibration and CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lau, Kei Y.; Holden, M. S.
2011-01-01
This paper discusses one specific aspect of the Shuttle Retrun-To-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC), the test flow field calibration. It showed the versatility of the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock Tunnel (LENS) II wind tunnel for an aerothermal test with unique and demanding requirements. CFD analyses were used effectively to extend the test range at the low end of the Mach range. It demonstrated how ground test facility and CFD synergy can be utilitzed iteratively to enhance the confidence in the fedility of both tools. It addressed the lingering concerns of the aerothermal community on use of inpulse facility and CFD analysis. At the conclusion of the test program, members from the NASA Marshall (MSFC), CUBRC and USA (United Space Alliance) Consultants (The Grey Beards) were asked to independently verify the flight scaling data generated by Boeing for flight certification of the re-designed external tank (ET) components. The blind test comparison showed very good results.
Shuttle Return-to-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at CUBRC - Flow Field Calibration and CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lau, Kei Y.; Holden, Michael
2010-01-01
This paper discusses one specific aspect of the Shuttle Retrun-To-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at CUBRC, the test flow field calibration. It showed the versatility of the CUBRC LENS II wind tunnel for an aerothermal test with unique and demanding requirements. CFD analyses were used effectively to extend the test range at the low end of the Mach range. It demonstrated how ground test facility and CFD synergy can be utilitzed iteratively to enhance the confidence in the fedility of both tools. It addressed the lingering concerns of the aerothermal community on use of inpulse facility and CFD analysis. At the conclusion of the test program, members from the NASA Marshall (MSFC), CUBRC and USA (United Space Alliance) Consultants (The Grey Beards) were asked to independently verify the flight scaling data generated by Boeing for flight certification of the re-designed external tank (ET) components. The blind test comparison showed very good results. A more comprehensive discussion of the topics in this paper can be found in Chapter 6 of Reference [1]. The overall aspect of the test program has been discussed in an AIAA paper by Tim Wadhams [2]. The Shuttle Ascent Stack performance and related issues discussed in the Report [1] are not included in this paper. No ITAR data is included in this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albertson, Cindy W.
1987-01-01
A model to be used in the flow studies and curved Thermal Protection System (TPS) evaluations was tested in the Langley 8 Foot High-Temperature Tunnel at a nominal Mach number of 6.8. The purpose of the study was to define the surface pressure and heating rates at high angles of attack (in support of curved metallic TPS studies) and to determine the conditions for which the model would be suitable as a test bed for aerothermal load studies. The present study was conducted at a nominal total temperature of 2400 and 3300 R, dynamic pressures from 2.3 to 10.9 psia, and free-stream Reynolds numbers from 4000,000 to 1,700,000/ft. The measurements consisted primarily of surface pressure and cold-wall (530 R) heating rates. Qualitative comparisons between predictions and data show that for this configuration, aerothermal tests should be limited to angles of attack between 10 and -10 degrees. Outside this range, the effects of free-stream flow nonuniformity appear in the data, as a result of the long length of the model. However, for TPS testing, this is not a concern and tests can be performed at angles of attack ranging from 20 to -20 degrees. Laminar and naturally turbulent boundary layers are available over limited ranges of conditions.
A database of aerothermal measurements in hypersonic flow for CFD validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holden, M. S.; Moselle, J. R.
1992-01-01
This paper presents an experimental database selected and compiled from aerothermal measurements obtained on basic model configurations on which fundamental flow phenomena could be most easily examined. The experimental studies were conducted in hypersonic flows in 48-inch, 96-inch, and 6-foot shock tunnels. A special computer program was constructed to provide easy access to the measurements in the database as well as the means to plot the measurements and compare them with imported data. The database contains tabulations of model configurations, freestream conditions, and measurements of heat transfer, pressure, and skin friction for each of the studies selected for inclusion. The first segment contains measurements in laminar flow emphasizing shock-wave boundary-layer interaction. In the second segment, measurements in transitional flows over flat plates and cones are given. The third segment comprises measurements in regions of shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions. Studies of the effects of surface roughness of nosetips and conical afterbodies are presented in the fourth segment of the database. Detailed measurements in regions of shock/shock boundary layer interaction are contained in the fifth segment. Measurements in regions of wall jet and transpiration cooling are presented in the final two segments.
Intensity non-uniformity correction of aerothermal images via ℓ_{p}-regularized minimization.
Liu, Li; Zhang, Tianxu
2016-11-01
Aerothermal-induced intensity non-uniformity (NU) effects severely influence the effective performance of infrared (IR) imaging systems in high-speed flight. In this paper we propose a ℓ_{p}-regularized minimization method to remove intensity NU in IR images. Different from the existing NU correction methods, we consider and study important priors from the NU noise and the IR image, respectively. We assume spatial smoothness of the NU noise and piecewise continuity of the IR image, where the ℓ_{p} regularization term is employed in the correction model. A computationally efficient numerical algorithm based on half-quadratic regularization is adopted to solve the optimization problem. To tackle the non-convex ℓ_{p}-norm minimization sub-problem in this scheme, a generalized iterated shrinkage algorithm is used. Significant improvement on the image quality is obtained on both simulation and experimental studies. Both quantitative and qualitative comparisons to specialized state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate its superiority.
On the precision of aero-thermal simulations for TMT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Thompson, Hugh
2016-08-01
Environmental effects on the Image Quality (IQ) of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) are estimated by aero-thermal numerical simulations. These simulations utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to estimate, among others, thermal (dome and mirror) seeing as well as wind jitter and blur. As the design matures, guidance obtained from these numerical experiments can influence significant cost-performance trade-offs and even component survivability. The stochastic nature of environmental conditions results in the generation of a large computational solution matrix in order to statistically predict Observatory Performance. Moreover, the relative contribution of selected key subcomponents to IQ increases the parameter space and thus computational cost, while dictating a reduced prediction error bar. The current study presents the strategy followed to minimize prediction time and computational resources, the subsequent physical and numerical limitations and finally the approach to mitigate the issues experienced. In particular, the paper describes a mesh-independence study, the effect of interpolation of CFD results on the TMT IQ metric, and an analysis of the sensitivity of IQ to certain important heat sources and geometric features.
Evaluation of aerothermal modeling computer programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsieh, K. C.; Yu, S. T.
1987-01-01
Various computer programs based upon the SIMPLE or SIMPLER algorithm were studied and compared for numerical accuracy, efficiency, and grid dependency. Four two-dimensional and one three-dimensional code originally developed by a number of research groups were considered. In general, the accuracy and computational efficieny of these TEACH type programs were improved by modifying the differencing schemes and their solvers. A brief description of each program is given. Error reduction, spline flux and second upwind differencing programs are covered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez-Garcia, Fabrisio; Santiago, Sergio; Luque, Salvador; Romero, Manuel; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose
2016-05-01
This paper describes a new modular laboratory-scale experimental facility that was designed to conduct detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers for use in concentrating solar power plants. Absorbers are generally considered to be the element with the highest potential for efficiency gains in solar thermal energy systems. The configu-ration of volumetric absorbers enables concentrated solar radiation to penetrate deep into their solid structure, where it is progressively absorbed, prior to being transferred by convection to a working fluid flowing through the structure. Current design trends towards higher absorber outlet temperatures have led to the use of complex intricate geometries in novel ceramic and metallic elements to maximize the temperature deep inside the structure (thus reducing thermal emission losses at the front surface and increasing efficiency). Although numerical models simulate the conjugate heat transfer mechanisms along volumetric absorbers, they lack, in many cases, the accuracy that is required for precise aerothermal validations. The present work aims to aid this objective by the design, development, commissioning and operation of a new experimental facility which consists of a 7 kWe (1.2 kWth) high flux solar simulator, a radiation homogenizer, inlet and outlet collector modules and a working section that can accommodate volumetric absorbers up to 80 mm × 80 mm in cross-sectional area. Experimental measurements conducted in the facility include absorber solid temperature distributions along its depth, inlet and outlet air temperatures, air mass flow rate and pressure drop, incident radiative heat flux, and overall thermal efficiency. In addition, two windows allow for the direct visualization of the front and rear absorber surfaces, thus enabling full-coverage surface temperature measurements by thermal imaging cameras. This paper presents the results from the aerothermal characterization of a siliconized silicon
Orbital flight test shuttle external tank aerothermal flight evaluation, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, Sarat C.; Engel, Carl D.; Warmbrod, John D.
1986-01-01
This 3-volume report discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ETs). Six ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight; including heat transfer, pressure, and structural temperature. The flight data was reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base; and, has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications. This is Volume 1, an Executive Summary. Volume 2 contains Appendices A (Aerothermal Comparisons) and B (Flight Derived h sub 1/h sub u vs. M sub inf. Plots), and Volume 3 contains Appendix C (Comparison of Interference Factors among OFT Flight, Prediction and 1H-97A Data), Appendix D (Freestream Stanton Number and Reynolds Number Correlation for Flight and Tunnel Data), and Appendix E (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u Tables).
Orbital flight test shuttle external tank aerothermal flight evaluation, volume 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, Sarat C.; Engel, Carl D.; Warmbrod, John D.
1986-01-01
This 3-volume report discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ETs). Six ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight; including heat transfer, pressure, and structural temperature. The flight data was reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base; and, has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 contains Appendix A (Aerothermal Comparisons), and Appendix B (Flight-Derived h sub 1/h sub u vs. M sub inf. Plots). This is Volume 3, containing Appendix C (Comparison of Interference Factors between OFT Flight, Prediction and 1H-97A Data), Appendix D (Freestream Stanton Number and Reynolds Number Correlation for Flight and Tunnel Data), and Appendix E (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u Tables).
Orbital flight test shuttle external tank aerothermal flight evaluation, volume 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, Sarat C.; Engel, Carl D.; Warmbrod, John D.
1986-01-01
This 3-volume report discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ETs). Six ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight; including heat transfer, pressure, and structural temperature. The flight data was reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base; and, has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. This is volume 2, containing Appendix A (Aerothermal Comparisons), and Appendix B (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u vs. M sub inf. Plots). Volume 3 contains Appendix C (Comparison of Interference Factors between OFT Flight, Prediction and 1H-97A Data), Appendix D (Freestream Stanton Number and Reynolds Number Correlation for Flight and Tunnel Data), and Appendix E (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u Tables).
Studies of aerothermal loads generated in regions of shock/shock interaction in hypersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holden, Michael S.; Moselle, John R.; Lee, Jinho
1991-01-01
Experimental studies were conducted to examine the aerothermal characteristics of shock/shock/boundary layer interaction regions generated by single and multiple incident shocks. The presented experimental studies were conducted over a Mach number range from 6 to 19 for a range of Reynolds numbers to obtain both laminar and turbulent interaction regions. Detailed heat transfer and pressure measurements were made for a range of interaction types and incident shock strengths over a transverse cylinder, with emphasis on the 3 and 4 type interaction regions. The measurements were compared with the simple Edney, Keyes, and Hains models for a range of interaction configurations and freestream conditions. The complex flowfields and aerothermal loads generated by multiple-shock impingement, while not generating as large peak loads, provide important test cases for code prediction. The detailed heat transfer and pressure measurements proved a good basis for evaluating the accuracy of simple prediction methods and detailed numerical solutions for laminar and transitional regions or shock/shock interactions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolodziej, Paul
1997-01-01
Small radius leading edges and nosetips were utilized to minimize wave drag in early hypervelocity vehicle concepts until further analysis demonstrated that extreme aerothermodynamic heating would cause severe ablation or blunting of the available thermal protection system materials. Recent studies indicate that ultrahigh temperature ceramic (UHTC) materials are shape stable at temperatures approaching 3033 K and will be available for use as sharp UHTC leading edge components in the near future. Aerothermal performance constraints for sharp components made from these materials are presented in this work to demonstrate the effects of convective blocking, surface catalycity, surface emissivity, and rarefied flow effects on steady state operation at altitudes from sea level to 90 km. These components are capable of steady state operation at velocities up to 7.9 km/s at attitudes near 90 km.
Aerothermal Performance Envelopes for Hypersonic Small Radius Unswept Leading Edges and Nosetips
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolodziej, Paul; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Small radius leading edges and nosetips were utilized to minimize wave drag in early hypersonic vehicle concepts until further analysis demonstrated that extreme aerothermodynamic heating would cause severe ablation or blunting of the available thermal protection system materials. Recent studies indicate that diboride composite materials are shape stable under extreme aerothermodynamic heating at ultra high temperatures. Aerothermal performance envelopes for sharp components made from these materials are presented in this work to demonstrate the effects of convective blocking, surface catalycity, surface emissivity, and rarefied flow effects on steady state operation at altitudes from sea level to 90 km. These components are capable of steady state operation at velocities up to 7.9 km/s at altitudes near 90 km.
Aerothermal experiments in turbine rim seals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pittman, Lionel Obadiah, Jr.
Purge flows are necessary for ensuring that hot gasses do not penetrate the thermally sensitive rim seal and disk cavity regions of turbines. The temperature and mass flow rate of the purge air can affect the component life and aerodynamic performance of a turbine stage. Therefore it is of interest to understand the basic mechanisms that govern this complex flow problem. The present work focuses on two turbine rim seal investigations. The first focused on temperature measurements in the rim cavity region of a rotating, high-speed, low-pressure turbine as means to quantify a rim seal's effectiveness. The seal had a realistic geometry with a small axial overlap between the stationary and rotating components. The purge flow rate was varied from 0 to 1 percent of the core mass flow rate. The results will describe the temperatures as well as the seal's effectiveness as a function of the purge flow rate, and turbine operating point. The second was a study on the effect of purge flow on the aerodynamic performance of a turbine stage. Exit flow field surveys were taken in both a low pressure turbine stage and a high pressure turbine stage. Also a computational study was done on the low pressure turbine stage to add insight into the effect of purge flow on turbine stage performance. In addition, the computation results provide insight into the effect of purge flow on the low pressure turbine blade passage flow field.
Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Tests)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Allen, Arrington E.
2013-01-01
A full aero-thermal calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was completed in 2012 following the major modifications to the facility that included replacement of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger. The calibration test provided data used to fully document the aero-thermal flow quality in the IRT test section and to construct calibration curves for the operation of the IRT.
Exploration Flight Test 1 Afterbody Aerothermal Environment Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyatt, Andrew J.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam; Lessard, Victor
2016-01-01
The Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle included roughly 100 near surface thermocouples on the after body of the vehicle. The temperature traces at each of these instruments have been used to perform inverse environment reconstruction to determine the aerothermal environment experienced during re-entry of the vehicle. This paper provides an overview of the reconstructed environments and identifies critical aspects of the environment. These critical aspects include transition and reaction control system jet influence. A blind test of the process and reconstruction tool was also performed to build confidence in the reconstructed environments. Finally, an uncertainty quantification analysis was also performed to identify the impact of each of the uncertainties on the reconstructed environments.
Performance of Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator in Aerothermal Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, Jeremy; Fan, Wendy; Stackpoole, Mairead; Kao, David; Skokova, Kristina; Chavez-Garcia, Jose
2012-01-01
Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICA's performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bruce, Walter E., III; Mesick, Nathaniel J.; Ferlemann, Paul G.; Siemers, Paul M., III; DelCorso, Joseph A.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Tobin, Steven A.; Kardell, Matthew P.
2012-01-01
Flexible TPS development involves ground testing and analysis necessary to characterize performance of the FTPS candidates prior to flight testing. This paper provides an overview of the analysis and ground testing efforts performed over the last year at the NASA Langley Research Center and in the Boeing Large-Core Arc Tunnel (LCAT). In the LCAT test series, material layups were subjected to aerothermal loads commensurate with peak re-entry conditions enveloping a range of HIAD mission trajectories. The FTPS layups were tested over a heat flux range from 20 to 50 W/cm with associated surface pressures of 3 to 8 kPa. To support the testing effort a significant redesign of the existing shear (wedge) model holder from previous testing efforts was undertaken to develop a new test technique for supporting and evaluating the FTPS in the high-temperature, arc jet flow. Since the FTPS test samples typically experience a geometry change during testing, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of the arc jet flow field and test model were developed to support the testing effort. The CFD results were used to help determine the test conditions experienced by the test samples as the surface geometry changes. This paper includes an overview of the Boeing LCAT facility, the general approach for testing FTPS, CFD analysis methodology and results, model holder design and test methodology, and selected thermal results of several FTPS layups.
A method of infrared imaging missile's aerodynamic heating modeling and simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Chunqin; Xiang, Jingbo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Weiqiang
2013-09-01
The infrared (IR) imaging missile's dome will be heated when fly at high speed in the atmosphere because of the friction of the air flow blocking. The detector's performance will be decline if the dome surface is heated to a certain temperature. In this paper, we find a right way to evaluate the aerothermal effects in the imaging and information processing algorithm. Which have three steps including the aerothermal radiation calculation, quantization and image reconstruction. Firstly, the aerothermal radiation is calculated by using a combination of both methods of theoretical analysis and experiment data. Secondly, the relationship between aerothermal radiation and IR images background mean gray and noise can be calculated through the analysis of the experiment data. At last, we can rebuild an aerodynamic heating effect of infrared images fusion with target and decoy, which can be used for virtual prototyping platform missile trajectory simulation. It can be found that the above constructed images have good agreements with the actual image according to comparison between the simulation data and experiment data. It is an economic method that can solve the lab aerodynamic heating simulation and modeling problems.
Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent
1998-01-01
Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier-Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.
Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent
1998-01-01
Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier- Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.
Aero-thermal analysis of lifting body configurations in hypersonic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Sachin; Mahulikar, Shripad P.
2016-09-01
The aero-thermal analysis of a hypersonic vehicle is of fundamental interest for designing its thermal protection system. The aero-thermal environment predictions over several critical regions of the hypothesized lifting body vehicle, including the stagnation region of the nose-cap, cylindrically swept leading edges, fuselage-upper, and fuselage-lower surfaces, are discussed. The drag (Λ=70°) and temperature (Λ=80°) minimized sweepback angles are considered in the configuration design of the two hypothesized lifting body shape hypersonic vehicles. The main aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the aero-thermal characteristics of these two lifting body configurations at same heat capacity. Accordingly, a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation has been carried out at Mach number (M∞=7), H=35 km altitude with zero Angle of Attack. Finally, the material selection for thermal protection system based on these predictions and current methodology is described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cosson, E.; Soler, J.; Pierre, V.; Binetti, P.; Walloschek, T.
2009-01-01
This paper deals with all the aerothermodynamic (ATD) activities carried out so far in the framework of the IXV project, in order to characterize the aerothermal environment experienced by the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) during its atmospheric re- entry. The ATD synthesis activity is led by EADS Astrium, with support from DLR (tests in HEG and H2K facilities, CFD), VKI (tests in the Long-Shot facility, survey on IXV Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials properties), CIRA (CFD), University of Roma (CFD) and CFS Engineering (CFD). During the Phases A and B1 of the project (before SRR), only Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to build the IXV aerothermodynamic database and specify the sizing heat fluxes over the vehicle; in Phase B2/C1, both wind tunnel tests (WTT) - HEG, H2K and Long- Shot - and CFD have been used in order to reach Preliminary Design Review maturity. This paper presents: how wind tunnel test results have allowed improving the criterion of natural laminar-to-turbulent transition in the body-flap flow separation (flap heating being one critical aspect on IXV); a methodology for the ground-to-flight transposition based on dedicated WTT rebuilding CFD; the improvement of ATD margin policy thanks to wind tunnel data; the investigation of the sensitivities to chemical and physical models with some flight-condition CFD.
Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2004 and 2005 Tests)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arrington, E. Allen; Pastor, Christine M.; Gonsalez, Jose C.; Curry, Monroe R., III
2010-01-01
A full aero-thermal calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel was completed in 2004 following the replacement of the inlet guide vanes upstream of the tunnel drive system and improvement to the facility total temperature instrumentation. This calibration test provided data used to fully document the aero-thermal flow quality in the IRT test section and to construct calibration curves for the operation of the IRT. The 2004 test was also the first to use the 2-D RTD array, an improved total temperature calibration measurement platform.
Aero-thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2000 Tests)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gonsalez, Jose C.; Arrington, E. Allen; Curry, Monroe R., III
2001-01-01
Aerothermal calibration measurements and flow quality surveys were made in the test section of the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. These surveys were made following major facility modifications including widening of the heat exchanger tunnel section, replacement of the heat exchanger, installation of new turning vanes, and installation of new fan exit guide vanes. Standard practice at NASA Glenn requires that test section calibration and flow quality surveys be performed following such major facility modifications. A single horizontally oriented rake was used to survey the flow field at several vertical positions within a single cross-sectional plane of the test section. These surveys provided a detailed mapping of the total and static pressure, total temperature, Mach number, velocity, flow angle and turbulence intensity. Data were acquired over the entire velocity and total temperature range of the facility. No icing conditions were tested; however, the effects of air sprayed through the water injecting spray bars were assessed. All data indicate good flow quality. Mach number standard deviations were less than 0.0017, flow angle standard deviations were between 0.3 deg and 0.8 deg, total temperature standard deviations were between 0.5 and 1.8 F for subfreezing conditions, axial turbulence intensities varied between 0.3 and 1.0 percent, and transverse turbulence intensities varied between 0.3 and 1.5 percent. Measurement uncertainties were also quantified.
Aerothermal environment induced by mismatch at the SSME main combustion chamber-nozzle joint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcconnaughey, H. V.; O'Farrell, J. M.; Olive, T. A.; Brown, G. B.; Holt, J. B.
1990-01-01
The computational study reported here is motivated by a Space Shuttle main engine hardware problem detected in post-flight and post-test inspections. Of interest are the potential for hot gas ingestion into the joint (G15) at the main combustion chamber-to-nozzle interface and the effect of particular goemetric nonuniformities on that gas ingestion. The flowfield in the G15 region involves supersonic flow past a rounded forward facing step preceded by a deep narrow cavity. This paper describes the physical problem associated with joint G15 and computational investigations of the G15 aerothermal environment. The associated flowfield was simulated in two and three space dimensions using the United Solutions Algorithm (USA) computational fluid dynamics code series. A benchmark calculation of experimentally measured supersonic flow over of a square cavity was performed to demonstrate the accuracy of the USA code in analyzing flows similar to the G15 computational flowfield. The G15 results demonstrate the mechanism for hot gas ingestion into the joint and reveal the sensitivity to salient geometric nonuniformities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martinez, Edward R.; Weber, Carissa Tudryn; Oishi, Tomo; Santos, Jose; Mach, Joseph
2011-01-01
The Sheathed Miniature Aerothermal Reentry Thermocouple is a micro-miniature thermocouple for high temperature measurement in extreme environments. It is available for use in Thermal Protection System materials for ground testing and flight. This paper discusses the heritage, and design of the instrument. Experimental and analytical methods used to verify its performance and limitations are described.
Assessment, Development, and Application of Combustor Aerothermal Models
1988-01-01
tool for design tion (Bruce et al., 1979; Mongia et al., 1979, Mongia of future combustion systems. The contributions made and Reynolds, 1979), NASA... combustion processes (Rizk and ically, a modified central differencing scheme is Mongla, 1986; Mongia , 1987). used, otherwise upwind differencing is used...Turbine Congress, trade-off studies so that optimum future combustion Amsterdam, the Netherlands. systems can be designed, fabricated, and developed
Aerothermal modeling, phase 1. Volume 2: Experimental data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenworthy, M. J.; Correa, S. M.; Burrus, D. L.
1983-01-01
The experimental test effort is discussed. The test data are presented. The compilation is divided into sets representing each of the 18 experimental configurations tested. A detailed description of each configuration, and plots of the temperature difference ratio parameter or pattern factor parameter calculated from the test data are also provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bey, K. S.; Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Ramakrishnan, R.
1985-01-01
Recent progress in the development of finite element methodology for the prediction of aerothermal loads is described. Two dimensional, inviscid computations are presented, but emphasis is placed on development of an approach extendable to three dimensional viscous flows. Research progress is described for: (1) utilization of a commercially available program to construct flow solution domains and display computational results, (2) development of an explicit Taylor-Galerkin solution algorithm, (3) closed form evaluation of finite element matrices, (4) vector computer programming strategies, and (5) validation of solutions. Two test problems of interest to NASA Langley aerothermal research are studied. Comparisons of finite element solutions for Mach 6 flow with other solution methods and experimental data validate fundamental capabilities of the approach for analyzing high speed inviscid compressible flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bey, K. S.; Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Ramakrishnan, R.
1985-01-01
Recent progress in the development of finite element methodology for the prediction of aerothermal loads is described. Two dimensional, inviscid computations are presented, but emphasis is placed on development of an approach extendable to three dimensional viscous flows. Research progress is described for: (1) utilization of a commerically available program to construct flow solution domains and display computational results, (2) development of an explicit Taylor-Galerkin solution algorithm, (3) closed form evaluation of finite element matrices, (4) vector computer programming strategies, and (5) validation of solutions. Two test problems of interest to NASA Langley aerothermal research are studied. Comparisons of finite element solutions for Mach 6 flow with other solution methods and experimental data validate fundamental capabilities of the approach for analyzing high speed inviscid compressible flows.
A Risk-Based Approach for Aerothermal/TPS Analysis and Testing
2007-07-01
vehicle will be subjected to significant aerothermal heating as it dissipates its kinetic energy at the destination planet (or moon). The primary purpose...reduces the velocity of the stream – energy locked in chemical nonequilibrium is unavailable as kinetic energy . The dissociated free stream reduces the...altering the amount of chemical energy available for surface recombination. Therefore, matching total enthalpy and surface pressure in flight and arc jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostoich, Christopher Mark
Future high-speed air vehicles will be lightweight, flexible, and reusable. Ve- hicles fitting this description are subject to severe thermal and fluid dynamic loading from multiple sources such as aerothermal heating, propulsion sys- tem exhaust, and high dynamic pressures. The combination of low-margin design requirements and extreme environmental conditions emphasizes the occurrence of fluid-thermal-structural coupling. Numerous attempts to field such vehicles have been unsuccessful over the past half-century due par- tially to the inability of traditional design and analysis practices to predict the structural response in this flight regime. In this thesis, a high-fidelity computational approach is used to examine the fluid-structural response of aerospace structures in high-speed flows. The method is applied to two cases: one involving a fluid-thermal interaction problem in a hypersonic flow and the other a fluid-structure interaction study involving a turbulent boundary layer and a compliant panel. The coupled fluid-thermal investigation features a nominally rigid alu- minum spherical dome fixed to a ceramic panel holder placed in a Mach 6.59 laminar boundary layer. The problem was originally studied by Glass and Hunt in a 1988 wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel and is motivated by thermally bowed body panels designed for the National Aerospace Plane. In this work, the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a thermally perfect gas and the transient heat equation in the structure are solved simultaneously using two high-fidelity solvers coupled at the solid-fluid interface. Predicted surface heat fluxes are within 10% of the measured values in the dome interior with greater differ- ences found near the dome edges where uncertainties concerning the exper- imental model's construction likely influence the thermal dynamics. On the flat panel holder, the local surface heat fluxes approach those on the wind- ward dome face
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghopa, Wan Aizon W.; Harun, Zambri; Funazaki, Ken-ichi; Miura, Takemitsu
2015-02-01
The existence of a gap between combustor and turbine endwall in the real gas turbine induces to the leakages phenomenon. However, the leakages could be used as a coolant to protect the endwall surfaces from the hot gas since it could not be completely prevented. Thus, present study investigated the potential of leakage flows as a function of film cooling. In present study, the flow field at the downstream of high-pressure turbine blade has been investigated by 5-holes pitot tube. This is to reveal the aerodynamic performances under the influenced of leakage flows while the temperature measurement was conducted by thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC). Experimental has significantly captured theaerodynamics effect of leakage flows near the blade downstream. Furthermore, TLC measurement illustrated that the film cooling effectiveness contours were strongly influenced by the secondary flows behavior on the endwall region. Aero-thermal results were validated by the numerical simulation adopted by commercial software, ANSYS CFX 13. Both experimental and numerical simulation indicated almost similar trendinaero and also thermal behavior as the amount of leakage flows increases.
Aerothermal tests of spherical dome protuberances on a flat plate at a Mach number of 6.5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, C. E.; Hunt, L. R.
1986-01-01
Aerothermal tests were conducted in the Langley 8-Foot High-Temperature Tunnel at a Mach number of 6.5 on a series of spherical dome protuberances mounted on a flat-plate test apparatus. Detailed surface pressure and heating-rate distributions were obtained for various dome heights and diameters submerged in both laminar and turbulent boundary layers including a baseline geometric condition representing a thermally bowed metallic thermal protection system (TPS) tile. The present results indicated that the surface pressures on the domes were increased on the windward surface and reduced on the leeward surface as predicted by linearized small-perturbation theory, and the distributions were only moderately affected by boundary-layer variations. Surface heating rates for turbulent flow increased on the windward surface and decreased on the leeward surface similar to the pressure; but for laminar boundary layers, the heating rates remained high on the leeward surface, probably due to local transition. Transitional flow effects cause heat load augmentation to increase by 30 percent for the maximum dome height in a laminar boundary layer. However, the corresponding augmentation for a dome with a height of 0.1 in. and a diameter of 14 in. representative of a bowed TPS tile was 14 percent or less for either a laminar or turbulent boundary layer.
Inverse Heat Conduction Methods in the CHAR Code for Aerothermal Flight Data Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, A. Brandon; Amar, Adam J.
2016-01-01
Reconstruction of flight aerothermal environments often requires the solution of an inverse heat transfer problem, which is an ill-posed problem of determining boundary conditions from discrete measurements in the interior of the domain. This paper will present the algorithms implemented in the CHAR code for use in reconstruction of EFT-1 flight data and future testing activities. Implementation details will be discussed, and alternative hybrid-methods that are permitted by the implementation will be described. Results will be presented for a number of problems.
Inverse Heat Conduction Methods in the CHAR Code for Aerothermal Flight Data Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, A Brandon; Amar, Adam J.
2016-01-01
Reconstruction of flight aerothermal environments often requires the solution of an inverse heat transfer problem, which is an ill-posed problem of specifying boundary conditions from discrete measurements in the interior of the domain. This paper will present the algorithms implemented in the CHAR code for use in reconstruction of EFT-1 flight data and future testing activities. Implementation nuances will be discussed, and alternative hybrid-methods that are permitted by the implementation will be described. Results will be presented for a number of one-dimensional and multi-dimensional problems
Static and aerothermal tests of a superalloy honeycomb prepackaged thermal protection system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorton, Mark P.; Shideler, John L.; Webb, Granville L.
1993-01-01
A reusable metallic thermal protection system has been developed for vehicles with maximum surface temperatures of up to 2000 F. An array of two 12- by 12-in. panels was subjected to radiant heating tests that simulated Space Shuttle entry temperature and pressure histories. Results indicate that this thermal protection system, with a mass of 2.201 lbm/ft(exp 2), can successfully prevent typical aluminum primary structure of an entry vehicle like the Space Shuttle from exceeding temperatures greater than 350 F at a location on the vehicle where the maximum surface temperature is 1900 F. A flat array of 20 panels was exposed to aerothermal flow conditions, at a Mach number of 6.75. The panels were installed in a worst-case orientation with the gaps between panels parallel to the flow. Results from the aerothermal tests indicated that convective heating occurred from hot gas flow in the gaps between the panels. Proposed design changes to prevent gap heating occurred from hot gas flow in the gaps between the panels. Proposed design changes to prevent gap heating include orienting panels so that gaps are not parallel to the flow and using a packaged, compressible gap-filler material between panels to block hot gas flow in the gaps.
Generation of an Aerothermal Data Base for the X33 Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, Cathy; Huynh, Loc
1998-01-01
The X-33 experimental program is a cooperative program between industry and NASA, managed by Lockheed-Martin Skunk Works to develop an experimental vehicle to demonstrate new technologies for a single-stage-to-orbit, fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV). One of the new technologies to be demonstrated is an advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) being designed by BF Goodrich (formerly Rohr, Inc.) with support from NASA. The calculation of an aerothermal database is crucial to identifying the critical design environment data for the TPS. The NASA Ames X-33 team has generated such a database using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses, engineering analysis methods and various programs to compare and interpolate the results from the CFD and the engineering analyses. This database, along with a program used to query the database, is used extensively by several X-33 team members to help them in designing the X-33. This paper will describe the methods used to generate this database, the program used to query the database, and will show some of the aerothermal analysis results for the X-33 aircraft.
Statistical Methods for Rapid Aerothermal Analysis and Design Technology: Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DePriest, Douglas; Morgan, Carolyn
2003-01-01
The cost and safety goals for NASA s next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will require that rapid high-fidelity aerothermodynamic design tools be used early in the design cycle. To meet these requirements, it is desirable to identify adequate statistical models that quantify and improve the accuracy, extend the applicability, and enable combined analyses using existing prediction tools. The initial research work focused on establishing suitable candidate models for these purposes. The second phase is focused on assessing the performance of these models to accurately predict the heat rate for a given candidate data set. This validation work compared models and methods that may be useful in predicting the heat rate.
Aerothermal Testing for Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Kirk, Benjamin S.; Fischer-Cassady, Amy
2009-01-01
The Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle aerothermodynamic experimentation strategy, as it relates to flight database development, is reviewed. Experimental data has been obtained to both validate the computational predictions utilized as part of the database and support the development of engineering models for issues not adequately addressed with computations. An outline is provided of the working groups formed to address the key deficiencies in data and knowledge for blunt reentry vehicles. The facilities utilized to address these deficiencies are reviewed, along with some of the important results obtained thus far. For smooth wall comparisons of computational convective heating predictions against experimental data from several facilities, confidence was gained with the use of algebraic turbulence model solutions as part of the database. For cavities and protuberances, experimental data is being used for screening various designs, plus providing support to the development of engineering models. With the reaction-control system testing, experimental data were acquired on the surface in combination with off-body flow visualization of the jet plumes and interactions. These results are being compared against predictions for improved understanding of aftbody thermal environments and uncertainties.
Aerothermal characteristics of bleed slot in hypersonic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, LianJie; Lu, HongBo; Xu, Xiao; Chang, XinYu
2015-10-01
Two types of flow configurations with bleed in two-dimensional hypersonic flows are numerically examined to investigate their aerodynamic thermal loads and related flow structures at choked conditions. One is a turbulent boundary layer flow without shock impingement where the effects of the slot angle are discussed, and the other is shock wave boundary layer interactions where the effects of slot angle and slot location relative to shock impingement point are surveyed. A key separation is induced by bleed barrier shock on the upstream slot wall, resulting in a localized maximum heat flux at the reattachment point. For slanted slots, the dominating flow patterns are not much affected by the change in slot angle, but vary dramatically with slot location relative to the shock impingement point. Different flow structures are found in the case of normal slot, such as a flow pattern similar to typical Laval nozzle flow, the largest separation bubble which is almost independent of the shock position. Its larger detached distance results in 20% lower stagnation heat flux on the downstream slot corner, but with much wider area suffering from severe thermal loads. In spite of the complexity of the flow patterns, it is clearly revealed that the heat flux generally rises with the slot location moving downstream, and an increase in slot angle from 20° to 40° reduces 50% the heat flux peak at the reattachment point in the slot passage. The results further indicate that the bleed does not raise the heat flux around the slot for all cases except for the area around the downstream slot corner. Among all bleed configurations, the slot angle of 40° located slightly upstream of the incident shock is regarded as the best.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Todd Richard; Mahazari, Milad; Bose, Deepak; Santos, Jose Antonio
2013-01-01
The Mars Science Laboratory successfully landed on the Martian surface on August 5th, 2012. The rover was protected from the extreme heating environments of atmospheric entry by an ablative heatshield. This Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator heatshield was instrumented with a suite of embedded thermocouples, isotherm sensors, and pressure transducers. The sensors monitored the in-depth ablator response, as well as the surface pressure at discrete locations throughout the hypersonic deceleration. This paper presents a comparison of the flight data with post-entry estimates. An assessment of the aerothermal environments, as well as the in-depth response of the heatshield material is made, and conclusions regarding the overall performance of the ablator at the suite locations are presented.
Grid Generation Issues and CFD Simulation Accuracy for the X33 Aerothermal Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polsky, Susan; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Davies, Carol; Loomis, Mark; Prabhu, Dinesh; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Grid generation issues relating to the simulation of the X33 aerothermal environment using the GASP code are explored. Required grid densities and normal grid stretching are discussed with regards to predicting the fluid dynamic and heating environments with the desired accuracy. The generation of volume grids is explored and includes discussions of structured grid generation packages such as GRIDGEN, GRIDPRO and HYPGEN. Volume grid manipulation techniques for obtaining desired outer boundary and grid clustering using the OUTBOUND code are examined. The generation of the surface grid with the required surface grid with the required surface grid topology is also discussed. Utilizing grids without singular axes is explored as a method of avoiding numerical difficulties at the singular line.
Aerothermal Performance Constraints for Small Radius Leading Edges Operating at Hypervelocity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolodziej, Paul; Bull, Jeffrey D.; Milos, Frank S.; Squire, Thomas H.
1997-01-01
Small radius leading edges and nosetips were used to minimize wave drag in early hypervelocity vehicle concepts until further analysis demonstrated that extreme aerothermodynamic heating blunted the available thermal protection system materials. Recent studies indicate that ultra-high temperature composite (UHTC) materials are shape stable at temperatures approaching 3033 K and will be available for use as sharp leading edge components in the near future. Steady-state aerothermal performance constraints for UHTC components are presented in this paper to identify their non-ablating operational capability at altitudes from sea level to 90 km. An integrated design tool was developed to estimate these constraints. The tool couples aerothermodynamic heating with material response using commercial finite element analysis software and is capable of both steady-state and transient analysis. Performance during entry is analyzed by transient thermal analysis along the trajectory. The thermal load condition from the transient thermal analysis is used to estimate thermal stress. Applying the tool to UHTC materials shows that steady-state, non-ablating operation of a HfB2/SiC(A-7) (A-7) component is possible at velocities approaching Earth's circular orbital velocity of 7.9 km/s at altitudes approaching 70 km.
Development of a Tool to Recreate the Mars Science Laboratory Aerothermal Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beerman, A. F.; Lewis, M. J.; Santos, J. A.; White, T. R.
2010-01-01
The Mars Science Laboratory will enter the Martian atmosphere in 2012 with multiple char depth sensors and in-depth thermocouples in its heatshield. The aerothermal environment experienced by MSL may be computationally recreated using the data from the sensors and a material response program, such as the Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal (FIAT) response program, through the matching of the char depth and thermocouple predictions of the material response program to the sensor data. A tool, CHanging Inputs from the Environment of FIAT (CHIEF), was developed to iteratively change different environmental conditions such that FIAT predictions match within certain criteria applied to an external data set. The computational environment is changed by iterating on the enthalpy, pressure, or heat transfer coefficient at certain times in the trajectory. CHIEF was initially compared against arc-jet test data from the development of the MSL heatshield and then against simulated sensor data derived from design trajectories for MSL. CHIEF was able to match char depth and in-depth thermocouple temperatures within the bounds placed upon it for these cases. Further refinement of CHIEF to compare multiple time points and assign convergence criteria may improve accuracy.
Improved numerical methods for turbulent viscous flows aerothermal modeling program, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karki, K. C.; Patankar, S. V.; Runchal, A. K.; Mongia, H. C.
1988-01-01
The details of a study to develop accurate and efficient numerical schemes to predict complex flows are described. In this program, several discretization schemes were evaluated using simple test cases. This assessment led to the selection of three schemes for an in-depth evaluation based on two-dimensional flows. The scheme with the superior overall performance was incorporated in a computer program for three-dimensional flows. To improve the computational efficiency, the selected discretization scheme was combined with a direct solution approach in which the fluid flow equations are solved simultaneously rather than sequentially.
2013-09-01
combusting a mixture of methane and air. The flow conditions for the tests of interest had a turbulent boundary-layer at the panel location, and the...role in the 4 fpp calculation; Tw4 does not appear in oblique shock relations and T1 is only used with Req to determine the methane -air properties...Similarity Laws for Aerothermoelastic Testing,” Journal of the Aero/ Space Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 8, 1962, pp. 935-950. 2 McNamara, J.J. and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karki, K. C.; Mongia, H. C.; Patankar, Suhas V.; Runchal, A. K.
1987-01-01
The objective of this effort is to develop improved numerical schemes for predicting combustor flow fields. Various candidate numerical schemes were evaluated, and promising schemes were selected for detailed assessment. The criteria for evaluation included accuracy, computational efficiency, stability, and ease of extension to multidimensions. The candidate schemes were assessed against a variety of simple one- and two-dimensional problems. These results led to the selection of the following schemes for further evaluation: flux spline schemes (linear and cubic) and controlled numerical diffusion with internal feedback (CONDIF). The incorporation of the flux spline scheme and direct solution strategy in a computer program for three-dimensional flows is in progress.
Leakage effects in car underhood aerothermal management: temperature and heat flux analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaled, Mahmoud; Habchi, Charbel; Harambat, Fabien; Elmarakbi, Ahmed; Peerhossaini, Hassan
2014-10-01
Air leakage from the engine compartment of a vehicle comes mainly from the junctions of the vehicle hood and the front end grill, the vehicle wings, the optical and the windshield. The present paper studies the thermal impact of these air leakage zones on the components of the vehicle engine compartment through temperature and heat-flux measurements. The front wheels of the test vehicle are positioned on a dynamometer and driven by the vehicle engine. The engine compartment is instrumented with almost 100 surface and air thermocouples and 20 fluxmeters of normal gradients. Measurements were made for three different thermal operating points. Five leak-sealing configurations are studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herkes, William
2000-01-01
Acoustic and propulsion performance testing of a model-scale Axisymmetric Coannular Ejector nozzle was conducted in the Boeing Low-speed Aeroacoustic Facility. This nozzle is a plug nozzle with an ejector design to provide aspiration of about 20% of the engine flow. A variety of mixing enhancers were designed to promote mixing of the engine and the aspirated flows. These included delta tabs, tone-injection rods, and wheeler ramps. This report addresses the acoustic aspects of the testing. The spectral characteristics of the various configurations of the nozzle are examined on a model-scale basis. This includes indentifying particular noise sources contributing to the spectra and the data are projected to full-scale flyover conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of the nozzle, and of the various mixing enhancers, on reducing the Effective Perceived Noise Levels.
Direct and system effects of water ingestion into jet engine compresors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, S. N. B.; Ehresman, C. M.; Haykin, T.
1986-01-01
Water ingestion into aircraft-installed jet engines can arise both during take-off and flight through rain storms, resulting in engine operation with nearly saturated air-water droplet mixture flow. Each of the components of the engine and the system as a whole are affected by water ingestion, aero-thermally and mechanically. The greatest effects arise probably in turbo-machinery. Experimental and model-based results (of relevance to 'immediate' aerothermal changes) in compressors have been obtained to show the effects of film formation on material surfaces, centrifugal redistribution of water droplets, and interphase heat and mass transfer. Changes in the compressor performance affect the operation of the other components including the control and hence the system. The effects on the engine as a whole are obtained through engine simulation with specified water ingestion. The interest is in thrust, specific fuel consumption, surge margin and rotational speeds. Finally two significant aspects of performance changes, scalability and controllability, are discussed in terms of characteristic scales and functional relations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacLean, M.; Holden, M.
2009-01-01
The effect of gas/surface interaction in making CFD predictions of convective heating has been considered with application to ground tests performed in high enthalpy shock tunnels where additional heating augmentation attributable to surface recombination has been observed for nitrogen, air and carbon dioxide flows. For test articles constructed of stainless steel and aluminum, measurements have been made with several types of heat transfer instrumentation including thin- film, calorimeter, and coaxial thermocouple sensors. These experiments have been modeled by computations made with the high quality, chemically reacting, Navier- Stokes solver, DPLR and the heating results compared. Some typical cases considered include results on an axisymmetric sphere-cone, axisymmetric spherical capsule, spherical capsule at angle of attack, and two- dimensional cylinder. In nitrogen flows, cases considered show a recombination probability on the order of 10-3, which agrees with published data. In many cases in air and CO2, measurements exceeding the predicted level of convective heating have been observed which are consistent with approximately complete recombination (to O2/N2 or CO2) on the surface of the model (sometimes called a super-catalytic wall). It has been recognized that the conclusion that this behavior is tied to an excessively high degree of catalytic efficiency is dependent on the current understanding of the freestream and shock-layer state of the gas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Kai; Liu, Jun; Liu, Weiqiang
2017-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) heat shield system, a novel thermal protection technique in the hypersonic field, has been paid much attention in recent years. In the real flight condition, not only the Lorentz force but also the Hall electric field is induced by the interaction between ionized air post shock and magnetic field. In order to analyze the action mechanisms of the Hall effect, numerical methods of coupling thermochemical nonequilibrium flow field with externally applied magnetic field as well as the induced electric field are constructed and validated. Based on the nonequilibrium model of Hall parameter, numerical simulations of the MHD heat shield system is conducted under two different magnetic induction strengths (B0=0.2 T, 0.5 T) on a reentry capsule forebody. Results show that, the Hall effect is the same under the two magnetic induction strengths when the wall is assumed to be conductive. For this case, with the Hall effect taken into account, the Lorentz force counter stream diminishes a lot and the circumferential component dominates, resulting that the heat flux and shock-off distance approach the case without MHD control. However, for the insulating wall, the Hall effect acts in different ways under these two magnetic induction strengths. For this case, with the Hall effect taken into account, the performance of MHD heat shield system approaches the case neglecting the Hall effect when B0 equals 0.2 T. Such performance becomes worse when B0 equals 0.5 T and the aerothermal environment on the capsule shoulder is even worse than the case without MHD control.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.
1981-01-01
The influence of nonequilibrium radiative energy transfer and the effect of probe configuration changes on the flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body are investigated. The radiating shock layer flow is assumed to be axisymmetric, viscous, laminar and in chemical equilibrium. The radiative transfer equations are derived under nonequilibrium conditions which include multilevel energy transitions. The equilibrium radiative transfer analysis is performed with an existing nongray radiation model which accounts for molecular band, atomic line, and continuum transitions. The nonequilibrium results are obtained with and without ablation injection in the shock layer. The nonequilibrium results are found to be greatly influenced by the temperature distribution in the shock layer. In the absence of ablative products, the convective and radiative heating to the entry body are reduced under nonequilibrium conditions. The influence of nonequilibrium is found to be greater at higher entry altitudes. With coupled ablation and carbon phenolic injection, 16 chemical species are used in the ablation layer for radiation absorption. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium results are compared under peak heating conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Facchini, Bruno
2017-02-01
The aero-thermal behavior of the flow field inside 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative smooth trailing edge of shaped wedge discharge duct with one row of enlarged pedestals have been investigated in order to determine the effect of rotation, inlet velocity and blowing conditions effects, for Re = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two configurations are presented: with and without open tip configurations. Thermo-chromic liquid crystals technique is used to ensure a local measurement of the heat transfer coefficient on the blade suction side under stationary and rotation conditions. Results are reported in terms of detailed 2D HTC maps on the suction side surface as well as the averaged Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts. Two correlations are proposed, for both closed and open tip configurations, based on the Re, Pr, Ro and a new non-dimensional parameter based on the position along the radial distance, to assess a reliable estimation of the averaged Nusselt number at the inter-pedestal region. A good agreement is found between prediction and experimental data with about ±10 to ±12 % of uncertainty, for the simple form correlation, and about ±16 % using a complex form. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.
Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models
Suter, G.W. II
1996-09-01
One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.
Aerothermal loads analysis for high speed flow over a quilted surface configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, G. C.; Smith, R. E.
1984-08-01
Attention is given to hypersonic laminar flow over a quilted surface configuration that simulates an array of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System panels bowed in a spherical shape as a result of thermal gradient through the panel thickness. Pressure and heating loads to the surface are determined. The flow field over the configuration was mathematically modeled by means of time-dependent, three-dimensional conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations. A boundary mapping technique was then used to obtain a rectangular, parallel piped computational domain, and an explicit MacCormack (1972) explicit time-split predictor corrector finite difference algorithm was used to obtain steady state solutions. Total integrated heating loads vary linearly with bowed height when this value does not exceed the local boundary layer thickness.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woods, W. C.; Arrington, J. P.
1972-01-01
Comparisons between flow visualization systems using electron-beam fluorescence, schlieren, and shadowgraph techniques illustrate the advantages associated with the electron beam. Specific applications of this method as an aid in defining the origin of erosion on a heat-transfer model are cited. Results of combined electron-beam oil-flow studies on configurations illustrate that the simultaneous definition of the external flow field and its surface flow can be obtained. Comparisons between the electron-beam oil-flow visualization method and phase-change coating heat-transfer tests on a shuttle ascent configuration indicate the complementary nature of these two testing techniques. Potential methods for improving the electron-beam technique are included.
Calibration and Performance of the AEDC/VKF Tunnel C, Mach Number 4, Aerothermal Wind Tunnel
1982-06-01
Beattie - Bridgeman equation of state for air is shown in the figures included in this appendix. Real-Gas Enthalpy General Forms The following... Beattie - Bridgeman equation of state for air. 106 AEDC-TR-82-6 P(Rea1 Gas) R(P/PT)(P/PT)Idea1 8 PT1. 02 Sym 0 Computed Real-Gas Values Curve Fit TT, oR ~600...chamber properties; then the results were adjusted to include the real-gas effects. The real-gas properties are based on the Beattie - Bridgeman equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.
1980-01-01
Radiative transfer equations are derived under nonequilibrium conditions which include multilevel energy transitions. The nonequalibrium results, obtained with and without ablation injection in the shock layer, are found to be greatly influenced by the temperature distribution in the shock layer. In the absence of ablative products, the convective and radiative heating to the entry body are reduced significantly under nonequilibrium conditions. The influence of nonequilibrium is found to be greater at higher entry altitudes. With coupled ablation and carbon phenolic injection, 16 chemical species are used in the ablation layer for radiation absorption. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium results are compared under peak heating conditions. A 45 degree sphere cone, a 35 degree hyperboloid, and a 45 degree ellipsoid were used to study probe shape change. Results indicate that the shock layer flow field and heat transfer to the body are influenced significantly by the probe shape change. The effect of shape change on radiative heating of the afterbodies is found to be considerably larger for the sphere cone and ellipsoid than for the hyperboloid.
2006-04-01
layer velocity profiles without and with plasma discharge forcing. Figure 6: Global hawk Cascade Blades Figure 7: Dimpled HPT vanes for Turbine...Research Facility Figure 8: Wake traverse of dimples on roughened vanes . 1 SUMMARY The objectives of this task are to increase turbine engine...Hot wire anemometers and pitot -static pressure instrumentation were used to quantify the boundary layer and external flow fluid mechanical properties
Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Aerothermostructural Model Applicable to Hypersonic Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kostyk, Chris; Risch, Tim
2013-01-01
The harsh and complex hypersonic flight environment has driven design and analysis improvements for many years. One of the defining characteristics of hypersonic flight is the coupled, multi-disciplinary nature of the dominant physics. In an effect to examine some of the multi-disciplinary problems associated with hypersonic flight engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center developed a non-linear 6 degrees-of-freedom, full vehicle simulation that includes the necessary model capabilities: aerothermal heating, ablation, and thermal stress solutions. Development of the tool and results for some investigations will be presented. Requirements and improvements for future work will also be reviewed. The results of the work emphasize the need for a coupled, multi-disciplinary analysis to provide accurate
Models for effective prevention.
Perry, C L; Kelder, S H
1992-07-01
The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eichinger, John
2005-01-01
Models are crucial to science teaching and learning, yet they can create unforeseen and overlooked challenges for students and teachers. For example, consider the time-tested clay volcano that relies on a vinegar and-baking-soda mixture for its "eruption." Based on a classroom demonstration of that geologic model, elementary students may interpret…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wadhams, T.P.; MacLean, M.; Holden, M.S.; Cassady, A.M.
2009-01-01
An experimental program has been completed by CUBRC exploring laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows over a 7.0% scale model of the Project ORION CEV geometry. This program was executed primarily to answer questions concerning the increase in heat transfer on the windward, or "hot shoulder" of the CEV heat shield from laminar to turbulent flow. To answer these questions CUBRC constructed and instrumented a 14.0 inch diameter Project ORION CEV model and ran a range of Reynolds numbers based on diameter from 1.0 to over 40 million at a Mach number of 8.0. These Reynolds numbers were selected to cover laminar to turbulent heating data on the "hot shoulder". Data obtained during these runs will be used to guide design decisions as they apply to heat shield thickness and extent. Several experiments at higher enthalpies were achieved to obtain data for code validation with real gas effects and transition. CUBRC also performed computation studies of these experiments to aid in the data reduction process and study turbulence modeling.
Multilevel Modeling with Correlated Effects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Jee-Seon; Frees, Edward W.
2007-01-01
When there exist omitted effects, measurement error, and/or simultaneity in multilevel models, explanatory variables may be correlated with random components, and standard estimation methods do not provide consistent estimates of model parameters. This paper introduces estimators that are consistent under such conditions. By employing generalized…
The Compass Rose Effectiveness Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spiers, Cynthia E.; Kiel, Dorothy; Hohenrink, Brad
2008-01-01
The effectiveness model focuses the institution on mission achievement through assessment and improvement planning. Eleven mission criteria, measured by key performance indicators, are aligned with the accountability interest of internal and external stakeholders. A Web-based performance assessment application supports the model, documenting the…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vemaganti, Gururaja R.
1994-01-01
This report presents computations for the Type 4 shock-shock interference flow under laminar and turbulent conditions using unstructured grids. Mesh adaptation was accomplished by remeshing, refinement, and mesh movement. Two two-equation turbulence models were used to analyze turbulent flows. The mean flow governing equations and the turbulence governing equations are solved in a coupled manner. The solution algorithm and the details pertaining to its implementation on unstructured grids are described. Computations were performed at two different freestream Reynolds numbers at a freestream Mach number of 11. Effects of the variation in the impinging shock location are studied. The comparison of the results in terms of wall heat flux and wall pressure distributions is presented.
Size Effect in Continuum Modeling
Lu, Wei-Yang; James W. Foulk; Huestis, Edwin M.; Connelly, Kevin; Song, Bo; Yang, Nancy Y. C.
2008-09-01
The mechanical properties of some materials (Cu, Ni, Ag, etc.) have been shown to develop strong dependence on the geometric dimensions, resulting in a size effect. Several theories have been proposed to model size effects, but have been based on very few experiments conducted at appropriate scales. Some experimental results implied that size effects are caused by increasing strain gradients and have been used to confirm many strain gradient theories. On the other hand, some recent experiments show that a size effect exists in the absence of strain gradients. This report describes a brief analytical and experimental study trying to clarify the material and experimental issues surrounding the most influential size-effect experiments by Fleck et al (1994). This effort is to understand size effects intended to further develop predictive models.
Analytical modeling of intumescent coating thermal protection system in a JP-5 fuel fire environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, K. J.; Shimizu, A. B.; Suchsland, K. E.; Moyer, C. B.
1974-01-01
The thermochemical response of Coating 313 when exposed to a fuel fire environment was studied to provide a tool for predicting the reaction time. The existing Aerotherm Charring Material Thermal Response and Ablation (CMA) computer program was modified to treat swelling materials. The modified code is now designated Aerotherm Transient Response of Intumescing Materials (TRIM) code. In addition, thermophysical property data for Coating 313 were analyzed and reduced for use in the TRIM code. An input data sensitivity study was performed, and performance tests of Coating 313/steel substrate models were carried out. The end product is a reliable computational model, the TRIM code, which was thoroughly validated for Coating 313. The tasks reported include: generation of input data, development of swell model and implementation in TRIM code, sensitivity study, acquisition of experimental data, comparisons of predictions with data, and predictions with intermediate insulation.
Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tran, Huy Kim
1993-01-01
The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.
Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects
Vay, Jean-Luc; Benedetto, E.; Fischer, W.; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, K.; Schulte, D.; Sonnad, K.; Tomas, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; Rumolo, G.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.
2007-06-18
Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e+e- scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed.
Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects
Fischer, W.; Benedetto, E.; Rumolo, G.; Schulte, D.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, Frank; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Sonnad, K.G.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Pivi, M.T.F.; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; /SLAC
2008-01-24
Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e{sup +}e{sup -} scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed.
Neurocircuitry for modeling drug effects.
Noori, Hamid R; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C
2012-09-01
The identification and functional understanding of the neurocircuitry that mediates alcohol and drug effects that are relevant for the development of addictive behavior is a fundamental challenge in addiction research. Here we introduce an assumption-free construction of a neurocircuitry that mediates acute and chronic drug effects on neurotransmitter dynamics that is solely based on rodent neuroanatomy. Two types of data were considered for constructing the neurocircuitry: (1) information on the cytoarchitecture and neurochemical connectivity of each brain region of interest obtained from different neuroanatomical techniques; (2) information on the functional relevance of each region of interest with respect to alcohol and drug effects. We used mathematical data mining and hierarchical clustering methods to achieve the highest standards in the preprocessing of these data. Using this approach, a dynamical network of high molecular and spatial resolution containing 19 brain regions and seven neurotransmitter systems was obtained. Further graph theoretical analysis suggests that the neurocircuitry is connected and cannot be separated into further components. Our analysis also reveals the existence of a principal core subcircuit comprised of nine brain regions: the prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and raphe nuclei. Finally, by means of algebraic criteria for synchronizability of the neurocircuitry, the suitability for in silico modeling of acute and chronic drug effects is indicated. Indeed, we introduced as an example a dynamical system for modeling the effects of acute ethanol administration in rats and obtained an increase in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens-a hallmark of drug reinforcement-to an extent similar to that seen in numerous microdialysis studies. We conclude that the present neurocircuitry provides a structural and dynamical framework for large
Toy models for wrapping effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penedones, João; Vieira, Pedro
2008-08-01
The anomalous dimensions of local single trace gauge invariant operators in Script N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be computed by diagonalizing a long range integrable Hamiltonian by means of a perturbative asymptotic Bethe ansatz. This formalism breaks down when the number of fields of the composite operator is smaller than the range of the Hamiltonian which coincides with the order in perturbation theory at study. We analyze two spin chain toy models which might shed some light on the physics behind these wrapping effects. One of them, the Hubbard model, is known to be closely related to Script N = 4 SYM. In this example, we find that the knowledge of the effective spin chain description is insufficient to reconstruct the finite size effects of the underlying electron theory. We compute the wrapping corrections for generic states and relate them to a Luscher like approach. The second toy models are long range integrable Hamiltonians built from the standard algebraic Bethe ansatz formalism. This construction is valid for any symmetry group. In particular, for non-compact groups it exhibits an interesting relation between wrapping interactions and transcendentality.
Mathematical model for gyroscope effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usubamatov, Ryspek
2015-05-01
Gyroscope effects are used in many engineering calculations of rotating parts, and a gyroscope is the basic unit of numerous devices and instruments used in aviation, space, marine and other industries. The primary attribute of a gyroscope is a spinning rotor that persists in maintaining its plane of rotation, creating gyroscope effects. Numerous publications represent the gyroscope theory using mathematical models based on the law of kinetic energy conservation and the rate of change in angular momentum of a spinning rotor. Gyroscope theory still attracts many researchers who continue to discover new properties of gyroscopic devices. In reality, gyroscope effects are more complex and known mathematical models do not accurately reflect the actual motions. Analysis of forces acting on a gyroscope shows that four dynamic components act simultaneously: the centrifugal, inertial and Coriolis forces and the rate of change in angular momentum of the spinning rotor. The spinning rotor generates a rotating plane of centrifugal and Coriols forces that resist the twisting of the spinning rotor with external torque applied. The forced inclination of the spinning rotor generates inertial forces, resulting in precession torque of a gyroscope. The rate of change of the angular momentum creates resisting and precession torques which are not primary one in gyroscope effects. The new mathematical model for the gyroscope motions under the action of the external torque applied can be as base for new gyroscope theory. At the request of the author of the paper, this corrigendum was issued on 24 May 2016 to correct an incomplete Table 1 and errors in Eq. (47) and Eq. (48).
Better models are more effectively connected models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John
2016-04-01
The concept of hydrologic and geomorphologic connectivity describes the processes and pathways which link sources (e.g. rainfall, snow and ice melt, springs, eroded areas and barren lands) to accumulation areas (e.g. foot slopes, streams, aquifers, reservoirs), and the spatial variations thereof. There are many examples of hydrological and sediment connectivity on a watershed scale; in consequence, a process-based understanding of connectivity is crucial to help managers understand their systems and adopt adequate measures for flood prevention, pollution mitigation and soil protection, among others. Modelling is often used as a tool to understand and predict fluxes within a catchment by complementing observations with model results. Catchment models should therefore be able to reproduce the linkages, and thus the connectivity of water and sediment fluxes within the systems under simulation. In modelling, a high level of spatial and temporal detail is desirable to ensure taking into account a maximum number of components, which then enables connectivity to emerge from the simulated structures and functions. However, computational constraints and, in many cases, lack of data prevent the representation of all relevant processes and spatial/temporal variability in most models. In most cases, therefore, the level of detail selected for modelling is too coarse to represent the system in a way in which connectivity can emerge; a problem which can be circumvented by representing fine-scale structures and processes within coarser scale models using a variety of approaches. This poster focuses on the results of ongoing discussions on modelling connectivity held during several workshops within COST Action Connecteur. It assesses the current state of the art of incorporating the concept of connectivity in hydrological and sediment models, as well as the attitudes of modellers towards this issue. The discussion will focus on the different approaches through which connectivity
Orion MPCV Continuum RCS Heating Augmentation Model Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyatt, Andrew J.; White, Molly E.
2014-01-01
The reaction control system jets of the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the surface heat flux on the leeside of the aft-body, when they are fired. Changes in surface heating are expressed in terms of augmentation factor over the baseline smooth body heating. Wind tunnel tests revealed heating augmentation factors as high as 13.0, 7.6, 2.8, and 5.8 for the roll, pitch down, pitch up, and yaw jets respectively. Heating augmentation factor models, based almost exclusively on data from a series of wind tunnel tests have been developed, for the purposes of thermal protection system design. The wind tunnel tests investigated several potential jet-to-freestream similarity parameters, and heating augmentation factors derived from the data showed correlation with the jet-to-freestream momentum ratio. However, this correlation was not utilized in the developed models. Instead augmentation factors were held constant throughout the potential trajectory space. This simplification was driven by the fact that ground to flight traceability and sting effects are not well understood. Given the sensitivity of the reaction control system jet heating augmentation to configuration, geometry, and orientation the focus in the present paper is on the methodology used to develop the models and the lessons learned from the data. The models that are outlined in the present work are specific to the aerothermal database used to design the thermal protection system for the Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle.
Kinetic-effect models and their applications.
Grevel, J
1987-04-01
This article focuses on mathematical models that analyze the time course of drug effects in humans. Any such model, whether parametric or nonparametric, is termed a kinetic-effect model (KEM). These models serve to describe (interpolation) and to predict (extrapolation) the effect-time profile. KEMs are applicable to many problems in pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and clinical pharmacology.
Model of neutrino effective masses
Dinh Nguyen Dinh; Nguyen Thi Hong Van; Nguyen Anh Ky; Phi Quang Van
2006-10-01
It is shown that an effective (nonrenormalizable) coupling of lepton multiplets to scalar triplets in the 331 model with sterile/exotic neutrinos, can be a good way for generating neutrino masses of different types. The method is simple and avoids radiative/loop calculations which, sometimes, are long and complicated. Basing on some astrophysical arguments it is also stated that the scale of SU(3){sub L} symmetry breaking is at TeV scale, in agreement with earlier investigations. Or equivalently, starting from this symmetry breaking scale we could have sterile/exotic neutrinos with mass of a few keV's which could be used to explain several astrophysical and cosmological puzzles, such as the dark matter, the fast motion of the observed pulsars, the re-ionization of the Universe, etc.
A Model for Assessing Institutional Effectiveness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Volkwein, J. Fredericks
2010-01-01
In this chapter, the author proposes a model for assessing institutional effectiveness. The Volkwein model for assessing institutional effectiveness consists of five parts that summarize the steps for assessing institutions, programs, faculty, and students. The first step in the model distinguishes the dual purposes of institutional effectiveness:…
Random-effects models for longitudinal data
Laird, N.M.; Ware, J.H.
1982-12-01
Models for the analysis of longitudinal data must recognize the relationship between serial observations on the same unit. Multivariate models with general covariance structure are often difficult to apply to highly unbalanced data, whereas two-stage random-effects models can be used easily. In two-stage models, the probability distributions for the response vectors of different individuals belong to a single family, but some random-effects parameters vary across individuals, with a distribution specified at the second stage. A general family of models is discussed, which includes both growth models and repeated-measures models as special cases. A unified approach to fitting these models, based on a combination of empirical Bayes and maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters and using the EM algorithm, is discussed. Two examples are taken from a current epidemiological study of the health effects of air pollution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung
2014-01-01
The DINA (deterministic input, noisy, and gate) model has been widely used in cognitive diagnosis tests and in the process of test development. The outcomes known as slip and guess are included in the DINA model function representing the responses to the items. This study aimed to extend the DINA model by using the random-effect approach to allow…
Modeling Interaction Effects in Latent Growth Curve Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Acock, Alan
2000-01-01
Presents an extension of the method of estimating interaction effects among latent variables to latent growth curve models developed by K. Joreskog and F. Yang (1996). Illustrates the procedure and discusses results in terms of practical and statistical problems associated with interaction analyses in latent curve models and structural equation…
Models for Determining School Effectiveness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frederiksen, John R.
A major purpose of the Search for Effective Schools Project has been to explore the truth of the following two propositions: that both pupil response to instruction and the delivery of instruction are functions of pupil background, prior knowledge and level of achievement. That is, the project sought to demonstrate the existence of effective…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prisbell, Andrew; Marichalar, J.; Lumpkin, F.; LeBeau, G.
2010-01-01
Plume impingement effects on the Orion Crew Service Module (CSM) were analyzed for various dual Reaction Control System (RCS) engine firings and various configurations of the solar arrays. The study was performed using a decoupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) approach. This approach included a single jet plume solution for the R1E RCS engine computed with the General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP) CFD code. The CFD solution was used to create an inflow surface for the DSMC solution based on the Bird continuum breakdown parameter. The DSMC solution was then used to model the dual RCS plume impingement effects on the entire CSM geometry with deployed solar arrays. However, because the continuum breakdown parameter of 0.5 could not be achieved due to geometrical constraints and because high resolution in the plume shock interaction region is desired, a focused DSMC simulation modeling only the plumes and the shock interaction region was performed. This high resolution intermediate solution was then used as the inflow to the larger DSMC solution to obtain plume impingement heating, forces, and moments on the CSM and the solar arrays for a total of 21 cases that were analyzed. The results of these simulations were used to populate the Orion CSM Aerothermal Database.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prisbell, A.; Marichalar, J.; Lumpkin, F.; LeBeau, G.
2011-05-01
Plume impingement effects on the Orion Crew Service Module (CSM) were analyzed for various dual Reaction Control System (RCS) engine firings and various configurations of the solar arrays. The study was performed using a decoupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) approach. This approach included a single jet plume solution for the R1E RCS engine computed with the General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP) CFD code. The CFD solution was used to create an inflow surface for the DSMC solution based on the Bird continuum breakdown parameter. The DSMC solution was then used to model the dual RCS plume impingement effects on the entire CSM geometry with deployed solar arrays. However, because the continuum breakdown parameter of 0.05 could not be achieved due to geometrical constraints and because high resolution in the plume shock interaction region is desired, a focused DSMC simulation modeling only the plumes and the shock interaction region was performed. This high resolution intermediate solution was then used as the inflow to the larger DSMC solution to obtain plume impingement heating, forces, and moments on the CSM and the solar arrays for a total of 21 cases that were analyzed. The results of these simulations were used to populate the Orion CSM Aerothermal Database.
Model degradation effects on sensor failure detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leininger, G. G.
1981-01-01
This paper discusses the effects of imperfect modeling on the detection and isolation of sensor failures. For systems with non-zero set points, deterministic inputs or non-zero noise biases, the model mismatch appears as a bias on the stochastic innovation process. This bias, if left unaccounted for, would be sufficient to declare a false alarm failure in one or more sensors. A practical design procedure based upon the Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) form uses a finite data window sequential t-test to detect and isolate model mismatch effects and soft sensor failures. Application to an eighth order model of the QCSEE turbofan engine is discussed.
Neutron star matter in an effective model
Jha, T. K.; Raina, P. K.; Panda, P. K.; Patra, S. K.
2006-11-15
We study an equation of state (EOS) for dense matter in the core of a compact star with hyperons and calculate the star's structure in an effective model using a mean-field approach. With varying incompressibility and effective nucleon mass, we analyze the resulting EOS with hyperons in {beta} equilibrium and their underlying effect on the gross properties of the compact star sequences. The results obtained in our analysis are compared with predictions of other theoretical models and observations. The maximum mass of a compact star lies in the range 1.21-1.96M{sub {center_dot}} for the different EOS obtained in the model.
Modeling abundance effects in distance sampling
Royle, J. Andrew; Dawson, D.K.; Bates, S.
2004-01-01
Distance-sampling methods are commonly used in studies of animal populations to estimate population density. A common objective of such studies is to evaluate the relationship between abundance or density and covariates that describe animal habitat or other environmental influences. However, little attention has been focused on methods of modeling abundance covariate effects in conventional distance-sampling models. In this paper we propose a distance-sampling model that accommodates covariate effects on abundance. The model is based on specification of the distance-sampling likelihood at the level of the sample unit in terms of local abundance (for each sampling unit). This model is augmented with a Poisson regression model for local abundance that is parameterized in terms of available covariates. Maximum-likelihood estimation of detection and density parameters is based on the integrated likelihood, wherein local abundance is removed from the likelihood by integration. We provide an example using avian point-transect data of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) collected using a distance-sampling protocol and two measures of habitat structure (understory cover and basal area of overstory trees). The model yields a sensible description (positive effect of understory cover, negative effect on basal area) of the relationship between habitat and Ovenbird density that can be used to evaluate the effects of habitat management on Ovenbird populations.
"Serial" Effects in Parallel Models of Reading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen
2012-01-01
There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which…
Effects of Self-Modelling on Stuttering
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Webber, Margaret J.; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark
2004-01-01
Background: The paper reports on a laboratory investigation of the effects of self-modelling on stuttering rate in adolescents and adults. Self-modelling refers to a therapeutic or training method, usually involving videotape, that uses exposure to oneself performing selected error-free behaviours as the conduit for promoting behaviour change.…
Effective connectivity: Influence, causality and biophysical modeling
Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.; Roebroeck, Alard; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl
2011-01-01
This is the final paper in a Comments and Controversies series dedicated to “The identification of interacting networks in the brain using fMRI: Model selection, causality and deconvolution”. We argue that discovering effective connectivity depends critically on state-space models with biophysically informed observation and state equations. These models have to be endowed with priors on unknown parameters and afford checks for model Identifiability. We consider the similarities and differences among Dynamic Causal Modeling, Granger Causal Modeling and other approaches. We establish links between past and current statistical causal modeling, in terms of Bayesian dependency graphs and Wiener–Akaike–Granger–Schweder influence measures. We show that some of the challenges faced in this field have promising solutions and speculate on future developments. PMID:21477655
Effect of Spray Cone Angle on Flame Stability in an Annular Gas Turbine Combustor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, R. K.; Kumar, S. Kishore; Chandel, Sunil
2016-04-01
Effect of fuel spray cone angle in an aerogas turbine combustor has been studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full-scale combustor testing. For CFD analysis, a 22.5° sector of an annular combustor is modeled and the governing equations are solved using the eddy dissipation combustion model in ANSYS CFX computational package. The analysis has been carried out at 125 kPa and 303 K inlet conditions for spray cone angles from 60° to 140°. The lean blowout limits are established by studying the behavior of combustion zone during transient engine operation from an initial steady-state condition. The computational study has been followed by testing the practical full-scale annular combustor in an aerothermal test facility. The experimental result is in a good agreement with the computational predictions. The lean blowout fuel-air ratio increases as the spray cone angle is decreased at constant operating pressure and temperature. At higher spray cone angle, the flame and high-temperature zone moves upstream close to atomizer face and a uniform flame is sustained over a wide region causing better flame stability.
The Mixed Effects Trend Vector Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Rooij, Mark; Schouteden, Martijn
2012-01-01
Maximum likelihood estimation of mixed effect baseline category logit models for multinomial longitudinal data can be prohibitive due to the integral dimension of the random effects distribution. We propose to use multidimensional unfolding methodology to reduce the dimensionality of the problem. As a by-product, readily interpretable graphical…
Effective Friedmann model from multidimensional cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuk, A.
2006-10-01
We investigate the possibility of the construction of the conventional Friedmann cosmology for our observable Universe if the underlying theory is the multidimensional Kaluza-Klein model. We show that the effective Friedmann model obtained by dynamic compactification of the multidimensional model is faced with too strong variations in the fundamental constants. On the other hand, models with stable compactification of the internal space are free from this problem and also result in conventional four-dimensonal cosmological behaviour for our Universe. We prove a no-go theorem, which shows that stable compactification of the internal spaces is possible only if the equations of state in the external and internal spaces are properly adjusted to each other. With a proper choice of parameters (fine tuning), the effective cosmological constant in this model provides the late-time acceleration of the Universe.
Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.
Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino
2016-08-01
The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis.
Support effects studied on model supported catalysts
Gorte, R.J.
1993-02-01
Composition and structure of oxide support materials can change the catalytic behavior of metal and oxide catalysts. Model catalysts are being studied in which the active phase is deposited on flat oxide substrates, with emphasis on metals catalysis for automotive emissions control and acidity in supported oxides. Research is reported in the following areas: particle-size effects, support effects on ZnO and zirconia, support effects on ceria, supported oxides, and low energy ion scattering (no results in the latter).
Thermal Effects Modeling Developed for Smart Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Ho-Jun
1998-01-01
Applying smart materials in aeropropulsion systems may improve the performance of aircraft engines through a variety of vibration, noise, and shape-control applications. To facilitate the experimental characterization of these smart structures, researchers have been focusing on developing analytical models to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of these materials. One focus of current research efforts has been directed toward incorporating a comprehensive thermal analysis modeling capability. Typically, temperature affects the behavior of smart materials by three distinct mechanisms: Induction of thermal strains because of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch 1. Pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric elements; 2. Temperature-dependent changes in material properties; and 3. Previous analytical models only investigated the first two thermal effects mechanisms. However, since the material properties of piezoelectric materials generally vary greatly with temperature (see the graph), incorporating temperature-dependent material properties will significantly affect the structural deflections, sensory voltages, and stresses. Thus, the current analytical model captures thermal effects arising from all three mechanisms through thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. These constitutive equations were incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of smart structures in thermal environments. Corresponding finite element equations were formulated and implemented for both the beam and plate elements to provide a comprehensive thermal effects modeling capability.
Effects of model deficiencies on parameter estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hasselman, T. K.
1988-01-01
Reliable structural dynamic models will be required as a basis for deriving the reduced-order plant models used in control systems for large space structures. Ground vibration testing and model verification will play an important role in the development of these models; however, fundamental differences between the space environment and earth environment, as well as variations in structural properties due to as-built conditions, will make on-orbit identification essential. The efficiency, and perhaps even the success, of on-orbit identification will depend on having a valid model of the structure. It is envisioned that the identification process will primarily involve parametric methods. Given a correct model, a variety of estimation algorithms may be used to estimate parameter values. This paper explores the effects of modeling errors and model deficiencies on parameter estimation by reviewing previous case histories. The effects depend at least to some extent on the estimation algorithm being used. Bayesian estimation was used in the case histories presented here. It is therefore conceivable that the behavior of an estimation algorithm might be useful in detecting and possibly even diagnosing deficiencies. In practice, the task is complicated by the presence of systematic errors in experimental procedures and data processing and in the use of the estimation procedures themselves.
ANSYS Modeling of Hydrostatic Stress Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, Phillip A.
1999-01-01
Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic pressure has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Plasticity textbooks, from the earliest to the most modem, infer that there is no hydrostatic effect on the yielding of metals, and even modem finite element programs direct the user to assume the same. The object of this study is to use the von Mises and Drucker-Prager failure theory constitutive models in the finite element program ANSYS to see how well they model conditions of varying hydrostatic pressure. Data is presented for notched round bar (NRB) and "L" shaped tensile specimens. Similar results from finite element models in ABAQUS are shown for comparison. It is shown that when dealing with geometries having a high hydrostatic stress influence, constitutive models that have a functional dependence on hydrostatic stress are more accurate in predicting material behavior than those that are independent of hydrostatic stress.
Modeling of microstructural effects on electromigration failure
Ceric, H.; Orio, R. L. de; Zisser, W.; Selberherr, S.
2014-06-19
Current electromigration models used for simulation and analysis of interconnect reliability lack the appropriate description of metal microstructure and consequently have a very limited predictive capability. Therefore, the main objective of our work was obtaining more sophisticated electromigration tools. The problem is addressed through a combination of different levels of atomistic modeling and already available, continuum level macroscopic models. A novel method for an ab initio calculation of the effective valence for electromigration is presented and its application on the analysis of EM behavior is demonstrated. Additionally, a simple analytical model for the early electromigration lifetime is obtained. We have shown that its application provides a reasonable estimate for the early electromigration failures including the effect of microstructure. A simulation study is also applied on electromigration failure in tin solder bumps, where it contributed the understanding of the role of tin crystal anisotropy in the degradation mechanism of solder bumps.
Dynamical effects of overparametrization in nonlinear models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguirre, Luis Antonio; Billings, S. A.
1995-01-01
This paper is concemed with dynamical reconstruction for nonlinear systems. The effects of the driving function and of the complexity of a given representation on the bifurcation patter are investigated. It is shown that the use of different driving functions to excite the system may yield models with different bifurcation patterns. The complexity of the reconstructions considered is quantified by the embedding dimension and the number of estimated parameters. In this respect it appears that models which reproduce the original bifurcation behaviour are of limited complexity and that excessively complex models tend to induce ghost bifurcations and spurious dynamical regimes. Moreover, some results suggest that the effects of overparametrization on the global dynamical behaviour of a nonlinear model may be more deleterious than the presence of moderate noise levels. In order to precisely quantify the complexity of the reconstructions, global polynomials are used although the results are believed to apply to a much wider class of representations including neural networks.
Modeling socioeconomic status effects on language development.
Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica
2013-12-01
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data set provided by Bishop (2005). To our knowledge, this is the first application of computational models of development to SES. The simulations addressed 3 new challenges: (a) to combine models of development and individual differences in a single framework, (b) to expand modeling to the population level, and (c) to implement both environmental and genetic/intrinsic sources of individual differences. The model succeeded in capturing the qualitative patterns of regularity effects in both population performance and the predictive power of SES that were observed in the empirical data. The model suggested that the empirical data are best captured by relatively wider variation in learning abilities and relatively narrow variation in (and good quality of) environmental information. There were shortcomings in the model's quantitative fit, which are discussed. The model made several novel predictions, with respect to the influence of SES on delay versus giftedness, the change of SES effects over development, and the influence of SES on children of different ability levels (gene-environment interactions). The first of these predictions was that SES should reliably predict gifted performance in children but not delayed performance, and the prediction was supported by the Bishop data set. Finally, the model demonstrated limits on the inferences that can be drawn about developmental mechanisms on the basis of data from individual differences.
"Serial" effects in parallel models of reading.
Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen
2012-06-01
There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which postulate a common parallel processing mechanism for reading both words and nonwords (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; Rastle, Havelka, Wydell, Coltheart, & Besner, 2009). However, an alternative explanation of these data is that visual processes outside the scope of existing parallel models are responsible for generating the word-length related phenomena (Seidenberg & Plaut, 1998). Here we demonstrate that a parallel model of single word reading can account for the differential word-length effects found in the naming latencies of words and nonwords, provided that it includes a mapping from visual to orthographic representations, and that the nature of those orthographic representations are not preconstrained. The model can also simulate other supposedly "serial" effects. The overall findings were consistent with the view that visual processing contributes substantially to the word-length effects in normal reading and provided evidence to support the single-route theory which assumes words and nonwords are processed in parallel by a common mechanism.
A Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness
1983-11-01
V p g ~ e g - / 9 INI Yale ýSchool of Organization and M!a ia gem e r, S.1 W14 o E ci:1 A-e A NORMATIVE MODEL DF WORK TEAM EFFECTIVENESS J. Richard...research on grou Dperformance has pro.uced neither a set of empirical generalizat~cns sturdy enough to guide the design and management of work teams, nor...eto~ 0 I IIEVMT’S CATALOG NUMSE1 r ItIL -7. ied S...bij,., V Type OF REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERNED A Normstive Model of Work Team Effectiveness Interim 4
Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Souad; Louai, Fatima Zohra; Nait-Said, Nasreddine; Benabou, Abdelkader
2016-07-01
An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.
Modeling of the magnetic Barkhausen effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clatterbuck, D. M.; Garcia, V. J.; Johnson, M. J.; Jiles, D. C.
2000-05-01
The magnetic Barkhausen effect has been found particularly useful for the nondestructive evaluation of ferromagnetic alloys. It has been shown to be sensitive to both the microstructure and the stress state of a material. In order to improve interpretation of the Barkhausen signals, models are needed which are able to directly relate the Barkhausen signals to material properties such as grain size. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of two existing magnetic Barkhausen models are studied with a view to their suitability for use in the field of nondestructive evaluation. The model of Alessandro, Beatrice, Bertotti, and Montorsi describes the pinning field which interacts with a domain wall in terms of a Wiener-Levy stochastic process. The domain wall velocity is then assumed to depend linearly on the difference between the local magnetic field and this pinning field. The assumptions of this model limit its use to experiments where the permeability and rate-of-change of applied field are constant. The model of Jiles, Sipahi, and Williams assumes that the Barkhausen activity in a given time interval is proportional to the rate-of-change of the magnetization which can be calculated from the hysteresis model of Jiles and Atherton. The model uses Poisson statistics to describe the stochastic nature of the Barkhausen events. A new model which incorporates ideas from both of these older models is introduced. The new model allows for changes in permeability with applied field and can accurately reproduce the frequency response of experimental Barkhausen signals. In order to validate the model, experiments were performed by measuring the magnetic flux produced when a sample was magnetized in a solenoid. The high-frequency components of the flux signal represent Barkhausen events and were separated from the main signal using a high-pass filter. This approach allowed quantitative comparisons to be made between the experiments and the model.—This work was
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ker, H. W.
2014-01-01
Multilevel data are very common in educational research. Hierarchical linear models/linear mixed-effects models (HLMs/LMEs) are often utilized to analyze multilevel data nowadays. This paper discusses the problems of utilizing ordinary regressions for modeling multilevel educational data, compare the data analytic results from three regression…
Data Model Considerations for Clinical Effectiveness Researchers
Kahn, Michael G.; Batson, Deborah; Schilling, Lisa M.
2013-01-01
Introduction Growing adoption of electronic health records and increased emphasis on the reuse and integration of clinical care and administration data require a robust informatics infrastructure to inform health care effectiveness in real-world settings. The Scalable Architecture for Federated Translational Inquiries Network (SAFTI Net) was one of 3 projects receiving Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research funds to create a scalable, distributed network to support Comparative Effectiveness Research. SAFTINet’s method of extracting and compiling data from disparate entities requires the use of a shared common data model. Data Models Focusing on the needs of CER investigators, in addition to other project considerations, we examined the suitability of several data models. Data modeling is the process of determining which data elements will be stored and how they will be stored, including their relationships and constraints. Addressing compromises between complexity and usability is critical to modeling decisions. Case Study The SAFTINet project provides the case study for describing data model evaluation. A sample use case defines a cohort of asthma subjects that illustrates the need to identify patients by age, diagnoses, and medication use while excluding those with diagnoses that may often be misdiagnosed as asthma. Discussion The SAFTINet team explored several data models against a set of technical and investigator requirements to select a data model that best fit its needs and was conducive to expansion with new research requirements. Although SAFTINet ultimately chose the Observation Medical Outcomes Partnership common data model, other valid options exist and prioritization of requirements is dependent upon many factors. PMID:22692260
Modeling Socioeconomic Status Effects on Language Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Michael S. C.; Forrester, Neil A.; Ronald, Angelica
2013-01-01
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data…
Modeling psychiatric disorders for developing effective treatments
Kaiser, Tobias; Feng, Guoping
2016-01-01
The recent advance in identifying risk genes has provided an unprecedented opportunity for developing animal models for psychiatric disease research with the goal of attaining translational utility to ultimately develop novel treatments. However, at this early stage, successful translation has yet to be achieved. Here, we review recent advances in modeling psychiatric disease, discuss utility and limitations of animal models, and emphasize the importance of shifting from behavioral analysis to identifying neurophysiological defects, which are likely more conserved across species and thus increase translatability. Looking forward, we envision that preclinical research will align with clinical research to build a common framework of comparable neurobiological abnormalities and form subgroups of patients based on similar pathophysiology. Experimental neuroscience can then use animal models to discover mechanisms underlying distinct abnormalities and develop strategies for effective treatments. PMID:26340119
Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects
William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck
2005-08-30
This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of epidemiologic studies using multistage
On effective resolution in ocean models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soufflet, Yves; Marchesiello, Patrick; Lemarié, Florian; Jouanno, Julien; Capet, Xavier; Debreu, Laurent; Benshila, Rachid
2016-02-01
The increase of model resolution naturally leads to the representation of a wider energy spectrum. As a result, in recent years, the understanding of oceanic submesoscale dynamics has significantly improved. However, dissipation in submesoscale models remains dominated by numerical constraints rather than physical ones. Effective resolution is limited by the numerical dissipation range, which is a function of the model numerical filters (assuming that dispersive numerical modes are efficiently removed). We present a Baroclinic jet test case set in a zonally reentrant channel that provides a controllable test of a model capacity at resolving submesoscale dynamics. We compare simulations from two models, ROMS and NEMO, at different mesh sizes (from 20 to 2 km). Through a spectral decomposition of kinetic energy and its budget terms, we identify the characteristics of numerical dissipation and effective resolution. It shows that numerical dissipation appears in different parts of a model, especially in spatial advection-diffusion schemes for momentum equations (KE dissipation) and tracer equations (APE dissipation) and in the time stepping algorithms. Effective resolution, defined by scale-selective dissipation, is inadequate to qualify traditional ocean models with low-order spatial and temporal filters, even at high grid resolution. High-order methods are better suited to the concept and probably unavoidable. Fourth-order filters are suited only for grid resolutions less than a few kilometers and momentum advection schemes of even higher-order may be justified. The upgrade of time stepping algorithms (from filtered Leapfrog), a cumbersome task in a model, appears critical from our results, not just as a matter of model solution quality but also of computational efficiency (extended stability range of predictor-corrector schemes). Effective resolution is also shaken by the need for non scale-selective barotropic mode filters and requires carefully addressing the
Modeling of the Yarkovsky and YORP effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozitis, B.
2014-07-01
The Yarkovsky and YORP effects are now widely regarded to be fundamental mechanisms, in addition to collisions and gravitational forces, which drive the dynamical and physical evolution of small asteroids in the Solar System [1]. They are caused by the net force and torque resulting from the asymmetric reflection and thermal re-radiation of sunlight from an asteroid's surface. The net force (Yarkovsky effect) causes the asteroid's orbit to drift outwards or inwards depending on whether the asteroid is a prograde or retrograde rotator. The first direct measurement of Yarkovsky orbital drift was achieved by sensitive radar-ranging on the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) (6489) Golevka in 2003 [2]. The net torque (YORP effect) changes the asteroid's rotation rate and the direction of its spin axis. It can cause an asteroid to spin faster or slower depending on the shape asymmetry, and the first direct measurement of the YORP rotational acceleration was achieved by lightcurve observations on NEA (54509) YORP in 2007 [3]. Since these first direct detections, the Yarkovsky orbital drift has been detected in several tens of NEAs [4,5], and the YORP rotational acceleration has been detected in four more NEAs [6--9]. Indirect evidence of the action of these two effects has also been seen in the populations of NEAs [10], small main-belt asteroids [11], and asteroid families [12]. Modeling of these effects allows further insights into the properties of detected asteroids to be gained, such as the bulk density, obliquity, and surface thermal properties. Recently, high-precision astrometric observations of the Yarkovsky orbital drift of PHA (101955) Bennu were combined with suitable models informed by thermal-infrared observations to derive a bulk density with an uncertainty comparable to that of in-situ spacecraft investigations [13]. Also, the recent YORP effect detection in (25143) Itokawa was combined with a model utilizing the highly detailed Hayabusa-derived shape model to infer
Effects of anethole in nociception experimental models.
Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Ames, Franciele Queiroz; Otani, Fernando; de Oliveira, Rubia Maria Weffort; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida
2014-01-01
This study investigated the antinociceptive activity of anethole (anethole 1-methoxy-4-benzene (1-propenyl)), major compound of the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum), in different experimental models of nociception. The animals were pretreated with anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) one hour before the experiments. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of anethole, the open field test was conducted. Anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) showed an antinociceptive effect in the writhing model induced by acetic acid, in the second phase of the formalin test (125 and 250 mg/kg) in the test of glutamate (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg), and expresses pain induced by ACF (250 mg/kg). In contrast, anethole was not able to increase the latency time on the hot plate and decrease the number of flinches during the initial phase of the formalin test in any of the doses tested. It was also demonstrated that anethole has no association with sedative effects. Therefore, these data showed that anethole, at all used doses, has no sedative effect and has an antinociceptive effect. This effect may be due to a decrease in the production/release of inflammatory mediators.
Effects of Anethole in Nociception Experimental Models
Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Ames, Franciele Queiroz; Otani, Fernando; de Oliveira, Rubia Maria Weffort; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida
2014-01-01
This study investigated the antinociceptive activity of anethole (anethole 1-methoxy-4-benzene (1-propenyl)), major compound of the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum), in different experimental models of nociception. The animals were pretreated with anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) one hour before the experiments. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of anethole, the open field test was conducted. Anethole (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) showed an antinociceptive effect in the writhing model induced by acetic acid, in the second phase of the formalin test (125 and 250 mg/kg) in the test of glutamate (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg), and expresses pain induced by ACF (250 mg/kg). In contrast, anethole was not able to increase the latency time on the hot plate and decrease the number of flinches during the initial phase of the formalin test in any of the doses tested. It was also demonstrated that anethole has no association with sedative effects. Therefore, these data showed that anethole, at all used doses, has no sedative effect and has an antinociceptive effect. This effect may be due to a decrease in the production/release of inflammatory mediators. PMID:25506382
Modelling the cardiovascular effects of ephedrine
Persky, Adam M; Berry, N Seth; Pollack, Gary M; Brouwer, Kim L R
2004-01-01
Aims Recent reports have called into question the safety of ephedra supplements especially with regards to their cardiovascular effects. The purpose of this analysis was to characterize, via pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling, the cardiovascular effects of ephedrine, the main active ingredient of ephedra, in apparently healthy, overweight volunteers. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study, eight subjects received either placebo, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mg kg−1 ephedrine sulphate by mouth with a 7-day washout between treatments. Plasma ephedrine concentrations, heart rate and blood pressure were determined for 8 h postdose. Results The pharmacokinetics of ephedrine were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The percentage change in heart rate was described by a linear model with a resulting slope of 0.14%·l µg−1 (CV = 59%). The percentage change in systolic blood pressure demonstrated clockwise hysteresis, and a sigmoidal tolerance model was used to describe the data. The mean maximum predicted effect (Emax) was 53.7% (CV = 41%) with an EC50 of 107 µg·l−1 (CV = 65%) and an inhibitory maximum (Imax) of 39.8% (CV = 60%). Tolerance developed with a mean half-life of 15 min (range 6–140 min). Conclusions This is the first study to apply a comprehensive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to the cardiovascular effects of orally administered ephedrine. Although systolic blood pressure increases quickly after administration, the increase is nearly abolished by compensatory mechanisms. PMID:15089807
Hysteresis modeling in graphene field effect transistors
Winters, M.; Rorsman, N.; Sveinbjörnsson, E. Ö.
2015-02-21
Graphene field effect transistors with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric are fabricated on H-intercalated bilayer graphene grown on semi-insulating 4H-SiC by chemical vapour deposition. DC measurements of the gate voltage v{sub g} versus the drain current i{sub d} reveal a severe hysteresis of clockwise orientation. A capacitive model is used to derive the relationship between the applied gate voltage and the Fermi energy. The electron transport equations are then used to calculate the drain current for a given applied gate voltage. The hysteresis in measured data is then modeled via a modified Preisach kernel.
Effect on Prediction when Modeling Covariates in Bayesian Nonparametric Models.
Cruz-Marcelo, Alejandro; Rosner, Gary L; Müller, Peter; Stewart, Clinton F
2013-04-01
In biomedical research, it is often of interest to characterize biologic processes giving rise to observations and to make predictions of future observations. Bayesian nonparametric methods provide a means for carrying out Bayesian inference making as few assumptions about restrictive parametric models as possible. There are several proposals in the literature for extending Bayesian nonparametric models to include dependence on covariates. Limited attention, however, has been directed to the following two aspects. In this article, we examine the effect on fitting and predictive performance of incorporating covariates in a class of Bayesian nonparametric models by one of two primary ways: either in the weights or in the locations of a discrete random probability measure. We show that different strategies for incorporating continuous covariates in Bayesian nonparametric models can result in big differences when used for prediction, even though they lead to otherwise similar posterior inferences. When one needs the predictive density, as in optimal design, and this density is a mixture, it is better to make the weights depend on the covariates. We demonstrate these points via a simulated data example and in an application in which one wants to determine the optimal dose of an anticancer drug used in pediatric oncology.
Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects
Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.
1992-12-01
Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u[parallel], T[parallel], and T[perpendicular] along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These FLR phase-mixing'' terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping [proportional to] k[sub [perpendicular
Joint Non-kinetic Effects Model (JNEM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamberlain, Robert G.; Metivier, Timothy
2006-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the development of the Joint Non-kinetic Effects Model (JNEM), which is tool to support Battle Command Training that links simulation-generated non-kinetic events and outcomes to Training Audience Command and Staff decisions. JNEM helps create the operating environment for the following population groups (P-groups): (1) Local Civilians on the Battlefield, (2) Inter-Governmental Organizations (3) Non-Governmental Organizations (4) Contractors on the battlefield.
Entanglement effects in model polymer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Everaers, R.; Kremer, K.
The influence of topological constraints on the local dynamics in cross-linked polymer melts and their contribution to the elastic properties of rubber elastic systems are a long standing problem in statistical mechanics. Polymer networks with diamond lattice connectivity (Everaers and Kremer 1995, Everaers and Kremer 1996a) are idealized model systems which isolate the effect of topology conservation from other sources of quenched disorder. We study their behavior in molecular dynamics simulations under elongational strain. In our analysis we compare the measured, purely entropic shear moduli G to the predictions of statistical mechanical models of rubber elasticity, making extensive use of the microscopic structural and topological information available in computer simulations. We find (Everaers and Kremer 1995) that the classical models of rubber elasticity underestimate the true change in entropy in a deformed network significantly, because they neglect the tension along the contour of the strands which cannot relax due to entanglements (Everaers and Kremer (in preparation)). This contribution and the fluctuations in strained systems seem to be well described by the constrained mode model (Everaers 1998) which allows to treat the crossover from classical rubber elasticity to the tube model for polymer networks with increasing strand length within one transparant formalism. While this is important for the description of the effects we try to do a first quantitative step towards their explanation by topological considerations. We show (Everaers and Kremer 1996a) that for the comparatively short strand lengths of our diamond networks the topology contribution to the shear modulus is proportional to the density of entangled mesh pairs with non-zero Gauss linking number. Moreover, the prefactor can be estimated consistently within a rather simple model developed by Vologodskii et al. and by Graessley and Pearson, which is based on the definition of an entropic
Velocity-jump models with crowding effects.
Treloar, Katrina K; Simpson, Matthew J; McCue, Scott W
2011-12-01
Velocity-jump processes are discrete random-walk models that have many applications including the study of biological and ecological collective motion. In particular, velocity-jump models are often used to represent a type of persistent motion, known as a run and tumble, that is exhibited by some isolated bacteria cells. All previous velocity-jump processes are noninteracting, which means that crowding effects and agent-to-agent interactions are neglected. By neglecting these agent-to-agent interactions, traditional velocity-jump models are only applicable to very dilute systems. Our work is motivated by the fact that many applications in cell biology, such as wound healing, cancer invasion, and development, often involve tissues that are densely packed with cells where cell-to-cell contact and crowding effects can be important. To describe these kinds of high-cell-density problems using a velocity-jump process we introduce three different classes of crowding interactions into a one-dimensional model. Simulation data and averaging arguments lead to a suite of continuum descriptions of the interacting velocity-jump processes. We show that the resulting systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations predict the mean behavior of the stochastic simulations very well.
Velocity-jump models with crowding effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treloar, Katrina K.; Simpson, Matthew J.; McCue, Scott W.
2011-12-01
Velocity-jump processes are discrete random-walk models that have many applications including the study of biological and ecological collective motion. In particular, velocity-jump models are often used to represent a type of persistent motion, known as a run and tumble, that is exhibited by some isolated bacteria cells. All previous velocity-jump processes are noninteracting, which means that crowding effects and agent-to-agent interactions are neglected. By neglecting these agent-to-agent interactions, traditional velocity-jump models are only applicable to very dilute systems. Our work is motivated by the fact that many applications in cell biology, such as wound healing, cancer invasion, and development, often involve tissues that are densely packed with cells where cell-to-cell contact and crowding effects can be important. To describe these kinds of high-cell-density problems using a velocity-jump process we introduce three different classes of crowding interactions into a one-dimensional model. Simulation data and averaging arguments lead to a suite of continuum descriptions of the interacting velocity-jump processes. We show that the resulting systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations predict the mean behavior of the stochastic simulations very well.
Atomic Models for Motional Stark Effects Diagnostics
Gu, M F; Holcomb, C; Jayakuma, J; Allen, S; Pablant, N A; Burrell, K
2007-07-26
We present detailed atomic physics models for motional Stark effects (MSE) diagnostic on magnetic fusion devices. Excitation and ionization cross sections of the hydrogen or deuterium beam traveling in a magnetic field in collisions with electrons, ions, and neutral gas are calculated in the first Born approximation. The density matrices and polarization states of individual Stark-Zeeman components of the Balmer {alpha} line are obtained for both beam into plasma and beam into gas models. A detailed comparison of the model calculations and the MSE polarimetry and spectral intensity measurements obtained at the DIII-D tokamak is carried out. Although our beam into gas models provide a qualitative explanation for the larger {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios and represent significant improvements over the statistical population models, empirical adjustment factors ranging from 1.0-2.0 must still be applied to individual line intensities to bring the calculations into full agreement with the observations. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that beam into gas measurements can be used successfully as calibration procedures for measuring the magnetic pitch angle through {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios. The analyses of the filter-scan polarization spectra from the DIII-D MSE polarimetry system indicate unknown channel and time dependent light contaminations in the beam into gas measurements. Such contaminations may be the main reason for the failure of beam into gas calibration on MSE polarimetry systems.
GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERIC MODELS FOR AEROASSIST APPLICATIONS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duvall, Aleta; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.
2005-01-01
Aeroassist is a broad category of advanced transportation technology encompassing aerocapture, aerobraking, aeroentry, precision landing, hazard detection and avoidance, and aerogravity assist. The eight destinations in the Solar System with sufficient atmosphere to enable aeroassist technology are Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Saturn's moon Titan. Engineering-level atmospheric models for five of these targets - Earth, Mars, Titan, Neptune, and Venus - have been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. These models are useful as tools in mission planning and systems analysis studies associated with aeroassist applications. The series of models is collectively named the Global Reference Atmospheric Model or GRAM series. An important capability of all the models in the GRAM series is their ability to simulate quasi-random perturbations for Monte Carlo analysis in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithms, for aerothermal design, and for other applications sensitive to atmospheric variability. Recent example applications are discussed.
Thermal Response Modeling System for a Mars Sample Return Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Y.-K.; Miles, Frank S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A multi-dimensional, coupled thermal response modeling system for analysis of hypersonic entry vehicles is presented. The system consists of a high fidelity Navier-Stokes equation solver (GIANTS), a two-dimensional implicit thermal response, pyrolysis and ablation program (TITAN), and a commercial finite-element thermal and mechanical analysis code (MARC). The simulations performed by this integrated system include hypersonic flowfield, fluid and solid interaction, ablation, shape change, pyrolysis gas eneration and flow, and thermal response of heatshield and structure. The thermal response of the heatshield is simulated using TITAN, and that of the underlying structural is simulated using MARC. The ablating heatshield is treated as an outer boundary condition of the structure, and continuity conditions of temperature and heat flux are imposed at the interface between TITAN and MARC. Aerothermal environments with fluid and solid interaction are predicted by coupling TITAN and GIANTS through surface energy balance equations. With this integrated system, the aerothermal environments for an entry vehicle and the thermal response of the entire vehicle can be obtained simultaneously. Representative computations for a flat-faced arc-jet test model and a proposed Mars sample return capsule are presented and discussed.
Thermal Response Modeling System for a Mars Sample Return Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Y.-K.; Milos, F. S.
2002-01-01
A multi-dimensional, coupled thermal response modeling system for analysis of hypersonic entry vehicles is presented. The system consists of a high fidelity Navier-Stokes equation solver (GIANTS), a two-dimensional implicit thermal response, pyrolysis and ablation program (TITAN), and a commercial finite element thermal and mechanical analysis code (MARC). The simulations performed by this integrated system include hypersonic flowfield, fluid and solid interaction, ablation, shape change, pyrolysis gas generation and flow, and thermal response of heatshield and structure. The thermal response of the heatshield is simulated using TITAN, and that of the underlying structural is simulated using MARC. The ablating heatshield is treated as an outer boundary condition of the structure, and continuity conditions of temperature and heat flux are imposed at the interface between TITAN and MARC. Aerothermal environments with fluid and solid interaction are predicted by coupling TITAN and GIANTS through surface energy balance equations. With this integrated system, the aerothermal environments for an entry vehicle and the thermal response of the entire vehicle can be obtained simultaneously. Representative computations for a flat-faced arc-jet test model and a proposed Mars sample return capsule are presented and discussed.
Effective action for noncommutative Bianchi I model
Rosenbaum, M.; Vergara, J. D.; Minzoni, A. A.
2013-06-12
Quantum Mechanics, as a mini-superspace of Field Theory has been assumed to provide physically relevant information on quantum processes in Field Theory. In the case of Quantum Gravity this would imply using Cosmological models to investigate quantum processes at distances of the order of the Planck scale. However because of the Stone-von Neuman Theorem, it is well known that quantization of Cosmological models by the Wheeler-DeWitt procedure in the context of a Heisenberg-Weyl group with piecewise continuous parameters leads irremediably to a volume singularity. In order to avoid this information catastrophe it has been suggested recently the need to introduce in an effective theory of the quantization some form of reticulation in 3-space. On the other hand, since in the geometry of the General Relativistic formulation of Gravitation space can not be visualized as some underlying static manifold in which the physical system evolves, it would be interesting to investigate whether the effective reticulation which removes the singularity in such simple cosmologies as the Bianchi models has a dynamical origin manifested by a noncommutativity of the generators of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra, as would be expected from an operational point of view at the Planck length scale.
Effective action for noncommutative Bianchi I model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenbaum, M.; Vergara, J. D.; Minzoni, A. A.
2013-06-01
Quantum Mechanics, as a mini-superspace of Field Theory has been assumed to provide physically relevant information on quantum processes in Field Theory. In the case of Quantum Gravity this would imply using Cosmological models to investigate quantum processes at distances of the order of the Planck scale. However because of the Stone-von Neuman Theorem, it is well known that quantization of Cosmological models by the Wheeler-DeWitt procedure in the context of a Heisenberg-Weyl group with piecewise continuous parameters leads irremediably to a volume singularity. In order to avoid this information catastrophe it has been suggested recently the need to introduce in an effective theory of the quantization some form of reticulation in 3-space. On the other hand, since in the geometry of the General Relativistic formulation of Gravitation space can not be visualized as some underlying static manifold in which the physical system evolves, it would be interesting to investigate whether the effective reticulation which removes the singularity in such simple cosmologies as the Bianchi models has a dynamical origin manifested by a noncommutativity of the generators of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra, as would be expected from an operational point of view at the Planck length scale.
Dual coupling effective band model for polarons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchand, Dominic J. J.; Stamp, Philip C. E.; Berciu, Mona
2017-01-01
Nondiagonal couplings to a bosonic bath completely change polaronic dynamics, from the usual diagonally coupled paradigm of smoothly varying properties. We study, using analytic and numerical methods, a model having both diagonal Holstein and nondiagonal Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) couplings. The critical coupling found previously in the pure SSH model, at which the k =0 effective mass diverges, now becomes a transition line in the coupling constant plane—the form of the line depends on the adiabaticity parameter. Detailed results are given for the quasiparticle and ground-state properties, over a wide range of couplings and adiabaticity ratios. The new paradigm involves a destabilization, at the transition line, of the simple Holstein polaron to one with a finite ground-state momentum, but with everywhere a continuously evolving band shape. No "self-trapping transition" exists in any of these models. The physics may be understood entirely in terms of competition between different hopping terms in a simple renormalized effective band theory. The possibility of further transitions is suggested by the results.
Effects of verbenalin on prostatitis mouse model
Miao, Mingsan; Guo, Lin; Yan, Xiaoli; Wang, Tan; Li, Zuming
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to observe the treatment characteristics of verbenalin on a prostatitis mouse model. Give Xiaozhiling injection in the prostate locally to make a prostatitis mouse model. High, medium and low doses of verbenalin were each given to different mouse groups. The amount of water was determined in 14th, 28th. The number of white cells and lecithin corpuscle density in prostatic fluid were determined. Morphological changes in the prostate, testis, epididymis and kidney were detected. Compared with the model control group, the mice treated with high, medium and low doses of verbenalin had significantly increased amounts of water, and prostate white blood cell count and prostate volume density (Vv) were decreased significantly, the density of lecithin corpuscle score increased, and pathologic prostatitis changes were significantly reduced. Pathological change in the testis was significantly reduced and the change in the epididymis was obviously reduced. The thymic cortex thickness and the number of lymphocytes increased significantly and could reduce the renal pathological changes in potential. Verbenalin has a good therapeutic effect on the prostatitis mouse model. PMID:26858560
Cost effectiveness of recycling: a systems model.
Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth
2013-11-01
Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.
Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model
Tonjes, David J.; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth
2013-11-15
Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.
Instruction manual, Optical Effects Module, Model OEM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
The Optical Effects Module Model OEM-1, a laboratory prototype instrument designed for the automated measurement of radiation transmission and scattering through optical samples, is described. The system comprises two main components: the Optical Effects Module Enclosure (OEME) and the Optical Effects Module Electronic Controller and Processor (OEMCP). The OEM is designed for operation in the near UV at approximately 2540A, corresponding to the most intense spectral line activated by the mercury discharge lamp used for illumination. The radiation from this source is detected in transmission and reflection through a number of selectable samples. The basic objective of this operation is to monitor in real time the accretion of possible contamination on the surface of these samples. The optical samples are exposed outside of the OEME proper to define exposure conditions and to separate exposure and measurement environments. Changes in the transmissivity of the sample are attributable to surface contamination or to bulk effects due to radiation. Surface contamination will increase radiation scattering due to Rayleigh-Gans effect or to other phenomena, depending on the characteristics size of the particulate contaminants. Thus, also scattering from the samples becomes a part of the measurement program.
Computational modeling of material aging effects
Fang, H.E.
1996-07-01
Progress is being made in our efforts to develop computational models for predicting material property changes in weapon components due to aging. The first version of a two-dimensional lattice code for modeling thermomechanical fatigue, such as has been observed in solder joints on electronic components removed from the stockpile, has been written and tested. The code does a good qualitative job of presenting intergranular and/or transgranular cracking in a polycrystalline material when under thermomechanical deformation. The current progress is an encouraging start for our long term effort to develop multi-level simulation capabilities, with the technology of high performance computing, for predicting age-related effects on the reliability of weapons.
Modeling the effects of reflective roofing
Gartland, L.M.; Konopacki, S.J.; Akbari, H.
1996-08-01
Roofing materials which are highly reflective to sunlight are currently being developed. Reflective roofing is an effective summertime energy saver in warm and sunny climates. It has been demonstrated to save up to 40% of the energy needed to cool a building during the summer months. Buildings without air conditioning can reduce their indoor temperatures and improve occupant comfort during the summer if highly reflective roofing materials are used. But there are questions about the tradeoff between summer energy savings and extra wintertime energy use due to reduced heat collection by the roof. These questions are being answered by simulating buildings in various climates using the DOE-2 program (version 2.1E). Unfortunately, DOE-2 does not accurately model radiative, convective and conductive processes in the roof-attic. Radiative heat transfer from the underside of a reflective roof is much smaller than that of a roof which absorbs heat from sunlight, and must be accounted for in the building energy model. Convection correlations for the attic and the roof surface must be fine tuned. An equation to model the insulation`s conductivity dependence on temperature must also be added. A function was written to incorporate the attic heat transfer processes into the DOE-2 building energy simulation. This function adds radiative, convective and conductive equations to the energy balance of the roof. Results of the enhanced DOE-2 model were compared to measured data collected from a school bungalow in a Sacramento Municipal Utility District monitoring project, with particular attention paid to the year-round energy effects.
Modelling hydropeaking effects on the riparian aquifer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siviglia, Annunziato; Zanol, Marco; Bellin, Alberto; Stecca, Guglielmo; Zolezzi, Guido
2010-05-01
Hydropower operations result in sharp water level and temperature fluctuations downstream the river section where water is released intermittently according to the pattern of hydropower generation. It has been widely recognized that these peaking flows cause severe degradation of the affected river reaches, but their biological effects and hydraulic behaviour have been studied mainly referring to the main channel. Field evidence (Sawyer et al., 2009, Loheide & Lundqvist, 2009) demonstrate that surface water level oscillations are associated with significant mass exchanges between the stream and its riparian aquifer that may have relevant, still largely unexplored, biogeochemical implications. The purpose of this study is to develop a simplified modelling approach to predict the effects of hydropeaking on subsurface flow into the riparian region. We propose a simplified model for surface - subsurface flow exchange where instream hydropeaking is assigned as boundary condition and that solves the unsteady, dimensionless 1D Boussinesq equations for the saturated zone of the riparian aquifer. This allows to quantify the lateral extent of the riparian region affected by hydropeaking oscillations. In particular, with this model we analyzed the temporal variations in the daily mass and thermal exchanges between the channel and the riparian aquifer, and identified the controlling factors. The role of longitudinal variations in channel morphology as well as of seasonal aquifer variations and land cover can also be examined through the proposed modelling framework. Sawyer, A.H., Cardenas, M.B., Bomar, A., and Mackey, M. 2009. Impact of dam operations on hyporheic exchange in the riparian zone of a regulated river. Hydrol. Process, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7324 Loheide, S. P., II, and J. D. Lundquist (2009), Snowmelt-induced diel fluxes through the hyporheic zone, Water Resour. Res., 45, W07404, doi:10.1029/2008WR007329.
Speciation Effect in the Penna Aging Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Łaszkiewicz, A.; Szymczak, Sz.; Cebrat, S.
We have simulated the evolution of diploid, sexually reproducing populations using the Penna model of aging. We have noted that diminishing the recombination frequency during the gamete production generates a specific diversity of genomes in the populations. When two populations independently evolving for some time were mixed in one environmental niche of the limited size and crossbreeding between them was allowed, the average lifespan of hybrids was significantly shorter than the lifespan of the individuals of parental lines. Another effect of higher hybrid mortality is the faster elimination of one parental line from the shared environment. The two populations living in one environment co-exist much longer if they are genetically separated — they compete as two species instead of crossbreeding. This effect can be considered as the first step to speciation — any barrier eliminating crossbreeding between these populations, leading to speciation, would favor the populations.
An antenna model for the Purcell effect.
Krasnok, Alexander E; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P; Simovski, Constantin R; Tretyakov, Sergei A; Poddubny, Alexander N; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Kivshar, Yuri S; Belov, Pavel A
2015-08-10
The Purcell effect is defined as a modification of the spontaneous emission rate of a quantum emitter at the presence of a resonant cavity. However, a change of the emission rate of an emitter caused by an environment has a classical counterpart. Any small antenna tuned to a resonance can be described as an oscillator with radiative losses, and the effect of the environment on its radiation can be modeled and measured in terms of the antenna radiation resistance, similar to a quantum emitter. We exploit this analogue behavior to develop a general approach for calculating the Purcell factors of different systems and various frequency ranges including both electric and magnetic Purcell factors. Our approach is illustrated by a general equivalent scheme, and it allows resenting the Purcell factor through the continuous radiation of a small antenna at the presence of an electromagnetic environment.
An antenna model for the Purcell effect
Krasnok, Alexander E.; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Simovski, Constantin R.; Tretyakov, Sergei A.; Poddubny, Alexander N.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Belov, Pavel A.
2015-01-01
The Purcell effect is defined as a modification of the spontaneous emission rate of a quantum emitter at the presence of a resonant cavity. However, a change of the emission rate of an emitter caused by an environment has a classical counterpart. Any small antenna tuned to a resonance can be described as an oscillator with radiative losses, and the effect of the environment on its radiation can be modeled and measured in terms of the antenna radiation resistance, similar to a quantum emitter. We exploit this analogue behavior to develop a general approach for calculating the Purcell factors of different systems and various frequency ranges including both electric and magnetic Purcell factors. Our approach is illustrated by a general equivalent scheme, and it allows resenting the Purcell factor through the continuous radiation of a small antenna at the presence of an electromagnetic environment. PMID:26256529
Generalized model of the microwave auditory effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yitzhak, N. M.; Ruppin, R.; Hareuveny, R.
2009-07-01
A generalized theoretical model for evaluating the amplitudes of the sound waves generated in a spherical head model, which is irradiated by microwave pulses, is developed. The thermoelastic equation of motion is solved for a spherically symmetric heating pattern of arbitrary form. For previously treated heating patterns that are peaked at the sphere centre, the results reduce to those presented before. The generalized model is applied to the case in which the microwave absorption is concentrated near the sphere surface. It is found that, for equal average specific absorption rates, the sound intensity generated by a surface localized heating pattern is comparable to that generated by a heating pattern that is peaked at the centre. The dependence of the induced sound pressure on the shape of the microwave pulse is explored. Another theoretical extension, to the case of repeated pulses, is developed and applied to the interpretation of existing experimental data on the dependence of the human hearing effect threshold on the pulse repetition frequency.
Generalized model of the microwave auditory effect.
Yitzhak, N M; Ruppin, R; Hareuveny, R
2009-07-07
A generalized theoretical model for evaluating the amplitudes of the sound waves generated in a spherical head model, which is irradiated by microwave pulses, is developed. The thermoelastic equation of motion is solved for a spherically symmetric heating pattern of arbitrary form. For previously treated heating patterns that are peaked at the sphere centre, the results reduce to those presented before. The generalized model is applied to the case in which the microwave absorption is concentrated near the sphere surface. It is found that, for equal average specific absorption rates, the sound intensity generated by a surface localized heating pattern is comparable to that generated by a heating pattern that is peaked at the centre. The dependence of the induced sound pressure on the shape of the microwave pulse is explored. Another theoretical extension, to the case of repeated pulses, is developed and applied to the interpretation of existing experimental data on the dependence of the human hearing effect threshold on the pulse repetition frequency.
Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects
Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.
1992-12-01
Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u{parallel}, T{parallel}, and T{perpendicular} along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These ``FLR phase-mixing`` terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping {proportional_to} k{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2}{vert_bar}{Phi}{sub {rvec k}}{rvec k} {times}{rvec k}{prime}{vert_bar} which should provide a physics-based damping mechanism at high k{perpendicular}{rho} which is potentially as important as the usual polarization drift nonlinearity. The moments are taken in guiding center space to pick up the correct nonlinear FLR terms and the gyroaveraging of the shear. The equations are solved with a nonlinear, three dimensional initial value code. Linear results are presented, showing excellent agreement with linear gyrokinetic theory.
Modeling nuclear volume isotope effects in crystals.
Schauble, Edwin A
2013-10-29
Mass-independent isotope fractionations driven by differences in volumes and shapes of nuclei (the field shift effect) are known in several elements and are likely to be found in more. All-electron relativistic electronic structure calculations can predict this effect but at present are computationally intensive and limited to modeling small gas phase molecules and clusters. Density functional theory, using the projector augmented wave method (DFT-PAW), has advantages in greater speed and compatibility with a three-dimensional periodic boundary condition while preserving information about the effects of chemistry on electron densities within nuclei. These electron density variations determine the volume component of the field shift effect. In this study, DFT-PAW calculations are calibrated against all-electron, relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock, and coupled-cluster with single, double (triple) excitation methods for estimating nuclear volume isotope effects. DFT-PAW calculations accurately reproduce changes in electron densities within nuclei in typical molecules, when PAW datasets constructed with finite nuclei are used. Nuclear volume contributions to vapor-crystal isotope fractionation are calculated for elemental cadmium and mercury, showing good agreement with experiments. The nuclear-volume component of mercury and cadmium isotope fractionations between atomic vapor and montroydite (HgO), cinnabar (HgS), calomel (Hg2Cl2), monteponite (CdO), and the CdS polymorphs hawleyite and greenockite are calculated, indicating preferential incorporation of neutron-rich isotopes in more oxidized, ionically bonded phases. Finally, field shift energies are related to Mössbauer isomer shifts, and equilibrium mass-independent fractionations for several tin-bearing crystals are calculated from (119)Sn spectra. Isomer shift data should simplify calculations of mass-independent isotope fractionations in other elements with Mössbauer isotopes, such as platinum and uranium.
Modeling nuclear volume isotope effects in crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schauble, Edwin A.
2013-10-01
Mass-independent isotope fractionations driven by differences in volumes and shapes of nuclei (the field shift effect) are known in several elements and are likely to be found in more. All-electron relativistic electronic structure calculations can predict this effect but at present are computationally intensive and limited to modeling small gas phase molecules and clusters. Density functional theory, using the projector augmented wave method (DFT-PAW), has advantages in greater speed and compatibility with a three-dimensional periodic boundary condition while preserving information about the effects of chemistry on electron densities within nuclei. These electron density variations determine the volume component of the field shift effect. In this study, DFT-PAW calculations are calibrated against all-electron, relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock, and coupled-cluster with single, double (triple) excitation methods for estimating nuclear volume isotope effects. DFT-PAW calculations accurately reproduce changes in electron densities within nuclei in typical molecules, when PAW datasets constructed with finite nuclei are used. Nuclear volume contributions to vapor-crystal isotope fractionation are calculated for elemental cadmium and mercury, showing good agreement with experiments. The nuclear-volume component of mercury and cadmium isotope fractionations between atomic vapor and montroydite (HgO), cinnabar (HgS), calomel (Hg2Cl2), monteponite (CdO), and the CdS polymorphs hawleyite and greenockite are calculated, indicating preferential incorporation of neutron-rich isotopes in more oxidized, ionically bonded phases. Finally, field shift energies are related to Mössbauer isomer shifts, and equilibrium mass-independent fractionations for several tin-bearing crystals are calculated from 119Sn spectra. Isomer shift data should simplify calculations of mass-independent isotope fractionations in other elements with Mössbauer isotopes, such as platinum and uranium.
Modeling nuclear volume isotope effects in crystals
Schauble, Edwin A.
2013-01-01
Mass-independent isotope fractionations driven by differences in volumes and shapes of nuclei (the field shift effect) are known in several elements and are likely to be found in more. All-electron relativistic electronic structure calculations can predict this effect but at present are computationally intensive and limited to modeling small gas phase molecules and clusters. Density functional theory, using the projector augmented wave method (DFT-PAW), has advantages in greater speed and compatibility with a three-dimensional periodic boundary condition while preserving information about the effects of chemistry on electron densities within nuclei. These electron density variations determine the volume component of the field shift effect. In this study, DFT-PAW calculations are calibrated against all-electron, relativistic Dirac–Hartree–Fock, and coupled-cluster with single, double (triple) excitation methods for estimating nuclear volume isotope effects. DFT-PAW calculations accurately reproduce changes in electron densities within nuclei in typical molecules, when PAW datasets constructed with finite nuclei are used. Nuclear volume contributions to vapor–crystal isotope fractionation are calculated for elemental cadmium and mercury, showing good agreement with experiments. The nuclear-volume component of mercury and cadmium isotope fractionations between atomic vapor and montroydite (HgO), cinnabar (HgS), calomel (Hg2Cl2), monteponite (CdO), and the CdS polymorphs hawleyite and greenockite are calculated, indicating preferential incorporation of neutron-rich isotopes in more oxidized, ionically bonded phases. Finally, field shift energies are related to Mössbauer isomer shifts, and equilibrium mass-independent fractionations for several tin-bearing crystals are calculated from 119Sn spectra. Isomer shift data should simplify calculations of mass-independent isotope fractionations in other elements with Mössbauer isotopes, such as platinum and uranium
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macho, Siegfried; Ledermann, Thomas
2011-01-01
The phantom model approach for estimating, testing, and comparing specific effects within structural equation models (SEMs) is presented. The rationale underlying this novel method consists in representing the specific effect to be assessed as a total effect within a separate latent variable model, the phantom model that is added to the main…
Modeling Instruction: An Effective Model for Science Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Jane; Dukerich, Larry; Hestenes, David
2008-01-01
The authors describe a Modeling Instruction program that places an emphasis on the construction and application of conceptual models of physical phenomena as a central aspect of learning and doing science. (Contains 1 table.)
[Effect evaluation of three cell culture models].
Wang, Aiguo; Xia, Tao; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Xuemin
2003-11-01
Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured using three kinds of models in vitro and the enzyme leakage, albumin secretion, and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP 1A) activity were observed. The results showed that the level of LDH in the medium decreased over time in the period of culture. However, on 5 days, LDH showed a significant increase in monolayer culture (MC) while after 8 days LDH was not detected in sandwich culture (SC). The levels of AST and ALT in the medium did not change significantly over the investigated time. The basic CYP 1A activity gradually decreased with time in MC and SC. The decline of CYP 1A in rat hepatocytes was faster in MC than that in SC. This effect was partially reversed by using cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducers such as omeprazol and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and the CYP 1A induction was always higher in MC than that in SC. Basic CYP 1A activity in bioreactor was keeped over 2 weeks and the highest albumin production was observed in bioreactor, and next were SC and MC. In conclusion, our results clearly indicated that there have some advantages and disadvantages in each of models in which can address different questions in metabolism of toxicants and drugs.
A neutral model of edge effects.
Babak, Petro; He, Fangliang
2009-02-01
In this paper a spatially implicit neutral model for explaining the edge effects between habitats is proposed. To analyze this model we use two different approaches: a discrete approach that is based on the Master equation for a one step jump process and a continuous approach based on the approximation of the discrete jump process with the Kolmogorov-Fokker-Planck forward and backward equations. The discrete and continuous approaches are applied to analyze the species abundance distributions and the time to species extinction. Moreover, with the aid of the continuous approach a realistic classification of the behavior of species in local communities is developed. The species abundance dynamics at the edge between two distinct habitats is compared with those located in the homogeneous interior habitats using species abundance distributions and the first time to species extinction. We show that the structure of the links between local community and the metacommunity plays an important role on species persistence. Specifically, species at the edge between two distinct metacommunities have higher extinction rate than those in the interior habitats connected only to one metacommunity. Moreover, the same species might be persistent in the homogeneous interior habitat, but its probability of extinction from the edge local community could be very high.
Interaction Effects in Growth Modeling: A Full Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wen, Zhonglin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, Kit-Tai
2002-01-01
Points out two concerns with recent research by F. Li and others (2000) and T. Duncan and others (1999) that extended the structural equation model of latent interactions developed by K. Joreskog and F. Yang (1996) to latent growth modeling. Used mathematical derivation and a comparison of alternative models fitted to simulated data to develop a…
Optimal Scaling of Interaction Effects in Generalized Linear Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Rosmalen, Joost; Koning, Alex J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.
2009-01-01
Multiplicative interaction models, such as Goodman's (1981) RC(M) association models, can be a useful tool for analyzing the content of interaction effects. However, most models for interaction effects are suitable only for data sets with two or three predictor variables. Here, we discuss an optimal scaling model for analyzing the content of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murphy, Daniel L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha
2015-01-01
This study examines the use of cross-classified random effects models (CCrem) and cross-classified multiple membership random effects models (CCMMrem) to model rater bias and estimate teacher effectiveness. Effect estimates are compared using CTT versus item response theory (IRT) scaling methods and three models (i.e., conventional multilevel…
A Model for Measuring Effectiveness of an Online Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mashaw, Bijan
2012-01-01
As a result of this research, a quantitative model and a procedure have been developed to create an online mentoring effectiveness index (EI). To develop the model, mentoring and teaching effectiveness are defined, and then the constructs and factors of effectiveness are identified. The model's construction is based on the theory that…
Space Environments and Effects: Trapped Proton Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huston, S. L.; Kauffman, W. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
An improved model of the Earth's trapped proton environment has been developed. This model, designated Trapped Proton Model version 1 (TPM-1), determines the omnidirectional flux of protons with energy between 1 and 100 MeV throughout near-Earth space. The model also incorporates a true solar cycle dependence. The model consists of several data files and computer software to read them. There are three versions of the mo'del: a FORTRAN-Callable library, a stand-alone model, and a Web-based model.
Modeling plastic deformation effect on magnetization in ferromagnetic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianwei; Xu, Minqiang; Leng, Jiancheng; Xu, Mingxiu
2012-03-01
Based on the Sablik-Landgraf model, an integrated model has been developed which provides a description of the effect of plastic deformation on magnetization. The modeling approach is to incorporate the effect of plastic deformation on the effective field and that on the model parameters. The effective field incorporates the contributions of residual stress, stress demagnetization term, and the plastic deformation. We also consider the effect of plastic deformation on the model parameters: pinning coefficient, the scaling constant and the interdomain coupling coefficient. The computed magnetization exhibits sharp change in the preliminary stage of plastic deformation, and then decreases slowly with the increase of plastic strain, in agreement with experimental results.
A random effects epidemic-type aftershock sequence model.
Lin, Feng-Chang
2011-04-01
We consider an extension of the temporal epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model with random effects as a special case of a well-known doubly stochastic self-exciting point process. The new model arises from a deterministic function that is randomly scaled by a nonnegative random variable, which is unobservable but assumed to follow either positive stable or one-parameter gamma distribution with unit mean. Both random effects models are of interest although the one-parameter gamma random effects model is more popular when modeling associated survival times. Our estimation is based on the maximum likelihood approach with marginalized intensity. The methods are shown to perform well in simulation experiments. When applied to an earthquake sequence on the east coast of Taiwan, the extended model with positive stable random effects provides a better model fit, compared to the original ETAS model and the extended model with one-parameter gamma random effects.
Cheung, Mike W-L; Cheung, Shu Fai
2016-06-01
Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) combines the techniques of meta-analysis and structural equation modeling for the purpose of synthesizing correlation or covariance matrices and fitting structural equation models on the pooled correlation or covariance matrix. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models can be defined in MASEM. Random-effects models are well known in conventional meta-analysis but are less studied in MASEM. The primary objective of this paper was to address issues related to random-effects models in MASEM. Specifically, we compared two different random-effects models in MASEM-correlation-based MASEM and parameter-based MASEM-and explored their strengths and limitations. Two examples were used to illustrate the similarities and differences between these models. We offered some practical guidelines for choosing between these two models. Future directions for research on random-effects models in MASEM were also discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Aerothermal Testing of Woven TPS Ablative Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stackpoole, Mairead; Feldman, Jay; Olson, Michael; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
2012-01-01
Woven Thermal Protection Systems (WTPS) is a new TPS concept that is funded by NASAs Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) Game Changing Division. The WTPS project demonstrates the potential for manufacturing a variety of TPS materials capable of wide ranging performances demanded by a spectrum of solar system exploration missions. Currently, missions anticipated to encounter heat fluxes in the range of 1500 4000 Watts per square centimeter are limited to using one proven material fully dense Carbon Phenolic. However, fully dense carbon phenolic is only mass efficient at heat fluxes greater than 4000 Watts per square centimeter, and current mission designs suffer this mass inefficiency for lack of an alternative mid-density TPS. WTPS not only bridges this gap but also offers a replacement for carbon phenolic, which itself requires a significant and costly redevelopment effort to re-establish its capability for use in the high heat flux missions recently prioritized in the NRC Decadal survey, including probe missions to Venus, Saturn and Neptune. This poster will summarize some recent arc jet testing to evaluate the performance of WTPS. Both mid density and fully dense WTPS test results will be presented and results compared to heritage carbon phenolic where applicable.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Cheung, Shu Fai
2016-01-01
Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) combines the techniques of meta-analysis and structural equation modeling for the purpose of synthesizing correlation or covariance matrices and fitting structural equation models on the pooled correlation or covariance matrix. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models can be defined in MASEM.…
Computational fluid dynamics modeling and analysis for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladd, John; Slotnick, Jeffrey; Norby, William; Bigelow, Bruce; Burgett, William
2016-08-01
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is planned for construction at a summit of Cerro Las Campanas at the Los Campanas Observatory (LCO) in Chile. GMT will be the most powerful ground-based telescope in operation in the world. Aero-thermal interactions between the site topography, enclosure, internal systems, and optics are complex. A key parameter for optical quality is the thermal gradient between the terrain and the air entering the enclosure, and how quickly that gradient can be dissipated to equilibrium. To ensure the highest quality optical performance, careful design of the telescope enclosure building, location of the enclosure on the summit, and proper venting of the airflow within the enclosure is essential to minimize the impact of velocity and temperature gradients in the air entering the enclosure. High-fidelity Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the GMT, enclosure, and LCO terrain is performed to study (a) the impact of either an open or closed enclosure base soffit external shape design, (b) the effect of telescope/enclosure location on the mountain summit, and (c) the effect of enclosure venting patterns. Details on the geometry modeling, grid discretization, and flow solution are first described. Then selected computational results are shown to quantify the quality of the airflow entering the GMT enclosure based on soffit, site location, and venting considerations. Based on the results, conclusions are provided on GMT soffit design, site location, and enclosure venting. The current work is not used to estimate image quality but will be addressed in future analyses as described in the conclusions.
Cumulative permanent environmental effects for repeated records animal models.
Schaeffer, L R
2011-04-01
The assumption of a single permanent environmental (PE) effect contributing to every record made by an animal is questioned. An alternative model where new PE effects accumulate with each record made by an animal is proposed. An example is used to illustrate the differences between the traditional model and the proposed model.
Receiver Prejudice and Model Ethnicity: Impact on Advertising Effectiveness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lai, Hsiu-Chen Sandra; And Others
1990-01-01
Assesses the effect of model ethnicity on prejudiced respondents, and thus on advertising effectiveness. Finds that, for the most part, use of Asian models does not cause prejudiced respondents to evaluate a product or advertisement more negatively than when White models are used. (SR)
Simulation modeling of outcomes and cost effectiveness.
Ramsey, S D; McIntosh, M; Etzioni, R; Urban, N
2000-08-01
Modeling will continue to be used to address important issues in clinical practice and health policy issues that have not been adequately studied with high-quality clinical trials. The apparent ad hoc nature of models belies the methodologic rigor that is applied to create the best models in cancer prevention and care. Models have progressed from simple decision trees to extremely complex microsimulation analyses, yet all are built using a logical process based on objective evaluation of the path between intervention and outcome. The best modelers take great care to justify both the structure and content of the model and then test their assumptions using a comprehensive process of sensitivity analysis and model validation. Like clinical trials, models sometimes produce results that are later found to be invalid as other data become available. When weighing the value of models in health care decision making, it is reasonable to consider the alternatives. In the absence of data, clinical policy decisions are often based on the recommendations of expert opinion panels or on poorly defined notions of the standard of care or medical necessity. Because such decision making rarely entails the rigorous process of data collection, synthesis, and testing that is the core of well-conducted modeling, it is usually not possible for external audiences to examine the assumptions and data that were used to derive the decisions. One of the modeler's most challenging tasks is to make the structure and content of the model transparent to the intended audience. The purpose of this article is to clarify the process of modeling, so that readers of models are more knowledgeable about their uses, strengths, and limitations.
Modifications in Children's Cognitive Styles: Some Effects of Peer Modeling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cohen, Stewart; Przybycien, Collette A.
An extension of previous attempts at modifying children's cognitive styles is discussed. Specifically, the present study employed sociometric peer models in order to ascertain whether: (1) impulsivity is modifiable through observation of salient models, and (2) sociometrically selected peer models are more effective than unselected models in the…
Analysis on the effect of hypersonic vehicle's optical window on infrared thermal imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Liquan; Han, Ying; Kong, Lingqin; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin; Zhang, Li; Li, Yanhong; Tian, Yi; Sa, Renna
2015-08-01
According to the aero-thermal effects and aero-thermal radiation effects of the optical window, the thermo-optic effect, the elasto-optical effect and the thermal deformation of the optical window are analyzed using finite element analysis method. Also, the peak value and its location of the point spread function, which is caused by the thermo-optic effect and the dome thermal deformation, are calculated with the variance of time. Furthermore, the temperature gradient influence to the transmission of optical window, the variation trend of transmission as well as optical window radiation with time are studied based on temperature distribution analysis. The simulations results show that: When the incident light is perpendicular to the optical window, image shift is mainly caused by its thermal deformation, and the value of image shift is very small. Image shift is determined only by the angle of the incident light. With a certain incident angle, image shift is not affected by the gradient refractive index change. The optical window transmission is mainly affected by temperature gradient and thus not neglectable to image quality. Therefore, the selection of window cooling methods, needs not only consider the window temperature but try to eliminate the temperature gradient. When calculating the thermal radiation, the optical window should be regarded as volume radiation source instead of surface radiator. The results provide the basis for the optical window design, material selection and the later image processing.
Modeling Socially Desirable Responding and Its Effects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ziegler, Matthias; Buehner, Markus
2009-01-01
The impact of socially desirable responding or faking on noncognitive assessments remains an issue of strong debate. One of the main reasons for the controversy is the lack of a statistical method to model such response sets. This article introduces a new way to model faking based on the assumption that faking occurs due to an interaction between…
Modeling lateral acceleration effects on pilot performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korn, J.; Kleinan, D. L.
1982-01-01
Attendant to the direct side force maneuver of a Vectored Force Fighter is the transverse acceleration imposed on the pilot. This lateral acceleration (Gy), when combind with a positive Gz stress, is a potential source of pilot tracking performance impairment. A research effort to investigate these performance decrements includes experimental as well as anaytical pilot performance modeling using the Optimal Control Model.
Plume-Free Stream Interaction Heating Effects During Orion Crew Module Reentry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marichalar, J.; Lumpkin, F.; Boyles, K.
2012-01-01
During reentry of the Orion Crew Module (CM), vehicle attitude control will be performed by firing reaction control system (RCS) thrusters. Simulation of RCS plumes and their interaction with the oncoming flow has been difficult for the analysis community due to the large scarf angles of the RCS thrusters and the unsteady nature of the Orion capsule backshell environments. The model for the aerothermal database has thus relied on wind tunnel test data to capture the heating effects of thruster plume interactions with the freestream. These data are only valid for the continuum flow regime of the reentry trajectory. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) analysis was performed to study the vehicle heating effects that result from the RCS thruster plume interaction with the oncoming freestream flow at high altitudes during Orion CM reentry. The study was performed with the DSMC Analysis Code (DAC). The inflow boundary conditions for the jets were obtained from Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions. Simulations were performed for the roll, yaw, pitch-up and pitch-down jets at altitudes of 105 km, 125 km and 160 km as well as vacuum conditions. For comparison purposes (see Figure 1), the freestream conditions were based on previous DAC simulations performed without active RCS to populate the aerodynamic database for the Orion CM. Other inputs to the analysis included a constant Orbital reentry velocity of 7.5 km/s and angle of attack of 160 degrees. The results of the study showed that the interaction effects decrease quickly with increasing altitude. Also, jets with highly scarfed nozzles cause more severe heating compared to the nozzles with lower scarf angles. The difficulty of performing these simulations was based on the maximum number density and the ratio of number densities between the freestream and the plume for each simulation. The lowest altitude solutions required a substantial amount of computational resources
Simulation Model Development for Icing Effects Flight Training
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnhart, Billy P.; Dickes, Edward G.; Gingras, David R.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.
2003-01-01
A high-fidelity simulation model for icing effects flight training was developed from wind tunnel data for the DeHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft. First, a flight model of the un-iced airplane was developed and then modifications were generated to model the icing conditions. The models were validated against data records from the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research flight test program with only minimal refinements being required. The goals of this program were to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a simulator for training pilots to recognize and recover from icing situations and to establish a process for modeling icing effects to be used for future training devices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
2007-01-01
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang
2007-01-01
This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bose, Deepak
2012-01-01
The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above
Iordache, Eugen; Dierker, Lisa; Fifield, Judith; Schensul, Jean J.; Suggs, Suzanne; Barbour, Russell
2015-01-01
The advantages of modeling the unreliability of outcomes when evaluating the comparative effectiveness of health interventions is illustrated. Adding an action-research intervention component to a regular summer job program for youth was expected to help in preventing risk behaviors. A series of simple two-group alternative structural equation models are compared to test the effect of the intervention on one key attitudinal outcome in terms of model fit and statistical power with Monte Carlo simulations. Some models presuming parameters equal across the intervention and comparison groups were underpowered to detect the intervention effect, yet modeling the unreliability of the outcome measure increased their statistical power and helped in the detection of the hypothesized effect. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) could benefit from flexible multi-group alternative structural models organized in decision trees, and modeling unreliability of measures can be of tremendous help for both the fit of statistical models to the data and their statistical power. PMID:26640421
Approaches to Testing Interaction Effects Using Structural Equation Modeling Methodology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; Acock, Alan; Boles, Shawn
1998-01-01
Reviews a single indicator approach and multiple indicator approaches that simplify testing interaction effects using structural equation modeling. An illustrative application examines the interactive effect of perceptions of competence and perceptions of autonomy on exercise-intrinsic motivation. (SLD)
Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.
Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W
1990-01-01
A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers.
Multilevel Modeling of Item Position Effects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Albano, Anthony D.
2013-01-01
In many testing programs it is assumed that the context or position in which an item is administered does not have a differential effect on examinee responses to the item. Violations of this assumption may bias item response theory estimates of item and person parameters. This study examines the potentially biasing effects of item position. A…
Measuring School Effectiveness Using Hierarchical Linear Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mandeville, Garrett K.; Heidari, Khosrow
Two major groups of researchers focus on identifying schools that have been unusually effective in terms of their students' achievement: (1) "effective schools" researchers; and (2) those charged with the responsibility of identifying schools for special recognition. However, all legitimate attemps to operationalize school effectiveness…
Effective Interactions from No Core Shell Model
Dikmen, E.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Barrett, B. R.; Navratil, P.; Vary, J. P.
2008-11-11
We construct the many-body effective Hamiltonian for pf-shell by carrying out 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}. NCSM calculations at the 2-body cluster level. We demonstrate how the effective Hamiltonian derived from realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials for the 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega} NCSM space should be modified to properly account for the many-body correlations produced by truncating to the major pf-shell. We obtain two-body effective interactions for the pf-shell by using direct projection and use them to reproduce the results of large scale NCSM for other light Ca isotopes.
Application of Poisson random effect models for highway network screening.
Jiang, Ximiao; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Alamili, Samer
2014-02-01
In recent years, Bayesian random effect models that account for the temporal and spatial correlations of crash data became popular in traffic safety research. This study employs random effect Poisson Log-Normal models for crash risk hotspot identification. Both the temporal and spatial correlations of crash data were considered. Potential for Safety Improvement (PSI) were adopted as a measure of the crash risk. Using the fatal and injury crashes that occurred on urban 4-lane divided arterials from 2006 to 2009 in the Central Florida area, the random effect approaches were compared to the traditional Empirical Bayesian (EB) method and the conventional Bayesian Poisson Log-Normal model. A series of method examination tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of different approaches. These tests include the previously developed site consistence test, method consistence test, total rank difference test, and the modified total score test, as well as the newly proposed total safety performance measure difference test. Results show that the Bayesian Poisson model accounting for both temporal and spatial random effects (PTSRE) outperforms the model that with only temporal random effect, and both are superior to the conventional Poisson Log-Normal model (PLN) and the EB model in the fitting of crash data. Additionally, the method evaluation tests indicate that the PTSRE model is significantly superior to the PLN model and the EB model in consistently identifying hotspots during successive time periods. The results suggest that the PTSRE model is a superior alternative for road site crash risk hotspot identification.
A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects
Ghan, Steven J.; Smith, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai; Pringle, K. J.; Carslaw, K. S.; Pierce, Jeffrey; Bauer, Susanne E.; Adams, P. J.
2013-06-28
Most estimates of the global mean indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosol on the Earth’s energy balance are from simulations by global models of the aerosol lifecycle coupled with global models of clouds and the hydrologic cycle. Extremely simple models have been developed for integrated assessment models, but lack the flexibility to distinguish between primary and secondary sources of aerosol. Here a simple but more physically-based model expresses the aerosol indirect effect using analytic representations of droplet nucleation, cloud and aerosol vertical structure, and horizontal variability in cloud water and aerosol concentration. Although the simple model is able to produce estimates of aerosol indirect effects that are comparable to those from some global aerosol models using the same global mean aerosol properties, the estimates are found to be sensitive to several uncertain parameters, including the preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei concentration, primary and secondary anthropogenic emissions, the size of the primary particles, the fraction of the secondary anthropogenic emissions that accumulates on the coarse mode, the fraction of the secondary mass that forms new particles, and the sensitivity of liquid water path to droplet number concentration. Aerosol indirect effects are surprisingly linear in emissions. This simple model provides a much stronger physical basis for representing aerosol indirect effects than previous representations in integrated assessment models designed to quickly explore the parameter space of emissions-climate interactions. The model also produces estimates that depend on parameter values in ways that are consistent with results from detailed global aerosol-climate simulation models.
An examination of a voluntary policy model to effect ...
An examination of a voluntary policy model to effect behavioral change and influence interactions and decision-making in the freight sector An examination of a voluntary policy model to effect behavioral change and influence interactions and decision-making in the freight sector
Institutional Effectiveness: A Model for Planning, Assessment & Validation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Truckee Meadows Community Coll., Sparks, NV.
The report presents Truckee Meadows Community College's (Colorado) model for assessing institutional effectiveness and validating the College's mission and vision, and the strategic plan for carrying out the institutional effectiveness model. It also outlines strategic goals for the years 1999-2001. From the system-wide directive that education…
Effects of Modeling and Desensitation in Reducing Dentist Phobia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaw, David W.; Thoresen, Carl E.
1974-01-01
Many persons avoid dentists and dental work. The present study explored the effects of systematic desensitization and social-modeling treatments with placebo and assessment control groups. Modeling was more effective than desensitization as shown by the number of subjects who went to a dentist. (Author)
A fiber-bridging model with stress gradient effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Sun; Tao, Li
2000-05-01
A fiber-bridging model with stress gradient effects is proposed for unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites. The stress gradient terms are introduced by solving a micromechanical model under a non-uniform stress loading. It is shown that the stress gradient effect is significant on both the fiber-bridging stress distribution and the value of the critical load of fiber failure.
Medical Surveillance System & Medical Effect Modeling Thrust Areas
2007-06-01
Equations ( PFE ) developed for this project model physiological systems in biological organisms as 1D liquid or gas flows. Special attention is given...in the model to capturing 2D viscous effects and branching effects. Multiple PFE representations of physiological systems (e.g. the respiratory and
Evaluating Differential Effects Using Regression Interactions and Regression Mixture Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Howe, George; Feaster, Daniel J.; Lamont, Andrea E.; George, Melissa R. W.; Kim, Minjung
2015-01-01
Research increasingly emphasizes understanding differential effects. This article focuses on understanding regression mixture models, which are relatively new statistical methods for assessing differential effects by comparing results to using an interactive term in linear regression. The research questions which each model answers, their…
A Model for Effectively Assessing Student Learning Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohia, Uche O.
2011-01-01
This paper describes a model proven to be effective for assessing and documenting evidence of student learning outcomes. Specifically, it will share a model, F.A.M.O.U.S. Copyright ©2008, which is an acronym exemplifying six effective steps for complying with institutional accountability and eternal assessment requirements proscribed by the…
A Connectionist Model of Instructional Feedback Effects.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clariana, Roy B.
Connectionist models apply various mathematical rules within neural network computer simulations in an effort, among other things, to mimic and describe human memory associations and learning. Learning involves the interaction of information provided by instruction with existing information already in the learner's memory (Ausubel, 1968; Bruner,…
A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl
2008-01-01
The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…
Latitudinally dependent Trimpi effects: Modeling and observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clilverd, Mark A.; Yeo, Richard F.; Nunn, David; Smith, Andy J.
1999-09-01
Modeling studies show that the exclusion of the propagating VLF wave from the ionospheric region results in the decline of Trimpi magnitude with patch altitude. In large models such as Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) this exclusion does not occur inherently in the code, and high-altitude precipitation modeling can produce results that are not consistent with observations from ground-based experiments. The introduction to LWPC of realistic wave attenuation of the height gain functions in the ionosphere solves these computational problems. This work presents the first modeling of (Born) Trimpi scattering at long ranges, taking into account global inhomogeneities and continuous mode conversion along all paths, by employing the full conductivity perturbation matrix. The application of the more realistic height gain functions allows the prediction of decreasing Trimpi activity with increasing latitude, primarily through the mechanism of excluding the VLF wave from regions of high conductivity and scattering efficiency. Ground-based observations from Faraday and Rothera, Antarctica, in September and October 1995 of Trimpi occurring on the NPM (Hawaii) path provide data that are consistent with these predictions. Latitudinal variations in Trimpi occurrence near L=2.5, with a significant decrease of about 70% occurrence between L=2.4 and L=2.8, have been observed at higher L shell resolution than in previous studies (i.e., 2
Coriolis effects and motion sickness modelling.
Bles, W
1998-11-15
Coriolis effects are notorious in relation to disorientation and motion sickness in aircrew. A review is provided of experimental data on these Coriolis effects, including the modulatory effects of adding visual or somatosensory rotatory motion information. A vector analysis of the consequences of head movements during somatosensory, visual and/or vestibular rotatory motion stimulation revealed that the more the sensed angular velocity vector after the head movements is aligned with the gravitoinertial force vector, the less nauseating effects are experienced. It is demonstrated that this is a special case of the subjective vertical conflict theory on motion sickness that assumes that motion sickness may be provoked if a discrepancy is detected between the subjective vertical and the sensed vertical as determined on the basis of incoming sensory information.
Mixed-Effects Modeling with Crossed Random Effects for Subjects and Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baayen, R. H.; Davidson, D. J.; Bates, D. M.
2008-01-01
This paper provides an introduction to mixed-effects models for the analysis of repeated measurement data with subjects and items as crossed random effects. A worked-out example of how to use recent software for mixed-effects modeling is provided. Simulation studies illustrate the advantages offered by mixed-effects analyses compared to…
Effect of Noise in the Three-Parameter Logistic Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samejima, Fumiko
In a preceding research report, ONR/RR-82-1 (Information Loss Caused by Noise in Models for Dichotomous Items), observations were made on the effect of noise accommodated in different types of models on the dichotomous response level. In the present paper, focus is put upon the three-parameter logistic model, which is widely used among…
Effects of Modeling and Reinforcement on Adult Chronic Schizophrenics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olson, R. Paul
1971-01-01
This study confirmed two general predictions: (1) the model contributes to new learning; and (2) neither the model nor reinforcement of the model adds significantly to motivation, beyond the effect that can be attributed to reinforcement of the subject himself. (Author/CG)
Effective Reading and Writing Instruction: A Focus on Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Regan, Kelley; Berkeley, Sheri
2012-01-01
When providing effective reading and writing instruction, teachers need to provide explicit modeling. Modeling is particularly important when teaching students to use cognitive learning strategies. Examples of how teachers can provide specific, explicit, and flexible instructional modeling is presented in the context of two evidence-based…
Seventh Grade Students' Mental Models of the Greenhouse Effect
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shepardson, Daniel P.; Choi, Soyoung; Niyogi, Dev; Charusombat, Umarporn
2011-01-01
This constructivist study investigates 225 student drawings and explanations from three different schools in the midwest in the US, to identify seventh grade students' mental models of the greenhouse effect. Five distinct mental models were derived from an inductive analysis of the content of the students' drawings and explanations: Model 1, a…
Teacher Effects, Value-Added Models, and Accountability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Konstantopoulos, Spyros
2014-01-01
Background: In the last decade, the effects of teachers on student performance (typically manifested as state-wide standardized tests) have been re-examined using statistical models that are known as value-added models. These statistical models aim to compute the unique contribution of the teachers in promoting student achievement gains from grade…
A Gompertzian model with random effects to cervical cancer growth
Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni; Rosli, Norhayati
2015-05-15
In this paper, a Gompertzian model with random effects is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via maximum likehood estimation. We apply 4-stage Runge-Kutta (SRK4) for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of the cervical cancer growth. Low values of root mean-square error (RMSE) of Gompertzian model with random effect indicate good fits.
A Gompertzian model with random effects to cervical cancer growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni; Rosli, Norhayati
2015-05-01
In this paper, a Gompertzian model with random effects is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via maximum likehood estimation. We apply 4-stage Runge-Kutta (SRK4) for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of the cervical cancer growth. Low values of root mean-square error (RMSE) of Gompertzian model with random effect indicate good fits.
Singlet model interference effects with high scale UV physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawson, S.; Lewis, I. M.
2017-01-01
One of the simplest extensions of the Standard Model (SM) is the addition of a scalar gauge singlet, S . If S is not forbidden by a symmetry from mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, the mixing will generate non-SM rates for Higgs production and decays. In general, there could also be unknown high energy physics that generates additional effective low energy interactions. We show that interference effects between the scalar resonance of the singlet model and the effective field theory (EFT) operators can have significant effects in the Higgs sector. We examine a non-Z2 symmetric scalar singlet model and demonstrate that a fit to the 125 GeV Higgs boson couplings and to limits on high mass resonances, S , exhibit an interesting structure and possible large cancellations of effects between the resonance contribution and the new EFT interactions, that invalidate conclusions based on the renormalizable singlet model alone.
Singlet model interference effects with high scale UV physics
Dawson, S.; Lewis, I. M.
2017-01-06
One of the simplest extensions of the Standard Model (SM) is the addition of a scalar gauge singlet, S . If S is not forbidden by a symmetry from mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, the mixing will generate non-SM rates for Higgs production and decays. Generally, there could also be unknown high energy physics that generates additional effective low energy interactions. We show that interference effects between the scalar resonance of the singlet model and the effective field theory (EFT) operators can have significant effects in the Higgs sector. Here, we examine a non- Z 2 symmetric scalarmore » singlet model and demonstrate that a fit to the 125 GeV Higgs boson couplings and to limits on high mass resonances, S , exhibit an interesting structure and possible large cancellations of effects between the resonance contribution and the new EFT interactions, that invalidate conclusions based on the renormalizable singlet model alone.« less
Life course models: improving interpretation by consideration of total effects.
Green, Michael J; Popham, Frank
2016-12-28
Life course epidemiology has used models of accumulation and critical or sensitive periods to examine the importance of exposure timing in disease aetiology. These models are usually used to describe the direct effects of exposures over the life course. In comparison with consideration of direct effects only, we show how consideration of total effects improves interpretation of these models, giving clearer notions of when it will be most effective to intervene. We show how life course variation in the total effects depends on the magnitude of the direct effects and the stability of the exposure. We discuss interpretation in terms of total, direct and indirect effects and highlight the causal assumptions required for conclusions as to the most effective timing of interventions.
Effective-Medium Models for Marine Gas Hydrates, Mallik Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terry, D. A.; Knapp, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.
2011-12-01
Hertz-Mindlin type effective-medium dry-rock elastic models have been commonly used for more than three decades in rock physics analysis, and recently have been applied to assessment of marine gas hydrate resources. Comparisons of several effective-medium models with derivative well-log data from the Mackenzie River Valley, Northwest Territories, Canada (i.e. Mallik 2L-38 and 5L-38) were made several years ago as part of a marine gas hydrate joint industry project in the Gulf of Mexico. The matrix/grain supporting model (one of the five models compared) was clearly a better representation of the Mallik data than the other four models (2 cemented sand models; a pore-filling model; and an inclusion model). Even though the matrix/grain supporting model was clearly better, reservations were noted that the compressional velocity of the model was higher than the compressional velocity measured via the sonic logs, and that the shear velocities showed an even greater discrepancy. Over more than thirty years, variations of Hertz-Mindlin type effective medium models have evolved for unconsolidated sediments and here, we briefly review their development. In the past few years, the perfectly smooth grain version of the Hertz-Mindlin type effective-medium model has been favored over the infinitely rough grain version compared in the Gulf of Mexico study. We revisit the data from the Mallik wells to review assertions that effective-medium models with perfectly smooth grains are a better predictor than models with infinitely rough grains. We briefly review three Hertz-Mindlin type effective-medium models, and standardize nomenclature and notation. To calibrate the extended effective-medium model in gas hydrates, we use a well accepted framework for unconsolidated sediments through Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. We implement the previously discussed effective-medium models for saturated sediments with gas hydrates and compute theoretical curves of seismic velocities versus gas hydrate
Dissipation effects in North Atlantic Ocean modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietrich, D. E.; Mehra, A.; Haney, R. L.; Bowman, M. J.; Tseng, Y. H.
2004-03-01
Numerical experiments varying lateral viscosity and diffusivity between 20 and 150 m2/s in a North Atlantic Ocean (NAO) model having 4th-order accurate numerics, in which the dense deep current system (DCS) from the northern seas and Arctic Ocean is simulated directly show that Gulf Stream (GS) separation is strongly affected by the dissipation of the DCS. This is true even though the separation is highly inertial with large Reynolds number for GS separation flow scales. We show that realistic NAO modeling requires less than 150 m2/s viscosity and diffusivity in order to maintain the DCS material current with enough intensity to get realistic GS separation near Cape Hatteras (CH). This also demands accurate, low dissipation numerics, because of the long transit time (1-10 years) of DCS material from its northern seas and Arctic Ocean source regions to the Cape Hatteras region and the small lateral and vertical scales of DCS.
Modeling Effective Dosages in Hormetic Dose-Response Studies
Belz, Regina G.; Piepho, Hans-Peter
2012-01-01
Background Two hormetic modifications of a monotonically decreasing log-logistic dose-response function are most often used to model stimulatory effects of low dosages of a toxicant in plant biology. As just one of these empirical models is yet properly parameterized to allow inference about quantities of interest, this study contributes the parameterized functions for the second hormetic model and compares the estimates of effective dosages between both models based on 23 hormetic data sets. Based on this, the impact on effective dosage estimations was evaluated, especially in case of a substantially inferior fit by one of the two models. Methodology/Principal Findings The data sets evaluated described the hormetic responses of four different test plant species exposed to 15 different chemical stressors in two different experimental dose-response test designs. Out of the 23 data sets, one could not be described by any of the two models, 14 could be better described by one of the two models, and eight could be equally described by both models. In cases of misspecification by any of the two models, the differences between effective dosages estimates (0–1768%) greatly exceeded the differences observed when both models provided a satisfactory fit (0–26%). This suggests that the conclusions drawn depending on the model used may diverge considerably when using an improper hormetic model especially regarding effective dosages quantifying hormesis. Conclusions/Significance The study showed that hormetic dose responses can take on many shapes and that this diversity can not be captured by a single model without risking considerable misinterpretation. However, the two empirical models considered in this paper together provide a powerful means to model, prove, and now also to quantify a wide range of hormetic responses by reparameterization. Despite this, they should not be applied uncritically, but after statistical and graphical assessment of their adequacy. PMID
Modeling the Effects of Army Advertising
1988-11-01
and specific) variance, it is necessary to account for measurement error outside the estimation process of the model itself. As noted by Fornell (1983...imply that one has to assume perfect measurement and a zero residual (p. 446)." Fornell goes on to note, after discussing large scale findings by Andrews...more realistic than the traditional assumption of a zero residual ( Fornell , 1983; p.446)." Based on the above, those constructs for which multiple
Managing crises effectively: an intervention model.
Lawler, T G; Yount, E H
1987-11-01
The nature of our work in health care is such that it lends itself to high levels of ambiguity at best and frequently even to the presence of crisis situations. The ability to manage crisis, therefore, is an increasingly vital skill for nurse executives. Creative and productive possibilities can arise from coping well with such serious and unusual events. This article suggests a model for crisis management.
Graphical modelling of carbon nanotube field effect transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahoo, R.; Mishra, R. R.
2015-02-01
Carbon nanotube Field Effect Transistors (CNTFET) are found to be one of the most promising successors to conventional Si-MOSFET. This paper presents a novel modelling for planar CNTFET based on curve fitting method. The results obtained from the model are compared with the simulated results obtained by using the nanohub simulator. Finally the accuracy of the model is discussed by calculating the normalized root mean square difference between the nanohub simulation results and those obtained from the proposed model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Carcasci, Carlo; Facchini, Bruno
2017-02-01
This paper presents a numerical validation of the aero-thermal study of a 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative trailing edge with one row of enlarged pedestals under stationary and rotating conditions. A CFD analysis was performed by means of commercial ANSYS-Fluent modeling the isothermal air flow and using k- ω SST turbulence model and an isothermal air flow for both static and rotating conditions (Ro up to 0.23). The used numerical model is validated first by comparing the numerical velocity profiles distribution results to those obtained experimentally by means of PIV technique for Re = 20,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. The second validation is based on the comparison of the numerical results of the 2D HTC maps over the heated plate to those of TLC experimental data, for a smooth surface for a Reynolds number = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two-tip conditions were considered: open tip and closed tip conditions. Results of the average Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts region are presented too. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.
Macho, Siegfried; Ledermann, Thomas
2011-03-01
The phantom model approach for estimating, testing, and comparing specific effects within structural equation models (SEMs) is presented. The rationale underlying this novel method consists in representing the specific effect to be assessed as a total effect within a separate latent variable model, the phantom model that is added to the main model. The following favorable features characterize the method: (a) It enables the estimation, testing, and comparison of arbitrary specific effects for recursive and nonrecursive models with latent and manifest variables; (b) it enables the bootstrapping of confidence intervals; and (c) it can be applied with all standard SEM programs permitting latent variables, the specification of equality constraints, and the bootstrapping of total effects. These features along with the fact that no manipulation of matrices and formulas is required make the approach particularly suitable for applied researchers. The method is illustrated by means of 3 examples with real data sets.
Hysteresis modeling in ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors
Liu, Yian; Moura, Mateus S; Costa, Ademir J; de Almeida, Luiz Alberto L; Paranjape, Makarand; Fontana, Marcio
2014-01-01
Theoretical models are adapted to describe the hysteresis effects seen in the electrical characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The ballistic transport model describes the contributions of conduction energy sub-bands over carbon nanotube field-effect transistor drain current as a function of drain-source and gate-source voltages as well as other physical parameters of the device. The limiting-loop proximity model, originally developed to understand magnetic hysteresis, is also utilized in this work. The curves obtained from our developed model corroborate well with the experimentally derived hysteretic behavior of the transistors. Modeling the hysteresis behavior will enable designers to reliably use these effects in both analog and memory applications. PMID:25187698
Effective UV radiation from model calculations and measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feister, Uwe; Grewe, Rolf
1994-01-01
Model calculations have been made to simulate the effect of atmospheric ozone and geographical as well as meteorological parameters on solar UV radiation reaching the ground. Total ozone values as measured by Dobson spectrophotometer and Brewer spectrometer as well as turbidity were used as input to the model calculation. The performance of the model was tested by spectroradiometric measurements of solar global UV radiation at Potsdam. There are small differences that can be explained by the uncertainty of the measurements, by the uncertainty of input data to the model and by the uncertainty of the radiative transfer algorithms of the model itself. Some effects of solar radiation to the biosphere and to air chemistry are discussed. Model calculations and spectroradiometric measurements can be used to study variations of the effective radiation in space in space time. The comparability of action spectra and their uncertainties are also addressed.
Simple effective thickness model for circular brush seals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowler, Constance A.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Holle, Glenn F.
1992-07-01
Brush seals are being investigated as replacements for some of the labyrinth seals in gas turbine engines. A relatively simple flow model approach has been presented to generalize brush seal leakage throughout the range of test and application environments. The model uses a single parameter, effective brush thickness, to correlate flow through the seal. A revision to the flow model is presented in this paper to account for seal curvature, which is especially important for smaller diameter brush seals. The revised model has been applied to leakage flow data from five sources. The results demonstrate the utility of the flow model approach in correlating the performance of brush seals having different design geometries. The revised model is shown to effectively account for the effect of seal curvature.
Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming
Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.
2016-02-20
Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.
Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming
Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; ...
2016-02-20
Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less
Improving Institutional Effectiveness: Description and Application of an Implementation Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sheldon, Michael R.; Golub, Andrew J.; Langevin, John R.; St. Ours, Paulette A.; Swartzlander, Barbara J.
2008-01-01
The higher education literature continues to highlight difficulties with efforts to implement and sustain institutional effectiveness activities. This article describes an implementation effectiveness model from the field of organizational management and applies it to the implementation of institutional effectiveness initiatives in higher…
Cellular automaton model considering headway-distance effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Shou-Xin; Gao, Kun; Wang, Bing-Hong; Lu, Yu-Feng
2008-05-01
This paper presents a cellular automaton model for single-lane traffic flow. On the basis of the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model, it further considers the effect of headway-distance between two successive cars on the randomization of the latter one. In numerical simulations, this model shows the following characteristics. (1) With a simple structure, this model succeeds in reproducing the hysteresis effect, which is absent in the NS model. (2) Compared with the slow-to-start models, this model exhibits a local fundamental diagram which is more consistent to empirical observations. (3) This model has much higher efficiency in dissolving congestions compared with the so-called NS model with velocity-dependent randomization (VDR model). (4) This model is more robust when facing traffic obstructions. It can resist much longer shock times and has much shorter relaxation times on the other hand. To summarize, compared with the existing models, this model is quite simple in structure, but has good characteristics.
Effective Strategies to Communicate Modeling with Project Regulators and Stakeholders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arola, C.; Moser, K.; Bratton, W.
2008-12-01
Modeling is commonly used to support environmental project decision making. A notable example of the role of groundwater flow, fate, and transport modeling is to support the CERCLA remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Modeling within an RI/FS is often used to evaluate new sampling locations, or to support evaluation of potential groundwater remedial technologies. Modeling used in these efforts ranges from simple to complex, and often must fit within a variety of state and federal regulations. Project stakeholder understanding and familiarity with model tools and application ranges broadly. Effective communication of the purpose, expected outcomes, strengths, limitations, and uncertainties of modeling efforts with regulators and project stakeholders is critical to successfully support project needs. Effective communication begins prior to the implementation of modeling efforts and should continue throughout the lifecycle of the modeling project. Communication efforts should include regular project workshops to keep stakeholders apprised of modeling progress. Regular communication throughout the modeling lifecycle provides a more technically and cost effective final product due to consideration of stakeholder concerns throughout the modeling effort through information exchange and negotiation, rather than at the end of the project, when it is often too late in the process or too expensive to change course and meet project milestones.
Modeling hurricane effects on mangrove ecosystems
Doyle, Thomas W.
1997-01-01
Mangrove ecosystems are at their most northern limit along the coastline of Florida and in isolated areas of the gulf coast in Louisiana and Texas. Mangroves are marine-based forests that have adapted to colonize and persist in salty intertidal waters. Three species of mangrove trees are common to the United States, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems and provide valuable habitat for fisheries and shorebirds. They are susceptible to lightning and hurricane disturbance, both of which occur frequently in south Florida. Climate change studies predict that, while these storms may not become more frequent, they may become more intense with warming sea temperatures. Sea-level rise alone has the potential for increasing the severity of storm surge, particularly in areas where coastal habitats and barrier shorelines are rapidly deteriorating. Given this possibility, U.S. Geological Survey researchers modeled the impact of hurricanes on south Florida mangrove communities.
Support effects studied on model supported catalysts
Gorte, R.G.
1991-11-01
We are studying model catalysts in which the active phase is deposited onto flat oxide substrates in order to understand how a catalyst is affected by its support. We have examined the following growth and stability of titania overlayers which had been vapor deposited onto a Rh foil; the growth of Pt films on ZnO(0001)Zn and O(0001)O and compared the results to those obtained for Pt on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001). Samples were prepared by vapor deposition of Pt onto flat substrates in ultra high vacuum, and metal coverages were measured using a quartz-crystal, film thickness monitor; the structure and CO adsorption properties of Pt films vapor deposited onto a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; the deposition of Rh on a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; The absorption of NO on Pt particles supported on CeO{sub 2}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and the Zn- and O-polar surfaces of ZnO(0001). We have investigated supported oxides in order to understand the acidic properties that have been reported for monolayer oxides. Our first studies were of amorphous, silicalumina catalysts. Finally, we have also begun to prepare model supported oxides in order to be able to used spectroscopic methods to characterize the sites formed on these materials. Our first studies were of niobia deposition on oxidized Al films and on an {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) crystal.
Schwinger model Green functions with topological effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radożycki, Tomasz
1999-11-01
The fermion propagator and the four-fermion Green function in massless QED2 are explicitly found with topological effects taken into account. The corrections due to instanton sectors k=+/-1, contributing to the propagator, are shown to be just the homogenous terms admitted by the Dyson-Schwinger equation for S. In the case of the four-fermion function also sectors k=+/-2 are included in the consideration. The quark condensates are then calculated and are shown to satisfy the cluster property. The θ dependence exhibited by the Green functions corresponds to and may be removed by performing certain chiral gauge transformation.
Cutter Resource Effectiveness Evaluation Model. Executive Summary.
1977-06-01
and D. S. Prerau ~~~ Transportation Systems Center Kendall Square, Cambridge, M~ 02142 T w ~~ r4r,S~~~~ June 1977 c~/ FINAL REPORTi • w Ic; E~ Document...I . Work Unit No. (TRAIS) USCG R&D Center Transportation Systems Center _______________________________ Avery Point Kendall Square ~~~~ Contract...document the Cutter Resource Effectiveness Evaluation Project at the CC R&D Center and Transportation Systems Center . ~16. Abstract ~This report provides a
Drikvandi, Reza
2017-02-13
Nonlinear mixed-effects models are frequently used for pharmacokinetic data analysis, and they account for inter-subject variability in pharmacokinetic parameters by incorporating subject-specific random effects into the model. The random effects are often assumed to follow a (multivariate) normal distribution. However, many articles have shown that misspecifying the random-effects distribution can introduce bias in the estimates of parameters and affect inferences about the random effects themselves, such as estimation of the inter-subject variability. Because random effects are unobservable latent variables, it is difficult to assess their distribution. In a recent paper we developed a diagnostic tool based on the so-called gradient function to assess the random-effects distribution in mixed models. There we evaluated the gradient function for generalized liner mixed models and in the presence of a single random effect. However, assessing the random-effects distribution in nonlinear mixed-effects models is more challenging, especially when multiple random effects are present, and therefore the results from linear and generalized linear mixed models may not be valid for such nonlinear models. In this paper, we further investigate the gradient function and evaluate its performance for such nonlinear mixed-effects models which are common in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We use simulations as well as real data from an intensive pharmacokinetic study to illustrate the proposed diagnostic tool.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin; Thompson, Bruce
1999-01-01
A Monte Carlo simulation study investigated the effects on 10 structural equation modeling fit indexes of sample size, estimation method, and model specification. Some fit indexes did not appear to be comparable, and it was apparent that estimation method strongly influenced almost all fit indexes examined, especially for misspecified models. (SLD)
The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model: A Model of Bidirectional Effects in Developmental Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cook, William L.; Kenny, David A.
2005-01-01
The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) is a model of dyadic relationships that integrates a conceptual view of interdependence with the appropriate statistical techniques for measuring and testing it. In this article we present the APIM as a general, longitudinal model for measuring bidirectional effects in interpersonal relationships. We…
Technical note: Equivalent genomic models with a residual polygenic effect.
Liu, Z; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R
2016-03-01
Routine genomic evaluations in animal breeding are usually based on either a BLUP with genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BLUP model. For a multi-step genomic evaluation, these 2 alternative genomic models were proven to give equivalent predictions for genomic reference animals. The model equivalence was verified also for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Due to incomplete linkage disequilibrium of SNP markers to genes or causal mutations responsible for genetic inheritance of quantitative traits, SNP markers cannot explain all the genetic variance. A residual polygenic effect is normally fitted in the genomic model to account for the incomplete linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we start by showing the proof that the multi-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models are equivalent for the reference animals, when they have a residual polygenic effect included. Second, the equivalence of both multi-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect was also verified for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Additionally, we derived formulas to convert genomic estimated breeding values of the GBLUP model to its components, direct genomic values and residual polygenic effect. Third, we made a proof that the equivalence of these 2 genomic models with a residual polygenic effect holds also for single-step genomic evaluation. Both the single-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models lead to equal prediction for genotyped animals with phenotypes (e.g., reference animals), as well as for (young) genotyped animals without phenotypes. Finally, these 2 single-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect were proven to be equivalent for estimation of SNP effects, too.
A multiscale gradient-dependent plasticity model for size effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyu, Hao; Taheri-Nassaj, Nasrin; Zbib, Hussein M.
2016-06-01
The mechanical behaviour of polycrystalline material is closely correlated to grain size. In this study, we investigate the size-dependent phenomenon in multi-phase steels using a continuum dislocation dynamic model coupled with viscoplastic self-consistent model. We developed a dislocation-based strain gradient plasticity model and a stress gradient plasticity model, as well as a combined model, resulting in a theory that can predict size effect over a wide range of length scales. Results show that strain gradient plasticity and stress gradient plasticity are complementary rather than competing theories. The stress gradient model is dominant at the initial strain stage, and is much more effective for predicting yield strength than the strain gradient model. For larger deformations, the strain gradient model is dominant and more effective for predicting size-dependent hardening. The numerical results are compared with experimental data and it is found that they have the same trend for the yield stress. Furthermore, the effect of dislocation density at different strain stages is investigated, and the findings show that the Hall-Petch relation holds for the initial strain stage and breaks down for higher strain levels. Finally, a power law to describe the size effect and the transition zone between the strain gradient and stress gradient dominated regions is developed.
Cross-Validation for Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models
Colby, Emily; Bair, Eric
2013-01-01
Cross-validation is frequently used for model selection in a variety of applications. However, it is difficult to apply cross-validation to mixed effects models (including nonlinear mixed effects models or NLME models) due to the fact that cross-validation requires “out-of-sample” predictions of the outcome variable, which cannot be easily calculated when random effects are present. We describe two novel variants of cross-validation that can be applied to nonlinear mixed effects models. One variant, where out-of-sample predictions are based on post hoc estimates of the random effects, can be used to select the overall structural model. Another variant, where cross-validation seeks to minimize the estimated random effects rather than the estimated residuals, can be used to select covariates to include in the model. We show that these methods produce accurate results in a variety of simulated data sets and apply them to two publicly available population pharmacokinetic data sets. PMID:23532511
Modeling individual effects in the Cormack-Jolly-Seber Model: A state-space formulation
Royle, J. Andrew
2008-01-01
In population and evolutionary biology, there exists considerable interest in individual heterogeneity in parameters of demographic models for open populations. However, flexible and practical solutions to the development of such models have proven to be elusive. In this article, I provide a state-space formulation of open population capture-recapture models with individual effects. The state-space formulation provides a generic and flexible framework for modeling and inference in models with individual effects, and it yields a practical means of estimation in these complex problems via contemporary methods of Markov chain Monte Carlo. A straightforward implementation can be achieved in the software package WinBUGS. I provide an analysis of a simple model with constant parameter detection and survival probability parameters. A second example is based on data from a 7-year study of European dippers, in which a model with year and individual effects is fitted.
Modeling the effects of annual influenza vaccination
Smith, D.J.; Ackley, D.H.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.
1998-12-31
Although influenza vaccine efficacy is 70--90% in young healthy first-time vaccinees, the efficacy in repeat vaccinees has varied considerably. In some studies, vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was higher than in first-time vaccinees, whereas in other studies vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was significantly lower than in first-time vaccinees and sometimes no higher than in unvaccinated controls. It is known that the closeness of the antigenic match between the vaccine strain and the epidemic virus is important for vaccine effectiveness. In this study the authors show that the antigenic differences between a first vaccine strain and a second vaccine strain, and between the first vaccine strain and the epidemic strain, might account for the observed variation in attack rate among two-time vaccinees.
Modelling of charging effects in plasma immersion ion implantation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
En, William; Cheung, Nathan W.
1995-03-01
The charging effects of plasma immersion ion implantation on several device structures is simulated. The simulations use an analytical model which couples the interaction of the plasma and IC devices during plasma implantation. The plasma model is implemented within the circuit simulator SPICE, which allows the model to uses all of the IC device models existing within SPICE. The model of the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling current through thin gate oxides of MOS devices is demonstrated, and shown how it can be used to quantify the damage induced. Charging damage is shown to be strongly affected by the device structure.
Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah
2015-02-01
In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.
Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth
Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah
2015-02-03
In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.
Bayesian nonparametric centered random effects models with variable selection.
Yang, Mingan
2013-03-01
In a linear mixed effects model, it is common practice to assume that the random effects follow a parametric distribution such as a normal distribution with mean zero. However, in the case of variable selection, substantial violation of the normality assumption can potentially impact the subset selection and result in poor interpretation and even incorrect results. In nonparametric random effects models, the random effects generally have a nonzero mean, which causes an identifiability problem for the fixed effects that are paired with the random effects. In this article, we focus on a Bayesian method for variable selection. We characterize the subject-specific random effects nonparametrically with a Dirichlet process and resolve the bias simultaneously. In particular, we propose flexible modeling of the conditional distribution of the random effects with changes across the predictor space. The approach is implemented using a stochastic search Gibbs sampler to identify subsets of fixed effects and random effects to be included in the model. Simulations are provided to evaluate and compare the performance of our approach to the existing ones. We then apply the new approach to a real data example, cross-country and interlaboratory rodent uterotrophic bioassay.
Effective stress model for partially and fully saturated rocks
Dey, T.N.
1989-01-01
An effective stress model which calculates the pressure-volume (P-V) and deviatoric stress response of partially and fully saturated rocks is described here. The model includes pore pressure effects on pore crushing and shear strength as well as effects of shear enhanced void collapse and shear caused dilatancy. The model can directly use tabular data for the P-V behavior of the rock solids and the water, and for the drained pore crushing behavior and shear strength, which simplifies model fitting. Phase transitions in the solids and vaporization of the water are also allowed. Use of the model is illustrated by an example of wave propagation in limestone. 6 refs., 4 figs.
Homogenization limit for a multiband effective mass model in heterostructures
Morandi, O.
2014-06-15
We study the homogenization limit of a multiband model that describes the quantum mechanical motion of an electron in a quasi-periodic crystal. In this approach, the distance among the atoms that constitute the material (lattice parameter) is considered a small quantity. Our model include the description of materials with variable chemical composition, intergrowth compounds, and heterostructures. We derive the effective multiband evolution system in the framework of the kp approach. We study the well posedness of the mathematical problem. We compare the effective mass model with the standard kp models for uniform and non-uniforms crystals. We show that in the limit of vanishing lattice parameter, the particle density obtained by the effective mass model, converges to the exact probability density of the particle.
Modeling the isotope effect in Walden inversion reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schechter, Israel
1991-05-01
A simple model to explain the isotope effect in the Walden exchange reaction is suggested. It is developed in the spirit of the line-of-centers models, and considers a hard-sphere collision that transfers energy from the relative translation to the desired vibrational mode, as well as geometrical properties and steric requirements. This model reproduces the recently measured cross sections for the reactions of hydrogen with isotopic silanes and older measurements of the substitution reactions of tritium atoms with isotopic methanes. Unlike previously given explanations, this model explains the effect of the attacking atom as well as of the other participating atoms. The model provides also qualitative explanation of the measured relative yields and thresholds of CH 3T and CH 2TF from the reaction T + CH 3F. Predictions for isotope effects and cross sections of some unmeasured reactions are given.
Effective field model of roughness in magnetic nano-structures
Lepadatu, Serban
2015-12-28
An effective field model is introduced here within the micromagnetics formulation, to study roughness in magnetic structures, by considering sub-exchange length roughness levels as a perturbation on a smooth structure. This allows the roughness contribution to be separated, which is found to give rise to an effective configurational anisotropy for both edge and surface roughness, and accurately model its effects with fine control over the roughness depth without the explicit need to refine the computational cell size to accommodate the roughness profile. The model is validated by comparisons with directly roughened structures for a series of magnetization switching and domain wall velocity simulations and found to be in excellent agreement for roughness levels up to the exchange length. The model is further applied to vortex domain wall velocity simulations with surface roughness, which is shown to significantly modify domain wall movement and result in dynamic pinning and stochastic creep effects.
Modeling roughness effects in turbulent boundary layers using elliptic relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Jacob; de Simone, Alejandro; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Jimenez, Javier
2010-11-01
We present results from the efforts towards modeling roughness in turbulent boundary layers using elliptic relaxation. This scheme, included in the v^2-f model and first formulated by Durbin (1993, JFM, vol. 249, p.465) for smooth-walls, uses an elliptic partial differential equation to incorporate near-wall turbulence anisotropy and non-local pressure-strain effects. The use of the elliptic PDE is extended to model roughness effects in various transitionally-rough and fully-rough boundary layers consisting of a uniform and sparse distribution of cylinders for which experimental data is available. The roughness effects are incorporated through the elliptic PDE by including the length and time scales that the roughness imposes upon the flow, which the experiment has shown to be constant within the rough-walls. Further modeling of roughness effects is considered by altering the source terms in the elliptic PDE.
Evaluating differential effects using regression interactions and regression mixture models
Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Howe, George; Feaster, Daniel J.; Lamont, Andrea E.; George, Melissa R. W.; Kim, Minjung
2015-01-01
Research increasingly emphasizes understanding differential effects. This paper focuses on understanding regression mixture models, a relatively new statistical methods for assessing differential effects by comparing results to using an interactive term in linear regression. The research questions which each model answers, their formulation, and their assumptions are compared using Monte Carlo simulations and real data analysis. The capabilities of regression mixture models are described and specific issues to be addressed when conducting regression mixtures are proposed. The paper aims to clarify the role that regression mixtures can take in the estimation of differential effects and increase awareness of the benefits and potential pitfalls of this approach. Regression mixture models are shown to be a potentially effective exploratory method for finding differential effects when these effects can be defined by a small number of classes of respondents who share a typical relationship between a predictor and an outcome. It is also shown that the comparison between regression mixture models and interactions becomes substantially more complex as the number of classes increases. It is argued that regression interactions are well suited for direct tests of specific hypotheses about differential effects and regression mixtures provide a useful approach for exploring effect heterogeneity given adequate samples and study design. PMID:26556903
Adapting Axelrod's cultural dissemination model for simulating peer effects.
Hofer, Christian; Lechner, Gernot; Brudermann, Thomas; Füllsack, Manfred
2017-01-01
We present a generic method for considering incomplete but gradually expandable sociological data in agent-based modeling based on the classic model of cultural dissemination by Axelrod. Our method extension was inspired by research on the diffusion of citizen photovoltaic initiatives, i.e. by initiatives in which citizens collectively invest in photovoltaic plants and share the profits. Owing to the absence of empirical interaction parameters, the Axelrod model was used as basis for considering peer effects with contrived interaction data that can be updated from empirical surveys later on. The Axelrod model was extended to cover the following additional features: •Consideration of empirical social science data for concrete social interaction.•Development of a variable and fine-tunable interaction function for agents.•Deployment of a generic procedure for modeling peer effects in agent-based models.
Effects of distributed database modeling on evaluation of transaction rollbacks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukkamala, Ravi
1991-01-01
Data distribution, degree of data replication, and transaction access patterns are key factors in determining the performance of distributed database systems. In order to simplify the evaluation of performance measures, database designers and researchers tend to make simplistic assumptions about the system. The effect is studied of modeling assumptions on the evaluation of one such measure, the number of transaction rollbacks, in a partitioned distributed database system. Six probabilistic models and expressions are developed for the numbers of rollbacks under each of these models. Essentially, the models differ in terms of the available system information. The analytical results so obtained are compared to results from simulation. From here, it is concluded that most of the probabilistic models yield overly conservative estimates of the number of rollbacks. The effect of transaction commutativity on system throughout is also grossly undermined when such models are employed.
Effects of tidal gravitational fields in clustering dark energy models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pace, Francesco; Reischke, Robert; Meyer, Sven; Schäfer, Björn Malte
2017-04-01
We extend a previous work by Reischke et al. by studying the effects of tidal shear on clustering dark energy models within the framework of the extended spherical collapse model and using the Zel'dovich approximation. As in previous works on clustering dark energy, we assumed a vanishing effective sound speed describing the perturbations in dark energy models. To be self-consistent, our treatment is valid only on linear scales since we do not intend to introduce any heuristic models. This approach makes the linear overdensity δc mass dependent and similarly to the case of smooth dark energy, its effects are predominant at small masses and redshifts. Tidal shear has effects of the order of per cent or less, regardless of the model and preserves a well-known feature of clustering dark energy: When dark energy perturbations are included, the models resemble better the Lambda cold dark matter evolution of perturbations. We also showed that effects on the comoving number density of haloes are small and qualitatively and quantitatively in agreement with what were previously found for smooth dark energy models.
Consequences of Unmodeled Nonlinear Effects in Multilevel Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bauer, Daniel J.; Cai, Li
2009-01-01
Applications of multilevel models have increased markedly during the past decade. In incorporating lower-level predictors into multilevel models, a key interest is often whether or not a given predictor requires a random slope, that is, whether the effect of the predictor varies over upper-level units. If the variance of a random slope…
Effects of Scenario Planning on Participant Mental Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glick, Margaret B.; Chermack, Thomas J.; Luckel, Henry; Gauck, Brian Q.
2012-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of scenario planning on participant mental model styles. Design/methodology/approach: The scenario planning literature is consistent with claims that scenario planning can change individual mental models. These claims are supported by anecdotal evidence and stories from the practical…
The Effect of Math Modeling on Student's Emerging Understanding
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sokolowski, Andrzej
2015-01-01
This study investigated the effects of applying mathematical modeling on revising students' preconception of the process of optimizing area enclosed by a string of a fixed length. A group of 28 high school pre-calculus students were immersed in modeling activity that included direct measurements, data collecting, and formulating algebraic…
Using Dirichlet Processes for Modeling Heterogeneous Treatment Effects across Sites
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miratrix, Luke; Feller, Avi; Pillai, Natesh; Pati, Debdeep
2016-01-01
Modeling the distribution of site level effects is an important problem, but it is also an incredibly difficult one. Current methods rely on distributional assumptions in multilevel models for estimation. There it is hoped that the partial pooling of site level estimates with overall estimates, designed to take into account individual variation as…
Making Assessment Easier with the Organizational Effectiveness Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heilman, Savannah C.; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance
2011-01-01
The Organizational Effectiveness Model was originally developed by Lance Kennedy-Phillips and Ellen Meents-DeCaigny at DePaul University and has been adapted to address the needs of The Ohio State University. The model's purpose is to help organizations measure progress toward mission fulfillment and goal achievement. It cascades, with each step…
Personal Coaching: Reflection on a Model for Effective Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffiths, Kerryn
2015-01-01
The article "Personal Coaching: A Model for Effective Learning" (Griffiths, 2006) appeared in the "Journal of Learning Design" Volume 1, Issue 2 in 2006. Almost ten years on, Kerryn Griffiths reflects upon her original article. Specifically, Griffiths looks back at the combined coaching-learning model she suggested in her…
Estimation of Spatial Dynamic Nonparametric Durbin Models with Fixed Effects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Qian, Minghui; Hu, Ridong; Chen, Jianwei
2016-01-01
Spatial panel data models have been widely studied and applied in both scientific and social science disciplines, especially in the analysis of spatial influence. In this paper, we consider the spatial dynamic nonparametric Durbin model (SDNDM) with fixed effects, which takes the nonlinear factors into account base on the spatial dynamic panel…
A Model of More Culturally Inclusive and Educationally Effective Schools.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).
Conscious that the achievement of educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples is a national priority, Australia's ministers of education, at a March 2000 meeting, committed themselves to a model of more culturally inclusive and educationally effective schools. The model is based on findings from recent work to improve educational…
Searching for an Effective Listening Model in English Communication.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Bog-Nam
1998-01-01
Discusses an effective model for improving the English listening comprehension of Korean college students. To achieve this, the focus of the experimental model is on three kinds of listening experience: pre-listening, while-listening, and post-listening. (Author/VWL)
Thermal modeling environment for TMT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogiatzis, Konstantinos
2010-07-01
In a previous study we had presented a summary of the TMT Aero-Thermal modeling effort to support thermal seeing and dynamic loading estimates. In this paper a summary of the current status of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for TMT is presented, with the focus shifted in particular towards the synergy between CFD and the TMT Finite Element Analysis (FEA) structural and optical models, so that the thermal and consequent optical deformations of the telescope can be calculated. To minimize thermal deformations and mirror seeing the TMT enclosure will be air conditioned during day-time to the expected night-time ambient temperature. Transient simulations with closed shutter were performed to investigate the optimum cooling configuration and power requirements for the standard telescope parking position. A complete model of the observatory on Mauna Kea was used to calculate night-time air temperature inside the enclosure (along with velocity and pressure) for a matrix of given telescope orientations and enclosure configurations. Generated records of temperature variations inside the air volume of the optical paths are also fed into the TMT thermal seeing model. The temperature and heat transfer coefficient outputs from both models are used as input surface boundary conditions in the telescope structure and optics FEA models. The results are parameterized so that sequential records several days long can be generated and used by the FEA model to estimate the observing spatial and temporal temperature range of the structure and optics.
Hanratty, M.P.; Liber, K.
1994-12-31
The Littoral Ecosystem Risk Assessment Model (LERAM) is a bioenergetic ecosystem effects model. It links single species toxicity data to a bioenergetic model of the trophic structure of an ecosystem in order to simulate community and ecosystem level effects of chemical stressors. LERAM was used in 1992 to simulate the ecological effects of diflubenzuron. When compared to the results from a littoral enclosure study, the model exaggerated the cascading of effects through the trophic levels of the littoral ecosystem. It was hypothesized that this could be corrected by making minor changes in the representation of the littoral food web. Two refinements of the model were therefore performed: (1) the plankton and macroinvertebrate model populations [eg., predatory Copepoda, herbivorous Insecta, green phytoplankton, etc.] were changed to better represent the habitat and feeding preferences of the endemic taxa; and (2) the method for modeling the microbial degradation of detritus (and the resulting nutrient remineralization) was changed from simulating bacterial populations to simulating bacterial function. Model predictions of the ecological effects of 4-nonylphenol were made before and after these refinements. Both sets of predictions were then compared to the results from a littoral enclosure study of the ecological effects of 4-nonylphenol. The changes in the LERAM predictions were then used to determine the success of the refinements, to guide. future research, and to further define LERAM`s domain of application.
Modeling of dynamic effects of a low power laser beam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, George N.; Scholl, Marija S.; Khatib, AL
1988-01-01
Methods of modeling some of the dynamic effects involved in laser beam propagation through the atmosphere are addressed with emphasis on the development of simple but accurate models which are readily implemented in a physical optics code. A space relay system with a ground based laser facility is considered as an example. The modeling of such characteristic phenomena as laser output distribution, flat and curved mirrors, diffraction propagation, atmospheric effects (aberration and wind shear), adaptive mirrors, jitter, and time integration of power on target, is discussed.
Electronic Model of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen; Russell, Larry (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A pair of electronic models has been developed of a Ferroelectric Field Effect transistor. These models can be used in standard electrical circuit simulation programs to simulate the main characteristics of the FFET. The models use the Schmitt trigger circuit as a basis for their design. One model uses bipolar junction transistors and one uses MOSFET's. Each model has the main characteristics of the FFET, which are the current hysterisis with different gate voltages and decay of the drain current when the gate voltage is off. The drain current from each model has similar values to an actual FFET that was measured experimentally. T'he input and o Output resistance in the models are also similar to that of the FFET. The models are valid for all frequencies below RF levels. No attempt was made to model the high frequency characteristics of the FFET. Each model can be used to design circuits using FFET's with standard electrical simulation packages. These circuits can be used in designing non-volatile memory circuits and logic circuits and is compatible with all SPICE based circuit analysis programs. The models consist of only standard electrical components, such as BJT's, MOSFET's, diodes, resistors, and capacitors. Each model is compared to the experimental data measured from an actual FFET.
Understanding the Effectiveness of Online Peer Assessment: A Path Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lu, Jingyan; Zhang, Zhidong
2012-01-01
Peer assessment has been implemented in schools as both a learning tool and an assessment tool. Earlier studies have explored the effectiveness of peer assessment from different perspectives, such as domain knowledge and skills, peer assessment skills, and attitude changes. However, there is no holistic model describing the effects of cognitive…
Modeling the Effect of Temperature on Ozone-Related Mortality.
Modeling the Effect of Temperature on Ozone-Related Mortality. Wilson, Ander, Reich, Brian J, Neas, Lucas M., Rappold, Ana G. Background: Previous studies show ozone and temperature are associated with increased mortality; however, the joint effect is not well explored. Underst...
Analgesic Effect of Xenon in Rat Model of Inflammatory Pain.
Kukushkin, M L; Igon'kina, S I; Potapov, S V; Potapov, A V
2017-02-01
The analgesic effects of inert gas xenon were examined on rats. The formalin model of inflammatory pain, tail-flick test, and hot-plate test revealed the antinociceptive effects of subanesthetizing doses of inhalation anesthetic xenon. Inhalation of 50/50 xenon/oxygen mixture moderated the nociceptive responses during acute and tonic phases of inflammatory pain.
School Processes Mediate School Compositional Effects: Model Specification and Estimation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Hongqiang; Van Damme, Jan; Gielen, Sarah; Van Den Noortgate, Wim
2015-01-01
School composition effects have been consistently verified, but few studies ever attempted to study how school composition affects school achievement. Based on prior research findings, we employed multilevel mediation modeling to examine whether school processes mediate the effect of school composition upon school outcomes based on the data of 28…
Assessing Mediational Models: Testing and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Falk, Carl F.; Savalei, Victoria
2010-01-01
Theoretical models specifying indirect or mediated effects are common in the social sciences. An indirect effect exists when an independent variable's influence on the dependent variable is mediated through an intervening variable. Classic approaches to assessing such mediational hypotheses (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Sobel, 1982) have in recent years…
Modeling of Turbulence Effects on Liquid Jet Atomization and Breakup
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trinh, Huu P.; Chen, C. P.
2005-01-01
Recent experimental investigations and physical modeling studies have indicated that turbulence behaviors within a liquid jet have considerable effects on the atomization process. This study aims to model the turbulence effect in the atomization process of a cylindrical liquid jet. Two widely used models, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of Reitz (blob model) and the Taylor-Analogy-Breakup (TAB) secondary droplet breakup by O Rourke et al, are further extended to include turbulence effects. In the primary breakup model, the level of the turbulence effect on the liquid breakup depends on the characteristic scales and the initial flow conditions. For the secondary breakup, an additional turbulence force acted on parent drops is modeled and integrated into the TAB governing equation. The drop size formed from this breakup regime is estimated based on the energy balance before and after the breakup occurrence. This paper describes theoretical development of the current models, called "T-blob" and "T-TAB", for primary and secondary breakup respectivety. Several assessment studies are also presented in this paper.
Modelling the random effects covariance matrix in longitudinal data.
Daniels, Michael J; Zhao, Yan D
2003-05-30
A common class of models for longitudinal data are random effects (mixed) models. In these models, the random effects covariance matrix is typically assumed constant across subject. However, in many situations this matrix may differ by measured covariates. In this paper, we propose an approach to model the random effects covariance matrix by using a special Cholesky decomposition of the matrix. In particular, we will allow the parameters that result from this decomposition to depend on subject-specific covariates and also explore ways to parsimoniously model these parameters. An advantage of this parameterization is that there is no concern about the positive definiteness of the resulting estimator of the covariance matrix. In addition, the parameters resulting from this decomposition have a sensible interpretation. We propose fully Bayesian modelling for which a simple Gibbs sampler can be implemented to sample from the posterior distribution of the parameters. We illustrate these models on data from depression studies and examine the impact of heterogeneity in the covariance matrix on estimation of both fixed and random effects.
Modelling the effect of fluctuating herbicide concentrations on algae growth.
Copin, Pierre-Jean; Coutu, Sylvain; Chèvre, Nathalie
2015-03-01
Herbicide concentrations fluctuate widely in watercourses after crop applications and rain events. The level of concentrations in pulses can exceed the water chronic quality criteria. In the present study, we proposed modelling the effects of successive pulse exposure on algae. The deterministic model proposed is based on two parameters: (i) the typical growth rate of the algae, obtained by monitoring growth rates of several successive batch cultures in growth media, characterizing both the growth of the control and during the recovery periods; (ii) the growth rate of the algae exposed to pulses, determined from a dose-response curve obtained with a standard toxicity test. We focused on the herbicide isoproturon and on the freshwater alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus, and we validated the model prediction based on effect measured during five sequential pulse exposures in laboratory. The comparison between the laboratory and the modelled effects illustrated that the results yielded were consistent, making the model suitable for effect prediction of the herbicide photosystem II inhibitor isoproturon on the alga S. vacuolatus. More generally, modelling showed that both pulse duration and level of concentration play a crucial role. The application of the model to a real case demonstrated that both the highest peaks and the low peaks with a long duration affect principally the cell density inhibition of the alga S. vacuolatus. It is therefore essential to detect these characteristic pulses when monitoring of herbicide concentrations are conducted in rivers.
Modelling the effects of media during an influenza epidemic
2014-01-01
Background Mass media is used to inform individuals regarding diseases within a population. The effects of mass media during disease outbreaks have been studied in the mathematical modelling literature, by including ‘media functions’ that affect transmission rates in mathematical epidemiological models. The choice of function to employ, however, varies, and thus, epidemic outcomes that are important to inform public health may be affected. Methods We present a survey of the disease modelling literature with the effects of mass media. We present a comparison of the functions employed and compare epidemic results parameterized for an influenza outbreak. An agent-based Monte Carlo simulation is created to access variability around key epidemic measurements, and a sensitivity analysis is completed in order to gain insight into which model parameters have the largest influence on epidemic outcomes. Results Epidemic outcome depends on the media function chosen. Parameters that most influence key epidemic outcomes are different for each media function. Conclusion Different functions used to represent the effects of media during an epidemic will affect the outcomes of a disease model, including the variability in key epidemic measurements. Thus, media functions may not best represent the effects of media during an epidemic. A new method for modelling the effects of media needs to be considered. PMID:24742139
A Layered Decision Model for Cost-Effective System Security
Wei, Huaqiang; Alves-Foss, James; Soule, Terry; Pforsich, Hugh; Zhang, Du; Frincke, Deborah A.
2008-10-01
System security involves decisions in at least three areas: identification of well-defined security policies, selection of cost-effective defence strategies, and implementation of real-time defence tactics. Although choices made in each of these areas affect the others, existing decision models typically handle these three decision areas in isolation. There is no comprehensive tool that can integrate them to provide a single efficient model for safeguarding a network. In addition, there is no clear way to determine which particular combinations of defence decisions result in cost-effective solutions. To address these problems, this paper introduces a Layered Decision Model (LDM) for use in deciding how to address defence decisions based on their cost-effectiveness. To validate the LDM and illustrate how it is used, we used simulation to test model rationality and applied the LDM to the design of system security for an e-commercial business case.
Deformed Calogero-Sutherland model and fractional quantum Hall effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atai, Farrokh; Langmann, Edwin
2017-01-01
The deformed Calogero-Sutherland (CS) model is a quantum integrable system with arbitrary numbers of two types of particles and reducing to the standard CS model in special cases. We show that a known collective field description of the CS model, which is based on conformal field theory (CFT), is actually a collective field description of the deformed CS model. This provides a natural application of the deformed CS model in Wen's effective field theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), with the two kinds of particles corresponding to electrons and quasi-hole excitations. In particular, we use known mathematical results about super-Jack polynomials to obtain simple explicit formulas for the orthonormal CFT basis proposed by van Elburg and Schoutens in the context of the FQHE.
Modeling of heavy-gas effects on airfoil flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drela, Mark
1992-01-01
Thermodynamic models were constructed for a calorically imperfect gas and for a non-ideal gas. These were incorporated into a quasi one dimensional flow solver to develop an understanding of the differences in flow behavior between the new models and the perfect gas model. The models were also incorporated into a two dimensional flow solver to investigate their effects on transonic airfoil flows. Specifically, the calculations simulated airfoil testing in a proposed high Reynolds number heavy gas test facility. The results indicate that the non-idealities caused significant differences in the flow field, but that matching of an appropriate non-dimensional parameter led to flows similar to those in air.
Support effects studied on model supported catalysts. Progress report
Gorte, R.J.
1993-02-01
Composition and structure of oxide support materials can change the catalytic behavior of metal and oxide catalysts. Model catalysts are being studied in which the active phase is deposited on flat oxide substrates, with emphasis on metals catalysis for automotive emissions control and acidity in supported oxides. Research is reported in the following areas: particle-size effects, support effects on ZnO and zirconia, support effects on ceria, supported oxides, and low energy ion scattering (no results in the latter).
Modeling multivariate survival data by a semiparametric random effects proportional odds model.
Lam, K F; Lee, Y W; Leung, T L
2002-06-01
In this article, the focus is on the analysis of multivariate survival time data with various types of dependence structures. Examples of multivariate survival data include clustered data and repeated measurements from the same subject, such as the interrecurrence times of cancer tumors. A random effect semiparametric proportional odds model is proposed as an alternative to the proportional hazards model. The distribution of the random effects is assumed to be multivariate normal and the random effect is assumed to act additively to the baseline log-odds function. This class of models, which includes the usual shared random effects model, the additive variance components model, and the dynamic random effects model as special cases, is highly flexible and is capable of modeling a wide range of multivariate survival data. A unified estimation procedure is proposed to estimate the regression and dependence parameters simultaneously by means of a marginal-likelihood approach. Unlike the fully parametric case, the regression parameter estimate is not sensitive to the choice of correlation structure of the random effects. The marginal likelihood is approximated by the Monte Carlo method. Simulation studies are carried out to investigate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method is applied to two well-known data sets, including clustered data and recurrent event times data.
A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghan, Steven J.; Smith, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai; Pringle, Kirsty; Carslaw, Kenneth; Pierce, Jeffrey; Bauer, Susanne; Adams, Peter
2013-01-01
Most estimates of the global mean indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosol on the Earth's energy balance are from simulations by global models of the aerosol lifecycle coupled with global models of clouds and the hydrologic cycle. Extremely simple models have been developed for integrated assessment models, but lack the flexibility to distinguish between primary and secondary sources of aerosol. Here a simple but more physically based model expresses the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) using analytic representations of cloud and aerosol distributions and processes. Although the simple model is able to produce estimates of AIEs that are comparable to those from some global aerosol models using the same global mean aerosol properties, the estimates by the simple model are sensitive to preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei concentration, preindustrial accumulation mode radius, width of the accumulation mode, size of primary particles, cloud thickness, primary and secondary anthropogenic emissions, the fraction of the secondary anthropogenic emissions that accumulates on the coarse mode, the fraction of the secondary mass that forms new particles, and the sensitivity of liquid water path to droplet number concentration. Estimates of present-day AIEs as low as 5 W/sq m and as high as 0.3 W/sq m are obtained for plausible sets of parameter values. Estimates are surprisingly linear in emissions. The estimates depend on parameter values in ways that are consistent with results from detailed global aerosol-climate simulation models, which adds to understanding of the dependence on AIE uncertainty on uncertainty in parameter values.
The effect of model errors in variational assimilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wergen, Werner
1992-08-01
A linearized, one-dimensional shallow water model is used to investigate the effect of model errors in four-dimensional variational assimilation. A suitable initialization scheme for variational assimilation is proposed. Introducing deliberate phase speed errors in the model, the results from variational assimilation are compared to standard analysis/forecast cycle experiments. While the latter draws to the data and reflects the model errors only in the datavoid areas, variational assimilation with the model used as strong constraint is shown to distribute the model errors over the entire analysis domain. The implications for verification and diagnostics are discussed. Temporal weighting of the observations can reduce the errors towards the end of the assimilation period, but may deteriorate the subsequent forecasts. An extension to variational assimilation is proposed, which seeks not only to determine the initial state from the observations but also some of the tunable parameters of the model. The potentional usefulness of this approach for parameterization studies and for a separation of forecast errors into model- and analysis errors is discussed. Finally, variational assimilations with the model used as weak constraint are presented. While showing a good performance in the assimilation, forecasts can suffer severely if the extra term in the equations up to which the model is enforced are unable to compensate for the real model error. In the discussion, an overall appraisal of both assimilation methods is given.
Therapeutic effects of progesterone in animal models of neurological disorders.
De Nicola, Alejandro F; Coronel, Florencia; Garay, Laura I; Gargiulo-Monachelli, Gisella; Gonzalez Deniselle, Maria Claudia; Gonzalez, Susana L; Labombarda, Florencia; Meyer, Maria; Guennoun, Rachida; Schumacher, Michael
2013-12-01
Substantial evidence supports that progesterone exerts many functions in the central and peripheral nervous system unrelated to its classical role in reproduction. In this review we first discussed progesterone effects following binding to the classical intracellular progesterone receptors A and B and several forms of membrane progesterone receptors, the modulation of intracellular signalling cascades and the interaction of progesterone reduced metabolites with neurotransmitter receptors. We next described our results involving animal models of human neuropathologies to elucidate the protective roles of progesterone. We described: (a) the protective and promyelinating effects of progesterone in experimental spinal cord injury; (b) the progesterone protective effects exerted upon motoneurons in the degenerating spinal cord of Wobbler mouse model of amyotropic lateral sclerosis; (c) the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis and after lysolecithin demyelination; (d) the progesterone prevention of nociception and neuropathic pain which follow spinal cord injury; and (e) the protective effect of progesterone in experimental ischemic stroke. Whenever available, the molecular mechanisms involved in these progesterone effects were examined. The multiplicity of progesterone beneficial effects has opened new venues of research for neurological disorders. In this way, results obtained in animal models could provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies and pre-clinical studies.
The effect of model resolution and satellite sounding data on GLAS model forecasts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atlas, R.; Halem, M.; Ghil, M.
1982-01-01
The effect of horizontal model resolution on satellite data impact has been studied for two versions of the GLAS second-order general circulation model: the C-model with a 4-deg latitude by 5-deg longitude resolution and the F-model with a 2.5-deg latitude and 3-deg longitude resolution. It is found that the 48-72 h forecast skill of the GLAS model was significantly improved by the increased resolution. Initial state differences between the SAT and NOSAT cycles using the F-model were on the average smaller than the corresponding differences with the C-model. However, the F-model cycle differences exhibited a smaller scale structure and, in some cases, larger gradients.
Adding thermal and granularity effects to the effective density fluid model.
Williams, Kevin L
2013-05-01
Previously, an effective density fluid model (EDFM) was developed by the author [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2276-2281 (2001)] for unconsolidated granular sediments and applied to sand. The model is a simplification of the full Biot porous media model. Here two additional effects are added to the EDFM model: heat transfer between the liquid and solid at low frequencies and the granularity of the medium at high frequencies. The frequency range studied is 100 Hz-1 MHz. The analytical sound speed and attenuation expressions obtained have no free parameters. The resulting model is compared to ocean data.
Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in time varying vacuum model
Wang, Y. T.; Gui, Y. X.; Xu, L. X.; Lu, J. B.
2010-04-15
The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is an important implication for dark energy. In this paper, we have calculated the power spectrum of the ISW effect in the time varying vacuum cosmological model, where the model parameter {beta}=4.407 is obtained by the observational constraint of the growth rate. It is found that the source of the ISW effect is not only affected by the different evolutions of the Hubble function H(a) and the dimensionless matter density {Omega}{sub m}(a), but also by the different growth function D{sub +}(a), all of which are changed due to the presence of a matter production term in the time varying vacuum model. However, the difference of the ISW effect in the {Lambda}(t)CDM model and the {Lambda}CDM model is lessened to a certain extent because of the integration from the time of last scattering to the present. It is implied that the observations of the galaxies with high redshift are required to distinguish the two models.
Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling
Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Stallings, D.C. )
1994-10-15
Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. The 2-D calculations predict that the return currents in the sidewalls of the antenna structure depend strongly on the plasma parameters, but this prediction is suspect because of experimental evidence. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap and conducting sidewalls are considered. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna structure rather than the plasma, as in the 2-D model. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading predicted from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model, even with end-effect corrections for the 2-D model.
The linear-quadratic model is inappropriate to model high dose per fraction effects in radiosurgery.
Kirkpatrick, John P; Meyer, Jeffrey J; Marks, Lawrence B
2008-10-01
The linear-quadratic (LQ) model is widely used to model the effect of total dose and dose per fraction in conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. Much of the data used to generate the model are obtained in vitro at doses well below those used in radiosurgery. Clinically, the LQ model often underestimates tumor control observed at radiosurgical doses. The underlying mechanisms implied by the LQ model do not reflect the vascular and stromal damage produced at the high doses per fraction encountered in radiosurgery and ignore the impact of radioresistant subpopulations of cells. The appropriate modeling of both tumor control and normal tissue toxicity in radiosurgery requires the application of emerging understanding of molecular-, cellular-, and tissue-level effects of high-dose/fraction-ionizing radiation and the role of cancer stem cells.
Assessing Model Treatment of Drought Legacy Effects in the Amazon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolus, H. R.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Fisher, J. B.; Cook, R. B.; Fang, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Michalak, A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Wei, Y.
2015-12-01
Extreme climate events play an important and potentially lasting role in terrestrial carbon cycling and storage. In particular, satellite and in-situ measurements have shown that forest recovery time following severe drought can extend several years beyond the return to normal climate conditions. However, terrestrial ecosystem models generally do not account for the physiological mechanisms that cause these legacy effects and, instead, assume complete and rapid vegetation recovery from drought. Using a suite of fifteen land surface models from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), we assess models' ability to capture legacy effects by analyzing the spatial and temporal extent of modeled vegetation response to the 2005 Amazon drought. We compare the simulated primary production and ecosystem exchange (GPP, NPP, NEE) to previous recovery-focused analysis of satellite microwave observations of canopy backscatter. Further, we evaluate the specific model characteristics that control the timescale and magnitude of simulated vegetation recovery from drought. Since climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of extreme climate events, improving models' ability to simulate the legacy effects of these events will likely refine estimates of the land carbon sink and its interannual variability.
Discrete Element Model for Suppression of Coffee-Ring Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Ting; Lam, Miu Ling; Chen, Ting-Hsuan
2017-02-01
When a sessile droplet evaporates, coffee-ring effect drives the suspended particulate matters to the droplet edge, eventually forming a ring-shaped deposition. Because it causes a non-uniform distribution of solid contents, which is undesired in many applications, attempts have been made to eliminate the coffee-ring effect. Recent reports indicated that the coffee-ring effect can be suppressed by a mixture of spherical and non-spherical particles with enhanced particle-particle interaction at air-water interface. However, a model to comprehend the inter-particulate activities has been lacking. Here, we report a discrete element model (particle system) to investigate the phenomenon. The modeled dynamics included particle traveling following the capillary flow with Brownian motion, and its resultant 3D hexagonal close packing of particles along the contact line. For particles being adsorbed by air-water interface, we modeled cluster growth, cluster deformation, and cluster combination. We found that the suppression of coffee-ring effect does not require a circulatory flow driven by an inward Marangoni flow at air-water interface. Instead, the number of new cluster formation, which can be enhanced by increasing the ratio of non-spherical particles and the overall number of microspheres, is more dominant in the suppression process. Together, this model provides a useful platform elucidating insights for suppressing coffee-ring effect for practical applications in the future.
Discrete Element Model for Suppression of Coffee-Ring Effect
Xu, Ting; Lam, Miu Ling; Chen, Ting-Hsuan
2017-01-01
When a sessile droplet evaporates, coffee-ring effect drives the suspended particulate matters to the droplet edge, eventually forming a ring-shaped deposition. Because it causes a non-uniform distribution of solid contents, which is undesired in many applications, attempts have been made to eliminate the coffee-ring effect. Recent reports indicated that the coffee-ring effect can be suppressed by a mixture of spherical and non-spherical particles with enhanced particle-particle interaction at air-water interface. However, a model to comprehend the inter-particulate activities has been lacking. Here, we report a discrete element model (particle system) to investigate the phenomenon. The modeled dynamics included particle traveling following the capillary flow with Brownian motion, and its resultant 3D hexagonal close packing of particles along the contact line. For particles being adsorbed by air-water interface, we modeled cluster growth, cluster deformation, and cluster combination. We found that the suppression of coffee-ring effect does not require a circulatory flow driven by an inward Marangoni flow at air-water interface. Instead, the number of new cluster formation, which can be enhanced by increasing the ratio of non-spherical particles and the overall number of microspheres, is more dominant in the suppression process. Together, this model provides a useful platform elucidating insights for suppressing coffee-ring effect for practical applications in the future. PMID:28216639
Construction of river model biofilm for assessing pesticide effects.
Hayashi, Shohei; Jang, Ji Eun; Itoh, Kazuhito; Suyama, Kousuke; Yamamoto, Hiroki
2011-01-01
Due to the high importance of biofilms on river ecosystems, assessment of pesticides' adverse effects is necessary but is impaired by high variability and poor reproducibility of both natural biofilms and those developed in the laboratory. We constructed a model biofilm to evaluate the effects of pesticides, consisting in cultured microbial strains, Pedobacter sp. 7-11, Aquaspirillum sp. T-5, Stenotrophomonas sp. 3-7, Achnanthes minutissima N71, Nitzschia palea N489, and/or Cyclotella meneghiniana N803. Microbial cell numbers, esterase activity, chlorophyll-a content, and the community structure of the model biofilm were examined and found to be useful as biological factors for evaluating the pesticide effects. The model biofilm was formed through the cooperative interaction of bacteria and diatoms, and a preliminary experiment using the herbicide atrazine, which inhibits diatom growth, indicated that the adverse effect on diatoms inhibited indirectly the bacterial growth and activity and, thus, the formation of the model biofilm. Toxicological tests using model biofilms could be useful for evaluating the pesticide effects and complementary to studies on actual river biofilms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doerr, S. E.
1984-06-01
Modeling of aerodynamic interference effects of propulsive jet plumes, by using inert gases as substitute propellants, introduces design limits. To extend the range of modeling capabilities, nozzle wall curvature effects may be utilized. Numerical calculations, using the Method of Characteristics, were made and experimental data were taken to evaluate the merits of the theoretical predictions. A bibliography, listing articles that led to the present report, is included.
A sonic boom propagation model including mean flow atmospheric effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salamone, Joe; Sparrow, Victor W.
2012-09-01
This paper presents a time domain formulation of nonlinear lossy propagation in onedimension that also includes the effects of non-collinear mean flow in the acoustic medium. The model equation utilized is an augmented Burgers equation that includes the effects of nonlinearity, geometric spreading, atmospheric stratification, and also absorption and dispersion due to thermoviscous and molecular relaxation effects. All elements of the propagation are implemented in the time domain and the effects of non-collinear mean flow are accounted for in each term of the model equation. Previous authors have presented methods limited to showing the effects of wind on ray tracing and/or using an effective speed of sound in their model equation. The present work includes the effects of mean flow for all terms included in the augmented Burgers equation with all of the calculations performed in the time-domain. The capability to include the effects of mean flow in the acoustic medium allows one to make predictions more representative of real-world atmospheric conditions. Examples are presented for nonlinear propagation of N-waves and shaped sonic booms. [Work supported by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation.
Modeling the Effects of Stress: An Approach to Training
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuper, Taryn
2010-01-01
Stress is an integral element of the operational conditions experienced by combat medics. The effects of stress can compromise the performance of combat medics who must reach and treat their comrades under often threatening circumstances. Examples of these effects include tunnel vision, loss of motor control, and diminished hearing, which can result in an inability to perceive further danger, satisfactorily treat the casualty, and communicate with others. While many training programs strive to recreate this stress to aid in the experiential learning process, stress inducement may not always be feasible or desired. In addition, live simulations are not always a practical, convenient, and repeatable method of training. Instead, presenting situational training on a personal computer is proposed as an effective training platform in which the effects of stress can be addressed in a different way. We explore the cognitive and motor effects of stress, as well as the benefits of training for mitigating these effects in real life. While many training applications focus on inducing stress in order to "condition" the stress response, the author explores the possibilities of modeling stress to produce a similar effect. Can presenting modeled effects of stress help prepare or inoculate soldiers for stressful situations in which they must perform at a high level? This paper investigates feasibility of modeling stress and describes the preliminary design considerations of a combat medic training system that utilizes this method of battlefield preparation.
Effect of molecular models on viscosity and thermal conductivity calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weaver, Andrew B.; Alexeenko, Alina A.
2014-12-01
The effect of molecular models on viscosity and thermal conductivity calculations is investigated. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for rarefied gas flows is used to simulate Couette and Fourier flows as a means of obtaining the transport coefficients. Experimental measurements for argon (Ar) provide a baseline for comparison over a wide temperature range of 100-1,500 K. The variable hard sphere (VHS), variable soft sphere (VSS), and Lennard-Jones (L-J) molecular models have been implemented into a parallel version of Bird's one-dimensional DSMC code, DSMC1, and the model parameters have been recalibrated to the current experimental data set. While the VHS and VSS models only consider the short-range, repulsive forces, the L-J model also includes constributions from the long-range, dispersion forces. Theoretical results for viscosity and thermal conductivity indicate the L-J model is more accurate than the VSS model; with maximum errors of 1.4% and 3.0% in the range 300-1,500 K for L-J and VSS models, respectively. The range of validity of the VSS model is extended to 1,650 K through appropriate choices for the model parameters.
Simulation Model of A Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen; Russell, Larry W. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
An electronic simulation model has been developed of a ferroelectric field effect transistor (FFET). This model can be used in standard electrical circuit simulation programs to simulate the main characteristics of the FFET. The model uses a previously developed algorithm that incorporates partial polarization as a basis for the design. The model has the main characteristics of the FFET, which are the current hysterisis with different gate voltages and decay of the drain current when the gate voltage is off. The drain current has values matching actual FFET's, which were measured experimentally. The input and output resistance in the model is similar to that of the FFET. The model is valid for all frequencies below RF levels. A variety of different ferroelectric material characteristics can be modeled. The model can be used to design circuits using FFET'S with standard electrical simulation packages. The circuit can be used in designing non-volatile memory circuits and logic circuits and is compatible with all SPICE based circuit analysis programs. The model is a drop in library that integrates seamlessly into a SPICE simulation. A comparison is made between the model and experimental data measured from an actual FFET.
Integrating Multiscale Modeling with Drug Effects for Cancer Treatment
Li, Xiangfang L.; Oduola, Wasiu O.; Qian, Lijun; Dougherty, Edward R.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we review multiscale modeling for cancer treatment with the incorporation of drug effects from an applied system’s pharmacology perspective. Both the classical pharmacology and systems biology are inherently quantitative; however, systems biology focuses more on networks and multi factorial controls over biological processes rather than on drugs and targets in isolation, whereas systems pharmacology has a strong focus on studying drugs with regard to the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) relations accompanying drug interactions with multiscale physiology as well as the prediction of dosage-exposure responses and economic potentials of drugs. Thus, it requires multiscale methods to address the need for integrating models from the molecular levels to the cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is a common belief that tumorigenesis and tumor growth can be best understood and tackled by employing and integrating a multifaceted approach that includes in vivo and in vitro experiments, in silico models, multiscale tumor modeling, continuous/discrete modeling, agent-based modeling, and multiscale modeling with PK/PD drug effect inputs. We provide an example application of multiscale modeling employing stochastic hybrid system for a colon cancer cell line HCT-116 with the application of Lapatinib drug. It is observed that the simulation results are similar to those observed from the setup of the wet-lab experiments at the Translational Genomics Research Institute. PMID:26792977
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdal, D.; Neuweiler, I.; Huisman, J. A.
2012-06-01
Estimates of effective parameters for unsaturated flow models are typically based on observations taken on length scales smaller than the modeling scale. This complicates parameter estimation for heterogeneous soil structures. In this paper we attempt to account for soil structure not present in the flow model by using so-called external error models, which correct for bias in the likelihood function of a parameter estimation algorithm. The performance of external error models are investigated using data from three virtual reality experiments and one real world experiment. All experiments are multistep outflow and inflow experiments in columns packed with two sand types with different structures. First, effective parameters for equivalent homogeneous models for the different columns were estimated using soil moisture measurements taken at a few locations. This resulted in parameters that had a low predictive power for the averaged states of the soil moisture if the measurements did not adequately capture a representative elementary volume of the heterogeneous soil column. Second, parameter estimation was performed using error models that attempted to correct for bias introduced by soil structure not taken into account in the first estimation. Three different error models that required different amounts of prior knowledge about the heterogeneous structure were considered. The results showed that the introduction of an error model can help to obtain effective parameters with more predictive power with respect to the average soil water content in the system. This was especially true when the dynamic behavior of the flow process was analyzed.
Modeling of Turbulence Effects on Liquid Jet Atomization and Breakup
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trinh, Huu; Chen, C. P.
2004-01-01
Recent experimental investigations and physical modeling studies have indicated that turbulence behaviors within a liquid jet have considerable effects on the atomization process. For certain flow regimes, it has been observed that the liquid jet surface is highly turbulent. This turbulence characteristic plays a key role on the breakup of the liquid jet near to the injector exit. Other experiments also showed that the breakup length of the liquid core is sharply shortened as the liquid jet is changed from the laminar to the turbulent flow conditions. In the numerical and physical modeling arena, most of commonly used atomization models do not include the turbulence effect. Limited attempts have been made in modeling the turbulence phenomena on the liquid jet disintegration. The subject correlation and models treat the turbulence either as an only source or a primary driver in the breakup process. This study aims to model the turbulence effect in the atomization process of a cylindrical liquid jet. In the course of this study, two widely used models, Reitz's primary atomization (blob) and Taylor-Analogy-Break (TAB) secondary droplet breakup by O Rourke et al. are examined. Additional terms are derived and implemented appropriately into these two models to account for the turbulence effect on the atomization process. Since this enhancement effort is based on a framework of the two existing atomization models, it is appropriate to denote the two present models as T-blob and T-TAB for the primary and secondary atomization predictions, respectively. In the primary breakup model, the level of the turbulence effect on the liquid breakup depends on the characteristic time scales and the initial flow conditions. This treatment offers a balance of contributions of individual physical phenomena on the liquid breakup process. For the secondary breakup, an addition turbulence force acted on parent drops is modeled and integrated into the TAB governing equation. The drop size
Aerodynamic Effects and Modeling of Damage to Transport Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shah, Gautam H.
2008-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to measure the aerodynamic effects of damage to lifting and stability/control surfaces of a commercial transport aircraft configuration. The modeling of such effects is necessary for the development of flight control systems to recover aircraft from adverse, damage-related loss-of-control events, as well as for the estimation of aerodynamic characteristics from flight data under such conditions. Damage in the form of partial or total loss of area was applied to the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. Aerodynamic stability and control implications of damage to each surface are presented, to aid in the identification of potential boundaries in recoverable stability or control degradation. The aerodynamic modeling issues raised by the wind tunnel results are discussed, particularly the additional modeling requirements necessitated by asymmetries due to damage, and the potential benefits of such expanded modeling.
Chern-Simons potential in models of Casimir effect
Pis'mak, Yury M.; Pis'mak, Daria Yu.
2014-07-23
In the model constructed in the framework of the proposed by Symanzik approach for description of interaction of a macroscopic material body with quantum fields the interaction of thin material film with photon field is presented by the Chern-Simons potential. All the effects of this interaction with can by described in the framework of one model. In this way, the Casimir energy for two parallel infinite planes and sphere, the Casimir-Polder potential, and characteristics of other physical phenomena have been calculated for non-ideal conducting material of film. The specific of regularization and renormalization procedures used by calculations and the physical meaning of obtained results are discussed. In the limit of infinite coupling constant one obtains the known results of models with boundary conditions. By finite value of coupling constants the model predicts unusual effects which could be important for micro-mechanics, nano-photonics, constructing of new materials.
Stochastic effects in a seasonally forced epidemic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozhnova, G.; Nunes, A.
2010-10-01
The interplay of seasonality, the system’s nonlinearities and intrinsic stochasticity, is studied for a seasonally forced susceptible-exposed-infective-recovered stochastic model. The model is explored in the parameter region that corresponds to childhood infectious diseases such as measles. The power spectrum of the stochastic fluctuations around the attractors of the deterministic system that describes the model in the thermodynamic limit is computed analytically and validated by stochastic simulations for large system sizes. Size effects are studied through additional simulations. Other effects such as switching between coexisting attractors induced by stochasticity often mentioned in the literature as playing an important role in the dynamics of childhood infectious diseases are also investigated. The main conclusion is that stochastic amplification, rather than these effects, is the key ingredient to understand the observed incidence patterns.
Semianalytical quantum model for graphene field-effect transistors
Pugnaghi, Claudio; Grassi, Roberto Gnudi, Antonio; Di Lecce, Valerio; Gnani, Elena; Reggiani, Susanna; Baccarani, Giorgio
2014-09-21
We develop a semianalytical model for monolayer graphene field-effect transistors in the ballistic limit. Two types of devices are considered: in the first device, the source and drain regions are doped by charge transfer with Schottky contacts, while, in the second device, the source and drain regions are doped electrostatically by a back gate. The model captures two important effects that influence the operation of both devices: (i) the finite density of states in the source and drain regions, which limits the number of states available for transport and can be responsible for negative output differential resistance effects, and (ii) quantum tunneling across the potential steps at the source-channel and drain-channel interfaces. By comparison with a self-consistent non-equilibrium Green's function solver, we show that our model provides very accurate results for both types of devices, in the bias region of quasi-saturation as well as in that of negative differential resistance.
Memory efficient atmospheric effects modeling for infrared scene generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavak, Çaǧlar; Özsaraç, Seçkin
2015-05-01
The infrared (IR) energy radiated from any source passes through the atmosphere before reaching the sensor. As a result, the total signature captured by the IR sensor is significantly modified by the atmospheric effects. The dominant physical quantities that constitute the mentioned atmospheric effects are the atmospheric transmittance and the atmospheric path radiance. The incoming IR radiation is attenuated by the transmittance and path radiance is added on top of the attenuated radiation. In IR scene simulations OpenGL is widely used for rendering purposes. In the literature there are studies, which model the atmospheric effects in an IR band using OpenGLs exponential fog model as suggested by Beers law. In the standard pipeline of OpenGL, the related fog model needs single equivalent OpenGL variables for the transmittance and path radiance, which actually depend on both the distance between the source and the sensor and also on the wavelength of interest. However, in the conditions where the range dependency cannot be modeled as an exponential function, it is not accurate to replace the atmospheric quantities with a single parameter. The introduction of OpenGL Shading Language (GLSL) has enabled the developers to use the GPU more flexible. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the atmospheric effects modeling using the least squares estimation with polynomial fitting by programmable OpenGL shader programs built with GLSL. In this context, a radiative transfer model code is used to obtain the transmittance and path radiance data. Then, polynomial fits are computed for the range dependency of these variables. Hence, the atmospheric effects model data that will be uploaded in the GPU memory is significantly reduced. Moreover, the error because of fitting is negligible as long as narrow IR bands are used.
Modelling and predicting the biological effects of nanomaterials.
Winkler, D A; Burden, F R; Yan, B; Weissleder, R; Tassa, C; Shaw, S; Epa, V C
2014-01-01
The commercial applications of nanoparticles are growing rapidly, but we know relatively little about how nanoparticles interact with biological systems. Their value--but also their risk--is related to their nanophase properties being markedly different to those of the same material in bulk. Experiments to determine how nanoparticles are taken up, distributed, modified, and elicit any adverse effects are essential. However, cost and time considerations mean that predictive models would also be extremely valuable, particularly assisting regulators to minimize health and environmental risks. We used novel sparse machine learning methods that employ Bayesian neural networks to model three nanoparticle data sets using both linear and nonlinear machine learning methods. The first data comprised iron oxide nanoparticles decorated with 108 different molecules tested against five cell lines, HUVEC, pancreatic cancer, and three macrophage or macrophage-like lines. The second data set comprised 52 nanoparticles with various core compositions, coatings, and surface attachments. The nanoparticles were characterized using four descriptors (size, relaxivities, and zeta potential), and their biological effects on four cells lines assessed using four biological assays per cell line and four concentrations per assay. The third data set involved the biological responses to gold nanoparticles functionalized by 80 different small molecules. Nonspecific binding and binding to AChE were the biological endpoints modelled. The biological effects of nanoparticles were modelled using molecular descriptors for the molecules that decorated the nanoparticle surface. Models with good statistical quality were constructed for most biological endpoints. These proof-of-concept models show that modelling biological effects of nanomaterials is possible using modern modelling methods.
An Atmospheric Variability Model for Venus Aerobraking Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tolson, Robert T.; Prince, Jill L. H.; Konopliv, Alexander A.
2013-01-01
Aerobraking has proven to be an enabling technology for planetary missions to Mars and has been proposed to enable low cost missions to Venus. Aerobraking saves a significant amount of propulsion fuel mass by exploiting atmospheric drag to reduce the eccentricity of the initial orbit. The solar arrays have been used as the primary drag surface and only minor modifications have been made in the vehicle design to accommodate the relatively modest aerothermal loads. However, if atmospheric density is highly variable from orbit to orbit, the mission must either accept higher aerothermal risk, a slower pace for aerobraking, or a tighter corridor likely with increased propulsive cost. Hence, knowledge of atmospheric variability is of great interest for the design of aerobraking missions. The first planetary aerobraking was at Venus during the Magellan mission. After the primary Magellan science mission was completed, aerobraking was used to provide a more circular orbit to enhance gravity field recovery. Magellan aerobraking took place between local solar times of 1100 and 1800 hrs, and it was found that the Venusian atmospheric density during the aerobraking phase had less than 10% 1 sigma orbit to orbit variability. On the other hand, at some latitudes and seasons, Martian variability can be as high as 40% 1 sigmaFrom both the MGN and PVO mission it was known that the atmosphere, above aerobraking altitudes, showed greater variability at night, but this variability was never quantified in a systematic manner. This paper proposes a model for atmospheric variability that can be used for aerobraking mission design until more complete data sets become available.
Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving
Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.
1988-01-01
Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).
Clinical Trials: Spline Modeling is Wonderful for Nonlinear Effects.
Cleophas, Ton J
2016-01-01
Traditionally, nonlinear relationships like the smooth shapes of airplanes, boats, and motor cars were constructed from scale models using stretched thin wooden strips, otherwise called splines. In the past decades, mechanical spline methods have been replaced with their mathematical counterparts. The objective of the study was to study whether spline modeling can adequately assess the relationships between exposure and outcome variables in a clinical trial and also to study whether it can detect patterns in a trial that are relevant but go unobserved with simpler regression models. A clinical trial assessing the effect of quantity of care on quality of care was used as an example. Spline curves consistent of 4 or 5 cubic functions were applied. SPSS statistical software was used for analysis. The spline curves of our data outperformed the traditional curves because (1) unlike the traditional curves, they did not miss the top quality of care given in either subgroup, (2) unlike the traditional curves, they, rightly, did not produce sinusoidal patterns, and (3) unlike the traditional curves, they provided a virtually 100% match of the original values. We conclude that (1) spline modeling can adequately assess the relationships between exposure and outcome variables in a clinical trial; (2) spline modeling can detect patterns in a trial that are relevant but may go unobserved with simpler regression models; (3) in clinical research, spline modeling has great potential given the presence of many nonlinear effects in this field of research and given its sophisticated mathematical refinement to fit any nonlinear effect in the mostly accurate way; and (4) spline modeling should enable to improve making predictions from clinical research for the benefit of health decisions and health care. We hope that this brief introduction to spline modeling will stimulate clinical investigators to start using this wonderful method.
Postural effects on intracranial pressure: modeling and clinical evaluation.
Qvarlander, Sara; Sundström, Nina; Malm, Jan; Eklund, Anders
2013-11-01
The physiological effect of posture on intracranial pressure (ICP) is not well described. This study defined and evaluated three mathematical models describing the postural effects on ICP, designed to predict ICP at different head-up tilt angles from the supine ICP value. Model I was based on a hydrostatic indifference point for the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system, i.e., the existence of a point in the system where pressure is independent of body position. Models II and III were based on Davson's equation for CSF absorption, which relates ICP to venous pressure, and postulated that gravitational effects within the venous system are transferred to the CSF system. Model II assumed a fully communicating venous system, and model III assumed that collapse of the jugular veins at higher tilt angles creates two separate hydrostatic compartments. Evaluation of the models was based on ICP measurements at seven tilt angles (0-71°) in 27 normal pressure hydrocephalus patients. ICP decreased with tilt angle (ANOVA: P < 0.01). The reduction was well predicted by model III (ANOVA lack-of-fit: P = 0.65), which showed excellent fit against measured ICP. Neither model I nor II adequately described the reduction in ICP (ANOVA lack-of-fit: P < 0.01). Postural changes in ICP could not be predicted based on the currently accepted theory of a hydrostatic indifference point for the CSF system, but a new model combining Davson's equation for CSF absorption and hydrostatic gradients in a collapsible venous system performed well and can be useful in future research on gravity and CSF physiology.
“Serial” effects in parallel models of reading
Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen
2012-01-01
There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which postulate a common parallel processing mechanism for reading both words and nonwords (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; Rastle, Havelka, Wydell, Coltheart, & Besner, 2009). However, an alternative explanation of these data is that visual processes outside the scope of existing parallel models are responsible for generating the word-length related phenomena (Seidenberg & Plaut, 1998). Here we demonstrate that a parallel model of single word reading can account for the differential word-length effects found in the naming latencies of words and nonwords, provided that it includes a mapping from visual to orthographic representations, and that the nature of those orthographic representations are not preconstrained. The model can also simulate other supposedly “serial” effects. The overall findings were consistent with the view that visual processing contributes substantially to the word-length effects in normal reading and provided evidence to support the single-route theory which assumes words and nonwords are processed in parallel by a common mechanism. PMID:22343366
The CMEE Library for Numerical Modeling of Electron Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoltz, Peter; Cohen, Ron; Molvik, Art; Furman, Miguel; Vay, Jean-Luc; Adelmann, Andreas
2003-10-01
The CMEE (Computational Modules for Electron Effects) library is a collection of computer routines for numerical modeling of electron effects in accelerator and plasma physics codes. The goal of this library is to make these numerical models available to any code in need of electron effects modeling, including high-power microwave codes, fusion wall interaction codes, laser-plasma codes, proton accelerator codes, and HIF codes. CMEE includes routines to model secondary electrons, neutral gas desorption and ionization. The secondary electron routines are based on routines from the POSINST code. The neutral gas desorption routines are based on a thermal binding model similar to the model in ,e.g., the LSP code. The ionization routines are based on the IONPACK library from Tech-X. This poster discusses the latest state of these routines, specifically implementation in the WARP code and comparisons to data from the High Current Experiment (HCX). In particular, recent comparisons between the CMEE routines and neutral gas desorption measurements from HCX are presented.
Accounting for Vegetation Effects in Spatially Distributed Snowmelt Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garen, D. C.; Marks, D.
2004-05-01
The effects of vegetation on snowpack energy dynamics can be highly significant and must be taken into account when simulating snowmelt. This becomes challenging, however, for spatially distributed models covering large areas such as river basins. In this case, processes occurring at the scale of individual trees or bushes must be parameterized and upscaled to the size of the model's grid cells, which could range from 10 up to a few hundred meters. An application of a spatially distributed energy balance snowmelt model to the Boise River basin in Idaho, USA has required the development of algorithms to account for the effects of vegetation (especially forest) on the climate input data to the model. This particularly affects the solar and thermal radiation input to the snowpack, including not only the direct effects of the vegetation but also the effect of vegetation debris on the snow albedo. Vegetation effects on vertical profiles of wind speed and temperature could not be considered due to limited measurements, and only a crude estimate of wind speed differences between forested and nonforested grid cells was used. The simulated snow fields were verified using point snow water equivalent and snow depth data as well as satellite images of snow covered area. Although good results were obtained in these comparisons, each of these methods has limitations, in that point measurements are not necessarily representative of a grid cell, and satellite images have a coarse resolution and cannot detect snow under trees. Another test was to use the simulated snowmelt fields as input to a spatially distributed water balance and streamflow simulation model, which indicated that the volume and timing of snowmelt input to the basin were accurately represented. A limitation of the modeling method used is that the models are run independently in sequence, the output of one being stored and becoming the input of the next. This means that there is no opportunity for feedbacks between
Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model
Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.
2005-12-15
In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy.
A microscopic modeling of the instant coffee effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isoda, M.; Nishimori, Y.
2014-03-01
So-called the instant coffee effect is well known in the field of the physics education. The effect is explained that the sound yielded by touching the cup with a spoon is shifted to low-pitched by adulterating bubble owing to putting a spoon of instant coffee into hot water. The phenomenon has been interpreted with the averaged density and compressibility of the fluid in the macroscopic relation for the sound velocity, . We introduce the linear coupled oscillator model with finite oscillators including the impurity air-mass oscillator. The model may well reproduce the increase in the shift of the eigen frequency accompanying with the amount of bubble.
The effect of model uncertainty on cooperation in sensorimotor interactions
Grau-Moya, J.; Hez, E.; Pezzulo, G.; Braun, D. A.
2013-01-01
Decision-makers have been shown to rely on probabilistic models for perception and action. However, these models can be incorrect or partially wrong in which case the decision-maker has to cope with model uncertainty. Model uncertainty has recently also been shown to be an important determinant of sensorimotor behaviour in humans that can lead to risk-sensitive deviations from Bayes optimal behaviour towards worst-case or best-case outcomes. Here, we investigate the effect of model uncertainty on cooperation in sensorimotor interactions similar to the stag-hunt game, where players develop models about the other player and decide between a pay-off-dominant cooperative solution and a risk-dominant, non-cooperative solution. In simulations, we show that players who allow for optimistic deviations from their opponent model are much more likely to converge to cooperative outcomes. We also implemented this agent model in a virtual reality environment, and let human subjects play against a virtual player. In this game, subjects' pay-offs were experienced as forces opposing their movements. During the experiment, we manipulated the risk sensitivity of the computer player and observed human responses. We found not only that humans adaptively changed their level of cooperation depending on the risk sensitivity of the computer player but also that their initial play exhibited characteristic risk-sensitive biases. Our results suggest that model uncertainty is an important determinant of cooperation in two-player sensorimotor interactions. PMID:23945266
Coherent Effects in Microwave Backscattering Models for Forest Canopies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saatchi, Sasan; McDonald, Kyle
1995-01-01
In modeling forest canopies, several scattering mechanisms are taken into account: 1) volume scattering, 2) surface-volume interaction, and 3) surface scattering from forest floor. Depending on the structural and dielectric characteristics of forest canopies, the relative contribution of each mechanism in the total backscatter signal of an imaging radar can vary. In this paper, two commonly used first order discrete scattering models, Distorted Born Approximation (DBA) and Radiative Transfer (RT) are used to simulate the backscattered power received by polarimetric radars at P-, L-, and C-bands over coniferous and deciduous forests. The difference between the two models resides on the coherent effect in the surface-volume interaction terms.
Analog model for quantum gravity effects: phonons in random fluids.
Krein, G; Menezes, G; Svaiter, N F
2010-09-24
We describe an analog model for quantum gravity effects in condensed matter physics. The situation discussed is that of phonons propagating in a fluid with a random velocity wave equation. We consider that there are random fluctuations in the reciprocal of the bulk modulus of the system and study free phonons in the presence of Gaussian colored noise with zero mean. We show that, in this model, after performing the random averages over the noise function a free conventional scalar quantum field theory describing free phonons becomes a self-interacting model.
Excluded volume effect enhances the homology pairing of model chromosomes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takamiya, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Isami, Shuhei; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori
To investigate the structural dynamics of the homology pairing of polymers, we mod- eled the scenario of homologous chromosome pairings during meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, one of the simplest model organisms of eukaryotes. We consider a simple model consist- ing of pairs of homologous polymers with the same structures that are confined in a cylindrical container, which represents the local parts of chromosomes contained in an elongated nucleus of S. pombe. Brownian dynamics simulations of this model showed that the excluded volume effects among non-homological chromosomes and the transitional dynamics of nuclear shape serve to enhance the pairing of homologous chromosomes.
Modelling of the Peltier effect in magnetic multilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juarez-Acosta, Isaac; Olivares-Robles, Miguel A.; Bosu, Subrojati; Sakuraba, Yuya; Kubota, Takahide; Takahashi, Saburo; Takanashi, Koki; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.
2016-02-01
We model the charge, spin, and heat currents in ferromagnetic metal|normal metal|normal metal trilayer structures in the two current model, taking into account bulk and interface thermoelectric properties as well as Joule heating. The results include the temperature distribution as well as resistance-current curves that reproduce the observed shifted parabolic characteristics. Thin tunneling barriers can enhance the apparent Peltier cooling. The model agrees with the experimental results for wide multilayer pillars, but the giant effects observed for diameters ≲100 nm are still under discussion.
Multivariate longitudinal data analysis with mixed effects hidden Markov models.
Raffa, Jesse D; Dubin, Joel A
2015-09-01
Multiple longitudinal responses are often collected as a means to capture relevant features of the true outcome of interest, which is often hidden and not directly measurable. We outline an approach which models these multivariate longitudinal responses as generated from a hidden disease process. We propose a class of models which uses a hidden Markov model with separate but correlated random effects between multiple longitudinal responses. This approach was motivated by a smoking cessation clinical trial, where a bivariate longitudinal response involving both a continuous and a binomial response was collected for each participant to monitor smoking behavior. A Bayesian method using Markov chain Monte Carlo is used. Comparison of separate univariate response models to the bivariate response models was undertaken. Our methods are demonstrated on the smoking cessation clinical trial dataset, and properties of our approach are examined through extensive simulation studies.
Modeling of Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duen Ho, Fat; Macleod, Todd C.
1998-01-01
The characteristics for a MFSFET (metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor field effect transistor) is very different than a conventional MOSFET and must be modeled differently. The drain current has a hysteresis shape with respect to the gate voltage. The position along the hysteresis curve is dependent on the last positive or negative polling of the ferroelectric material. The drain current also has a logarithmic decay after the last polling. A model has been developed to describe the MFSFET drain current for both gate voltage on and gate voltage off conditions. This model takes into account the hysteresis nature of the MFSFET and the time dependent decay. The model is based on the shape of the Fermi-Dirac function which has been modified to describe the MFSFET's drain current. This is different from the model proposed by Chen et. al. and that by Wu.
Dynamic continuum pedestrian flow model with memory effect.
Xia, Yinhua; Wong, S C; Shu, Chi-Wang
2009-06-01
In this paper, we develop a macroscopic model for pedestrian flow using the dynamic continuum modeling approach. We consider a two-dimensional walking facility that is represented as a continuum within which pedestrians can move freely in any direction. A pedestrian chooses a route based on his or her memory of the shortest path to the desired destination when the facility is empty and, at the same time, tries to avoid high densities. In this model, pedestrian flow is governed by a two-dimensional conservation law, and a general speed-flow-density relationship is considered. The model equation is solved numerically using the discontinuous Galerkin method, and a numerical example is employed to demonstrate both the model and the effectiveness of the numerical method.
Effective Genetic-Risk Prediction Using Mixed Models
Golan, David; Rosset, Saharon
2014-01-01
For predicting genetic risk, we propose a statistical approach that is specifically adapted to dealing with the challenges imposed by disease phenotypes and case-control sampling. Our approach (termed Genetic Risk Scores Inference [GeRSI]), combines the power of fixed-effects models (which estimate and aggregate the effects of single SNPs) and random-effects models (which rely primarily on whole-genome similarities between individuals) within the framework of the widely used liability-threshold model. We demonstrate in extensive simulation that GeRSI produces predictions that are consistently superior to current state-of-the-art approaches. When applying GeRSI to seven phenotypes from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) study, we confirm that the use of random effects is most beneficial for diseases that are known to be highly polygenic: hypertension (HT) and bipolar disorder (BD). For HT, there are no significant associations in the WTCCC data. The fixed-effects model yields an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 54%, whereas GeRSI improves it to 59%. For BD, using GeRSI improves the AUC from 55% to 62%. For individuals ranked at the top 10% of BD risk predictions, using GeRSI substantially increases the BD relative risk from 1.4 to 2.5. PMID:25279982
Estimating anatomical trajectories with Bayesian mixed-effects modeling.
Ziegler, G; Penny, W D; Ridgway, G R; Ourselin, S; Friston, K J
2015-11-01
We introduce a mass-univariate framework for the analysis of whole-brain structural trajectories using longitudinal Voxel-Based Morphometry data and Bayesian inference. Our approach to developmental and aging longitudinal studies characterizes heterogeneous structural growth/decline between and within groups. In particular, we propose a probabilistic generative model that parameterizes individual and ensemble average changes in brain structure using linear mixed-effects models of age and subject-specific covariates. Model inversion uses Expectation Maximization (EM), while voxelwise (empirical) priors on the size of individual differences are estimated from the data. Bayesian inference on individual and group trajectories is realized using Posterior Probability Maps (PPM). In addition to parameter inference, the framework affords comparisons of models with varying combinations of model order for fixed and random effects using model evidence. We validate the model in simulations and real MRI data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) project. We further demonstrate how subject specific characteristics contribute to individual differences in longitudinal volume changes in healthy subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's Disease (AD).
Estimation of effective connectivity via data-driven neural modeling
Freestone, Dean R.; Karoly, Philippa J.; Nešić, Dragan; Aram, Parham; Cook, Mark J.; Grayden, David B.
2014-01-01
This research introduces a new method for functional brain imaging via a process of model inversion. By estimating parameters of a computational model, we are able to track effective connectivity and mean membrane potential dynamics that cannot be directly measured using electrophysiological measurements alone. The ability to track the hidden aspects of neurophysiology will have a profound impact on the way we understand and treat epilepsy. For example, under the assumption the model captures the key features of the cortical circuits of interest, the framework will provide insights into seizure initiation and termination on a patient-specific basis. It will enable investigation into the effect a particular drug has on specific neural populations and connectivity structures using minimally invasive measurements. The method is based on approximating brain networks using an interconnected neural population model. The neural population model is based on a neural mass model that describes the functional activity of the brain, capturing the mesoscopic biophysics and anatomical structure. The model is made subject-specific by estimating the strength of intra-cortical connections within a region and inter-cortical connections between regions using a novel Kalman filtering method. We demonstrate through simulation how the framework can be used to track the mechanisms involved in seizure initiation and termination. PMID:25506315
Estimating anatomical trajectories with Bayesian mixed-effects modeling
Ziegler, G.; Penny, W.D.; Ridgway, G.R.; Ourselin, S.; Friston, K.J.
2015-01-01
We introduce a mass-univariate framework for the analysis of whole-brain structural trajectories using longitudinal Voxel-Based Morphometry data and Bayesian inference. Our approach to developmental and aging longitudinal studies characterizes heterogeneous structural growth/decline between and within groups. In particular, we propose a probabilistic generative model that parameterizes individual and ensemble average changes in brain structure using linear mixed-effects models of age and subject-specific covariates. Model inversion uses Expectation Maximization (EM), while voxelwise (empirical) priors on the size of individual differences are estimated from the data. Bayesian inference on individual and group trajectories is realized using Posterior Probability Maps (PPM). In addition to parameter inference, the framework affords comparisons of models with varying combinations of model order for fixed and random effects using model evidence. We validate the model in simulations and real MRI data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) project. We further demonstrate how subject specific characteristics contribute to individual differences in longitudinal volume changes in healthy subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). PMID:26190405
Modelling the effects of sanitary policies on European vulture conservation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, M.^{A.} Àngels
2012-10-01
Biodiversity losses are increasing as a consequence of negative anthropogenic effects on ecosystem dynamics. However, the magnitude and complexity of these effects may still be greatly underestimated. Most Old World vultures have experienced rapid population declines in recent years. In Europe, their immediate conservation depends on changes in health regulations affecting the availability of food provided by domestic carcasses. Information is lacking on the effects of a hypothetical food shortage on the population dynamics of vultures, and is necessary to assess the potential impacts of policy decisions on future changes in biodiversity and ecosystem services. A novel computational model (P-systems) was used to model these effects, forecasting a rapid decline in the Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). By contrast, vulture species with greater plasticity in their dietary range appeared less sensitive to declining food availability. This study extends our understanding of vulture ecosystem services, which have social and economic implications.
Modeling of the effective permittivity of insulating presspaper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jianwen; Zhou, Yuanxiang; Dong, Longyu; Huang, Meng; Zhou, Zhongliu; Liu, Rui
2016-07-01
Effective permittivity model of insulating presspaper is built on the basis of the microstructure of the material. Due to the essentially layered structure in z-direction of presspaper, air voids inside the mixture can be treated as right prismatic inclusions. Analytical formula for the prediction of the effective permittivity of insulating presspaper is derived. Interestingly, the derived formula equals to the mixing equation applied for dielectrics in series. Numerical simulation was used to validate the analytical results by considering the air voids as cubical inclusions. Results show a good agreement between the analytically and numerically calculated effective permittivity values. Furthermore, dielectric permittivity results of commercial kraft paper and laboratory-made presspaper at 50 Hz were measured and compared with modeled data. It turns out that the deduced results give a good accuracy for the effective permittivity determination.
Modelling the effects of sanitary policies on European vulture conservation
Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, Ma Àngels
2012-01-01
Biodiversity losses are increasing as a consequence of negative anthropogenic effects on ecosystem dynamics. However, the magnitude and complexity of these effects may still be greatly underestimated. Most Old World vultures have experienced rapid population declines in recent years. In Europe, their immediate conservation depends on changes in health regulations affecting the availability of food provided by domestic carcasses. Information is lacking on the effects of a hypothetical food shortage on the population dynamics of vultures, and is necessary to assess the potential impacts of policy decisions on future changes in biodiversity and ecosystem services. A novel computational model (P-systems) was used to model these effects, forecasting a rapid decline in the Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). By contrast, vulture species with greater plasticity in their dietary range appeared less sensitive to declining food availability. This study extends our understanding of vulture ecosystem services, which have social and economic implications. PMID:23082243
Modeling mask pellicle effects for OPC/RET
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zavyalova, Lena; Song, Hua; Lucas, Kevin; Zhang, Qiaolin; Shiely, James
2008-05-01
A thin membrane called a pellicle is commonly used to protect the mask from contamination. The thickness of the pellicle material is usually optimized at normal incident angle to minimize the thin film optics interference effect by cancellation of the reflected light from the top ambient/pellicle interface with the reflected light from the bottom pellicle/ambient interface. In previous lithography generations the maximum angle collected by the projection lens (NA) was low, hence the normal incidence approach was valid, and the transmission loss for the non-normal incident angles was minor and ignored. With modern hyper-NA imaging for 45nm and smaller nodes, this transmission attenuation becomes larger. The more stringent CD error budget of these technology nodes demands that this effect should not be ignored anymore. In this paper, we present a modeling framework that takes into consideration the high angle pellicle effects. Taking the pellicle's polarization state dependent transmission data, which can be measured or computed with a rigorous simulator, we first present the pellicle transmission property as Jones matrices on the pupil plane, and then incorporate pellicle modeling into the existing vector model for lithography imaging computation. Existing modeling software for modelbased OPC/RET tools is easily enhanced to include pellicle modeling. Using Synopsys' OPC/RET modeling software ProGen, we investigate the necessity of pellicle effect modeling for mask synthesis for 45 nm and smaller nodes. Numerical experiments are performed to study the impact of illumination polarization on the accuracy of lithography simulation and the quality of OPC results.
Modeling the effect of comprehensive interventions on Ebola virus transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Mingwang; Xiao, Yanni; Rong, Libin
2015-10-01
Since the re-emergence of Ebola in West Africa in 2014, comprehensive and stringent interventions have been implemented to decelerate the spread of the disease. The effectiveness of interventions still remains unclear. In this paper, we develop an epidemiological model that includes various controlling measures to systematically evaluate their effects on the disease transmission dynamics. By fitting the model to reported cumulative cases and deaths in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia until March 22, 2015, we estimate the basic reproduction number in these countries as 1.2552, 1.6093 and 1.7994, respectively. Model analysis shows that there exists a threshold of the effectiveness of isolation, below which increasing the fraction of latent individuals diagnosed prior to symptoms onset or shortening the duration between symptoms onset and isolation may lead to more Ebola infection. This challenges an existing view. Media coverage plays a substantial role in reducing the final epidemic size. The response to reported cumulative infected cases and deaths may have a different effect on the epidemic spread in different countries. Among all the interventions, we find that shortening the duration between death and burial and improving the effectiveness of isolation are two effective interventions for controlling the outbreak of Ebola virus infection.
Sublethal toxicant effects with dynamic energy budget theory: model formulation.
Muller, Erik B; Nisbet, Roger M; Berkley, Heather A
2010-01-01
We develop and test a general modeling framework to describe the sublethal effects of pollutants by adding toxicity modules to an established dynamic energy budget (DEB) model. The DEB model describes the rates of energy acquisition and expenditure by individual organisms; the toxicity modules describe how toxicants affect these rates by changing the value of one or more DEB parameters, notably the parameters quantifying the rates of feeding and maintenance. We investigate four toxicity modules that assume: (1) effects on feeding only; (2) effects on maintenance only; (3) effects on feeding and maintenance with similar values for the toxicity parameters; and (4) effects on feeding and maintenance with different values for the toxicity parameters. We test the toxicity modules by fitting each to published data on feeding, respiration, growth and reproduction. Among the pollutants tested are metals (mercury and copper) and various organic compounds (chlorophenols, toluene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tetradifon and pyridine); organisms include mussels, oysters, earthworms, water fleas and zebrafish. In most cases, the data sets could be adequately described with any of the toxicity modules, and no single module gave superior fits to all data sets. We therefore propose that for many applications, it is reasonable to use the most general and parameter sparse module, i.e. module 3 that assumes similar effects on feeding and maintenance, as a default. For one example (water fleas), we use parameter estimates to calculate the impact of food availability and toxicant levels on the long term population growth rate.
Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling
Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Stallings, D.C.
1993-09-01
Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. Comparisons with experiments indicate that these 2-D calculations can overestimate the loading of the antenna and fail to give the correct reactive behavior. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform 3-D modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap, conducting sidewalls, and finite phase velocity are considered. The plasma impedance matrix for the loading calculation is generated by use of the ORION-1D code. The 3-D model is benchmarked with the 2-D model in the 2-D limit. For finite-length antennas, inductance calculations are found to be in much more reasonable agreement with experiments for 3-D modeling than for the 2-D estimates. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna sidewalls rather than in the plasma as in the 2-D model. Thus, the feeders have much more influence than the plasma on the currents that return in the sidewall. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model.
Integrating kinetic effects in fluid models for magnetic reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, L.; Hakim, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.
2014-12-01
The integration of kinetic effects in global fluid models is a grand challenge in space plasma physics, and has implication for our ability to model space weather in collisionless plasma environments such as the Earth's magnetosphere. We propose an extensible multi-fluid moment model, with focus on the physics of magnetic reconnection. This model evolves the full Maxwell equations, and simultaneously moments of the Vlasov-Maxwell equation for each species in the plasma. Effects like the Hall effect, the electron inertia, and the pressure gradient are self-consistently embedded in the resulting multi-fluid moment equations, without the need to explicitly solving a generalized Ohm's law. Two limits of the multi-fluid moment model are discussed, namely, the five-moment limit that evolves a scalar pressure for each species, and the ten-moment limit that evolves the full anisotropic, non-gyrotropic pressure tensor. Particularly, the five-moment model reduces to the widely used Hall Magnetohydrodynamics (Hall MHD) model under the assumptions of vanishing electron inertia, infinite speed of light, and quasi-neutrality. In this presentation, we first compare ten-moment and fully kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of a large scale Harris sheet reconnection problem, where the ten-moment equations are closed with a local linear collisionless approximation for the heat flux. The ten-moment simulation gives reasonable agreement with the PIC results, regarding the structures and magnitudes of the electron flows, the polarities and magnitudes of elements of the electron pressure tensor, and the decomposition of the generalized Ohm's law. Preliminary results of application of the multi-fluid moment model to Ganymede are also discussed.
Effects of linking a soil-water-balance model with a groundwater-flow model
Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Peterson, Steven M.
2013-01-01
A previously published regional groundwater-flow model in north-central Nebraska was sequentially linked with the recently developed soil-water-balance (SWB) model to analyze effects to groundwater-flow model parameters and calibration results. The linked models provided a more detailed spatial and temporal distribution of simulated recharge based on hydrologic processes, improvement of simulated groundwater-level changes and base flows at specific sites in agricultural areas, and a physically based assessment of the relative magnitude of recharge for grassland, nonirrigated cropland, and irrigated cropland areas. Root-mean-squared (RMS) differences between the simulated and estimated or measured target values for the previously published model and linked models were relatively similar and did not improve for all types of calibration targets. However, without any adjustment to the SWB-generated recharge, the RMS difference between simulated and estimated base-flow target values for the groundwater-flow model was slightly smaller than for the previously published model, possibly indicating that the volume of recharge simulated by the SWB code was closer to actual hydrogeologic conditions than the previously published model provided. Groundwater-level and base-flow hydrographs showed that temporal patterns of simulated groundwater levels and base flows were more accurate for the linked models than for the previously published model at several sites, particularly in agricultural areas.
Effect of Keishibukuryogan on Genetic and Dietary Obesity Models
Gao, Fengying; Fujimoto, Makoto; Saiki, Ikuo; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro
2015-01-01
Obesity has been recognized as one of the most important risk factors for a variety of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension/cardiovascular diseases, steatosis/hepatitis, and cancer. Keishibukuryogan (KBG, Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan in Chinese) is a traditional Chinese/Japanese (Kampo) medicine that has been known to improve blood circulation and is also known for its anti-inflammatory or scavenging effect. In this study, we evaluated the effect of KBG in two distinct rodent models of obesity driven by either a genetic (SHR/NDmcr-cp rat model) or dietary (high-fat diet-induced mouse obesity model) mechanism. Although there was no significant effect on the body composition in either the SHR rat or the DIO mouse models, KBG treatment significantly decreased the serum level of leptin and liver TG level in the DIO mouse, but not in the SHR rat model. Furthermore, a lower fat deposition in liver and a smaller size of adipocytes in white adipose tissue were observed in the DIO mice treated with KBG. Importantly, we further found downregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism in the KBG-treated liver, along with decreased liver TG and cholesterol level. Our present data experimentally support in fact that KBG can be an attractive Kampo medicine to improve obese status through a regulation of systemic leptin level and/or lipid metabolism. PMID:25793003
Modeling of Turbulence Effect on Liquid Jet Atomization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trinh, H. P.
2007-01-01
Recent studies indicate that turbulence behaviors within a liquid jet have considerable effect on the atomization process. Such turbulent flow phenomena are encountered in most practical applications of common liquid spray devices. This research aims to model the effects of turbulence occurring inside a cylindrical liquid jet to its atomization process. The two widely used atomization models Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of Reitz and the Taylor analogy breakup (TAB) of O'Rourke and Amsden portraying primary liquid jet disintegration and secondary droplet breakup, respectively, are examined. Additional terms are formulated and appropriately implemented into these two models to account for the turbulence effect. Results for the flow conditions examined in this study indicate that the turbulence terms are significant in comparison with other terms in the models. In the primary breakup regime, the turbulent liquid jet tends to break up into large drops while its intact core is slightly shorter than those without turbulence. In contrast, the secondary droplet breakup with the inside liquid turbulence consideration produces smaller drops. Computational results indicate that the proposed models provide predictions that agree reasonably well with available measured data.
Modeling Climate Change Effects on Stream Temperatures in Regulated Rivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Null, S. E.; Akhbari, M.; Ligare, S. T.; Rheinheimer, D. E.; Peek, R.; Yarnell, S. M.; Viers, J. H.
2013-12-01
We provide a method for examining mesoscale stream temperature objectives downstream of dams with anticipated climate change using an integrated multi-model approach. Changing hydroclimatic conditions will likely impact stream temperatures within reservoirs and below dams, and affect downstream ecology. We model hydrology and water temperature using a series of linked models that includes a hydrology model to predict natural unimpaired flows in upstream reaches, a reservoir temperature simulation model , an operations model to simulate reservoir releases, and a stream temperature simulation model to simulate downstream conditions . All models are 1-dimensional and operate on either a weekly or daily timestep. First, we model reservoir thermal dynamics and release operations of hypothetical reservoirs of different sizes, elevations, and latitudes with climate-forced inflow hydrologies to examine the potential to manage stream temperatures for coldwater habitat. Results are presented as stream temperature change from the historical time period and indicate that reservoir releases are cooler than upstream conditions, although the absolute temperatures of reaches below dams warm with climate change. We also apply our method to a case study in California's Yuba River watershed to evaluate water regulation and hydropower operation effects on stream temperatures with climate change. Catchments of the upper Yuba River are highly-engineered, with multiple, interconnected infrastructure to provide hydropower, water supply, flood control, environmental flows, and recreation. Results illustrate climate-driven versus operations-driven changes to stream temperatures. This work highlights the need for methods to consider reservoir regulation effects on stream temperatures with climate change, particularly for hydropower relicensing (which currently ignores climate change) such that impacts to other beneficial uses like coldwater habitat and instream ecosystems can be
The effect of nonstationarity on models inferred from neural data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyrcha, Joanna; Roudi, Yasser; Marsili, Matteo; Hertz, John
2013-03-01
Neurons subject to a common nonstationary input may exhibit a correlated firing behavior. Correlations in the statistics of neural spike trains also arise as the effect of interaction between neurons. Here we show that these two situations can be distinguished with machine learning techniques, provided that the data are rich enough. In order to do this, we study the problem of inferring a kinetic Ising model, stationary or nonstationary, from the available data. We apply the inference procedure to two data sets: one from salamander retinal ganglion cells and the other from a realistic computational cortical network model. We show that many aspects of the concerted activity of the salamander retinal neurons can be traced simply to the external input. A model of non-interacting neurons subject to a nonstationary external field outperforms a model with stationary input with couplings between neurons, even accounting for the differences in the number of model parameters. When couplings are added to the nonstationary model, for the retinal data, little is gained: the inferred couplings are generally not significant. Likewise, the distribution of the sizes of sets of neurons that spike simultaneously and the frequency of spike patterns as a function of their rank (Zipf plots) are well explained by an independent-neuron model with time-dependent external input, and adding connections to such a model does not offer significant improvement. For the cortical model data, robust couplings, well correlated with the real connections, can be inferred using the nonstationary model. Adding connections to this model slightly improves the agreement with the data for the probability of synchronous spikes but hardly affects the Zipf plot.
Neurobehavioral effects of liraglutide and sitagliptin in experimental models.
Kamble, Mayur; Gupta, Rachna; Rehan, Harmeet S; Gupta, Lalit K
2016-03-05
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are two currently approved therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Present study evaluated the effect of liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1 agonist) and sitagliptin (a DPP-4 inhibitor) on nociception, anxiety, depression-like behavior and cognition in rats or mice. Nociception was assessed using tail-flick test; anxiety-behavior in open-field test and elevated plus maze (EPM) test while depression-like behavior was evaluated in forced swim test (FST) and tail-suspension test (TST). Cognition was assessed in EPM and Morris water maze (MWM) following memory deficit induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or scopolamine. In tail-flick test sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) produced transient nociceptive effect. Liraglutide (200 µg/kg) reduced peripheral square crossings by rats in open field test as well as reduced closed arm entries in the EPM, indicating a decline in exploratory behavior. In FST and TST models for depression, the duration of immobility with sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) was reduced significantly in comparison to control group suggesting its antidepressant effect. Liraglutide did not show any antidepressant action. In EPM test for cognition, liraglutide and sitagliptin ameliorated the increase in transfer latency caused by PTZ in a dose-dependent manner. In MWM liraglutide and sitagliptin prevented the scopolamine-induced increase of the escape latency. This study shows that sitagliptin has mild antinociceptive effect and anti-depressant effect in the animal models of depression while liraglutide did not have such an effect. Liraglutide showed anxiogenic effects in the animal models. Both liraglutide and sitagliptin produced cognitive improvement in the animal models.
Facilitative Orthographic Neighborhood Effects: The SERIOL Model Account
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitney, Carol; Lavidor, Michal
2005-01-01
A large orthographic neighborhood (N) facilitates lexical decision for central and left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH) presentation, but not for right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) presentation. Based on the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding, this asymmetric N effect is explained by differential activation patterns at the…
Evidence of Effective Early Numeracy Models. CEELO FastFacts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schilder, D.
2014-01-01
In this "Fast Facts," a state requested information on supporting districts' use of effective models and approaches to improve children's early literacy and numeracy outcomes. In response, Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) staff reviewed key research including information from the What Works Clearinghouse obtained by…
Performance of Random Effects Model Estimators under Complex Sampling Designs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jia, Yue; Stokes, Lynne; Harris, Ian; Wang, Yan
2011-01-01
In this article, we consider estimation of parameters of random effects models from samples collected via complex multistage designs. Incorporation of sampling weights is one way to reduce estimation bias due to unequal probabilities of selection. Several weighting methods have been proposed in the literature for estimating the parameters of…
Conceptual Models and Theory-Embedded Principles on Effective Schooling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scheerens, Jaap
1997-01-01
Reviews models and theories on effective schooling. Discusses four rationality-based organization theories and a fifth perspective, chaos theory, as applied to organizational functioning. Discusses theory-embedded principles flowing from these theories: proactive structuring, fit, market mechanisms, cybernetics, and self-organization. The…
The Theoretical Basis of the Effective School Improvement Model (ESI)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scheerens, Jaap; Demeuse, Marc
2005-01-01
This article describes the process of theoretical reflection that preceded the development and empirical verification of a model of "effective school improvement". The focus is on basic mechanisms that could be seen as underlying "getting things in motion" and change in education systems. Four mechanisms are distinguished:…
Institutional Effects in a Simple Model of Educational Production
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishop, John H.; Wobmann, Ludger
2004-01-01
This paper presents a model of educational production that tries to make sense of recent evidence on effects of institutional arrangements on student performance. In a simple principal-agent framework, students choose their learning effort to maximize their net benefits, while the government chooses educational spending to maximize its net…
An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen
2013-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…
Estimation of the Regression Effect Using a Latent Trait Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quinn, Jimmy L.
A logistic model was used to generate data to serve as a proxy for an immediate retest from item responses to a fourth grade standardized reading comprehension test of 45 items. Assuming that the actual test may be considered a pretest and the proxy data may be considered a retest, the effect of regression was investigated using a percentage of…
Modeling Cover Crop Effectiveness on Maryland's Eastern Shore
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The value of watershed-scale, hydrologic/water quality models to ecosystem management is increasingly evident as more programs adopt these tools to evaluate the effectiveness of different management scenarios and their impact on the environment. Quality of precipitation data is critical for appropri...
A Nonlinear Mixed Effects Model for Latent Variables
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harring, Jeffrey R.
2009-01-01
The nonlinear mixed effects model for continuous repeated measures data has become an increasingly popular and versatile tool for investigating nonlinear longitudinal change in observed variables. In practice, for each individual subject, multiple measurements are obtained on a single response variable over time or condition. This structure can be…
The Coriolis Effect: A Model for Student Involvement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Exline, Joseph D.
1977-01-01
Lists materials and procedures for constructing a model that demonstrates certain aspects of the Coriolis effect. Materials include an electric drill motor, voltage control, toy dart gun and darts, wood blocks of varying dimensions. Includes description of an experiment illustrating relationship between speed of rotation and amount of apparent…
A Computer Model of the Cardiovascular System for Effective Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rothe, Carl F.
1979-01-01
Described is a physiological model which solves a set of interacting, possibly nonlinear, differential equations through numerical integration on a digital computer. Sample printouts are supplied and explained for effects on the components of a cardiovascular system when exercise, hemorrhage, and cardiac failure occur. (CS)
Effects of Modeling Versus Instructions on Sensitivity to Reinforcement Schedules
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neef, Nancy A.; Marckel, Julie; Ferreri, Summer; Jung, Sunhwa; Nist, Lindsay; Armstrong, Nancy
2004-01-01
This study examined the effects of modeling versus instructions on the choices of 3 typically developing children and 3 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) whose academic responding showed insensitivity to reinforcement schedules. During baseline, students chose between successively presented pairs of mathematics problems…
Computer Simulation (Microcultures): An Effective Model for Multicultural Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, Jorge O.
This paper presents a rationale for using high-fidelity computer simulation in planning for and implementing effective multicultural education strategies. Using computer simulation, educators can begin to understand and plan for the concept of cultural sensitivity in delivering instruction. The model promises to emphasize teachers' understanding…
The Random-Effect Generalized Rating Scale Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shiu-Lien
2011-01-01
Rating scale items have been widely used in educational and psychological tests. These items require people to make subjective judgments, and these subjective judgments usually involve randomness. To account for this randomness, Wang, Wilson, and Shih proposed the random-effect rating scale model in which the threshold parameters are treated as…
Modeling the Constructs Contributing to the Effectiveness of Marketing Lecturers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sweeney, Arthur D. P.; Morrison, Mark D.; Jarratt, Denise; Heffernan, Troy
2009-01-01
Student evaluation of teaching has been examined in higher education research for over 70 years but there are gaps in our knowledge about the contribution, and relationships between, the relevant constructs. Recent literature encourages researchers to test multivariate models of Teaching Effectiveness. Seven main constructs known to influence…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fennel, Katja; Laurent, Arnaud; Hetland, Robert; Justić, Dubravko; Ko, Dong S.; Lehrter, John; Murrell, Michael; Wang, Lixia; Yu, Liuqian; Zhang, Wenxia
2016-08-01
A large hypoxic zone forms every summer on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico due to nutrient and freshwater inputs from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River System. Efforts are underway to reduce the extent of hypoxic conditions through reductions in river nutrient inputs, but the response of hypoxia to such nutrient load reductions is difficult to predict because biological responses are confounded by variability in physical processes. The objective of this study is to identify the major physical model aspects that matter for hypoxia simulation and prediction. In order to do so, we compare three different circulation models (ROMS, FVCOM, and NCOM) implemented for the northern Gulf of Mexico, all coupled to the same simple oxygen model, with observations and against each other. By using a highly simplified oxygen model, we eliminate the potentially confounding effects of a full biogeochemical model and can isolate the effects of physical features. In a systematic assessment, we found that (1) model-to-model differences in bottom water temperatures result in differences in simulated hypoxia because temperature influences the uptake rate of oxygen by the sediments (an important oxygen sink in this system), (2) vertical stratification does not explain model-to-model differences in hypoxic conditions in a straightforward way, and (3) the thickness of the bottom boundary layer, which sets the thickness of the hypoxic layer in all three models, is key to determining the likelihood of a model to generate hypoxic conditions. These results imply that hypoxic area, the commonly used metric in the northern Gulf which ignores hypoxic layer thickness, is insufficient for assessing a model's ability to accurately simulate hypoxia, and that hypoxic volume needs to be considered as well.
Effects of subgrid-scale modeling on wind turbines flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciri, Umberto; Salvetti, Maria Vittoria; Leonardi, Stefano
2015-11-01
The increased demand for wind energy had led to a continuous increase in the size of wind turbines and, consequently, of wind farms. A potential drawback of such large clusters lies in the decrease in the efficiency due to the wake interference. Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) coupled with blade models have shown the capability of resolving the unsteady nature of wind turbine wakes. In LES, subgrid-scale (SGS) models are needed to introduce the effect of the turbulence small scales not resolved by the computational grid. Many LES of wind farms employ the classic Smagorinsky model, despite it suffers from some major drawbacks, e.g. (i) the presence of an input tuning parameter and (ii) the wrong behaviour near solid walls. In the present work an analysis of the effects of various SGS models is carried out for LES in which the turbine tower and nacelle are directly simulated with the Immersed Boundaries method. Particular attention is dedicated to the region of separated flow behind the tower where the impact of the SGS models is expected to be important. We focus herein on non-dynamic eddy-viscosity models, which have proven to have a correct behaviour near solid walls. A priori and a posteriori tests are performed for a configuration reproducing an experiment conducted at NTNU. The work is partially supported by the NSF PIRE Award IIA 1243482. TACC is acknowledged for providing computational time.
Three-dimensional Model of Tissue and Heavy Ions Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Huff, Janice L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
2007-01-01
A three-dimensional tissue model was incorporated into a new Monte Carlo algorithm that simulates passage of heavy ions in a tissue box . The tissue box was given as a realistic model of tissue based on confocal microscopy images. The action of heavy ions on the cellular matrix for 2- or 3-dimensional cases was simulated. Cells were modeled as a cell culture monolayer in one example, where the data were taken directly from microscopy (2-d cell matrix), and as a multi-layer obtained from confocal microscopy (3-d case). Image segmentation was used to identify cells with precise areas/volumes in an irradiated cell culture monolayer, and slices of tissue with many cell layers. The cells were then inserted into the model box of the simulated physical space pixel by pixel. In the case of modeled tissues (3-d), the tissue box had periodic boundary conditions imposed, which extrapolates the technique to macroscopic volumes of tissue. For the real tissue (3-d), specific spatial patterns for cell apoptosis and necrosis are expected. The cell patterns were modeled based on action cross sections for apoptosis and necrosis estimated from current experimental data. A spatial correlation function indicating a higher spatial concentration of damaged cells from heavy ions relative to the low-LET radiation cell damage pattern is presented. The spatial correlation effects among necrotic cells can help studying microlesions in organs, and probable effects of directionality of heavy ion radiation on epithelium and endothelium.
Compact model for switching characteristics of graphene field effect transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreenath, R.; Bala Tripura Sundari, B.
2016-04-01
The scaling of CMOS transistors has resulted in intensified short channel effects, indicating that CMOS has reached its physical limits. Alternate non silicon based materials namely carbon based graphene, carbon nanotubes are being explored for usability as channel and interconnect material due to their established higher mobility and robustness. This paper presents a drift-diffusion based circuit simulatable Verilog-A compact model of graphene field effect transistor (GFET) for channel length of 100nm.The focus is on the development of simulatable device model in Verilog A based on intrinsic parameters and obtain the current, high cutoff frequency and use the model into circuit level simulations to realize an inverter and a 3-stage ring oscillator using Synopsys HSPICE. The applications are so chosen that their switching characteristics enable the determination of the RF frequency ranges of operation that the model can achieve when used in digital applications and also to compare its performance with existing CMOS model. The GFET's switching characteristics and power consumption were found to be better than similarly sized CMOS operating at same range of voltages. The basic frequency of operation in the circuit is of significant importance so as to use the model in other applications at RF and in future for millimeter wave applications. The frequency of operation at circuit level is found to be 1.1GHz at 100nm which is far higher than the existing frequency of 245 MHz reported at 500nm using AlN.
Transmission model of hepatitis B virus with the migration effect.
Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Islam, Saeed; Arif, Muhammad; ul Haq, Zahoor
2013-01-01
Hepatitis B is a globally infectious disease. Mathematical modeling of HBV transmission is an interesting research area. In this paper, we present characteristics of HBV virus transmission in the form of a mathematical model. We analyzed the effect of immigrants in the model to study the effect of immigrants for the host population. We added the following flow parameters: "the transmission between migrated and exposed class" and "the transmission between migrated and acute class." With these new features, we obtained a compartment model of six differential equations. First, we find the basic threshold quantity Ro and then find the local asymptotic stability of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria. Previous similar publications have not added the kind of information about the numerical results of the model. In our case, from numerical simulation, a detailed discussion of the parameters and their numerical results is presented. We claim that with these assumptions and by adding the migrated class, the model informs policy for governments, to be aware of the immigrants and subject them to tests about the disease status. Immigrants for short visits and students should be subjected to tests to reduce the number of immigrants with disease.
Flombaum, Pedro; Sala, Osvaldo E; Rastetter, Edward B
2014-02-01
Resource partitioning, facilitation, and sampling effect are the three mechanisms behind the biodiversity effect, which is depicted usually as the effect of plant-species richness on aboveground net primary production. These mechanisms operate simultaneously but their relative importance and interactions are difficult to unravel experimentally. Thus, niche differentiation and facilitation have been lumped together and separated from the sampling effect. Here, we propose three hypotheses about interactions among the three mechanisms and test them using a simulation model. The model simulated water movement through soil and vegetation, and net primary production mimicking the Patagonian steppe. Using the model, we created grass and shrub monocultures and mixtures, controlled root overlap and grass water-use efficiency (WUE) to simulate gradients of biodiversity, resource partitioning and facilitation. The presence of shrubs facilitated grass growth by increasing its WUE and in turn increased the sampling effect, whereas root overlap (resource partitioning) had, on average, no effect on sampling effect. Interestingly, resource partitioning and facilitation interacted so the effect of facilitation on sampling effect decreased as resource partitioning increased. Sampling effect was enhanced by the difference between the two functional groups in their efficiency in using resources. Morphological and physiological differences make one group outperform the other; once these differences were established further differences did not enhance the sampling effect. In addition, grass WUE and root overlap positively influence the biodiversity effect but showed no interactions.
Physical model of bathymetric effects on the Antarctic circumpolar current
Boyer, D.L.; Ruirong Chen; Lijun Tao ); Davies, P.A. )
1993-02-15
Laboratory experiments were conducted to simulate some of the effects of the bathymetry of the southern ocean on the physical characteristics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). An idealized zonal wind stress, which varied inversely with the distance from the model Antarctic continent, was simulated in the laboratory model by a radially inward sink-source flow in a thin layer along the surface of the circular test cell. The present model, however, has the limitation of not accounting for such factors as the longitudinal variations in the wind shear and the decrease in wind stress on approaching the Antarctic continent from the north. Planetary beta effects were neglected because the topographic beta term can be shown to dominate over large portions of the model area. The neglect of beta effects is also a limitation of the model. In spite of these limitations, however, the simulations of the physical model for both the homogeneous and linearly stratified cases were shown to be in good agreement with observations of the ACC. These include well-defined strong currents along the mid-ocean ridge; strong perturbations in the vicinity of the Macquarie Ridge, Campbell Plateau, and Kerguelen Gaussberg Plateau; strong meridional transport to the east of the Drake Passage; and anomalies to the south (wave troughs) and to the north (wave ridges) of the main circumpolar current over ocean basins and mountain ridges, respectively. It was shown that the Eltanin and Udintsev fracture zones in the vicinity of 135[degrees]W are important factors in directing the ACC eastward across the Southeast Pacific Basin to the Drake Passage. The estimated volume transports through the Drake Passage based on the model results are in fair agreement with oceanic observations. Estimates of the spin-up time of the system for homogeneous and stratified cases have been provided. 28 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.
The effect of uncertainty and systematic errors in hydrological modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinsland, I.; Engeland, K.; Johansen, S. S.; Øverleir-Petersen, A.; Kolberg, S. A.
2014-12-01
The aims of hydrological model identification and calibration are to find the best possible set of process parametrization and parameter values that transform inputs (e.g. precipitation and temperature) to outputs (e.g. streamflow). These models enable us to make predictions of streamflow. Several sources of uncertainties have the potential to hamper the possibility of a robust model calibration and identification. In order to grasp the interaction between model parameters, inputs and streamflow, it is important to account for both systematic and random errors in inputs (e.g. precipitation and temperatures) and streamflows. By random errors we mean errors that are independent from time step to time step whereas by systematic errors we mean errors that persists for a longer period. Both random and systematic errors are important in the observation and interpolation of precipitation and temperature inputs. Important random errors comes from the measurements themselves and from the network of gauges. Important systematic errors originate from the under-catch in precipitation gauges and from unknown spatial trends that are approximated in the interpolation. For streamflow observations, the water level recordings might give random errors whereas the rating curve contributes mainly with a systematic error. In this study we want to answer the question "What is the effect of random and systematic errors in inputs and observed streamflow on estimated model parameters and streamflow predictions?". To answer we test systematically the effect of including uncertainties in inputs and streamflow during model calibration and simulation in distributed HBV model operating on daily time steps for the Osali catchment in Norway. The case study is based on observations from, uncertainty carefullt quantified, and increased uncertainties and systmatical errors are done realistically by for example removing a precipitation gauge from the network.We find that the systematical errors in
Integrating kinetic effects in fluid models for magnetic reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Liang
The integration of kinetic effects in global fluid models is a grand challenge in space plasma physics, and has implication for our ability to model space weather in collisionless plasma environments such as the Earth's magnetosphere. We propose an extensible multi-fluid moment model, with focus on the physics of magnetic reconnection. This model evolves the full Maxwell equations, and simultaneously moments of the Vlasov-Maxwell equation for each species in the plasma. Effects like the Hall effect, the electron inertia, and the pressure gradient are self-consistently embedded in the resulting multi-fluid moment equations, without the need to explicitly solving a generalized Ohm's law. Two limits of the multi-fluid moment model are discussed, namely, the five-moment limit that evolves a scalar pressures for each species, and the ten-moment limit that evolves the full anisotropic, non-gyrotropic pressure tensor. Particularly, the five-moment model reduces to the widely used Hall Magnetohydrodynamics (Hall MHD) model under the assumptions of vanishing electron inertia, infinite speed of light, and quasi-neutrality. In this thesis, we first numerically confirm the reduction of five-moment to Hall MHD under the limit of vanishing electron inertia. Then, we compare ten-moment and fully kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of a large scale Harris sheet reconnection problem, where the ten-moment equations are closed with a local linear collisionless approximation for the heat flux. The ten-moment simulation gives reasonable agreement with the PIC results, regarding the structures and magnitudes of the electron flows, the polarities and magnitudes of elements of the electron pressure tensor, and the decomposition of the generalized Ohm's law. Possible ways to improve the simple closure towards a non-local, fully three-dimensional description are also discussed.
Modeling zero-inflated count data using a covariate-dependent random effect model.
Wong, Kin-Yau; Lam, K F
2013-04-15
In various medical related researches, excessive zeros, which make the standard Poisson regression model inadequate, often exist in count data. We proposed a covariate-dependent random effect model to accommodate the excess zeros and the heterogeneity in the population simultaneously. This work is motivated by a data set from a survey on the dental health status of Hong Kong preschool children where the response variable is the number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth. The random effect has a sound biological interpretation as the overall oral health status or other personal qualities of an individual child that is unobserved and unable to be quantified easily. The overall measure of oral health status, responsible for accommodating the excessive zeros and also the heterogeneity among the children, is covariate dependent. This covariate-dependent random effect model allows one to distinguish whether a potential covariate has an effect on the conceived overall oral health condition of the children, that is, the random effect, or has a direct effect on the magnitude of the counts, or both. We proposed a multiple imputation approach for estimation of the parameters. We discussed the choice of the imputation size. We evaluated the performance of the proposed estimation method through simulation studies, and we applied the model and method to the dental data.
Global dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models with psychological effect.
Liu, Sanhong; Pang, Liuyong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan
2015-01-01
Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.
Effective Thermal Conductivity Modeling of Sandstones: SVM Framework Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rostami, Alireza; Masoudi, Mohammad; Ghaderi-Ardakani, Alireza; Arabloo, Milad; Amani, Mahmood
2016-06-01
Among the most significant physical characteristics of porous media, the effective thermal conductivity (ETC) is used for estimating the thermal enhanced oil recovery process efficiency, hydrocarbon reservoir thermal design, and numerical simulation. This paper reports the implementation of an innovative least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm for the development of enhanced model capable of predicting the ETCs of dry sandstones. By means of several statistical parameters, the validity of the presented model was evaluated. The prediction of the developed model for determining the ETCs of dry sandstones was in excellent agreement with the reported data with a coefficient of determination value ({R}2) of 0.983 and an average absolute relative deviation of 0.35 %. Results from present research show that the proposed LS-SVM model is robust, reliable, and efficient in calculating the ETCs of sandstones.
An effective diffusivity model based on Koopman mode decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbabi, Hassan; Mezic, Igor
2016-11-01
In the previous work, we had shown that the Koopman mode decomposition (KMD) can be used to analyze mixing of passive tracers in time-dependent flows. In this talk, we discuss the extension of this type of analysis to the case of advection-diffusion transport for passive scalar fields. Application of KMD to flows with complex time-dependence yields a decomposition of the flow into mean, periodic and chaotic components. We briefly discuss the computation of these components using a combination of harmonic averaging and Discrete Fourier Transform. We propose a new effective diffusivity model in which the advection is dominated by mean and periodic components whereas the effect of chaotic motion is absorbed into an effective diffusivity tensor. The performance of this model is investigated in the case of lid-driven cavity flow.
Stirring effects in models of oceanic plankton populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neufeld, Zoltan
2012-09-01
We present an overview and extend previous results on the effects of large scale oceanic transport processes on plankton population dynamics, considering different types of ecosystem models. We find that increasing stirring rate in an environment where the carrying capacity is non-uniformly distributed leads to an overall decrease of the effective carrying capacity of the system. This may lead to sharp regime shifts induced by stirring in systems with multiple steady states. In prey-predator type systems, stirring leads to resonant response of the population dynamics to fluctuations enhancing the spatial variability—patchiness—in a certain range of stirring rates. Oscillatory population models produce strongly heterogeneous patchy distribution of plankton blooms when the stirring is weak, while strong stirring may either synchronise the oscillatory dynamics, when the inhomogeneity is relatively weak, or suppress oscillations completely (oscillator death) by reducing the effective carrying capacity below the bifurcation point.
Stirring effects in models of oceanic plankton populations.
Neufeld, Zoltan
2012-09-01
We present an overview and extend previous results on the effects of large scale oceanic transport processes on plankton population dynamics, considering different types of ecosystem models. We find that increasing stirring rate in an environment where the carrying capacity is non-uniformly distributed leads to an overall decrease of the effective carrying capacity of the system. This may lead to sharp regime shifts induced by stirring in systems with multiple steady states. In prey-predator type systems, stirring leads to resonant response of the population dynamics to fluctuations enhancing the spatial variability-patchiness-in a certain range of stirring rates. Oscillatory population models produce strongly heterogeneous patchy distribution of plankton blooms when the stirring is weak, while strong stirring may either synchronise the oscillatory dynamics, when the inhomogeneity is relatively weak, or suppress oscillations completely (oscillator death) by reducing the effective carrying capacity below the bifurcation point.
The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.
Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G
1999-01-01
The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.
Effective-field-theory model for the fractional quantum Hall effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, S. C.; Hansson, T. H.; Kivelson, S.
1989-01-01
Starting directly from the microscopic Hamiltonian, a field-theory model is derived for the fractional quantum Hall effect. By considering an approximate coarse-grained version of the same model, a Landau-Ginzburg theory similar to that of Girvin (1986) is constructed. The partition function of the model exhibits cusps as a function of density. It is shown that the collective density fluctuations are massive.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Penfield, Randall D.
2010-01-01
In 2008, Penfield showed that measurement invariance across all response options of a multiple-choice item (correct option and the "J" distractors) can be modeled using a nominal response model that included a differential distractor functioning (DDF) effect for each of the "J" distractors. This article extends this concept to consider how the…
Examples of Mixed-Effects Modeling with Crossed Random Effects and with Binomial Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quene, Hugo; van den Bergh, Huub
2008-01-01
Psycholinguistic data are often analyzed with repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA), but this paper argues that mixed-effects (multilevel) models provide a better alternative method. First, models are discussed in which the two random factors of participants and items are crossed, and not nested. Traditional ANOVAs are compared against…
Modeling age-of-onset: Cox model with latent major gene effects
Li, H.; Thompson, E.A.
1994-09-01
Analysis of age-of-onset is a key factor in the segregation and linkage analysis of complex genetic traits, but is complicated by the censoring of unaffected individuals. Most previous work has used parametric distributional assumptions, but it is hard to characterize the distribution of age-of-onset by a single distribution. Other approaches discretize age-of-onset and use logistic regression to model incidence; this approach does not use the information fully. Frailty models have been used for age-of-oset in the biostatistics literature, but these models do not lend themselves to modeling the correlations due to genetic effects which segregate within a family. Here, we propose use of the Cox model with latent major gene effects; conditional on the major genotypes, Cox`s proportional hazards model is used for age-of-onset for each individual. This is a semiparametric model; we do not specify the baseline hazard function. Likelihood analysis of such models is restricted by the difficulty in evaluating of maximizing the likelihood, especially when data are available for some of the members of an extended pedigree. Markov chain Monte Carlo permits genotypic configurations to be realized from the posterior distributions given a current model and the observed data. Hence methods for likelihood analysis can be developed: Monte Carlo EM is used for estimation of the parameters and their variance-covariance matrix. Markers and observed covariates are easily incorporated into this analysis. We present the model, methods for likelihood analysis and the results of a simulation study. The results are comparable with those based on a Cox model with known genotypic dependence in a pedigree. An early-onset Alzheimer`s pedigree and some breast cancer pedigrees have been used as real data examples. Some possible extensions are also discussed.
Instantiated mixed effects modeling of Alzheimer's disease markers.
Guerrero, R; Schmidt-Richberg, A; Ledig, C; Tong, T; Wolz, R; Rueckert, D
2016-11-15
The assessment and prediction of a subject's current and future risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease are of great interest in both the design of clinical trials as well as in clinical decision making. Exploring the longitudinal trajectory of markers related to neurodegeneration is an important task when selecting subjects for treatment in trials and the clinic, in the evaluation of early disease indicators and the monitoring of disease progression. Given that there is substantial intersubject variability, models that attempt to describe marker trajectories for a whole population will likely lack specificity for the representation of individual patients. Therefore, we argue here that individualized models provide a more accurate alternative that can be used for tasks such as population stratification and a subject-specific prognosis. In the work presented here, mixed effects modeling is used to derive global and individual marker trajectories for a training population. Test subject (new patient) specific models are then instantiated using a stratified "marker signature" that defines a subpopulation of similar cases within the training database. From this subpopulation, personalized models of the expected trajectory of several markers are subsequently estimated for unseen patients. These patient specific models of markers are shown to provide better predictions of time-to-conversion to Alzheimer's disease than population based models.
Estes, Jason P; Nguyen, Danh V; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Mu, Yi; Şentürk, Damla
2016-05-20
Recent studies found that infection-related hospitalization was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke in the dialysis population. In this work, we develop time-varying effects modeling tools in order to examine the CV outcome risk trajectories during the time periods before and after an initial infection-related hospitalization. For this, we propose partly conditional and fully conditional partially linear generalized varying coefficient models (PL-GVCMs) for modeling time-varying effects in longitudinal data with substantial follow-up truncation by death. Unconditional models that implicitly target an immortal population is not a relevant target of inference in applications involving a population with high mortality, like the dialysis population. A partly conditional model characterizes the outcome trajectory for the dynamic cohort of survivors, where each point in the longitudinal trajectory represents a snapshot of the population relationships among subjects who are alive at that time point. In contrast, a fully conditional approach models the time-varying effects of the population stratified by the actual time of death, where the mean response characterizes individual trends in each cohort stratum. We compare and contrast partly and fully conditional PL-GVCMs in our aforementioned application using hospitalization data from the United States Renal Data System. For inference, we develop generalized likelihood ratio tests. Simulation studies examine the efficacy of estimation and inference procedures.
A simple mechanistic model to interpret the effects of narcotics.
Baas, J; Spurgeon, D; Broerse, M
2015-01-01
In this research we will show the advantages of using a time-independent dose metric in a mechanistic model to evaluate toxic effects for different narcotic compounds on different species. We will show how different already existing QSARs can be combined within a mechanistic framework to 1) make predictions of lethal thresholds; 2) show some limitations in the use of existing QSARs; 3) show how a mechanistic framework solves some conceptual problems in current approaches and 4) show how such a framework can be used to be of aid in an experimental setup in predicting the outcome of a survival experiment. The approach we chose is based on the simplest mechanistic model available, a scaled one-compartment model to describe uptake and elimination and hazard model to link the exposure to effects on survival. Within this theoretical framework a prediction for an internal threshold for effects on survival of 3 mmol/kg bw can be made, which should be similar for different species and independent of the partitioning characteristics of the toxicant. To demonstrate this, a threshold for 51 different species was derived, which indeed appeared to lie in a relatively small range, typically between 1 and 10 mmol/kg bw.
Modelling the effect of shear strength on isentropic compression experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomson, Stuart; Howell, Peter; Ockendon, John; Ockendon, Hilary
2017-01-01
Isentropic compression experiments (ICE) are a way of obtaining equation of state information for metals undergoing violent plastic deformation. In a typical experiment, millimetre thick metal samples are subjected to pressures on the order of 10 - 102 GPa, while the yield strength of the material can be as low as 10-2 GPa. The analysis of such experiments has so far neglected the effect of shear strength, instead treating the highly plasticised metal as an inviscid compressible fluid. However making this approximation belies the basic elastic nature of a solid object. A more accurate method should strive to incorporate the small but measurable effects of shear strength. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical model for elastoplasticity at high stress which allows for both compressibility and the shear strength of the material. In the limit of zero yield stress this model reproduces the hydrodynamic models currently used to analyse ICEs. Numerical solutions of the governing equations will then be presented for problems relevant to ICEs in order to investigate the effects of shear strength compared with a model based purely on hydrodynamics.
A model to evaluate quality and effectiveness of disease management.
Lemmens, K M M; Nieboer, A P; van Schayck, C P; Asin, J D; Huijsman, R
2008-12-01
Disease management has emerged as a new strategy to enhance quality of care for patients suffering from chronic conditions, and to control healthcare costs. So far, however, the effects of this strategy remain unclear. Although current models define the concept of disease management, they do not provide a systematic development or an explanatory theory of how disease management affects the outcomes of care. The objective of this paper is to present a framework for valid evaluation of disease-management initiatives. The evaluation model is built on two pillars of disease management: patient-related and professional-directed interventions. The effectiveness of these interventions is thought to be affected by the organisational design of the healthcare system. Disease management requires a multifaceted approach; hence disease-management programme evaluations should focus on the effects of multiple interventions, namely patient-related, professional-directed and organisational interventions. The framework has been built upon the conceptualisation of these disease-management interventions. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these interventions revealed that learning and behavioural theories support the core assumptions of disease management. The evaluation model can be used to identify the components of disease-management programmes and the mechanisms behind them, making valid comparison feasible. In addition, this model links the programme interventions to indicators that can be used to evaluate the disease-management programme. Consistent use of this framework will enable comparisons among disease-management programmes and outcomes in evaluation research.
Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes
Dimitrov, D. A.; Smithe, D.; Cary, J. R.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wang, E.
2015-02-05
We developed modeling capabilities, within the Vorpal particle-in-cell code, for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of surface effects and electron emission from semiconductor photocathodes. They include calculation of emission probabilities using general, piece-wise continuous, space-time dependent surface potentials, effective mass and band bending field effects. We applied these models, in combination with previously implemented capabilities for modeling charge generation and transport in diamond, to investigate the emission dependence on applied electric field in the range from approximately 2 MV/m to 17 MV/m along the [100] direction. The simulation results were compared to experimental data. For the considered parameter regime, conservation of transverse electron momentum (in the plane of the emission surface) allows direct emission from only two (parallel to [100]) of the six equivalent lowest conduction band valleys. When the electron affinity χ is the only parameter varied in the simulations, the value χ = 0.31 eV leads to overall qualitative agreement with the probability of emission deduced from experiments. Including band bending in the simulations improves the agreement with the experimental data, particularly at low applied fields, but not significantly. In this study, using surface potentials with different profiles further allows us to investigate the emission as a function of potential barrier height, width, and vacuum level position. However, adding surface patches with different levels of hydrogenation, modeled with position-dependent electron affinity, leads to the closest agreement with the experimental data.
Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes
Dimitrov, D. A.; Smithe, D.; Cary, J. R.; ...
2015-02-05
We developed modeling capabilities, within the Vorpal particle-in-cell code, for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of surface effects and electron emission from semiconductor photocathodes. They include calculation of emission probabilities using general, piece-wise continuous, space-time dependent surface potentials, effective mass and band bending field effects. We applied these models, in combination with previously implemented capabilities for modeling charge generation and transport in diamond, to investigate the emission dependence on applied electric field in the range from approximately 2 MV/m to 17 MV/m along the [100] direction. The simulation results were compared to experimental data. For the considered parameter regime, conservation of transversemore » electron momentum (in the plane of the emission surface) allows direct emission from only two (parallel to [100]) of the six equivalent lowest conduction band valleys. When the electron affinity χ is the only parameter varied in the simulations, the value χ = 0.31 eV leads to overall qualitative agreement with the probability of emission deduced from experiments. Including band bending in the simulations improves the agreement with the experimental data, particularly at low applied fields, but not significantly. In this study, using surface potentials with different profiles further allows us to investigate the emission as a function of potential barrier height, width, and vacuum level position. However, adding surface patches with different levels of hydrogenation, modeled with position-dependent electron affinity, leads to the closest agreement with the experimental data.« less
Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in interacting dark energy models
Olivares, German; Pavon, Diego; Atrio-Barandela, Fernando
2008-05-15
Models with dark energy decaying into dark matter have been proposed in cosmology to solve the coincidence problem. We study the effect of such coupling on the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. The interaction changes the rate of evolution of the metric potentials and the growth rate of matter density perturbations and modifies the integrated Sachs-Wolfe component of cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies, enhancing the effect. Cross correlation of galaxy catalogs with cosmic microwave background maps provides a model-independent test to constrain the interaction. We particularize our analysis for a specific interacting model and show that galaxy catalogs with median redshifts z{sub m}=0.1-0.9 can rule out models with an interaction parameter strength of c{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.1 better than 99.95% confidence level. Values of c{sup 2}{<=}0.01 are compatible with the data and may account for the possible discrepancy between the fraction of dark energy derived from Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe 3 yr data and the fraction obtained from the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Measuring the fraction of dark energy by these two methods could provide evidence of an interaction.
Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes
Dimitrov, D. A.; Smithe, D.; Cary, J. R.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wang, E.
2015-02-07
We developed modeling capabilities, within the Vorpal particle-in-cell code, for three-dimensional simulations of surface effects and electron emission from semiconductor photocathodes. They include calculation of emission probabilities using general, piece-wise continuous, space-time dependent surface potentials, effective mass, and band bending field effects. We applied these models, in combination with previously implemented capabilities for modeling charge generation and transport in diamond, to investigate the emission dependence on applied electric field in the range from approximately 2 MV/m to 17 MV/m along the [100] direction. The simulation results were compared to experimental data. For the considered parameter regime, conservation of transverse electron momentum (in the plane of the emission surface) allows direct emission from only two (parallel to [100]) of the six equivalent lowest conduction band valleys. When the electron affinity χ is the only parameter varied in the simulations, the value χ = 0.31 eV leads to overall qualitative agreement with the probability of emission deduced from experiments. Including band bending in the simulations improves the agreement with the experimental data, particularly at low applied fields, but not significantly. Using surface potentials with different profiles further allows us to investigate the emission as a function of potential barrier height, width, and vacuum level position. However, adding surface patches with different levels of hydrogenation, modeled with position-dependent electron affinity, leads to the closest agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tommasino, F.
2016-03-01
This review will summarize results obtained in the recent years applying the Local Effect Model (LEM) approach to the study of basic radiobiological aspects, as for instance DNA damage induction and repair, and charged particle track structure. The promising results obtained using different experimental techniques and looking at different biological end points, support the relevance of the LEM approach for the description of radiation effects induced by both low- and high-LET radiation. Furthermore, they suggest that nowadays the appropriate combination of experimental and modelling tools can lead to advances in the understanding of several open issues in the field of radiation biology.
Effect of Xanthone Derivatives on Animal Models of Depression
Zhao, Xu; Chen, Qunying; Liu, Yuan; Xia, Chao; Shi, Jincheng; Zheng, Maqing
2014-01-01
Background Extracts of the plant Hypericum perforatum L. have been traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of depressive disorders. Xanthone, a component of Hypericum perforatum L., has been shown to be effective in animal models of depression. Objective We investigated if 2 xanthone derivatives (1101 and 1105) were as effective as venlafaxine, which is a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and was used as a positive control, in animal models of depression. Methods A series of derivatives from xanthone were designed and synthesized. After preliminary experiments, 2 xanthone derivatives (1101 and 1105) were considered to be effective in our mouse depression model. To further determine their effects on depression, classical behavioral despair animal models (forced swim and tail suspension tests) were used to assess the efficacies of these derivatives, whereas venlafaxine hydrochloride was used as a positive control. Oral acute toxicity studies were used to determine if the derivatives were toxic in mice. Results The oral acute toxicity studies of 2 xanthone derivatives (1101 and 1105) did not show any toxic effect until the dose at 1000 mg/kg body weight, and xanthone derivatives 1101 and 1105 resulted in a significant decrease of the immobility period (in seconds) compared with the untreated control group during the forced swim test with rats (dose = 12 mg/kg; P < 0.05) and mice (dose = 25 mg/kg; P < 0.001). At lower doses, derivatives 1101 and 1105 also decreased the immobility period of rats and mice during the forced swim test but significant differences were only found in mice compared with the untreated control group (P < 0.05). No difference was found between the groups treated with xanthone derivatives and the positive control group during the swimming period in both mice (dose = 25 mg/kg) and rats (dose = 12 mg/kg) (P > 0.05). In the tail suspension test, derivatives 1101 and 1105 produced marked effects with regard to the motion of
Modelling of single bubble-dynamics and thermal effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papoulias, D.; Gavaises, M.
2015-12-01
This paper evaluates the solution effects of different Rayleigh-Plesset models (R-P) for simulating the growth/collapse dynamics and thermal behaviour of homogeneous gas bubbles. The flow inputs used for the discrete cavitation bubble calculations are obtained from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (RANS), performed in high-pressure nozzle holes. Parametric 1-D results are presented for the classical thermal R-P equation [1] as well as for refined models which incorporated compressibility corrections and thermal effects [2, 3]. The thermal bubble model is coupled with the energy equation, which provides the temperature of the bubble as a function of conduction/convection and radiation heat-transfer mechanisms. For approximating gas pressure variations a high-order virial equation of state (EOS) was used, based on Helmholtz free energy principle [4]. The coded thermal R-P model was validated against experimental measurements [5] and model predictions [6] reported in single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL).
Boron doped simulated graphene field effect transistor model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Preetika; Kaur, Inderpreet; Gupta, Shuchi; Singh, Sukhbir
2016-05-01
Graphene based electronic devices due to its unique properties has transformed electronics. A Graphene Field Effect Transistor (GNRFET) model is simulated in Virtual Nano Lab (VNL) and the calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT). Simulations were performed on this pristine GNRFET model and the transmission spectrum was observed. The graph obtained showed a uniform energy gap of +1 to -1eV and the highest transmission peak at -1.75 eV. To this pristine model of GNRFET, doping was introduced and its effect was seen on the Fermi level obtained in the transmission spectrum. Boron as a dopant was used which showed variations in both the transmission peaks and the energy gap. In this model, first the single boron was substituted in place of carbon and Fermi level showed an energy gap of 1.5 to -0.5eV with the highest transmission peak at -1.3 eV. In another variation in the model, two carbon atoms were replaced by two boron atoms and Fermi level shifted from 2 to 0.25eV. In this observation, the highest transmission peak was observed at -1(approx.). The use of nanoelectronic devices have opened many areas of applications as GFET is an excellent building block for electronic circuits, and is being used in applications such as high-performance frequency doublers and mixers, digital modulators, phase detectors, optoelectronics and spintronics.
Modeling Grade IV Gas Emboli using a Limited Failure Population Model with Random Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Laura A.; Conkin, Johnny; Chhikara, Raj S.; Powell, Michael R.
2002-01-01
Venous gas emboli (VGE) (gas bubbles in venous blood) are associated with an increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in hypobaric environments. A high grade of VGE can be a precursor to serious DCS. In this paper, we model time to Grade IV VGE considering a subset of individuals assumed to be immune from experiencing VGE. Our data contain monitoring test results from subjects undergoing up to 13 denitrogenation test procedures prior to exposure to a hypobaric environment. The onset time of Grade IV VGE is recorded as contained within certain time intervals. We fit a parametric (lognormal) mixture survival model to the interval-and right-censored data to account for the possibility of a subset of "cured" individuals who are immune to the event. Our model contains random subject effects to account for correlations between repeated measurements on a single individual. Model assessments and cross-validation indicate that this limited failure population mixture model is an improvement over a model that does not account for the potential of a fraction of cured individuals. We also evaluated some alternative mixture models. Predictions from the best fitted mixture model indicate that the actual process is reasonably approximated by a limited failure population model.
Modelling the effect of telegraph noise in the SIRS epidemic model using Markovian switching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenhalgh, D.; Liang, Y.; Mao, X.
2016-11-01
We discuss the effect of introducing telegraph noise, which is an example of an environmental noise, into the susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model by examining the model using a finite-state Markov Chain (MC). First we start with a two-state MC and show that there exists a unique nonnegative solution and establish the conditions for extinction and persistence. We then explain how the results can be generalised to a finite-state MC. The results for the SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Removed) model with Markovian Switching (MS) are a special case. Numerical simulations are produced to confirm our theoretical results.
Modeling the prediction of business intelligence system effectiveness.
Weng, Sung-Shun; Yang, Ming-Hsien; Koo, Tian-Lih; Hsiao, Pei-I
2016-01-01
Although business intelligence (BI) technologies are continually evolving, the capability to apply BI technologies has become an indispensable resource for enterprises running in today's complex, uncertain and dynamic business environment. This study performed pioneering work by constructing models and rules for the prediction of business intelligence system effectiveness (BISE) in relation to the implementation of BI solutions. For enterprises, effectively managing critical attributes that determine BISE to develop prediction models with a set of rules for self-evaluation of the effectiveness of BI solutions is necessary to improve BI implementation and ensure its success. The main study findings identified the critical prediction indicators of BISE that are important to forecasting BI performance and highlighted five classification and prediction rules of BISE derived from decision tree structures, as well as a refined regression prediction model with four critical prediction indicators constructed by logistic regression analysis that can enable enterprises to improve BISE while effectively managing BI solution implementation and catering to academics to whom theory is important.
Edge effect modeling and experiments on active lap processing.
Liu, Haitao; Wu, Fan; Zeng, Zhige; Fan, Bin; Wan, Yongjian
2014-05-05
Edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues for fabricating large primary mirrors, especially for large polishing tools. Computer controlled active lap (CCAL) uses a large size pad (e.g., 1/3 to 1/5 workpiece diameters) to grind and polish the primary mirror. Edge effect also exists in the CCAL process in our previous fabrication. In this paper the material removal rules when edge effects happen (i.e. edge tool influence functions (TIFs)) are obtained through experiments, which are carried out on a Φ1090-mm circular flat mirror with a 375-mm-diameter lap. Two methods are proposed to model the edge TIFs for CCAL. One is adopting the pressure distribution which is calculated based on the finite element analysis method. The other is building up a parametric equivalent pressure model to fit the removed material curve directly. Experimental results show that these two methods both effectively model the edge TIF of CCAL.
Modeling and analysis of cosmetic treatment effects on human skin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunderstaedt, Reinhart A.; Hopermann, Hermann; Hillemann, Thomas
2000-10-01
In view of treatment effects of cosmetics, quality management becomes more and more important. Due to the efficiency reasons it is desirable to quantify these effects and predict them as a function of time. For this, a mathematical model of the skin's surface (epidermis) is needed. Such a model cannot be worked out purely analytically. It can only be derived with the help of measurement data. The signals of interest as output of different measurement devices consist of two parts: noise of high (spatial) frequencies (stochastic signal) and periodic functions (deterministic signal) of low (spatial) frequencies. Both parts can be separated by correlation analysis. The paper introduces in addition to the Fourier Transform (FT) with the Wavelet Transform (WT), a brand new, highly sophisticated method with excellent properties for both modeling the skin's surface as well as evaluating treatment effects. Its main physical advantage is (in comparison to the FT) that local irregularities in the measurement signal (e.g. by scars) remain at their place and are not represented as mean square values as it is the case when applying the FT. The method has just now been installed in industry and will there be used in connection with a new in vivo measurement device for quality control of cosmetic products. As texture parameter for an integral description of the human skin the fractal dimension D is used which is appropriate for classification of different skin regions and treatment effects as well.
Elements of effective palliative care models: a rapid review
2014-01-01
Background Population ageing, changes to the profiles of life-limiting illnesses and evolving societal attitudes prompt a critical evaluation of models of palliative care. We set out to identify evidence-based models of palliative care to inform policy reform in Australia. Method A rapid review of electronic databases and the grey literature was undertaken over an eight week period in April-June 2012. We included policy documents and comparative studies from countries within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published in English since 2001. Meta-analysis was planned where >1 study met criteria; otherwise, synthesis was narrative using methods described by Popay et al. (2006). Results Of 1,959 peer-reviewed articles, 23 reported systematic reviews, 9 additional RCTs and 34 non-randomised comparative studies. Variation in the content of models, contexts in which these were implemented and lack of detailed reporting meant that elements of models constituted a more meaningful unit of analysis than models themselves. Case management was the element most consistently reported in models for which comparative studies provided evidence for effectiveness. Essential attributes of population-based palliative care models identified by policy and addressed by more than one element were communication and coordination between providers (including primary care), skill enhancement, and capacity to respond rapidly to individuals’ changing needs and preferences over time. Conclusion Models of palliative care should integrate specialist expertise with primary and community care services and enable transitions across settings, including residential aged care. The increasing complexity of care needs, services, interventions and contextual drivers warrants future research aimed at elucidating the interactions between different components and the roles played by patient, provider and health system factors. The findings of this review are limited by its
Linear mixed-effects modeling approach to FMRI group analysis
Chen, Gang; Saad, Ziad S.; Britton, Jennifer C.; Pine, Daniel S.; Cox, Robert W.
2013-01-01
Conventional group analysis is usually performed with Student-type t-test, regression, or standard AN(C)OVA in which the variance–covariance matrix is presumed to have a simple structure. Some correction approaches are adopted when assumptions about the covariance structure is violated. However, as experiments are designed with different degrees of sophistication, these traditional methods can become cumbersome, or even be unable to handle the situation at hand. For example, most current FMRI software packages have difficulty analyzing the following scenarios at group level: (1) taking within-subject variability into account when there are effect estimates from multiple runs or sessions; (2) continuous explanatory variables (covariates) modeling in the presence of a within-subject (repeated measures) factor, multiple subject-grouping (between-subjects) factors, or the mixture of both; (3) subject-specific adjustments in covariate modeling; (4) group analysis with estimation of hemodynamic response (HDR) function by multiple basis functions; (5) various cases of missing data in longitudinal studies; and (6) group studies involving family members or twins. Here we present a linear mixed-effects modeling (LME) methodology that extends the conventional group analysis approach to analyze many complicated cases, including the six prototypes delineated above, whose analyses would be otherwise either difficult or unfeasible under traditional frameworks such as AN(C)OVA and general linear model (GLM). In addition, the strength of the LME framework lies in its flexibility to model and estimate the variance–covariance structures for both random effects and residuals. The intraclass correlation (ICC) values can be easily obtained with an LME model with crossed random effects, even at the presence of confounding fixed effects. The simulations of one prototypical scenario indicate that the LME modeling keeps a balance between the control for false positives and the
A multifluid mix model with material strength effects
Chang, C. H.; Scannapieco, A. J.
2012-04-23
We present a new multifluid mix model. Its features include material strength effects and pressure and temperature nonequilibrium between mixing materials. It is applicable to both interpenetration and demixing of immiscible fluids and diffusion of miscible fluids. The presented model exhibits the appropriate smooth transition in mathematical form as the mixture evolves from multiphase to molecular mixing, extending its applicability to the intermediate stages in which both types of mixing are present. Virtual mass force and momentum exchange have been generalized for heterogeneous multimaterial mixtures. The compression work has been extended so that the resulting species energy equations are consistent with the pressure force and material strength.
Effective Kondo Model for a Trimer on a Metallic Surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aligia, A. A.
2006-03-01
I consider a Hubbard-Anderson model which describes localized orbitals in three different atoms hybridized both among themselves and with a continuum of extended states. Using a generalized Schrieffer-Wolf transformation, I derive an effective Kondo model for the interaction between the doublet ground state of the isolated trimer and the extended states. For an isoceles trimer with distances a, l, l between the atoms, the Kondo temperature is very small for la when a is small. The results agree with experiments for a Cr trimer on Au(111).
Modeling Reaction Control System Effects on Mars Odyssey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanna, Jill L.; Chavis, Zachary Q.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
During the Mars 2001 Odyssey aerobraking mission, NASA Langley Research Center performed 6 degree of freedom (6-DOF) simulations to determine rotational motion of the spacecraft. The main objective of this study was to assess the reaction control system models and their effects on the atmospheric flight of Odyssey. Based on these models, a comparison was made between data derived from flight measurements to simulated rotational motion of the spacecraft during aerobraking at Mars. The differences between the simulation and flight derived Odyssey data were then used to adjust the aerodynamic parameters to achieve a better correlation.
Finite driving rate and anisotropy effects in landslide modeling
Piegari, E.; Cataudella, V.; Di Maio, R.; Milano, L.; Nicodemi, M.
2006-02-15
In order to characterize landslide frequency-size distributions and individuate hazard scenarios and their possible precursors, we investigate a cellular automaton where the effects of a finite driving rate and the anisotropy are taken into account. The model is able to reproduce observed features of landslide events, such as power-law distributions, as experimentally reported. We analyze the key role of the driving rate and show that, as it is increased, a crossover from power-law to non-power-law behaviors occurs. Finally, a systematic investigation of the model on varying its anisotropy factors is performed and the full diagram of its dynamical behaviors is presented.
Global model for the lithospheric strength and effective elastic thickness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.
2013-08-01
Global distribution of the strength and effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere are estimated using physical parameters from recent crustal and lithospheric models. For the Te estimation we apply a new approach, which provides a possibility to take into account variations of Young modulus (E) within the lithosphere. In view of the large uncertainties affecting strength estimates, we evaluate global strength and Te distributions for possible end-member 'hard' (HRM) and a 'soft' (SRM) rheology models of the continental crust. Temperature within the lithosphere has been estimated using a recent tomography model of Ritsema et al. (2011), which has much higher horizontal resolution than previous global models. Most of the strength is localized in the crust for the HRM and in the mantle for the SRM. These results contribute to the long debates on applicability of the "crème brulée" or "jelly-sandwich" model for the lithosphere structure. Changing from the SRM to HRM turns most of the continental areas from the totally decoupled mode to the fully coupled mode of the lithospheric layers. However, in the areas characterized by a high thermal regime and thick crust, the layers remain decoupled even for the HRM. At the same time, for the inner part of the cratons the lithospheric layers are coupled in both models. Therefore, rheological variations lead to large changes in the integrated strength and Te distribution in the regions characterized by intermediate thermal conditions. In these areas temperature uncertainties have a greater effect, since this parameter principally determines rheological behavior. Comparison of the Te estimates for both models with those determined from the flexural loading and spectral analysis shows that the 'hard' rheology is likely applicable for cratonic areas, whereas the 'soft' rheology is more representative for young orogens.
A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bleacher, L. V.; Jones, A. J. P.; Farrell, W. M.
2015-01-01
The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.
Development and validation of a tokamak skin effect transformer model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero, J. A.; Moret, J.-M.; Coda, S.; Felici, F.; Garrido, I.
2012-02-01
A lumped parameter, state space model for a tokamak transformer including the slow flux penetration in the plasma (skin effect transformer model) is presented. The model does not require detailed or explicit information about plasma profiles or geometry. Instead, this information is lumped in system variables, parameters and inputs. The model has an exact mathematical structure built from energy and flux conservation theorems, predicting the evolution and non-linear interaction of plasma current and internal inductance as functions of the primary coil currents, plasma resistance, non-inductive current drive and the loop voltage at a specific location inside the plasma (equilibrium loop voltage). Loop voltage profile in the plasma is substituted by a three-point discretization, and ordinary differential equations are used to predict the equilibrium loop voltage as a function of the boundary and resistive loop voltages. This provides a model for equilibrium loop voltage evolution, which is reminiscent of the skin effect. The order and parameters of this differential equation are determined empirically using system identification techniques. Fast plasma current modulation experiments with random binary signals have been conducted in the TCV tokamak to generate the required data for the analysis. Plasma current was modulated under ohmic conditions between 200 and 300 kA with 30 ms rise time, several times faster than its time constant L/R ≈ 200 ms. A second-order linear differential equation for equilibrium loop voltage is sufficient to describe the plasma current and internal inductance modulation with 70% and 38% fit parameters, respectively. The model explains the most salient features of the plasma current transients, such as the inverse correlation between plasma current ramp rates and internal inductance changes, without requiring detailed or explicit information about resistivity profiles. This proves that a lumped parameter modelling approach can be used to
A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleacher, L.; Jones, A. P.; Farrell, W. M.
2015-12-01
The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.
GCR Environmental Models III: GCR Model Validation and Propagated Uncertainties in Effective Dose
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slaba, Tony C.; Xu, Xiaojing; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.
2014-01-01
This is the last of three papers focused on quantifying the uncertainty associated with galactic cosmic rays (GCR) models used for space radiation shielding applications. In the first paper, it was found that GCR ions with Z>2 and boundary energy below 500 MeV/nucleon induce less than 5% of the total effective dose behind shielding. This is an important finding since GCR model development and validation have been heavily biased toward Advanced Composition Explorer/Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer measurements below 500 MeV/nucleon. Weights were also developed that quantify the relative contribution of defined GCR energy and charge groups to effective dose behind shielding. In the second paper, it was shown that these weights could be used to efficiently propagate GCR model uncertainties into effective dose behind shielding. In this work, uncertainties are quantified for a few commonly used GCR models. A validation metric is developed that accounts for measurements uncertainty, and the metric is coupled to the fast uncertainty propagation method. For this work, the Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) 2010 and 2011 and the Matthia GCR models are compared to an extensive measurement database. It is shown that BON2011 systematically overestimates heavy ion fluxes in the range 0.5-4 GeV/nucleon. The BON2010 and BON2011 also show moderate and large errors in reproducing past solar activity near the 2000 solar maximum and 2010 solar minimum. It is found that all three models induce relative errors in effective dose in the interval [-20%, 20%] at a 68% confidence level. The BON2010 and Matthia models are found to have similar overall uncertainty estimates and are preferred for space radiation shielding applications.
DIGRE: Drug-Induced Genomic Residual Effect Model for Successful Prediction of Multidrug Effects
Yang, J; Tang, H; Li, Y; Zhong, R; Wang, T; Wong, STC; Xiao, G; Xie, Y
2015-01-01
Multidrug regimens are a promising strategy for improving therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects, especially for complex disorders such as cancer. However, the use of multidrug therapies is very challenging, due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms of drug interactions. We herein present a novel computational approach—Drug-Induced Genomic Residual Effect (DIGRE) Computational Model—to predict drug combination effects by explicitly modeling drug response curves and gene expression changes after drug treatments. The prediction performance of DIGRE was evaluated using two datasets: (i) OCI-LY3 B-lymphoma cells treated with 14 different drugs and (ii) MCF breast cancer cells treated with combinations of gefitinib and docetaxel at different doses. In both datasets, the predicted drug combination effects significantly correlated with the experimental results. The results indicated the model was useful in predicting drug combination effects, which may greatly facilitate the discovery of new, effective multidrug therapies. PMID:26225227
Determination of effective loss factors in reduced SEA models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chimeno Manguán, M.; Fernández de las Heras, M. J.; Roibás Millán, E.; Simón Hidalgo, F.
2017-01-01
The definition of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) models for large complex structures is highly conditioned by the classification of the structure elements into a set of coupled subsystems and the subsequent determination of the loss factors representing both the internal damping and the coupling between subsystems. The accurate definition of the complete system can lead to excessively large models as the size and complexity increases. This fact can also rise practical issues for the experimental determination of the loss factors. This work presents a formulation of reduced SEA models for incomplete systems defined by a set of effective loss factors. This reduced SEA model provides a feasible number of subsystems for the application of the Power Injection Method (PIM). For structures of high complexity, their components accessibility can be restricted, for instance internal equipments or panels. For these cases the use of PIM to carry out an experimental SEA analysis is not possible. New methods are presented for this case in combination with the reduced SEA models. These methods allow defining some of the model loss factors that could not be obtained through PIM. The methods are validated with a numerical analysis case and they are also applied to an actual spacecraft structure with accessibility restrictions: a solar wing in folded configuration.
Numerical modelling of the memory effect in wet scrubbers.
Löthgren, Carl-Johan; Andersson, Sven
2008-08-01
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) can be absorbed in and desorbed from polypropylene (PP) tower packings in wet scrubbers utilized in waste incineration lines. This behaviour, also known as the memory effect, has been modelled using a gas phase-PP surface equilibrium and a numerical solid phase diffusion model describing the transport of PCDD/Fs inside the PP. The diffusivities and gas-PP partition coefficients of TCDD/F to HxCDD/Fs in PP have been estimated using the numerical model. Two incineration lines were modelled. In the first line, the absorption and desorption in PP test rods was followed before and after installation of a fabric filter that was placed before a wet scrubber. In the second incineration line, the accumulation of PCDD/Fs in a wet scrubber during start up periods and the subsequent decline during the following three months was modelled and compared to continuous two-week gas measurements after the scrubber. The obtained diffusivities in PP range from 10(-13) m(2)/s for TCDD to 10(-16) m(2)/s for HxCDD. Lower chlorinated homologues with a distinctive change in concentrations during the desorption period (e.g. TCDF) are easier to model, and show the best agreement between the two incineration lines.
Modeling of Air Attenuation Effects on Gamma Detection at Altitude
R. S. Detwiler
2002-10-01
This paper focuses on modeling the detection capabilities of NaI sensor systems at high altitudes for ground sources. The modeling was done with the Monte Carlo N-Transport (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The specific systems modeled were the fixed wing and helicopter aircraft sensor systems, assets of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Aerial Measuring System (AMS). In previous (2001) modeling, Sodium Iodine (NaI) detector responses were simulated for both point and distributed surface sources as a function of gamma energy and altitude. For point sources, photo-peak efficiencies were calculated for a zero radial distance and an offset equal to the altitude. For distributed sources approximating an infinite plane, gross count efficiencies were calculated and normalized to a uniform surface deposition of 1 {micro}Ci/m{sup 2}. To validate the calculations, benchmark measurements were made for simple source-detector configurations. The 2002 continuation of the modeling presented here includes checking models against available data, and modifications to allow more effective and accurate directional biasing of ground point and distributed sources. Fixed-wing data results will be shown for two point sources as a function of altitude.
Coherent Effects in Microwave Backscattering Models for Forrest Canopies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saatchi, Sasan S.; McDonald, Kyle C.
1997-01-01
In modeling forest canopies, several scattering mechanisms are taken into account: (1) volume scattering; (2) surface-volume interaction; and (3) surface scattering from forest floor. Depending on the structural and dielectric characteristics of forest canopies, the relative contribution of each mechanism in the total backscatter signal of an imaging radar can vary. In this paper, two commonly used first-order discrete scattering models, distorted born approximation (DBA) and radiative transfer (RT) are used to simulate the backscattered power received by polarimetric radars at P-, L-, and C-bands over coniferous and deciduous forests. The difference between the two models resides on the coherent effect in the surface-volume interaction terms. To demonstrate this point, the models are first compared based on their underlying theoretical assumptions and then according to simulation results over coniferous and deciduous forests. It is shown that by using the same scattering functions for various components of trees (i.e., leaf, branch, stem), the radiative transfer and distorted Born models are equivalent, except in low frequencies, where surface-volume interaction terms may become important, and the coherent contribution may be significant. In this case, the difference between the two models can reach up to 3 dB in both co-polarized and cross-polarized channels, which can influence the performance of retrieval algorithms.
Mathematical modeling the radiation effects on humoral immunity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnova, O. A.
A mathematical model of humoral immune response in nonirradiated and irradiated mammals is developed. It is based on conventional theories and experimental facts in this field. The model is a system of nonlinear differential equations which describe the dynamics of concentrations of antibody and antigen molecules, immunocompetent B lymphocytes, and the rest blood lymphocytes, as well as the bone-marrow lymphocyte precursors. The interaction of antigen molecules with antibodies and with antibody-like receptors on immunocompetent cells is also incorporated. The model quantitatively reproduces the dynamics of the humoral immune response to the T-independent antigen (capsular antigen of plague microbe) in nonirradiated mammals (CBA mice). It describes the peculiarities of the humoral immune response in CBA mice exposed to acute radiation before or after introducing antigen. The model predicts an adaptation of humoral immune system to low dose rate chronic irradiation in the result of which the intensity of immune response relaxes to a new, lower than normal, stable level. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are revealed. The results obtained show that the developed model, after the appropriate identification, can be used to predict the effects of acute and low-level long-term irradiation on the system of humoral immunity in humans. Employment of the mathematical model identified in the proper way should be important in estimating the radiation risk for cosmonauts and astronauts on long space missions such as a voyage to Mars or a lunar colony.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Den, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Fujita, S.; Tanaka, T.
2011-12-01
Magnetic reconnection is considered to play an important role in space phenomena such as substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. Tanaka and Fujita reproduced substorm evolution process by numerical simulation with the global MHD code [1]. In the MHD framework, the dissipation model is introduced for modeling of the kinetic effects. They found that the normalized reconnection viscosity, one of the dissipation model employed there, gave a large effect for the dipolarization, central phenomenon in the substorm development process, though that viscosity was assumed to be a constant parameter. It is well known that magnetic reconnection is controlled by microscopic kinetic mechanism. Frozen-in condition is broken due to particle kinetic effects and collisionless reconnection is triggered when current sheet is compressed as thin as ion kinetic scales under the influence of external driving flow [2, 3]. Horiuchi and his collaborators showed that reconnection electric field generated by microscopic physics evolves inside ion meandering scale so as to balance the flux inflow rate at the inflow boundary, which is controlled by macroscopic physics [2]. That is, effective resistivity generated through this process can be expressed by balance equation between micro and macro physics. In this paper, we perform substorm simulation by using the global MHD code developed by Tanaka [3] with this effective resistivity instead of the empirical resistivity model. We obtain the AE indices from simulation data, in which substorm onset can be seen clearly, and investigate the relationship between the substorm development and the effective resistivity model. [1] T. Tanaka, A, Nakamizo, A. Yoshikawa, S. Fujita, H. Shinagawa, H. Shimazu, T. Kikuchi, and K. K. Hashimoto, J. Geophys. Res. 115 (2010) A05220,doi:10.1029/2009JA014676. [2] W. Pei, R. Horiuchi, and T. Sato, Physics of Plasmas,Vol. 8 (2001), pp. 3251-3257. [3] A. Ishizawa, and R. Horiuchi, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 95, 045003 (2005). [4
Modeling of nanostructured porous thermoelastic composites with surface effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasedkin, A. V.; Nasedkina, A. A.; Kornievsky, A. S.
2017-01-01
The paper presents an integrated approach for determination of effective properties of anisotropic porous thermoelastic materials with a nanoscale stochastic porosity structure. This approach includes the effective moduli method for composite me-chanics, the simulation of representative volumes and the finite element method. In order to take into account nanoscale sizes of pores, the Gurtin-Murdoch model of surface stresses and the highly conducting interface model are used at the borders between material and pores. The general methodology for determination of effective properties of porous composites is demonstrated for a two-phase composite with special conditions for stresses and heat flux discontinuities at the phase interfaces. The mathematical statements of boundary value problems and the resulting formulas to determine the complete set of effective constants of the two-phase composites with arbitrary anisotropy and with surface properties are described; the generalized statements are formulated and the finite element approximations are given. It is shown that the homogenization procedures for porous composites with surface effects can be considered as special cases of the corresponding procedures for the two-phase composites with interphase stresses and heat fluxes if the moduli of nanoinclusions are negligibly small. These approaches have been implemented in the finite element package ANSYS for a model of porous material with cubic crystal system for various values of surface moduli, porosity and number of pores. It has been noted that the magnitude of the area of the interphase boundaries has influence on the effective moduli of the porous materials with nanosized structure.
Bayesian Modeling of Haplotype Effects in Multiparent Populations
Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Wei; Valdar, William
2014-01-01
A general Bayesian model, Diploffect, is described for estimating the effects of founder haplotypes at quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected in multiparental genetic populations; such populations include the Collaborative Cross (CC), Heterogeneous Socks (HS), and many others for which local genetic variation is well described by an underlying, usually probabilistically inferred, haplotype mosaic. Our aim is to provide a framework for coherent estimation of haplotype and diplotype (haplotype pair) effects that takes into account the following: uncertainty in haplotype composition for each individual; uncertainty arising from small sample sizes and infrequently observed haplotype combinations; possible effects of dominance (for noninbred subjects); genetic background; and that provides a means to incorporate data that may be incomplete or has a hierarchical structure. Using the results of a probabilistic haplotype reconstruction as prior information, we obtain posterior distributions at the QTL for both haplotype effects and haplotype composition. Two alternative computational approaches are supplied: a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler and a procedure based on importance sampling of integrated nested Laplace approximations. Using simulations of QTL in the incipient CC (pre-CC) and Northport HS populations, we compare the accuracy of Diploffect, approximations to it, and more commonly used approaches based on Haley–Knott regression, describing trade-offs between these methods. We also estimate effects for three QTL previously identified in those populations, obtaining posterior intervals that describe how the phenotype might be affected by diplotype substitutions at the modeled locus. PMID:25236455
Leverage effect in financial markets: the retarded volatility model.
Bouchaud, J P; Matacz, A; Potters, M
2001-11-26
We investigate quantitatively the so-called "leverage effect," which corresponds to a negative correlation between past returns and future volatility. For individual stocks this correlation is moderate and decays over 50 days, while for stock indices it is much stronger but decays faster. For individual stocks the magnitude of this correlation has a universal value that can be rationalized in terms of a new "retarded" model which interpolates between a purely additive and a purely multiplicative stochastic process. For stock indices a specific amplification phenomenon seems to be necessary to account for the observed amplitude of the effect.
Leverage Effect in Financial Markets: The Retarded Volatility Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Matacz, Andrew; Potters, Marc
2001-11-01
We investigate quantitatively the so-called ``leverage effect,'' which corresponds to a negative correlation between past returns and future volatility. For individual stocks this correlation is moderate and decays over 50 days, while for stock indices it is much stronger but decays faster. For individual stocks the magnitude of this correlation has a universal value that can be rationalized in terms of a new ``retarded'' model which interpolates between a purely additive and a purely multiplicative stochastic process. For stock indices a specific amplification phenomenon seems to be necessary to account for the observed amplitude of the effect.
The Effects of Voyaging on the Magnetization of Ship Models.
1980-05-05
time-effect must be analyzed for more accurate prediction of voyage effects. Finally, experiments must be conducted with samples of HY80 steel , for...models were tested by subjecting two sample rods, one of HY1O0 steel and one of HY130 steel to an apparatus for supply of cyclic stress of two amplitudes...Entered) WI UNCLASSIFIED I SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Of T"IS PAGE (Whm Da ffIfete 0. 0.CONTIN(UMD steel , and these were compared with the slope of the
Modelling the effect of osmolytes on peptide mechanical unfolding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pieraccini, Stefano; Conti, Simone; Chaurasia, Shilpi; Sironi, Maurizio
2013-07-01
Osmolyte molecules can be classified in two different groups with respect to their effect on protein stability: osmoprotectants, which stabilize the protein or peptide folded state, and denaturants, which favor the denaturated state. Mechanical unfolding free energy of a model peptide has been obtained from umbrella sampling and weighted histogram analysis method, and the effect of four different osmolytes on the free energy difference between the folded and the denaturated state have been calculated. The observed trend mirrors the expected behavior of the studied osmolytes and unfolding pathways analysis allows an insight in the osmolyte action mechanism.
Modeling Correlation Effects in Nickelates with Slave Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgescu, Alexandru Bogdan; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab
Nickelate interfaces display interesting electronic properties including orbital ordering similar to that of cuprate superconductors and thickness dependent metal-insulator transitions. One-particle band theory calculations do not include dynamic localized correlation effects on the nickel sites and thus often incorrectly predict metallic systems or incorrect ARPES spectra. Building on two previous successful slave-particle treatments of local correlations, we present a generalized slave-particle method that includes prior models and allows us to produce new intermediate models. The computational efficiency of these slave-boson methods means that one can readily study correlation effects in complex heterostructures. We show some predictions of these methods for the electronic structure of bulk and thin film nickelates. Work supported by NSF Grant MRSEC DMR-1119826.
Effective viscosity and dynamics of spreading epithelia: a solvable model.
Blanch-Mercader, C; Vincent, R; Bazellières, E; Serra-Picamal, X; Trepat, X; Casademunt, J
2017-02-08
Collective cell migration in spreading epithelia in controlled environments has become a landmark in our current understanding of fundamental biophysical processes in development, regeneration, wound healing or cancer. Epithelial monolayers are treated as thin layers of a viscous fluid that exert active traction forces on the substrate. The model is exactly solvable and shows a broad range of applicabilities for the quantitative analysis and interpretation of force microscopy data of monolayers from a variety of experiments and cell lines. In addition, the proposed model provides physical insights into how the biological regulation of the tissue is encoded in a reduced set of time-dependent physical parameters. In particular the temporal evolution of the effective viscosity entails a mechanosensitive regulation of adhesion. Besides, the observation of an effective elastic tensile modulus can be interpreted as an emergent phenomenon in an active fluid.
Solvable model in renormalization group analysis for effective eddy viscosity.
Chang, Chien C; Lin, Bin-Shei; Wang, Chi-Tzung
2003-04-01
This study presents a solvable model in renormalization group analysis for the effective eddy viscosity. It is found fruitful to take a simple hypothesis that large-scale eddies are statistically independent of those of smaller scales. A limiting operation of renormalization group analysis yields an inhomogeneous ordinary differential equation for the invariant effective eddy viscosity. The closed-form solution of the equation facilitates derivations of an expression of the Kolmogorov constant C(K) and of the Smagorinsky model for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow. The Smagorinsky constant C(S) is proportional to C(3/4)(K). In particular, we shall illustrate that the value of C(K) ranges from 1.35 to 2.06, which is in close agreement with the generally accepted experimental values (1.2 approximately 2.2).
Effects of distribution of infection rate on epidemic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lachiany, Menachem; Louzoun, Yoram
2016-08-01
A goal of many epidemic models is to compute the outcome of the epidemics from the observed infected early dynamics. However, often, the total number of infected individuals at the end of the epidemics is much lower than predicted from the early dynamics. This discrepancy is argued to result from human intervention or nonlinear dynamics not incorporated in standard models. We show that when variability in infection rates is included in standard susciptible-infected-susceptible (SIS ) and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR ) models the total number of infected individuals in the late dynamics can be orders lower than predicted from the early dynamics. This discrepancy holds for SIS and SIR models, where the assumption that all individuals have the same sensitivity is eliminated. In contrast with network models, fixed partnerships are not assumed. We derive a moment closure scheme capturing the distribution of sensitivities. We find that the shape of the sensitivity distribution does not affect R0 or the number of infected individuals in the early phases of the epidemics. However, a wide distribution of sensitivities reduces the total number of removed individuals in the SIR model and the steady-state infected fraction in the SIS model. The difference between the early and late dynamics implies that in order to extrapolate the expected effect of the epidemics from the initial phase of the epidemics, the rate of change in the average infectivity should be computed. These results are supported by a comparison of the theoretical model to the Ebola epidemics and by numerical simulation.
Effects of model layer simplification using composite hydraulic properties
Kuniansky, Eve L.; Sepulveda, Nicasio; Elango, Lakshmanan
2011-01-01
Groundwater provides much of the fresh drinking water to more than 1.5 billion people in the world (Clarke et al., 1996) and in the United States more that 50 percent of citizens rely on groundwater for drinking water (Solley et al., 1998). As aquifer systems are developed for water supply, the hydrologic system is changed. Water pumped from the aquifer system initially can come from some combination of inducing more recharge, water permanently removed from storage, and decreased groundwater discharge. Once a new equilibrium is achieved, all of the pumpage must come from induced recharge and decreased discharge (Alley et al., 1999). Further development of groundwater resources may result in reductions of surface water runoff and base flows. Competing demands for groundwater resources require good management. Adequate data to characterize the aquifers and confining units of the system, like hydrologic boundaries, groundwater levels, streamflow, and groundwater pumping and climatic data for recharge estimation are to be collected in order to quantify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands, streams, and lakes. Once collected, three-dimensional (3D) groundwater flow models can be developed and calibrated and used as a tool for groundwater management. The main hydraulic parameters that comprise a regional or subregional model of an aquifer system are the hydraulic conductivity and storage properties of the aquifers and confining units (hydrogeologic units) that confine the system. Many 3D groundwater flow models used to help assess groundwater/surface-water interactions require calculating ?effective? or composite hydraulic properties of multilayered lithologic units within a hydrogeologic unit. The calculation of composite hydraulic properties stems from the need to characterize groundwater flow using coarse model layering in order to reduce simulation times while still representing the flow through the system accurately. The accuracy of flow models with
Support System Effects on the NASA Common Research Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rivers, S. Melissa B.; Hunter, Craig A.
2012-01-01
An experimental investigation of the NASA Common Research Model was conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility and NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel Facility for use in the Drag Prediction Workshop. As data from the experimental investigations was collected, a large difference in moment values was seen between the experimental and the computational data from the 4th Drag Prediction Workshop. This difference led to the present work. In this study, a computational assessment has been undertaken to investigate model support system interference effects on the Common Research Model. The configurations computed during this investigation were the wing/body/tail=0deg without the support system and the wing/body/tail=0deg with the support system. The results from this investigation confirm that the addition of the support system to the computational cases does shift the pitching moment in the direction of the experimental results.
Physical models for the normal YORP and diurnal Yarkovsky effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golubov, O.; Kravets, Y.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Scheeres, D. J.
2016-06-01
We propose an analytic model for the normal Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) and diurnal Yarkovsky effects experienced by a convex asteroid. Both the YORP torque and the Yarkovsky force are expressed as integrals of a universal function over the surface of an asteroid. Although in general this function can only be calculated numerically from the solution of the heat conductivity equation, approximate solutions can be obtained in quadratures for important limiting cases. We consider three such simplified models: Rubincam's approximation (zero heat conductivity), low thermal inertia limit (including the next order correction and thus valid for small heat conductivity), and high thermal inertia limit (valid for large heat conductivity). All three simplified models are compared with the exact solution.
Kinetic modeling of Nernst effect in magnetized hohlraums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joglekar, A. S.; Ridgers, C. P.; Kingham, R. J.; Thomas, A. G. R.
2016-04-01
We present nanosecond time-scale Vlasov-Fokker-Planck-Maxwell modeling of magnetized plasma transport and dynamics in a hohlraum with an applied external magnetic field, under conditions similar to recent experiments. Self-consistent modeling of the kinetic electron momentum equation allows for a complete treatment of the heat flow equation and Ohm's law, including Nernst advection of magnetic fields. In addition to showing the prevalence of nonlocal behavior, we demonstrate that effects such as anomalous heat flow are induced by inverse bremsstrahlung heating. We show magnetic field amplification up to a factor of 3 from Nernst compression into the hohlraum wall. The magnetic field is also expelled towards the hohlraum axis due to Nernst advection faster than frozen-in flux would suggest. Nonlocality contributes to the heat flow towards the hohlraum axis and results in an augmented Nernst advection mechanism that is included self-consistently through kinetic modeling.
Kinetic modeling of Nernst effect in magnetized hohlraums.
Joglekar, A S; Ridgers, C P; Kingham, R J; Thomas, A G R
2016-04-01
We present nanosecond time-scale Vlasov-Fokker-Planck-Maxwell modeling of magnetized plasma transport and dynamics in a hohlraum with an applied external magnetic field, under conditions similar to recent experiments. Self-consistent modeling of the kinetic electron momentum equation allows for a complete treatment of the heat flow equation and Ohm's law, including Nernst advection of magnetic fields. In addition to showing the prevalence of nonlocal behavior, we demonstrate that effects such as anomalous heat flow are induced by inverse bremsstrahlung heating. We show magnetic field amplification up to a factor of 3 from Nernst compression into the hohlraum wall. The magnetic field is also expelled towards the hohlraum axis due to Nernst advection faster than frozen-in flux would suggest. Nonlocality contributes to the heat flow towards the hohlraum axis and results in an augmented Nernst advection mechanism that is included self-consistently through kinetic modeling.
Spin jumping in the context of a QCD effective model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Gracia, G. B.
2017-03-01
The tensor formulation for the effective theory of QCD vector resonances, whose model we denote by TEVR, is given by an antisymmetric tensor field and describes spin 1 particles. Our goal is to show, by different approaches, that the Abelian version of this model presents the so-called “spin jumping” when we consider its massless limit. Classically we find, by the use of the equations of motion and the Hamiltonian constraint analysis, that the massive phase of the model describes spin 1 particles while its massless phase describes spin 0 particles. From the quantum point of view, we derive these conclusions via tree-level unitarity analysis and the master action approach.
Calculations of multiquark functions in effective models of strong interaction
Jafarov, R. G.; Rochev, V. E.
2013-09-15
In this paper we present our results of the investigation of multiquark equations in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with chiral symmetry of SU(2) group in the mean-field expansion. To formulate the mean-field expansion we have used an iteration scheme of solution of the Schwinger-Dyson equations with the fermion bilocal source. We have considered the equations for Green functions of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model up to third step for this iteration scheme. To calculate the high-order corrections to the mean-field approximation, we propose the method of the Legendre transformation with respect to the bilocal source, which allows effectively to take into account the symmetry constraints related with the chiral Ward identity. We discuss also the problem of calculating the multiquark functions in the mean-field expansion for Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type models with other types of the multifermion sources.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Schatschneider, Christopher
2017-01-01
We investigated direct and indirect effects of component skills on writing (DIEW) using data from 193 children in Grade 1. In this model, working memory was hypothesized to be a foundational cognitive ability for language and cognitive skills as well as transcription skills, which, in turn, contribute to writing. Foundational oral language skills…
Superconducting proximity effect for in situ and model layered systems
Finnemore, D.K.
1980-01-01
The primary drawback for in situ composites is that the ac losses are higher than for mechanically produced multifilamentary wire. To develop an understanding of the proximity effect so that analytical expressions will be available for design, a model system is developed based on PbCd. Items discussed include boundary conditions at SN interface, phonon spectral function, supercurrents through normal barriers, flux entry fields, and implications for in situ composites. (GHT)
Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models
Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M.
1996-04-01
We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.
Probabilistic Modeling of Intracranial Pressure Effects on Optic Nerve Biomechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ethier, C. R.; Feola, Andrew J.; Raykin, Julia; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.
2016-01-01
Altered intracranial pressure (ICP) is involved/implicated in several ocular conditions: papilledema, glaucoma and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The biomechanical effects of altered ICP on optic nerve head (ONH) tissues in these conditions are uncertain but likely important. We have quantified ICP-induced deformations of ONH tissues, using finite element (FE) and probabilistic modeling (Latin Hypercube Simulations (LHS)) to consider a range of tissue properties and relevant pressures.
A Cost-Effective Model for Digital Forensic Investigations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Overill, Richard; Kwan, Michael; Chow, Kam-Pui; Lai, Pierre; Law, Frank
Because of the way computers operate, every discrete event potentially leaves a digital trace. These digital traces must be retrieved during a digital forensic investigation to prove or refute an alleged crime. Given resource constraints, it is not always feasible (or necessary) for law enforcement to retrieve all the related digital traces and to conduct comprehensive investigations. This paper attempts to address the issue by proposing a model for conducting swift, practical and cost-effective digital forensic investigations.
Kizilkaya, Kadir; Tempelman, Robert J
2005-01-01
We propose a general Bayesian approach to heteroskedastic error modeling for generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) in which linked functions of conditional means and residual variances are specified as separate linear combinations of fixed and random effects. We focus on the linear mixed model (LMM) analysis of birth weight (BW) and the cumulative probit mixed model (CPMM) analysis of calving ease (CE). The deviance information criterion (DIC) was demonstrated to be useful in correctly choosing between homoskedastic and heteroskedastic error GLMM for both traits when data was generated according to a mixed model specification for both location parameters and residual variances. Heteroskedastic error LMM and CPMM were fitted, respectively, to BW and CE data on 8847 Italian Piemontese first parity dams in which residual variances were modeled as functions of fixed calf sex and random herd effects. The posterior mean residual variance for male calves was over 40% greater than that for female calves for both traits. Also, the posterior means of the standard deviation of the herd-specific variance ratios (relative to a unitary baseline) were estimated to be 0.60 ± 0.09 for BW and 0.74 ± 0.14 for CE. For both traits, the heteroskedastic error LMM and CPMM were chosen over their homoskedastic error counterparts based on DIC values. PMID:15588567
Yi, Nengjun; Shriner, Daniel; Banerjee, Samprit; Mehta, Tapan; Pomp, Daniel; Yandell, Brian S.
2007-01-01
We extend our Bayesian model selection framework for mapping epistatic QTL in experimental crosses to include environmental effects and gene–environment interactions. We propose a new, fast Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to explore the posterior distribution of unknowns. In addition, we take advantage of any prior knowledge about genetic architecture to increase posterior probability on more probable models. These enhancements have significant computational advantages in models with many effects. We illustrate the proposed method by detecting new epistatic and gene–sex interactions for obesity-related traits in two real data sets of mice. Our method has been implemented in the freely available package R/qtlbim (http://www.qtlbim.org) to facilitate the general usage of the Bayesian methodology for genomewide interacting QTL analysis. PMID:17483424
The Effects of Implementing TopModel Concepts in the Noah Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Topographic effects on runoff generation have been documented observationally (e.g., Dunne and Black, 1970) and are the subject of the physically based rainfall-runoff model TOPMODEL (Beven and Kirkby, 1979; Beven, 1986a;b) and its extensions, which incorporate variable soil transmissivity effects (Sivapalan et al, 1987, Wood et al., 1988; 1990). These effects have been shown to exert significant control over the spatial distribution of runoff, soil moisture and evapotranspiration, and by extension, the latent and sensible heat fluxes
Colored noise and memory effects on formal spiking neuron models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Silva, L. A.; Vilela, R. D.
2015-06-01
Simplified neuronal models capture the essence of the electrical activity of a generic neuron, besides being more interesting from the computational point of view when compared to higher-dimensional models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley one. In this work, we propose a generalized resonate-and-fire model described by a generalized Langevin equation that takes into account memory effects and colored noise. We perform a comprehensive numerical analysis to study the dynamics and the point process statistics of the proposed model, highlighting interesting new features such as (i) nonmonotonic behavior (emergence of peak structures, enhanced by the choice of colored noise characteristic time scale) of the coefficient of variation (CV) as a function of memory characteristic time scale, (ii) colored noise-induced shift in the CV, and (iii) emergence and suppression of multimodality in the interspike interval (ISI) distribution due to memory-induced subthreshold oscillations. Moreover, in the noise-induced spike regime, we study how memory and colored noise affect the coherence resonance (CR) phenomenon. We found that for sufficiently long memory, not only is CR suppressed but also the minimum of the CV-versus-noise intensity curve that characterizes the presence of CR may be replaced by a maximum. The aforementioned features allow to interpret the interplay between memory and colored noise as an effective control mechanism to neuronal variability. Since both variability and nontrivial temporal patterns in the ISI distribution are ubiquitous in biological cells, we hope the present model can be useful in modeling real aspects of neurons.
Colored noise and memory effects on formal spiking neuron models.
da Silva, L A; Vilela, R D
2015-06-01
Simplified neuronal models capture the essence of the electrical activity of a generic neuron, besides being more interesting from the computational point of view when compared to higher-dimensional models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley one. In this work, we propose a generalized resonate-and-fire model described by a generalized Langevin equation that takes into account memory effects and colored noise. We perform a comprehensive numerical analysis to study the dynamics and the point process statistics of the proposed model, highlighting interesting new features such as (i) nonmonotonic behavior (emergence of peak structures, enhanced by the choice of colored noise characteristic time scale) of the coefficient of variation (CV) as a function of memory characteristic time scale, (ii) colored noise-induced shift in the CV, and (iii) emergence and suppression of multimodality in the interspike interval (ISI) distribution due to memory-induced subthreshold oscillations. Moreover, in the noise-induced spike regime, we study how memory and colored noise affect the coherence resonance (CR) phenomenon. We found that for sufficiently long memory, not only is CR suppressed but also the minimum of the CV-versus-noise intensity curve that characterizes the presence of CR may be replaced by a maximum. The aforementioned features allow to interpret the interplay between memory and colored noise as an effective control mechanism to neuronal variability. Since both variability and nontrivial temporal patterns in the ISI distribution are ubiquitous in biological cells, we hope the present model can be useful in modeling real aspects of neurons.
Modeling the effects of developmental variation on insect phenology.
Yurk, Brian P; Powell, James A
2010-08-01
Phenology, the timing of developmental events such as oviposition or pupation, is highly dependent on temperature; since insects are ectotherms, the time it takes them to complete a life stage (development time) depends on the temperatures they experience. This dependence varies within and between populations due to variation among individuals that is fixed within a life stage (giving rise to what we call persistent variation) and variation from random effects within a life stage (giving rise to what we call random variation). It is important to understand how both types of variation affect phenology if we are to predict the effects of climate change on insect populations.We present three nested phenology models incorporating increasing levels of variation. First, we derive an advection equation to describe the temperature-dependent development of a population with no variation in development time. This model is extended to incorporate persistent variation by introducing a developmental phenotype that varies within a population, yielding a phenotype-dependent advection equation. This is further extended by including a diffusion term describing random variation in a phenotype-dependent Fokker-Planck development equation. These models are also novel because they are formulated in terms of development time rather than developmental rate; development time can be measured directly in the laboratory, whereas developmental rate is calculated by transforming laboratory data. We fit the phenology models to development time data for mountain pine beetles (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins [Coleoptera: Scolytidae]) held at constant temperatures in laboratory experiments. The nested models are parameterized using a maximum likelihood approach. The results of the parameterization show that the phenotype-dependent advection model provides the best fit to laboratory data, suggesting that MPB phenology may be adequately described in terms of persistent variation alone. MPB
Effect of external fields in Axelrod's model of social dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peres, Lucas R.; Fontanari, José F.
2012-09-01
The study of the effects of spatially uniform fields on the steady-state properties of Axelrod's model has yielded plenty of counterintuitive results. Here, we reexamine the impact of this type of field for a selection of parameters such that the field-free steady state of the model is heterogeneous or multicultural. Analyses of both one- and two-dimensional versions of Axelrod's model indicate that the steady state remains heterogeneous regardless of the value of the field strength. Turning on the field leads to a discontinuous decrease on the number of cultural domains, which we argue is due to the instability of zero-field heterogeneous absorbing configurations. We find, however, that spatially nonuniform fields that implement a consensus rule among the neighborhood of the agents enforce homogenization. Although the overall effects of the fields are essentially the same irrespective of the dimensionality of the model, we argue that the dimensionality has a significant impact on the stability of the field-free homogeneous steady state.
Crystallographic effects during micromachining — A finite-element model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Shin-Hyung; Choi, Woo Chun
2015-07-01
Mechanical micromachining is a powerful and effective way for manufacturing small sized machine parts. Even though the micromachining process is similar to the traditional machining, the material behavior during the process is much different. In particular, many researchers report that the basic mechanics of the work material is affected by microstructures and their crystallographic orientations. For example, crystallographic orientations of the work material have significant influence on force response, chip formation and surface finish. In order to thoroughly understand the effect of crystallographic orientations on the micromachining process, finite-element model (FEM) simulating orthogonal cutting process of single crystallographic material was presented. For modeling the work material, rate sensitive single crystal plasticity of face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal was implemented. For the chip formation during the simulation, element deletion technique was used. The simulation model is developed using ABAQUS/explicit with user material subroutine via user material subroutine (VUMAT). Simulations showed that variation of the specific cutting energy at different crystallographic orientations of work material shows significant anisotropy. The developed FEM model can be a useful prediction tool of micromachining of crystalline materials.
Modeling of a nanoscale flexoelectric energy harvester with surface effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhi
2017-04-01
This work presents the modeling of a beam energy harvester scavenging energy from ambient vibration based on the phenomenon of flexoelectricity. By considering surface elasticity, residual surface stress, surface piezoelectricity and bulk flexoelectricity, a modified Euler-Bernoulli beam model for the energy harvester is developed. After deriving the requisite energy expressions, the extended Hamilton's principle and the assumed-modes method are employed to obtain the discrete electromechanical Euler-Lagrange's equations. Then, the expressions of the steady-state electromechanical responses are given for harmonic base excitation. Numerical simulations are conducted to show the output voltage and the output power of the flexoelectric energy harvesters with different materials and sizes. Particular emphasis is given to the surface effects on the performance of the energy harvesters. It is found that the surface effects are sensitive to the beam geometries and the surface material constants, and the effect of residual surface stress is more significant than that of the surface elasticity and the surface piezoelectricity. The axial deformation of the beam is also considered in the model to account for the electromechanical coupling due to piezoelectricity, and results indicate that piezoelectricity will diminish the output electrical quantities for the case investigated. This work could lead to the development of flexoelectric energy harvesters that can make the micro- and nanoscale sensor systems autonomous.
A behavioural dynamic model of the relative age effect.
Pierson, Kawika; Addona, Vittorio; Yates, Philip
2014-01-01
The relationship between date of birth and success in a variety of sports, including hockey, is well established. This phenomenon is known as the relative age effect (RAE). We model the RAE in Canadian youth hockey as a positive feedback loop where an initial age advantage is reinforced through additional training and playing opportunities based on perceived skill superiority. The same causal mechanism leads to a higher quit rate for relatively younger players. Our model effectively replicates the birth month distribution of Canadian National Hockey League players (R2 = 86.79%) when driven by Canadian birth distributions. We use this model to evaluate three policies that aim to lessen the RAE. All of the policies reduce the RAE with a significant delay. The most effective policy is a combination of providing additional support to age disadvantaged children and rotating the cut-off date for youth leagues between January 1st and July 1st annually. In equilibrium, this approach leads to a 96% reduction in the RAE compared to the base case.
Underwater drag-reducing effect of superhydrophobic submarine model.
Zhang, Songsong; Ouyang, Xiao; Li, Jie; Gao, Shan; Han, Shihui; Liu, Lianhe; Wei, Hao
2015-01-01
To address the debates on whether superhydrophobic coatings can reduce fluid drag for underwater motions, we have achieved an underwater drag-reducing effect of large superhydrophobic submarine models with a feature size of 3.5 cm × 3.7 cm × 33.0 cm through sailing experiments of submarine models, modified with and without superhydrophobic surface under similar power supply and experimental conditions. The drag reduction rate reached as high as 15%. The fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings on a large area of submarine model surfaces was realized by immobilizing hydrophobic copper particles onto a precross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. The pre-cross-linking time was optimized at 20 min to obtain good superhydrophobicity for the underwater drag reduction effect by investigating the effect of pre-cross-linking on surface wettability and water adhesive property. We do believe that superhydrophobic coatings may provide a promising application in the field of drag-reducing of vehicle motions on or under the water surface.
Analysis and modeling of tribology effects in conventional glass polishing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waechter, Daniel; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz
2013-09-01
Conventional or chemo-mechanical polishing represents the polishing technology most often applied for manufacturing precision glass optics. It is applied on various machine types and for all kinds of geometries. But it still represents the manufacturing step with the lowest process stability. This work deals with the analysis and descriptive modeling of contact conditions occurring in the process area. The polishing process is assumed as a hydrodynamic system. The model aims for a qualitative description of the formation of a fluid film between pad and surface. The models enable the theoretical discussion of the effects of major process parameters on the fluid film thickness. Secondly, the theoretical considerations are validated by experiments on a tribometer. With this test bench the effects of the polishing parameters as well pad properties on the contact conditions are investigated. Additional experiments are conducted on a polishing machine for validation the results. It is found, that the hydrodynamic theory describes the formation of fluid film in polishing. Under typical polishing conditions, the friction regime is in the range of mixed friction. That means pad asperities and polishing grains are not completely separated from the surface by a fluid film. The transition into erosive wear and pure liquid friction was not reached. But an analysis of the surface quality in dependence on the relative speed showed, that the quality starts decreasing after a minimum, far before reaching the transition point. Based on the derived qualitative description, the effects of process parameters and pad properties on the fluid film can be discussed.
Budic, Lara; Didenko, Gregor; Dormann, Carsten F
2016-01-01
In species distribution analyses, environmental predictors and distribution data for large spatial extents are often available in long-lat format, such as degree raster grids. Long-lat projections suffer from unequal cell sizes, as a degree of longitude decreases in length from approximately 110 km at the equator to 0 km at the poles. Here we investigate whether long-lat and equal-area projections yield similar model parameter estimates, or result in a consistent bias. We analyzed the environmental effects on the distribution of 12 ungulate species with a northern distribution, as models for these species should display the strongest effect of projectional distortion. Additionally we choose four species with entirely continental distributions to investigate the effect of incomplete cell coverage at the coast. We expected that including model weights proportional to the actual cell area should compensate for the observed bias in model coefficients, and similarly that using land coverage of a cell should decrease bias in species with coastal distribution. As anticipated, model coefficients were different between long-lat and equal-area projections. Having progressively smaller and a higher number of cells with increasing latitude influenced the importance of parameters in models, increased the sample size for the northernmost parts of species ranges, and reduced the subcell variability of those areas. However, this bias could be largely removed by weighting long-lat cells by the area they cover, and marginally by correcting for land coverage. Overall we found little effect of using long-lat rather than equal-area projections in our analysis. The fitted relationship between environmental parameters and occurrence probability differed only very little between the two projection types. We still recommend using equal-area projections to avoid possible bias. More importantly, our results suggest that the cell area and the proportion of a cell covered by land should be
Modeling Tree Shade Effect on Urban Ground Surface Temperature.
Napoli, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Brandani, Giada; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone
2016-01-01
There is growing interest in the role that urban forests can play as urban microclimate modifiers. Tree shade and evapotranspiration affect energy fluxes and mitigate microclimate conditions, with beneficial effects on human health and outdoor comfort. The aim of this study was to investigate surface temperature () variability under the shade of different tree species and to test the capability in predicting of a proposed heat transfer model. Surface temperature data on asphalt and grass under different shading conditions were collected in the Cascine park, Florence, Italy, and were used to test the performance of a one-dimensional heat transfer model integrated with a routine for estimating the effect of plant canopies on surface heat transfer. Shading effects of 10 tree species commonly used in Italian urban settings were determined by considering the infrared radiation and the tree canopy leaf area index (LAI). The results indicate that, on asphalt, was negatively related to the LAI of trees ( reduction ranging from 13.8 to 22.8°C). On grass, this relationship was weaker probably because of the combined effect of shade and grass evapotranspiration on ( reduction ranged from 6.9 to 9.4°C). A sensitivity analysis confirmed that other factors linked to soil water content play an important role in reduction of grassed areas. Our findings suggest that the energy balance model can be effectively used to estimate of the urban pavement under different shading conditions and can be applied to the analysis of microclimate conditions of urban green spaces.
Mathematical modeling of the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation
2014-01-01
Background Arsenic is a major environmental toxin that is detoxified in the liver by biochemical mechanisms that are still under study. In the traditional metabolic pathway, arsenic undergoes two methylation reactions, each followed by a reduction, after which it is exported and released in the urine. Recent experiments show that glutathione plays an important role in arsenic detoxification and an alternative biochemical pathway has been proposed in which arsenic is first conjugated by glutathione after which the conjugates are methylated. In addition, in rats arsenic-glutathione conjugates can be exported into the plasma and removed by the liver in the bile. Methods We have developed a mathematical model for arsenic biochemistry that includes three mechanisms by which glutathione affects arsenic methylation: glutathione increases the speed of the reduction steps; glutathione affects the activity of arsenic methyltranferase; glutathione sequesters inorganic arsenic and its methylated downstream products. The model is based as much as possible on the known biochemistry of arsenic methylation derived from cellular and experimental studies. Results We show that the model predicts and helps explain recent experimental data on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation. We explain why the experimental data imply that monomethyl arsonic acid inhibits the second methylation step. The model predicts time course data from recent experimental studies. We explain why increasing glutathione when it is low increases arsenic methylation and that at very high concentrations increasing glutathione decreases methylation. We explain why the possible temporal variation of the glutathione concentration affects the interpretation of experimental studies that last hours. Conclusions The mathematical model aids in the interpretation of data from recent experimental studies and shows that the Challenger pathway of arsenic methylation, supplemented by the glutathione effects
Occultation Modeling for Radiation Obstruction Effects on Spacecraft Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
de Carufel, Guy; Li, Zu Qun; Harvey, Jason; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul
2016-01-01
A geometric occultation model has been developed to determine line-of-sight obstruction of radiation sources expected for different NASA space exploration mission designs. Example applications includes fidelity improvements for surface lighting conditions, radiation pressure, thermal and power subsystem modeling. The model makes use of geometric two dimensional shape primitives to most effectively model space vehicles. A set of these primitives is used to represent three dimensional obstructing objects as a two dimensional outline from the perspective of an observing point of interest. Radiation sources, such as the Sun or a Moon's albedo is represented as a collection of points, each of which is assigned a flux value to represent a section of the radiation source. Planetary bodies, such as a Martian moon, is represented as a collection of triangular facets which are distributed in spherical height fields for optimization. These design aspects and the overall model architecture will be presented. Specific uses to be presented includes a study of the lighting condition on Phobos for a possible future surface mission, and computing the incident flux on a spacecraft's solar panels and radiators from direct and reflected solar radiation subject to self-shadowing or shadowing by third bodies.
Effective Models for Scientists Engaging in Meaningful Education and Outreach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noel-Storr, Jacob; InsightSTEM SILC Partnership Team
2016-10-01
We present a central paradigm, extending the model of "Teacher-Scientist" partnerships towards a new philosophy of "Scientist-Instructor-Learner-Communicator" Partnerships. In this paradigm modes of, and expertise in, communication, and the learners themselves, are held is as high status as the experts and teachers in the learning setting.We present three distinctive models that rest on this paradigm in different educational settings. First a model in which scientists and teachers work together with a communications-related specialist to design and develop new science exploration tools for the classroom, and gather feedback from learners. Secondly, we present a model which involves an ongoing joint professional development program helping scientists and teachers to be co-communicators of knowledge exploration to their specific audience of learners. And thirdly a model in which scientists remotely support classroom research based on online data, while the teachers and their students learn to become effective communicators of their genuine scientific results.This work was funded in part by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and by NASA awards NNX16AC68A and NNX16AJ21G. All opinions are those of the authors.
Comparison of effective medium models for marine gas hydrate templates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terry, D. A.; Knapp, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.
2010-12-01
Motivated by the value of marine gas hydrates as an energy resource and their potential influence on climate, we are engaged in a study to characterize gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GoM-HRC) at a research site on the continental margin. The locations of marine gas hydrates are commonly inferred by the presence of a distinctive Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) which typically marks the base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) in seismic records. Yet lithology, as defined through sediment composition, grain size, particle shape, and fluid flow, is also critical in their emplacement and growth. Over more than thirty years, variations of Hertz-Mindlin type effective medium models have been developed for unconsolidated sediments. In the past few years improvements have been suggested to these models. This paper is directed at two objectives: 1) briefly review and consolidate the models, 2) apply and compare the models in context of rock physics templates for marine gas hydrates in unconsolidated, saturated sand and clay sediments. Here, we apply petroleum systems analysis to quantitatively estimate (and understand) the lithologic influence on gas hydrate seismic response. To do so, we are implementing recently developed rock physics models for saturated sediments with gas hydrates.
Modeling and study of nonlinear effects in electrodynamic shakers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saraswat, Abhishek; Tiwari, Nachiketa
2017-02-01
An electrodynamic shaker is inherently a nonlinear electro-mechanical system. In this work, we have developed a lumped parameter model for the entire electromechanical system, developed an approach to non-destructively determine these parameters, and predict the nonlinear response of the shaker. This predicted response has been validated using experimental data. Through such an approach, we have been able to accurately predict the resulting distortions in the response of the shaker and other nonlinear effects like DC offset in the displacement response. Our approach offers a key advantage vis-à-vis other approaches which rely on techniques involving Volterra Series expansions or techniques based on blackbox models like neural networks, which is that in our approach, apart from predicting the response of the shaker, the model parameters obtained have a physical significance and changes in the parameters can be directly mapped to modification in key design parameters of the shaker. The proposed approach is also advantageous in one more way: it requires measurement of only four parameters, voltage, current, displacement and acceleration for estimating shaker model parameters non-destructively. The proposed model can be used for the design of linearization controllers, prototype testing and simulation of new shaker designs as well as for performance prediction of shakers under testing conditions.
Combined analysis of effective Higgs portal dark matter models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beniwal, Ankit; Rajec, Filip; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin; Williams, Anthony G.
2016-06-01
We combine and extend the analyses of effective scalar, vector, Majorana and Dirac fermion Higgs portal models of dark matter (DM), in which DM couples to the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson via an operator of the form ODMH†H . For the fermion models, we take an admixture of scalar ψ ¯ψ and pseudoscalar ψ ¯ i γ5ψ interaction terms. For each model, we apply constraints on the parameter space based on the Planck measured DM relic density and the LHC limits on the Higgs invisible branching ratio. For the first time, we perform a consistent study of the indirect detection prospects for these models based on the WMAP7/Planck observations of the cosmic microwave background, a combined analysis of 15 dwarf spheroidal galaxies by Fermi-LAT and the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). We also perform a correct treatment of the momentum-dependent direct search cross section that arises from the pseudoscalar interaction term in the fermionic DM theories. We find, in line with previous studies, that current and future direct search experiments such as LUX and XENON1T can exclude much of the parameter space, and we demonstrate that a joint observation in both indirect and direct searches is possible for high mass weakly interacting massive particles. In the case of a pure pseudoscalar interaction of a fermionic DM candidate, future gamma-ray searches are the only class of experiment capable of probing the high mass range of the theory.
Modelling effects of internalized antibody: a simple comparative study
2014-01-01
Background The modelling framework is proposed to study protection properties of antibodies to neutralize the effects of the plant toxin (ricin). The present study extends our previous work by including (i) the model of intracellular transport of toxin to the Endoplasmic Reticulum and (ii) the model of the internalised antibodies (when antibody is delivered directly into the cytosol). Method Simulation of the receptor-toxin-antibody interaction is implemented by solving the systems of PDEs (advection-diffusion models) or ODEs (rate models) for the underlying transport coupled with mass-action kinetics. Results As the main application of the enhanced framework we present a comparative study of two kinds (external and internalised) of antibodies. This comparison is based on calculation of the non-dimensional protection factor using the same set of parameters (geometry, binding constants, initial concentrations of species, and total initial amount of the antibody). Conclusion This research will provide a framework for consistent evaluation and comparison of different types of antibodies for toxicological applications. PMID:24521456
Effects of noise on models of spiny dendrites.
Coutts, Emma J; Lord, Gabriel J
2013-04-01
We study the effects of noise in two models of spiny dendrites. Through the introduction of different types of noise to both the Spike-diffuse-spike (SDS) and Baer-Rinzel (BR) models we investigate the change in behaviour of the travelling wave solution present in both deterministic systems, as noise intensity increases. We show that the speed of wave propagation in both the SDS and BR models respectively differs as the noise intensity in the spine heads increases. In contrast the cable is very robust to noise and as such the speed shows very little variation from the deterministic system. We introduce a space-dependent spine density, ρ(x), to the original Baer-Rinzel model and show how this modified model can mimic behaviour (under influence of noise) of both original systems, through variation of one parameter. We also show that the correlation time and length scales of the noise can enhance propagation of travelling wave solutions where the white noise dominates the underlying signal and produces noise induced phenomena.
Effective Models for Scientists Engaging in Meaningful Education and Outreach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noel-Storr, Jacob; Gurule, Isaiah; InsightSTEM Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Team
2017-01-01
We present a central paradigm, extending the model of "Teacher-Scientist" partnerships towards a new philosophy of "Scientist-Instructor-Learner-Communicator" Partnerships. In this paradigm modes of, and expertise in, communication, and the learners themselves, are held is as high status as the experts and teachers in the learning setting.We present three distinctive models that rest on this paradigm in different educational settings. First a model in which scientists and teachers work together with a communications-related specialist to design and develop new science exploration tools for the classroom, and gather feedback from learners. Secondly, we present a model which involves an ongoing joint professional development program helping scientists and teachers to be co-communicators of knowledge exploration to their specific audience of learners. And thirdly a model in which scientists remotely support classroom research based on online data, while the teachers and their students learn to become effective communicators of their genuine scientific results.This work was funded in part by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and by NASA awards NNX16AC68A and NNX16AJ21G. All opinions are those of the authors.
Coarse-grained DNA modeling: Hybridization and ionic effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinckley, Daniel M.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a biopolymer of enormous significance in living systems. The utility of DNA in such systems is derived from the programmable nature of DNA and its unique mechanical properties. Recently, material scientists have harnessed these properties in order to create systems that spontaneous self-assemble on the nanoscale. Both biologists and material scientists are hindered by an incomplete understanding of the physical interactions that together govern DNA's behavior. Computer simulations, especially those at the coarse-grained (CG) level, can potentially complete this understanding by resolving details indiscernible with current experimental techniques. In this thesis, we advance the state-of-the-art of DNA CG simulations by first reviewing the relevant theory and the evolution of CG DNA models since their inception. Then we present 3SPN.2, an improved CG model for DNA that should provide new insights into biological and nanotechnological systems which incorporate DNA. We perform forward flux sampling simulations in order to examine the effect of sequence, oligomer length, and ionic strength on DNA oligomer hybridization. Due to the limitations inherent in continuum treatments of electrostatic interactions in biological systems, we generate a CG model of biological ions for use with 3SPN.2 and other CG models. Lastly, we illustrate the potential of 3SPN.2 and CG ions by using the models in simulations of viral capsid packaging experiments. The models and results described in this thesis will be useful in future modeling efforts that seek to identify the fundamental physics that govern behavior such as nucleosome positioning, DNA hybridization, and DNA nanoassembly.
Unified modeling of turbulence effects on sound propagation.
Cheinet, Sylvain; Ehrhardt, Loic; Juvé, Daniel; Blanc-Benon, Philippe
2012-10-01
Many aspects of outdoor sound propagation depend on the scattering effects induced by atmospheric turbulence. Standard analytical and numerical assessments of these effects make an a priori distinction between the scattering effects at large versus small angles. The present study evaluates the ability of a numerical model in overcoming this distinction. The model solves a set of two coupled equations for the sound pressure and vector acoustic velocity, with the finite-difference time domain approach. It is first introduced and evaluated. The numerical predictions are compared to well-known analytical solutions in the case of two-dimensional plane wave propagation through turbulence. They are found to agree in the investigated scenarios. Hence, the finite-difference, time domain solution of the two coupled equations provides a unified, versatile numerical approach to investigating the effects of atmospheric turbulence on sound propagation. The comparison also provides original insights on the applicability and limitations of various methods used to investigate sound propagation through turbulence.
Modeling and Cost-Effectiveness in HIV Prevention
Jacobsen, Margo M.; Walensky, Rochelle P.
2016-01-01
With HIV funding plateauing and the number of people living with HIV increasing due to the roll-out of life-saving antiretroviral therapy, policy makers are faced with increasingly tighter budgets to manage the ongoing HIV epidemic. Cost-effectiveness and modeling analyses can help determine which HIV interventions may be of best value. Incidence remains remarkably high in certain populations and countries, making prevention key to controlling the spread of HIV. This paper briefly reviews concepts in modeling and cost-effectiveness methodology, then examines results of recently published cost-effectiveness analyses on the following HIV prevention strategies: condoms and circumcision, behavioral or community-based interventions, prevention of mother to child transmission, HIV testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. We find that the majority of published studies demonstrate cost-effectiveness; however, not all interventions are affordable. We urge continued research on combination strategies and methodologies that take into account willingness to pay and budgetary impact. PMID:26830283
Modeling and Cost-Effectiveness in HIV Prevention.
Jacobsen, Margo M; Walensky, Rochelle P
2016-02-01
With HIV funding plateauing and the number of people living with HIV increasing due to the rollout of life-saving antiretroviral therapy, policy makers are faced with increasingly tighter budgets to manage the ongoing HIV epidemic. Cost-effectiveness and modeling analyses can help determine which HIV interventions may be of best value. Incidence remains remarkably high in certain populations and countries, making prevention key to controlling the spread of HIV. This paper briefly reviews concepts in modeling and cost-effectiveness methodology and then examines results of recently published cost-effectiveness analyses on the following HIV prevention strategies: condoms and circumcision, behavioral- or community-based interventions, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, HIV testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. We find that the majority of published studies demonstrate cost-effectiveness; however, not all interventions are affordable. We urge continued research on combination strategies and methodologies that take into account willingness to pay and budgetary impact.
Microscopic models for the study of taxpayer audit effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertotti, Maria Letizia; Modanese, Giovanni
2016-03-01
A microscopic dynamic model is here constructed and analyzed, describing the evolution of the income distribution in the presence of taxation and redistribution in a society in which also tax evasion and auditing processes occur. The focus is on effects of enforcement regimes, characterized by different choices of the audited taxpayer fraction and of the penalties imposed to noncompliant individuals. A complex systems perspective is adopted: society is considered as a system composed by a large number of heterogeneous individuals. These are divided into income classes and may as well have different tax evasion behaviors. The variation in time of the number of individuals in each class is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations of the kinetic discretized Boltzmann type involving transition probabilities. A priori, one could think that audits and fines should have a positive effect on the reduction of economic inequality and correspondingly of the Gini index G. According to our model, however, such effect is rather small. In contrast, the effect on the increase of the tax revenue may be significant.